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  1. Natural Gas Citygate Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Estimated Production Number of Producing Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From

  2. Natural Gas Citygate Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  3. Natural Gas Citygate Price in California (Dollars per Thousand...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    California (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Natural Gas Citygate Price in California (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 ...

  4. Natural Gas Citygate Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6.18 5.63 4.73 4.88 5.71 4.26 1973-2015 Alabama 6.46 5.80 5.18 4.65 4.93 NA 1984-2015 Alaska 6.67 6.53 6.14 6.02 6.34 6.57 1988-2015 Arizona 6.59 5.91 4.68 4.73 5.20 NA 1984-2015 Arkansas 6.76 6.27 5.36 4.99 5.84 4.76 1984-2015 California 4.86 4.47 3.46 4.18 4.88 3.27 1984-2015 Colorado 5.26 4.94 4.26 4.76 5.42 3.96 1984-2015 Connecticut 6.58 5.92 5.12 5.42 5.61 4.07 1984-2015 Delaware 5.67 9.03 7.19 5.67 5.54 NA 1984-2015 District of Columbia -- -- -- -- -- -- 1989-2015 Florida 5.49 5.07 3.93

  5. Natural Gas Citygate Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6.48 6.18 5.63 4.73 4.88 5.71 1973-2014 Alabama 7.61 6.46 5.80 5.18 4.65 4.93 1984-2014 Alaska 8.22 6.67 6.53 6.14 6.02 6.34 1988-2014 Arizona 7.21 6.59 5.91 4.68 4.73 5.20...

  6. Natural Gas Citygate Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    39 3.48 3.48 3.20 3.42 3.91 1973-2016 Alabama 3.22 3.18 3.00 2.90 2.99 3.34 1989-2016 Alaska 6.74 6.65 6.23 6.10 5.89 6.03 1989-2016 Arizona 3.64 4.60 4.85 3.03 2.77 3.31 1989-2016 Arkansas 3.43 3.76 4.53 4.60 4.79 6.16 1989-2016 California 2.72 2.65 2.30 2.25 2.49 2.52 1989-2016 Colorado 3.09 3.23 3.43 2.78 3.25 4.22 1989-2016 Connecticut 3.27 3.45 3.09 3.20 3.85 4.58 1989-2016 Delaware 3.81 3.84 4.70 5.03 6.24 8.53 1989-2016 District of Columbia -- -- -- -- -- -- 1989-2016 Florida 3.86 3.95

  7. Natural Gas Citygate Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Renewable Electricity: State-level Issues and Perspectives July 12, 2016 2 40% Reduction in GHG emissions from 1990 levels Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the energy sector- power generation, industry, buildings, and transportation-is critical to protecting the health and welfare of New Yorkers and reaching the longer term goal of decreasing total carbon emissions 80% by 2050. 50% Generation of electricity from renewable energy sources Renewable resources, including solar, wind,

  8. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  9. Energy Efficiency Report--Glossary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Thermal Unit (Btu): The quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at or near 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit. Census Region: A geographic...

  10. C:\\ANNUAL\\Vol2chps.v8\\ANNUAL2.VP

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Aquifer Field: A sub-surface facility for storing natural gas consisting of water-bearing ... temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at or near 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit. ...

  11. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vann, C.S.

    1999-03-16

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing. 3 figs.

  12. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vann, Charles S.

    1999-01-01

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing.

  13. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    to raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which water has its greatest density (approximately 39 degrees...

  14. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees, 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major. Twenty-four academic programs reported having health physics programs during 2011. The data for two health physics options within nuclear engineering programs are also included in the enrollments and degrees that are reported in the nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees data. Degree Trends. Bachelor degrees increased slightly between 2010 and 2011, but were 15% less than during 2005 through 2009 and 30% less than in the

  15. Microsoft Word - Blurbs for Nik.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NFPA Chemical Labeling System The NFPA diamond is a coded symbol which combines both color and numerical rating (0-4) to indicate the degree of hazard associated with the substance. Blue = Health Red = Flammability Yellow = Reactivity White = Other Flammability (flash points) Health 0 = Will not burn 0 = Normal Material 1 = above 200 degrees Fahrenheit 1 = Slight Hazard 2 = Between 100-200 degrees Fahrenheit 2 = Moderately Hazardous 3 = Below 100 degrees Fahrenheit 3 = Extremely Hazardous 4 =

  16. RAPID/Roadmap/3-NM-e | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Business Lease), developers pursuing geothermal projects on state trust lands where the temperature of the extractable resource is less than 250 degrees Fahrenheit may apply for...

  17. Fermilab Today

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    may include fever over 100 degrees Fahrenheit, muscle or body aches, chills, headache, cough, fatigue, weakness and nasal congestion. Once infected, a person may develop no...

  18. Department of Energy Official Touts Bush Administration's Efforts...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    superconductors that can operate at relatively "high" temperatures, from approximately -320 to -370 degrees Fahrenheit (50 to 77 Kelvin), and in magnetic fields from 1 to 4 Tesla. ...

  19. EA-1733: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The proposed EGS project includes the injection of water, ranging from 50 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit, into wells to enhance the permeability of an existing high temperature ...

  20. Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    At the heart of the LHC are superconducting magnets made of niobium-titanium. When cooled with liquid helium to negative 514 degrees Fahrenheit, the cable inside the ...

  1. Word Pro - Glossary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with ... the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature ...

  2. Lens positioner with five degrees of freedom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobierecki, Marian W.; Rienecker, Jr., Frederick

    1978-01-01

    A device for positioning lenses precisely with five degrees of freedom (three translations and two angular rotations). The unique features of the device are its compact design, large clear aperture, and high degree of positioning accuracy combined with five degrees of freedom in axis motion. Thus, the device provides precision and flexibility in positioning of optical components. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, Contract No. AT(29-1)-1183, with the United States Energy Research and Development Administration.

  3. EM Leaders Earn National Defense Degrees

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – Two EM employees were recently awarded Master of Science degrees from the National Defense University (NDU) as part of a DOE-sponsored professional development program.

  4. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology Asia...

  5. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric ...

  6. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive...

  7. Calculation of variable-base degree-days and degree-nights from monthly average temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.; Cleary, P.; Dickinson, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Computerized Instrumented Residential Audit (CIRA), a micro-computer building energy analysis program developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, uses a monthly variable-base degree-day method to calculate heating and cooling loads. The method's unique feature is its ability to model thermostat setbacks and storage of solar gain. The program accomplishes this by dividing each day into two periods, ''average day'' (8 a.m. to 8 p.m.) and ''average night'' (8 p.m. to 8 a.m.), with different base temperatures. For each mode (heating or cooling) and for each period (day or night), the program reconstructs degree-days as a function of average monthly day or night temperature using three empirical coefficients specific to the location. A comparison is made between degree-days computed from hourly weather tapes and those predicted using this method. The root mean square error between predicted and actual degree days is typically between 3 and 12 degree-days per month. Tables of the coefficients are given for over 150 locations in the United States, computed from hourly dry-bulb temperatures on TRY and TMY tapes. Seasonal predictions of heating and cooling energy budgets using this method show good correspondence to the DOE-2 hourly simulation method.

  8. Natural Gas Citygate Price in New Hampshire (Dollars per Thousand...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.09 4.32 3.67 3.05 3.04 3.28 1990's 3.51 3.40 3.58 3.76 3.49 3.39 4.20 4.10 3.75 4.07 2000's ...

  9. Natural Gas Citygate Price in New Hampshire (Dollars per Thousand...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.38 3.65 3.31 2.91 2.91 3.11 3.21 3.26 3.05 2.90 3.60 3.36 1990 4.02 4.12 3.44 3.06 2.91 3.12 3.32 2.95 2.92 2.85 3.49 ...

  10. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Massachusetts (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.20 3.68 2.99 2.43 3.62 3.10 3.15 3.31 3.25 2.89 3.61 3.55 1990 3.51 3.73 3.28 2.96 2.84 3.28 2.81 2.84 3.35 3.09 3.59 4.18 1991 3.89 3.86 3.07 3.10 3.21 2.54 2.84 3.17 3.27 3.24 3.43 3.80 1992 3.67 3.47 2.97 2.91 3.66 3.77 3.35 3.24 3.40 3.88 3.95 3.89 1993 3.81 3.53 3.94 3.92 4.42 4.81 4.77 4.72 4.37 3.79 3.69 3.75 1994 3.58 3.68 4.04 4.33 4.69 5.30 4.52 5.85 4.81 3.55 3.58 3.14 1995 2.93 3.02 2.98 3.22 4.71 4.58 4.64 4.57

  11. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Pennsylvania (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.13 3.06 3.05 3.56 3.37 4.01 3.84 3.91 3.79 3.41 3.14 3.01 1990 3.36 3.28 3.18 3.39 3.51 3.74 4.17 4.17 4.12 3.77 3.54 3.24 1991 3.10 3.01 2.91 3.18 4.06 4.09 3.98 4.06 3.87 3.56 3.14 3.03 1992 2.86 2.72 2.77 3.06 3.62 4.01 3.92 4.32 4.20 3.82 3.61 3.37 1993 3.02 2.93 3.14 3.56 4.18 4.69 3.95 4.42 4.32 3.46 3.03 3.39 1994 3.27 3.56 3.52 3.46 3.70 4.09 3.74 4.16 3.14 3.38 3.28 3.19 1995 3.36 2.92 2.89 2.94 3.21 3.73 4.04 3.97

  12. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Massachusetts (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.15 4.17 3.59 2.96 3.00 3.20 1990's 3.34 3.37 3.52 3.98 3.98 3.53 3.98 3.85 4.01 3.74 2000's 5.43 6.64 4.96 7.36 8.20 10.64 11.00 9.34 10.29 8.29 2010's 7.74 7.04 6.03 6.20 6.96 NA

  13. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Pennsylvania (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.10 4.02 3.54 3.07 3.15 3.26 1990's 3.47 3.27 3.29 3.41 3.46 3.09 2.68 4.09 4.12 3.65 2000's 5.09 6.68 5.20 6.48 7.56 9.98 10.30 9.35 10.39 7.81 2010's 7.04 6.28 5.52 5.26 5.59 4.36

  14. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Nevada (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.31 3.93 3.19 2.83 2.87 3.33 1990's 2.75 2.33 2.37 3.03 3.18 2.73 3.10 3.39 3.02 2.59 2000's ...

  15. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Maine (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.30 4.46 3.73 3.15 3.00 3.23 1990's 3.06 3.00 3.17 3.69 2.98 3.35 4.30 3.84 3.43 4.61 2000's...

  16. Natural Gas Citygate Price in North Carolina (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.26 4.12 3.42 3.26 2.87 3.01 1990's 2.88 2.69 2.88 3.15 3.27 2.95 3.74 3.97 3.49 3.33 2000's...

  17. Natural Gas Citygate Price in New York (Dollars per Thousand...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.10 3.94 3.35 2.92 2.91 3.07 1990's 3.05 2.92 3.01 3.32 3.02 2.47 3.36 4.20 2.65 2.92 2000's...

  18. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Maryland (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1990 2.90 3.04 2.60 2.80 3.45 3.99 4.11 3.85 3.57 3.12 3.53 3.20 1991 2.99 2.73 2.60 2.57 2.91 3.92 4.17 4.46 4.36 3.47 3.09 3.04 1992 2.74 2.41 2.45 2.88 3.71 4.46 5.04 4.83 ...

  19. Natural Gas Citygate Price in South Carolina (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.23 3.23 3.17 3.29 3.15 3.02 3.22 3.35 3.53 1990 3.54 3.45 3.20 3.12 3.24 3.15 2.65 2.64 2.46 2.85 3.40 3.66 1991 3.45 3.40 2.77 3.23 3.00 3.08 2.05 2.01 3.01 3.55 3.05 3.34 ...

  20. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Arkansas (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.48 2.49 2.47 2.43 2.43 2.54 2.39 2.45 2.40 2.44 2.45 2.50 1990 2.55 2.50 2.50 2.36 2.34 2.34 2.29 2.04 2.31 2.28 2.51 ...

  1. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Kansas (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.10 2.40 2.33 1.81 1.68 1.60 1.75 2.36 1.86 2.45 2.70 3.12 1990 3.09 2.83 3.09 2.87 2.42 2.25 2.27 2.31 2.48 2.45 2.42 ...

  2. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Kentucky (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.09 2.92 2.76 2.66 2.74 3.10 3.00 1990 3.45 3.36 3.34 3.29 3.29 3.05 2.74 2.48 2.38 ... 2.95 3.14 3.32 3.18 2.92 2.80 2.51 2.61 2.45 2.87 1996 3.19 3.05 3.29 3.50 3.83 3.08 ...

  3. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Florida (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.59 2.41 2.49 2.64 2.90 1990 3.05 2.98 2.57 2.48 2.45 2.37 2.31 2.32 2.65 2.90 3.00 3.17 1991 2.89 2.55 2.42 2.25 2.45 2.37 2.16 2.30 2.43 2.59 2.66 2.68 1992 2.56 2.31 2.34 ...

  4. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Connecticut (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1989 3.27 3.34 3.24 3.18 3.54 4.21 4.29 3.81 3.89 3.38 3.53 3.34 1990 3.86 3.79 3.50 3.21 3.10 3.47 3.78 3.59 3.72 3.64 3.94 3.89 1991 3.56 3.82 3.50 2.78 3.13 3.54 4.22 4.27 3.96 ...

  5. Natural Gas Citygate Price in New Mexico (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.50 3.34 2.83 2.55 2.58 2.66 1990's 2.63 2.49 2.25 2.39 2.02 1.46 1.99 2.53 2.08 2.24 2000's ...

  6. Natural Gas Citygate Price in New Mexico (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.49 2.56 2.59 2.53 2.54 3.03 3.00 3.07 3.25 2.72 2.60 2.72 1990 2.72 2.54 2.37 2.40 3.40 3.41 3.06 2.00 2.58 2.36 3.17 ...

  7. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Minnesota (Dollars per Thousand...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.21 3.93 3.31 2.72 2.79 2.72 1990's 2.83 2.63 2.92 3.11 2.85 2.52 3.07 3.67 2.98 3.06 2000's ...

  8. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Minnesota (Dollars per Thousand...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.00 2.66 2.57 2.40 2.66 3.14 3.35 3.21 2.98 2.41 2.39 2.85 1990 3.40 2.72 2.60 2.35 2.66 3.22 3.09 2.87 2.91 2.43 2.75 ...

