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Sample records for degrees fahrenheit citygate

  1. Natural Gas Citygate Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Estimated Production Number of Producing Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From

  2. Natural Gas Citygate Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  3. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  4. Natural Gas Citygate Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6.48 6.18 5.63 4.73 4.88 5.71 1973-2014 Alabama 7.61 6.46 5.80 5.18 4.65 4.93 1984-2014 Alaska 8.22 6.67 6.53 6.14 6.02 6.34 1988-2014 Arizona 7.21 6.59 5.91 4.68 4.73 5.20...

  5. Natural Gas Citygate Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6.18 5.63 4.73 4.88 5.71 4.25 1973-2015 Alabama 6.46 5.80 5.18 4.65 4.93 NA 1984-2015 Alaska 6.67 6.53 6.14 6.02 6.34 6.57 1988-2015 Arizona 6.59 5.91 4.68 4.73 5.20 NA 1984-2015 Arkansas 6.76 6.27 5.36 4.99 5.84 4.76 1984-2015 California 4.86 4.47 3.46 4.18 4.88 3.27 1984-2015 Colorado 5.26 4.94 4.26 4.76 5.42 3.96 1984-2015 Connecticut 6.58 5.92 5.12 5.42 5.61 4.07 1984-2015 Delaware 5.67 9.03 7.19 5.67 5.54 NA 1984-2015 District of Columbia -- -- -- -- -- -- 1989-2015 Florida 5.49 5.07 3.93

  6. Natural Gas Citygate Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4.65 4.58 4.54 4.00 3.68 3.76 1973-2015 Alabama 3.80 4.04 3.81 3.83 3.61 3.27 1989-2015 Alaska 5.60 5.80 5.90 6.11 6.56 6.53 1989-2015 Arizona 4.55 4.53 4.48 4.25 4.42 NA 1989-2015 Arkansas 6.97 6.92 5.58 5.63 4.16 4.00 1989-2015 California 3.56 3.55 3.42 3.32 3.08 3.02 1989-2015 Colorado 5.36 5.61 5.62 4.60 3.24 3.07 1989-2015 Connecticut 4.58 4.45 4.59 3.58 3.36 3.80 1989-2015 Delaware 10.56 10.03 10.35 6.54 5.14 4.98 1989-2015 District of Columbia -- -- -- -- -- -- 1989-2015 Florida 4.87 4.44

  7. Natural Gas Citygate Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.65 4.58 4.54 4.00 3.68 3.76 1973-2015 Alabama 3.80 4.04 3.81 3.83 3.61 3.27 1989-2015 Alaska 5.60 5.80 5.90 6.11 6.56 6.53 1989-2015 Arizona 4.55 4.53 4.48 4.25 4.42 NA 1989-2015 Arkansas 6.97 6.92 5.58 5.63 4.16 4.00 1989-2015 California 3.56 3.55 3.42 3.32 3.08 3.02 1989-2015 Colorado 5.36 5.61 5.62 4.60 3.24 3.07 1989-2015 Connecticut 4.58 4.45 4.59 3.58 3.36 3.80 1989-2015 Delaware 10.56 10.03 10.35 6.54 5.14 4.98 1989-2015 District of Columbia -- -- -- -- -- -- 1989-2015 Florida 4.87 4.44

  8. C:\\ANNUAL\\Vol2chps.v8\\ANNUAL2.VP

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Aquifer Field: A sub-surface facility for storing natural gas consisting of water-bearing ... temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at or near 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit. ...

  9. 1997 Housing Characteristics Tables Housing Unit Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... is over a period of one year, relative to a base temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit. ... is over a period of one year, relative to a base temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit. ...

  10. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... is over a period of one year, relative to a base temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit. ... is over a period of one year, relative to a base temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit. ...

  11. Energy Efficiency Report--Glossary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Thermal Unit (Btu): The quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at or near 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit. Census Region: A geographic...

  12. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vann, Charles S.

    1999-01-01

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing.

  13. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vann, C.S.

    1999-03-16

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing. 3 figs.

  14. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    to raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which water has its greatest density (approximately 39 degrees...

  15. Title:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    misunderstanding that the melting of the polar sea ice will cause the ocean level to rise. ... The current average global temperature is about 57 degrees Fahrenheit (14 degrees ...

  16. Word Pro - A

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... National Standards InstituteInstitute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, ANSIIEEE Std 268-1992, pp. 28 and 29. degrees Celsius (C) 100 a 212 degrees Fahrenheit (F) ...

  17. Word Pro - A

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    National Standards InstituteInstitute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, ANSIIEEE Std 268-1992, pp. 28 and 29. degrees Celsius (C) 100 a 212 degrees Fahrenheit (F) ...

  18. Fermilab Today

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    may include fever over 100 degrees Fahrenheit, muscle or body aches, chills, headache, cough, fatigue, weakness and nasal congestion. Once infected, a person may develop no...

  19. RAPID/Roadmap/3-NM-e | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Business Lease), developers pursuing geothermal projects on state trust lands where the temperature of the extractable resource is less than 250 degrees Fahrenheit may apply for...

  20. EM Leaders Earn National Defense Degrees

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – Two EM employees were recently awarded Master of Science degrees from the National Defense University (NDU) as part of a DOE-sponsored professional development program.

  1. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology AsiaITS...

  2. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive...

  3. Calculation of variable-base degree-days and degree-nights from monthly average temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.; Cleary, P.; Dickinson, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Computerized Instrumented Residential Audit (CIRA), a micro-computer building energy analysis program developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, uses a monthly variable-base degree-day method to calculate heating and cooling loads. The method's unique feature is its ability to model thermostat setbacks and storage of solar gain. The program accomplishes this by dividing each day into two periods, ''average day'' (8 a.m. to 8 p.m.) and ''average night'' (8 p.m. to 8 a.m.), with different base temperatures. For each mode (heating or cooling) and for each period (day or night), the program reconstructs degree-days as a function of average monthly day or night temperature using three empirical coefficients specific to the location. A comparison is made between degree-days computed from hourly weather tapes and those predicted using this method. The root mean square error between predicted and actual degree days is typically between 3 and 12 degree-days per month. Tables of the coefficients are given for over 150 locations in the United States, computed from hourly dry-bulb temperatures on TRY and TMY tapes. Seasonal predictions of heating and cooling energy budgets using this method show good correspondence to the DOE-2 hourly simulation method.

  4. Interdiffusion and Reaction between Zr and Al Alloys from 425 degrees to 625 degrees C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Dickson; L. Zhou; A. Ewh; M. Fu; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; Y. H. Sohn; A. Paz y Puente

    2014-06-01

    Zirconium has recently garnered attention for use as a diffusion barrier between UMo nuclear fuels and Al cladding alloys. Interdiffusion and reactions between Zr and Al, Al-2 wt.% Si, Al-5 wt.% Si or AA6061 were investigated using solid-to-solid diffusion couples annealed in the temperature range of 425 degrees to 625 degrees C. In the binary Al and Zr system, the Al3Zr and Al2Zr phases were identified, and the activation energy for the growth of the Al3Zr phase was determined to be 347 kJ/mol. Negligible diffusional interactions were observed for diffusion couples between Zr vs. Al-2 wt.% Si, Al-5 wt.% Si and AA6061 annealed at or below 475 degrees C. In diffusion couples with the binary AlSi alloys at 560 degrees C, a significant variation in the development of the phase constituents was observed including the thick t1 (Al5SiZr2) with Si content up to 12 at.%, and thin layers of (Si,Al)2Zr, (Al,Si)3Zr, Al3SiZr2 and Al2Zr phases. The use of AA6061 as a terminal alloy resulted in the development of both T1 (Al5SiZr2) and (Al,Si)3Zr phases with a very thin layer of (Al,Si)2Zr. At 560 degrees C, with increasing Si content in the AlSi alloy, an increase in the overall rate of diffusional interaction was observed; however, the diffusional interaction of Zr in contact with multicomponent AA6061 with 0.40.8 wt.% Si was most rapid.

  5. Multiple-degree-of-freedom vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Johann (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1995-01-01

    A multi-degree-of-freedom vehicle employs a compliant linkage to accommodate the need for a variation in the distance between drive wheels or drive systems which are independently steerable and drivable. The subject vehicle is provided with rotary encodes to provide signals representative of the orientation of the steering pivot associated with each such drive wheel or system, and a linear encoder which issues a signal representative of the fluctuations in the distance between the drive elements. The wheels of the vehicle are steered and driven in response to the linear encoder signal, there being provided a controller system for minimizing the fluctuations in the distance. The controller system is a software implementation of a plurality of controllers, operating at the chassis level and at the vehicle level. A trajectory interpolator receives x-displacement, y-displacement, and .theta.-displacement signals and produces to the vehicle level controller trajectory signals corresponding to interpolated control signals. The x-displacement, y-displacement, and .theta.-displacement signals are received from a human operator, via a manipulable joy stick.

  6. Survey Universe. The survey includes degrees granted between...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Degree Trends. Bachelor degrees increased slightly between 2010 and 2011, but were 15% ... 2005 78 77 14 2004 54 64 14 2003 56 73 25 2002 41 76 20 2001 37 71 23 Enrollment Trends. ...

  7. ORISE: Report shows number of health physics degrees for 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    report shows number of health physics degrees increased for graduates, decreased for undergraduates in 2010 Decreased number of B.S. degrees remains higher than levels in the early 2000 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Dec. 20, 2011 FY12-09 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of health physics graduate degrees increased for both master's and doctoral candidates in 2010, but decreased for bachelor's degrees, says a report released this year by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. The ORISE report,

  8. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and astrophysical capture processes R.E. Tribble A.M. Mukhamedzhanov Graduate Teaching Assistant Pursuing degree at Department of Statistics, Texas A&M University Jim...

  9. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE April 1, 2010 - March 31, 2011 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor Present Position Zach...

  10. Brief 70 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees, 2011 Summary Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Don Johnson

    2012-10-31

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2011. The enrollment and degree data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2011, and data was received from all thirty-two programs. The data for two nuclear engineering programs include enrollments and degrees in health physics options that are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees data.

  11. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    having nuclear engineering programs during 2014, and data were provided by all thirty-five. The enrollments and degrees data include students majoring in nuclear engineering ...

  12. ORISE: Report by ORISE shows health physics degrees declined...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health physics degrees declined in 2014, enrollment trends reverse Enrollment data ... graduating with majors in health physics has declined across undergraduate, ...

  13. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 Solar Thermal Collector Domestic Shipments by Market Sector, End-Use, and Type, 2009 End Use Market Sector Type of Collector End Use by Type of Collector 294 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Combined space and water heating. 2 Space heating, combined heating, and space cooling. 3 Collectors that generally operate at temperatures below 110 degrees Fahrenheit. 4 Collectors that generally operate in the temperature range of 140 degrees Fahrenheit to 180 degrees

  14. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt035_ti_ng_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology Asia/ITS

  15. EERE Success Story-Geothermal Technology Breakthrough in Alaska...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    geothermal exploration at lower temperatures, thanks to a ... degrees Fahrenheit).This innovation increases the ... Hot Springs to reduce the cost of power from 0.30 per kWh ...

  16. EIA Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    temperatures continuing to be 4 to 9 degrees Fahrenheit below normal in the four cities (Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, and New York) monitored by this report. Prices on the spot...

  17. RAPID/Roadmap/5-CO-a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    five hundred (2,500) feet or that expects to encounter geothermal fluids having a temperature greater than two hundred and twelve (212) degrees Fahrenheit. (Rule 4.2.28.1)....

  18. A meeting of the minds when NYC CoolRoofs visits PPPL | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which collected data on three white "cool roofs," including one on the Museum of Modern Art Queens in Long Island City, and found there was a 42 degree Fahrenheit difference...

  19. Secretary Chu's Testimony to the Senate Committee on Environment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    global temperature by the end of this century would be more than 7 degrees Fahrenheit if we continued on a high growth, fossil fuel intensive course. A 2009 MIT study found a ...

  20. Geothermal Technology Breakthrough in Alaska: Harvesting Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    geothermal exploration at lower temperatures, thanks to a ... degrees Fahrenheit).This innovation increases the ... Hot Springs to reduce the cost of power from 0.30 per kWh ...

  1. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    48 contiguous states averaged 41 degrees Fahrenheit, 7% colder than the same period last winter, according to data from Bentek Energy. Average power burn through March 18 rose by...

  2. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (Note: Dry natural gas is also known as consumer-grade natural gas. The parameters for measurement are cubic feet at 60 degrees Fahrenheit and 14.73 pounds per square inch...

  3. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    recovery point and a final maximum boiling point of 572 degrees Fahrenheit and meeting ASTM Specification D 1655 and Military Specifications MIL-T-5624P and MIL-T-83133D (Grades...

  4. Brief 66 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2009 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Larry M. Blair, Analysis and Evaluation, Science Education Programs

    2010-03-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2008 and August 31, 2009, and fall 2009 enrollments. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2009, and data was obtained from all thirty-two.

  5. VI-12 STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D. H. Youngblood Continue to Ph. D. degree Guangyao Chen 2013 Initial Conditions from Color Glass Condensate R. J. Fries Post. Doc. at Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University...

  6. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2013 Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SURVEY UNIVERSE The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2013. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2013. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program

  7. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt035_ti_ng_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology GATE: Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility

  8. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology | Department of Energy 0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon tiarravt035_ng_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology Center for Electric Drive Transportation at the University of Michigan - Dearborn

  9. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed Definitions Key Terms Definition British Thermal Unit (Btu) The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which water has its greatest density (approximately 39 degrees Fahrenheit). Delivered to Consumers (Heat Content) Heat content of residential, commercial, industrial, vehicle fuel and electric power deliveries to consumers. Electric Power (Heat Content) Heat content of

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Excise Tax Compressed natural gas motor fuel is subject to the state fuel excise tax at the rate of $0.30 per 120 cubic feet, measured at 14.73 pounds per square inch and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Propane motor fuel is subject to the excise tax $0.30 per 1.3 gallons at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. (Reference Oregon Revised Statutes 319.530

  11. Higher-degree linear approximations of nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karahan, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author develops a new method for obtaining higher degree linear approximations of nonlinear control systems. The standard approach in the analysis and synthesis of nonlinear systems is a first order approximation by a linear model. This is usually performed by obtaining a series expansion of the system at some nominal operating point and retaining only the first degree terms in the series. The accuracy of this approximation depends on how far the system moves away from the normal point, and on the relative magnitudes of the higher degree terms in the series expansion. The approximation is achieved by finding an appropriate nonlinear coordinate transformation-feedback pair to perform the higher degree linearization. With the proposed method, one can improve the accuracy of the approximation up to arbitrarily higher degrees, provided certain solvability conditions are satisfied. The Hunt-Su linearizability theorem makes these conditions precise. This approach is similar to Poincare's Normal Form Theorem in formulation, but different in its solution method. After some mathematical background the author derives a set of equations (called the Homological Equations). A solution to this system of linear equations is equivalent to the solution to the problem of approximate linearization. However, it is generally not possible to solve the system of equations exactly. He outlines a method for systematically finding approximate solutions to these equations using singular value decomposition, while minimizing an error with respect to some defined norm.

  12. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Maine (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.30 4.46 3.73 3.15 3.00 3.23 1990's 3.06 3.00 3.17 3.69 2.98 3.35 4.30 3.84 3.43 4.61 2000's...

  13. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Massachusetts (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.20 3.68 2.99 2.43 3.62 3.10 3.15 3.31 3.25 2.89 3.61 3.55 1990 3.51 3.73 3.28 2.96 2.84 3.28 2.81 2.84 3.35 3.09 3.59 4.18 1991 3.89 3.86 3.07 3.10 3.21 2.54 2.84 3.17 3.27 3.24 3.43 3.80 1992 3.67 3.47 2.97 2.91 3.66 3.77 3.35 3.24 3.40 3.88 3.95 3.89 1993 3.81 3.53 3.94 3.92 4.42 4.81 4.77 4.72 4.37 3.79 3.69 3.75 1994 3.58 3.68 4.04 4.33 4.69 5.30 4.52 5.85 4.81 3.55 3.58 3.14 1995 2.93 3.02 2.98 3.22 4.71 4.58 4.64 4.57

  14. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Pennsylvania (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.13 3.06 3.05 3.56 3.37 4.01 3.84 3.91 3.79 3.41 3.14 3.01 1990 3.36 3.28 3.18 3.39 3.51 3.74 4.17 4.17 4.12 3.77 3.54 3.24 1991 3.10 3.01 2.91 3.18 4.06 4.09 3.98 4.06 3.87 3.56 3.14 3.03 1992 2.86 2.72 2.77 3.06 3.62 4.01 3.92 4.32 4.20 3.82 3.61 3.37 1993 3.02 2.93 3.14 3.56 4.18 4.69 3.95 4.42 4.32 3.46 3.03 3.39 1994 3.27 3.56 3.52 3.46 3.70 4.09 3.74 4.16 3.14 3.38 3.28 3.19 1995 3.36 2.92 2.89 2.94 3.21 3.73 4.04 3.97

  15. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Kansas (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.13 3.18 2.88 2.70 2.05 2.28 1990's 2.76 2.62 2.50 2.80 2.86 2.36 3.05 3.47 2.96 2.96 2000's...

  16. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Massachusetts (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.15 4.17 3.59 2.96 3.00 3.20 1990's 3.34 3.37 3.52 3.98 3.98 3.53 3.98 3.85 4.01 3.74 2000's 5.43 6.64 4.96 7.36 8.20 10.64 11.00 9.34 10.29 8.29 2010's 7.74 7.04 6.03 6.20 6.96 NA

  17. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Pennsylvania (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.10 4.02 3.54 3.07 3.15 3.26 1990's 3.47 3.27 3.29 3.41 3.46 3.09 2.68 4.09 4.12 3.65 2000's 5.09 6.68 5.20 6.48 7.56 9.98 10.30 9.35 10.39 7.81 2010's 7.04 6.28 5.52 5.26 5.59 NA

  18. Natural Gas Citygate Price in New Mexico (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.50 3.34 2.83 2.55 2.58 2.66 1990's 2.63 2.49 2.25 2.39 2.02 1.46 1.99 2.53 2.08 2.24 2000's...

  19. Natural Gas Citygate Price in North Carolina (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.26 4.12 3.42 3.26 2.87 3.01 1990's 2.88 2.69 2.88 3.15 3.27 2.95 3.74 3.97 3.49 3.33 2000's...

  20. Natural Gas Citygate Price in New York (Dollars per Thousand...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.10 3.94 3.35 2.92 2.91 3.07 1990's 3.05 2.92 3.01 3.32 3.02 2.47 3.36 4.20 2.65 2.92 2000's...

  1. Microsoft Word - VI_12_Degrees Awarded 2015.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 - March 31, 2015 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor Present Position Hua Zheng 2014 Density and temperature in quantum nuclear systems A. Bonasera Post Doc. at INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM NON-THESIS April 1, 2014 - March 31, 2015 Name Year Advisor Present Position Issac Sarver 2014 R. Rapp

  2. Scattering of particles with internal degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slipushenko, S. V.; Tur, A. V.; Yanovsky, V. V.

    2013-08-15

    The scattering of particles with a small number of internal degrees of freedom is considered. Billiard formalism is used to study the scattering of two such structurally complex particles. The main scattering characteristics are found. Various types of scattering modes are revealed. In particular, a mode is detected when the velocity of motion of such particles away from each other is higher than their approach velocity before the collision. The scattering of such particles is shown to occur after a finite number of collisions. A generalized Newton law is proposed for the collision of particles with a small number of degrees of freedom, and the form of the effective coefficient of restitution is found.

  3. Six-degree-of-freedom multi-axes positioning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieg, Lothar F. X. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom multi-axes positioning apparatus is comprised of a geometry of six independent angle connectors. Each angle connector connects two fixed length rods to a pivot on one of two opposing platforms. The combination of an angle connector, at least two pivots and at least two rods having free ends connected to the pivots comprises a leg assembly. The spatial location of the upper platform is changed in relation to the lower platform by angular changes within each angle connector. This angular change results in degrees of motion within the apparatus defined as X, Y, Z, Tip, Tilt, and Rotation, or a combination of the above. This invention is known as a ROTOPOD.

  4. Six-degree-of-freedom multi-axes positioning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieg, L.F.X.

    1999-05-11

    A six-degree-of-freedom multi-axes positioning apparatus is comprised of a geometry of six independent angle connectors. Each angle connector connects two fixed length rods to a pivot on one of two opposing platforms. The combination of an angle connector, at least two pivots and at least two rods having free ends connected to the pivots comprises a leg assembly. The spatial location of the upper platform is changed in relation to the lower platform by angular changes within each angle connector. This angular change results in degrees of motion within the apparatus defined as X, Y, Z, Tip, Tilt, and Rotation, or a combination of the above. This invention is known as a ROTOPOD. 9 figs.

  5. Grain boundary energy in 5 degrees of freedom space

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-21

    GB5DOF is a program written in MatLab for computing excess energy of an arbitrary grain boundary defined by its 5 geometrical degrees of freedom. The program is written in the form of a single self-contained function callable from within commercially available MatLab software package. The function takes a geometric description of the boundary and material identity as input parameters and returns the predicted boundary energy.

  6. ORISE: Nuclear engineering degrees at highest ranges since 1980s

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ORISE report shows graduation, enrollment rates for nuclear engineering candidates are still at highest ranges reported since 1980s Report also shows shifts in career opportunities beyond graduation in nuclear utilities FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Nov. 2, 2011 FY12-04 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-After a one-year decline, the number of graduate and undergraduate nuclear engineering degrees earned in the United States bounced back in 2010. A recent report from the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

  7. IR Spectrometer Using 90-degree Off-axis Parabolic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert M. Malone, Richard, G. Hacking, Ian J. McKenna, and Daniel H. Dolan

    2008-09-02

    A gated spectrometer has been designed for real-time, pulsed infrared (IR) studies at the National Synchrotron Light ource at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. A pair of 90-degree, off-axis parabolic mirrors are used to relay the light from an entrance slit to an output IR recording camera. With an initial wavelength range of 15004500 nm required, gratings could not be used in the spectrometer because grating orders would overlap. A magnesium oxide prism, placed between these parabolic mirrors, serves as the dispersion element. The spectrometer is doubly telecentric. With proper choice of the air spacing between the prism and the second parabolic mirror, any spectral region of interest within the InSb camera arrays sensitivity region can be recorded. The wavelengths leaving the second parabolic mirror are collimated, thereby relaxing the camera positioning tolerance. To set up the instrument, two different wavelength (visible) lasers are introduced at the entrance slit and made collinear with the optical axis via flip mirrors. After dispersion by the prism, these two laser beams are directed to tick marks located on the outside housing of the gated IR camera. This provides first-order wavelength calibration for the instrument. Light that is reflected off the front prism face is coupled into a high-speed detector to verify steady radiance during the gated spectral imaging. Alignment features include tick marks on the prism and parabolic mirrors. This instrument was designed to complement singlepoint pyrometry, which provides continuous time histories of a small collection of spots from shock-heated targets.

  8. Brief 71 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees, 2011 Summary (11-12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Don Johnson

    2012-11-07

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2011. The enrollment and degree data include students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major. Twenty-four academic programs reported having health physics programs during 2011. The data for two health physics options within nuclear engineering programs are also included in the enrollments and degrees that are reported in the nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees data.

  9. ORISE: Report by ORISE shows health physics degrees declined on all levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in 2014 Health physics degrees declined in 2014, enrollment trends reverse Enrollment data suggests slowly declining trends FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE June 25, 2015 FY15-37 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The total number of degrees awarded to students graduating with majors in health physics has declined across undergraduate, graduate and doctoral programs for the first time in four years. The report conducted by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, titled Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees

  10. ORISE: Number of health physics degrees granted in 2013 has increased...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Number of health physics degrees granted in 2013 has increased for undergraduates, ... OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of college students graduating with majors in health physics ...

  11. The solubility of hydrogen in plutonium in the temperature range 475 to 825 degrees centigrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    The solubility of hydrogen (H) in plutonium metal (Pu) was measured in the temperature range of 475 to 825{degree}C for unalloyed Pu (UA) and in the temperature range of 475 to 625{degree}C for Pu containing two-weight-percent gallium (TWP). For TWP metal, in the temperature range 475 to 600{degree}C, the saturated solution has a maximum hydrogen to plutonium ration (H/Pu) of 0.00998 and the standard enthalpy of formation ({Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)}) is (-0.128 {plus minus} 0.0123) kcal/mol. The phase boundary of the solid solution in equilibrium with plutonium dihydride (PuH{sub 2}) is temperature independent. In the temperature range 475 to 625{degree}C, UA metal has a maximum solubility at H/Pu = 0.011. The phase boundary between the solid solution region and the metal+PuH{sub 2} two-phase region is temperature dependent. The solubility of hydrogen in UA metal was also measured in the temperature range 650 to 825{degree}C with {Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)} = (-0.104 {plus minus} 0.0143) kcal/mol and {Delta}S{degree}{sub f(s)} = 0. The phase boundary is temperature dependent and the maximum hydrogen solubility has H/Pu = 0.0674 at 825{degree}C. 52 refs., 28 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Method for determination of the degree of compensation for electrically active impurities in multivalley semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranskii, P. I.; Gaidar, G. P.

    2013-06-15

    A method for determination of the degree of compensation k = N{sub a}/N{sub d} for shallow impurities in n-Si crystals with a nondegenerate electron gas is suggested. Data facilitating practical determination of the degree of compensation are given.

  13. Ni.sub.3 Al-based intermetallic alloys having improved strength above 850.degree. C.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T.

    2000-01-01

    Intermetallic alloys composed essentially of: 15.5% to 17.0% Al, 3.5% to 5.5% Mo, 4% to 8% Cr, 0.04% to 0.2% Zr, 0.04% to 1.5% B, balance Ni, are characterized by melting points above 1200.degree. C. and superior strengths at temperatures above 1000.degree. C.

  14. Multiple degree-of-freedom mechanical interface to a computer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Louis B. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing high bandwidth and low noise mechanical input and output for computer systems. A gimbal mechanism provides two revolute degrees of freedom to an object about two axes of rotation. A linear axis member is coupled to the gimbal mechanism at the intersection of the two axes of rotation. The linear axis member is capable of being translated along a third axis to provide a third degree of freedom. The user object is coupled to the linear axis member and is thus translatable along the third axis so that the object can be moved along all three degrees of freedom. Transducers associated with the provided degrees of freedom include sensors and actuators and provide an electromechanical interface between the object and a digital processing system. Capstan drive mechanisms transmit forces between the transducers and the object. The linear axis member can also be rotated about its lengthwise axis to provide a fourth degree of freedom, and, optionally, a floating gimbal mechanism is coupled to the linear axis member to provide fifth and sixth degrees of freedom to an object. Transducer sensors are associated with the fourth, fifth, and sixth degrees of freedom. The interface is well suited for simulations of medical procedures and simulations in which an object such as a stylus or a joystick is moved and manipulated by the user.

  15. Transient stability enhancement of electric power generating systems by 120-degree phase rotation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cresap, Richard L. (Portland, OR); Taylor, Carson W. (Portland, OR); Kreipe, Michael J. (Portland, OR)

    1982-01-01

    A method and system for enhancing the transient stability of an intertied three-phase electric power generating system. A set of power exporting generators (10) is connected to a set of power importing generators (20). When a transient cannot be controlled by conventional stability controls, and imminent loss of synchronism is detected (such as when the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets exceeds a predetermined value, such as 150 degrees), the intertie is disconnected by circuit breakers. Then a switch (30) having a 120-degree phase rotation, or a circuit breaker having a 120-degree phase rotation is placed in the intertie. The intertie is then reconnected. This results in a 120-degree reduction in the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets, making the system more stable and allowing more time for the conventional controls to stabilize the transient.

  16. EM Contractors’ Donations Support 4-Year Engineering Degree at USC Aiken

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EM contractors URS and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) pledged to contribute $400,000 over several years to help fund a proposed four-year engineering degree at the University of South Carolina Aiken (USC Aiken).

  17. Degree of dispersion of latex particles in cement paste, as assessed by electrical resistivity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, X.; Chung, D.D.L.

    1996-12-31

    The degree of dispersion of latex particles in latex-modified cement paste was assessed by measurement of the volume electrical resistivity and modeling this resistivity in terms of latex and cement phases that are partly in series and partly in parallel. The assessment was best at low values of the latex-cement ratio; it underestimated the degree of latex dispersion when the latex/cement ratio was high, especially > 0.2.

  18. ORISE: Number of health physics degrees granted in 2013 has increased for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    undergraduates, declined for graduates Number of health physics degrees granted in 2013 has increased for undergraduates, declined for graduates Enrollment data suggests current trend likely to continue in 2014 and 2015 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE April 1, 2014 FY14-18 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of college students graduating with majors in health physics has increased slightly for bachelor's degrees, but decreased for both master's and doctoral candidates. The report, titled Health Physics

  19. Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    81299 81499 81699 81899 82099 82299 82499 82699 82899 83099 9199 9399 Degrees Fahrenheit 6 -C ity D a ily A v e ra g e H ig h D A L L A S F T W O R T H H...

  20. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-24

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  1. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  2. DEGREE-SCALE GeV 'JETS' FROM ACTIVE AND DEAD TeV BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neronov, A.; Semikoz, D.; Kachelriess, M.; Ostapchenko, S.; Elyiv, A.

    2010-08-20

    We show that images of TeV blazars in the GeV energy band should contain, along with point-like sources, degree-scale jet-like extensions. These GeV extensions are the result of electromagnetic cascades initiated by TeV {gamma}-rays interacting with extragalactic background light and the deflection of the cascade electrons/positrons in extragalactic magnetic fields (EGMFs). Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the spectral and timing properties of the degree-scale extensions in simulated GeV band images of TeV blazars. We show that the brightness profile of such degree-scale extensions can be used to infer the light curve of the primary TeV {gamma}-ray source over the past 10{sup 7} yr, i.e., over a time scale comparable to the lifetime of the parent active galactic nucleus. This implies that the degree-scale jet-like GeV emission could be detected not only near known active TeV blazars, but also from 'TeV blazar remnants', whose central engines were switched off up to 10 million years ago. Since the brightness profile of the GeV 'jets' depends on the strength and the structure of the EGMF, their observation provides additional information about the EGMF.

  3. High degree of molecular orientation by a combination of THz and femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitano, Kenta; Ishii, Nobuhisa; Itatani, Jiro [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan) and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    We propose a method for achieving molecular orientation by two-step excitation with intense femtosecond laser and terahertz (THz) pulses. First, the femtosecond laser pulse induces off-resonant impulsive Raman excitation to create rotational wave packets. Next, a delayed intense THz pulse effectively induces resonant dipole transition between neighboring rotational states. By controlling the intensities of both the pulses and the time delay, we can create rotational wave packets consisting of states with different parities in order to achieve a high degree of molecular orientation under a field-free condition. We numerically demonstrate that the highest degree of orientation of >0.8 in HBr molecules is feasible under experimentally available conditions.

  4. Structural stability of 1100{degree}C heated Pd/k during absorption cycling in protium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, I.A.

    1993-03-12

    Pd/k is a hydride forming packing material which is used in the Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP). Palladium is supported on kieselguhr to create a packing material which will provide adequate void space to prevent excessive pressure drops and flow restrictions. The use of unsupported palladium would result in blockage of columns and clogging of filters due to the small particle size of unsupported palladium hydride powder. During pilot scale demonstrations, it was noted that the Pd/k packing material had degraded causing severe flow restrictions within the TCAP column. A solution to the problem involved the heating of Pd/k at 1,110{degree}C to strengthen the packing material, and render it more resistant to breakdown. The 1, 100{degree}C heated Pd/k has been shown to be more resistant to mechanical breakdown than the Pd/k prior to heat treatment. Two primary modes of Pd/k particle degradation have been identified: mechanical breakdown caused by particle fluidization and degradation caused by absorption/desorption cycling. Absorption/desorption cycling causes the palladium particles within the packing to expanded and contract upon formation and decomposition of the hydride, respectively. This expansion and contraction causes large localized stresses within the packing material, which if these stresses can not be accommodated within the packing will cause the material to crack and degrade. The purpose of this report is to document the results of the absorption/desorption cycling of 1,100{degree}C heated Pd/k and compare these results to the results obtained from the absorption/desorption cycling of Pd/k which had not been heated at 1, 100{degree}C.

  5. Statistical behavior in deterministic quantum systems with few degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, R.V.; Shankar, R.

    1985-04-29

    Numerical studies of the dynamics of finite quantum spin chains are presented which show that quantum systems with few degrees of freedom (N = 7) can be described by equilibrium statistical mechanics. The success of the statistical description is seen to depend on the interplay between the initial state, the observable, and the Hamiltonian. This work clarifies the impact of integrability and conservation laws on statistical behavior. The relation to quantum chaos is also discussed.