  9. Interdiffusion and Reaction between Zr and Al Alloys from 425 degrees to 625 degrees C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Dickson; L. Zhou; A. Ewh; M. Fu; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; Y. H. Sohn; A. Paz y Puente

    2014-06-01

    Zirconium has recently garnered attention for use as a diffusion barrier between UMo nuclear fuels and Al cladding alloys. Interdiffusion and reactions between Zr and Al, Al-2 wt.% Si, Al-5 wt.% Si or AA6061 were investigated using solid-to-solid diffusion couples annealed in the temperature range of 425 degrees to 625 degrees C. In the binary Al and Zr system, the Al3Zr and Al2Zr phases were identified, and the activation energy for the growth of the Al3Zr phase was determined to be 347 kJ/mol. Negligible diffusional interactions were observed for diffusion couples between Zr vs. Al-2 wt.% Si, Al-5 wt.% Si and AA6061 annealed at or below 475 degrees C. In diffusion couples with the binary AlSi alloys at 560 degrees C, a significant variation in the development of the phase constituents was observed including the thick t1 (Al5SiZr2) with Si content up to 12 at.%, and thin layers of (Si,Al)2Zr, (Al,Si)3Zr, Al3SiZr2 and Al2Zr phases. The use of AA6061 as a terminal alloy resulted in the development of both T1 (Al5SiZr2) and (Al,Si)3Zr phases with a very thin layer of (Al,Si)2Zr. At 560 degrees C, with increasing Si content in the AlSi alloy, an increase in the overall rate of diffusional interaction was observed; however, the diffusional interaction of Zr in contact with multicomponent AA6061 with 0.40.8 wt.% Si was most rapid.

  10. Multiple-degree-of-freedom vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Johann

    1995-01-01

    A multi-degree-of-freedom vehicle employs a compliant linkage to accommodate the need for a variation in the distance between drive wheels or drive systems which are independently steerable and drivable. The subject vehicle is provided with rotary encodes to provide signals representative of the orientation of the steering pivot associated with each such drive wheel or system, and a linear encoder which issues a signal representative of the fluctuations in the distance between the drive elements. The wheels of the vehicle are steered and driven in response to the linear encoder signal, there being provided a controller system for minimizing the fluctuations in the distance. The controller system is a software implementation of a plurality of controllers, operating at the chassis level and at the vehicle level. A trajectory interpolator receives x-displacement, y-displacement, and .theta.-displacement signals and produces to the vehicle level controller trajectory signals corresponding to interpolated control signals. The x-displacement, y-displacement, and .theta.-displacement signals are received from a human operator, via a manipulable joy stick.

  11. ORISE: Report shows number of health physics degrees for 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    report shows number of health physics degrees increased for graduates, decreased for undergraduates in 2010 Decreased number of B.S. degrees remains higher than levels in the early 2000 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Dec. 20, 2011 FY12-09 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of health physics graduate degrees increased for both master's and doctoral candidates in 2010, but decreased for bachelor's degrees, says a report released this year by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. The ORISE report,

  12. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2015 Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SURVEY UNIVERSE The 2015 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey reports degrees granted between September 1, 2014 and August 31, 2015. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2015. The enrollments and degrees data comprises students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Thirty-five academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2015, and data was received from all thirty-five programs. The report includes

  13. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    having nuclear engineering programs during 2014, and data were provided by all thirty-five. The enrollments and degrees data include students majoring in nuclear engineering ...

  14. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and astrophysical capture processes R.E. Tribble A.M. Mukhamedzhanov Graduate Teaching Assistant Pursuing degree at Department of Statistics, Texas A&M University Jim...

  15. Brief 74 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2015-03-15

    The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014, and enrollments for fall 2014. There are three academic programs new to this year's survey. Thirty-five academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2014, and data were provided by all thirty-five. The enrollments and degrees data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Two nuclear engineering programs have indicated that health physics option enrollments and degrees are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees survey.

  16. Brief 70 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees, 2011 Summary Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Don Johnson

    2012-10-31

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2011. The enrollment and degree data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2011, and data was received from all thirty-two programs. The data for two nuclear engineering programs include enrollments and degrees in health physics options that are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees data.

  17. ORISE: Report by ORISE shows health physics degrees declined...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health physics degrees declined in 2014, enrollment trends reverse Enrollment data ... graduating with majors in health physics has declined across undergraduate, ...

  18. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE April 1, 2010 - March 31, 2011 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor Present Position Zach...

  19. Biography U. Dsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U. Dsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution: Clausthal University of Technology. Chair: chair for waste disposal technologies and geomechanics. 1982- 1988 field of study:...

  20. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Solar Thermal Collector Domestic Shipments by Market Sector, End-Use, and Type, 2009 End Use Market Sector Type of Collector End Use by Type of Collector 294 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Combined space and water heating. 2 Space heating, combined heating, and space cooling. 3 Collectors that generally operate at temperatures below 110 degrees Fahrenheit. 4 Collectors that generally operate in the temperature range of 140 degrees Fahrenheit to 180 degrees

  1. Table 26. Natural gas home customer-weighted heating degree...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6:14:01 PM Table 26. Natural gas home customer-weighted heating degree days MonthYear... Table 26 Created on: 4262016 6:14:07 PM Table 26. Natural gas home customer-weighted ...

  2. Microsoft Word - VI_12_Degrees Awarded 2015.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nuclear systems A. Bonasera Post Doc. at INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM NON-THESIS April 1, 2014 - March 31, 2015 ...

  3. Charm degrees of freedom in the quark gluon plasma

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, Peter; Sharma, Sayantan

    2016-01-11

    The lattice QCD studies on fluctuations and correlations of charm quantum number have established that deconfinement of charm degrees of freedom sets in around the chiral crossover temperature, Tc; i.e., charm degrees of freedom carrying fractional baryonic charge start to appear. When we reexamine those same lattice QCD data we show that, in addition to the contributions from quarklike excitations, the partial pressure of charm degrees of freedom may still contain significant contributions from open-charm-meson- and baryonlike excitations associated with integral baryonic charges for temperatures up to 1.2Tc. Finally, charm-quark quasiparticles become the dominant degrees of freedom for temperatures T>1.2Tc.

  4. Brief 66 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2009 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Larry M. Blair, Analysis and Evaluation, Science Education Programs

    2010-03-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2008 and August 31, 2009, and fall 2009 enrollments. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2009, and data was obtained from all thirty-two.

  5. VI-12 STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D. H. Youngblood Continue to Ph. D. degree Guangyao Chen 2013 Initial Conditions from Color Glass Condensate R. J. Fries Post. Doc. at Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University...

  6. Comparison of 180-degree and 90-degree needle rotation to reduce wound size in PIT-injected juvenile Chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryson, Amanda J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Karls, Rhonda K.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2013-04-30

    Animal telemetry, which requires the implantation of passive transponders or active transmitters, is used to monitor and assess fish stock and conservation to gain an understanding of fish movement and behavior. As new telemetry technologies become available, studies of their effects on species of interest are imperative as is development of implantation techniques. In this study, we investigated the effects of bevel rotation (0-, 90-, 180-degree axis rotation) on wound extent, tag loss, and wound healing rates in juvenile Chinook salmon injected with an 8-gauge needle, which is required for implantation of the novel injectable Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry Systems (JSATS) acoustic transmitter or large passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Although the injection sites were not closed after injection (e.g., with sutures or glue), there were no mortalities, dropped tags, or indications of fungus, ulceration, and/or redness around the wound. On Day 0 and post-implantation Day 7, the 90-degree bevel rotation produced smaller wound extent than the 180-degree bevel rotation. No axis rotation (0-degrees) resulted in the PIT tag frequently misleading or falling out upon injection. The results of this study indicated the 90-degree bevel rotation was the more efficient technique, produced less wound extent. Given the wound extent compared to size of fish, we recommend researchers should consider a 90-degree rotation over the 180-degree rotation in telemetry studies. Highlights •Three degrees of needle rotation were examined for effects in Chinook salmon. •Mortality, tag loss, wound extent, healing, and infection indicators were measured. •There were no mortalities, tag loss, or indications of infection. •The 90-degree needle rotation through Day 7 produced the smallest wound extent.

  7. Brief 75 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2015-03-05

    The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2014. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major.

  8. Brief 73 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2013 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2014-02-15

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2013. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2013. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major.taoi_na

  9. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2013 Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SURVEY UNIVERSE The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2013. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2013. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program

  10. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SURVEY UNIVERSE The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2014. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program

  11. RAPID/Roadmap/5-CO-a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    five hundred (2,500) feet or that expects to encounter geothermal fluids having a temperature greater than two hundred and twelve (212) degrees Fahrenheit. (Rule 4.2.28.1)....

  12. 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... foot at a pressure base of 14.73 pounds standard per square inch absolute and a temperature base of 60 degrees Fahrenheit; Cubic meter is a unit of measure which equals 35.314 ...

  13. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    48 contiguous states averaged 41 degrees Fahrenheit, 7% colder than the same period last winter, according to data from Bentek Energy. Average power burn through March 18 rose by...

  14. Geothermal Technology Breakthrough in Alaska: Harvesting Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    geothermal exploration at lower temperatures, thanks to a ... degrees Fahrenheit).This innovation increases the ... Hot Springs to reduce the cost of power from 0.30 per kWh ...

  15. Frequently Asked Questions Form EIA-857

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... For the second issue, you must carefully consider the business your customers are in. If ... This adjustment factor is the value of your pressure base at 60-degrees Fahrenheit divided ...

  16. EIA-813, Monthly Crude Oil Report Page 1 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    transporting Alaskan crude oil by water in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. ... month, corrected to 60 degrees Fahrenheit (F) less basic sediment and water (BS&W). ...

  17. EIA-803, Weekly Crude Oil Stocks Report Page 1 U. S. DEPARTMENT...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    transporting Alaskan crude oil by water in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. ... reported corrected to 60 degrees Fahrenheit ( 0 F) less basic sediment and water (BS&W). ...

  18. A meeting of the minds when NYC CoolRoofs visits PPPL | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which collected data on three white "cool roofs," including one on the Museum of Modern Art Queens in Long Island City, and found there was a 42 degree Fahrenheit difference...

  19. EIA Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    temperatures continuing to be 4 to 9 degrees Fahrenheit below normal in the four cities (Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, and New York) monitored by this report. Prices on the spot...

  20. Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    British thermal unit: The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which water has its greatest ...

  1. Welding consumable selection for cryogenic (4{degrees}K) application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, S.F.; Siewert, T.A.

    1994-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has begun construction of a large (3.8 kilometer circumference) heavy ion collider for the Department of Energy. The collider uses superconducting magnets, operating at 4{degrees}K in supercritical helium, which meets the definition of a pressure vessel. The ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code grants an exemption from impact testing to certain metals, but only for operating temperatures down to 20{degrees}K. Research and the latest change to ASTM Standard E23 have invalidated Charpy testing at 4{degrees}K, thus compliance with the Code is not possible. This effort was undertaken to identify the weld process and weld material necessary to comply with the intent of the Code (impact test) requirements, that is, to design a weld joint that will assure adequate fracture toughness. We will report the results of this development and testing, and conclude that nitrogen and maganese enhanced 385L provides a superior weld metal for 4{degrees}K cryogenic applications without the exaggerated purity concerns normally associated with superaustenitic weld materials. This development has been so successful that BNL has procured 15,000 pounds of this material for magnet production. Oxygen content, manifested as inclusion density, has the single most significant effect upon fracture toughness and impact strength. Finally, we report that GMAW is a viable welding process, using off-the-shelf equipment, for 4{degrees}K cryogenic applications.

  2. Higher-degree linear approximations of nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karahan, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author develops a new method for obtaining higher degree linear approximations of nonlinear control systems. The standard approach in the analysis and synthesis of nonlinear systems is a first order approximation by a linear model. This is usually performed by obtaining a series expansion of the system at some nominal operating point and retaining only the first degree terms in the series. The accuracy of this approximation depends on how far the system moves away from the normal point, and on the relative magnitudes of the higher degree terms in the series expansion. The approximation is achieved by finding an appropriate nonlinear coordinate transformation-feedback pair to perform the higher degree linearization. With the proposed method, one can improve the accuracy of the approximation up to arbitrarily higher degrees, provided certain solvability conditions are satisfied. The Hunt-Su linearizability theorem makes these conditions precise. This approach is similar to Poincare's Normal Form Theorem in formulation, but different in its solution method. After some mathematical background the author derives a set of equations (called the Homological Equations). A solution to this system of linear equations is equivalent to the solution to the problem of approximate linearization. However, it is generally not possible to solve the system of equations exactly. He outlines a method for systematically finding approximate solutions to these equations using singular value decomposition, while minimizing an error with respect to some defined norm.

  3. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed Definitions Key Terms Definition British Thermal Unit (Btu) The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which water has its greatest density (approximately 39 degrees Fahrenheit). Delivered to Consumers (Heat Content) Heat content of residential, commercial, industrial, vehicle fuel and electric power deliveries to consumers. Electric Power (Heat Content) Heat content of

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Excise Tax Compressed natural gas motor fuel is subject to the state fuel excise tax at the rate of $0.30 per 120 cubic feet, measured at 14.73 pounds per square inch and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Propane motor fuel is subject to the excise tax $0.30 per 1.3 gallons at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. (Reference Oregon Revised Statutes 319.530

  5. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Heating Oil & Propane Prices Definitions Key Terms Definition No. 2 Fuel Oil (Heating Oil) A distillate fuel oil for use in atomizing type burners for domestic heating or for use medium capacity commercial-industrial burner units, with distillation temperatures between 540-640 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90-percent recovery point; and the kinematic viscosities between 1.9-3.4 centistokes at 100 degrees Fahrenheit as defined in ASTM Specification D396-92. Petroleum Administration for Defense

  6. Scattering of particles with internal degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slipushenko, S. V.; Tur, A. V.; Yanovsky, V. V.

    2013-08-15

    The scattering of particles with a small number of internal degrees of freedom is considered. Billiard formalism is used to study the scattering of two such structurally complex particles. The main scattering characteristics are found. Various types of scattering modes are revealed. In particular, a mode is detected when the velocity of motion of such particles away from each other is higher than their approach velocity before the collision. The scattering of such particles is shown to occur after a finite number of collisions. A generalized Newton law is proposed for the collision of particles with a small number of degrees of freedom, and the form of the effective coefficient of restitution is found.

  7. Six-degree-of-freedom multi-axes positioning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieg, L.F.X.

    1999-05-11

    A six-degree-of-freedom multi-axes positioning apparatus is comprised of a geometry of six independent angle connectors. Each angle connector connects two fixed length rods to a pivot on one of two opposing platforms. The combination of an angle connector, at least two pivots and at least two rods having free ends connected to the pivots comprises a leg assembly. The spatial location of the upper platform is changed in relation to the lower platform by angular changes within each angle connector. This angular change results in degrees of motion within the apparatus defined as X, Y, Z, Tip, Tilt, and Rotation, or a combination of the above. This invention is known as a ROTOPOD. 9 figs.

  8. Six-degree-of-freedom multi-axes positioning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieg, Lothar F. X.

    1999-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom multi-axes positioning apparatus is comprised of a geometry of six independent angle connectors. Each angle connector connects two fixed length rods to a pivot on one of two opposing platforms. The combination of an angle connector, at least two pivots and at least two rods having free ends connected to the pivots comprises a leg assembly. The spatial location of the upper platform is changed in relation to the lower platform by angular changes within each angle connector. This angular change results in degrees of motion within the apparatus defined as X, Y, Z, Tip, Tilt, and Rotation, or a combination of the above. This invention is known as a ROTOPOD.