  6. New p( rvec. gamma. ,. pi. degrees ) results from LEGS and the quadrupole excitation of the. Delta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Results from three independent measurements of the p({yields}{gamma}{pi}{sup {degrees}}) reaction are presented for incident photon energies between 243 and 314 MeV. The ratio of cross sections measured with orthogonal states of linear polarization is sensitive to the E2 excitation of the {Delta} resonance. Comparisons are made to the predictions of various models, all of which fail to reproduce these data.

  7. Biography U. Düsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution: Clausthal University of Technology.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U. Düsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution: Clausthal University of Technology. Chair: chair for waste disposal technologies and geomechanics. 1982- 1988 field of study: mining engineer 1989- 1993 PhD work - geomechanical investigations on the stability of salt caverns for waste disposal. 2009 Habilitation - proof of stability and integrity of underground excavations in saliniferous formations with special regard to lab tests. 1989 - 2012 chief engineer at Clausthal University of

  8. Containing A Star On Earth: Understanding Turbulence At 100 Million Degrees

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab 1, 2014, 9:00am to 11:00am Science On Saturday MBG Auditorium Containing A Star On Earth: Understanding Turbulence At 100 Million Degrees Dr. Walter Guttenfelder, Research Physicist Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Presentation: PDF icon Guttenfelder_Science_on_Saturday_2014_1.pdf One of the principal challenges remaining for realizing magnetic fusion energy is to understand and mitigate the chaotic flows of ionized gas, or plasma, that lead to unacceptable

  9. U.S. Natural Gas Citygate Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1980's NA NA NA NA 3.95 3.75 3.22 2.87 2.92 3.01 1990's 3.03 2.90 3.01 3.21 3.07 2.78 3.27 3.66 3.07 3.10 2000's 4.62 5.72 4.12 5.85 6.65 8.67 8.61 8.16 9.18 6.48 2010's 6.18 5.63 4.73 4.88 5.71 4.25

  10. U.S. Natural Gas Citygate Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1976 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1977 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1978 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1979 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1980 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1981 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1982 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1983 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.97

  11. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Alabama (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.05 3.05 2.93 2.83 2.83 2.99 3.09 3.00 2.95 2.95 3.14 3.09 1990 3.15 3.22 3.03 2.93 2.96 3.09 2.95 3.91 2.94 3.02 3.18 3.20 1991 3.50 3.41 2.92 2.93 2.95 2.92 2.80 2.79 2.94 3.05 2.86 3.37 1992 3.16 3.06 2.68 2.80 3.01 3.28 3.25 3.65 3.67 3.91 3.44 3.43 1993 3.33 3.37 3.16 3.38 3.88 3.98 3.83 3.96 4.11 3.78 3.55 3.38 1994 3.20 3.16 3.67 3.60 3.84 4.26 3.91 3.92 3.62 3.64 3.26 2.87 1995 2.59 2.60 2.45 2.90 3.34 3.58 3.83 3.20 3.50 3.52

  12. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Alaska (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 1990 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.35 0.38 0.33 0.33 0.35 1991 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.28 1992 0.36 0.36 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 1993 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.33 0.33 1994 1.77 1.57 1.62 1.62 1.67 1.41 1.54 1.60 1.60 1.61 1.60 1.62 1995 1.71 1.67 1.66 1.79 1.70 1.60 1.63 1.57 1.64 1.63

  13. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Arizona (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.65 2.77 2.52 2.47 2.52 2.69 2.74 2.73 2.82 2.64 2.74 2.72 1990 3.13 2.60 2.51 2.54 2.39 2.67 2.70 2.66 2.60 2.75 2.82 2.80 1991 2.71 2.32 2.24 2.31 2.84 2.45 2.30 2.48 2.38 2.39 2.29 2.52 1992 2.34 2.08 2.12 1.98 1.57 2.31 2.70 2.43 2.45 2.64 2.69 2.55 1993 2.63 2.28 2.50 2.00 3.23 2.92 3.03 3.07 3.10 2.57 2.57 2.69 1994 2.69 2.95 2.87 2.72 2.53 2.77 2.72 2.66 2.58 2.07 2.08 2.34 1995 2.21 2.39 1.82 1.78 2.00 2.17 2.20 2.36 2.44 2.24

  14. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Arkansas (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.48 2.49 2.47 2.43 2.43 2.54 2.39 2.45 2.40 2.44 2.45 2.50 1990 2.55 2.50 2.50 2.36 2.34 2.34 2.29 2.04 2.31 2.28 2.51 2.44 1991 2.60 2.55 2.54 2.42 2.34 2.52 2.41 2.24 2.32 2.38 2.42 2.37 1992 2.87 2.61 2.62 2.38 2.43 2.53 2.41 2.38 2.41 2.49 2.71 2.64 1993 2.62 2.45 2.63 2.60 2.65 2.44 2.49 2.71 2.72 2.78 2.82 2.92 1994 2.77 2.79 2.55 2.79 2.68 2.63 2.43 2.37 2.06 2.21 2.36 2.30 1995 2.39 2.34 2.29 2.41 2.36 2.25 2.33 1.91 2.01 2.19

  15. Natural Gas Citygate Price in California (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.88 2.95 2.53 2.49 2.87 2.68 2.77 2.84 2.82 2.59 2.83 2.85 1990 3.02 2.87 2.70 2.79 2.83 2.90 3.23 2.87 2.84 2.82 2.96 2.99 1991 2.91 2.84 2.64 2.69 2.63 2.78 2.71 2.78 2.76 2.80 2.78 3.25 1992 2.87 2.56 2.37 2.88 2.47 2.59 2.73 2.82 2.80 2.92 2.91 2.75 1993 2.74 2.69 2.90 2.86 2.97 2.84 2.81 2.77 3.08 2.84 3.05 2.86 1994 2.83 3.09 2.98 2.62 2.57 2.57 2.45 2.53 2.23 2.48 2.22 2.39 1995 1.94 1.95 1.89 2.12 2.03 1.84 2.18 2.25 2.06 2.14

  16. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Colorado (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.83 2.85 2.92 3.19 3.36 3.60 4.16 3.31 3.09 2.94 2.73 2.79 1990 2.85 2.80 2.79 2.88 3.19 3.46 3.40 3.39 3.38 3.06 2.90 2.79 1991 2.64 2.69 2.82 2.93 3.09 3.56 3.48 3.56 3.49 2.90 2.69 2.66 1992 2.67 2.60 2.67 2.75 3.45 3.23 3.32 3.61 3.67 2.98 2.74 2.81 1993 2.80 2.67 2.57 2.78 3.02 3.59 3.35 3.46 3.14 3.55 2.90 3.17 1994 3.43 3.17 3.57 3.76 3.62 3.82 3.82 3.47 3.66 2.83 2.81 2.98 1995 2.63 2.70 2.56 3.04 2.41 2.96 3.70 3.84 2.89 2.41

  17. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Connecticut (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.27 3.34 3.24 3.18 3.54 4.21 4.29 3.81 3.89 3.38 3.53 3.34 1990 3.86 3.79 3.50 3.21 3.10 3.47 3.78 3.59 3.72 3.64 3.94 3.89 1991 3.56 3.82 3.50 2.78 3.13 3.54 4.22 4.27 3.96 3.40 3.27 3.40 1992 3.39 3.37 3.18 3.75 4.76 4.96 4.12 4.23 4.13 4.02 3.80 3.59 1993 3.70 3.27 3.31 4.32 5.51 4.61 5.37 4.04 3.94 3.60 3.20 4.10 1994 3.51 3.71 3.16 3.80 4.36 5.40 5.37 5.09 5.09 4.37 4.70 4.63 1995 4.42 4.73 4.88 4.74 5.28 5.11 5.54 5.30 4.80 4.27

  18. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Delaware (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.95 3.17 3.14 2.38 2.90 2.14 3.53 2.66 2.29 2.09 2.98 3.29 1990 2.84 3.16 2.91 2.41 2.97 2.44 2.42 2.30 2.49 2.54 3.62 3.46 1991 3.28 2.82 2.48 2.33 2.38 2.15 2.21 2.14 2.46 2.62 3.08 2.83 1992 3.01 1.81 2.62 2.55 2.59 2.90 2.72 1.78 2.74 3.74 3.93 3.53 1993 3.13 3.03 3.22 3.33 3.52 3.52 3.15 2.98 3.56 3.19 2.94 3.45 1994 3.29 3.41 3.19 2.98 3.00 2.73 3.00 2.98 2.69 2.42 2.82 2.75 1995 2.69 2.45 2.47 3.11 3.20 3.38 1.73 2.48 2.85 2.81

  19. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Florida (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.77 2.61 2.49 2.63 2.62 2.63 2.59 2.59 2.41 2.49 2.64 2.90 1990 3.05 2.98 2.57 2.48 2.45 2.37 2.31 2.32 2.65 2.90 3.00 3.17 1991 2.89 2.55 2.42 2.25 2.45 2.37 2.16 2.30 2.43 2.59 2.66 2.68 1992 2.56 2.31 2.34 2.39 2.29 2.37 2.41 2.58 2.64 3.16 3.19 3.07 1993 2.90 2.63 2.64 2.90 2.89 2.81 2.57 2.76 2.80 2.64 2.60 2.90 1994 2.73 3.66 3.30 3.18 2.86 2.64 2.56 2.54 2.33 2.35 2.45 2.54 1995 2.42 2.39 2.71 2.92 2.53 2.75 2.50 2.47 2.75 2.75

  20. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Georgia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.95 3.76 3.52 3.10 3.35 3.67 3.93 3.32 3.20 3.08 3.36 3.56 1990 3.73 3.84 3.62 3.19 2.96 3.24 3.16 3.05 3.08 3.10 3.52 3.47 1991 3.99 3.98 3.63 2.73 2.79 2.84 3.06 2.64 2.97 3.11 3.38 3.36 1992 3.27 3.79 2.61 2.57 2.90 3.21 3.10 3.55 3.70 3.93 3.27 3.51 1993 3.79 3.48 3.25 3.44 4.62 4.25 4.06 4.17 4.56 3.67 3.73 3.92 1994 3.22 3.97 3.69 3.16 4.54 3.81 3.81 3.51 3.68 3.13 3.43 3.31 1995 3.01 2.54 3.45 2.84 3.17 3.16 2.88 2.81 3.49 3.00

  1. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Hawaii (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 5.42 5.92 6.83 6.52 7.00 7.15 6.66 6.56 6.34 6.32 6.55 6.65 1990 7.18 7.27 7.24 6.96 7.29 6.24 5.85 6.28 7.54 9.65 10.42 10.09 1991 9.17 9.99 8.62 8.18 8.57 7.22 8.76 8.99 8.75 9.12 8.64 8.93 1992 7.53 7.22 7.40 7.64 7.60 7.55 8.08 8.27 7.87 8.17 7.81 7.59 1993 6.49 7.01 5.46 5.69 5.72 5.62 5.46 5.18 5.17 5.23 5.13 4.91 1994 4.33 4.32 4.54 4.64 4.66 4.94 5.22 5.34 5.33 5.41 5.05 5.52 1995 4.85 5.14 5.42 4.52 4.38 5.98 6.12 4.25 5.78 5.90

  2. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Idaho (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 1.95 2.04 2.06 2.41 2.57 2.55 2.62 2.93 2.49 2.35 2.10 2.06 1990 2.10 1.98 1.92 2.09 2.15 2.77 2.20 2.24 2.44 1.96 1.95 2.01 1991 2.03 2.24 2.10 2.11 2.43 2.61 2.07 2.31 2.23 2.09 2.04 2.07 1992 1.96 2.17 2.28 1.94 2.55 2.57 2.52 3.61 2.47 2.37 1.99 2.06 1993 2.03 1.97 2.12 1.89 2.24 2.39 2.92 2.54 2.46 2.39 2.33 2.68 1994 2.45 2.32 2.53 2.65 2.78 2.98 3.80 3.68 2.71 2.19 2.25 2.22 1995 2.06 2.29 2.23 2.21 2.28 2.43 2.89 2.72 2.79 1.83

  3. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Illinois (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 4.19 3.34 2.96 2.60 2.60 2.79 2.80 2.71 2.67 2.64 2.92 3.24 1990 3.91 3.72 3.28 2.85 2.48 2.75 2.57 2.64 2.80 2.62 3.40 3.56 1991 3.39 3.27 3.09 2.85 2.52 2.54 2.47 2.47 2.66 2.85 2.99 3.36 1992 3.52 2.99 2.71 2.97 2.72 2.89 3.08 3.19 3.36 3.60 3.47 3.53 1993 3.75 3.48 3.26 3.43 3.40 3.18 3.28 3.25 3.37 3.00 3.25 3.08 1994 3.06 3.39 3.55 3.28 2.86 3.33 2.62 2.93 2.65 2.38 2.80 2.82 1995 2.47 2.28 2.33 2.40 3.16 3.14 3.45 3.02 3.58 2.94

  4. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Indiana (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.43 3.21 3.04 3.08 3.32 3.38 3.20 2.96 2.94 3.04 2.67 3.24 1990 3.57 2.93 3.10 2.80 3.12 3.50 3.38 2.78 2.89 2.84 3.27 3.45 1991 3.30 3.18 2.88 3.02 2.87 3.29 2.85 2.79 2.68 2.90 2.99 3.32 1992 3.07 2.79 2.75 2.57 2.71 3.16 2.97 3.52 3.03 3.69 3.33 3.26 1993 3.04 2.83 2.91 3.14 3.74 3.42 3.40 3.55 3.47 3.10 3.14 3.22 1994 2.92 3.24 3.32 2.98 2.90 3.06 2.72 2.95 2.28 2.27 3.07 3.05 1995 2.63 2.35 2.95 2.81 3.11 3.63 3.26 3.18 3.57 2.96

  5. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Iowa (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.20 2.80 2.66 2.74 2.29 3.16 3.06 3.03 2.84 2.32 2.49 3.00 1990 3.55 2.77 2.62 2.48 2.79 3.06 2.98 2.85 2.87 2.49 2.69 2.89 1991 2.64 2.58 2.48 2.40 2.90 2.67 3.38 2.84 2.86 2.94 2.76 2.86 1992 2.64 2.58 2.72 2.48 3.77 4.12 4.16 3.86 3.89 3.97 3.44 3.21 1993 3.02 2.81 2.94 3.55 4.28 3.60 3.52 3.44 3.81 3.17 2.90 3.55 1994 2.84 3.28 3.54 3.36 4.07 3.60 3.45 3.84 3.34 2.56 2.83 2.86 1995 2.63 2.44 2.78 2.97 3.10 3.39 3.55 3.48 3.41 2.84

  6. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Kansas (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.10 2.40 2.33 1.81 1.68 1.60 1.75 2.36 1.86 2.45 2.70 3.12 1990 3.09 2.83 3.09 2.87 2.42 2.25 2.27 2.31 2.48 2.45 2.42 3.10 1991 2.88 2.65 2.69 2.32 2.44 2.47 2.01 1.81 2.17 2.28 2.76 3.10 1992 2.73 2.74 2.09 2.28 2.32 2.07 2.30 2.49 2.31 2.33 2.79 2.48 1993 3.06 2.66 3.18 2.54 2.48 2.37 2.74 2.44 2.79 2.71 2.70 2.92 1994 2.67 2.80 3.04 2.97 3.05 3.46 4.14 4.66 2.39 2.74 2.41 2.50 1995 2.17 2.18 2.06 2.18 2.25 3.09 2.19 2.52 2.80 2.82

  7. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Kentucky (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.19 3.11 3.10 3.12 3.15 3.09 2.92 2.76 2.66 2.74 3.10 3.00 1990 3.45 3.36 3.34 3.29 3.29 3.05 2.74 2.48 2.38 2.57 3.04 3.13 1991 2.97 2.89 2.90 3.26 3.35 3.11 2.48 2.34 2.32 2.64 2.83 3.00 1992 2.95 2.89 2.85 2.89 2.89 2.98 2.57 2.74 2.76 3.53 3.28 3.26 1993 3.11 3.08 3.22 3.24 3.88 3.38 2.97 3.05 3.25 3.10 3.28 3.28 1994 3.25 3.37 3.42 3.32 3.56 3.06 3.04 2.72 2.32 2.74 3.16 2.99 1995 2.80 2.72 2.95 3.14 3.32 3.18 2.92 2.80 2.51 2.61

  8. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Louisiana (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.19 2.89 2.82 2.83 3.04 2.95 3.03 3.08 3.12 2.87 2.97 3.01 1990 3.29 3.20 2.85 2.82 2.84 2.64 2.73 2.58 2.64 2.79 3.17 3.24 1991 2.73 2.55 2.50 2.33 2.30 3.87 2.18 2.30 2.33 2.52 2.48 2.59 1992 2.34 1.93 2.06 2.25 2.42 2.30 2.26 2.60 2.70 3.24 2.83 2.82 1993 2.59 2.38 2.59 2.78 3.23 2.77 2.69 2.89 2.74 2.62 2.80 2.88 1994 2.66 3.19 2.94 2.65 2.64 2.77 2.43 2.26 1.97 2.02 2.38 2.35 1995 2.23 2.05 2.14 2.12 2.10 2.04 2.00 1.90 2.05 2.23

  9. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Maine (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.93 3.60 3.20 3.28 2.98 3.35 3.53 3.52 3.41 2.94 3.70 2.71 1990 3.13 3.59 3.06 2.69 2.79 3.05 2.72 2.67 2.92 2.91 2.91 3.94 1991 3.98 3.77 2.40 2.48 2.68 2.78 2.53 2.49 2.64 2.65 2.98 3.60 1992 3.45 3.39 2.59 2.44 2.66 2.82 2.72 4.19 2.80 3.45 3.41 4.00 1993 3.69 3.53 3.66 3.31 3.67 4.67 4.77 4.20 4.31 3.96 3.28 3.14 1994 4.04 3.85 3.81 3.20 2.92 2.16 2.09 1.17 0.88 1.20 2.54 3.51 1995 3.21 3.50 2.43 3.41 2.72 5.81 5.99 5.13 3.54 2.72

  10. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Maryland (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.26 3.21 3.02 2.85 3.56 3.77 4.53 3.59 3.55 2.78 3.00 3.18 1990 2.90 3.04 2.60 2.80 3.45 3.99 4.11 3.85 3.57 3.12 3.53 3.20 1991 2.99 2.73 2.60 2.57 2.91 3.92 4.17 4.46 4.36 3.47 3.09 3.04 1992 2.74 2.41 2.45 2.88 3.71 4.46 5.04 4.83 4.58 3.91 3.66 3.17 1993 3.02 2.89 2.90 3.80 4.98 5.85 5.41 5.27 5.01 3.69 3.33 3.28 1994 3.08 3.41 3.32 3.88 4.05 4.38 4.77 5.01 4.27 3.20 2.99 2.78 1995 2.65 2.47 2.68 2.82 3.51 3.88 3.34 3.25 3.95 3.44

  11. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Michigan (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.45 3.59 3.47 3.44 3.19 3.21 3.20 3.01 3.09 3.31 3.11 2.98 1990 3.36 3.43 3.48 3.11 2.52 3.04 3.14 2.95 2.96 3.06 3.18 3.18 1991 3.47 3.39 3.37 2.91 2.82 2.86 2.66 3.04 3.28 3.15 3.13 3.02 1992 3.21 3.11 3.19 2.93 2.89 2.82 2.78 2.95 3.02 3.31 3.33 3.16 1993 3.43 2.90 2.84 2.82 3.17 2.77 2.60 2.79 2.96 2.76 2.87 2.92 1994 2.77 3.03 2.88 2.58 2.56 2.55 2.77 2.59 2.55 2.56 2.70 2.93 1995 2.81 2.83 2.92 2.46 2.49 2.43 2.41 2.50 2.61 2.54

  12. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Minnesota (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.00 2.66 2.57 2.40 2.66 3.14 3.35 3.21 2.98 2.41 2.39 2.85 1990 3.40 2.72 2.60 2.35 2.66 3.22 3.09 2.87 2.91 2.43 2.75 2.89 1991 2.69 2.11 2.42 2.39 2.71 2.85 3.19 2.96 2.83 2.70 2.54 2.95 1992 2.68 2.30 2.47 2.26 3.02 3.25 3.12 3.34 3.28 3.57 3.31 3.32 1993 2.97 2.78 2.94 2.98 3.82 3.45 3.48 3.39 3.41 2.84 2.96 3.43 1994 2.69 2.83 3.09 2.66 3.37 3.16 2.99 3.21 2.98 2.45 2.74 2.78 1995 2.43 2.38 2.49 2.27 2.56 2.91 2.79 2.84 2.63 2.43

  13. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Mississippi (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.11 2.92 2.90 3.43 3.13 3.22 3.37 3.23 3.20 3.13 2.98 2.96 1990 3.30 3.11 2.81 2.67 2.64 2.77 2.65 2.65 2.65 2.70 2.98 3.02 1991 2.86 2.75 2.51 2.34 2.34 2.33 2.24 2.27 2.31 2.60 2.55 2.70 1992 2.41 2.06 2.14 2.32 2.50 2.59 2.39 2.81 2.99 3.59 3.07 2.97 1993 2.62 2.44 2.61 2.89 3.41 2.97 2.89 3.00 3.42 2.96 3.07 3.22 1994 2.72 3.12 3.20 3.03 2.90 2.73 2.99 2.71 2.64 2.49 2.81 2.54 1995 2.35 2.24 2.37 2.39 2.46 2.50 2.34 2.21 2.43 2.77

  14. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Missouri (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.00 2.80 2.90 2.93 3.11 2.77 3.26 2.96 3.04 3.03 3.05 3.20 1990 3.24 3.21 3.16 2.71 3.40 3.55 3.57 2.97 3.35 2.78 3.18 3.06 1991 2.93 2.68 2.92 2.70 3.01 3.05 2.89 2.84 3.07 3.11 2.98 3.04 1992 2.88 2.46 2.59 2.60 2.85 3.20 2.74 3.39 3.52 3.56 3.16 2.78 1993 3.37 2.87 2.96 2.91 3.90 3.81 3.63 3.79 3.88 3.37 2.89 3.14 1994 2.76 2.81 3.34 3.76 3.70 3.38 5.03 4.61 4.08 3.16 2.64 2.43 1995 2.39 2.28 2.48 2.83 3.08 3.99 4.06 3.97 3.85 3.21

  15. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Montana (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.59 3.58 3.57 3.64 3.86 3.35 3.35 2.96 3.11 3.03 3.24 3.24 1990 3.26 3.27 3.18 3.13 2.97 3.26 3.21 3.15 3.40 3.32 3.52 3.49 1991 3.73 3.78 3.63 3.54 3.81 4.07 4.38 4.44 4.16 3.57 3.50 3.52 1992 3.57 3.57 3.58 3.63 4.03 4.51 4.80 4.38 3.85 3.19 3.01 2.91 1993 2.98 2.96 2.92 3.16 4.11 4.47 4.44 4.53 4.01 3.21 2.90 3.67 1994 3.09 3.86 3.98 3.41 4.34 3.29 4.66 3.56 3.83 3.31 2.98 3.34 1995 3.51 3.31 3.10 2.94 2.99 3.38 2.92 2.06 3.01 2.68

  16. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Nebraska (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.18 2.76 2.86 2.68 2.98 3.34 3.39 3.22 3.15 2.67 2.64 2.90 1990 3.50 2.76 2.78 2.59 2.85 3.20 3.10 2.93 3.11 2.62 2.90 2.97 1991 2.68 2.57 2.68 2.69 2.90 2.90 2.97 2.78 3.00 2.85 2.62 2.88 1992 2.71 2.36 2.46 2.47 3.07 3.28 3.18 3.23 3.47 3.55 3.15 3.09 1993 2.92 2.78 2.78 3.19 3.94 3.49 3.37 3.51 6.24 4.28 3.96 3.96 1994 2.73 2.92 3.17 2.95 3.94 3.85 3.38 3.50 3.28 3.22 2.65 2.38 1995 2.38 2.20 2.47 2.18 2.68 2.69 3.42 3.11 2.97 2.80

  17. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Nevada (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.45 2.94 4.18 3.12 4.02 3.50 3.51 3.26 3.03 2.71 3.31 3.22 1990 3.23 3.05 3.14 2.64 2.38 2.68 3.00 2.67 2.50 2.33 2.62 2.46 1991 2.54 2.43 2.22 2.08 2.32 2.30 2.52 2.52 2.33 2.11 2.19 2.26 1992 2.20 2.13 2.20 2.09 2.65 2.68 2.72 2.92 2.67 2.45 2.43 2.40 1993 2.57 2.36 2.66 3.29 3.73 3.55 3.74 4.75 4.49 3.72 3.01 2.76 1994 3.16 3.24 3.60 3.94 3.99 3.23 3.50 4.04 3.50 2.88 2.53 2.85 1995 2.80 3.15 2.62 2.35 2.86 2.92 3.46 3.06 3.23 2.64

  18. Natural Gas Citygate Price in New Hampshire (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.38 3.65 3.31 2.91 2.91 3.11 3.21 3.26 3.05 2.90 3.60 3.36 1990 4.02 4.12 3.44 3.06 2.91 3.12 3.32 2.95 2.92 2.85 3.49 4.17 1991 4.05 3.99 3.13 2.74 2.86 3.00 2.87 2.80 2.79 2.88 3.31 4.01 1992 3.88 4.00 2.93 2.92 3.31 3.62 3.27 3.83 3.16 3.70 4.02 3.96 1993 3.78 3.30 3.68 3.42 3.86 4.46 4.55 4.40 4.37 3.66 3.74 3.76 1994 3.79 4.04 3.98 3.37 3.61 3.15 3.20 2.94 2.67 2.33 3.41 3.54 1995 3.49 3.44 3.19 2.81 2.93 4.40 4.56 3.70

  19. Natural Gas Citygate Price in New Jersey (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.06 3.56 3.01 2.73 3.18 3.16 3.44 3.10 3.12 3.19 3.09 3.41 1990 3.57 3.47 3.07 2.88 2.81 3.11 3.14 3.27 3.26 3.18 3.46 3.39 1991 3.32 3.17 2.76 2.91 3.00 3.30 2.88 3.31 3.48 3.41 3.22 3.05 1992 3.15 2.81 2.58 2.66 3.19 3.17 3.40 3.38 3.97 3.95 4.32 3.32 1993 3.32 2.82 3.27 3.44 4.26 4.18 4.69 4.30 3.84 3.40 3.49 3.54 1994 3.37 3.45 3.53 3.76 3.32 3.70 3.73 3.55 3.48 2.79 2.74 2.78 1995 3.12 3.09 3.11 3.25 3.21 3.60 4.02 3.72 3.40 3.74

  20. Natural Gas Citygate Price in New Mexico (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.49 2.56 2.59 2.53 2.54 3.03 3.00 3.07 3.25 2.72 2.60 2.72 1990 2.72 2.54 2.37 2.40 3.40 3.41 3.06 2.00 2.58 2.36 3.17 2.43 1991 2.50 2.43 2.23 2.94 2.72 2.90 3.01 2.27 2.29 2.70 2.41 2.27 1992 2.05 1.92 1.82 2.40 2.09 2.48 2.09 2.13 2.30 2.99 2.66 2.55 1993 2.45 2.34 2.54 3.04 2.71 2.36 1.86 2.10 2.23 2.36 2.48 2.17 1994 2.12 2.42 2.19 2.10 1.70 1.86 1.71 1.83 1.97 1.83 1.70 2.03 1995 1.82 1.14 1.50 1.53 1.34 1.33 1.50 1.11 1.40 1.42

  1. Natural Gas Citygate Price in New York (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.24 3.09 2.87 2.87 2.84 2.96 3.07 3.03 2.94 2.80 3.23 3.41 1990 3.37 3.23 2.98 2.92 2.63 2.76 2.77 2.74 2.79 2.66 3.28 3.54 1991 3.36 2.92 2.79 2.77 2.64 2.69 2.53 2.55 3.09 3.02 2.90 3.14 1992 2.88 2.49 2.57 2.67 2.91 3.11 2.92 3.15 3.37 3.75 3.47 3.34 1993 3.10 2.91 3.11 3.64 4.08 3.73 3.49 3.25 3.78 3.44 3.11 3.39 1994 3.07 3.34 3.34 3.04 3.21 3.08 3.01 3.13 2.76 2.66 2.78 2.63 1995 2.55 2.44 2.31 2.30 2.42 2.40 2.20 2.12 2.32 2.53

  2. Natural Gas Citygate Price in North Carolina (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.19 3.17 3.07 2.88 2.94 3.04 3.50 3.06 2.91 2.77 2.71 2.98 1990 3.09 2.94 2.60 2.64 2.92 2.93 2.86 2.74 2.86 3.00 2.78 3.06 1991 2.68 2.53 2.51 2.82 2.81 2.75 3.22 2.60 2.78 2.61 2.61 2.91 1992 2.77 2.37 2.18 2.56 2.85 3.13 3.13 3.04 3.26 3.38 3.32 3.22 1993 3.09 2.83 3.01 3.24 3.65 3.57 3.74 3.53 3.52 2.88 2.67 3.29 1994 3.24 3.49 3.49 3.71 3.33 3.26 3.60 3.09 3.35 3.11 2.96 2.82 1995 2.85 2.77 2.79 3.06 3.06 3.15 3.48 3.24

  3. Natural Gas Citygate Price in North Dakota (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.36 3.33 3.20 3.28 3.11 3.10 3.13 2.92 2.75 2.61 2.83 3.03 1990 3.00 3.13 2.94 2.86 2.83 3.03 3.12 2.74 3.05 2.81 3.23 3.42 1991 3.52 3.38 3.28 3.32 3.62 3.93 4.33 4.38 3.98 3.47 3.33 3.42 1992 3.44 3.34 3.20 3.21 3.36 3.55 4.16 3.79 3.38 3.16 3.09 3.06 1993 3.11 2.97 3.01 3.24 4.05 4.23 4.57 4.45 3.66 3.19 2.88 3.38 1994 2.64 3.67 3.71 3.06 3.88 3.24 3.75 3.17 3.39 3.29 2.98 2.67 1995 3.11 2.78 2.66 2.43 2.45 2.45 2.25 1.95

  4. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Ohio (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.44 3.47 3.06 3.41 2.70 2.49 3.61 3.61 4.36 3.16 3.34 3.32 1990 3.01 3.16 3.16 2.74 3.03 3.12 3.03 2.88 2.66 2.86 3.34 3.27 1991 3.07 3.09 3.00 2.90 3.31 3.42 3.29 3.37 2.88 2.59 3.05 3.12 1992 2.96 2.98 2.87 2.96 3.35 3.43 3.72 3.71 3.60 3.84 3.51 3.69 1993 3.40 3.43 3.44 4.28 4.27 4.23 3.82 3.87 3.76 3.04 3.48 3.25 1994 3.48 3.47 3.62 3.56 3.38 3.38 3.53 4.18 2.83 3.48 3.35 3.48 1995 4.18 3.76 3.91 3.95 4.12 4.19 4.63 4.87 3.85 4.01

  5. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Oklahoma (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.23 2.17 1.99 2.10 1.94 1.89 1.72 1.84 1.79 1.87 2.02 2.29 1990 2.19 2.14 2.03 2.01 1.83 1.86 1.73 1.74 1.69 1.86 2.17 2.24 1991 2.16 1.95 1.98 1.76 1.78 1.90 1.69 1.77 1.79 2.29 2.37 2.15 1992 2.17 2.07 2.06 2.11 2.97 1.88 1.82 1.79 1.84 2.44 2.52 2.38 1993 2.50 2.40 2.44 2.26 2.54 2.10 1.80 2.00 2.39 2.42 2.65 2.79 1994 2.67 2.68 2.75 2.55 2.35 2.19 1.67 1.85 1.60 1.69 2.00 2.67 1995 2.84 2.72 2.72 2.57 2.46 2.35 2.33 2.39 1.93 1.97

  6. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Oregon (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.55 2.31 2.49 3.00 2.82 3.01 2.57 3.80 2.59 2.60 3.09 2.49 1990 2.53 2.38 2.43 2.55 2.51 2.90 2.61 2.53 2.54 2.30 2.55 2.38 1991 2.39 2.56 2.29 2.20 2.30 2.37 2.64 2.42 2.56 2.29 2.45 2.43 1992 2.40 2.27 2.35 2.22 2.59 2.14 2.25 2.41 2.27 2.35 2.36 2.39 1993 2.22 2.26 2.16 2.18 2.74 2.83 2.51 2.61 2.52 2.65 2.54 2.94 1994 2.77 2.70 2.69 2.78 3.08 2.74 2.96 2.81 2.81 2.72 2.71 2.49 1995 2.40 2.55 2.41 2.38 2.77 2.69 3.16 2.82 2.96 2.41

  7. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Rhode Island (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.47 3.47 3.36 3.22 3.91 4.85 5.42 4.91 4.63 3.55 3.51 3.49 1990 3.68 3.71 3.61 3.32 3.79 4.07 4.21 3.84 3.59 3.44 3.74 3.91 1991 3.74 3.66 3.35 3.55 3.62 3.73 3.95 3.57 3.67 3.95 3.88 3.60 1992 3.52 3.40 3.06 3.38 3.99 4.21 4.26 4.87 4.58 4.45 4.49 3.67 1993 3.57 3.12 3.34 4.09 6.59 6.17 7.73 6.64 7.37 4.78 4.75 3.93 1994 3.50 3.67 4.00 4.59 6.30 5.40 6.27 6.17 5.39 3.98 3.36 3.16 1995 3.04 2.71 2.76 3.25 4.20 5.53 6.46 5.85

  8. Natural Gas Citygate Price in South Carolina (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 4.32 3.91 3.31 3.23 3.23 3.17 3.29 3.15 3.02 3.22 3.35 3.53 1990 3.54 3.45 3.20 3.12 3.24 3.15 2.65 2.64 2.46 2.85 3.40 3.66 1991 3.45 3.40 2.77 3.23 3.00 3.08 2.05 2.01 3.01 3.55 3.05 3.34 1992 3.24 2.99 2.70 2.75 2.93 3.10 3.22 3.38 3.48 3.74 3.56 3.56 1993 3.39 3.27 3.09 3.48 4.20 3.93 4.25 4.18 4.02 3.49 3.35 3.49 1994 3.33 3.71 3.92 4.27 4.01 4.05 4.20 3.61 3.72 3.37 3.58 3.31 1995 3.08 3.17 3.07 3.04 3.47 3.74 3.71 3.43

  9. Natural Gas Citygate Price in South Dakota (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.34 2.99 3.09 2.92 3.05 3.47 3.91 3.53 3.11 2.61 2.62 3.00 1990 3.44 2.97 2.89 2.66 3.04 3.61 3.45 3.46 3.48 2.82 3.08 3.21 1991 3.16 3.01 2.98 2.85 3.14 3.71 3.65 3.59 3.56 3.13 2.83 3.15 1992 2.95 2.86 2.98 2.42 3.42 3.68 3.91 4.09 3.25 2.83 3.18 3.29 1993 3.07 2.98 3.12 3.36 4.31 4.31 4.42 4.69 3.61 3.19 2.93 3.58 1994 2.96 3.32 3.67 3.23 3.74 4.67 4.93 4.28 4.31 3.23 2.97 2.91 1995 2.82 2.80 2.80 2.64 2.99 3.84 3.86 3.93

  10. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Tennessee (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.94 2.70 2.40 2.64 2.86 3.05 2.97 2.92 2.88 2.76 2.81 3.00 1990 3.16 2.76 2.68 2.52 2.75 2.77 2.86 2.56 2.67 2.55 3.10 3.27 1991 2.79 2.44 2.44 2.64 2.83 2.81 2.59 2.74 3.06 2.96 3.02 2.72 1992 2.47 2.26 2.36 2.68 3.01 3.09 2.94 3.41 3.41 3.66 3.40 3.20 1993 2.95 2.81 3.07 3.29 3.80 3.39 3.34 3.39 3.91 3.38 3.03 3.57 1994 1.81 3.24 3.48 3.18 2.85 2.81 3.57 2.90 3.79 2.59 2.89 2.52 1995 2.46 2.70 2.36 2.69 2.68 3.25 3.10 2.64 2.72 2.69

  11. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Texas (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.26 3.41 3.37 3.07 3.22 3.19 3.35 3.43 3.17 2.96 3.58 3.49 1990 3.33 3.26 3.12 3.01 2.93 2.85 2.87 3.14 2.88 2.72 3.29 3.50 1991 3.40 3.16 2.68 2.62 2.46 2.53 2.48 2.47 2.60 2.91 3.00 3.10 1992 2.98 2.78 2.77 2.83 2.85 2.78 2.71 2.94 3.01 3.61 3.47 3.47 1993 3.44 3.21 3.18 3.11 3.38 3.18 3.08 3.19 3.43 3.24 3.48 3.58 1994 3.21 3.26 3.27 2.98 2.84 2.59 2.66 2.66 2.72 2.73 3.04 3.20 1995 3.02 3.05 3.15 3.19 2.72 2.81 2.63 2.62 2.74 2.75

  12. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Utah (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.17 3.23 3.27 3.64 4.09 4.95 5.17 5.02 4.58 3.89 3.53 3.41 1990 3.37 3.33 3.75 4.55 4.75 5.23 5.27 4.87 5.26 4.38 4.06 3.55 1991 3.57 3.76 3.96 4.28 4.43 5.43 5.30 5.53 5.50 4.13 3.91 3.04 1992 3.26 3.54 4.17 5.26 8.05 7.48 7.72 7.45 9.36 4.71 3.95 3.00 1993 2.94 2.89 3.49 3.74 5.61 2.71 2.89 2.30 2.20 1.53 1.85 2.85 1994 2.87 3.11 3.29 2.88 2.71 5.18 4.24 3.62 4.81 3.91 3.24 3.66 1995 3.46 4.06 3.33 2.48 2.55 3.41 2.56 2.40 3.16 2.18

  13. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Vermont (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.63 2.58 2.47 2.60 2.78 2.70 2.75 2.72 2.67 2.57 2.67 2.47 1990 2.70 2.77 2.86 2.70 2.84 3.42 3.49 2.76 2.95 2.98 2.99 2.82 1991 2.78 2.89 2.69 3.07 2.97 2.62 2.90 2.75 3.62 2.87 2.98 2.78 1992 2.76 2.76 2.65 2.76 3.04 3.25 3.25 4.17 4.06 2.95 2.86 2.60 1993 2.52 2.54 2.57 3.03 3.85 3.99 3.78 4.38 3.80 2.98 2.74 2.59 1994 2.86 2.99 2.98 3.32 3.83 4.33 4.77 4.83 1.54 3.68 2.69 2.39 1995 2.45 2.40 2.35 2.68 3.56 3.37 3.20 3.04 3.16 2.89

  14. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Virginia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.48 3.44 3.14 2.59 2.87 3.01 2.95 3.25 3.19 3.06 3.00 3.22 1990 3.40 3.16 2.67 2.61 2.97 3.68 3.20 2.60 2.74 2.77 3.45 3.44 1991 2.92 2.77 2.53 2.69 3.01 2.52 2.43 2.31 2.58 2.83 2.90 3.04 1992 2.93 2.34 2.14 2.33 2.80 2.69 2.87 3.63 3.26 3.70 3.83 3.32 1993 3.24 3.18 3.14 3.36 3.73 3.43 3.29 3.41 3.53 3.16 3.40 3.55 1994 3.41 3.52 3.41 3.81 3.56 4.21 3.45 3.68 3.20 3.62 3.15 3.15 1995 2.97 2.88 2.81 2.78 3.36 3.46 3.00 3.08 2.22 3.40

  15. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Washington (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.27 2.33 2.10 2.13 2.49 2.33 2.32 2.19 2.19 2.20 1.92 2.15 1990 2.32 2.05 1.84 1.82 1.71 1.83 1.88 1.84 1.89 1.85 1.96 1.98 1991 2.02 1.87 1.89 1.76 1.65 1.74 1.90 1.84 1.87 1.97 2.00 2.10 1992 1.76 1.77 1.80 1.63 1.84 1.87 1.96 1.93 1.99 2.00 1.98 2.16 1993 2.18 2.11 2.06 1.85 2.52 2.56 2.37 2.35 2.89 2.76 2.98 2.56 1994 2.52 2.35 2.46 2.34 2.55 2.38 2.20 2.30 2.33 2.89 3.14 2.64 1995 2.40 2.46 2.44 2.21 1.92 1.93 1.79 1.98 2.06 2.02

  16. Natural Gas Citygate Price in West Virginia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.39 3.19 3.30 3.67 4.93 4.88 7.17 7.30 6.88 3.95 3.53 3.27 1990 3.32 3.54 3.03 3.52 3.95 4.89 5.31 5.76 5.52 3.41 3.03 3.14 1991 3.02 2.80 4.11 4.23 4.87 3.53 8.65 3.65 4.25 3.45 3.15 4.18 1992 3.14 2.80 1.93 2.29 4.05 4.36 7.91 5.74 6.20 4.59 3.99 3.36 1993 2.96 2.94 2.94 3.32 1.94 4.77 5.73 7.55 4.95 3.66 4.46 3.52 1994 3.23 3.52 3.73 3.11 3.46 2.97 3.16 3.48 3.45 2.94 2.78 3.05 1995 2.80 2.56 2.87 2.63 2.99 2.83 3.40 3.13

  17. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Wisconsin (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.80 3.64 3.21 3.66 4.00 4.52 4.77 5.12 4.31 3.49 3.05 2.28 1990 3.40 3.38 3.10 3.05 3.22 3.87 3.90 3.99 3.46 3.04 3.27 3.40 1991 3.30 3.01 2.82 2.77 3.08 3.78 3.80 3.75 3.56 3.26 3.15 3.15 1992 3.02 2.88 3.03 3.12 3.45 3.84 4.76 4.94 4.47 3.97 3.48 3.17 1993 3.06 2.95 3.15 3.86 5.43 5.65 5.71 6.22 5.25 3.99 3.31 3.41 1994 2.99 3.23 3.42 3.30 4.30 4.48 5.28 4.31 4.73 3.39 2.96 2.80 1995 2.63 2.61 2.75 2.64 2.81 4.15 3.81 3.71 3.37 2.99

  18. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Wyoming (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.96 2.96 2.89 3.12 3.00 3.32 3.48 3.04 3.11 3.13 2.86 2.86 1990 2.81 2.94 2.88 2.86 4.65 3.63 3.27 3.88 3.37 2.56 2.68 2.77 1991 3.12 3.15 3.11 3.08 3.39 3.72 3.68 3.52 3.04 2.76 2.65 2.83 1992 2.95 2.95 2.83 3.23 3.43 3.63 3.36 3.32 3.01 2.66 2.55 2.69 1993 2.71 2.63 2.89 3.07 3.77 2.83 3.05 2.86 2.49 2.51 2.46 3.04 1994 3.21 3.30 3.21 3.05 3.73 2.87 2.97 3.07 2.61 2.19 2.14 2.99 1995 2.88 2.75 2.84 2.63 2.80 2.64 2.49 2.67 NA NA NA NA

  19. Natural Gas Citygate Price in the District of Columbia (Dollars per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1990 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1991 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1992 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1993 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1994 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1995 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1996 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1997 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1998 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1999 -- --

  20. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Citygate Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","2/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","3/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n3050us3a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3050us3a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2/26/2016 2:26:22 PM" "Back to

  1. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Citygate Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","2/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","3/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n3050us3m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3050us3m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2/26/2016 2:26:23 PM" "Back to

  2. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Alabama (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.03 3.97 3.45 3.27 3.16 3.00 1990's 3.13 3.11 3.21 3.51 3.44 2.89 3.48 3.65 3.17 3.21 2000's 4.50 6.63 4.74 6.06 6.65 8.47 10.26 8.78 9.84 7.61 2010's 6.46 5.80 5.18 4.65 4.93 NA

  3. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Alaska (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0.33 0.33 1990's 0.34 0.32 0.34 0.33 1.62 1.67 1.58 1.81 1.72 1.32 2000's 1.60 2.32 2.36 2.33 3.05 3.74 5.25 6.75 6.74 8.22 2010's 6.67 6.53 6.14 6.02 6.34 6.57

  4. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Arizona (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.94 3.54 2.66 2.46 2.51 2.67 1990's 2.73 2.45 2.33 2.62 2.53 2.10 2.78 3.15 2.55 2.72 2000's 4.82 5.02 3.77 4.87 5.63 7.32 7.67 8.25 8.49 7.21 2010's 6.59 5.91 4.68 4.73 5.20

  5. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Arkansas (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.00 3.00 2.83 2.51 2.43 2.47 1990's 2.41 2.45 2.60 2.66 2.54 2.32 2.76 3.23 2.94 2.81 2000's 4.16 6.11 5.17 6.07 7.12 8.83 7.96 8.55 8.88 7.86 2010's 6.76 6.27 5.36 4.99 5.84 4.76

  6. Natural Gas Citygate Price in California (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.97 3.54 2.76 2.39 2.60 2.75 1990's 2.90 2.80 2.72 2.85 2.57 2.03 2.59 2.98 2.38 2.61 2000's 4.32 6.64 3.20 5.16 6.04 7.88 6.76 6.82 8.11 4.17 2010's 4.86 4.47 3.46 4.18 4.88 3.27

  7. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Colorado (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.81 3.55 3.35 3.15 3.07 2.96 1990's 2.94 2.85 2.85 2.95 3.31 2.65 2.70 2.92 2.40 2.31 2000's 3.53 4.25 2.72 4.11 5.02 6.10 7.61 6.23 6.98 5.09 2010's 5.26 4.94 4.26 4.76 5.42 3.96

  8. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Connecticut (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.15 4.20 3.67 3.16 3.27 3.46 1990's 3.66 3.50 3.73 3.87 4.17 4.70 5.11 5.11 5.06 4.91 2000's 6.73 8.12 6.42 5.59 7.56 9.67 9.11 8.67 10.24 6.81 2010's 6.58 5.92 5.12 5.42 5.61 4.07

  9. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Delaware (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.20 4.04 3.24 2.60 2.88 2.82 1990's 2.76 2.54 2.83 3.24 2.95 2.70 3.68 3.53 3.02 3.45 2000's 3.41 5.16 5.37 5.88 6.13 8.32 8.84 7.58 8.32 6.54 2010's 5.67 9.03 7.19 5.67 5.54 NA

  10. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Florida (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.41 3.32 2.65 2.66 2.46 2.63 1990's 2.71 2.51 2.61 2.76 2.78 2.74 3.73 3.97 3.42 3.49 2000's 5.10 5.28 3.90 5.87 6.60 9.30 8.32 7.97 9.73 5.76 2010's 5.49 5.07 3.93 4.44 5.05 NA

  11. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Georgia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.37 4.26 3.80 3.61 3.60 3.54 1990's 3.43 3.38 3.28 3.77 3.54 2.96 3.77 3.98 3.51 2.95 2000's 4.64 6.02 4.55 6.25 6.81 9.85 9.37 8.15 9.35 6.56 2010's 5.93 5.19 4.35 4.66 5.19 3.82

  12. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Hawaii (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 9.12 8.81 6.38 6.55 6.21 6.49 1990's 7.67 8.74 7.72 5.61 4.94 5.20 6.05 6.42 5.33 5.62 2000's 8.41 7.86 7.17 8.63 10.54 14.28 17.49 17.37 27.15 17.82 2010's 22.94 31.58 32.39 28.45 26.94 18.1

  13. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Idaho (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.22 3.82 3.18 2.63 2.14 2.17 1990's 2.08 2.14 2.18 2.26 2.46 2.18 2.24 2.12 1.95 2.23 2000's 4.02 4.85 3.66 4.27 5.69 7.95 7.27 6.68 7.48 5.63 2010's 4.82 4.65 4.07 3.93 4.29 NA

  14. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Illinois (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.44 3.43 3.02 2.81 2.74 2.99 1990's 3.09 2.91 3.20 3.30 3.02 2.59 3.27 3.28 2.77 3.00 2000's 5.01 5.54 3.68 5.97 6.38 8.38 8.26 7.87 8.48 5.71 2010's 5.52 5.09 4.11 4.43 6.28 3.82

  15. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Indiana (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.69 3.58 3.34 3.12 3.13 3.13 1990's 3.15 3.05 3.08 3.18 2.98 2.84 3.09 3.03 2.45 2.46 2000's 4.03 4.50 3.58 6.19 6.78 8.83 8.31 7.83 8.94 5.59 2010's 5.52 4.97 4.23 4.38 5.63 NA

  16. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Iowa (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.86 3.76 3.30 2.88 2.92 2.80 1990's 2.86 2.73 3.20 3.24 3.15 2.82 3.47 4.06 3.34 3.30 2000's 5.06 5.92 4.16 6.19 6.89 8.88 8.07 7.80 8.28 5.62 2010's 5.69 5.27 4.84 4.95 6.24 NA

  17. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Kentucky (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.94 3.76 3.32 2.98 2.94 3.01 1990's 3.07 2.83 3.02 3.21 3.13 2.80 3.41 3.83 3.23 3.27 2000's 4.93 6.32 4.45 6.11 7.28 9.69 9.07 8.22 10.14 5.98 2010's 5.69 5.18 4.17 4.47 5.16 NA

  18. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Louisiana (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.78 3.55 2.95 2.38 3.09 2.98 1990's 2.97 2.56 2.48 2.72 2.54 2.21 3.13 3.04 2.33 2.70 2000's 4.61 5.55 4.07 5.78 6.56 8.56 7.67 7.22 9.58 5.96 2010's 5.43 5.67 3.48 4.12 4.90 3.32

  19. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Maine (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.30 4.46 3.73 3.15 3.00 3.23 1990's 3.06 3.00 3.17 3.69 2.98 3.35 4.30 3.84 3.43 4.61 2000's 5.30 6.82 4.03 7.45 9.72 11.78 9.35 10.46 13.47 8.64 2010's 8.19 8.14 7.73 7.35 10.33 NA

  20. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Maryland (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.57 4.26 3.83 3.18 3.15 3.20 1990's 3.16 3.05 3.20 3.53 3.38 2.87 4.02 4.02 4.12 3.45 2000's 5.36 6.78 4.94 6.87 7.77 9.99 10.62 9.24 10.23 8.02 2010's 6.49 6.26 5.67 5.37 6.36 4.9

  1. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Michigan (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.07 4.22 4.07 3.97 3.41 3.24 1990's 3.12 3.08 3.04 2.89 2.70 2.61 2.90 2.99 2.80 2.83 2000's 3.23 4.08 4.10 5.32 6.34 8.44 8.34 8.06 9.22 7.24 2010's 7.07 6.18 5.50 4.91 5.54 4.22

  2. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Minnesota (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.21 3.93 3.31 2.72 2.79 2.72 1990's 2.83 2.63 2.92 3.11 2.85 2.52 3.07 3.67 2.98 3.06 2000's 4.73 5.84 4.03 6.04 6.84 8.52 8.35 7.87 8.37 5.68 2010's 5.48 5.04 4.26 4.58 6.56 4.40

  3. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Mississippi (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.74 3.54 3.36 3.38 3.29 3.08 1990's 2.89 2.55 2.62 2.90 2.83 2.53 3.27 3.39 3.00 2.88 2000's 4.66 6.00 4.22 6.19 6.44 8.85 9.13 8.47 9.91 6.56 2010's 5.73 5.29 3.97 4.44 5.29 NA

  4. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Missouri (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.82 3.36 3.00 2.87 2.87 3.00 1990's 3.14 2.92 2.86 3.20 3.05 2.73 3.25 3.75 3.33 3.34 2000's 4.96 6.33 4.56 6.12 6.99 8.67 8.53 7.53 8.03 7.06 2010's 6.17 5.85 5.27 4.99 5.76 4.65

  5. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Montana (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.21 4.14 3.94 3.85 3.69 3.43 1990's 3.30 3.69 3.45 3.29 3.49 3.01 3.03 3.16 2.43 2.57 2000's 3.55 3.93 2.98 5.04 6.47 7.62 7.25 6.42 7.71 5.63 2010's 5.17 5.11 4.23 4.21 5.03 3.71

  6. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Nebraska (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.07 3.88 3.42 2.99 3.03 2.91 1990's 2.95 2.75 2.91 3.46 2.98 2.49 3.07 4.24 3.02 3.12 2000's 4.52 6.23 4.09 5.70 6.70 8.21 8.27 7.67 8.12 5.87 2010's 5.62 5.11 4.31 4.61 5.58 NA

  7. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Nevada (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.31 3.93 3.19 2.83 2.87 3.33 1990's 2.75 2.33 2.37 3.03 3.18 2.73 3.10 3.39 3.02 2.59 2000's 4.79 5.06 4.39 5.67 6.77 8.50 8.64 8.72 9.44 7.93 2010's 7.19 6.77 5.13 5.16 5.90 4.06

  8. Natural Gas Citygate Price in New Hampshire (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.09 4.32 3.67 3.05 3.04 3.28 1990's 3.51 3.40 3.58 3.76 3.49 3.39 4.20 4.10 3.75 4.07 2000's 5.34 4.30 4.24 6.91 6.81 9.77 10.29 9.71 10.94 9.53 2010's 8.83 8.07 7.15 7.60 9.28 NA

  9. Natural Gas Citygate Price in New Jersey (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.94 3.92 3.31 2.99 3.03 3.17 1990's 3.23 3.14 3.29 3.54 3.33 3.34 3.84 4.19 3.71 4.48 2000's 5.34 6.41 5.33 7.16 7.82 9.70 10.85 10.21 11.42 9.15 2010's 8.41 7.53 6.74 6.21 6.21 NA

  10. Natural Gas Citygate Price in North Dakota (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.29 4.18 3.94 3.59 3.42 3.12 1990's 3.07 3.49 3.28 3.29 3.15 2.58 2.94 3.38 2.81 3.07 2000's 4.60 4.82 3.68 5.79 6.93 8.54 7.82 7.04 8.03 5.16 2010's 5.50 5.06 4.43 4.99 6.37 NA

  11. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Ohio (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.47 4.17 3.89 3.40 3.26 3.31 1990's 3.09 3.05 3.26 3.52 3.48 3.84 4.37 5.18 4.70 4.83 2000's 6.10 8.25 4.68 6.54 7.49 10.66 9.87 8.64 10.41 6.60 2010's 6.87 5.51 4.47 4.51 4.91 4.49

  12. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Oklahoma (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2.95 2.92 2.70 2.48 2.24 2.07 1990's 2.03 2.04 2.22 2.45 2.46 2.52 2.56 3.12 2.55 2.84 2000's 3.91 6.48 4.24 5.87 6.56 7.90 9.13 8.14 8.40 7.15 2010's 6.18 5.67 5.00 4.75 5.35 4.59

  13. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Oregon (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.06 3.70 3.13 2.49 3.01 2.67 1990's 2.47 2.39 2.34 2.48 2.73 2.42 2.42 2.58 2.73 2.93 2000's 3.87 5.04 5.25 5.19 5.86 7.12 8.10 8.14 8.82 7.79 2010's 6.78 5.84 5.21 4.82 5.40 4.65

  14. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Rhode Island (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.23 4.32 3.86 3.16 3.43 3.68 1990's 3.71 3.68 3.82 4.41 4.17 3.57 4.41 4.49 3.78 4.19 2000's 4.36 6.40 5.01 7.00 7.33 8.69 9.96 10.62 10.07 6.70 2010's 10.05 8.22 4.11 4.01 4.03 NA

  15. Natural Gas Citygate Price in South Carolina (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.02 3.87 3.24 3.13 3.46 3.46 1990's 3.14 2.95 3.23 3.54 3.67 3.25 3.90 3.81 3.39 3.46 2000's 5.09 6.16 4.91 6.71 7.66 10.00 9.51 9.10 10.27 6.70 2010's 6.17 5.67 4.57 5.11 5.22 3.90

  16. Natural Gas Citygate Price in South Dakota (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.32 4.06 3.61 3.17 3.18 3.04 1990's 3.12 3.11 3.10 3.35 3.35 2.88 3.19 3.65 3.24 3.52 2000's 4.81 6.21 4.21 6.07 6.59 8.48 8.01 7.35 8.06 5.21 2010's 5.54 5.21 4.67 4.83 6.14 4.17

  17. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Tennessee (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.62 3.77 3.25 2.77 2.77 2.81 1990's 2.88 2.73 2.90 2.93 2.71 2.71 4.04 3.60 3.47 3.15 2000's 4.72 6.11 4.13 5.96 6.68 9.08 9.00 8.87 9.43 6.57 2010's 5.78 5.23 4.35 4.73 5.37 4.06

  18. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Texas (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.91 3.43 2.55 2.52 3.05 3.33 1990's 3.14 2.88 3.06 3.32 3.00 2.95 3.22 3.66 2.63 2.84 2000's 4.39 5.13 3.86 5.53 6.03 8.09 7.60 7.84 9.20 5.59 2010's 5.89 5.39 4.30 4.89 5.77 4.20

  19. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Utah (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.90 3.75 3.49 3.14 3.14 3.59 1990's 3.91 3.89 4.09 2.63 3.31 2.88 2.25 2.79 3.22 2.98 2000's 3.68 5.61 4.07 4.74 5.68 7.58 8.42 7.29 7.62 6.76 2010's 5.53 5.68 5.50 5.70 5.74 5.70

  20. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Vermont (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.99 3.95 2.81 2.72 2.59 2.59 1990's 2.88 2.87 2.93 2.96 3.11 2.61 2.74 2.33 2.58 2.85 2000's 4.26 4.83 4.85 5.17 5.26 6.85 8.61 10.03 10.66 9.33 2010's 8.29 7.98 6.63 6.16 7.08 NA

  1. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Virginia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.33 4.22 3.54 3.00 2.87 3.13 1990's 3.09 2.76 2.91 3.33 3.44 2.92 3.89 4.14 3.74 3.81 2000's 5.34 6.76 6.75 6.57 7.61 10.12 10.51 9.27 10.61 8.20 2010's 6.88 6.64 5.64 5.54 5.98 NA

  2. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Washington (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.12 3.86 3.15 2.45 2.32 2.20 1990's 1.95 1.91 1.90 2.39 2.54 2.18 2.44 2.62 2.34 2.63 2000's 4.16 5.31 3.83 5.13 6.15 7.95 7.87 7.14 8.11 6.59 2010's 6.29 5.55 4.48 4.89 5.82 4.42

  3. Natural Gas Citygate Price in West Virginia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.26 4.18 3.61 3.20 3.43 3.75 1990's 3.54 3.58 3.23 3.39 3.26 2.85 3.36 3.17 3.17 3.40 2000's 3.75 4.88 4.28 5.69 7.04 9.69 8.93 8.62 10.32 7.06 2010's 6.31 5.91 4.99 4.65 5.07 4.00

  4. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Wisconsin (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.21 4.19 3.85 3.75 3.62 3.40 1990's 3.34 3.17 3.36 3.70 3.42 2.83 3.43 3.67 3.29 3.08 2000's 4.42 5.90 4.36 6.18 6.74 8.35 8.57 8.04 8.71 6.70 2010's 6.14 5.65 4.88 4.88 6.96 4.71

  5. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Wyoming (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.05 3.70 3.41 3.03 3.15 2.99 1990's 3.00 3.04 2.90 2.80 2.91 2.72 2.36 3.11 2.73 3.59 2000's 5.07 6.39 2.87 2.52 6.21 8.04 7.20 5.90 7.02 4.89 2010's 5.04 4.65 4.03 4.51 5.27 4.36

  6. Natural Gas Citygate Price in the District of Columbia (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's -- 1990's -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2000's -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2010's

  7. Design of a Thermal Imaging Diagnostic Using 90-Degree, Off-Axis, Parabolic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, Robert M.; Becker, Steven A.; Dolan, Daniel H.; Hacking, Richard G.; Hickman, Randy J.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Stevens, Gerald D.; Turley, William D.

    2006-09-01

    Thermal imaging is an important, though challenging, diagnostic for shockwave experiments. Shock-compressed materials undergo transient temperature changes that cannot be recorded with standard (greater than ms response time) infrared detectors. A further complication arises when optical elements near the experiment are destroyed. We have designed a thermal-imaging system for studying shock temperatures produced inside a gas gun at Sandia National Laboratories. Inexpensive, diamond-turned, parabolic mirrors relay an image of the shocked target to the exterior of the gas gun chamber through a sapphire vacuum port. The 30005000-nm portion of this image is directed to an infrared camera which acquires a snapshot of the target with a minimum exposure time of 150 ns. A special mask is inserted at the last intermediate image plane, to provide dynamic thermal background recording during the event. Other wavelength bands of this image are split into high-speed detectors operating at 9001700 nm, and at 17003000 nm for timeresolved pyrometry measurements. This system incorporates 90-degree, off-axis parabolic mirrors, which can collect low f/# light over a broad spectral range, for high-speed imaging. Matched mirror pairs must be used so that aberrations cancel. To eliminate image plane tilt, proper tip-to-tip orientation of the parabolic mirrors is required. If one parabolic mirror is rotated 180 degrees about the optical axis connecting the pair of parabolic mirrors, the resulting image is tilted by 60 degrees. Different focal-length mirrors cannot be used to magnify the image without substantially sacrificing image quality. This paper analyzes performance and aberrations of this imaging diagnostic.

  8. Flux control and one-hundred and eighty degree core systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S

    2012-11-27

    A two-phase or four-phase electric machine includes a first stator part and a second stator part disposed about ninety electrical degrees apart. Stator pole parts are positioned near the first stator part and the second stator part. An injector injects a third-harmonic frequency current that is separate from and not produced by the fundamental current driving the first stator part and the second stator part. The electric angular speed of the third-harmonic rotating field comprises .theta. ##EQU00001## where p comprises the number of pole pairs, .theta. comprises a mechanical angle and t comprise time in seconds.

  9. Trends in Heating and Cooling Degree Days: Implications for Energy Demand Issues (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Weather-related energy use, in the form of heating, cooling, and ventilation, accounted for more than 40% of all delivered energy use in residential and commercial buildings in 2006. Given the relatively large amount of energy affected by ambient temperature in the buildings sector, the Energy Information Administration has reevaluated what it considers normal weather for purposes of projecting future energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation. The Annual Energy Outlook 2008, estimates of normal heating and cooling degree-days are based on the population-weighted average for the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006.

  10. Developments in the Nuclear Safeguards and Security Engineering Degree Program at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boiko, Vladimir I.; Demyanyuk, Dmitry G.; Silaev, Maxim E.; Duncan, Cristen L.; Heinberg, Cynthia L.; Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.

    2009-10-06

    Over the last six years, Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU) has developed a 5 year engineering degree program in the field of Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A). In 2009 the first students graduated with this new degree. There were 25 job offers from nuclear fuel cycle enterprises of Russia and Kazakhstan for 17 graduates of the program. Due to the rather wide selection of workplaces, all graduates have obtained positions at nuclear enterprises. The program was developed within the Applied Physics and Engineering Department (APED). The laboratory and methodological base has been created taking into consideration the experience of the similar program at the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI). However, the TPU program has some distinguishing features such as the inclusion of special courses pertaining to fuel enrichment and reprocessing. During the last two years, three MPC&A laboratories have been established at APED. This was made possible due to several factors such as establishment of the State innovative educational program at TPU, assistance of the U.S. Department of Energy through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the financial support of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority and some Russian private companies. All three of the MPC&A laboratories are part of the Innovative Educational Center Nuclear Technologies and Non-Proliferation, which deals with many topics including research activities, development of new curricula for experts training and retraining, and training of masters students. In 2008, TPU developed a relationship with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which was familiarized with APEDs current resources and activities. The IAEA has shown interest in creation of a masters degree educational program in the field of nuclear security at TPU. A future objective is to acquaint nuclear fuel cycle enterprises with new APED capabilities and involve the enterprises in the scientific and educational projects implemented through the Nuclear Technologies and Non-Proliferation Center. This paper describes the development of the MPC&A engineering degree program and future goals of TPU in the field of nonproliferation education.

  11. On linear groups of degree 2 over a finite commutative ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bashkirov, Evgenii L.; Eser, Hasan

    2014-08-20

    Let p > 3 be a prime number and F{sub p} be a field of p elements. Let K be a commutative and associative ring obtained by adjoining to F{sub p} an element ? such that ? satisfies a polynomial over F{sub p} and a polynomial of the least degree whose root is ? can be written as a product of distinct polynomials irreducible over F{sub p}. We prove that the special linear group SL{sub 2}(K) is generated by two elementary transvections ( (table) ), ( (table) )

  12. Exotic equilibria of Harary graphs and a new minimum degree lower bound for synchronization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canale, Eduardo A.; Monzn, Pablo

    2015-02-15

    This work is concerned with stability of equilibria in the homogeneous (equal frequencies) Kuramoto model of weakly coupled oscillators. In 2012 [R. Taylor, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45, 115 (2012)], a sufficient condition for almost global synchronization was found in terms of the minimum degreeorder ratio of the graph. In this work, a new lower bound for this ratio is given. The improvement is achieved by a concrete infinite sequence of regular graphs. Besides, non standard unstable equilibria of the graphs studied in Wiley et al. [Chaos 16, 015103 (2006)] are shown to exist as conjectured in that work.

  13. Image system for three dimensional, 360{degree}, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, S.Y.

    1998-12-22

    A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest. Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360{degree} all around coverage of the object-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120{degree} apart from one another. 20 figs.

  14. Image system for three dimensional, 360 DEGREE, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Shin-Yee (Pleasanton, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360.degree. all around coverage of theobject-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120.degree. apart from one another.

  15. Structural Design Considerations for Tubular Power Tower Receivers Operating at 650 Degrees C: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neises, T. W.; Wagner, M. J.; Gray, A. K.