  9. Microsoft Word - VI_13_Degrees Awarded 2016.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE April 1, 2015 - March 31, 2016 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor Present Position Paul Cammarata 2015 Ternary breaking of the reaction systems in heavy- ion collisions below the Fermi energy S.J. Yennello Senior Analyzer Sytem Engineer, Dow Chemical, Houston Texas Michael Simon Mehlman 2015 Development of TAMUTRAP beam line, RFQ, and ion traps for precision β-decay studies D. Melconian Scientist, Exponent

  10. ORISE: Nuclear engineering degrees at highest ranges since 1980s

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ORISE report shows graduation, enrollment rates for nuclear engineering candidates are still at highest ranges reported since 1980s Report also shows shifts in career opportunities beyond graduation in nuclear utilities FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Nov. 2, 2011 FY12-04 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-After a one-year decline, the number of graduate and undergraduate nuclear engineering degrees earned in the United States bounced back in 2010. A recent report from the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

  11. Grain boundary energy in 5 degrees of freedom space

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-21

    GB5DOF is a program written in MatLab for computing excess energy of an arbitrary grain boundary defined by its 5 geometrical degrees of freedom. The program is written in the form of a single self-contained function callable from within commercially available MatLab software package. The function takes a geometric description of the boundary and material identity as input parameters and returns the predicted boundary energy.

  12. Elf well turns 90/degree/- and stays there

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astier, B.; Jourdan, A.; Baron, G.

    1981-01-01

    As part of an intensive research program, the French association IFP (Institut Francais du Petrole) and Elf-Aquitaine have drilled the first European horizontal hole. The well was spudded conventionally and then deviated so that its final path was horizontal, 2,198 ft (670 m) below the surface. More than 330 ft (100 m) were drilled between 89/degree/ and 92/degree/ of inclination. The project started with reservoir engineering studies aimed at demonstrating, on mathematical models, the effectiveness of a horizontal drain hole in areas where hydrocarbon recovery is poor or unsatisfactory, due to gas or water coning, poor flooding patterns, intersection of fractures in tight but fractured producing formations, or other causes. This technique has a number of potential applications both in and out of the oil industry. The well was drilled in 44 days. Horizontal displacement was 2,192 ft (668 m) with a total vertical depth of 2,198 ft (670 m). To accomplish this, it was necessary to drill 3,563 ft (1,086 m) of hole. In the 17/one-half/-in. hole, 73/4-in. drill collars and 5-in. heavy weight drill pipe were run above the bent sub and the monel collar. While reaming the hole, the drill string was rotated conventionally, one near bit and one stabilizer (30 ft above) being included in the string.

  13. Heavy metals in the near-surface aerosol over the Atlantic Ocean from 60 degree south to 54 degree north

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voelkening, J.; Heumann, K.G. )

    1990-11-20

    The particulate heavy metal concentrations of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Tl, and Pb were determined in the atmosphere over the Atlantic Ocean from 60{degree}S to 54{degree}N with the definitive method of isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Fe was used as a reference element for the influence of crustal material calculating the corresponding enrichment factors EF(Fe) for the other metal traces. Tl showed the lowest abundance of all heavy metals with concentrations of less than 20 pg m{sup {minus}3} for all samples except those from the area around the English Channel. The concentration ranges for the other elements were Cr = <0.08-9 ng m{sup {minus}3}, Fe = <2.6-7,500 ng m{sup {minus}3}, Ni = <0.05-10 ng m{sup {minus}3}, Cu = <0.02-20 ng m{sup {minus}3}, Zn = <0.09-450 ng m{sup {minus}3}, Cd = <0.003-3.5 ng m{sup {minus}3}, and Pb = <0.05-200 ng m{sup {minus}3}. The lowest element concentrations were usually measured in the remote areas of the South Atlantic, whereas the highest ones were detected around the English Channel. Due to high Fe concentrations, a substantial influence of crustal material was observed in the atmosphere southeast of the South American continent, in the South Atlantic area of the southeast trades, and over the North Atlantic west of North Africa. EF(Fe) values for the most part less than 10 for Cr and Ni and less than 50 for Cu indicate that the influence of crustal material for these metals is much higher than for Zn, Cd, and Pb where EF(Fe) values between 500 and 5,000 had often been determined. This is due to anthropogenic and biological influences.

  14. IR Spectrometer Using 90-degree Off-axis Parabolic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert M. Malone, Richard, G. Hacking, Ian J. McKenna, and Daniel H. Dolan

    2008-09-02

    A gated spectrometer has been designed for real-time, pulsed infrared (IR) studies at the National Synchrotron Light ource at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. A pair of 90-degree, off-axis parabolic mirrors are used to relay the light from an entrance slit to an output IR recording camera. With an initial wavelength range of 15004500 nm required, gratings could not be used in the spectrometer because grating orders would overlap. A magnesium oxide prism, placed between these parabolic mirrors, serves as the dispersion element. The spectrometer is doubly telecentric. With proper choice of the air spacing between the prism and the second parabolic mirror, any spectral region of interest within the InSb camera arrays sensitivity region can be recorded. The wavelengths leaving the second parabolic mirror are collimated, thereby relaxing the camera positioning tolerance. To set up the instrument, two different wavelength (visible) lasers are introduced at the entrance slit and made collinear with the optical axis via flip mirrors. After dispersion by the prism, these two laser beams are directed to tick marks located on the outside housing of the gated IR camera. This provides first-order wavelength calibration for the instrument. Light that is reflected off the front prism face is coupled into a high-speed detector to verify steady radiance during the gated spectral imaging. Alignment features include tick marks on the prism and parabolic mirrors. This instrument was designed to complement singlepoint pyrometry, which provides continuous time histories of a small collection of spots from shock-heated targets.

  15. Brief 71 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees, 2011 Summary (11-12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Don Johnson

    2012-11-07

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2011. The enrollment and degree data include students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major. Twenty-four academic programs reported having health physics programs during 2011. The data for two health physics options within nuclear engineering programs are also included in the enrollments and degrees that are reported in the nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees data.

  16. ORISE: Number of health physics degrees granted in 2013 has increased for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    undergraduates, declined for graduates Number of undergraduate health physics degrees dropped in 2015 to lowest level in more than a decade Despite number of bachelor's degrees decreasing, number of master's and doctorate degrees increased* FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Aug. 3, 2016 FY16-33.1 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of undergraduate students who graduated in 2015 with bachelor's degrees in health physics dropped to the lowest level in more than a decade, while the number of master's and

  17. ORISE: Number of health physics degrees granted in 2013 has increased for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    undergraduates, declined for graduates Number of undergraduate health physics degrees dropped in 2015 to lowest level in more than a decade Despite number of bachelor's degrees decreasing, number of master's and doctorate degrees increased* FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Aug. 3, 2016 FY16-33.1 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of undergraduate students who graduated in 2015 with bachelor's degrees in health physics dropped to the lowest level in more than a decade, while the number of master's and

  18. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Alabama (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.05 3.05 2.93 2.83 2.83 2.99 3.09 3.00 2.95 2.95 3.14 3.09 1990 3.15 3.22 3.03 2.93 2.96 3.09 2.95 3.91 2.94 3.02 3.18 3.20 1991 3.50 3.41 2.92 2.93 2.95 2.92 2.80 2.79 2.94 3.05 2.86 3.37 1992 3.16 3.06 2.68 2.80 3.01 3.28 3.25 3.65 3.67 3.91 3.44 3.43 1993 3.33 3.37 3.16 3.38 3.88 3.98 3.83 3.96 4.11 3.78 3.55 3.38 1994 3.20 3.16 3.67 3.60 3.84 4.26 3.91 3.92 3.62 3.64 3.26 2.87 1995 2.59 2.60 2.45 2.90 3.34 3.58 3.83 3.20 3.50 3.52

  19. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Alaska (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 1990 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.35 0.38 0.33 0.33 0.35 1991 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.28 1992 0.36 0.36 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 1993 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.33 0.33 1994 1.77 1.57 1.62 1.62 1.67 1.41 1.54 1.60 1.60 1.61 1.60 1.62 1995 1.71 1.67 1.66 1.79 1.70 1.60 1.63 1.57 1.64 1.63

  20. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Arizona (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.65 2.77 2.52 2.47 2.52 2.69 2.74 2.73 2.82 2.64 2.74 2.72 1990 3.13 2.60 2.51 2.54 2.39 2.67 2.70 2.66 2.60 2.75 2.82 2.80 1991 2.71 2.32 2.24 2.31 2.84 2.45 2.30 2.48 2.38 2.39 2.29 2.52 1992 2.34 2.08 2.12 1.98 1.57 2.31 2.70 2.43 2.45 2.64 2.69 2.55 1993 2.63 2.28 2.50 2.00 3.23 2.92 3.03 3.07 3.10 2.57 2.57 2.69 1994 2.69 2.95 2.87 2.72 2.53 2.77 2.72 2.66 2.58 2.07 2.08 2.34 1995 2.21 2.39 1.82 1.78 2.00 2.17 2.20 2.36 2.44 2.24

  1. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Colorado (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.83 2.85 2.92 3.19 3.36 3.60 4.16 3.31 3.09 2.94 2.73 2.79 1990 2.85 2.80 2.79 2.88 3.19 3.46 3.40 3.39 3.38 3.06 2.90 2.79 1991 2.64 2.69 2.82 2.93 3.09 3.56 3.48 3.56 3.49 2.90 2.69 2.66 1992 2.67 2.60 2.67 2.75 3.45 3.23 3.32 3.61 3.67 2.98 2.74 2.81 1993 2.80 2.67 2.57 2.78 3.02 3.59 3.35 3.46 3.14 3.55 2.90 3.17 1994 3.43 3.17 3.57 3.76 3.62 3.82 3.82 3.47 3.66 2.83 2.81 2.98 1995 2.63 2.70 2.56 3.04 2.41 2.96 3.70 3.84 2.89 2.41

  2. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Delaware (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.95 3.17 3.14 2.38 2.90 2.14 3.53 2.66 2.29 2.09 2.98 3.29 1990 2.84 3.16 2.91 2.41 2.97 2.44 2.42 2.30 2.49 2.54 3.62 3.46 1991 3.28 2.82 2.48 2.33 2.38 2.15 2.21 2.14 2.46 2.62 3.08 2.83 1992 3.01 1.81 2.62 2.55 2.59 2.90 2.72 1.78 2.74 3.74 3.93 3.53 1993 3.13 3.03 3.22 3.33 3.52 3.52 3.15 2.98 3.56 3.19 2.94 3.45 1994 3.29 3.41 3.19 2.98 3.00 2.73 3.00 2.98 2.69 2.42 2.82 2.75 1995 2.69 2.45 2.47 3.11 3.20 3.38 1.73 2.48 2.85 2.81

  3. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Georgia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.95 3.76 3.52 3.10 3.35 3.67 3.93 3.32 3.20 3.08 3.36 3.56 1990 3.73 3.84 3.62 3.19 2.96 3.24 3.16 3.05 3.08 3.10 3.52 3.47 1991 3.99 3.98 3.63 2.73 2.79 2.84 3.06 2.64 2.97 3.11 3.38 3.36 1992 3.27 3.79 2.61 2.57 2.90 3.21 3.10 3.55 3.70 3.93 3.27 3.51 1993 3.79 3.48 3.25 3.44 4.62 4.25 4.06 4.17 4.56 3.67 3.73 3.92 1994 3.22 3.97 3.69 3.16 4.54 3.81 3.81 3.51 3.68 3.13 3.43 3.31 1995 3.01 2.54 3.45 2.84 3.17 3.16 2.88 2.81 3.49 3.00

  4. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Hawaii (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 5.42 5.92 6.83 6.52 7.00 7.15 6.66 6.56 6.34 6.32 6.55 6.65 1990 7.18 7.27 7.24 6.96 7.29 6.24 5.85 6.28 7.54 9.65 10.42 10.09 1991 9.17 9.99 8.62 8.18 8.57 7.22 8.76 8.99 8.75 9.12 8.64 8.93 1992 7.53 7.22 7.40 7.64 7.60 7.55 8.08 8.27 7.87 8.17 7.81 7.59 1993 6.49 7.01 5.46 5.69 5.72 5.62 5.46 5.18 5.17 5.23 5.13 4.91 1994 4.33 4.32 4.54 4.64 4.66 4.94 5.22 5.34 5.33 5.41 5.05 5.52 1995 4.85 5.14 5.42 4.52 4.38 5.98 6.12 4.25 5.78 5.90

  5. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Idaho (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 1.95 2.04 2.06 2.41 2.57 2.55 2.62 2.93 2.49 2.35 2.10 2.06 1990 2.10 1.98 1.92 2.09 2.15 2.77 2.20 2.24 2.44 1.96 1.95 2.01 1991 2.03 2.24 2.10 2.11 2.43 2.61 2.07 2.31 2.23 2.09 2.04 2.07 1992 1.96 2.17 2.28 1.94 2.55 2.57 2.52 3.61 2.47 2.37 1.99 2.06 1993 2.03 1.97 2.12 1.89 2.24 2.39 2.92 2.54 2.46 2.39 2.33 2.68 1994 2.45 2.32 2.53 2.65 2.78 2.98 3.80 3.68 2.71 2.19 2.25 2.22 1995 2.06 2.29 2.23 2.21 2.28 2.43 2.89 2.72 2.79 1.83

  6. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Illinois (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 4.19 3.34 2.96 2.60 2.60 2.79 2.80 2.71 2.67 2.64 2.92 3.24 1990 3.91 3.72 3.28 2.85 2.48 2.75 2.57 2.64 2.80 2.62 3.40 3.56 1991 3.39 3.27 3.09 2.85 2.52 2.54 2.47 2.47 2.66 2.85 2.99 3.36 1992 3.52 2.99 2.71 2.97 2.72 2.89 3.08 3.19 3.36 3.60 3.47 3.53 1993 3.75 3.48 3.26 3.43 3.40 3.18 3.28 3.25 3.37 3.00 3.25 3.08 1994 3.06 3.39 3.55 3.28 2.86 3.33 2.62 2.93 2.65 2.38 2.80 2.82 1995 2.47 2.28 2.33 2.40 3.16 3.14 3.45 3.02 3.58 2.94

  7. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Indiana (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.43 3.21 3.04 3.08 3.32 3.38 3.20 2.96 2.94 3.04 2.67 3.24 1990 3.57 2.93 3.10 2.80 3.12 3.50 3.38 2.78 2.89 2.84 3.27 3.45 1991 3.30 3.18 2.88 3.02 2.87 3.29 2.85 2.79 2.68 2.90 2.99 3.32 1992 3.07 2.79 2.75 2.57 2.71 3.16 2.97 3.52 3.03 3.69 3.33 3.26 1993 3.04 2.83 2.91 3.14 3.74 3.42 3.40 3.55 3.47 3.10 3.14 3.22 1994 2.92 3.24 3.32 2.98 2.90 3.06 2.72 2.95 2.28 2.27 3.07 3.05 1995 2.63 2.35 2.95 2.81 3.11 3.63 3.26 3.18 3.57 2.96

  8. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Iowa (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.20 2.80 2.66 2.74 2.29 3.16 3.06 3.03 2.84 2.32 2.49 3.00 1990 3.55 2.77 2.62 2.48 2.79 3.06 2.98 2.85 2.87 2.49 2.69 2.89 1991 2.64 2.58 2.48 2.40 2.90 2.67 3.38 2.84 2.86 2.94 2.76 2.86 1992 2.64 2.58 2.72 2.48 3.77 4.12 4.16 3.86 3.89 3.97 3.44 3.21 1993 3.02 2.81 2.94 3.55 4.28 3.60 3.52 3.44 3.81 3.17 2.90 3.55 1994 2.84 3.28 3.54 3.36 4.07 3.60 3.45 3.84 3.34 2.56 2.83 2.86 1995 2.63 2.44 2.78 2.97 3.10 3.39 3.55 3.48 3.41 2.84

  9. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Louisiana (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.19 2.89 2.82 2.83 3.04 2.95 3.03 3.08 3.12 2.87 2.97 3.01 1990 3.29 3.20 2.85 2.82 2.84 2.64 2.73 2.58 2.64 2.79 3.17 3.24 1991 2.73 2.55 2.50 2.33 2.30 3.87 2.18 2.30 2.33 2.52 2.48 2.59 1992 2.34 1.93 2.06 2.25 2.42 2.30 2.26 2.60 2.70 3.24 2.83 2.82 1993 2.59 2.38 2.59 2.78 3.23 2.77 2.69 2.89 2.74 2.62 2.80 2.88 1994 2.66 3.19 2.94 2.65 2.64 2.77 2.43 2.26 1.97 2.02 2.38 2.35 1995 2.23 2.05 2.14 2.12 2.10 2.04 2.00 1.90 2.05 2.23

  10. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Maine (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.93 3.60 3.20 3.28 2.98 3.35 3.53 3.52 3.41 2.94 3.70 2.71 1990 3.13 3.59 3.06 2.69 2.79 3.05 2.72 2.67 2.92 2.91 2.91 3.94 1991 3.98 3.77 2.40 2.48 2.68 2.78 2.53 2.49 2.64 2.65 2.98 3.60 1992 3.45 3.39 2.59 2.44 2.66 2.82 2.72 4.19 2.80 3.45 3.41 4.00 1993 3.69 3.53 3.66 3.31 3.67 4.67 4.77 4.20 4.31 3.96 3.28 3.14 1994 4.04 3.85 3.81 3.20 2.92 2.16 2.09 1.17 0.88 1.20 2.54 3.51 1995 3.21 3.50 2.43 3.41 2.72 5.81 5.99 5.13 3.54 2.72

  11. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Michigan (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.45 3.59 3.47 3.44 3.19 3.21 3.20 3.01 3.09 3.31 3.11 2.98 1990 3.36 3.43 3.48 3.11 2.52 3.04 3.14 2.95 2.96 3.06 3.18 3.18 1991 3.47 3.39 3.37 2.91 2.82 2.86 2.66 3.04 3.28 3.15 3.13 3.02 1992 3.21 3.11 3.19 2.93 2.89 2.82 2.78 2.95 3.02 3.31 3.33 3.16 1993 3.43 2.90 2.84 2.82 3.17 2.77 2.60 2.79 2.96 2.76 2.87 2.92 1994 2.77 3.03 2.88 2.58 2.56 2.55 2.77 2.59 2.55 2.56 2.70 2.93 1995 2.81 2.83 2.92 2.46 2.49 2.43 2.41 2.50 2.61 2.54

  12. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Mississippi (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.11 2.92 2.90 3.43 3.13 3.22 3.37 3.23 3.20 3.13 2.98 2.96 1990 3.30 3.11 2.81 2.67 2.64 2.77 2.65 2.65 2.65 2.70 2.98 3.02 1991 2.86 2.75 2.51 2.34 2.34 2.33 2.24 2.27 2.31 2.60 2.55 2.70 1992 2.41 2.06 2.14 2.32 2.50 2.59 2.39 2.81 2.99 3.59 3.07 2.97 1993 2.62 2.44 2.61 2.89 3.41 2.97 2.89 3.00 3.42 2.96 3.07 3.22 1994 2.72 3.12 3.20 3.03 2.90 2.73 2.99 2.71 2.64 2.49 2.81 2.54 1995 2.35 2.24 2.37 2.39 2.46 2.50 2.34 2.21 2.43 2.77

  13. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Missouri (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.00 2.80 2.90 2.93 3.11 2.77 3.26 2.96 3.04 3.03 3.05 3.20 1990 3.24 3.21 3.16 2.71 3.40 3.55 3.57 2.97 3.35 2.78 3.18 3.06 1991 2.93 2.68 2.92 2.70 3.01 3.05 2.89 2.84 3.07 3.11 2.98 3.04 1992 2.88 2.46 2.59 2.60 2.85 3.20 2.74 3.39 3.52 3.56 3.16 2.78 1993 3.37 2.87 2.96 2.91 3.90 3.81 3.63 3.79 3.88 3.37 2.89 3.14 1994 2.76 2.81 3.34 3.76 3.70 3.38 5.03 4.61 4.08 3.16 2.64 2.43 1995 2.39 2.28 2.48 2.83 3.08 3.99 4.06 3.97 3.85 3.21

  14. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Montana (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.59 3.58 3.57 3.64 3.86 3.35 3.35 2.96 3.11 3.03 3.24 3.24 1990 3.26 3.27 3.18 3.13 2.97 3.26 3.21 3.15 3.40 3.32 3.52 3.49 1991 3.73 3.78 3.63 3.54 3.81 4.07 4.38 4.44 4.16 3.57 3.50 3.52 1992 3.57 3.57 3.58 3.63 4.03 4.51 4.80 4.38 3.85 3.19 3.01 2.91 1993 2.98 2.96 2.92 3.16 4.11 4.47 4.44 4.53 4.01 3.21 2.90 3.67 1994 3.09 3.86 3.98 3.41 4.34 3.29 4.66 3.56 3.83 3.31 2.98 3.34 1995 3.51 3.31 3.10 2.94 2.99 3.38 2.92 2.06 3.01 2.68

  15. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Nebraska (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.18 2.76 2.86 2.68 2.98 3.34 3.39 3.22 3.15 2.67 2.64 2.90 1990 3.50 2.76 2.78 2.59 2.85 3.20 3.10 2.93 3.11 2.62 2.90 2.97 1991 2.68 2.57 2.68 2.69 2.90 2.90 2.97 2.78 3.00 2.85 2.62 2.88 1992 2.71 2.36 2.46 2.47 3.07 3.28 3.18 3.23 3.47 3.55 3.15 3.09 1993 2.92 2.78 2.78 3.19 3.94 3.49 3.37 3.51 6.24 4.28 3.96 3.96 1994 2.73 2.92 3.17 2.95 3.94 3.85 3.38 3.50 3.28 3.22 2.65 2.38 1995 2.38 2.20 2.47 2.18 2.68 2.69 3.42 3.11 2.97 2.80

  16. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Nevada (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.45 2.94 4.18 3.12 4.02 3.50 3.51 3.26 3.03 2.71 3.31 3.22 1990 3.23 3.05 3.14 2.64 2.38 2.68 3.00 2.67 2.50 2.33 2.62 2.46 1991 2.54 2.43 2.22 2.08 2.32 2.30 2.52 2.52 2.33 2.11 2.19 2.26 1992 2.20 2.13 2.20 2.09 2.65 2.68 2.72 2.92 2.67 2.45 2.43 2.40 1993 2.57 2.36 2.66 3.29 3.73 3.55 3.74 4.75 4.49 3.72 3.01 2.76 1994 3.16 3.24 3.60 3.94 3.99 3.23 3.50 4.04 3.50 2.88 2.53 2.85 1995 2.80 3.15 2.62 2.35 2.86 2.92 3.46 3.06 3.23 2.64

  17. Natural Gas Citygate Price in New Jersey (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.06 3.56 3.01 2.73 3.18 3.16 3.44 3.10 3.12 3.19 3.09 3.41 1990 3.57 3.47 3.07 2.88 2.81 3.11 3.14 3.27 3.26 3.18 3.46 3.39 1991 3.32 3.17 2.76 2.91 3.00 3.30 2.88 3.31 3.48 3.41 3.22 3.05 1992 3.15 2.81 2.58 2.66 3.19 3.17 3.40 3.38 3.97 3.95 4.32 3.32 1993 3.32 2.82 3.27 3.44 4.26 4.18 4.69 4.30 3.84 3.40 3.49 3.54 1994 3.37 3.45 3.53 3.76 3.32 3.70 3.73 3.55 3.48 2.79 2.74 2.78 1995 3.12 3.09 3.11 3.25 3.21 3.60 4.02 3.72 3.40 3.74

  18. Natural Gas Citygate Price in New York (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.24 3.09 2.87 2.87 2.84 2.96 3.07 3.03 2.94 2.80 3.23 3.41 1990 3.37 3.23 2.98 2.92 2.63 2.76 2.77 2.74 2.79 2.66 3.28 3.54 1991 3.36 2.92 2.79 2.77 2.64 2.69 2.53 2.55 3.09 3.02 2.90 3.14 1992 2.88 2.49 2.57 2.67 2.91 3.11 2.92 3.15 3.37 3.75 3.47 3.34 1993 3.10 2.91 3.11 3.64 4.08 3.73 3.49 3.25 3.78 3.44 3.11 3.39 1994 3.07 3.34 3.34 3.04 3.21 3.08 3.01 3.13 2.76 2.66 2.78 2.63 1995 2.55 2.44 2.31 2.30 2.42 2.40 2.20 2.12 2.32 2.53

  19. Natural Gas Citygate Price in North Carolina (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.19 3.17 3.07 2.88 2.94 3.04 3.50 3.06 2.91 2.77 2.71 2.98 1990 3.09 2.94 2.60 2.64 2.92 2.93 2.86 2.74 2.86 3.00 2.78 3.06 1991 2.68 2.53 2.51 2.82 2.81 2.75 3.22 2.60 2.78 2.61 2.61 2.91 1992 2.77 2.37 2.18 2.56 2.85 3.13 3.13 3.04 3.26 3.38 3.32 3.22 1993 3.09 2.83 3.01 3.24 3.65 3.57 3.74 3.53 3.52 2.88 2.67 3.29 1994 3.24 3.49 3.49 3.71 3.33 3.26 3.60 3.09 3.35 3.11 2.96 2.82 1995 2.85 2.77 2.79 3.06 3.06 3.15 3.48 3.24

  20. Natural Gas Citygate Price in North Dakota (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.36 3.33 3.20 3.28 3.11 3.10 3.13 2.92 2.75 2.61 2.83 3.03 1990 3.00 3.13 2.94 2.86 2.83 3.03 3.12 2.74 3.05 2.81 3.23 3.42 1991 3.52 3.38 3.28 3.32 3.62 3.93 4.33 4.38 3.98 3.47 3.33 3.42 1992 3.44 3.34 3.20 3.21 3.36 3.55 4.16 3.79 3.38 3.16 3.09 3.06 1993 3.11 2.97 3.01 3.24 4.05 4.23 4.57 4.45 3.66 3.19 2.88 3.38 1994 2.64 3.67 3.71 3.06 3.88 3.24 3.75 3.17 3.39 3.29 2.98 2.67 1995 3.11 2.78 2.66 2.43 2.45 2.45 2.25 1.95

  1. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Ohio (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.44 3.47 3.06 3.41 2.70 2.49 3.61 3.61 4.36 3.16 3.34 3.32 1990 3.01 3.16 3.16 2.74 3.03 3.12 3.03 2.88 2.66 2.86 3.34 3.27 1991 3.07 3.09 3.00 2.90 3.31 3.42 3.29 3.37 2.88 2.59 3.05 3.12 1992 2.96 2.98 2.87 2.96 3.35 3.43 3.72 3.71 3.60 3.84 3.51 3.69 1993 3.40 3.43 3.44 4.28 4.27 4.23 3.82 3.87 3.76 3.04 3.48 3.25 1994 3.48 3.47 3.62 3.56 3.38 3.38 3.53 4.18 2.83 3.48 3.35 3.48 1995 4.18 3.76 3.91 3.95 4.12 4.19 4.63 4.87 3.85 4.01

  2. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Oklahoma (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.23 2.17 1.99 2.10 1.94 1.89 1.72 1.84 1.79 1.87 2.02 2.29 1990 2.19 2.14 2.03 2.01 1.83 1.86 1.73 1.74 1.69 1.86 2.17 2.24 1991 2.16 1.95 1.98 1.76 1.78 1.90 1.69 1.77 1.79 2.29 2.37 2.15 1992 2.17 2.07 2.06 2.11 2.97 1.88 1.82 1.79 1.84 2.44 2.52 2.38 1993 2.50 2.40 2.44 2.26 2.54 2.10 1.80 2.00 2.39 2.42 2.65 2.79 1994 2.67 2.68 2.75 2.55 2.35 2.19 1.67 1.85 1.60 1.69 2.00 2.67 1995 2.84 2.72 2.72 2.57 2.46 2.35 2.33 2.39 1.93 1.97

  3. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Oregon (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.55 2.31 2.49 3.00 2.82 3.01 2.57 3.80 2.59 2.60 3.09 2.49 1990 2.53 2.38 2.43 2.55 2.51 2.90 2.61 2.53 2.54 2.30 2.55 2.38 1991 2.39 2.56 2.29 2.20 2.30 2.37 2.64 2.42 2.56 2.29 2.45 2.43 1992 2.40 2.27 2.35 2.22 2.59 2.14 2.25 2.41 2.27 2.35 2.36 2.39 1993 2.22 2.26 2.16 2.18 2.74 2.83 2.51 2.61 2.52 2.65 2.54 2.94 1994 2.77 2.70 2.69 2.78 3.08 2.74 2.96 2.81 2.81 2.72 2.71 2.49 1995 2.40 2.55 2.41 2.38 2.77 2.69 3.16 2.82 2.96 2.41

  4. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Rhode Island (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.47 3.47 3.36 3.22 3.91 4.85 5.42 4.91 4.63 3.55 3.51 3.49 1990 3.68 3.71 3.61 3.32 3.79 4.07 4.21 3.84 3.59 3.44 3.74 3.91 1991 3.74 3.66 3.35 3.55 3.62 3.73 3.95 3.57 3.67 3.95 3.88 3.60 1992 3.52 3.40 3.06 3.38 3.99 4.21 4.26 4.87 4.58 4.45 4.49 3.67 1993 3.57 3.12 3.34 4.09 6.59 6.17 7.73 6.64 7.37 4.78 4.75 3.93 1994 3.50 3.67 4.00 4.59 6.30 5.40 6.27 6.17 5.39 3.98 3.36 3.16 1995 3.04 2.71 2.76 3.25 4.20 5.53 6.46 5.85

  5. Natural Gas Citygate Price in South Dakota (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.34 2.99 3.09 2.92 3.05 3.47 3.91 3.53 3.11 2.61 2.62 3.00 1990 3.44 2.97 2.89 2.66 3.04 3.61 3.45 3.46 3.48 2.82 3.08 3.21 1991 3.16 3.01 2.98 2.85 3.14 3.71 3.65 3.59 3.56 3.13 2.83 3.15 1992 2.95 2.86 2.98 2.42 3.42 3.68 3.91 4.09 3.25 2.83 3.18 3.29 1993 3.07 2.98 3.12 3.36 4.31 4.31 4.42 4.69 3.61 3.19 2.93 3.58 1994 2.96 3.32 3.67 3.23 3.74 4.67 4.93 4.28 4.31 3.23 2.97 2.91 1995 2.82 2.80 2.80 2.64 2.99 3.84 3.86 3.93