    2014-04-01

    Research of advanced power cycles has shown supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles may have thermal efficiency benefits relative to steam cycles at temperatures around 500 - 700 degrees C. To realize these benefits for CSP, it is necessary to increase the maximum outlet temperature of current tower designs. Research at NREL is investigating a concept that uses high-pressure supercritical carbon dioxide as the heat transfer fluid to achieve a 650 degrees C receiver outlet temperature. At these operating conditions, creep becomes an important factor in the design of a tubular receiver and contemporary design assumptions for both solar and traditional boiler applications must be revisited and revised. This paper discusses lessons learned for high-pressure, high-temperature tubular receiver design. An analysis of a simplified receiver tube is discussed, and the results show the limiting stress mechanisms in the tube and the impact on the maximum allowable flux as design parameters vary. Results of this preliminary analysis indicate an underlying trade-off between tube thickness and the maximum allowable flux on the tube. Future work will expand the scope of design variables considered and attempt to optimize the design based on cost and performance metrics.

  16. EXOPLANETS FROM THE ARCTIC: THE FIRST WIDE-FIELD SURVEY AT 80 Degree-Sign N

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Sivanandam, Suresh; Carlberg, Raymond; Salbi, Pegah; Ngan, Wai-Hin Wayne; Kerzendorf, Wolfgang; Ahmadi, Aida; Steinbring, Eric; Murowinski, Richard

    2013-03-15

    Located within 10 Degree-Sign of the North Pole, northern Ellesmere Island offers continuous darkness in the winter months. This capability can greatly enhance the detection efficiency of planetary transit surveys and other time domain astronomy programs. We deployed two wide-field cameras at 80 Degree-Sign N, near Eureka, Nunavut, for a 152 hr observing campaign in 2012 February. The 16 megapixel camera systems were based on commercial f/1.2 lenses with 70 mm and 42 mm apertures, and they continuously imaged 504 and 1295 deg{sup 2}, respectively. In total, the cameras took over 44,000 images and produced better than 1% precision light curves for approximately 10,000 stars. We describe a new high-speed astrometric and photometric data reduction pipeline designed for the systems, test several methods for the precision flat fielding of images from very-wide-angle cameras, and evaluate the cameras' image qualities. We achieved a scintillation-limited photometric precision of 1%-2% in each 10 s exposure. Binning the short exposures into 10 minute chunks provided a photometric stability of 2-3 mmag, sufficient for the detection of transiting exoplanets around the bright stars targeted by our survey. We estimate that the cameras, when operated over the full Arctic winter, will be capable of discovering several transiting exoplanets around bright (m{sub V} < 9.5) stars.

  17. Determining the slag fraction, water/binder ratio and degree of hydration in hardened cement pastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yio, M.H.N. Phelan, J.C.; Wong, H.S.; Buenfeld, N.R.

    2014-02-15

    A method for determining the original mix composition of hardened slag-blended cement-based materials based on analysis of backscattered electron images combined with loss on ignition measurements is presented. The method does not require comparison to reference standards or prior knowledge of the composition of the binders used. Therefore, it is well-suited for application to real structures. The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. Results obtained from an experimental study involving sixty samples with a wide range of water/binder (w/b) ratios (0.30 to 0.50), slag/binder ratios (0 to 0.6) and curing ages (3 days to 1 year) show that the method is very promising. The mean absolute errors for the estimated slag, water and cement contents (kg/m{sup 3}), w/b and s/b ratios were 9.1%, 1.5%, 2.5%, 4.7% and 8.7%, respectively. 91% of the estimated w/b ratios were within 0.036 of the actual values. -- Highlights: A new method for estimating w/b ratio and slag content in cement pastes is proposed. The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. Reference standards or prior knowledge of the binder composition are not required. The method was tested on samples with varying w/b ratios and slag content.

  18. Sublimation rate of molecular crystals - role of internal degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiti, A; Zepeda-Ruiz, L A; Gee, R H; Burnham, A

    2007-01-19

    It is a common practice to estimate site desorption rate from crystal surfaces with an Arrhenius expression of the form v{sub eff} exp(-{Delta}E/k{sub B}T), where {Delta}E is an activation barrier to desorb and v{sub eff} is an effective vibrational frequency {approx} 10{sup 12} sec{sup -1}. However, such a formula can lead to several to many orders of magnitude underestimation of sublimation rates in molecular crystals due to internal degrees of freedom. We carry out a quantitative comparison of two energetic molecular crystals with crystals of smaller entities like ice and Argon (solid) and uncover the errors involved as a function of molecule size. In the process, we also develop a formal definition of v{sub eff} and an accurate working expression for equilibrium vapor pressure.

  19. Spectroscopic studies of the 110{degree}C thermal aging of PETN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dosser, L.R.; Seliskar, C.J.

    1992-07-30

    The 110{degrees}C thermal aging parameters, including initial rates of decomposition, of four types of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) over a period of ten months are presented. Both decomposition products nitric oxide, NO, and nitrogen dioxide, N0{sub 2} were monitored from multiple, hermetically-sealed, in vacuo samples. Nitric oxide appears to be the first nitrogen oxide product evolved. Nitrogen dioxide produced by abrupt thermal aging is more slowly converted to nitric oxide by a 1:1 process. The behavior of samples of RR5K PETN was significantly different from that of other powders studied. Further work is in progress to better define the thermal aging of RR5K PETN.

  20. Sierra Geothermal's Key Find in Southern Nevada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In May 2010, Sierra Geothermal determined temperature at the bottom of a well drilled at the company's Alum project near Silver Peak, Nev., was hot enough for commercial-sized geothermal energy production - measured as 147 degrees Celsius (297 degrees Fahrenheit). A promising discovery by a geothermal energy company that could boost use of the renewable source in southwest Nevada, power thousands of homes and create jobs.

  1. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Gu, X.; Haldenman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C. G.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  2. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Gu, X.; Haldeman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S.; Wang, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  3. Rotation-Enabled 7-Degree of Freedom Seismometer for Geothermal Resource Development. Phase 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierson, Bob; Laughlin, Darren

    2013-10-29

    Under this Department of Energy (DOE) grant, A-Tech Corporation d.b.a. Applied Technology Associates (ATA), seeks to develop a seven-degree-of-freedom (7-DOF) seismic measurement tool for high-temperature geothermal applications. The Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer includes a conventional tri-axial accelerometer, a conventional pressure sensor or hydrophone, and a tri-axial rotational sensor. The rotational sensing capability is novel, based upon ATA's innovative research in rotational sensing technologies. The geothermal industry requires tools for high-precision seismic monitoring of crack formation associated with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) stimulation activity. Currently, microseismic monitoring is conducted by deploying many seismic tools at different depth levels along a 'string' within drilled observation wells. Costs per string can be hundreds of thousands of dollars. Processing data from the spatial arrays of linear seismometers allows back-projection of seismic wave states. In contrast, a Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer would simultaneously measure p-wave velocity, s-wave velocity, and incident seismic wave direction all from a single point measurement. In addition, the Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer will, by its nature, separate p- and s-waves into different data streams, simplifying signal processing and facilitating analysis of seismic source signatures and geological characterization. By adding measurements of three additional degrees-of-freedom at each level and leveraging the information from this new seismic observable, it is likely that an equally accurate picture of subsurface seismic activity could be garnered with fewer levels per hole. The key cost savings would come from better siting of the well due to increased information content and a decrease in the number of confirmation wells drilled, also due to the increase in information per well. Improved seismic tools may also increase knowledge, understanding, and confidence, thus removing some current blocks to feasibility and significantly increasing access to potential geothermal sites. During the Phase 1 effort summarized in this final report, the ATA Team modeled and built two TRL 3 proof-of-concept test units for two competing rotational sensor technologies. The two competing technologies were based on ATA's angular rate and angular displacement measurement technologies; Angular rate: ATA's Magnetohydrodynamic Angular Rate Sensor (Seismic MHD); and Angular displacement: ATA's Low Frequency Improved Torsional Seismometer (LFITS). In order to down-select between these two technologies and formulate a go / no go decision, the ATA Team analyzed and traded scientific performance requirements and market constraints against sensor characteristics and components, acquiring field data where possible to validate the approach and publishing results from these studies of rotational technology capability. Based on the results of Phase 1, the ATA Team finds that the Seismic MHD (SMHD) technology is the best choice for enabling rotational seismometry and significant technical potential exists for micro-seismic monitoring using a downhole 7-DOF device based on the SMHD. Recent technical papers and field data confirm the potential of rotational sensing for seismic mapping, increasing confidence that cost-reduction benefits are achievable for EGS. However, the market for geothermal rotational sensing is small and undeveloped. As a result, this report recommends modifying the Phase 2 plan to focus on prototype development aimed at partnering with early adopters within the geothermal industry and the scientific research community. The highest public benefit will come from development and deployment of a science-grade SMHD rotational seismometer engineered for geothermal downhole conditions and an integrated test tool for downhole measurements at active geothermal test sites.

  4. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, Simon

    2013-09-30

    The Electric-drive Vehicle Engineering (EVE) MS degree and graduate certificate programs have been continuing to make good progress, thanks to the funding and the guidance from DOE grant management group, the support from our University and College administrations, and to valuable inputs and feedback from our Industrial Advisory Board as well as our project partners Macomb Community College and NextEnergy. Table 1 below lists originally proposed Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO), which have all been completed successfully. Our program and course enrollments continue to be good and increasing, as shown in later sections. Our graduating students continue to get good job offers from local EV-related companies. Following the top recommendation from our Industrial Advisory Board, we were fortunate enough to be accepted into the prestigious EcoCAR2 (http://www.ecocar2.org/) North America university design competition, and have been having some modest success with the competition. But most importantly, EcoCAR2 offers the most holistic educational environment for integrating real-world engineering and design with our EVE graduate curriculum. Such integrations include true real-world hands-on course projects based on EcoCAR2 related tasks for the students, and faculty curricular and course improvements based on lessons and best practices learned from EcoCAR2. We are in the third and last year of EcoCAR2, and we have already formed a core group of students in pursuit of EcoCAR3, for which the proposal is due in early December.

  5. Predicting primary crystalline phase and liquidus temperature above or below 1050{degrees}C as functions of glass composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redgate, P.E.; Piepel, G.F.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the results of applying statistical empirical modeling techniques to primary crystalline phase at the liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) and (ii) whether liquidus temperature is above or below 1050{degree}C (1OO{degree}C below a melting temperature of 1150{degree}C). Data used in modeling primary crystalline phase and liquidus temperate are from the Composition Variability Study (CVS) of Hanford waste glass compositions and properties. The majority of the 123 CVS glasses are categorized into one of 13 primary crystalline phases (at the liquidus temperature). They are also classified as to having T{sub L} Above or Below 1050{degree}C. Two common statistical methods used to model such categorical data are the multinomial logit and classification tree models. The classification tree models provided an overall better modeling approach than did the multinomial logit models. The performance of models in this report should be compared to the performance of the revised ``Development of Models and Software for Liquidus Temperature of Glasses of HWVP Products`` models from Ecole Polytechnique. If the Ecole Polytechnique models perform better than the models discussed in this report, no additional effort on these models would be needed. However, if the converse is true, it may be worthwhile to invest additional effort on statistical empirical modeling methods.

  6. Expectations for Oil Shale Production (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain relatively large amounts of kerogen, which can be converted into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons (petroleum liquids, natural gas liquids, and methane) by heating the rock, usually in the absence of oxygen, to 650 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit (in situ retorting) or 900 to 950 degrees Fahrenheit (surface retorting). (Oil shale is, strictly speaking, a misnomer in that the rock is not necessarily a shale and contains no crude oil.) The richest U.S. oil shale deposits are located in Northwest Colorado, Northeast Utah, and Southwest Wyoming. Currently, those deposits are the focus of petroleum industry research and potential future production. Among the three states, the richest oil shale deposits are on federal lands in northwest Colorado.

  7. Microsoft Word - winter.doc

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 0 1 6 9 8 1 0 1 7 9 8 Degrees in Fahrenheit A c tu a l N o rm a l ( C h i c a g o , K a n s a s C i ty , N e w Y o r k , a n d P i tts b u r g h ) E x p e c te d R a n g e T...

  8. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    LNG Storage Additions & Withdrawals Definitions Key Terms Definition Liquefied Natural Gas Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. Net Withdrawals The amount by which storage withdrawals exceed storage injections. Storage Additions Volumes of gas injected or otherwise added to underground natural gas reservoirs or liquefied natural gas storage. Storage Withdrawals Total volume of gas withdrawn

  9. EIAs Proposed Definitions for Natural Gas Liquids

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Definitions for Natural Gas Liquids 1 June 14, 2013 EIA's Proposed Definitions for Natural Gas Liquids Term Current Definition Proposed Definition Note Lease condensate Condensate (lease condensate): A natural gas liquid recovered from associated and non associated gas wells from lease separators or field facilities, reported in barrels of 42 U.S. gallons at atmospheric pressure and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Lease condensate: Light liquid hydrocarbons recovered from lease separators or field

  10. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Country Definitions Key Terms Definition Exports Natural Gas deliveries out of the Continental United States and Alaska to foreign countries. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. Pipeline A continuous pipe conduit, complete with such equipment as valves, compressor stations, communications systems, and meters, for transporting natural and/or supplemental gas from one

  11. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Country Definitions Key Terms Definition Imports Natural Gas received in the Continental United States (including Alaska) from a foreign country. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. Pipeline A continuous pipe conduit, complete with such equipment as valves, compressor stations, communications systems, and meters, for transporting natural and/or supplemental gas from one

  12. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Point of Entry Definitions Key Terms Definition Imports Natural Gas received in the Continental United States (including Alaska) from a foreign country. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. Pipeline A continuous pipe conduit, complete with such equipment as valves, compressor stations, communications systems, and meters, for transporting natural and/or supplemental gas

  13. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Point of Exit Definitions Key Terms Definition Exports Natural Gas deliveries out of the Continental United States and Alaska to foreign countries. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. Pipeline A continuous pipe conduit, complete with such equipment as valves, compressor stations, communications systems, and meters, for transporting natural and/or supplemental gas from

  14. Fermilab | Tevatron | Media

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Media Media Contacts Fermilab Office of Communication +1 630 840 3351, media@fnal.gov Fact Sheets Tevatron scientific highlights Tevatron engineering achievements Fermilab overview Images Tevatron CDF DZero Main Control Room The 4-mile in circumference Tevatron accelerator uses superconducting magnets chilled to minus 450 degrees Fahrenheit, as cold as outer space, to move particles at nearly the speed of light. The Tevatron typically produces about 10 million proton-antiproton collisions per

  15. NREL Seeks to Optimize Individual Comfort in Buildings - News Feature |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Seeks to Optimize Individual Comfort in Buildings October 7, 2015 Photo shows two people sitting in a white room, holding smartphones in front of laptops. Scott Jensen and Grace Brown were the first volunteers to take part in testing in NREL's Comfort Suite (C-Suite). Photo by Dennis Schroeder On a typical early fall morning in Golden, Colorado, the temperature outside was about 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Tucked inside a unique structure at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy

  16. Lab Astrophysics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab Astrophysics NIF experiments support studies relevant to the entire lifecycle of a star, from its formation from cold gas in molecular clouds, through its subsequent slow evolution, and on to what might be a rapid, explosive death. To determine a star's structure throughout the various stages of its life, astrophysicists need NIF's ability to mimic the temperatures (10 to 30 million kelvins or 18 to 54 million degrees Fahrenheit) found in stars' cores. One astrophysics project at NIF is

  17. Innovation Saves Laboratory $1,000/Day in Cooling Costs | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Saves Laboratory $1,000/Day in Cooling Costs September 6, 2006 Cryogenics Group Jefferson Lab's Deputy Cryogenics Group Leader Venkatarao (Rao) Ganni (left), and Cryo Group Leader Dana Arenius pause in the Central Helium Liquefier control room. The Cryogenics Group in the Accelerator Engineering Department of the Accelerator Division is tasked with providing refrigeration for a variety of Jefferson Lab research activities. Three refrigerators provide -452 and -456 degrees Fahrenheit

  18. Microsoft Word - winter.doc

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 2 1 8 9 8 1 2 2 5 9 8 1 1 9 9 1 8 9 9 1 1 5 9 9 1 2 2 Degrees in Fahrenheit A c t u a l N o r m a l ( C h i c a g o , K a n s a s C i t y , N e w Y o r k ,...

  19. EA-1733: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3: Final Environmental Assessment EA-1733: Final Environmental Assessment Calpine Enhanced Geothermal Systems Project The proposed EGS project includes the injection of water, ranging from 50 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit, into wells to enhance the permeability of an existing high temperature hydrothermal reservoir that would be harnessed to produce electrical energy. The purpose of the project is to demonstrate the ability to stimulate high temperature rocks by monitoring their early response to

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Idle Reduction Requirement A diesel- or gasoline-powered motor vehicle may not idle for more than three consecutive minutes, except under the following conditions: 1) to operate power takeoff equipment including, but not limited to, cement mixers, refrigeration systems, and delivery vehicles; 2) to operate private passenger vehicles; or 3) to operate heating equipment for five minutes when the ambient temperature is 32 degrees Fahrenheit or below. (Reference District of Columbia Municipal

  1. Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    FRONT COVER Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration DOE/EIS-0288-S1 August 2014 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS CFR Code of Federal Regulations CLWR commercial light water reactor CO2e carbon dioxide equivalent DOE U.S. Department of Energy EIS environmental impact statement EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency °F degrees Fahrenheit FR Federal Register

  2. Rare-earth elements in hot brines (165 to 190 degree C) from the Salton Sea geothermal field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Rare-earth element (REE) concentrations are important indicators for revealing various chemical fractionation processes (water/rock interactions) and source region geochemistry. Since the REE patterns are characteristic of geologic materials (basalt, granite, shale, sediments, etc.) and minerals (K-feldspar, calcite, illite, epidote, etc.), their study in geothermal fluids may serve as a geothermometer. The REE study may also enable us to address the issue of groundwater mixing. In addition, the behavior of the REE can serve as analogs of the actinides in radioactive waste (e.g., neodymium is an analog of americium and curium). In this paper, the authors port the REE data for a Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) brine (two aliquots: port 4 at 165{degree}C and port 5 at 190{degree}C) and six associated core samples.

  3. Structural stability of 1100[degree]C heated Pd/k during absorption cycling in protium. [Palladium supported on kieselguhr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, I.A.

    1993-03-12

    Pd/k is a hydride forming packing material which is used in the Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP). Palladium is supported on kieselguhr to create a packing material which will provide adequate void space to prevent excessive pressure drops and flow restrictions. The use of unsupported palladium would result in blockage of columns and clogging of filters due to the small particle size of unsupported palladium hydride powder. During pilot scale demonstrations, it was noted that the Pd/k packing material had degraded causing severe flow restrictions within the TCAP column. A solution to the problem involved the heating of Pd/k at 1,110[degree]C to strengthen the packing material, and render it more resistant to breakdown. The 1, 100[degree]C heated Pd/k has been shown to be more resistant to mechanical breakdown than the Pd/k prior to heat treatment. Two primary modes of Pd/k particle degradation have been identified: mechanical breakdown caused by particle fluidization and degradation caused by absorption/desorption cycling. Absorption/desorption cycling causes the palladium particles within the packing to expanded and contract upon formation and decomposition of the hydride, respectively. This expansion and contraction causes large localized stresses within the packing material, which if these stresses can not be accommodated within the packing will cause the material to crack and degrade. The purpose of this report is to document the results of the absorption/desorption cycling of 1,100[degree]C heated Pd/k and compare these results to the results obtained from the absorption/desorption cycling of Pd/k which had not been heated at 1, 100[degree]C.

  4. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE„4/1/00-3/31/01

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE April 1, 2010 - March 31, 2011 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor Present Position Zach Kohley 2010 Transverse Collective Flow and Emission Order of Mid- Rapidity Fragments in Fermi Energy Heavy Ion Collisions S. J. Yennello Post Doc., HRIBF, ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Xingbo Zhao 2010 Charmonium in Hot Medium Ralf Rapp Post Doc., Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa Sarah Nicole

  5. {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100>, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-05-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100> oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  6. ARM: X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Nelson; Joseph Hardin; Iosif Lindenmaier; Bradley Isom; Karen Johnson; Nitin Bharadwaj

    2011-09-14

    X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

  7. ARM: Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scan (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dan Nelson; Joseph Hardin; Iosif (Andrei) Lindenmaier; Bradley Isom; Karen Johnson; Nitin Bharadwaj

    2011-05-24

    Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scan (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

  8. ARM: W-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (W-SACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dan Nelson; Joseph Hardin; Iosif (Andrei) Lindenmaier; Bradley Isom; Karen Johnson; Nitin Bharadwaj

    1990-01-01

    W-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (W-SACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

  9. ARM: X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dan Nelson; Joseph Hardin; Iosif (Andrei) Lindenmaier; Bradley Isom; Karen Johnson; Nitin Bharadwaj

    X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

  10. ARM: W-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (W-SACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dan Nelson; Joseph Hardin; Iosif (Andrei) Lindenmaier; Bradley Isom; Karen Johnson; Nitin Bharadwaj

    W-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (W-SACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

  11. ARM: Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scan (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dan Nelson; Joseph Hardin; Iosif (Andrei) Lindenmaier; Bradley Isom; Karen Johnson; Nitin Bharadwaj

    Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scan (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

  12. Excited-state quantum phase transitions in systems with two degrees of freedom: Level density, level dynamics, thermal properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strnsk, Pavel; Macek, Michal; Cejnar, Pavel

    2014-06-15

    Quantum systems with a finite number of freedom degrees f develop robust singularities in the energy spectrum of excited states as the systems size increases to infinity. We analyze the general form of these singularities for low f, particularly f=2, clarifying the relation to classical stationary points of the corresponding potential. Signatures in the smoothed energy dependence of the quantum state density and in the flow of energy levels with an arbitrary control parameter are described along with the relevant thermodynamical consequences. The general analysis is illustrated with specific examples of excited-state singularities accompanying the first-order quantum phase transition. -- Highlights: ESQPTs found in infinite-size limit of systems with low numbers of freedom degrees f. ESQPTs related to non-analytical evolutions of classical phasespace properties. ESQPT signatures analyzed for general f, particularly f=2, extending known case f=1. ESQPT signatures identified in smoothened density and flow of energy spectrum. ESQPTs shown to induce a new type of thermodynamic anomalies.

  13. p-Hydroxyphenyl (H) Units Lower the Degree of Polymerization in Lignin: Chemical Control in Lignin Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangha, A. K.; Parks, J. M.; Davis, M. F.; Smith, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Lignin, composed predominantly of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) subunits, is a major component of plant cell walls that imparts resistance toward chemical and microbial deconstruction of plant biomass, rendering its conversion inefficient and costly. Previous studies have shown that alterating lignin composition, i.e., the relative abundance of H, G and S subunits, promises more efficient extraction of sugars from plant biomass. Smaller and less branched lignin chains are more easily extracted during pretreatment, making cellulose more readily degradable. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we show that the incorporation of H subunits into lignin via b-b and b-5 interunit linkages reduces the degree of polymerization in lignin. Frontier molecular orbital analyses of lignin dimers and trimers show that H as a terminal subunit on a growing lignin polymer linked via b-b and b-5 linkage cannot undergo radical formation, preventing further chain growth by endwise polymerization resulting in lignin polymers with lower degree of polymerization. These results indicate that, for endwise polymerization in lignin synthesis, there exists a chemical control that may lay a significant role in determining the structure of lignin.

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    prices rose between 15 and 30 cents per million Btu at the Southern California border, PG&E citygates, the Henry Hub, and the New York and Chicago citygates before...

  15. Price hub","Trade date","Delivery start date","Delivery

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    42007,42009,8,7,7.6341,1.8034,56300,18,8 "Algonquin Citygates","applicationvnd.ms-excel",42010,42010,10.75,9,9.9179,2.2838,72100,20,12 "Algonquin Citygates","application...

  16. THE MAGNETIZATION DEGREE OF THE OUTFLOW POWERING THE HIGHLY POLARIZED REVERSE-SHOCK EMISSION OF GRB 120308A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Wei, Da-Ming, E-mail: jin@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008 (China)

    2015-01-01

    GRB 120308A, a long duration ?-ray burst (GRB) detected by Swift, was distinguished by a highly polarized early optical afterglow emission that strongly suggests an ordered magnetic field component in the emitting region. In this work, we model the optical and X-ray emission in the reverse and forward shock scenario and show that the strength of the magnetic field in the reverse-shock region is ?10 times stronger than that in the forward shock region. Consequently, the outflow powering the highly polarized reverse-shock optical emission was mildly magnetized at a degree of ? ? a few percent. Considering the plausible magnetic energy dissipation in both the acceleration and prompt emission phases of the GRB outflow, the afterglow data of GRB 120308A provides us with compelling evidence that, at least for some GRBs, a nonignorable fraction of the energy was released in the form of Poynting flux, confirming the finding first made in the reverse-forward shock emission modeling of the optical afterglow of GRB 990123 by Fan etal. in 2002 and Zhang etal. in 2003.

  17. Thermochemical properties of gibbsite, bayerite, boehmite, diaspore, and the aluminate ion between 0 and 350/degree/C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apps, J.A.; Neil, J.M.; Jun, C.H.

    1989-01-01

    A requirement for modelling the chemical behavior of groundwater in a nuclear waste repository is accurate thermodynamic data pertaining to the participating minerals and aqueous species. In particular, it is important that the thermodynamic properties of the aluminate ion be accurately determined, because most rock forming minerals in the earth's crust are aluminosilicates, and most groundwaters are neutral to slightly alkaline, where the aluminate ion is the predominant aluminum species in solution. Without a precise knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of the aluminate ion aluminosilicate mineral solubilities cannot be determined. The thermochemical properties of the aluminate ion have been determined from the solubilities of the aluminum hydroxides and oxyhydroxides in alkaline solutions between 20 and 350/degree/C. An internally consistent set of thermodynamic properties have been determined for gibbsite, boehmite, diaspore and corundum. The thermodynamic properties of bayerite have been provisionally estimated and a preliminary value for ..delta..G/sub f, 298//sup 0/ of nordstrandite has been determined. 205 refs., 17 figs., 25 tabs.

  18. Interannual Variability in Global Soil Respiration on a 0.5 Degree Grid Cell Basis (1980-1994)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raich, J.W.

    2003-09-15

    We used a climate-driven regression model to develop spatially resolved estimates of soil-CO{sub 2} emissions from the terrestrial land surface for each month from January 1980 to December 1994, to evaluate the effects of interannual variations in climate on global soil-to-atmosphere CO{sub 2} fluxes. The mean annual global soil-CO{sub 2} flux over this 15-y period was estimated to be 80.4 (range 79.3-81.8) Pg C. Monthly variations in global soil-CO{sub 2} emissions followed closely the mean temperature cycle of the Northern Hemisphere. Globally, soil-CO{sub 2} emissions reached their minima in February and peaked in July and August. Tropical and subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests contributed more soil-derived CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere than did any other vegetation type ({approx}30% of the total) and exhibited a biannual cycle in their emissions. Soil-CO{sub 2} emissions in other biomes exhibited a single annual cycle that paralleled the seasonal temperature cycle. Interannual variability in estimated global soil-CO{sub 2} production is substantially less than is variability in net carbon uptake by plants (i.e., net primary productivity). Thus, soils appear to buffer atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations against far more dramatic seasonal and interannual differences in plant growth. Within seasonally dry biomes (savannas, bushlands, and deserts), interannual variability in soil-CO{sub 2} emissions correlated significantly with interannual differences in precipitation. At the global scale, however, annual soil-CO{sub 2} fluxes correlated with mean annual temperature, with a slope of 3.3 PgCY{sup -1} per degree Celsius. Although the distribution of precipitation influences seasonal and spatial patterns of soil-CO{sub 2} emissions, global warming is likely to stimulate CO{sub 2} emissions from soils.

  19. THIRD COMPONENT SEARCH AND ABUNDANCES OF THE VERY DUSTY SHORT-PERIOD BINARY BD +20 Degree-Sign 307

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Cordero, Maria J.; Galicher, Raphael; Zuckerman, B.; Melis, Carl; Weinberger, Alycia J. E-mail: majocord@indiana.edu E-mail: ben@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: weinberger@dtm.ciw.edu

    2012-04-10

    We have obtained near-infrared adaptive optics imaging and collected additional radial velocity observations to search for a third component in the extremely dusty short-period binary system BD +20 Degree-Sign 307. Our image shows no evidence for a third component at separations greater than 19 AU. Our four seasons of radial velocities have a constant center-of-mass velocity and are consistent with the systemic velocities determined at two earlier epochs. Thus, the radial velocities also provide no support for a third component. Unfortunately, the separation domains covered by our imaging and radial velocity results do not overlap. Thus, we examined the parameters for possible orbits of a third component that could have been missed by our current observations. With our velocities we determined improved circular orbital elements for the 3.4 day double-lined binary. We also performed a spectroscopic abundance analysis of the short-period binary components and conclude that the stars are a mid- and a late-F dwarf. We find that the iron abundances of both components, [Fe/H] = 0.15, are somewhat greater than the solar value and comparable to that of stars in the Hyades. Despite the similarity of the binary components, the lithium abundances of the two stars are very unequal. The primary has log {epsilon} (Li) = 2.72, while in the secondary log {epsilon} (Li) {<=}1.46, which corresponds to a difference of at least a factor of 18. The very disparate lithium abundances in very similar stars make it impossible to ascribe a single age to them. While the system is likely at least 1 Gyr old, it may well be as old as the Sun.

  20. Catalytic steam gasification reactivity of HyperCoals produced from different rank of coals at 600-775{degree}C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi

    2008-11-15

    HyperCoal is a clean coal with ash content <0.05 wt %. HyperCoals were prepared from a brown coal, a sub-bituminous coal, and a bituminous raw coal by solvent extraction method. Catalytic steam gasification of these HyperCoals was carried out with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 775, 700, 650, and 600 {degree}C, and their rates were compared. HyperCoals produced from low-rank coals were more reactive than those produced from the high-rank coals. XRD measurements were carried out to understand the difference in gasification reactivity of HyperCoals. Arrhenius plot of ln (k) vs 1/T in the temperature range 600-825{degree}C was a curve rather than a straight line. The point of change was observed at 700{degree}C for HyperCoals from low-rank coals and at 775{degree}C for HyperCoals from high-rank coals. Using HyperCoal produced from low-rank coals as feedstock, steam gasification of coal may be possible at temperatures less than 650{degree}C. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Introduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The desert temperature hovered at 90 degrees Fahrenheit the morning of July 17, 1962 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), now known at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Eventually the beating sun would increase the heat to over 105 degrees later that day, but at 10:00 a.m., a crowd of 396 spectators braved the scorching temperature and relentless sun to witness the last atmospheric test ever conducted by the United States. The crowd gathered in Area 18 of the NTS, approximately two miles from

  2. Methodology to predict the number of forced outages due to creep failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palermo, J.V. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    All alloy metals at a temperature above 950 degrees Fahrenheit experience creep damage. Creep failures in boiler tubes usually begin after 25 to 40 years of operation. Since creep damage is irreversible, the only remedy is to replace the tube sections. By predicting the number of failures per year, the utility can make the best economic decision concerning tube replacement. This paper describes a methodology to calculate the number of forced outages per yea due to creep failures. This methodology is particularly useful to utilities that have boilers that have at least 25 years of operation.