  6. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Tennessee (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.94 2.70 2.40 2.64 2.86 3.05 2.97 2.92 2.88 2.76 2.81 3.00 1990 3.16 2.76 2.68 2.52 2.75 2.77 2.86 2.56 2.67 2.55 3.10 3.27 1991 2.79 2.44 2.44 2.64 2.83 2.81 2.59 2.74 3.06 2.96 3.02 2.72 1992 2.47 2.26 2.36 2.68 3.01 3.09 2.94 3.41 3.41 3.66 3.40 3.20 1993 2.95 2.81 3.07 3.29 3.80 3.39 3.34 3.39 3.91 3.38 3.03 3.57 1994 1.81 3.24 3.48 3.18 2.85 2.81 3.57 2.90 3.79 2.59 2.89 2.52 1995 2.46 2.70 2.36 2.69 2.68 3.25 3.10 2.64 2.72 2.69

  7. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Texas (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.26 3.41 3.37 3.07 3.22 3.19 3.35 3.43 3.17 2.96 3.58 3.49 1990 3.33 3.26 3.12 3.01 2.93 2.85 2.87 3.14 2.88 2.72 3.29 3.50 1991 3.40 3.16 2.68 2.62 2.46 2.53 2.48 2.47 2.60 2.91 3.00 3.10 1992 2.98 2.78 2.77 2.83 2.85 2.78 2.71 2.94 3.01 3.61 3.47 3.47 1993 3.44 3.21 3.18 3.11 3.38 3.18 3.08 3.19 3.43 3.24 3.48 3.58 1994 3.21 3.26 3.27 2.98 2.84 2.59 2.66 2.66 2.72 2.73 3.04 3.20 1995 3.02 3.05 3.15 3.19 2.72 2.81 2.63 2.62 2.74 2.75

  8. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Utah (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.17 3.23 3.27 3.64 4.09 4.95 5.17 5.02 4.58 3.89 3.53 3.41 1990 3.37 3.33 3.75 4.55 4.75 5.23 5.27 4.87 5.26 4.38 4.06 3.55 1991 3.57 3.76 3.96 4.28 4.43 5.43 5.30 5.53 5.50 4.13 3.91 3.04 1992 3.26 3.54 4.17 5.26 8.05 7.48 7.72 7.45 9.36 4.71 3.95 3.00 1993 2.94 2.89 3.49 3.74 5.61 2.71 2.89 2.30 2.20 1.53 1.85 2.85 1994 2.87 3.11 3.29 2.88 2.71 5.18 4.24 3.62 4.81 3.91 3.24 3.66 1995 3.46 4.06 3.33 2.48 2.55 3.41 2.56 2.40 3.16 2.18

  9. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Vermont (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.63 2.58 2.47 2.60 2.78 2.70 2.75 2.72 2.67 2.57 2.67 2.47 1990 2.70 2.77 2.86 2.70 2.84 3.42 3.49 2.76 2.95 2.98 2.99 2.82 1991 2.78 2.89 2.69 3.07 2.97 2.62 2.90 2.75 3.62 2.87 2.98 2.78 1992 2.76 2.76 2.65 2.76 3.04 3.25 3.25 4.17 4.06 2.95 2.86 2.60 1993 2.52 2.54 2.57 3.03 3.85 3.99 3.78 4.38 3.80 2.98 2.74 2.59 1994 2.86 2.99 2.98 3.32 3.83 4.33 4.77 4.83 1.54 3.68 2.69 2.39 1995 2.45 2.40 2.35 2.68 3.56 3.37 3.20 3.04 3.16 2.89

  10. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Virginia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.48 3.44 3.14 2.59 2.87 3.01 2.95 3.25 3.19 3.06 3.00 3.22 1990 3.40 3.16 2.67 2.61 2.97 3.68 3.20 2.60 2.74 2.77 3.45 3.44 1991 2.92 2.77 2.53 2.69 3.01 2.52 2.43 2.31 2.58 2.83 2.90 3.04 1992 2.93 2.34 2.14 2.33 2.80 2.69 2.87 3.63 3.26 3.70 3.83 3.32 1993 3.24 3.18 3.14 3.36 3.73 3.43 3.29 3.41 3.53 3.16 3.40 3.55 1994 3.41 3.52 3.41 3.81 3.56 4.21 3.45 3.68 3.20 3.62 3.15 3.15 1995 2.97 2.88 2.81 2.78 3.36 3.46 3.00 3.08 2.22 3.40

  11. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Washington (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.27 2.33 2.10 2.13 2.49 2.33 2.32 2.19 2.19 2.20 1.92 2.15 1990 2.32 2.05 1.84 1.82 1.71 1.83 1.88 1.84 1.89 1.85 1.96 1.98 1991 2.02 1.87 1.89 1.76 1.65 1.74 1.90 1.84 1.87 1.97 2.00 2.10 1992 1.76 1.77 1.80 1.63 1.84 1.87 1.96 1.93 1.99 2.00 1.98 2.16 1993 2.18 2.11 2.06 1.85 2.52 2.56 2.37 2.35 2.89 2.76 2.98 2.56 1994 2.52 2.35 2.46 2.34 2.55 2.38 2.20 2.30 2.33 2.89 3.14 2.64 1995 2.40 2.46 2.44 2.21 1.92 1.93 1.79 1.98 2.06 2.02

  12. Natural Gas Citygate Price in West Virginia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.39 3.19 3.30 3.67 4.93 4.88 7.17 7.30 6.88 3.95 3.53 3.27 1990 3.32 3.54 3.03 3.52 3.95 4.89 5.31 5.76 5.52 3.41 3.03 3.14 1991 3.02 2.80 4.11 4.23 4.87 3.53 8.65 3.65 4.25 3.45 3.15 4.18 1992 3.14 2.80 1.93 2.29 4.05 4.36 7.91 5.74 6.20 4.59 3.99 3.36 1993 2.96 2.94 2.94 3.32 1.94 4.77 5.73 7.55 4.95 3.66 4.46 3.52 1994 3.23 3.52 3.73 3.11 3.46 2.97 3.16 3.48 3.45 2.94 2.78 3.05 1995 2.80 2.56 2.87 2.63 2.99 2.83 3.40 3.13

  13. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Wisconsin (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 3.80 3.64 3.21 3.66 4.00 4.52 4.77 5.12 4.31 3.49 3.05 2.28 1990 3.40 3.38 3.10 3.05 3.22 3.87 3.90 3.99 3.46 3.04 3.27 3.40 1991 3.30 3.01 2.82 2.77 3.08 3.78 3.80 3.75 3.56 3.26 3.15 3.15 1992 3.02 2.88 3.03 3.12 3.45 3.84 4.76 4.94 4.47 3.97 3.48 3.17 1993 3.06 2.95 3.15 3.86 5.43 5.65 5.71 6.22 5.25 3.99 3.31 3.41 1994 2.99 3.23 3.42 3.30 4.30 4.48 5.28 4.31 4.73 3.39 2.96 2.80 1995 2.63 2.61 2.75 2.64 2.81 4.15 3.81 3.71 3.37 2.99

  14. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Wyoming (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.96 2.96 2.89 3.12 3.00 3.32 3.48 3.04 3.11 3.13 2.86 2.86 1990 2.81 2.94 2.88 2.86 4.65 3.63 3.27 3.88 3.37 2.56 2.68 2.77 1991 3.12 3.15 3.11 3.08 3.39 3.72 3.68 3.52 3.04 2.76 2.65 2.83 1992 2.95 2.95 2.83 3.23 3.43 3.63 3.36 3.32 3.01 2.66 2.55 2.69 1993 2.71 2.63 2.89 3.07 3.77 2.83 3.05 2.86 2.49 2.51 2.46 3.04 1994 3.21 3.30 3.21 3.05 3.73 2.87 2.97 3.07 2.61 2.19 2.14 2.99 1995 2.88 2.75 2.84 2.63 2.80 2.64 2.49 2.67 NA NA NA NA

  15. Natural Gas Citygate Price in the District of Columbia (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1990 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1991 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1992 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1993 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1994 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1995 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1996 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1997 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1998 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1999 -- --

  16. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Alabama (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.03 3.97 3.45 3.27 3.16 3.00 1990's 3.13 3.11 3.21 3.51 3.44 2.89 3.48 3.65 3.17 3.21 2000's 4.50 6.63 4.74 6.06 6.65 8.47 10.26 8.78 9.84 7.61 2010's 6.46 5.80 5.18 4.65 4.93 NA

  17. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Alaska (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0.33 0.33 1990's 0.34 0.32 0.34 0.33 1.62 1.67 1.58 1.81 1.72 1.32 2000's 1.60 2.32 2.36 2.33 3.05 3.74 5.25 6.75 6.74 8.22 2010's 6.67 6.53 6.14 6.02 6.34 6.57

  18. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Arizona (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.94 3.54 2.66 2.46 2.51 2.67 1990's 2.73 2.45 2.33 2.62 2.53 2.10 2.78 3.15 2.55 2.72 2000's 4.82 5.02 3.77 4.87 5.63 7.32 7.67 8.25 8.49 7.21 2010's 6.59 5.91 4.68 4.73 5.20 NA

  19. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Arkansas (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.00 3.00 2.83 2.51 2.43 2.47 1990's 2.41 2.45 2.60 2.66 2.54 2.32 2.76 3.23 2.94 2.81 2000's 4.16 6.11 5.17 6.07 7.12 8.83 7.96 8.55 8.88 7.86 2010's 6.76 6.27 5.36 4.99 5.84 4.7

  20. Natural Gas Citygate Price in California (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.97 3.54 2.76 2.39 2.60 2.75 1990's 2.90 2.80 2.72 2.85 2.57 2.03 2.59 2.98 2.38 2.61 2000's 4.32 6.64 3.20 5.16 6.04 7.88 6.76 6.82 8.11 4.17 2010's 4.86 4.47 3.46 4.18 4.88 3.27

  1. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Colorado (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.81 3.55 3.35 3.15 3.07 2.96 1990's 2.94 2.85 2.85 2.95 3.31 2.65 2.70 2.92 2.40 2.31 2000's 3.53 4.25 2.72 4.11 5.02 6.10 7.61 6.23 6.98 5.09 2010's 5.26 4.94 4.26 4.76 5.42 3.96

  2. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Connecticut (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.15 4.20 3.67 3.16 3.27 3.46 1990's 3.66 3.50 3.73 3.87 4.17 4.70 5.11 5.11 5.06 4.91 2000's 6.73 8.12 6.42 5.59 7.56 9.67 9.11 8.67 10.24 6.81 2010's 6.58 5.92 5.12 5.42 5.61 4.07

  3. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Delaware (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.20 4.04 3.24 2.60 2.88 2.82 1990's 2.76 2.54 2.83 3.24 2.95 2.70 3.68 3.53 3.02 3.45 2000's 3.41 5.16 5.37 5.88 6.13 8.32 8.84 7.58 8.32 6.54 2010's 5.67 9.03 7.19 5.67 5.54 NA

  4. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Florida (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.41 3.32 2.65 2.66 2.46 2.63 1990's 2.71 2.51 2.61 2.76 2.78 2.74 3.73 3.97 3.42 3.49 2000's 5.10 5.28 3.90 5.87 6.60 9.30 8.32 7.97 9.73 5.76 2010's 5.49 5.07 3.93 4.44 5.05 NA

  5. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Georgia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.37 4.26 3.80 3.61 3.60 3.54 1990's 3.43 3.38 3.28 3.77 3.54 2.96 3.77 3.98 3.51 2.95 2000's 4.64 6.02 4.55 6.25 6.81 9.85 9.37 8.15 9.35 6.56 2010's 5.93 5.19 4.35 4.66 5.19 3.82

  6. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Hawaii (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 9.12 8.81 6.38 6.55 6.21 6.49 1990's 7.67 8.74 7.72 5.61 4.94 5.20 6.05 6.42 5.33 5.62 2000's 8.41 7.86 7.17 8.63 10.54 14.28 17.49 17.37 27.15 17.82 2010's 22.94 31.58 32.39 28.45 26.94 18.11

  7. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Idaho (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.22 3.82 3.18 2.63 2.14 2.17 1990's 2.08 2.14 2.18 2.26 2.46 2.18 2.24 2.12 1.95 2.23 2000's 4.02 4.85 3.66 4.27 5.69 7.95 7.27 6.68 7.48 5.63 2010's 4.82 4.65 4.07 3.93 4.29 3.95

  8. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Illinois (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.44 3.43 3.02 2.81 2.74 2.99 1990's 3.09 2.91 3.20 3.30 3.02 2.59 3.27 3.28 2.77 3.00 2000's 5.01 5.54 3.68 5.97 6.38 8.38 8.26 7.87 8.48 5.71 2010's 5.52 5.09 4.11 4.43 6.28 3.82

  9. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Indiana (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.69 3.58 3.34 3.12 3.13 3.13 1990's 3.15 3.05 3.08 3.18 2.98 2.84 3.09 3.03 2.45 2.46 2000's 4.03 4.50 3.58 6.19 6.78 8.83 8.31 7.83 8.94 5.59 2010's 5.52 4.97 4.23 4.38 5.63 NA

  10. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Iowa (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.86 3.76 3.30 2.88 2.92 2.80 1990's 2.86 2.73 3.20 3.24 3.15 2.82 3.47 4.06 3.34 3.30 2000's 5.06 5.92 4.16 6.19 6.89 8.88 8.07 7.80 8.28 5.62 2010's 5.69 5.27 4.84 4.95 6.24 NA

  11. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Kansas (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.13 3.18 2.88 2.70 2.05 2.28 1990's 2.76 2.62 2.50 2.80 2.86 2.36 3.05 3.47 2.96 2.96 2000's 4.52 6.06 4.12 5.97 6.68 9.08 9.08 8.27 8.85 6.12 2010's 6.08 5.53 4.74 4.98 6.10 NA

  12. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Kentucky (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.94 3.76 3.32 2.98 2.94 3.01 1990's 3.07 2.83 3.02 3.21 3.13 2.80 3.41 3.83 3.23 3.27 2000's 4.93 6.32 4.45 6.11 7.28 9.69 9.07 8.22 10.14 5.98 2010's 5.69 5.18 4.17 4.47 5.16 NA

  13. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Louisiana (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.78 3.55 2.95 2.38 3.09 2.98 1990's 2.97 2.56 2.48 2.72 2.54 2.21 3.13 3.04 2.33 2.70 2000's 4.61 5.55 4.07 5.78 6.56 8.56 7.67 7.22 9.58 5.96 2010's 5.43 5.67 3.48 4.12 4.90 3.32

  14. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Maine (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.30 4.46 3.73 3.15 3.00 3.23 1990's 3.06 3.00 3.17 3.69 2.98 3.35 4.30 3.84 3.43 4.61 2000's 5.30 6.82 4.03 7.45 9.72 11.78 9.35 10.46 13.47 8.64 2010's 8.19 8.14 7.73 7.35 10.33 NA

  15. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Maryland (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.57 4.26 3.83 3.18 3.15 3.20 1990's 3.16 3.05 3.20 3.53 3.38 2.87 4.02 4.02 4.12 3.45 2000's 5.36 6.78 4.94 6.87 7.77 9.99 10.62 9.24 10.23 8.02 2010's 6.49 6.26 5.67 5.37 6.36 4.99

  16. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Michigan (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.07 4.22 4.07 3.97 3.41 3.24 1990's 3.12 3.08 3.04 2.89 2.70 2.61 2.90 2.99 2.80 2.83 2000's 3.23 4.08 4.10 5.32 6.34 8.44 8.34 8.06 9.22 7.24 2010's 7.07 6.18 5.50 4.91 5.54 4.22

  17. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Mississippi (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.74 3.54 3.36 3.38 3.29 3.08 1990's 2.89 2.55 2.62 2.90 2.83 2.53 3.27 3.39 3.00 2.88 2000's 4.66 6.00 4.22 6.19 6.44 8.85 9.13 8.47 9.91 6.56 2010's 5.73 5.29 3.97 4.44 5.29 NA

  18. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Missouri (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.82 3.36 3.00 2.87 2.87 3.00 1990's 3.14 2.92 2.86 3.20 3.05 2.73 3.25 3.75 3.33 3.34 2000's 4.96 6.33 4.56 6.12 6.99 8.67 8.53 7.53 8.03 7.06 2010's 6.17 5.85 5.27 4.99 5.76 4.65

  19. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Montana (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.21 4.14 3.94 3.85 3.69 3.43 1990's 3.30 3.69 3.45 3.29 3.49 3.01 3.03 3.16 2.43 2.57 2000's 3.55 3.93 2.98 5.04 6.47 7.62 7.25 6.42 7.71 5.63 2010's 5.17 5.11 4.23 4.21 5.03 3.71

  20. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Nebraska (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.07 3.88 3.42 2.99 3.03 2.91 1990's 2.95 2.75 2.91 3.46 2.98 2.49 3.07 4.24 3.02 3.12 2000's 4.52 6.23 4.09 5.70 6.70 8.21 8.27 7.67 8.12 5.87 2010's 5.62 5.11 4.31 4.61 5.58 NA

  1. Natural Gas Citygate Price in New Jersey (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.94 3.92 3.31 2.99 3.03 3.17 1990's 3.23 3.14 3.29 3.54 3.33 3.34 3.84 4.19 3.71 4.48 2000's 5.34 6.41 5.33 7.16 7.82 9.70 10.85 10.21 11.42 9.15 2010's 8.41 7.53 6.74 6.21 6.21 4.87

  2. Natural Gas Citygate Price in New Mexico (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.50 3.34 2.83 2.55 2.58 2.66 1990's 2.63 2.49 2.25 2.39 2.02 1.46 1.99 2.53 2.08 2.24 2000's 3.79 3.99 2.91 4.78 5.40 7.04 6.82 6.45 7.05 4.07 2010's 4.84 4.52 3.70 4.08 4.99 NA

  3. Natural Gas Citygate Price in North Dakota (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.29 4.18 3.94 3.59 3.42 3.12 1990's 3.07 3.49 3.28 3.29 3.15 2.58 2.94 3.38 2.81 3.07 2000's 4.60 4.82 3.68 5.79 6.93 8.54 7.82 7.04 8.03 5.16 2010's 5.50 5.06 4.43 4.99 6.37 4.46

  4. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Ohio (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.47 4.17 3.89 3.40 3.26 3.31 1990's 3.09 3.05 3.26 3.52 3.48 3.84 4.37 5.18 4.70 4.83 2000's 6.10 8.25 4.68 6.54 7.49 10.66 9.87 8.64 10.41 6.60 2010's 6.87 5.51 4.47 4.51 4.91 4.49

  5. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Oklahoma (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2.95 2.92 2.70 2.48 2.24 2.07 1990's 2.03 2.04 2.22 2.45 2.46 2.52 2.56 3.12 2.55 2.84 2000's 3.91 6.48 4.24 5.87 6.56 7.90 9.13 8.14 8.40 7.15 2010's 6.18 5.67 5.00 4.75 5.35 4.59

  6. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Oregon (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.06 3.70 3.13 2.49 3.01 2.67 1990's 2.47 2.39 2.34 2.48 2.73 2.42 2.42 2.58 2.73 2.93 2000's 3.87 5.04 5.25 5.19 5.86 7.12 8.10 8.14 8.82 7.79 2010's 6.78 5.84 5.21 4.82 5.40 4.65

  7. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Rhode Island (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.23 4.32 3.86 3.16 3.43 3.68 1990's 3.71 3.68 3.82 4.41 4.17 3.57 4.41 4.49 3.78 4.19 2000's 4.36 6.40 5.01 7.00 7.33 8.69 9.96 10.62 10.07 6.70 2010's 10.05 8.22 4.11 4.01 4.03 3.14

  8. Natural Gas Citygate Price in South Carolina (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.02 3.87 3.24 3.13 3.46 3.46 1990's 3.14 2.95 3.23 3.54 3.67 3.25 3.90 3.81 3.39 3.46 2000's 5.09 6.16 4.91 6.71 7.66 10.00 9.51 9.10 10.27 6.70 2010's 6.17 5.67 4.57 5.11 5.22 3.90

  9. Natural Gas Citygate Price in South Dakota (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.32 4.06 3.61 3.17 3.18 3.04 1990's 3.12 3.11 3.10 3.35 3.35 2.88 3.19 3.65 3.24 3.52 2000's 4.81 6.21 4.21 6.07 6.59 8.48 8.01 7.35 8.06 5.21 2010's 5.54 5.21 4.67 4.83 6.14 4.1

  10. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Tennessee (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.62 3.77 3.25 2.77 2.77 2.81 1990's 2.88 2.73 2.90 2.93 2.71 2.71 4.04 3.60 3.47 3.15 2000's 4.72 6.11 4.13 5.96 6.68 9.08 9.00 8.87 9.43 6.57 2010's 5.78 5.23 4.35 4.73 5.37 4.06

  11. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Texas (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.91 3.43 2.55 2.52 3.05 3.33 1990's 3.14 2.88 3.06 3.32 3.00 2.95 3.22 3.66 2.63 2.84 2000's 4.39 5.13 3.86 5.53 6.03 8.09 7.60 7.84 9.20 5.59 2010's 5.89 5.39 4.30 4.89 5.77 4.20

  12. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Utah (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.90 3.75 3.49 3.14 3.14 3.59 1990's 3.91 3.89 4.09 2.63 3.31 2.88 2.25 2.79 3.22 2.98 2000's 3.68 5.61 4.07 4.74 5.68 7.58 8.42 7.29 7.62 6.76 2010's 5.53 5.68 5.50 5.70 5.74 5.70

  13. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Vermont (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.99 3.95 2.81 2.72 2.59 2.59 1990's 2.88 2.87 2.93 2.96 3.11 2.61 2.74 2.33 2.58 2.85 2000's 4.26 4.83 4.85 5.17 5.26 6.85 8.61 10.03 10.66 9.33 2010's 8.29 7.98 6.63 6.16 7.08 NA

  14. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Virginia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.33 4.22 3.54 3.00 2.87 3.13 1990's 3.09 2.76 2.91 3.33 3.44 2.92 3.89 4.14 3.74 3.81 2000's 5.34 6.76 6.75 6.57 7.61 10.12 10.51 9.27 10.61 8.20 2010's 6.88 6.64 5.64 5.54 5.98 4.87

  15. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Washington (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.12 3.86 3.15 2.45 2.32 2.20 1990's 1.95 1.91 1.90 2.39 2.54 2.18 2.44 2.62 2.34 2.63 2000's 4.16 5.31 3.83 5.13 6.15 7.95 7.87 7.14 8.11 6.59 2010's 6.29 5.55 4.48 4.89 5.82 4.42

  16. Natural Gas Citygate Price in West Virginia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.26 4.18 3.61 3.20 3.43 3.75 1990's 3.54 3.58 3.23 3.39 3.26 2.85 3.36 3.17 3.17 3.40 2000's 3.75 4.88 4.28 5.69 7.04 9.69 8.93 8.62 10.32 7.06 2010's 6.31 5.91 4.99 4.65 5.07 4.00

  17. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Wisconsin (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.21 4.19 3.85 3.75 3.62 3.40 1990's 3.34 3.17 3.36 3.70 3.42 2.83 3.43 3.67 3.29 3.08 2000's 4.42 5.90 4.36 6.18 6.74 8.35 8.57 8.04 8.71 6.70 2010's 6.14 5.65 4.88 4.88 6.96 4.71

  18. Natural Gas Citygate Price in Wyoming (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.05 3.70 3.41 3.03 3.15 2.99 1990's 3.00 3.04 2.90 2.80 2.91 2.72 2.36 3.11 2.73 3.59 2000's 5.07 6.39 2.87 2.52 6.21 8.04 7.20 5.90 7.02 4.89 2010's 5.04 4.65 4.03 4.51 5.27 4.36

  19. Natural Gas Citygate Price in the District of Columbia (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's -- 1990's -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2000's -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2010's

  20. U.S. Natural Gas Citygate Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1980's NA NA NA NA 3.95 3.75 3.22 2.87 2.92 3.01 1990's 3.03 2.90 3.01 3.21 3.07 2.78 3.27 3.66 3.07 3.10 2000's 4.62 5.72 4.12 5.85 6.65 8.67 8.61 8.16 9.18 6.48 2010's 6.18 5.63 4.73 4.88 5.71 4.26

  1. U.S. Natural Gas Citygate Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1976 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1977 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1978 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1979 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1980 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1981 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1982 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1983 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3.97

  2. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Citygate Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n3050us3a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3050us3a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"8/30/2016 8:17:37 PM" "Back to

  3. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Citygate Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","9/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n3050us3m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n3050us3m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"8/30/2016 8:17:37 PM" "Back to

  4. ORISE: Report by ORISE shows health physics degrees declined on all levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in 2014 Health physics degrees declined in 2014, enrollment trends reverse Enrollment data suggests slowly declining trends FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE June 25, 2015 FY15-37 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The total number of degrees awarded to students graduating with majors in health physics has declined across undergraduate, graduate and doctoral programs for the first time in four years. The report conducted by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, titled Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees

  5. Brief 72 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2013 Data (2-14)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2014-02-15

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2013. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2013. The enrollments and degrees data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2013, and data was received from all thirty-two programs. The data for two nuclear engineering programs include enrollments and degrees in health physics options that are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees data.

  6. ORISE: Number of health physics degrees granted in 2013 has increased...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Number of health physics degrees granted in 2013 has increased for undergraduates, ... OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of college students graduating with majors in health physics ...

  7. The solubility of hydrogen in plutonium in the temperature range 475 to 825 degrees centigrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    The solubility of hydrogen (H) in plutonium metal (Pu) was measured in the temperature range of 475 to 825{degree}C for unalloyed Pu (UA) and in the temperature range of 475 to 625{degree}C for Pu containing two-weight-percent gallium (TWP). For TWP metal, in the temperature range 475 to 600{degree}C, the saturated solution has a maximum hydrogen to plutonium ration (H/Pu) of 0.00998 and the standard enthalpy of formation ({Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)}) is (-0.128 {plus minus} 0.0123) kcal/mol. The phase boundary of the solid solution in equilibrium with plutonium dihydride (PuH{sub 2}) is temperature independent. In the temperature range 475 to 625{degree}C, UA metal has a maximum solubility at H/Pu = 0.011. The phase boundary between the solid solution region and the metal+PuH{sub 2} two-phase region is temperature dependent. The solubility of hydrogen in UA metal was also measured in the temperature range 650 to 825{degree}C with {Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)} = (-0.104 {plus minus} 0.0143) kcal/mol and {Delta}S{degree}{sub f(s)} = 0. The phase boundary is temperature dependent and the maximum hydrogen solubility has H/Pu = 0.0674 at 825{degree}C. 52 refs., 28 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Ni.sub.3 Al-based intermetallic alloys having improved strength above 850.degree. C.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T.

    2000-01-01

    Intermetallic alloys composed essentially of: 15.5% to 17.0% Al, 3.5% to 5.5% Mo, 4% to 8% Cr, 0.04% to 0.2% Zr, 0.04% to 1.5% B, balance Ni, are characterized by melting points above 1200.degree. C. and superior strengths at temperatures above 1000.degree. C.

  9. Method for determination of the degree of compensation for electrically active impurities in multivalley semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranskii, P. I.; Gaidar, G. P.

    2013-06-15

    A method for determination of the degree of compensation k = N{sub a}/N{sub d} for shallow impurities in n-Si crystals with a nondegenerate electron gas is suggested. Data facilitating practical determination of the degree of compensation are given.

  10. Multiple degree-of-freedom mechanical interface to a computer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Louis B.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing high bandwidth and low noise mechanical input and output for computer systems. A gimbal mechanism provides two revolute degrees of freedom to an object about two axes of rotation. A linear axis member is coupled to the gimbal mechanism at the intersection of the two axes of rotation. The linear axis member is capable of being translated along a third axis to provide a third degree of freedom. The user object is coupled to the linear axis member and is thus translatable along the third axis so that the object can be moved along all three degrees of freedom. Transducers associated with the provided degrees of freedom include sensors and actuators and provide an electromechanical interface between the object and a digital processing system. Capstan drive mechanisms transmit forces between the transducers and the object. The linear axis member can also be rotated about its lengthwise axis to provide a fourth degree of freedom, and, optionally, a floating gimbal mechanism is coupled to the linear axis member to provide fifth and sixth degrees of freedom to an object. Transducer sensors are associated with the fourth, fifth, and sixth degrees of freedom. The interface is well suited for simulations of medical procedures and simulations in which an object such as a stylus or a joystick is moved and manipulated by the user.

  11. Effect of deacetylation degree in chitosan composite membranes on pervaporation performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y.M.; Park, H.B.; Nam, S.Y.; Won, J.M.; Kim, H.

    1998-06-01

    The effect of the degree of deacetylation in chitosan composite membranes on their pervaporation performance for ethanol dehydration was investigated. The degree of deacetylation of chitosans was measured by using an infrared spectroscopic method and elemental analysis. The chitosan composite membranes were prepared by coating a chitosan solution onto a microporous polyethersulfone membrane with 3--7 nm pore sizes. Then the surface of the top layer (chitosan) of well-dried membranes was crosslinked with sulfuric acid, and pervaporation experiments for binary mixtures (water-ethanol) were carried out at various conditions. In the case of a chitosan membrane with a high degree of deacetylation, the flux increases while the separation factor decreases compared with membranes with a low degree of deacetylation.

  12. Transient stability enhancement of electric power generating systems by 120-degree phase rotation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cresap, Richard L.; Taylor, Carson W.; Kreipe, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    A method and system for enhancing the transient stability of an intertied three-phase electric power generating system. A set of power exporting generators (10) is connected to a set of power importing generators (20). When a transient cannot be controlled by conventional stability controls, and imminent loss of synchronism is detected (such as when the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets exceeds a predetermined value, such as 150 degrees), the intertie is disconnected by circuit breakers. Then a switch (30) having a 120-degree phase rotation, or a circuit breaker having a 120-degree phase rotation is placed in the intertie. The intertie is then reconnected. This results in a 120-degree reduction in the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets, making the system more stable and allowing more time for the conventional controls to stabilize the transient.