  3. Hot Summer | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hot Summer July 27, 2010 One might think that we should be into the lazy, hazy days of summer. In contrast, since the beginning of June we have experienced a heat wave, and I am not referring to the "typical" Virginia summer with 100 degrees Fahrenheit registering on the thermometer. On June 1, we made our strategic plan presentation to the Office of Science. June 3, we made our mid-year performance presentation to the local Thomas Jefferson Site Office. June 6-9, the users held their

  4. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, Price, and Trade Total Shipments, 1974-2009 Trade, 1978-2009 Price of Total Shipments, 1986-2009 Number of U.S. Manufacturers by Type of Collector, 1974-2009 Average Annual Shipments per Manufacturer, 1974-2009 292 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. 2 Collectors that generally operate in the temperature range of 140 degrees Fahrenheit

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Tax LNG is taxed at a rate of $0.14 per gallon when used as a motor fuel. For taxation purposes, LNG is converted to its gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) at the rate of 1.5536 gallons of LNG to equal one volumetric gross gallon of gasoline. LNG is defined as natural gas for use as a motor fuel, which has been cooled to approximately -260 degrees Fahrenheit and is in a liquid state. (Reference South Dakota Statutes 10-47B-3 and 10-47B-4

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Tax Compressed natural gas used as a special motor fuel is subject to the state fuel excise tax of $0.31 per gasoline gallon equivalent, measured at 5.66 pounds (lbs.) or 126.67 cubic feet at a base temperature of 60 degrees Fahrenheit and a pressure of 14.73 lbs. per square inch. Liquefied natural gas is subject to the excise tax of $0.325 per diesel gallon equivalent, measured at 6.06 lbs. Liquefied petroleum gas (propane) is subject to the excise tax of $0.30 per gallon. E85

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Tax Compressed natural gas used as a special motor fuel is subject to the state fuel excise tax rate of $0.25 per gasoline gallon equivalent, measured at 5.66 lbs. or 126.67 cubic feet at a base temperature of 60 degrees Fahrenheit and a pressure of 14.7 lbs. per square inch. Liquefied natural gas is also subject to the excise tax rate of $0.25 per diesel gallon equivalent, measured at 6.06 lbs. (Reference Idaho Statutes 63-2402 and 63-242

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Liquefied Gas Tax A use tax of $0.14 per gallon is imposed on liquefied gas used for operating motor vehicles on public highways. Liquefied gas is all combustible gas that exists in the gaseous state at 60 degrees Fahrenheit and at a pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch, but does not include gasoline, diesel fuel, or compressed natural gas. Government agencies are exempt from the liquefied gas use tax. Additional restrictions may apply. (Reference Tennessee Code 67-3-1101, 67-3-1102,

  9. High performance steam development. Final report, Phase No. 3: 1500{degree}F steam plant for industrial cogeneration prototype development tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1996-01-01

    As a key part of DOE`s and industry`s R&D efforts to improve the efficiency, cost, and emissions of power generation, a prototype High Performance Steam System (HPSS) has been designed, built, and demonstrated. The world`s highest temperature ASME Section I coded power plant successfully completed over 100 hours of development tests at 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psig on a 56,000 pound per hour steam generator, control valve and topping turbine at an output power of 5500 hp. This development advances the HPSS to 400{degrees}F higher steam temperature than the current best technology being installed around the world. Higher cycle temperatures produce higher conversion efficiencies and since steam is used to produce the large majority of the world`s power, the authors expect HPSS developments will have a major impact on electric power production and cogeneration in the twenty-first century. Coal fueled steam plants now produce the majority of the United States electric power. Cogeneration and reduced costs and availability of natural gas have now made gas turbines using Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG`s) and combined cycles for cogeneration and power generation the lowest cost producer of electric power in the United States. These gas fueled combined cycles also have major benefits in reducing emissions while reducing the cost of electricity. Development of HPSS technology can significantly improve the efficiency of cogeneration, steam plants, and combined cycles. Figure 2 is a TS diagram that shows the HPSS has twice the energy available from each pound of steam when expanding from 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psia to 165 psia (150 psig, a common cogeneration process steam pressure). This report describes the prototype component and system design, and results of the 100-hour laboratory tests. The next phase of the program consists of building up the steam turbine into a generator set, and installing the power plant at an industrial site for extended operation.

  10. Repeated compressive stress increase with 400 [degree]C thermal cycling in tantalum thin films due to increases in the oxygen content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, C. Jr.; Clevenger, L.A.; Schad, R.G. )

    1994-07-01

    Stresses which build up in thin films such as tantalum, during thermal processing, can cause major reliability problems in electronic and x-ray optics applications. We demonstrate that 50--200 nm thick sputtered [beta]-Ta thin films undergo repeated compressive stress increases when thermally cycled to 400 [degree]C (at a rate of 10 [degree]C/min) and back in a purified He ambient because of small amounts of oxygen gettered by the tantalum. The oxygen contamination results from the poor quality of the atmospheric seal on the quartz annealing chamber. As-deposited Ta thin films have a compressive stress ranging from [minus]1 to [minus]4 GPa. The compressive stress buildup was monitored [ital in] [ital situ] and was shown to increase [minus]0.5 GPa on average after each thermal cycle for a final value from [minus]6 to [minus]7 GPa after seven cycles. After being cycled thermally seven times any perturbation of the film such as a four-point probe resistivity measurement can cause the film to instantaneously crack in a serpentine pattern, relieving the large compressive stress. Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling analysis was used to determine that the as-deposited film contained 1 at. % oxygen which increased to 8%--12% after seven thermal cycles with an approximate doubling in resistivity. The [minus]0.5 GPa average compressive stress increase in Ta thin films when cycled to 400 [degree]C is attributed to a 1.3% increase in oxygen concentration leading to a Ta unit cell expansion of 0.6%.

  11. Fifty Degrees North, Four Degrees West - Microbial Bebop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Larsen

    2012-10-01

    This musical composition was created from data of microbes (bacteria, algae and other microorganisms) sampled in the English Channel. Argonne National Laboratory biologist Peter Larsen created the songs as a unique way to present and comprehend large datasets. More details: All of the data in this composition derives from twelve observed time points collected at monthly intervals at the L4 Station during 2007. The composition is composed of seven choruses. Each chorus has the same chord progression of 12 measures each in which chords are derived from monthly measures of temperature and chlorophyll A concentrations. The first and last chorus melodies are environmental parameter data as in 'Blues for Elle'. The melody in each of the second through sixth chorus is generated from the relative abundances of one of the five most common microbial taxa: Rickettsiales, Rhodobacteriales, Flavobacteriales, Cyanobactera, and Pseudomondales. A different 'instrument' is used to represent each microbial taxon. Melodies for microbial taxa were generated as in 'Far and Wide'. More information at http://www.anl.gov/articles/songs-key... Image: Cyanobacteria, probably genus Gloeotrichia, taken in darkfield. Credit Specious Reasons via Flickr Creative Commons (http://www.flickr.com/photos/28594931...)

  12. Process for forming unusually strong joints between metals and ceramics by brazing at temperatures that do no exceed 750 degree C.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Joseph P.; David, Stan A.; Woodhouse, John J.

    1986-01-01

    This invention is a process for joining metals to ceramics to form very strong bonds using low brazing temperature, i.e., less than 750.degree. C., and particularly for joining nodular cast iron to partially stabilized zirconia. The process provides that the ceramic be coated with an active metal, such as titanium, that can form an intermetallic with a low melting point brazing alloy such as 60Ag-30Cu-10Sn. The nodular cast iron is coated with a noncarbon containing metal, such as copper, to prevent carbon in the nodular cast iron from dissolving in the brazing alloy. These coated surfaces can be brazed together with the brazing alloy between at less than 750.degree. C. to form a very strong joint. An even stronger bond can be formed if a transition piece is used between the metal and ceramic. It is preferred for the transition piece to have a coefficient of thermal compatible with the coefficient of thermal expansion of the ceramic, such as titanium.

  13. 2degrees | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kingdom Zip: OX2 7HT Product: Oxford-based collaborative network provider for sustainability professionals. Coordinates: 43.781517, -89.571699 Show Map Loading map......

  14. 3Degrees | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    helps organizations buy, sell and market environmental commodities, such as Renewable Energy Certificates(RECs) and verified carbon offsets. Its mission, as stated on its website,...

  15. Preliminary analysis of tank 241-C-106 dryout due to large postulated leak and vaporization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepho, M.G.

    1994-12-01

    This analysis assumes that there is a hypothetical large leak at the bottom of Tank 241-C-106 which initiates the dryout of the tank. The time required for a tank to dryout after a leak is of interest for safety reasons. As a tank dries out, its temperature is expected to increase which could affect the structural integrity of the concrete tank dome. Hence, it is of interest to know how fast and how high the temperature in a leaky tank increases, so that mitigation procedures can be planned and implemented in a timely manner. This analysis is focused on tank 241-C-106, which is known to be high thermal tank. The objective of the study was to determine how long it would take for tank 241-C-106 to reach 350 degrees Fahrenheit (about 177 degrees Centigrade) after a postulated large leak develops at the bottom center of the tank. The temperature of 350 degrees Fahrenheit is the minimum temperature that can cause structural damage to concrete (ACI 1992). The postulated leak at the bottom of the tank and the resulting dryout of the sludge in the tank make this analysis different from previous thermal analyses of the C-106 tank and other tanks, especially the double-shell tanks which are mostly liquid.

  16. Neutron structural characterization, inversion degree and transport properties of NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel prepared by the hydroxide route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagua, A.; Lescano, Gabriela M.; Alonso, J.A.; Martnez-Coronado, R.; Fernndez-Daz, M.T.; Morn, E.

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: A pure specimen has been synthesized by the hydroxide route. This spinel, studied by NPD, shows an important inversion degree, ? = 0.80. A bond-valence study shows that the tetrahedral Mn ions are divalent whereas the octahedral Mn and Ni are slightly oxidized from the expected 3+ and 2+ values, respectively. The mixed valence Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} accounts for a hopping mechanism between adjacent octahedral sites, leading to a significant conductivity. Highlights: ? A low-temperature hydroxide route allowed preparing almost pure specimens of NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. ? NPD essential to determine inversion degree; contrasting Ni and Mn for neutrons. ? Bond valence establishes valence state of octahedral and tetrahedral Ni and Mn ions. ? Thermal analysis, transport measurements complement characterization of this oxide. ? A structureproperties relationship is established. -- Abstract: The title compound has been synthesized by the hydroxide route. The crystal structure has been investigated at room temperature from high-resolution neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data. It crystallizes in a cubic spinel structure, space group Fd3{sup }m, Z = 8, with a = 8.3940(2) ? at 295 K. The crystallographic formula is (Ni{sub 0.202(1)}Mn{sub 0.798(1)}){sub 8a}(Ni{sub 0.790(1)}Mn{sub 1.210(1)}){sub 16d}O{sub 4} where 8a and 16d stand for the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the spinel structure, respectively. There is a significant inversion degree of the spinel structure, ? = 0.80. In fact, the variable parameter for the oxygen position, u = 0.2636(4), is far from that expected (u = 0.25) for normal spinels. From a bond-valence study, it seems that the valence distribution in NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel is not as trivial as expected (Ni{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+}), but clearly the tetrahedral Mn ions are divalent whereas the octahedral Mn and Ni are slightly oxidized from the expected +3 and +2 values, respectively. The mixed valence observed at the octahedral sites provides the charge carriers that, by a hopping mechanism between Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} adjacent sites, leads to a significant conductivity, up to 0.85 S cm{sup ?1} at 800 C in air.

  17. Total Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals (Summary)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 1231 Reserves...

  18. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    locations registered overall declines, dropping on Thursday and Friday before gaining ground toward the end of the week. For example, spot prices at the Algonquin Citygate...

  19. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    week. In the Northeast, certain locations saw prices drop considerably before regaining ground by week's end. For example, at the Algonquin Citygate trading point (for delivery...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    *Avg. of NGI's reported avg. prices for: Malin, PG&E citygate, and Southern California Border Avg. Source: NGI's Daily Gas Price Index (http:intelligencepress.com). Storage:...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    in Alberta, Chicago Citygate, Houston Ship Channel, San Juan Basin, Southern California border, Transco Zone 6, Northwest Pipeline Rockies, and Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Co....

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    in Alberta, Chicago Citygate, Houston Ship Channel, San Juan Basin, Southern California border, Transco Zone 6, Northwest Pipeline Rockies, and Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Co....

  3. Regions for Select Spot Prices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are used to represent the following regions: Region Gas Point Used Power Point Used New England Algonquin Citygate Massachusetts Hub (ISONE) New York City Transco Zone 6-NY...

  4. Plastic substrates for active matrix liquid crystal display incapable of withstanding processing temperature of over 200.degree. C and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Havens, John; Jones, Phil

    1999-01-01

    Bright-polarizer-free, active-matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) are formed on plastic substrates. The primary components of the display are a pixel circuit fabricated on one plastic substrate, an intervening liquid-crystal material, and a counter electrode on a second plastic substrate. The-pixel circuit contains one or more thin-film transistors (TFTs) and either a transparent or reflective pixel electrode manufactured at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid damage to the plastic substrate. Fabrication of the TFTs can be carried out at temperatures less than 100.degree. C. The liquid crystal material is a commercially made nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) film. The counter electrode is comprised of a plastic substrate coated with a transparent conductor, such as indium-doped tin oxide (ITO). By coupling the active matrix with NCAP, a high-information content can be provided in a bright, fully plastic package. Applications include any low cost portable electronics containing flat displays where ruggedization of the display is desired.

  5. Results of U-xMo (x=7, 10, 12 wt.%) Alloy versus Al-6061 Cladding Diffusion Couple Experiments Performed at 500, 550 and 600 Degrees C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmanuel Perez; Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Yongho Sohn

    2013-04-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has been developing low enrichment fuel systems encased in Al 6061 for use in research and test reactors. UMo alloys in contact with Al and Al alloys can undergo diffusional interactions that can result in the development of interdiffusion zones with complex fine-grained microstructures composed of multiple phases. A monolithic fuel currently being developed by the RERTR program has local regions where the UMo fuel plate is in contact with the Al 6061 cladding and, as a result, the program finds information about interdiffusion zone development at high temperatures of interest. In this study, the microstructural development of diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo, and U-12wt.%Mo vs. Al 6061 (or 6061 aluminum) cladding, annealed at 500, 550, 600 degrees C for 1, 5, 20, 24, or 132 hours, was analyzed by backscatter electron microscopy and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy on a scanning electron microscope. Concentration profiles were determined by standardized wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and standardless x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results of this work shows that the presence of surface layers at the UMo/Al 6061 interface can dramatically impact the overall interdiffusion behavior in terms of rate of interaction and uniformity of the developed interdiffusion zones. It further reveals that relatively uniform interaction layers with higher Si concentrations can develop in UMo/Al 6061 couples annealed at shorter times and that longer times at temperature result in the development of more non-uniform interaction layers with more areas that are enriched in Al. At longer annealing times and relatively high temperatures, UMo/Al 6061 couples can exhibit more interaction compared to UMo/pure Al couples. The minor alloying constituents in Al 6061 cladding can result in the development of many complex phases in the interaction layer of UMo/Al6061 cladding couples, and some phases in the interdiffusion zones of UMo/Al6061 cladding couples are likely similar to those observed for UMo/pure Al couples.

  6. System and method for online inspection of turbines using an optical tube with broadspectrum mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baleine, Erwan

    2015-12-22

    An optical inspection system for nondestructive internal visual inspection and non-contact infra-red (IR) temperature monitoring of an online, operating power generation turbine. The optical inspection system includes an optical tube having a viewing port, at least one reflective mirror or a mirror array having a reflectivity spectral range from 550 nm to 20 .mu.m, and capable of continuous operation at temperatures greater than 932 degrees Fahrenheit (500 degrees Celsius), and a transparent window with high transmission within the same spectral range mounted distal the viewing port. The same optical mirror array may be used to measure selectively surface temperature of metal turbine blades in the near IR range (approximately 1 .mu.m wavelength) and of thermal barrier coated turbine blades in the long IR range (approximately 10 .mu.m wavelength).

  7. Development of Stronger and More Reliable Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) Based on Scientific and Design Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pankiw, Roman I; Muralidharan, G.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2006-06-30

    The goal of this project was to increase the high-temperature strength of the H-Series of cast austenitic stainless steels by 50% and the upper use temperature by 86 to 140 degrees fahrenheit (30 to 60 degrees celsius). Meeting this goal is expected to result in energy savings of 35 trillion Btu/year by 2020 and energy cost savings of approximately $230 million/year. The higher-strength H-Series cast stainless steels (HK and HP type) have applications for the production of ethylene in the chemical industry, for radiant burner tubes and transfer rolls for secondary processing of steel in the steel industry, and for many applications in the heat treating industry, including radiant burner tubes. The project was led by Duraloy Technologies, Inc., with research participation by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and industrial participation by a diverse group of companies.

  8. Mineralogical textural and compositional data on the alteration of basaltic glass from Kilauea, Hawaii to 300 degrees C: Insights to the corrosion of a borosilicate glass waste-form. [Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Mineralogical, textural and compositional data accompanying greenschist facies metamorphism (to 300{degrees}C) of basalts of the East Rift Zone (ERZ), Kilauea, Hawaii may be evaluated relative to published and experimental results for the surface corrosion of borosilicate glass. The ERZ alteration sequence is dominated by intermittent palagonite, interlayered smectite-chlorite, chlorite, and actinolite-epidote-anhydrite. Alteration is best developed in fractures and vesicles where surface reaction layers root on the glass matrix forming rinds in excess of 100 microns thick. Fractures control fluid circulation and the alteration sequence. Proximal to the glass surface, palagonite, Fe-Ti oxides and clays replace fresh glass as the surface reaction layer migrates inwards; away from the surface, amphibole, anhydrite, quartz and calcite crystallize from hydrothermal fluids in contact with the glass. The texture and composition of basaltic glass surfaces are similar to those of a SRL-165 glass leached statically for sixty days at 150 {degrees}C. While the ERZ reservoir is a complex open system, conservative comparisons between the alteration of ERZ and synthetic borosilicate glass are warranted. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  9. edward_teller_awards_degrees.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  10. TUNL Ph.D. Degrees Theses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14C. Duke University, 1983, Supervisor: N.R. Roberson. Download PDF (1.23 MB) Steven E. King, Radiative Capture of Protons and Deuterons into 3He. Duke University, 1983,...

  11. Planned Start July 18

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    l Because the holder color is black, the dosimeter can reach temperatures in excess of 150 F when placed in direct sunlight in an unventilated area, such as the dashboard of a car. Error can be as high as 60 percent for storage at 150 degrees fahrenheit for 100 days. DOE to raise speed limit from 55 mph to 60 mph between Wye Barricade and Horn Rapids Road on a pilot basis. Planned start date is July 18 Planned Start July 18 00 I S S U E MSA Update M i s s i o n S u p p o r t C o n t r a c t 00 I

  12. Comfort in High-Performance Homes in a Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poerschke, A.; Beach, R.

    2016-01-01

    IBACOS monitored 37 homes during the late summer and early fall of 2014 in a hot and humid climate to better understand indoor comfort conditions. These homes were constructed in the last several years by four home builders that offered a comfort and performance guarantee for the homes. The homes were located in one of four cities: Tampa, Florida; Orlando, Florida; Houston, Texas; and San Antonio, Texas. Temperature and humidity data were collected from the thermostat and each room of the house using small, battery-powered data loggers. To understand system runtime and its impact on comfort, supply air temperature also was measured on a 1-minute interval. Overall, the group of homes only exceeded a room-to-room temperature difference of 6 degrees Fahrenheit for 5% of the time.

  13. Liquid Fuel from Heat-Loving Microorganisms: H2-Dependent Conversion of CO2 to Liquid Electrofuels by Extremely Thermophilic Archaea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: NC State is working with the University of Georgia to create Electrofuels from primitive organisms called extremophiles that evolved before photosynthetic organisms and live in extreme, hot water environments with temperatures ranging from 167-212 degrees Fahrenheit The team is genetically engineering these microorganisms so they can use hydrogen to turn carbon dioxide directly into alcohol-based fuels. High temperatures are required to distill the biofuels from the water where the organisms live, but the heat-tolerant organisms will continue to thrive even as the biofuels are being distilledmaking the fuel-production process more efficient. The microorganisms dont require light, so they can be grown anywhereinside a dark reactor or even in an underground facility.

  14. Geomechanical testing of Bayou Choctaw 102B core for SPR analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingraham, Mathew Duffy; Broome, Scott Thomas; Bauer, Stephen J.; Barrow, Perry Carl; Flint, Gregory Mark

    2014-02-01

    A laboratory testing program was developed to examine the short-term mechanical and time-dependent (creep) behavior of salt from the Bayou Choctaw Salt Dome. This report documents the test methodologies, and constitutive properties inferred from tests performed. These are used to extend our understanding of the mechanical behavior of the Bayou Choctaw domal salt and provide a data set for numerical analyses. The resulting information will be used to support numerical analyses of the current state of the Bayou Choctaw Dome as it relates to its crude oil storage function as part of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Core obtained from Drill Hole BC-102B was tested under creep and quasi-static constant mean stress axisymmetric compression, and constant mean stress axisymmetric extension conditions. Creep tests were performed at 100 degrees Fahrenheit, and the axisymmetric tests were performed at ambient temperatures (72-78 degrees Fahrenheit). The testing performed indicates that the dilation criterion is pressure and stress state dependent. It was found that as the mean stress increases, the shear stress required to cause dilation increases. The results for this salt are reasonably consistent with those observed for other domal salts. Also it was observed that tests performed under extensile conditions required consistently lower shear stress to cause dilation for the same mean stress, which is consistent with other domal salts. Young's moduli ranged from 3.95 x 106 to 8.51 x 106 psi with an average of 6.44 x 106 psi, with Poisson's ratios ranging from 0.10 to 0.43 with an average of 0.30. Creep testing indicates that the BC salt is intermediate in creep resistance when compared with other bedded and domal salt steady-state behavior.

  15. Price hub","Trade date","Delivery start date","Delivery

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    007,42009,8,7,7.6341,1.8034,56300,18,8 "Algonquin Citygates","application/vnd.ms-excel",42010,42010,10.75,9,9.9179,2.2838,72100,20,12 "Algonquin Citygates","application/vnd.ms-excel",42011,42011,15,11.5,12.9377,3.0198,99900,24,17 "Algonquin Citygates","application/vnd.ms-excel",42012,42012,15,11.5,12.6502,-0.2875,64900,15,12 "Algonquin

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    *Avg. of NGI's reported avg. prices for: Malin, PG&E citygate, and Southern California Border Avg. Source: NGI's Daily Gas Price Index (http:intelligencepress.com). At the NYMEX,...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    operational flow orders (OFOs) in anticipation of marketers looking for a place to park surplus gas. By Friday, prices at Chicago and New York citygates were down 0.20 and...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    operational flow orders (OFOs) in anticipation of marketers looking for a place to park surplus gas. By Friday, prices at Chicago and New York citygates were down 0.20 and...

  19. Price hub","Trade date","Delivery start date","Delivery

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    374,42374,8,7.75,7.9167,2.6889,15000,2,3 "Algonquin Citygates","application/vnd.ms-excel",42375,42375,5.75,5.5,5.5882,-2.3285,25500,5,7 "Algonquin Citygates","application/vnd.ms-excel",42376,42376,5.1,4.9,4.9846,-0.6036,13000,4,8 "Algonquin Citygates","application/vnd.ms-excel",42377,42377,4,3,3.7073,-1.2773,115100,29,17 "Algonquin Citygates","application/vnd.ms-excel",42378,42380,3.75,3.5,3.7,-0.0073,12500,3,4

  20. February 2016

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Created on: 2242016 5:25:56 PM Table 19. Average citygate price, by state, 2013-2015 ... Table 19 February 2016 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Natural Gas Monthly 60 ...

  1. Word Pro - S9

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Natural Gas Prices (Dollars a per Thousand Cubic Feet) Wellhead and Citygate, 1949-2014 Consuming Sectors, 1967-2014 Consuming Sectors, Monthly 144 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Monthly Energy Review February 2016 Citygate Wellhead Residential b Electric Power b Transportation Residential b Industrial b Commercial b Electric Power b a Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. b Includes taxes. Web Page:

  2. Thermal springs list for the United States; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Key to Geophysical Records Documentation No. 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, G.W.; Grim, P.J.; Ikelman, J.A.

    1980-06-01

    The compilation has 1702 thermal spring locations in 23 of the 50 States, arranged alphabetically by State (Postal Service abbreviation) and degrees of latitude and longitude within the State. It shows spring name, surface temperature in degrees Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius; USGS Professional Paper 492 number, USGS Circular 790 number, NOAA number, north to south on each degree of latitude and longitude of the listed. USGS 1:250,000-scale (AMS) map; and the USGS topographic map coverage, 1:63360- or 1:62500-scale (15-minute) or 1:24000-scale (7.5-minute) quadrangle also included is an alphabetized list showing only the spring name and the State in which it is located. Unnamed springs are omitted. The list includes natural surface hydrothermal features: springs, pools, mud pots, mud volcanoes, geysers, fumaroles, and steam vents at temperature of 20{sup 0}C (68[sup 0}F) or greater. It does not include wells or mines, except at sites where they supplement or replace natural vents presently or recently active, or, in some places, where orifices are not distinguishable as natural or artificial. The listed springs are located on the USGS 1:250,000 (AMS) topographic maps. (MHR)

  3. Customer Impact Evaluation for the 2009 Southern California Edison Participating Load Pilot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, William; Bodmann, Shawn; Young, Paul; Eto, Joseph H.; Laundergan, Jeremy

    2010-05-28

    The 2009 Participating Load Pilot Customer Impact Evaluation provides evidence that short duration demand response events which cycle off air conditioners for less than thirty minutes in a hot, dry environment do not lead to a significant degradation in the comfort level of residents participating in the program. This was investigated using: (1) Analysis of interval temperature data collected from inside residences of select program participants; and (2) Direct and indirect customer feedback from surveys designed and implemented by Southern California Edison at the conclusion of the program season. There were 100 indoor temperature monitors that were acquired by LBNL for this study that transmitted temperature readings at least once per hour with corresponding timestamps during the program season, June-October, 2009. Recorded temperatures were transferred from the onsite telemetry devices to a mesh network, stored, and then delivered to KEMA for analysis. Following an extensive data quality review, temperature increases during each of the thirty demand response test events were calculated for each device. The results are as follows: (1) Even for tests taking place during outside temperatures in excess of 100 degrees Fahrenheit, over 85 percent of the devices measured less than a 0.5 degree Fahrenheit temperature increase indoors during the duration of the event. (2) For the increases that were observed, none was more than 5 degrees and it was extremely rare for increases to be more than 2 degrees. At the end of the testing season SCE and KEMA designed and conducted a survey of the a facilities and public works managers and approximately 100 customers feedback survey to assess the extent the PLP events were noticed or disrupted the comfort level of participants. While only a small sampling of 3 managers and 16 customer surveys were completed, their responses indicate: (1) No customer reported even a moderate level of discomfort from the cycling-off of their air conditioners during test events; and (2) Very few customers noticed any of the thirty events at all. The results of this study suggest that the impacts on comfort from short-duration interruptions of air-conditioners, even in very hot climates, are for the most part very modest, if they are even noticed at all. Still, we should expect that these impacts will increase with longer interruptions of air-conditioning. By the same token, we should also expect that they will be less significant in cooler climates.

  4. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasing, T J; Schroeder, Dana

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  5. Water spray ejector system for steam injected engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hines, W.R.

    1991-10-08

    This paper describes a method of increasing the power output of a steam injected gas turbine engine. It comprises: a compressor, a combustor having a dome which receives fuel and steam from a dual flow nozzle, and a turbine in series combination with a gas flow path passing therethrough, and a system for injection of superheated steam into the gas flow path, the method comprising spraying water into the steam injection system where the water is evaporated by the superheated steam, mixing the evaporated water with the existing steam in the steam injection system so that the resultant steam is at a temperature of at least 28 degrees celsius (50 degrees fahrenheit) superheat and additional steam is added to the dome from the fuel nozzle to obtain a resultant increased mass flow of superheated steam mixture for injection into the gas flow path, and controlling the amount of water sprayed into the steam injection system to maximize the mass flow of superheated steam without quenching the flame.

  6. 2014 Low-Temperature and Coproduced Geothermal Resources Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Reinhardt, Program Manager

    2014-09-01

    As a growing sector of geothermal energy development, the Low-Temperature Program supports innovative technologies that enable electricity production and cascaded uses from geothermal resources below 300 Fahrenheit.

  7. ORISE: Report shows number of health physics degrees for 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    seen what impact the March 11 Fukushima Daiichi accident may have on the nuclear industry. ... Conversely, the Fukushima incident has also led to a reassessment of the safety ...

  8. 360 Degree Photography to Decrease Exposure, Increase Safety & Minimize Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LEBARON, G.J.

    2002-01-31

    High-resolution digital cameras, in conjunction with software techniques. make possible 360{sup o} photos that allow a person to look all around, up and dawn, and zoom in or out. The software provides the opportunity to attach other information to a 360{sup o} photo such as sound tiles, flat photos (providing additional detail about what is behind a panel or around a corner) and text (Information which can be used to show radiological conditions or identify other hazards not readily visible). The software also allows other 360{sup o} photos to be attached creating a virtual tour where the user can move from area to area, and stop, study and zoom in on areas of interest. A virtual tour of a building or room can be used for facility documentation, informing management and others, work planning and orientation, and training, thus minimizing the need to re-enter hazardous radioactive areas. Reducing entries decreases exposure, increases safety and minimizes waste.

  9. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2009 Temperature and Scaling Studies from Projectile Fragmentation of 86,78 Kr + 64,58 Ni at 35MeVA S. J. Yennello Post Doc., Department of Radiation Oncology, School of...

  10. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and the Isoscaling Properties of the Fragments in Multifragmentation of 40 Ca + 58 Ni, 40 Ar+ 58 Ni and 40 Ar+ 58 Fe Reactions S. J. Yennello Graduate Research Assistant...

  11. VII-13 STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11 - March 31, 2012 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor Present Position Hyo-In Park 2011 High-Precision Measurements of the Superallowed 0 + 0 + Beta Decays of 38 Ca and 46 V J. C....

  12. VII-9 STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE-4199-33100 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor First Position Present Position John M. Blackadar 1999 Systematics of K and L-X-ray Production by...

  13. Aging of Alloy 617 at 650 and 750 Degrees C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Julian Benz; Thomas Lillo; Richard Wright

    2013-01-01

    Alloy 617 has been selected as the primary candidate for heat exchanger applications in advanced reactors. For the VHTR this application could require extended service up to a reactor outlet temperature of 950°C. A key hurdle to using this alloy in the VHTR heat exchanger application is qualifying the alloy for Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In order to Code qualify the material it is necessary to characterize the influence of long term aging on the mechanical behavior. Alloy 617 has been aged at 650 and 750°C for times up to 5300 hours. The microstructure after aging has been characterized using optical and transmission electron microscopies. It has been determined that in addition to carbides, a significant volume fraction of ?’ phase (Ni3Al) is formed at these temperatures. The ?’ does not contribute significantly to changing the tensile or impact properties of the aged material. It does, however, appear to increase creep resistance and impede creep crack growth.

  14. Electromagnetic variable degrees of freedom actuator systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montesanti, Richard C. (Pleasanton, CA); Trumper, David L. (Plaistow, NH); Kirtley, Jr., James L. (Brookline, MA)

    2009-02-17

    The present invention provides a variable reluctance actuator system and method that can be adapted for simultaneous rotation and translation of a moving element by applying a normal-direction magnetic flux on the moving element. In a beneficial example arrangement, the moving element includes a swing arm that carries a cutting tool at a set radius from an axis of rotation so as to produce a rotary fast tool servo that provides a tool motion in a direction substantially parallel to the surface-normal of a workpiece at the point of contact between the cutting tool and workpiece. An actuator rotates a swing arm such that a cutting tool moves toward and away from a mounted rotating workpiece in a controlled manner in order to machine the workpiece. Position sensors provide rotation and displacement information for a swing arm to a control system. A control system commands and coordinates motion of the fast tool servo with the motion of a spindle, rotating table, cross-feed slide, and in feed slide of a precision lathe.

  15. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - March 31, 2003 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor First Position Present Position Tiegang Di 2002 Charm Meson Interactions with Hadrons Che-Ming Ko Graduate Research Assistant...

  16. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE April 1, 2001 - March 31, 2001 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor First Position Present Position Douglas Rowland 2000 A Study of the Projectile...

  17. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 - March 31, 2005 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor First Position Present Position Wei Liu 2004 Charmonium absorption and charmed hadron production in hadronic reaction Che-Ming Ko...

  18. System and technique for ultrasonic determination of degree of cooking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bond, Leonard J. (Richland, WA); Diaz, Aaron A. (W. Richland, WA); Judd, Kayte M. (Richland, WA); Pappas, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Cliff, William C. (Richland, WA); Pfund, David M. (Richland, WA); Morgen, Gerald P. (Kennewick, WA)

    2007-03-20

    A method and apparatus are described for determining the doneness of food during a cooking process. Ultrasonic signal are passed through the food during cooking. The change in transmission characteristics of the ultrasonic signal during the cooking process is measured to determine the point at which the food has been cooked to the proper level. In one aspect, a heated fluid cooks the food, and the transmission characteristics along a fluid-only ultrasonic path provides a reference for comparison with the transmission characteristics for a food-fluid ultrasonic path.

  19. ORISE: Nuclear engineering degrees at highest ranges since 1980s

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rates for nuclear engineering candidates are still at highest ranges reported since 1980s Report also shows shifts in career opportunities beyond graduation in nuclear utilities ...

  20. Using 360 degree photography as a decommissioning tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LEBARON, G.J.

    2003-05-06

    Digital cameras, in conjunction with computer software, make possible 360{sup o} photos allowing a person to look all around, up and down, and zoom in or out. Multiple 360{sup o} photos can be linked creating a virtual tour. Other information, such as sound files, flat photos and text can also be attached to the photos. A virtual tour of a building or room can be used for facility documentation, informing management and others, work planning and orientation, training and historical documentation, thus minimizing the need to re-enter hazardous areas. Reducing entries decreases exposure, increases safety and efficiency, and minimizes waste.

  1. Table 26. Natural gas home customer-weighted heating degree...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    96 Created on: 2242016 5:55:04 PM Table 26. Natural gas home customer-weighted heating ... 1,392 803 2015 1,285 1,239 1,313 1,256 814 2016 1,090 1,094 1,213 1,290 824 % Diff (normal ...

  2. Quantification of the degree of reaction of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Haha, M.; De Weerdt, K.; Lothenbach, B.