  13. ORISE: Number of health physics degrees granted in 2013 has increased for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    undergraduates, declined for graduates Number of health physics degrees granted in 2013 has increased for undergraduates, declined for graduates Enrollment data suggests current trend likely to continue in 2014 and 2015 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE April 1, 2014 FY14-18 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of college students graduating with majors in health physics has increased slightly for bachelor's degrees, but decreased for both master's and doctoral candidates. The report, titled Health Physics

  14. Degree of dispersion of latex particles in cement paste, as assessed by electrical resistivity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, X.; Chung, D.D.L.

    1996-12-31

    The degree of dispersion of latex particles in latex-modified cement paste was assessed by measurement of the volume electrical resistivity and modeling this resistivity in terms of latex and cement phases that are partly in series and partly in parallel. The assessment was best at low values of the latex-cement ratio; it underestimated the degree of latex dispersion when the latex/cement ratio was high, especially > 0.2.

  15. Surface density of spacetime degrees of freedom from equipartition law in theories of gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padmanabhan, T.

    2010-06-15

    I show that the principle of equipartition, applied to area elements of a surface {partial_derivative}V which are in equilibrium at the local Davies-Unruh temperature, allows one to determine the surface number density of the microscopic spacetime degrees of freedom in any diffeomorphism invariant theory of gravity. The entropy associated with these degrees of freedom matches with the Wald entropy for the theory. This result also allows one to attribute an entropy density to the spacetime in a natural manner. The field equations of the theory can then be obtained by extremizing this entropy. Moreover, when the microscopic degrees of freedom are in local thermal equilibrium, the spacetime entropy of a bulk region resides on its boundary.

  16. DEGREE-SCALE GeV 'JETS' FROM ACTIVE AND DEAD TeV BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neronov, A.; Semikoz, D.; Kachelriess, M.; Ostapchenko, S.; Elyiv, A.

    2010-08-20

    We show that images of TeV blazars in the GeV energy band should contain, along with point-like sources, degree-scale jet-like extensions. These GeV extensions are the result of electromagnetic cascades initiated by TeV {gamma}-rays interacting with extragalactic background light and the deflection of the cascade electrons/positrons in extragalactic magnetic fields (EGMFs). Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the spectral and timing properties of the degree-scale extensions in simulated GeV band images of TeV blazars. We show that the brightness profile of such degree-scale extensions can be used to infer the light curve of the primary TeV {gamma}-ray source over the past 10{sup 7} yr, i.e., over a time scale comparable to the lifetime of the parent active galactic nucleus. This implies that the degree-scale jet-like GeV emission could be detected not only near known active TeV blazars, but also from 'TeV blazar remnants', whose central engines were switched off up to 10 million years ago. Since the brightness profile of the GeV 'jets' depends on the strength and the structure of the EGMF, their observation provides additional information about the EGMF.

  17. Structure disorder degree of polysilicon thin films grown by different processing: Constant C from Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Quan; Zhang, Yanmin; Hu, Ran; Ren, Naifei; Ge, Daohan

    2013-11-14

    Flat, low-stress, boron-doped polysilicon thin films were prepared on single crystalline silicon substrates by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. It was found that the polysilicon films with different deposition processing have different microstructure properties. The confinement effect, tensile stresses, defects, and the Fano effect all have a great influence on the line shape of Raman scattering peak. But the effect results are different. The microstructure and the surface layer are two important mechanisms dominating the internal stress in three types of polysilicon thin films. For low-stress polysilicon thin film, the tensile stresses are mainly due to the change of microstructure after thermal annealing. But the tensile stresses in flat polysilicon thin film are induced by the silicon carbide layer at surface. After the thin film doped with boron atoms, the phenomenon of the tensile stresses increasing can be explained by the change of microstructure and the increase in the content of silicon carbide. We also investigated the disorder degree states for three polysilicon thin films by analyzing a constant C. It was found that the disorder degree of low-stress polysilicon thin film larger than that of flat and boron-doped polysilicon thin films due to the phase transformation after annealing. After the flat polysilicon thin film doped with boron atoms, there is no obvious change in the disorder degree and the disorder degree in some regions even decreases.

  18. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A 1990 GLOBAL INVENTORY FOR SO(X) AND NO(X) ON A 1(DEGREE) X 1(DEGREE) LATITUDE-LONGITUDE GRID.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAN HEYST,B.J.

    1999-10-01

    Sulfur and nitrogen oxides emitted to the atmosphere have been linked to the acidification of water bodies and soils and perturbations in the earth's radiation balance. In order to model the global transport and transformation of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x}, detailed spatial and temporal emission inventories are required. Benkovitz et al. (1996) published the development of an inventory of 1985 global emissions of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} from anthropogenic sources. The inventory was gridded to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} latitude-longitude grid and has served as input to several global modeling studies. There is now a need to provide modelers with an update of this inventory to a more recent year, with a split of the emissions into elevated and low level sources. This paper describes the development of a 1990 update of the SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} global inventories that also includes a breakdown of sources into 17 sector groups. The inventory development starts with a gridded global default EDGAR inventory (Olivier et al, 1996). In countries where more detailed national inventories are available, these are used to replace the emissions for those countries in the global default. The gridded emissions are distributed into two height levels (0-100m and >100m) based on the final plume heights that are estimated to be typical for the various sectors considered. The sources of data as well as some of the methodologies employed to compile and develop the 1990 global inventory for SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} are discussed. The results reported should be considered to be interim since the work is still in progress and additional data sets are expected to become available.

  19. Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    81299 81499 81699 81899 82099 82299 82499 82699 82899 83099 9199 9399 Degrees Fahrenheit 6 -C ity D a ily A v e ra g e H ig h D A L L A S F T W O R T H H...

  20. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-24

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  1. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  2. DISCOVERY OF A COMPACT COMPANION TO THE HOT SUBDWARF STAR BD +37 Degree-Sign 442

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Palombara, Nicola; Mereghetti, Sandro; Tiengo, Andrea; Esposito, Paolo E-mail: sandro@iasf-milano.inaf.it E-mail: paoloesp@oa-cagliari.inaf.it

    2012-05-10

    We report the results of the first X-ray observation of the luminous and helium-rich O-type subdwarf BD +37 Degree-Sign 442 carried out with the XMM-Newton satellite in 2011 August. X-ray emission is detected with a flux of about 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (0.2-1 keV) and a very soft spectrum, well fit by the sum of a blackbody with temperature kT{sub BB} = 45{sup +11}{sub -9} eV, and a power law with a poorly constrained photon index. Significant pulsations with a period of 19.2 s are detected, indicating that the X-ray emission originates in a white dwarf or neutron star companion, most likely powered by accretion from the wind of BD +37 Degree-Sign 442.

  3. Quark degrees of freedom in the production of soft pion jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okorokov, V. A. E-mail: Okorokov@bnl.gov

    2015-05-15

    Experimental results obtained by studying the properties of soft jets in the 4-velocity space at √s ∼ 2 to 20 GeV are presented. The changes in the mean distance from the jet axis to the jet particles, the mean kinetic energy of these particles, and the cluster dimension in response to the growth of the collision energy are consistent with the assumption that quark degrees of freedom manifest themselves in processes of pion-jet production at intermediate energies. The energy at which quark degrees of freedom begin to manifest themselves experimentally in the production of soft pion jets is estimated for the first time. The estimated value of this energy is 2.8 ± 0.6 GeV.

  4. High degree of molecular orientation by a combination of THz and femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitano, Kenta; Ishii, Nobuhisa; Itatani, Jiro [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan) and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    We propose a method for achieving molecular orientation by two-step excitation with intense femtosecond laser and terahertz (THz) pulses. First, the femtosecond laser pulse induces off-resonant impulsive Raman excitation to create rotational wave packets. Next, a delayed intense THz pulse effectively induces resonant dipole transition between neighboring rotational states. By controlling the intensities of both the pulses and the time delay, we can create rotational wave packets consisting of states with different parities in order to achieve a high degree of molecular orientation under a field-free condition. We numerically demonstrate that the highest degree of orientation of >0.8 in HBr molecules is feasible under experimentally available conditions.

  5. Biography U. Düsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution: Clausthal University of Technology.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U. Düsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution: Clausthal University of Technology. Chair: chair for waste disposal technologies and geomechanics. 1982- 1988 field of study: mining engineer 1989- 1993 PhD work - geomechanical investigations on the stability of salt caverns for waste disposal. 2009 Habilitation - proof of stability and integrity of underground excavations in saliniferous formations with special regard to lab tests. 1989 - 2012 chief engineer at Clausthal University of

  6. Statistical behavior in deterministic quantum systems with few degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, R.V.; Shankar, R.

    1985-04-29

    Numerical studies of the dynamics of finite quantum spin chains are presented which show that quantum systems with few degrees of freedom (N = 7) can be described by equilibrium statistical mechanics. The success of the statistical description is seen to depend on the interplay between the initial state, the observable, and the Hamiltonian. This work clarifies the impact of integrability and conservation laws on statistical behavior. The relation to quantum chaos is also discussed.

  7. Structural stability of 1100{degree}C heated Pd/k during absorption cycling in protium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, I.A.

    1993-03-12

    Pd/k is a hydride forming packing material which is used in the Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP). Palladium is supported on kieselguhr to create a packing material which will provide adequate void space to prevent excessive pressure drops and flow restrictions. The use of unsupported palladium would result in blockage of columns and clogging of filters due to the small particle size of unsupported palladium hydride powder. During pilot scale demonstrations, it was noted that the Pd/k packing material had degraded causing severe flow restrictions within the TCAP column. A solution to the problem involved the heating of Pd/k at 1,110{degree}C to strengthen the packing material, and render it more resistant to breakdown. The 1, 100{degree}C heated Pd/k has been shown to be more resistant to mechanical breakdown than the Pd/k prior to heat treatment. Two primary modes of Pd/k particle degradation have been identified: mechanical breakdown caused by particle fluidization and degradation caused by absorption/desorption cycling. Absorption/desorption cycling causes the palladium particles within the packing to expanded and contract upon formation and decomposition of the hydride, respectively. This expansion and contraction causes large localized stresses within the packing material, which if these stresses can not be accommodated within the packing will cause the material to crack and degrade. The purpose of this report is to document the results of the absorption/desorption cycling of 1,100{degree}C heated Pd/k and compare these results to the results obtained from the absorption/desorption cycling of Pd/k which had not been heated at 1, 100{degree}C.

  8. New p( rvec. gamma. ,. pi. degrees ) results from LEGS and the quadrupole excitation of the. Delta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Results from three independent measurements of the p({yields}{gamma}{pi}{sup {degrees}}) reaction are presented for incident photon energies between 243 and 314 MeV. The ratio of cross sections measured with orthogonal states of linear polarization is sensitive to the E2 excitation of the {Delta} resonance. Comparisons are made to the predictions of various models, all of which fail to reproduce these data.

  9. Thermal degradation of concrete in the temperature range from ambient to 315{degree} C (600{degree} F). Revision 10/96

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassir, M.K.; Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Reich, M.

    1996-10-01

    This report is concerned with determining the effect of elevated temperatures on the behavior of concrete. Emphasis is placed on quantifying the degree of potential degradation of the physical properties of concrete in high-level waste storage tanks. The temperature elevation range of interest is from ambient to 315 C (600 F). The literature has been reviewed to examine the applicable experimental data and quantify the degradation in the concrete and reinforcing steel. Since many variables and test conditions control the results in the data base, upper and lower bounds of the degraded properties at temperatures applicable to the environments of the storage tanks are summarized and presented in explicit forms. For properties with large data bases, a normal logarithmic distribution of the data is assumed and a statistical analysis is carried out to find the mean and 84% values of the degraded property in the temperature range of interest. Such results are useful in assessing the effect of elevated temperatures on the structural behavior of the tanks. In addition, the results provide the technical basis for a parametric study that may be necessary to investigate the thermal aspects of the structural integrity of the tanks. 50 refs., 23 figs.

  10. Design of a Thermal Imaging Diagnostic Using 90-Degree, Off-Axis, Parabolic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, Robert M.; Becker, Steven A.; Dolan, Daniel H.; Hacking, Richard G.; Hickman, Randy J.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Stevens, Gerald D.; Turley, William D.

    2006-09-01

    Thermal imaging is an important, though challenging, diagnostic for shockwave experiments. Shock-compressed materials undergo transient temperature changes that cannot be recorded with standard (greater than ms response time) infrared detectors. A further complication arises when optical elements near the experiment are destroyed. We have designed a thermal-imaging system for studying shock temperatures produced inside a gas gun at Sandia National Laboratories. Inexpensive, diamond-turned, parabolic mirrors relay an image of the shocked target to the exterior of the gas gun chamber through a sapphire vacuum port. The 30005000-nm portion of this image is directed to an infrared camera which acquires a snapshot of the target with a minimum exposure time of 150 ns. A special mask is inserted at the last intermediate image plane, to provide dynamic thermal background recording during the event. Other wavelength bands of this image are split into high-speed detectors operating at 9001700 nm, and at 17003000 nm for timeresolved pyrometry measurements. This system incorporates 90-degree, off-axis parabolic mirrors, which can collect low f/# light over a broad spectral range, for high-speed imaging. Matched mirror pairs must be used so that aberrations cancel. To eliminate image plane tilt, proper tip-to-tip orientation of the parabolic mirrors is required. If one parabolic mirror is rotated 180 degrees about the optical axis connecting the pair of parabolic mirrors, the resulting image is tilted by 60 degrees. Different focal-length mirrors cannot be used to magnify the image without substantially sacrificing image quality. This paper analyzes performance and aberrations of this imaging diagnostic.

  11. Trends in Heating and Cooling Degree Days: Implications for Energy Demand Issues (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Weather-related energy use, in the form of heating, cooling, and ventilation, accounted for more than 40% of all delivered energy use in residential and commercial buildings in 2006. Given the relatively large amount of energy affected by ambient temperature in the buildings sector, the Energy Information Administration has reevaluated what it considers normal weather for purposes of projecting future energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation. The Annual Energy Outlook 2008, estimates of normal heating and cooling degree-days are based on the population-weighted average for the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006.

  12. On linear groups of degree 2 over a finite commutative ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bashkirov, Evgenii L.; Eser, Hasan

    2014-08-20

    Let p > 3 be a prime number and F{sub p} be a field of p elements. Let K be a commutative and associative ring obtained by adjoining to F{sub p} an element α such that α satisfies a polynomial over F{sub p} and a polynomial of the least degree whose root is α can be written as a product of distinct polynomials irreducible over F{sub p}. We prove that the special linear group SL{sub 2}(K) is generated by two elementary transvections ( (table) ), ( (table) )

  13. Developments in the Nuclear Safeguards and Security Engineering Degree Program at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boiko, Vladimir I.; Demyanyuk, Dmitry G.; Silaev, Maxim E.; Duncan, Cristen L.; Heinberg, Cynthia L.; Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.