    2010-11-15

    The quantification of the fly ash (FA) in FA blended cements is an important parameter to understand the effect of the fly ash on the hydration of OPC and on the microstructural development. The FA reaction in two different blended OPC-FA systems was studied using a selective dissolution technique based on EDTA/NaOH, diluted NaOH solution, the portlandite content and by backscattered electron image analysis. The amount of FA determined by selective dissolution using EDTA/NaOH is found to be associated with a significant possible error as different assumptions lead to large differences in the estimate of FA reacted. In addition, at longer hydration times, the reaction of the FA is underestimated by this method due to the presence of non-dissolved hydrates and MgO rich particles. The dissolution of FA in diluted NaOH solution agreed during the first days well with the dissolution as observed by image analysis. At 28 days and longer, the formation of hydrates in the diluted solutions leads to an underestimation. Image analysis appears to give consistent results and to be most reliable technique studied.

  3. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assistant Research Associate, University of Washington, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology Xiaodong Tang 2002 Determination of the S Factor for 11 C (p,) 12 N Tribble...

  4. VI-12 STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GeV Au+Au Collision with STAR S. Mioduszewski N.A. James Lucus Drachenberg 2012 Forward Di-Hadron Asymmetries from p + p at sqrt(s)200GeV at STAR C. A. Gagliardi N.A. Matthew C....

  5. ARM - Temperature Converter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CalculatorsTemperature Converter Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Temperature Converter The Fahrenheit scale, invented by German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736), is based on 32 °F for the freezing point of water and 212 °F for the boiling point of water. The

  6. Microsoft Word - figure_21.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 Figure 21. Average citygate price of natural gas in the United States, 2014 (dollars per thousand cubic feet) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Natural Gas Annual 3.00-3.99 4.00-4.99 5.00-5.99 6.00-6.99 7.00-7.99 8.00+ Note: Prices are in nominal dollars. Citygate price not applicable in the District of Columbia. Sources: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-857, "Monthly Report of Natural Gas Purchases and Deliveries to Consumers."

  7. Price hub","Trade date","Delivery start date","Delivery

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel",16,12,13.75144509,-6.6446,17300,5,7 "Algonquin Citygates","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel",7,6.7,6.85052161,-6.9009,67100,18,13 "Algonquin Citygates","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel",5.5,5.25,5.357883817,-1.4926,120500,27,20 "Algonquin

  8. Natural gas monthly, July 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-21

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Explanatory Notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided in the Data Sources section. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. All natural gas volumes are reported at a pressure base of 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) and at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Cubic feet are converted to cubic meters by applying a factor of 0.02831685.

  9. Cooling the greenhouse effect: Options and costs for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from the American Electric Power Company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helme, N.; Popovich, M.G.; Gille, J.

    1993-05-01

    A recent report from the National Academy of Sciences concludes that the earth is likely to face a doubling of preindustrial greenhouse gases in the next half century. This doubling could be expected to push average global temperatures. up from between 1.8 to 9 degrees Fahrenheit. Much of the potential for human impacts on the global climate is linked to fossil fuel consumption. Carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption in the US totals about one-quarter of the world`s total emissions from energy consumption. Global warming is different from other environmental problems because CO{sub 2} emissions can be captured naturally by trees, grasses, soil, and other plants. In contrast, acid rain emissions reductions can only be accomplished through switching to lower-polluting fuels, conserving energy, or installing costly retrofit technologies. Terrestrial biota, such as trees, plants, grasses and soils, directly affect the CO{sub 2} concentrations in the atmosphere. A number of reports have concluded that forestry and land-use practices can increase CO{sub 2} sequestration and can help reduce or delay the threat of global warming.

  10. Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engebrecht-Metzger, C.; Norton, P.

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every 4 years the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the 'average occupant' in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  11. The Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, C.; Norton, Paul

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every four years, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the "average occupant" in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  12. Connecticut Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    67-2005 Citygate Price 6.81 6.58 5.92 5.12 5.42 5.61 1984-2014 Residential Price 14.81 14.93 13.83 14.17 13.32 14.13 1967-2014 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included...

  13. Delaware Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    78-2005 Citygate Price 6.54 5.67 9.03 7.19 5.67 5.54 1984-2014 Residential Price 17.79 15.12 15.38 15.24 13.65 13.21 1967-2014 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included...

  14. Hawaii Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Citygate Price 17.82 22.94 31.58 32.39 28.45 26.94 1984-2014 Residential Price 36.37 44.50 55.28 52.86 49.13 47.51 1980-2014 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in...

  15. Microsoft Word - table_23.doc

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    6 Table 23. Average citygate price of natural gas in the United States, 2010- 2014 (dollars per thousand cubic feet) Alabama 6.46 5.80 5.18 4.65 4.93 Alaska 6.67 6.53 6.14 6.02...

  16. Chlorite Dissolution Rates From 25 to 275 degrees and pH 3 to 10

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-09-27

    We have calculated a chlorite dissolution rate equation at far from equilibrium conditions by combining new data (20 experiments at high temperature) with previously published data Smith et al. 2013 and Lowson et al. 2007. All rate data (from the 127 experiments) are tabulated in this data submission. More information on the calculation of the rate data can be found in our FY13 Annual support (Carroll LLNL, 2013) which has been submitted to the GDR. The rate equation fills a data gap in geothemal kinetic data base and can be used directly to estimate the impact of chemical alteration on all geothermal processes. It is especially important for understanding the role of chemical alteration in the weakening for shear zones in EGS systems.

  17. EXAMINATION OF 80 DEGREES C DESORPTION ISOTHERMS OFTRITIUM AGED PD/K AND LANA.75

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staack, G; Kirk Shanahan, K; Tom Walters, T; Roger Pilgrim, R

    2007-08-28

    Metal hydrides, specifically Pd deposited on kieselguhr (Pd/k) and LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA.75), have been used at the Savannah River Site for almost twenty years for hydrogen isotope separation and storage. Radiolytic decay of tritium to helium-3 in the metal matrix causes three classic changes in the performance of the hydride: the plateau pressure decreases, the plateau slope increases, and a heel forms, reducing the reversible capacity of the hydride. Deuterium and tritium isotherms were collected on the virgin materials, only tritium isotherms were collected at approximately 2 years, and both deuterium and tritium isotherms were collected at approximately 3.5 years of quiescent aging. Points of interest include those mentioned above as well as the effects of cycling the materials. The methods and results are presented.

  18. Degree of polarization and source counts of faint radio sources from Stacking Polarized intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stil, J. M.; George, S. J.; Keller, B. W.; Taylor, A. R.

    2014-06-01

    We present stacking polarized intensity as a means to study the polarization of sources that are too faint to be detected individually in surveys of polarized radio sources. Stacking offers not only high sensitivity to the median signal of a class of radio sources, but also avoids a detection threshold in polarized intensity, and therefore an arbitrary exclusion of sources with a low percentage of polarization. Correction for polarization bias is done through a Monte Carlo analysis and tested on a simulated survey. We show that the nonlinear relation between the real polarized signal and the detected signal requires knowledge of the shape of the distribution of fractional polarization, which we constrain using the ratio of the upper quartile to the lower quartile of the distribution of stacked polarized intensities. Stacking polarized intensity for NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) sources down to the detection limit in Stokes I, we find a gradual increase in median fractional polarization that is consistent with a trend that was noticed before for bright NVSS sources, but is much more gradual than found by previous deep surveys of radio polarization. Consequently, the polarized radio source counts derived from our stacking experiment predict fewer polarized radio sources for future surveys with the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders.

  19. Power Modulation Investigation for High Temperature (175-200 degrees Celcius) Automotive Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCluskey, F. P.

    2007-04-30

    Hybrid electric vehicles were re-introduced in the late 1990s after a century dominated by purely internal combustion powered engines[1]. Automotive players, such as GM, Ford, DaimlerChrysler, Honda, and Toyota, together with major energy producers, such as BPAmoco, were the major force in the development of hybrid electric vehicles. Most notable was the development by Toyota of its Prius, which was launched in Japan in 1997 and worldwide in 2001. The shift to hybrids was driven by the fact that the sheer volume of vehicles on the road had begun to tax the ability of the environment to withstand the pollution of the internal combustion engine and the ability of the fossil fuel industry to produce a sufficient amount of refined gasoline. In addition, the number of vehicles was anticipated to rise exponentially with the increasing affluence of China and India. Over the last fifteen years, major advances have been made in all the technologies essential to hybrid vehicle success, including batteries, motors, power control and conditioning electronics, regenerative braking, and power sources, including fuel cells. Current hybrid electric vehicles are gasoline internal combustion--electric motor hybrids. These hybrid electric vehicles range from micro-hybrids, where a stop/start system cuts the engine while the vehicle is stopped, and mild hybrids where the stop/start system is supplemented by regenerative braking and power assist, to full hybrids where the combustion motor is optimized for electric power production, and there is full electric drive and full regenerative braking. PSA Peugeot Citroen estimates the increased energy efficiency will range from 3-6% for the micro-hybrids to 15-25% for the full hybrids.[2] Gasoline-electric hybrids are preferred in US because they permit long distance travel with low emissions and high gasoline mileage, while still using the existing refueling infrastructure. One of the most critical areas in which technology has been advancing has been the development of electronics that can operate in the high temperature environments present in hybrid vehicles. The temperatures under the hood for a gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle are comparable to those for traditional internal combustion engines. This is known to be a difficult environment with respect to commercial-grade electronics, as there are surface and ambient temperatures ranging from 125 C to 175 C. In addition, some hybrid drive electronics are placed in even harsher environments, such as on or near the brakes, where temperatures can reach 250 C. Furthermore, number of temperature cycles experienced by electronics in a hybrid vehicle is different from that experienced in a traditional vehicle. A traditional internal combustion vehicle will have the engine running for longer periods, whereas a mild or micro-hybrid engine will experience many more starts and stops.[3] This means that hybrid automotive electronics will undergo more cycles of a potential wider temperature cycle than standard automotive electronics, which in turn see temperature cycles of 2 to 3 times the magnitude of the {Delta}T = 50 C-75 C experienced by commercial-grade electronics. This study will discuss the effects of these harsh environments on the failure mechanisms and ultimate reliability of electronic systems developed for gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles. In addition, it will suggest technologies and components that can reasonably be expected to perform well in these environments. Finally, it will suggest areas where further research is needed or desirable. Areas for further research will be highlighted in bold, italic type. It should be noted that the first area where further research is desirable is in developing a clearer understanding of the actual hybrid automotive electronics environment and how to simulate it through accelerated testing, thus: Developing specific mission profiles and accelerated testing protocols for the underhood environment for hybrid cars, as has previously been done for gasoline-powered vehicles, is an important area for further study.

  20. Viscosity of multi-component molten nitrate salts : liquidus to 200 degrees C.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, Robert W.

    2010-03-01

    The viscosity of molten salts comprising ternary and quaternary mixtures of the nitrates of sodium, potassium, lithium and calcium was determined experimentally. Viscosity was measured over the temperature range from near the relatively low liquidus temperatures of he individual mixtures to 200C. Molten salt mixtures that do not contain calcium nitrate exhibited relatively low viscosity and an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Molten salt mixtures that contained calcium nitrate were relatively more viscous and viscosity increased as the roportion of calcium nitrate increased. The temperature dependence of viscosity of molten salts containing calcium nitrate displayed curvature, rather than linearity, when plotted in Arrhenius format. Viscosity data for these mixtures were correlated by the Vogel-Fulcher- ammann-Hesse equation.

  1. Electrophoretic Study of the SnO2/Aqueous Solution Interface up to 260 degrees C.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez-Santiago, V; Fedkin, Mark V.; Wesolowski, David J

    2009-07-01

    An electrophoresis cell developed in our laboratory was utilized to determine the zeta potential at the SnO{sub 2} (cassiterite)/aqueous solution (10{sup -3} mol kg{sup -1} NaCl) interface over the temperature range from 25 to 260 C. Experimental techniques and methods for the calculation of zeta potential at elevated temperature are described. From the obtained zeta potential data as a function of pH, the isoelectric points (IEPs) of SnO{sub 2} were obtained for the first time. From these IEP values, the standard thermodynamic functions were calculated for the protonation-deprotonation equilibrium at the SnO{sub 2} surface, using the 1-pK surface complexation model. It was found that the IEP values for SnO{sub 2} decrease with increasing temperature, and this behavior is compared to the predicted values by the multisite complexation (MUSIC) model and other semitheoretical treatments, and were found to be in excellent agreement.

  2. Anti-backlash drive systems for multi-degree freedom devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lungwen Tsai; Sunlai Chang.

    1993-09-14

    A new and innovative concept is described for the control of backlash in gear-coupled transmission mechanisms. The concept utilizes redundant unidirectional drives to assure positive coupling of gear meshes at all times. Based on this concept, a methodology for the enumeration of admissible redundant-drive backlash-free robotic mechanisms has been established. Some typical two- and three-DOF mechanisms are disclosed. Furthermore, actuator torques have been derived as functions of either joint torques or end-effector dynamic performance requirements. A redundantly driven gear coupled transmission mechanism manipulator has a fail-safe advantage in that, except of the loss of backlash control, it can continue to function when one of its actuators fails. A two-DOF backlash-free arm has been reduced to practice to demonstrate the principle. 20 figures.

  3. Anti-backlash drive systems for multi-degree freedom devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsai, Lung-Wen; Chang, Sun-Lai

    1993-01-01

    A new and innovative concept for the control of backlash in gear-coupled transmission mechanisms. The concept utilizes redundant unidirectional drives to assure positive coupling of gear meshes at all times. Based on this concept, a methodology for the enumeration of admissible redundant-drive backlash-free robotic mechanisms has been established. Some typical two- and three-DOF mechanisms are disclosed. Furthermore, actuator torques have been derived as functions of either joint torques or end-effector dynamic performance requirements. A redundantly driven gear coupled transmission mechanism manipulator has a fail-safe advantage in that, except of the loss of backlash control, it can continue to function when one of its actuators fails. A two-DOF backlash-free arm has been reduced to practice to demonstrate the principle.

  4. Omni-directional and holonomic rolling platform with decoupled rotational and translational degrees of freedom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pin, F.G.; Killough, S.M.

    1994-12-20

    A wheel assembly includes a support, a cage rotatably mounted on the support and having a longitudinal rotation axis, a first ball wheel rotatably mounted in the cage and having a rotation axis orthogonal to the rotation axis of the cage, and a second ball wheel rotatably mounted in the cage and having a rotation axis orthogonal to the rotation axis or the cage and to the rotation axis of the first ball wheel. A control circuit includes a photodetector signal which indicates ground contact for each ball wheel, and a tachometer which indicates actual drive shaft velocity. 6 figures.

  5. Y-12ers earn degrees through Friday Academy | Y-12 National Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1:21pm Print version Debra Avery, Mark Burdettte, Michael Fierley, Jessica Griffin, Gary Lewis, Christine Stalnaker, and Ben Stephens. Not pictured Jeffrey Smith. Photo by Kathy...

  6. Chlorite Dissolution Rates From 25 to 275 degrees and pH 3 to 10

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    We have calculated a chlorite dissolution rate equation at far from equilibrium conditions by combining new data (20 experiments at high temperature) with previously published data Smith et al. 2013 and Lowson et al. 2007. All rate data (from the 127 experiments) are tabulated in this data submission. More information on the calculation of the rate data can be found in our FY13 Annual support (Carroll LLNL, 2013) which has been submitted to the GDR. The rate equation fills a data gap in geothemal kinetic data base and can be used directly to estimate the impact of chemical alteration on all geothermal processes. It is especially important for understanding the role of chemical alteration in the weakening for shear zones in EGS systems.

  7. Omni-directional and holonomic rolling platform with decoupled rotational and translational degrees of freedom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pin, Francois G. (Knoxville, TN); Killough, Stephen M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A wheel assembly includes a support, a cage rotatably mounted on the support and having a longitudinal rotation axis, a first ball wheel rotatably mounted in the cage and having a rotation axis orthogonal to the rotation axis of the cage, and a second ball wheel rotatably mounted in the cage and having a rotation axis orthogonal to the rotation axis or the cage and to the rotation axis of the first ball wheel. A control circuit includes a photodetector signal which indicates ground contact for each ball wheel, and a tachometer which indicates actual drive shaft velocity.

  8. Evaluating Radiometric Measurements Using a Fixed 45 Degrees Responsivity and Zenith Angle Dependent Responsivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.; Reda, I.; Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.; Andreas, A.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01

    This poster seeks to demonstrate the importance and application of an existing but unused approach that ultimately reduces the uncertainty of radiometric measurements. Current radiometric data is based on a single responsivity value that introduces significant uncertainty to the data, however, through using responsivity as a function of solar zenith angle, the uncertainty could be decreased by 50%.

  9. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, pH, Photosynthetically Activate Radiation (PAR) and dissolved oxygen (DO); and a ~2 gallons per minute (gpm) algae culture dewatering system. Among the three algae strains, Scenedesmus showed the most tolerance to temperature and irradiance conditions in Phoenix and the best self-settling characteristics. Experimental findings and operational strategies determined through these tests guided the operation of the algae cultivation system for the scale-up study. Effect of power plant flue gas, especially heavy metals, on algae growth and biomass adsorption were evaluated as well.

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2.99 2.65 2.66 2.71 2.71 PG&E citygate 2.73 2.73 2.99 2.69 2.49 2.66 2.66 So. Cal. Border Avg. 2.61 2.61 2.85 2.56 2.49 2.60 2.60 Futures (MMBtu) January delivery closed...

  11. Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Count) Data Series: Wellhead Price Imports Price Price of Imports by Pipeline Price of LNG Imports Exports Price Price of Exports by Pipeline Price of LNG Exports Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries

  12. Natural Gas Electric Power Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  13. Natural Gas Industrial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  14. Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Summary)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  15. Average Commercial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Estimated Production Number of Producing Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From

  16. Average Commercial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  17. Average Residential Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Estimated Production Number of Producing Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From

  18. Average Residential Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  19. Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Estimated Production Number of Producing Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From

  20. Net Withdrawals of Natural Gas from Underground Storage (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Estimated Production Number of Producing Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From

  1. Injections of Natural Gas into Storage (Annual Supply & Disposition)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  2. Microsoft Word - Final New England Constraint STEO Supplement 011713v1 clean _4_ LF_SP_rev cw.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New England Natural Gas Constraints 1 January 18, 2013 Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Constraints in New England likely to affect regional energy prices this winter Since November, New England has had the highest average spot natural gas prices in the nation. Average prices at the Algonquin Citygate trading point, a widely used index for New England natural gas buyers, have been $3 per million British thermal units (MMBtu) higher than natural gas prices at the Henry Hub, and more than $2

  3. Cove Point: A step back into the LNG business

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    In 1978, ships began unloading LNG from Algeria at Cove Point`s berthing facilities 1.25 miles offshore. An underwater pipeline transported the LNG to land, where it was stored in the terminal`s four 140-foot-high cryogenic storage tanks. When the LNG was needed, the terminals 10 vaporizers converted it back to gas for send out via an 87-mile-long, 36-inch-diameter pipeline linking the terminal with interstate pipelines of CNG Transmission Corp. and Columbia Gas Transmission Corp. in Loudon County, Va. But Cove Point handled only about 80 shiploads of LNG before shutting down in December 1980, after a dispute about gas prices between US customers and Algeria. The plant sat dormant until the natural gas industry`s deregulation under Order 636. Deregulation resulted in major pipelines abandoning their sales service, and gas distributors and large customers found it was now their obligation to ensure that they had adequate gas supplies during winter peak-demand periods. Enter Cove Point`s peaking capabilities. They had to add the liquefaction unit and recommission other parts of the plant, but the timing was right. Cove Point`s new liquefaction unit is liquefying about 15 million cubic feet (MMcf) of LNG per day of domestic gas. It chills the gas to {minus}260 degrees Fahrenheit to turn it into a liquid for injection and storage in one of the facility`s double-walled insulated tanks. During its initial injection season, which ends Dec. 15, Cove Point is expected to produce enough LNG to almost fill one tank, which can store up to 1.25 billion cubic feet (Bcf). Were the gas not intended for peak-shaving purposes, it would be enough to supply 14,000 homes for a year. As it is, most of the gas will be returned as pipeline gas, during next January and February`s expected cold snaps, to the utilities and users who supplied it. Cove Point`s initial daily sendout capacity is about 400 MMcf.

  4. Application of conical 90-degree reflectors for solving the problem of mirror alignment in terahertz-range lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radionov, V P; Kiselev, V K

    2014-10-29

    We report a study of the conical mirrors with an apex angle of 90 in the resonator of the gas-discharge HCN laser with the radiation wavelength of 337 ?m (0.89 THz). Experimental results have shown that such mirrors do not require precise alignment. This makes it possible to improve the radiation stability, significantly simplify the construction of laser and reduce the complexity of its maintenance. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  5. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE-4/1/00-3/31/01

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE April 1, 2001 - March 31, 2002 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor First Position Present Position Andrei Makeev 2001 Study of Electromagnetic Dissociation of Heavy Nuclei at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Natowitz Graduate Research Assistant Graduate Research Assistant Ananya Ruangma 2001 Caloric Curves of 8 GeV / c + - π 197 Au Yennello Graduate Research Assistant Research Associate, University of Washington, Mallinckrodt Institute of

  6. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE„4/1/00-3/31/01

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 - March 31, 2008 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor First Position Present Position Jennifer Ann Iglio 2007 Symmetry Energy and the Isoscaling Properties of the Fragments in Multifragmentation of 40 Ca + 58 Ni, 40 Ar+ 58 Ni and 40 Ar+ 58 Fe Reactions S. J. Yennello Graduate Research Assistant Invensys Process Systems Thomas Henry 2007 Reconstruction and Attributes of Jets Observed in √s = 200 GeV Proton- Proton and Deuteron-Gold Collisions C. A. Gagliardi Graduate Research Assistant Yong Peng

  7. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE„4/1/00-3/31/01

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 - March 31, 2009 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor Present Position Xinfeng Chen 2008 Giant Resonance Study by 6 Li Scattering D. H. Youngblood Post Doc., Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, St. Louis, Missouri Lijun Qin 2008 Low Density Nuclear Matter in Heavy Ion Collisions J. B. Natowitz Hewlett-Packard Co., Houston

  8. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE„4/1/00-3/31/01

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    09 - March 31, 2010 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor Present Position Sara Wuenschel 2009 Temperature and Scaling Studies from Projectile Fragmentation of 86,78 Kr + 64,58 Ni at 35MeV/A S. J. Yennello Post Doc., Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri

  9. Reactor User Interface Technology Development Roadmaps for a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Outlet Temperature of 750 degrees C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian Mckirdy

    2010-12-01

    This report evaluates the technology readiness of the interface components that are required to transfer high-temperature heat from a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) to selected industrial applications. This report assumes that the HTGR operates at a reactor outlet temperature of 750°C and provides electricity and/or process heat at 700°C to conventional process applications, including the production of hydrogen.

  10. Precision tool holder with flexure-adjustable, three degrees of freedom for a four-axis lathe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bono, Matthew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Hibbard, Robin L. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-03-04

    A precision tool holder for precisely positioning a single point cutting tool on 4-axis lathe, such that the center of the radius of the tool nose is aligned with the B-axis of the machine tool, so as to facilitate the machining of precision meso-scale components with complex three-dimensional shapes with sub-.mu.m accuracy on a four-axis lathe. The device is designed to fit on a commercial diamond turning machine and can adjust the cutting tool position in three orthogonal directions with sub-micrometer resolution. In particular, the tool holder adjusts the tool position using three flexure-based mechanisms, with two flexure mechanisms adjusting the lateral position of the tool to align the tool with the B-axis, and a third flexure mechanism adjusting the height of the tool. Preferably, the flexures are driven by manual micrometer adjusters. In this manner, this tool holder simplifies the process of setting a tool with sub-.mu.m accuracy, to substantially reduce the time required to set the tool.

  11. A measurement of the cosmic microwave background B-mode polarization power spectrum at sub-degree scales with POLARBEAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Anthony, A. E.; Halverson, N. W.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Elleflot, T.; Feng, C.; Borrill, J.; Errard, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Flanigan, D.; Dobbs, M.; Gilbert, A.; Fabbian, G.; Collaboration: Polarbear Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-20

    We report a measurement of the B-mode polarization power spectrum in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using the POLARBEAR experiment in Chile. The faint B-mode polarization signature carries information about the universe's entire history of gravitational structure formation, and the cosmic inflation that may have occurred in the very early universe. Our measurement covers the angular multipole range 500 < ? < 2100 and is based on observations of an effective sky area of 25 deg{sup 2} with 3.'5 resolution at 150 GHz. On these angular scales, gravitational lensing of the CMB by intervening structure in the universe is expected to be the dominant source of B-mode polarization. Including both systematic and statistical uncertainties, the hypothesis of no B-mode polarization power from gravitational lensing is rejected at 97.2% confidence. The band powers are consistent with the standard cosmological model. Fitting a single lensing amplitude parameter A{sub BB} to the measured band powers, A{sub BB}=1.120.61(stat){sub ?0.12}{sup +0.04}(sys)0.07(multi), where A{sub BB} = 1 is the fiducial WMAP-9 ?CDM value. In this expression, 'stat' refers to the statistical uncertainty, 'sys' to the systematic uncertainty associated with possible biases from the instrument and astrophysical foregrounds, and 'multi' to the calibration uncertainties that have a multiplicative effect on the measured amplitude A{sub BB}.

  12. eia-191_Nov2014.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ATTN: EIA-191 Ben Franklin Station Address 2: City: State: Zip: - Storage Field Name Reservoir Name Location State Location County Total Storage Field Capacity (Mcf) Maximum Deliverability (Mcf/day) Base Gas Working Gas Injections Withdrawals Total Gas in Storage (sum of base gas + working gas) Inactive PART 4. MONTHLY GAS STORAGE as of 9:00 a.m. on the last day of report month (Report all volumes in Thousand Cubic Feet (Mcf) @14.73 psia - 60 o Fahrenheit) Inactive explain below in Comments.

  13. Jefferson Lab Invites Families, Groups, Classes to Physics Fest Events |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Families, Groups, Classes to Physics Fest Events Small Business A student watches in amazement at the behavior of inflated balloons after they have been pulled from a container of liquid nitrogen (at a temperature of -321 Fahrenheit). NEWPORT NEWS, Va., June 3, 2010 - The U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab invites families, groups and classes to sign up now for a summer 2010 or school year 2010-2011 Physics Fest. Seating is still available for the Physics Fests scheduled

  14. Parametric source of two-photon states with a tunable degree of entanglement and mixing: Experimental preparation of Werner states and maximally entangled mixed states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cinelli, C.; Di Nepi, G.; De Martini, F.; Barbieri, M.; Mataloni, P.

    2004-08-01

    A parametric source of polarization-entangled photon pairs with striking spatial characteristics is reported. The distribution of the output electromagnetic k modes excited by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and coupled to the output detectors can be very broad. Using these states realized over a full entanglement ring output distribution, the nonlocal properties of the generated entanglement have been tested by standard Bell measurements and by Ou-Mandel interferometry. A 'mode-patchwork' technique based on the quantum superposition principle is adopted to synthesize in a straightforward and reliable way any kind of mixed state, of large conceptual and technological interest in modern quantum information. Tunable Werner states and maximally entangled mixed states have indeed been created by this technique and investigated by quantum tomography. A study of the entropic and nonlocal properties of these states has been undertaken experimentally and theoretically, by a unifying variational approach.

  15. Comment on C. W. Wong, Maxwell equations and the redundant gauge degree of freedom 2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30, 1401-1416

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, John David

    2009-10-22

    In the paper cited in the title, the author makes the claim that in classical electromagnetic theory the longitudinal electric field is instantaneous, corresponding to action at a distance, contrary to popular and correct belief. We point out that the determination of the speed of propagation of electromagnetic fields requires specification of the initial condition of the sources or equivalent. The Coulomb field of a stationary point charge proves nothing. We describe in detail a simple example to illustrate the universal onset of the static 'instantaneous' regime throughout a region of space that expands with the speed of light.

  16. Role of Si on the Diffusional Interactions between U-Mo and Al-Si Alloys at 823 K (550 degrees C)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Perez; Y.H. Sohn; D.D. Keiser, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    U-Mo dispersions in Al-alloy matrix and monolithic fuels encased in Al-alloy are under development to fulfill the requirements for research and test reactors to use low-enriched molybdenum stabilized uranium alloys fuels. Significant interaction takes place between the U-Mo fuel and Al during manufacturing and in-reactor irradiation. The interactions products are Al-rich phases with physical and thermal characteristics that adversely affect fuel performance and lead to premature failure. Detailed analysis of the interdiffusion and microstructural development of this system was carried through diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo in contact with pure Al, Al-2wt.%Si, and Al-5wt.%Si, annealed at 823K for 1, 5 and 20 hours. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed for the analysis. Diffusion couples consisting of U-Mo vs. pure Al contained UAl3, UAl4, U6Mo4Al43, and UMo2Al20 phases. The addition of Si to the Al significantly reduced the thickness of the interdiffusion zone. The interdiffusion zones developed Al and Si enriched regions, whose locations and size depended on the Si and Mo concentrations in the terminal alloys. In the couples, the (U,Mo)(Al,Si)3 phase was observed throughout interdiffusion zone, and the U6Mo4Al43 and UMo2Al20 phases were observed only where the Si concentrations were low.

  17. Laser hazard analysis for LASIRIS Model MAG-501L-670M-1000-45[degree]-K diode laser associated with high resolution pulsed scanner.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-11-01

    A laser hazard analysis and safety assessment was performed for the LASIRISTM Model MAG-501L-670M-1000-45o-K diode laser associated with the High Resolution Pulse Scanner based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The laser was evaluated for both indoor and outdoor use.

  18. Effect of Sodium Carboxymethyl Celluloses on Water-catalyzed Self-degradation of 200-degree C-heated Alkali-Activated Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the usefulness of sodium carboxymethyl celluloses (CMC) in promoting self-degradation of 200C-heated sodium silicate-activated slag/Class C fly ash cementitious material after contact with water. CMC emitted two major volatile compounds, CO2 and acetic acid, creating a porous structure in cement. CMC also reacted with NaOH from sodium silicate to form three water-insensitive solid reaction products, disodium glycolate salt, sodium glucosidic salt, and sodium bicarbonate. Other water-sensitive solid reaction products, such as sodium polysilicate and sodium carbonate, were derived from hydrolysates of sodium silicate. Dissolution of these products upon contact with water generated heat that promoted cements self-degradation. Thus, CMC of high molecular weight rendered two important features to the water-catalyzed self-degradation of heated cement: One was the high heat energy generated in exothermic reactions in cement; the other was the introduction of extensive porosity into cement.

  19. Nuclear, multichannel-sonic, ultrasonic analyses for determination of degree of fracturing and alteration in a fast formation: The deep ocean crust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.N.; O'Malley, H.; Newmark, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Multichannel, Full-Waveform Sonic Logs offer quantitative information on the response of the formation to propagating acoustic energy. When coupled with ultrasonic borehole imagery, these logs show clear evidence of fractures intersecting the wellbore. P-wave, S-wave, Stoneley and late arriving normal modal CODA all show energy and frequency changes across fracture zones. One critical ingredient missing from the sonic-ultrasonic cross-correlations to date, has been the ability to estimate the quantity of alteration material infilling fractures. A new nuclear analysis technique has been developed to extract a reliable estimate of the amount of clay infilling in highly fractured basalts from the oceanic crust.

  20. Mississippi Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4.17 1967-2010 Imports -- 12.93 -- -- -- 2007-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 5.73 5.29 3.97 4.44 5.29 NA 1984-2015 Residential 10.19 9.47 9.60 9.00 9.49 9.71 1967-2015 Commercial 8.75 7.99 7.37 7.61 8.36 NA 1967-2015 Industrial 6.19 5.83 4.85 5.82 6.15 4.69 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel -- -- -- 1994-2012 Electric Power W W W W W W 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 853 860 607 595 558 1977-2014 Adjustments 1 109 65 29 -15 1977-2014

  1. Missouri Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1967-1997 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 6.17 5.85 5.27 4.99 5.76 4.65 1984-2015 Residential 11.66 12.02 12.25 10.88 10.83 11.59 1967-2015 Commercial 10.28 9.99 9.54 9.00 8.96 9.10 1967-2015 Industrial 8.70 8.54 7.85 8.19 8.00 7.75 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 6.34 6.11 5.64 1994-2012 Electric Power W W W W W W 1997-2015 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Number of Producing Gas Wells 0 53 100 26 28 1989-2014 Gross Withdrawals NA NA NA 9 9 1967-2014 From Gas Wells NA NA NA 8 8

  2. Connecticut Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    67-2005 Citygate 6.58 5.92 5.12 5.42 5.61 4.07 1984-2015 Residential 14.93 13.83 14.17 13.32 14.13 NA 1967-2015 Commercial 9.55 8.48 8.40 9.20 10.24 NA 1967-2015 Industrial 9.60 9.16 8.83 6.85 8.07 6.37 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 16.31 18.59 13.70 1992-2012 Electric Power 5.70 5.09 3.99 6.23 6.82 4.73 1997-2015 Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Injections 1973-1996 Withdrawals 1973-1996 Net Withdrawals 1973-1996 Liquefied Natural Gas Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Additions 651 655 743 558

  3. Delaware Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    78-2005 Citygate 5.67 9.03 7.19 5.67 5.54 NA 1984-2015 Residential 15.12 15.38 15.24 13.65 13.21 NA 1967-2015 Commercial 13.26 13.58 13.31 11.78 11.42 10.70 1967-2015 Industrial 10.18 11.69 11.61 11.24 10.95 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 24.55 28.76 30.97 1995-2012 Electric Power W W -- -- W -- 1997-2015 Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Injections 1967-1975 Withdrawals 1967-1975 Net Withdrawals 1967-1975 Liquefied Natural Gas Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Additions 73 64 117 63 157 1980-2014

  4. District of Columbia Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    82-2005 Citygate -- -- -- -- -- -- 1989-2015 Residential 13.53 13.06 12.10 12.45 13.05 12.52 1980-2015 Commercial 12.26 12.24 11.19 11.64 12.18 11.55 1980-2015 Industrial -- -- -- -- -- -- 2001-2015 Vehicle Fuel 4.87 4.17 9.38 1995-2012 Electric Power -- 4.96 -- -- -- -- 2001-2015 Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Total Consumption 33,251 32,862 28,561 32,743 34,057 1997-2014 Pipeline & Distribution Use 213 1,703 1,068 1,434 1,305 1997-2014 Delivered to Consumers 33,038 31,159 27,493 31,309

  5. Florida Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wellhead NA 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 5.49 5.07 3.93 4.44 5.05 NA 1984-2015 Residential 17.89 18.16 18.34 18.46 19.02 19.29 1967-2015 Commercial 10.60 11.14 10.41 10.87 11.38 10.74 1967-2015 Industrial 8.33 8.07 6.96 6.77 6.89 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 17.98 5.56 9.83 1989-2012 Electric Power 6.54 5.86 4.80 5.08 5.58 4.41 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 56 6 16 15 0 1977-2014 Adjustments 64 -54 -2 1 -2 1977-2014

  6. Hawaii Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Citygate 22.94 31.58 32.39 28.45 26.94 18.11 1984-2015 Residential 44.50 55.28 52.86 49.13 47.51 40.00 1980-2015 Commercial 36.55 45.58 47.03 41.92 40.42 31.17 1980-2015 Industrial 24.10 29.80 30.89 27.56 26.75 18.81 1997-2015 Electric Power -- -- -- -- -- -- 2001-2015 Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Total Consumption 2,627 2,619 2,689 2,855 2,928 1997-2014 Pipeline & Distribution Use 2 2 3 1 1 2004-2014 Delivered to Consumers 2,625 2,616 2,687 2,853 2,927 2,929 1997-2015 Residential 509

  7. Indiana Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    13 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 5.52 4.97 4.23 4.38 5.63 NA 1984-2015 Residential 8.63 9.46 8.94 8.43 9.02 NA 1967-2015 Commercial 7.55 8.04 7.69 7.59 8.19 NA 1967-2015 Industrial 5.65 6.53 6.19 6.54 7.45 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 5.19 13.24 12.29 1990-2012 Electric Power 4.91 W W W W W 1997-2015 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Number of Producing Gas Wells 620 914 819 921 895 1989-2014 Gross Withdrawals 6,802 9,075 8,814 7,938 6,616 1967-2014 From Gas Wells 6,802

  8. Kentucky Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    47 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 5.69 5.18 4.17 4.47 5.16 NA 1984-2015 Residential 10.02 10.44 10.19 9.80 10.62 10.94 1967-2015 Commercial 8.61 8.79 8.28 8.32 9.04 8.80 1967-2015 Industrial 5.57 5.16 3.96 4.84 5.80 4.36 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel -- -- -- 1992-2012 Electric Power W W W W W W 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 2,613 2,006 1,408 1,663 1,611 1977-2014 Adjustments -58 -34 -282 103 -9 1977-2014 Revision Increases

  9. Alabama Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.46 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 6.46 5.80 5.18 4.65 4.93 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 15.79 15.08 16.20 15.47 14.59 13.95 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 13.34 12.36 12.56 12.35 11.92 11.03 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 79.3 78.9 76.2 76.6 78.4 77.6 1990-2015 Industrial Price 6.64 5.57 4.35 4.98 5.49 3.94

  10. Alaska Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.17 1967-2010 Exports Price 12.19 12.88 15.71 -- 15.74 1989-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1970-2005 Citygate Price 6.67 6.53 6.14 6.02 6.34 6.57 1988-2015 Residential Price 8.89 8.77 8.47 8.85 9.11 9.68 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 8.78 8.09 8.09 8.34 8.30 7.80 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 87.7 88.6 94.9 94.5 94.5 98.2 1990-2015

  11. Arizona Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    11 1967-2010 Exports Price 4.57 4.28 3.07 4.17 5.15 1989-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 6.59 5.91 4.68 4.73 5.20 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 15.87 15.04 15.75 13.92 17.20 17.04 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 10.72 9.99 9.35 8.76 10.34 10.53 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 88.7 87.8 86.6 85.5 84.4 83.8 1990-2015

  12. Arkansas Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.84 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 6.76 6.27 5.36 4.99 5.84 4.76 1984-2015 Residential Price 11.53 11.46 11.82 10.46 10.39 11.20 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 8.89 8.90 7.99 7.68 7.88 8.08 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 55.6 51.5 40.2 43.7 45.5 42.5 1990-2015 Industrial Price 7.28 7.44 6.38 6.74 6.99 6.97

  13. Illinois Natural Gas Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Citygate Price 5.12 4.75 4.91 3.61 3.17 3.43 1989-2015 Residential Price 15.10 15.87 15.35 9.68 7.11 6.28 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 85.2 85.3 86.3 87.1 88.2 86.8 2002-2015 Commercial Price 11.48 12.68 11.81 8.21 6.63 6.02 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 25.2 21.9 22.8 30.4 NA 37.1 1989-2015 Industrial Price 6.32 5.82 6.00 5.24 4.48 4.54 2001-2015 Percentage

  14. Illinois Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Wellhead NA 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 5.52 5.09 4.11 4.43 6.28 3.82 1984-2015 Residential 9.39 8.78 8.26 8.20 9.59 7.95 1967-2015 Commercial 8.76 8.27 7.78 7.57 8.86 7.26 1967-2015 Industrial 7.13 6.84 5.63 6.00 7.75 5.36 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 7.22 11.61 11.39 1990-2012 Electric Power 5.14 W W W W W 1997-2015 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Number of Producing Gas Wells 50 40 40 34 36 1989-2014 Gross Withdrawals 1,702

  15. Indiana Natural Gas Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Citygate Price 4.57 4.82 4.58 NA 3.62 3.52 1989-2015 Residential Price 17.18 17.31 15.21 9.26 7.32 6.91 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 95.1 95.5 95.9 95.4 95.9 96.0 2002-2015 Commercial Price 10.56 10.62 8.02 NA 6.05 6.16 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 56.8 53.9 57.5 NA 65.5 67.8 1989-2015 Industrial Price 6.22 5.79 5.15 4.23 4.36 4.74 2001-2015 Percentage of

  16. Kansas Natural Gas Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Citygate Price 5.39 NA NA 5.53 3.94 3.55 1989-2015 Residential Price 19.38 20.79 19.68 14.37 NA 7.81 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 NA 100.0 2002-2015 Commercial Price 12.42 11.98 12.47 9.39 7.25 7.08 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 31.1 NA 35.8 40.1 53.1 59.0 1989-2015 Industrial Price 4.12 4.07 4.02 4.31 4.76 5.79 2001-2015 Percentage of

  17. Massachusetts Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Imports Price 4.86 4.77 3.69 5.49 8.00 1989-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 7.74 7.04 6.03 6.20 6.96 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 14.53 13.81 13.22 13.49 14.50 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 85.4 89.3 87.8 99.6 99.5 NA 1989-2015 Commercial Price 12.00 11.68 10.68 11.25 12.48 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 52.1 50.0 48.6 39.4 42.3 NA 1990-2015 Industrial Price 10.41 10.14

  18. Michigan Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price 3.79 1967-2010 Imports Price 4.73 4.38 2.88 4.02 8.34 1989-2014 Exports Price 4.85 4.44 3.12 4.07 6.26 1989-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 7.07 6.18 5.50 4.91 5.54 4.22 1984-2015 Residential Price 11.32 10.47 9.95 9.09 9.33 8.78 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 91.9 92.1 91.6 91.6 92.2 92.7 1989-2015 Commercial Price 8.95 9.14 8.35 7.82 8.28 7.49 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included

  19. Minnesota Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Imports Price 4.49 4.15 2.87 3.87 5.60 1989-2014 Exports Price -- 3.90 3.46 3.83 11.05 1999-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.48 5.04 4.26 4.58 6.56 4.40 1984-2015 Residential Price 8.76 8.85 7.99 8.19 9.89 8.84 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 7.60 7.46 6.36 6.86 8.66 7.30 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 93.1 89.8 91.1

  20. Mississippi Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.17 1967-2010 Imports Price -- 12.93 -- -- -- 2007-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.73 5.29 3.97 4.44 5.29 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 10.19 9.47 9.60 9.00 9.49 9.71 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 99.5 99.5 99.5 100.0 NA 1989-2015 Commercial Price 8.75 7.99 7.37 7.61 8.36 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 90.6 89.8 89.0 89.1 87.5 NA 1990-2015 Industrial Price 6.19 5.83

  1. Missouri Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1967-1997 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 6.17 5.85 5.27 4.99 5.76 4.65 1984-2015 Residential Price 11.66 12.02 12.25 10.88 10.83 11.59 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 10.28 9.99 9.54 9.00 8.96 9.10 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 76.5 73.1 69.2 72.3 70.5 71.1 1990-2015 Industrial Price 8.70 8.54 7.85 8.19 8.00 7.75 1997-2015

  2. Montana Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.64 1967-2010 Imports Price 4.13 3.75 2.45 3.23 4.39 1989-2014 Exports Price 4.05 3.82 2.40 3.43 5.38 1989-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.17 5.11 4.23 4.21 5.03 3.71 1984-2015 Residential Price 8.64 8.80 8.05 8.19 9.11 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 99.8 99.8 99.8 99.9 99.8 NA 1989-2015 Commercial Price 8.54 8.66 7.98 8.09 8.77 7.82 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 54.6 53.3

  3. Nebraska Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.62 5.11 4.31 4.61 5.58 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 8.95 8.84 8.68 8.39 8.77 8.94 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 87.4 87.3 85.8 87.5 87.8 87.2 1989-2015 Commercial Price 7.08 6.69 6.19 6.49 7.27 6.54 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 60.6 60.6 55.8 57.3 56.4 56.1 1990-2015 Industrial Price 5.85 5.61 4.34 4.72 5.69 4.61 1997-2015 Percentage of

  4. Nevada Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 2006-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 7.19 6.77 5.13 5.16 5.90 4.06 1984-2015 Residential Price 12.25 10.66 10.14 9.42 11.44 11.82 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 9.77 8.07 7.43 6.61 8.21 8.66 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 65.4 64.3 61.4 60.1 58.4 57.9 1990-2015 Industrial Price 10.53 8.99 7.34 6.66 7.83 NA 1997-2015

  5. New Hampshire Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Imports Price 5.48 5.45 4.08 6.63 10.55 1999-2014 Exports Price -- 7.54 2.62 6.65 4.06 2007-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1980-2005 Citygate Price 8.83 8.07 7.15 7.60 9.28 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 14.46 14.67 13.74 13.84 16.27 NA 1980-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 12.72 11.46 11.95 12.13 14.96 13.63 1977-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 57.3 55.6

  6. New Jersey Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 8.41 7.53 6.74 6.21 6.21 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 12.84 11.78 11.09 10.89 9.69 8.37 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 94.6 92.8 90.1 90.7 93.4 1989-2015 Commercial Price 10.11 9.51 8.50 9.55 10.08 8.52 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 36.1 32.6 30.8 35.2 32.0 NA 1990-2015 Industrial Price 9.63 9.23 7.87 8.19 10.45 NA 1997-2015 Percentage of Total

  7. New Mexico Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.32 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 4.84 4.52 3.70 4.08 4.99 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 9.63 9.14 8.69 8.92 10.13 8.58 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 7.47 6.98 6.31 6.77 7.87 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 60.7 59.8 57.0 57.0 54.4 NA 1990-2015 Industrial Price 6.17 6.22 4.96 5.58 6.45 4.95 1997-2015

  8. New York Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 1967-2010 Imports Price 5.43 4.96 3.83 5.59 8.60 1989-2014 Exports Price -- 4.69 3.61 4.29 5.56 1999-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 6.86 6.04 5.35 5.02 5.47 4.14 1984-2015 Residential Price 14.04 13.71 12.97 12.49 12.54 11.20 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 10.88 9.32 7.84 8.00 8.31 6.89 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices

  9. North Carolina Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 6.02 5.45 4.00 4.63 5.41 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 12.50 12.55 12.19 11.83 11.88 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 NA 1989-2015 Commercial Price 10.18 9.64 8.62 8.81 9.12 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 84.8 84.4 83.5 84.5 84.9 NA 1990-2015 Industrial Price 8.24 7.70 6.37 6.87 7.55 NA 1997-2015 Percentage of Total

  10. North Dakota Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 1967-2010 Imports Price 4.41 4.04 2.72 3.59 5.00 1994-2014 Exports Price -- -- -- -- 14.71 1999-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.50 5.06 4.43 4.99 6.37 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 8.08 8.10 7.43 7.43 8.86 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 7.03 7.00 6.04 6.32 7.74 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 92.6 92.8 91.9

  11. Ohio Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 6.87 5.51 4.47 4.51 4.91 4.49 1984-2015 Residential Price 11.13 10.78 9.91 9.46 10.16 9.49 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 9.25 8.55 7.11 6.21 7.82 6.62 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990-2015 Industrial Price 7.40 6.77 5.48 6.03 7.06 NA 1997-2015

  12. Oklahoma Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    71 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 6.18 5.67 5.00 4.75 5.35 4.59 1984-2015 Residential Price 11.12 10.32 11.10 9.71 10.10 10.26 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 9.77 8.94 8.95 8.05 8.26 8.22 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 47.5 46.3 41.1 44.6 45.3 43.7 1990-2015 Industrial Price 8.23 7.37 7.65 7.16 8.27 NA 1997-2015

  13. Oregon Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    92 1979-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 6.78 5.84 5.21 4.82 5.40 4.65 1984-2015 Residential Price 12.49 11.76 11.22 10.84 11.72 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 10.10 9.60 8.91 8.60 9.44 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 97.4 97.4 96.9 96.6 96.0 NA 1990-2015 Industrial Price 7.05 6.84 5.87 5.79 6.20 6.38 1997-2015

  14. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 7.04 6.28 5.52 5.26 5.59 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 12.90 12.46 11.99 11.63 11.77 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 91.2 88.6 87.3 86.2 NA 1989-2015 Commercial Price 10.47 10.42 10.24 10.11 10.13 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 48.5 42.1 40.2 41.4 NA 1990-2015 Industrial Price 8.23 9.86 9.58 9.13 9.95 NA 1997-2015 Percentage

  15. South Dakota Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 1979-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.54 5.21 4.67 4.83 6.14 4.17 1984-2015 Residential Price 8.77 8.59 8.39 8.23 9.27 8.21 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 7.13 6.98 6.45 6.59 7.65 6.11 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 80.9 81.7 81.6 81.6 81.6 81.0 1990-2015 Industrial Price 5.92 6.25 5.37 5.67 6.88 4.98 1997-2015

  16. Tennessee Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    35 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.78 5.23 4.35 4.73 5.37 4.06 1984-2015 Residential Price 10.46 10.21 9.95 9.44 10.13 9.69 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 9.39 9.04 8.36 8.41 9.30 8.46 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 90.8 89.9 88.8 90.0 90.7 88.6 1990-2015 Industrial Price 6.64 6.15 4.98 5.62 6.31 4.89 1997-2015

  17. Texas Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    70 1967-2010 Imports Price 6.72 6.78 10.09 12.94 11.79 1993-2014 Exports Price 4.68 4.44 3.14 3.94 4.67 1989-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.89 5.39 4.30 4.89 5.77 4.20 1984-2015 Residential Price 10.82 10.21 10.55 10.50 11.16 10.65 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 99.7 99.7 99.7 99.8 99.9 1989-2015 Commercial Price 7.90 7.07 6.63 7.25 8.26 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices

  18. Utah Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    23 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.53 5.68 5.50 5.70 5.74 5.70 1984-2015 Residential Price 8.22 8.44 8.70 8.55 9.48 9.72 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 6.83 7.05 7.00 7.13 7.71 7.97 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 86.2 86.7 83.9 81.8 78.3 77.0 1990-2015 Industrial Price 5.57 5.50 4.69 5.22 5.83 5.89 1997-2015

  19. Vermont Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6.54 5.81 4.90 5.72 6.61 1989-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1982-2005 Citygate Price 8.29 7.98 6.63 6.16 7.08 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 16.14 16.17 16.73 15.87 14.68 14.56 1980-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 11.82 11.90 12.09 7.57 9.13 NA 1980-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 100 100 100 100 100 NA 1990-2015 Industrial Price 6.57 6.09 4.89 8.59 6.63

  20. Virginia Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 6.88 6.64 5.64 5.54 5.98 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 12.73 12.72 12.42 11.68 12.07 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 90.1 89.5 89.9 90.1 NA 1989-2015 Commercial Price 9.55 9.69 8.77 8.83 9.17 8.11 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 54.1 52.1 54.6 55.8 54.2 1990-2015 Industrial Price 6.68 6.44 5.29 6.02 6.43 NA 1997-2015 Percentage

  1. Alabama Natural Gas Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Citygate Price 3.80 4.04 3.81 3.83 3.61 3.27 1989-2015 Residential Price 20.35 20.60 20.38 19.12 17.67 14.30 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 68.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2002-2015 Commercial Price 11.89 11.93 11.75 11.40 11.47 10.73 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 70.5 69.7 69.7 68.6 69.9 76.2 1989-2015 Industrial Price 3.82 3.91 3.68 3.48 3.33 3.48

  2. Arizona Natural Gas Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Citygate Price 4.55 4.53 4.48 4.25 4.42 NA 1989-2015 Residential Price 23.59 24.01 23.01 20.77 14.57 12.75 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2002-2015 Commercial Price 10.67 10.52 10.40 10.14 9.36 9.17 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 80.7 79.4 80.1 80.2 83.3 85.5 1989-2015 Industrial Price 6.80 NA 6.62 6.36 6.35 6.43 2001-2015

  3. New Jersey Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 8.41 7.53 6.74 6.21 6.21 NA 1984-2015 Residential 12.84 11.78 11.09 10.89 9.69 8.37 1967-2015 Commercial 10.11 9.51 8.50 9.55 10.08 8.52 1967-2015 Industrial 9.63 9.23 7.87 8.19 10.45 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel -- -- -- 1994-2012 Electric Power 5.66 5.24 3.63 4.34 4.83 2.96 1997-2015 Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Injections 1967-1996 Withdrawals 1967-1996 Net Withdrawals 1967-1996 Liquefied Natural Gas Storage (Million Cubic Feet)

  4. North Carolina Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 6.02 5.45 4.00 4.63 5.41 NA 1984-2015 Residential 12.50 12.55 12.19 11.83 11.88 NA 1967-2015 Commercial 10.18 9.64 8.62 8.81 9.12 NA 1967-2015 Industrial 8.24 7.70 6.37 6.87 7.55 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 9.77 12.13 6.48 1990-2012 Electric Power W W W W 6.05 W 1997-2015 Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Injections 1973-1996 Withdrawals 1974-1996 Net Withdrawals 1973-1996 Liquefied Natural Gas Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Additions 4,410

  5. Ohio Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 6.87 5.51 4.47 4.51 4.91 4.49 1984-2015 Residential 11.13 10.78 9.91 9.46 10.16 9.49 1967-2015 Commercial 9.25 8.55 7.11 6.21 7.82 6.62 1967-2015 Industrial 7.40 6.77 5.48 6.03 7.06 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel -- -- -- 1990-2012 Electric Power 5.01 W 3.05 3.95 4.31 2.42 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 832 758 1,233 3,161 6,723 1977-2014 Adjustments 127 -99 -41 -328 -426 1977-2014 Revision

  6. Oregon Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    92 1979-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 6.78 5.84 5.21 4.82 5.40 4.65 1984-2015 Residential 12.49 11.76 11.22 10.84 11.72 NA 1967-2015 Commercial 10.10 9.60 8.91 8.60 9.44 NA 1967-2015 Industrial 7.05 6.84 5.87 5.79 6.20 6.38 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 5.61 4.23 4.57 1992-2012 Electric Power 4.57 W W W W W 1997-2015 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Number of Producing Gas Wells 26 24 27 26 28 1989-2014 Gross Withdrawals 1,407 1,344 770 770 950 1979-2014 From Gas Wells 1,407

  7. California Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    87 1967-2010 Imports Price 4.76 3.57 -- 3.59 -- 2007-2014 Exports Price 4.51 4.18 2.90 3.89 4.56 1997-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 4.86 4.47 3.46 4.18 4.88 3.27 1984-2015 Residential Price 9.92 9.93 9.14 9.92 11.51 11.38 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 98.5 98.3 97.5 96.1 94.8 94.9 1989-2015 Commercial Price 8.30 8.29 7.05 7.81 9.05 7.98 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 54.1 54.3

  8. Colorado Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.96 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.26 4.94 4.26 4.76 5.42 3.96 1984-2015 Residential Price 8.13 8.25 8.28 7.85 8.89 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 NA 1989-2015 Commercial Price 7.58 7.84 7.58 7.26 8.15 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 94.6 93.8 92.2 94.7 94.5 NA 1990-2015 Industrial Price 5.84 6.42 5.79 5.90 6.84 NA 1997-2015 Percentage of

  9. District of Columbia Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    82-2005 Citygate Price -- -- -- -- -- -- 1989-2015 Residential Price 13.53 13.06 12.10 12.45 13.05 12.52 1980-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 75.5 75.0 73.9 75.0 73.8 73.2 1989-2015 Commercial Price 12.26 12.24 11.19 11.64 12.18 11.55 1980-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 16.9 17.9 19.1 19.9 21.4 1990-2015 Industrial Price -- -- -- -- -- -- 2001-2015 Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices 0 0 0 0 0 0

  10. Florida Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price NA 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.49 5.07 3.93 4.44 5.05 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 17.89 18.16 18.34 18.46 19.02 19.29 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 98.0 97.7 97.8 97.8 97.8 1989-2015 Commercial Price 10.60 11.14 10.41 10.87 11.38 10.74 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 38.5 37.0 33.3 32.3 NA 1990-2015 Industrial Price 8.33 8.07 6.96 6.77 6.89

  11. Georgia Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Imports Price 4.39 4.20 2.78 3.36 4.33 1999-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.93 5.19 4.35 4.66 5.19 3.82 1984-2015 Residential Price 15.17 15.72 16.23 14.60 14.45 15.06 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 10.95 10.51 9.75 9.38 9.86 8.49 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990-2015 Industrial

  12. Idaho Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Imports Price 4.19 3.90 2.59 3.34 4.14 1989-2014 Exports Price 5.85 4.74 -- 3.27 -- 1999-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 4.82 4.65 4.07 3.93 4.29 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 8.95 8.80 8.26 8.12 8.54 8.62 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 8.21 8.09 7.35 7.29 7.70 7.61 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 82.0 80.8 77.0 77.4

  13. Illinois Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.52 5.09 4.11 4.43 6.28 3.82 1984-2015 Residential Price 9.39 8.78 8.26 8.20 9.59 7.95 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 88.0 88.0 87.9 87.7 87.3 86.3 1989-2015 Commercial Price 8.76 8.27 7.78 7.57 8.86 7.26 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 42.3 38.1 36.8 38.4 38.5 NA 1990-2015 Industrial Price 7.13 6.84 5.63 6.00 7.75 5.36 1997-2015 Percentage of

  14. Indiana Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.13 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.52 4.97 4.23 4.38 5.63 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 8.63 9.46 8.94 8.43 9.02 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 94.1 94.6 94.5 95.0 95.3 NA 1989-2015 Commercial Price 7.55 8.04 7.69 7.59 8.19 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 72.5 70.2 67.4 68.2 67.6 NA 1990-2015 Industrial Price 5.65 6.53 6.19 6.54 7.45 NA 1997-2015 Percentage of Total

  15. Iowa Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.69 5.27 4.84 4.95 6.24 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 9.57 9.54 9.46 8.99 10.02 8.49 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 7.81 7.55 7.13 6.97 8.15 6.49 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 72.0 72.1 72.2 72.5 74.4 NA 1990-2015 Industrial Price 6.10 5.78 4.70 5.43 7.40 NA 1997-2015 Percentage of Total

  16. Kansas Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    23 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 6.08 5.53 4.74 4.98 6.10 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 10.61 9.93 10.12 10.19 10.59 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 NA 1989-2015 Commercial Price 9.65 8.89 8.82 9.07 9.53 8.83 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 66.0 62.6 59.8 61.4 59.3 NA 1990-2015 Industrial Price 5.49 5.28 3.87 4.86 5.70 4.37 1997-2015 Percentage

  17. Kentucky Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    47 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.69 5.18 4.17 4.47 5.16 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 10.02 10.44 10.19 9.80 10.62 10.94 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 95.7 95.5 95.9 96.2 96.3 96.3 1989-2015 Commercial Price 8.61 8.79 8.28 8.32 9.04 8.80 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 80.5 79.2 77.4 78.8 80.5 79.2 1990-2015 Industrial Price 5.57 5.16 3.96 4.84 5.80 4.36 1997-2015

  18. Louisiana Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    23 1967-2010 Imports Price 4.84 7.57 7.98 14.40 14.59 1989-2014 Exports Price 7.07 9.63 11.80 -- -- 2007-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.43 5.67 3.48 4.12 4.90 3.32 1984-2015 Residential Price 11.73 11.37 11.54 10.80 10.89 10.71 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 9.88 9.36 8.44 8.59 9.01 7.93 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices

  19. Maine Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Imports Price 4.94 4.40 3.45 4.86 9.71 1999-2014 Exports Price 4.53 4.46 4.30 8.43 6.68 2007-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 8.19 8.14 7.73 7.35 10.33 NA 1984-2015 Residential Price 14.14 14.20 15.94 15.21 16.90 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 99.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 11.71 11.69 12.22 12.79 15.13 14.40 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 45.0 45.8

  20. Maryland Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price NA 1967-2010 Imports Price 5.37 5.30 13.82 15.29 8.34 1999-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 6.49 6.26 5.67 5.37 6.36 4.99 1984-2015 Residential Price 12.44 12.10 12.17 11.67 12.21 12.05 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 79.3 77.0 74.3 72.8 73.1 1989-2015 Commercial Price 9.87 10.29 10.00 10.06 10.52 10.00 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 27.3 24.7 26.2 27.3 27.4

  1. West Virginia Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 6.31 5.91 4.99 4.65 5.07 4.00 1984-2015 Residential 11.39 10.91 10.77 9.98 10.21 10.46 1967-2015 Commercial 10.27 9.65 9.35 8.61 8.92 9.15 1967-2015 Industrial 5.40 4.89 3.60 4.30 5.00 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel -- -- -- 1992-2012 Electric Power 5.14 W 3.33 4.29 W W 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 7,000 10,345 14,611 22,765 29,432 1977-2014 Adjustments -359 -1 251 -565 -559 1977-2014

  2. Wisconsin Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 6.14 5.65 4.88 4.88 6.96 4.71 1984-2015 Residential 10.34 9.77 9.27 8.65 10.52 NA 1967-2015 Commercial 8.53 8.03 7.34 6.94 8.74 NA 1967-2015 Industrial 7.56 7.05 5.81 6.02 8.08 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 7.84 6.10 5.71 1989-2012 Electric Power 5.43 4.91 3.27 4.47 5.47 W 1997-2015 Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Injections 1973-1973 Withdrawals 1974-1975 Net Withdrawals 1973-1975 Liquefied Natural Gas Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Additions

  3. West Virginia Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 6.31 5.91 4.99 4.65 5.07 4.00 1984-2015 Residential Price 11.39 10.91 10.77 9.98 10.21 10.46 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 10.27 9.65 9.35 8.61 8.92 9.15 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 51.0 49.2 48.9 52.9 56.7 53.3 1990-2015 Industrial Price 5.40 4.89 3.60 4.30 5.00 NA 1997-2015

  4. Wisconsin Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 6.14 5.65 4.88 4.88 6.96 4.71 1984-2015 Residential Price 10.34 9.77 9.27 8.65 10.52 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 8.53 8.03 7.34 6.94 8.74 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 76.2 76.4 74.4 77.7 77.0 NA 1990-2015 Industrial Price 7.56 7.05 5.81 6.02 8.08 NA 1997-2015 Percentage of Total

  5. Wyoming Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.30 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 5.04 4.65 4.03 4.51 5.27 4.36 1984-2015 Residential Price 8.58 8.72 8.42 8.27 9.34 9.19 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 75.4 75.6 75.3 73.8 72.9 73.3 1989-2015 Commercial Price 7.13 7.29 6.72 6.81 7.69 NA 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 65.3 64.0 62.6 62.9 60.8 NA 1990-2015 Industrial Price 4.91 5.57 4.87 4.62 5.89 NA 1997-2015 Percentage of

  6. IN SITU INVESTIGATION OF THE PASSIVATION OF ALLOY C22 AND OF THE PASSIVE FILMS FORMED ON ALLOY C22 IN ACIDIC ELECTROLYTES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE AND AT 90 DEGREES C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Miyagusuku, S. Harrington, and T. M. Devine

    2006-03-11

    The passive films formed on Alloy C22 in several acidic solutions were investigated by a combination of five in situ techniques: cyclic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Mott-Schottky analyses, electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance measurements, and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Similar tests were conducted on unalloyed samples of nickel, chromium and molybdenum, which are the main alloying elements of Alloy C22. The results of the tests conducted on nickel, chromium, and molybdenum helped to determine the roles of these elements in the passivation of Alloy C22. In general, the corrosion resistance of C22 was superior to that of unalloyed chromium. Although chromium is an important component of the passive film on Alloy C22, the other elements figure prominently in the corrosion resistance of C22 in acidic solutions. The passivity of Alloy C22 was detrimentally affected by increasing concentrations of hydrogen ions, chloride ions, and increasing temperature. The results of this study provide understanding of the resistance/susceptibility of Alloy C22 to corrosion by the aggressive solutions that can develop inside pits and crevices.

  7. Minnesota Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Imports 4.49 4.15 2.87 3.87 5.60 1989-2014 Exports -- 3.90 3.46 3.83 11.05 1999-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 5.48 5.04 4.26 4.58 6.56 4.40 1984-2015 Residential 8.76 8.85 7.99 8.19 9.89 8.84 1967-2015 Commercial 7.60 7.46 6.36 6.86 8.66 7.30 1967-2015 Industrial 5.58 5.55 4.28 4.94 6.57 4.95 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 16.49 10.55 10.56 1993-2012 Electric Power W W W W W W 1997-2015 Imports and Exports (Million Cubic Feet) Imports 451,405 548,686 406,327 243,805 328,610

  8. Montana Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3.64 1967-2010 Imports 4.13 3.75 2.45 3.23 4.39 1989-2014 Exports 4.05 3.82 2.40 3.43 5.38 1989-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 5.17 5.11 4.23 4.21 5.03 3.71 1984-2015 Residential 8.64 8.80 8.05 8.19 9.11 NA 1967-2015 Commercial 8.54 8.66 7.98 8.09 8.77 7.82 1967-2015 Industrial 8.07 8.13 7.54 7.33 7.99 6.45 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 9.60 8.20 6.48 1990-2012 Electric Power W W W -- W -- 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 944 778 602

  9. Nebraska Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 5.62 5.11 4.31 4.61 5.58 NA 1984-2015 Residential 8.95 8.84 8.68 8.39 8.77 8.94 1967-2015 Commercial 7.08 6.69 6.19 6.49 7.27 6.54 1967-2015 Industrial 5.85 5.61 4.34 4.72 5.69 4.61 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 15.10 15.29 1994-2012 Electric Power W 5.74 3.93 4.96 5.84 3.97 1997-2015 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Number of Producing Gas Wells 276 322 270 357 310 1989-2014 Gross Withdrawals 2,255 1,980 1,328 1,032 402 1967-2014 From Gas

  10. Nevada Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    NA 2006-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 7.19 6.77 5.13 5.16 5.90 4.06 1984-2015 Residential 12.25 10.66 10.14 9.42 11.44 11.82 1967-2015 Commercial 9.77 8.07 7.43 6.61 8.21 8.66 1967-2015 Industrial 10.53 8.99 7.34 6.66 7.83 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 8.13 4.76 8.97 1991-2012 Electric Power 5.75 5.00 3.49 W W 3.34 1997-2015 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Number of Producing Gas Wells 0 0 0 4 4 1996-2014 Gross Withdrawals 4 3 4 3 3 1991-2014 From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 3

  11. New Hampshire Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Imports 5.48 5.45 4.08 6.63 10.55 1999-2014 Exports -- 7.54 2.62 6.65 4.06 2007-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1980-2005 Citygate 8.83 8.07 7.15 7.60 9.28 NA 1984-2015 Residential 14.46 14.67 13.74 13.84 16.27 NA 1980-2015 Commercial 12.72 11.46 11.95 12.13 14.96 13.63 1977-2015 Industrial 11.59 11.57 10.48 10.68 9.46 8.10 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 1994-1995 Electric Power W W W W W W 1997-2015 Imports and Exports (Million Cubic Feet) Imports 18,297 19,826 47,451 63,446 52,160 1982-2014 Exports

  12. Colorado Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3.96 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 5.26 4.94 4.26 4.76 5.42 3.96 1984-2015 Residential 8.13 8.25 8.28 7.85 8.89 NA 1967-2015 Commercial 7.58 7.84 7.58 7.26 8.15 NA 1967-2015 Industrial 5.84 6.42 5.79 5.90 6.84 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 10.79 9.56 11.65 1990-2012 Electric Power 5.16 4.98 W 4.91 5.49 3.81 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 24,119 24,821 20,666 22,381 20,851 1977-2014 Adjustments 449 801 -363 -272 627

  13. Georgia Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Imports 4.39 4.20 2.78 3.36 4.33 1999-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 5.93 5.19 4.35 4.66 5.19 3.82 1984-2015 Residential 15.17 15.72 16.23 14.60 14.45 15.06 1967-2015 Commercial 10.95 10.51 9.75 9.38 9.86 8.49 1967-2015 Industrial 6.25 5.90 4.61 5.38 6.07 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 5.17 5.57 14.51 1993-2012 Electric Power 5.21 4.72 3.40 4.45 4.98 3.27 1997-2015 Imports and Exports (Million Cubic Feet) Imports 106,454 75,641 59,266 15,575 7,155 1999-2014 Underground Storage

  14. Idaho Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Imports 4.19 3.90 2.59 3.34 4.14 1989-2014 Exports 5.85 4.74 -- 3.27 -- 1999-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 4.82 4.65 4.07 3.93 4.29 NA 1984-2015 Residential 8.95 8.80 8.26 8.12 8.54 8.62 1967-2015 Commercial 8.21 8.09 7.35 7.29 7.70 7.61 1967-2015 Industrial 6.39 6.36 5.73 5.47 5.96 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 7.51 5.10 9.27 1994-2012 Electric Power W W W W W 2.89 2001-2015 Imports and Exports (Million Cubic Feet) Imports 708,806 606,099 634,194 686,449 608,147 1982-2014

  15. Kansas Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    23 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 6.08 5.53 4.74 4.98 6.10 NA 1984-2015 Residential 10.61 9.93 10.12 10.19 10.59 NA 1967-2015 Commercial 9.65 8.89 8.82 9.07 9.53 8.83 1967-2015 Industrial 5.49 5.28 3.87 4.86 5.70 4.37 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel -- 9.87 9.00 1994-2012 Electric Power 5.05 4.79 3.28 4.57 5.65 3.95 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 3,673 3,486 3,308 3,592 4,359 1977-2014 Adjustments 140 125 -236 -20 94 1977-2014

  16. Louisiana Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    23 1967-2010 Imports 4.84 7.57 7.98 14.40 14.59 1989-2014 Exports 7.07 9.63 11.80 -- -- 2007-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 5.43 5.67 3.48 4.12 4.90 3.32 1984-2015 Residential 11.73 11.37 11.54 10.80 10.89 10.71 1967-2015 Commercial 9.88 9.36 8.44 8.59 9.01 7.93 1967-2015 Industrial 4.68 4.25 2.96 3.86 4.68 2.90 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 11.14 10.58 10.53 1990-2012 Electric Power 4.79 W 2.99 3.95 4.74 W 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of

  17. Maine Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Imports 4.94 4.40 3.45 4.86 9.71 1999-2014 Exports 4.53 4.46 4.30 8.43 6.68 2007-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 8.19 8.14 7.73 7.35 10.33 NA 1984-2015 Residential 14.14 14.20 15.94 15.21 16.90 NA 1967-2015 Commercial 11.71 11.69 12.22 12.79 15.13 14.40 1967-2015 Industrial 11.23 10.89 10.35 10.32 11.93 NA 1997-2015 Electric Power W W W W W W 2001-2015 Imports and Exports (Million Cubic Feet) Imports 131,035 149,736 76,540 55,248 79,892 1982-2014 Exports 452 1,028 6,952

  18. Maryland Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wellhead NA 1967-2010 Imports 5.37 5.30 13.82 15.29 8.34 1999-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 6.49 6.26 5.67 5.37 6.36 4.99 1984-2015 Residential 12.44 12.10 12.17 11.67 12.21 12.05 1967-2015 Commercial 9.87 10.29 10.00 10.06 10.52 10.00 1967-2015 Industrial 9.05 8.61 8.01 8.47 9.94 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 5.99 5.09 -- 1993-2012 Electric Power 5.77 5.44 W W 5.35 4.06 1997-2015 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Number of Producing Gas Wells 7 8 9 7 7 1989-2014 Gross

  19. Massachusetts Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Imports 4.86 4.77 3.69 5.49 8.00 1989-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 7.74 7.04 6.03 6.20 6.96 NA 1984-2015 Residential 14.53 13.81 13.22 13.49 14.50 NA 1967-2015 Commercial 12.00 11.68 10.68 11.25 12.48 NA 1967-2015 Industrial 10.41 10.14 9.82 10.15 11.53 9.34 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 12.48 4.28 14.63 1990-2012 Electric Power 5.44 5.07 3.68 5.96 6.66 4.38 1997-2015 Imports and Exports (Million Cubic Feet) Imports 164,984 135,278 86,609 63,987 28,825 1982-2014 Underground

  20. Michigan Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wellhead 3.79 1967-2010 Imports 4.73 4.38 2.88 4.02 8.34 1989-2014 Exports 4.85 4.44 3.12 4.07 6.26 1989-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 7.07 6.18 5.50 4.91 5.54 4.22 1984-2015 Residential 11.32 10.47 9.95 9.09 9.33 8.78 1967-2015 Commercial 8.95 9.14 8.35 7.82 8.28 7.49 1967-2015 Industrial 9.25 8.27 7.38 6.97 7.84 6.59 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel -- -- -- 1990-2012 Electric Power 4.97 4.76 3.21 4.58 6.78 3.21 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves

  1. Alabama Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4.46 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 6.46 5.80 5.18 4.65 4.93 NA 1984-2015 Residential 15.79 15.08 16.20 15.47 14.59 13.95 1967-2015 Commercial 13.34 12.36 12.56 12.35 11.92 11.03 1967-2015 Industrial 6.64 5.57 4.35 4.98 5.49 3.94 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 16.24 11.45 17.99 1990-2012 Electric Power 4.85 W 3.09 4.14 4.74 3.06 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 2,629 2,475 2,228 1,597 2,036 1977-2014 Adjustments 32 -49 112 -274

  2. Alaska Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3.17 1967-2010 Exports 12.19 12.88 15.71 -- 15.74 1989-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1970-2005 Citygate 6.67 6.53 6.14 6.02 6.34 6.57 1988-2015 Residential 8.89 8.77 8.47 8.85 9.11 9.68 1967-2015 Commercial 8.78 8.09 8.09 8.34 8.30 7.80 1967-2015 Industrial 4.23 3.84 5.11 8.16 7.97 7.21 1997-2015 Electric Power W 5.04 4.32 4.73 5.06 5.40 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 8,838 9,424 9,579 7,316 6,745 1977-2014 Adjustments 1 -1 -2 -5 -21 1977-2014

  3. Arizona Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    11 1967-2010 Exports 4.57 4.28 3.07 4.17 5.15 1989-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 6.59 5.91 4.68 4.73 5.20 NA 1984-2015 Residential 15.87 15.04 15.75 13.92 17.20 17.04 1967-2015 Commercial 10.72 9.99 9.35 8.76 10.34 10.53 1967-2015 Industrial 7.54 6.86 5.78 6.29 7.52 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 12.35 7.73 13.19 1991-2012 Electric Power 4.84 W 3.51 4.60 5.30 3.43 1997-2015 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Number of Producing Gas Wells 5 5 5 5 5 1989-2014 Gross Withdrawals 183

  4. Arkansas Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3.84 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 6.76 6.27 5.36 4.99 5.84 4.76 1984-2015 Residential 11.53 11.46 11.82 10.46 10.39 11.20 1967-2015 Commercial 8.89 8.90 7.99 7.68 7.88 8.08 1967-2015 Industrial 7.28 7.44 6.38 6.74 6.99 6.97 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel -- -- 9.04 1994-2012 Electric Power 5.11 W 3.19 4.32 W W 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 14,178 16,370 11,035 13,518 12,789 1977-2014 Adjustments -34 728 -743 -78 -3 1977-2014

  5. California Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    87 1967-2010 Imports 4.76 3.57 -- 3.59 -- 2007-2014 Exports 4.51 4.18 2.90 3.89 4.56 1997-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 4.86 4.47 3.46 4.18 4.88 3.27 1984-2015 Residential 9.92 9.93 9.14 9.92 11.51 11.38 1967-2015 Commercial 8.30 8.29 7.05 7.81 9.05 7.98 1967-2015 Industrial 7.02 7.04 5.77 6.57 7.65 6.35 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 5.55 7.32 7.01 1990-2012 Electric Power 4.99 4.71 3.68 4.53 5.23 3.39 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of

  6. U.S. Natural Gas Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Wellhead Price 4.48 3.95 2.66 NA NA NA 1922-2015 Imports Price 4.52 4.24 2.88 3.83 5.30 3.24 1985-2015 By Pipeline 4.46 4.09 2.79 3.73 5.21 2.84 1985-2015 As Liquefied Natural Gas 4.94 5.63 4.27 6.80 8.85 7.37 1985-2015 Exports Price 5.02 4.64 3.25 4.08 5.51 3.07 1985-2015 By Pipeline 4.75 4.35 3.08 4.06 5.40 2.94 1985-2015 As Liquefied Natural Gas 9.53 10.54 12.82 13.36 15.66 10.92 1985-2015 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price

  7. U.S. Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Wellhead NA NA NA NA NA NA 1973-2015 Imports 2.66 2.74 2.75 3.23 2.40 2.28 1989-2015 By Pipeline 2.44 2.51 2.49 2.37 2.19 2.13 1997-2015 As Liquefied Natural Gas 4.53 3.45 6.03 12.38 4.20 4.02 1997-2015 Exports 3.06 3.09 2.92 2.73 2.63 2.57 1989-2015 By Pipeline 2.96 2.99 2.84 2.66 2.35 2.30 1997-2015 As Liquefied Natural Gas 8.10 7.91 7.17 6.53 16.67 15.95 1997-2015 Citygate 4.65 4.58 4.54 4.00 3.68

  8. California Natural Gas Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Citygate Price 3.56 3.55 3.42 3.32 3.08 3.02 1989-2015 Residential Price 11.68 11.85 11.91 11.53 10.31 11.37 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 94.8 94.9 94.6 94.7 96.1 95.6 2002-2015 Commercial Price 7.68 7.87 7.84 7.69 7.20 8.23 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 45.0 43.5 43.9 46.6 51.7 54.8 1989-2015 Industrial Price 6.02 6.07 6.09 5.88 5.77 6.92 2001-2015

  9. Kentucky Natural Gas Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Citygate Price 3.44 3.41 3.34 3.41 3.21 3.85 1989-2015 Residential Price 23.26 22.36 21.14 16.21 11.07 9.41 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 96.9 97.6 97.2 97.6 97.4 96.7 2002-2015 Commercial Price 11.98 11.34 10.55 9.42 8.63 7.72 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 66.4 67.6 68.0 72.3 76.0 80.6 1989-2015 Industrial Price 4.24 4.05 3.86 3.78 3.44 3.58 2001-2015

  10. Washington Natural Gas Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.22 3.96 2.72 3.62 4.32 1989-2014 Exports Price 4.81 4.47 3.87 4.02 5.05 1998-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use Price 1967-2005 Citygate Price 6.29 5.55 4.48 4.89 5.82 4.42 1984-2015 Residential Price 12.24 12.30 11.87 11.37 10.59 10.61 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1989-2015 Commercial Price 10.49 10.40 9.82 9.21 9.03 9.14 1967-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 87.8 88.4 87.4 86.8

  11. Alaska Natural Gas Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Citygate Price 5.60 5.80 5.90 6.11 6.56 6.53 1989-2015 Residential Price 11.78 11.50 9.86 9.44 8.89 8.79 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2002-2015 Commercial Price 7.74 7.89 7.03 7.67 7.43 7.39 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 96.6 97.2 98.3 98.7 99.9 99.7 1989-2015 Industrial Price 7.17 7.17 7.17 7.17 7.17 7.24 2001-2015

  12. Arkansas Natural Gas Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Citygate Price 6.97 6.92 5.58 5.63 4.16 4.00 1989-2015 Residential Price 17.53 19.19 18.15 17.40 13.80 10.34 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2002-2015 Commercial Price 8.09 8.19 8.00 7.71 7.86 7.29 1989-2015 Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices 28.0 25.0 25.7 28.1 28.2 41.8 1989-2015 Industrial Price 6.71 6.62 6.47 6.46 6.02 5.67 2001-2015

  13. Tennessee Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.35 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 5.78 5.23 4.35 4.73 5.37 4.06 1984-2015 Residential 10.46 10.21 9.95 9.44 10.13 9.69 1967-2015 Commercial 9.39 9.04 8.36 8.41 9.30 8.46 1967-2015 Industrial 6.64 6.15 4.98 5.62 6.31 4.89 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 8.16 12.32 8.18 1990-2012 Electric Power 5.04 4.62 2.90 3.83 4.64 2.74 2001-2015 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Number of Producing Gas Wells 230 210 212 1,089 1,024 1989-2014 Gross Withdrawals 5,144 4,851 5,825 5,400 5,294

  14. Texas Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    70 1967-2010 Imports 6.72 6.78 10.09 12.94 11.79 1993-2014 Exports 4.68 4.44 3.14 3.94 4.67 1989-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 5.89 5.39 4.30 4.89 5.77 4.20 1984-2015 Residential 10.82 10.21 10.55 10.50 11.16 10.65 1967-2015 Commercial 7.90 7.07 6.63 7.25 8.26 NA 1967-2015 Industrial 4.61 4.21 3.02 3.92 4.71 2.90 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 5.38 7.03 10.14 1990-2012 Electric Power 4.66 4.36 2.99 3.94 4.62 2.88 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves

  15. New Mexico Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.32 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 4.84 4.52 3.70 4.08 4.99 NA 1984-2015 Residential 9.63 9.14 8.69 8.92 10.13 8.58 1967-2015 Commercial 7.47 6.98 6.31 6.77 7.87 NA 1967-2015 Industrial 6.17 6.22 4.96 5.58 6.45 4.95 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 4.46 9.43 10.05 1994-2012 Electric Power W W W 4.35 4.93 3.21 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 15,412 15,005 13,586 13,576 15,283 1977-2014 Adjustments -89 73 153 -202 555 1977-2014

  16. New York Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 1967-2010 Imports 5.43 4.96 3.83 5.59 8.60 1989-2014 Exports -- 4.69 3.61 4.29 5.56 1999-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 6.86 6.04 5.35 5.02 5.47 4.14 1984-2015 Residential 14.04 13.71 12.97 12.49 12.54 11.20 1967-2015 Commercial 10.88 9.32 7.84 8.00 8.31 6.89 1967-2015 Industrial 8.55 8.18 6.92 7.44 8.13 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 8.32 9.81 21.00 1990-2012 Electric Power 5.73 5.56 3.95 5.26 5.46 3.51 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of

  17. North Dakota Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 1967-2010 Imports 4.41 4.04 2.72 3.59 5.00 1994-2014 Exports -- -- -- -- 14.71 1999-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 5.50 5.06 4.43 4.99 6.37 NA 1984-2015 Residential 8.08 8.10 7.43 7.43 8.86 NA 1967-2015 Commercial 7.03 7.00 6.04 6.32 7.74 NA 1967-2015 Industrial 5.22 5.10 4.48 4.14 5.61 3.14 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 8.84 8.08 6.17 1990-2012 Electric Power 6.51 8.66 6.44 -- 4.08 2.89 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 1,667 2,381

  18. Oklahoma Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    71 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 6.18 5.67 5.00 4.75 5.35 4.59 1984-2015 Residential 11.12 10.32 11.10 9.71 10.10 10.26 1967-2015 Commercial 9.77 8.94 8.95 8.05 8.26 8.22 1967-2015 Industrial 8.23 7.37 7.65 7.16 8.27 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 8.18 10.98 9.13 1991-2012 Electric Power 4.84 W 3.04 4.13 W W 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 26,345 27,830 26,599 26,873 31,778 1977-2014 Adjustments -394 -368 -686 -622 816

  19. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 7.04 6.28 5.52 5.26 5.59 NA 1984-2015 Residential 12.90 12.46 11.99 11.63 11.77 NA 1967-2015 Commercial 10.47 10.42 10.24 10.11 10.13 NA 1967-2015 Industrial 8.23 9.86 9.58 9.13 9.95 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 3.76 3.40 7.96 1990-2012 Electric Power 5.27 4.85 3.15 4.17 5.04 2.52 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 13,960 26,529 36,348 49,674 59,873 1977-2014 Adjustments -373 -224 -240 664

  20. South Dakota Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 1979-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 5.54 5.21 4.67 4.83 6.14 4.17 1984-2015 Residential 8.77 8.59 8.39 8.23 9.27 8.21 1967-2015 Commercial 7.13 6.98 6.45 6.59 7.65 6.11 1967-2015 Industrial 5.92 6.25 5.37 5.67 6.88 4.98 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel -- -- -- 1991-2012 Electric Power 5.50 5.04 3.54 4.35 4.98 3.31 1998-2015 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Number of Producing Gas Wells 102 100 95 65 68 1989-2014 Gross Withdrawals 12,540 12,449 15,085 16,205 15,307 1967-2014 From

  1. Wyoming Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.30 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 5.04 4.65 4.03 4.51 5.27 4.36 1984-2015 Residential 8.58 8.72 8.42 8.27 9.34 9.19 1967-2015 Commercial 7.13 7.29 6.72 6.81 7.69 NA 1967-2015 Industrial 4.91 5.57 4.87 4.62 5.89 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 10.08 11.96 14.15 1991-2012 Electric Power W W W W W 5.18 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 35,074 35,290 30,094 33,618 27,553 1977-2014 Adjustments 521 -209 692 2,058 -1,877 1977-2014

  2. U.S. Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    48 3.95 2.66 NA NA NA 1922-2015 Imports 4.52 4.24 2.88 3.83 5.30 3.24 1985-2015 By Pipeline 4.46 4.09 2.79 3.73 5.21 2.84 1985-2015 As Liquefied Natural Gas 4.94 5.63 4.27 6.80 8.85 7.37 1985-2015 Exports 5.02 4.64 3.25 4.08 5.51 3.07 1985-2015 By Pipeline 4.75 4.35 3.08 4.06 5.40 2.94 1985-2015 As Liquefied Natural Gas 9.53 10.54 12.82 13.36 15.66 10.92 1985-2015 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 6.18 5.63 4.73 4.88 5.71 4.25 1973-2015 Residential 11.39 11.03 10.65 10.32 10.97

  3. Utah Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    23 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 5.53 5.68 5.50 5.70 5.74 5.70 1984-2015 Residential 8.22 8.44 8.70 8.55 9.48 9.72 1967-2015 Commercial 6.83 7.05 7.00 7.13 7.71 7.97 1967-2015 Industrial 5.57 5.50 4.69 5.22 5.83 5.89 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 11.61 13.01 15.02 1990-2012 Electric Power W W 3.04 4.10 W W 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 6,981 7,857 7,548 6,829 6,685 1977-2014 Adjustments -80 134 289 -582 -20 1977-2014 Revision

  4. Vermont Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6.54 5.81 4.90 5.72 6.61 1989-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1982-2005 Citygate 8.29 7.98 6.63 6.16 7.08 NA 1984-2015 Residential 16.14 16.17 16.73 15.87 14.68 14.56 1980-2015 Commercial 11.82 11.90 12.09 7.57 9.13 NA 1980-2015 Industrial 6.57 6.09 4.89 8.59 6.63 5.50 1997-2015 Electric Power 5.73 5.26 4.14 -- W -- 1997-2015 Imports and Exports (Million Cubic Feet) Imports 8,895 10,319 8,247 10,324 10,621 1982-2014 Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Total Consumption 8,443 8,611 8,191 9,602

  5. Virginia Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 6.88 6.64 5.64 5.54 5.98 NA 1984-2015 Residential 12.73 12.72 12.42 11.68 12.07 NA 1967-2015 Commercial 9.55 9.69 8.77 8.83 9.17 8.11 1967-2015 Industrial 6.68 6.44 5.29 6.02 6.43 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 4.31 4.55 15.16 1993-2012 Electric Power 5.72 W 3.38 4.29 6.12 3.55 1997-2015 Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 3,215 2,832 2,579 2,373 2,800 1982-2014 Adjustments 59 -413 66 -9 89 1982-2014

  6. Washington Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.22 3.96 2.72 3.62 4.32 1989-2014 Exports 4.81 4.47 3.87 4.02 5.05 1998-2014 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 6.29 5.55 4.48 4.89 5.82 4.42 1984-2015 Residential 12.24 12.30 11.87 11.37 10.59 10.61 1967-2015 Commercial 10.49 10.40 9.82 9.21 9.03 9.14 1967-2015 Industrial 9.37 9.47 8.77 8.37 8.55 NA 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 12.89 9.88 11.06 1990-2012 Electric Power 5.52 W W W W W 1998-2015 Imports and Exports (Million Cubic Feet) Imports 332,358 313,922 312,236 333,050 359,348

  7. Field Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, James; Aldrich, Robb

    2015-08-19

    Traditionally, air-source heat pumps (ASHPs) have been used more often in warmer climates; however, some new ASHPs are gaining ground in colder areas. These systems operate at subzero (Fahrenheit) temperatures and many do not include backup electric resistance elements. There are still uncertainties, however, about capacity and efficiency in cold weather. Also, questions such as how cold is too cold? do not have clear answers. These uncertainties could lead to skepticism among homeowners; poor energy savings estimates; suboptimal system selection by heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning contractors; and inconsistent energy modeling. In an effort to better understand and characterize the heating performance of these units in cold climates, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), monitored seven inverter-driven, ductless ASHPs across the Northeast. Operating data were collected for three Mitsubishi FE18 units, three Mitsubishi FE12 units, and one Fujitsu 15RLS2 unit. The intent of this research was to assess heat output, electricity consumption, and coefficients of performance (COPs) at various temperatures and load conditions. This assessment was accomplished with long- and short-term tests that measured power consumption; supply, return, and outdoor air temperatures; and airflow through the indoor fan coil.

  8. X:\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma00.vp

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    gravity of 22 degrees or below. Intermediate crudes fall in the range of 22 degrees to 38 degrees API gravity. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. Aviation...

  9. X:\\L6046\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma.vp

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    gravity of 22 degrees or below. Intermediate crudes fall in the range of 22 degrees to 38 degrees API gravity. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. Aviation...

  10. Glossary API Gravity: An

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    gravity of 22 degrees or below. Intermediate crudes fall in the range of 22 degrees to 38 degrees API gravity. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. Aviation...

  11. ARM - Datastreams - rphtilt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    basetime North latitude degreeN lat East longitude degreeE lon Surface condition Pitch angle reported by tilt table degrees pitch ( time ) Surface condition Roll angle...

  12. TOTAL WORKFORCE Males

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    93 504 619 838 259 22 YEARS OF FEDERAL SERVICE 16.8 874 535 594 308 24 EDUCATION J.D.Ph.DSc.D Degrees 91 Masters Degrees 737 Bachelors Degrees 792 715 National Nuclear...

  13. TOTAL WORKFORCE Males

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    105 515 633 823 263 25 YEARS OF FEDERAL SERVICE 16.7 876 566 552 344 26 EDUCATION J.D.Ph.DSc.D Degrees 95 Masters Degrees 761 Bachelors Degrees 801 707 National Nuclear...

  14. ARM - Datastreams - rphcontrol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    basetime North latitude degreeN lat East longitude degreeE lon Surface condition Pitch angle of the ship, positive is bow up degree pitch ( time ) Surface condition Pitch...

  15. ARM - Datastreams - nav

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    latitude degreeN lat ( time ) East longitude degreeE lon ( time ) Surface condition Pitch: bow up positive degrees pitch ( time ) Pitch angular rate, bow up positive degreesec...

  16. Women @ Energy | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    where she earned a bachelor's degree in computer engineering and master's degree in computer science, and George Washington University, where she earned an M.E. in...

  17. ORISE: Nuclear engineering graduates decrease in 2009

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear engineering degrees decrease, enrollments increase in 2009 ORISE report shows unexpected decline in 2009 in nuclear engineering degrees but largest enrollment since mid ...

  18. Tiffany A. Blanchard-Case receives 2013 Linton Brooks Medal ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    degree from Georgetown University and a Bachelor of Science degree in Spanish Translation from Kent State University. About the photos: Top: Blanchard-Case with former NNSA...

  19. UAIEE and Industrial Assessment Centers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Short Lag Time for Correction Long Certification Programs Associates Degree Project Design 4 Year Degree Significant Apprenticeship Equipment Installers Building and...

  20. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, Financial Assistance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, Financial Assistance Award: 212 Degrees Consulting, LLC American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, Financial Assistance Award: 212 Degrees...

  1. Process for stabilizing dimensions of duplex stainless steels for service at elevated temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, Frederick C.; Tobin, John C.

    1981-01-01

    Duplex stainless steel materials containing austenite plus delta ferrite, are dimensionally stabilized by heating the material to a reaction temperature between about 1050.degree.-1450.degree. F. (566.degree.-788.degree. C.), holding it at this temperature during transformation of delta ferrite to austenite plus sigma phase, and subsequently heating to a reversion temperature between about 1625.degree.-1750.degree. F. (885.degree.-954.degree. C.), whereby the sigma phase transforms back to ferrite, but the austenite remains dispersed in the ferrite phase. Final controlled cooling permits transformation of ferrite to austenite plus sigma and, later, precipitation of carbides.

  2. Thermal disconnect for high-temperature batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jungst, Rudolph George; Armijo, James Rudolph; Frear, Darrel Richard

    2000-01-01

    A new type of high temperature thermal disconnect has been developed to protect electrical and mechanical equipment from damage caused by operation at extreme temperatures. These thermal disconnects allow continuous operation at temperatures ranging from 250.degree. C. to 450.degree. C., while rapidly terminating operation at temperatures 50.degree. C. to 150.degree. C. higher than the continuous operating temperature.

  3. Microsoft Word - NE Brief#70 Summary (10-12)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2011, and data was received from all thirty-two programs. The data for two nuclear engineering programs include enrollments and degrees in health physics options that are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees data. Degree Trends. Bachelor degrees increased 18% in 2011 over 2010, matching the number of bachelor degrees in the

  4. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    The coal liquefaction process disclosed uses three stages. The first stage is a liquefaction. The second and third stages are hydrogenation stages at different temperatures and in parallel or in series. One stage is within 650.degree.-795.degree. F. and optimizes solvent production. The other stage is within 800.degree.-840.degree. F. and optimizes the C.sub.5 -850.degree. F. product.

  5. Two-stage coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skinner, Ronald W.; Tao, John C.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    An improved SRC-I two-stage coal liquefaction process which improves the product slate is provided. Substantially all of the net yield of 650.degree.-850.degree. F. heavy distillate from the LC-Finer is combined with the SRC process solvent, substantially all of the net 400.degree.-650.degree. F. middle distillate from the SRC section is combined with the hydrocracker solvent in the LC-Finer, and the initial boiling point of the SRC process solvent is increased sufficiently high to produce a net yield of 650.degree.-850.degree. F. heavy distillate of zero for the two-stage liquefaction process.

  6. Women @ Energy: Pam Richmond | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a range of audiences in a compelling way. She received her Bachelor of Science degree in Computer Science and her Master of Science degree in Computer Information Systems. 1) What...

  7. 2014_FEVS_AES_Department_of_Energy.xlsx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... senior leaders generate high levels of motivation and commitment in the workforce. 54. My ... Associate's Degree (e.g., AA, AS) What is the highest degree or level of education you ...

  8. Sandia Sled Track PNOV Press Release

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    current electronic detonator in a trainer device that resulted in a first- degree burn on a finger and second-degree burns on a thumb, finger and abdomen. NNSA cited LANS for...

  9. Rebekah Nwangwa named NNSA Production Office Public Affairs Specialist...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    degree from The University of Tennessee College Of Law in 2013 and a Bachelor of Arts degree in sociology from Vanderbilt University in 2009. She is a native of Farragut,...

  10. Performance of Blackglas{trademark} composites in 4000-hour oxidation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, S.; Gonczy, S.; McNallan, M.; Cox, A.

    1996-12-31

    The effect of long term (4000 hour) oxidation on the mechanical properties of Blackglas{trademark}-Nitrided Nextel{trademark}312 Ceramic Matrix Composites in the temperature range of 500{degrees} - 700{degrees}C was investigated. Flexure specimens of the title composites prepared using three different pyrolysis processes were subjected to oxidation in flowing dry air at 500{degrees}, 600{degrees}C, and 700{degrees}C. Samples were removed at several different time intervals for 3-point flexure analysis. Results indicate that processing conditions had very little effect on the oxidation resistance of this system. At 600{degrees} and 700{degrees}C the mechanical properties degrade continuously to a steady value about half the original flexure strength. At 500{degrees}C, material properties initially improve then begin to slowly degrade. Optical microscopy indicates that oxidation of the matrix begins at the matrix/fiber interface and microcracks and proceeds into the bulk of the matrix.

  11. Testing Modules for Potential-Induced Degradation - A Status Update of IEC 62804 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.

    2014-03-01

    Stresses and degradation rates for the 25 degrees C with foil and the 60 degrees C/85% RH damp heat tests are compared, the Illumination factor on PID rate is evaluated, and measurement techniques and stress levels are discussed.

  12. Hyperon polarization: An experimental overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lach, J.

    1992-12-01

    The fact that inclusively produced hyperons are produced with significant polarization was first discovered at Fermilab about seventeen years ago. This and subsequent experiments showed that [Lambda][degree] were produced polarized while [bar [Lambda] [degree

  13. Process for upgrading biomass pyrolyzates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C. (1130 Catskill, Richland, WA 99352); Baker, Eddie G. (514 Shaw, Richland, WA 99352)

    1989-01-01

    Pyrolyzate oil is made amendable to hydrotreatment without substantial coking problems by means of pre-treatment with hydrogen at temperatures in the range of 250.degree. to 300.degree. C.

  14. RPT_PERIOD","R_S_NAME","LINE_NUM","PROD_CODE","PROD_NAME","PORT...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AMER",5,822,"NAPHTHA ( < 401 DEGREES F ENDPOINT)",5301,"HOUSTON, TX","TEXAS",3,830,"SPAIN",24,0,0,,,,, 35826,"EXXON CHEM AMER",6,822,"NAPHTHA ( < 401 DEGREES F...

  15. Carrie Noonan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carrie Noonan received her BSEE degree from California State University, Fresno, and her MBA degree from the University of Colorado, Boulder in international marketing and finance and her law...

  16. Advanced fire-resistant forms of activated carbon and methods...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This effect raises the spontaneous ignition temperature to over 500.degree. C. in most examples, and over 800.degree. C. in some examples. Also provided are methods for removing ...

  17. untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    gravity of 22 degrees or below. Interme- diate crudes fall in the range of 22 degrees to 38 de- grees API gravity. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. Aviation...

  18. High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Starace, A.; Turchi, C.; Ortega, J.

    2011-08-01

    To store thermal energy, sensible and latent heat storage materials are widely used. Latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) systems using phase change materials (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant temperature during a phase transformation. Molten salt PCM candidates for cascaded PCMs were evaluated for the temperatures near 320 degrees C, 350 degrees C, and 380 degrees C. These temperatures were selected to fill the 300 degrees C to 400 degrees C operating range typical for parabolic trough systems, that is, as one might employ in three-PCM cascaded thermal storage. Based on the results, the best candidate for temperatures near 320 degrees C was the molten salt KNO3-4.5wt%KCl. For the 350 degrees C and 380 degrees C temperatures, the evaluated molten salts are not good candidates because of the corrosiveness and the high vapor pressure of the chlorides.

  19. Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship Seeking Underrepresented Students in STEM

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Are you a student in a science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) degree looking for a worthwhile summer internship?  Do you currently have a child pursuing these types of degrees?  If...

  20. Graduate Program Salary Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of two academic years and at least 24 credit hours of graduate course work (salary cap for students pursuing a Master's Degree) 47,320 22.75 Post Masters Master's Degree...