    2009-10-06

    Over the last six years, Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU) has developed a 5 year engineering degree program in the field of Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A). In 2009 the first students graduated with this new degree. There were 25 job offers from nuclear fuel cycle enterprises of Russia and Kazakhstan for 17 graduates of the program. Due to the rather wide selection of workplaces, all graduates have obtained positions at nuclear enterprises. The program was developed within the Applied Physics and Engineering Department (APED). The laboratory and methodological base has been created taking into consideration the experience of the similar program at the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI). However, the TPU program has some distinguishing features such as the inclusion of special courses pertaining to fuel enrichment and reprocessing. During the last two years, three MPC&A laboratories have been established at APED. This was made possible due to several factors such as establishment of the State innovative educational program at TPU, assistance of the U.S. Department of Energy through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the financial support of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority and some Russian private companies. All three of the MPC&A laboratories are part of the Innovative Educational Center Nuclear Technologies and Non-Proliferation, which deals with many topics including research activities, development of new curricula for experts training and retraining, and training of masters students. In 2008, TPU developed a relationship with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which was familiarized with APEDs current resources and activities. The IAEA has shown interest in creation of a masters degree educational program in the field of nuclear security at TPU. A future objective is to acquaint nuclear fuel cycle enterprises with new APED capabilities and involve the enterprises

  14. Exotic equilibria of Harary graphs and a new minimum degree lower bound for synchronization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canale, Eduardo A.; Monzn, Pablo

    2015-02-15

    This work is concerned with stability of equilibria in the homogeneous (equal frequencies) Kuramoto model of weakly coupled oscillators. In 2012 [R. Taylor, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45, 115 (2012)], a sufficient condition for almost global synchronization was found in terms of the minimum degreeorder ratio of the graph. In this work, a new lower bound for this ratio is given. The improvement is achieved by a concrete infinite sequence of regular graphs. Besides, non standard unstable equilibria of the graphs studied in Wiley et al. [Chaos 16, 015103 (2006)] are shown to exist as conjectured in that work.

  15. Flux control and one-hundred and eighty degree core systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S

    2012-11-27

    A two-phase or four-phase electric machine includes a first stator part and a second stator part disposed about ninety electrical degrees apart. Stator pole parts are positioned near the first stator part and the second stator part. An injector injects a third-harmonic frequency current that is separate from and not produced by the fundamental current driving the first stator part and the second stator part. The electric angular speed of the third-harmonic rotating field comprises .theta. ##EQU00001## where p comprises the number of pole pairs, .theta. comprises a mechanical angle and t comprise time in seconds.

  16. Image system for three dimensional, 360{degree}, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, S.Y.

    1998-12-22

    A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest. Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360{degree} all around coverage of the object-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120{degree} apart from one another. 20 figs.

  17. EXOPLANETS FROM THE ARCTIC: THE FIRST WIDE-FIELD SURVEY AT 80 Degree-Sign N

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Sivanandam, Suresh; Carlberg, Raymond; Salbi, Pegah; Ngan, Wai-Hin Wayne; Kerzendorf, Wolfgang; Ahmadi, Aida; Steinbring, Eric; Murowinski, Richard

    2013-03-15

    Located within 10 Degree-Sign of the North Pole, northern Ellesmere Island offers continuous darkness in the winter months. This capability can greatly enhance the detection efficiency of planetary transit surveys and other time domain astronomy programs. We deployed two wide-field cameras at 80 Degree-Sign N, near Eureka, Nunavut, for a 152 hr observing campaign in 2012 February. The 16 megapixel camera systems were based on commercial f/1.2 lenses with 70 mm and 42 mm apertures, and they continuously imaged 504 and 1295 deg{sup 2}, respectively. In total, the cameras took over 44,000 images and produced better than 1% precision light curves for approximately 10,000 stars. We describe a new high-speed astrometric and photometric data reduction pipeline designed for the systems, test several methods for the precision flat fielding of images from very-wide-angle cameras, and evaluate the cameras' image qualities. We achieved a scintillation-limited photometric precision of 1%-2% in each 10 s exposure. Binning the short exposures into 10 minute chunks provided a photometric stability of 2-3 mmag, sufficient for the detection of transiting exoplanets around the bright stars targeted by our survey. We estimate that the cameras, when operated over the full Arctic winter, will be capable of discovering several transiting exoplanets around bright (m{sub V} < 9.5) stars.

  18. Image system for three dimensional, 360 DEGREE, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Shin-Yee

    1998-01-01

    A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360.degree. all around coverage of theobject-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120.degree. apart from one another.

  19. Structural Design Considerations for Tubular Power Tower Receivers Operating at 650 Degrees C: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neises, T. W.; Wagner, M. J.; Gray, A. K.

    2014-04-01

    Research of advanced power cycles has shown supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles may have thermal efficiency benefits relative to steam cycles at temperatures around 500 - 700 degrees C. To realize these benefits for CSP, it is necessary to increase the maximum outlet temperature of current tower designs. Research at NREL is investigating a concept that uses high-pressure supercritical carbon dioxide as the heat transfer fluid to achieve a 650 degrees C receiver outlet temperature. At these operating conditions, creep becomes an important factor in the design of a tubular receiver and contemporary design assumptions for both solar and traditional boiler applications must be revisited and revised. This paper discusses lessons learned for high-pressure, high-temperature tubular receiver design. An analysis of a simplified receiver tube is discussed, and the results show the limiting stress mechanisms in the tube and the impact on the maximum allowable flux as design parameters vary. Results of this preliminary analysis indicate an underlying trade-off between tube thickness and the maximum allowable flux on the tube. Future work will expand the scope of design variables considered and attempt to optimize the design based on cost and performance metrics.

  20. NEUTRON-INDUCED SWELLING OF Fe-Cr BINARY ALLOYS IN FFTF AT ~400 DEGREES C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garner, Francis A.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Okita, Taira; Sekimura, Naoto; Wolfer, W. G.

    2002-12-31

    The purpose of this effort is to determine the influence of dpa rate, He/dpa ratio and composition on the void swelling of simple binary Fe-Cr alloys. Contrary to the behavior of swelling of model fcc Fe-Cr-Ni alloys irradiated in the same FFTF-MOTA experiment, model bcc Fe-Cr alloys do not exhibit a dependence of swelling on dpa rate at approximately 400 degrees C. This is surprising in that an apparent flux-sensitivity was observed in an earlier comparative irradiation of Fe-Cr binaries conducted in EBR-II and FFTF. The difference in behavior is ascribed to the higher helium generation rates of Fe-Cr alloys in EBR-II compared to that of FFTF, and also the fact that lower dpa rates in FFTF are accompanied by progressively lower helium generation rates.

  1. Sublimation rate of molecular crystals - role of internal degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiti, A; Zepeda-Ruiz, L A; Gee, R H; Burnham, A

    2007-01-19

    It is a common practice to estimate site desorption rate from crystal surfaces with an Arrhenius expression of the form v{sub eff} exp(-{Delta}E/k{sub B}T), where {Delta}E is an activation barrier to desorb and v{sub eff} is an effective vibrational frequency {approx} 10{sup 12} sec{sup -1}. However, such a formula can lead to several to many orders of magnitude underestimation of sublimation rates in molecular crystals due to internal degrees of freedom. We carry out a quantitative comparison of two energetic molecular crystals with crystals of smaller entities like ice and Argon (solid) and uncover the errors involved as a function of molecule size. In the process, we also develop a formal definition of v{sub eff} and an accurate working expression for equilibrium vapor pressure.

  2. Spectroscopic studies of the 110{degree}C thermal aging of PETN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dosser, L.R.; Seliskar, C.J.

    1992-07-30

    The 110{degrees}C thermal aging parameters, including initial rates of decomposition, of four types of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) over a period of ten months are presented. Both decomposition products nitric oxide, NO, and nitrogen dioxide, N0{sub 2} were monitored from multiple, hermetically-sealed, in vacuo samples. Nitric oxide appears to be the first nitrogen oxide product evolved. Nitrogen dioxide produced by abrupt thermal aging is more slowly converted to nitric oxide by a 1:1 process. The behavior of samples of RR5K PETN was significantly different from that of other powders studied. Further work is in progress to better define the thermal aging of RR5K PETN.

  3. Strongly coupled electronic, magnetic, and lattice degrees of freedom in LaCo5 under pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stillwell, Ryan L.; Jeffries, Jason R.; McCall, Scott K.; Lee, Jonathan R. I.; Weir, Samuel T.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2015-11-25

    In this study, we have performed high-pressure magnetotransport and x-ray diffraction measurements on ferromagnetic LaCo5, confirming the theoretically predicted electronic topological transition driving the magnetoelastic collapse seen in the related compound YCo5. Our x-ray diffraction results show an anisotropic lattice collapse of the c axis near 10 GPa that is also commensurate with a change in the majority charge carriers evident from high-pressure Hall effect measurements. The coupling of the electronic, magnetic, and lattice degrees of freedom is further substantiated by the evolution of the anomalous Hall effect, which couples to the magnetization of the ordered state of LaCo5.

  4. Determining the slag fraction, water/binder ratio and degree of hydration in hardened cement pastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yio, M.H.N. Phelan, J.C.; Wong, H.S.; Buenfeld, N.R.

    2014-02-15

    A method for determining the original mix composition of hardened slag-blended cement-based materials based on analysis of backscattered electron images combined with loss on ignition measurements is presented. The method does not require comparison to reference standards or prior knowledge of the composition of the binders used. Therefore, it is well-suited for application to real structures. The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. Results obtained from an experimental study involving sixty samples with a wide range of water/binder (w/b) ratios (0.30 to 0.50), slag/binder ratios (0 to 0.6) and curing ages (3 days to 1 year) show that the method is very promising. The mean absolute errors for the estimated slag, water and cement contents (kg/m{sup 3}), w/b and s/b ratios were 9.1%, 1.5%, 2.5%, 4.7% and 8.7%, respectively. 91% of the estimated w/b ratios were within 0.036 of the actual values. -- Highlights: •A new method for estimating w/b ratio and slag content in cement pastes is proposed. •The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. •Reference standards or prior knowledge of the binder composition are not required. •The method was tested on samples with varying w/b ratios and slag content.

  5. Test beam results on the Proton Zero Degree Calorimeter for the ALICE experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnaldi, R.; Chiavassa, E.; De Marco, N.; Ferretti, A.; Gagliardi, M.; Gallio, M.; Gemme, R.; Mereu, P.; Musso, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Piccotti, A.; Poggio, F.; Scomparin, E.; Stocco, D.; Vercellin, E.; Yermia, F.; Cicalo, C.; De Falco, A.; Floris, M.; Masoni, A.

    2006-10-27

    The proton Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZP) for the ALICE experiment will measure the energy of the spectator protons in heavy ion collisions at the CERN LHC. Since all the spectator protons have the same energy, the calorimeter's response is proportional to their number, providing a direct information on the centrality of the collision. The ZP is a spaghetti calorimeter, which collects and measures the Cherenkov light produced by the shower particles in silica optical fibers embedded in a brass absorber. The details of its construction will be shown. The calorimeter was tested at the CERN SPS using pion and electron beams with momenta ranging from 50 to 200 GeV/c. The response of the calorimeter and its energy resolution have been studied as a function of the beam energy. Also, the signal uniformity and a comparison between the transverse profile of the hadronic and electromagnetic shower are presented. Moreover, the differences between the calorimeter's responses to protons and pions of the same energy have been investigated, exploiting the proton contamination in the positive pion beams.

  6. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Gu, X.; Haldeman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S.; Wang, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  7. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Gu, X.; Haldenman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C. G.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  8. Sierra Geothermal's Key Find in Southern Nevada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In May 2010, Sierra Geothermal determined temperature at the bottom of a well drilled at the company's Alum project near Silver Peak, Nev., was hot enough for commercial-sized geothermal energy production - measured as 147 degrees Celsius (297 degrees Fahrenheit). A promising discovery by a geothermal energy company that could boost use of the renewable source in southwest Nevada, power thousands of homes and create jobs.

  9. Rotation-Enabled 7-Degree of Freedom Seismometer for Geothermal Resource Development. Phase 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierson, Bob; Laughlin, Darren

    2013-10-29

    Under this Department of Energy (DOE) grant, A-Tech Corporation d.b.a. Applied Technology Associates (ATA), seeks to develop a seven-degree-of-freedom (7-DOF) seismic measurement tool for high-temperature geothermal applications. The Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer includes a conventional tri-axial accelerometer, a conventional pressure sensor or hydrophone, and a tri-axial rotational sensor. The rotational sensing capability is novel, based upon ATA's innovative research in rotational sensing technologies. The geothermal industry requires tools for high-precision seismic monitoring of crack formation associated with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) stimulation activity. Currently, microseismic monitoring is conducted by deploying many seismic tools at different depth levels along a 'string' within drilled observation wells. Costs per string can be hundreds of thousands of dollars. Processing data from the spatial arrays of linear seismometers allows back-projection of seismic wave states. In contrast, a Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer would simultaneously measure p-wave velocity, s-wave velocity, and incident seismic wave direction all from a single point measurement. In addition, the Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer will, by its nature, separate p- and s-waves into different data streams, simplifying signal processing and facilitating analysis of seismic source signatures and geological characterization. By adding measurements of three additional degrees-of-freedom at each level and leveraging the information from this new seismic observable, it is likely that an equally accurate picture of subsurface seismic activity could be garnered with fewer levels per hole. The key cost savings would come from better siting of the well due to increased information content and a decrease in the number of confirmation wells drilled, also due to the increase in information per well. Improved seismic tools may also increase knowledge, understanding, and confidence

  10. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, Simon

    2013-09-30

    The Electric-drive Vehicle Engineering (EVE) MS degree and graduate certificate programs have been continuing to make good progress, thanks to the funding and the guidance from DOE grant management group, the support from our University and College administrations, and to valuable inputs and feedback from our Industrial Advisory Board as well as our project partners Macomb Community College and NextEnergy. Table 1 below lists originally proposed Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO), which have all been completed successfully. Our program and course enrollments continue to be good and increasing, as shown in later sections. Our graduating students continue to get good job offers from local EV-related companies. Following the top recommendation from our Industrial Advisory Board, we were fortunate enough to be accepted into the prestigious EcoCAR2 (http://www.ecocar2.org/) North America university design competition, and have been having some modest success with the competition. But most importantly, EcoCAR2 offers the most holistic educational environment for integrating real-world engineering and design with our EVE graduate curriculum. Such integrations include true real-world hands-on course projects based on EcoCAR2 related tasks for the students, and faculty curricular and course improvements based on lessons and best practices learned from EcoCAR2. We are in the third and last year of EcoCAR2, and we have already formed a core group of students in pursuit of EcoCAR”3”, for which the proposal is due in early December.

  11. Degree-scale cosmic microwave background polarization measurements from three years of BICEP1 data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barkats, D.; Aikin, R.; Bock, J. J.; Filippini, J.; Hristov, V. V.; Bischoff, C.; Buder, I.; Kovac, J. M.; Kaufman, J. P.; Keating, B. G.; Bierman, E. M.; Su, M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Battle, J. O.; Dowell, C. D.; Chiang, H. C.; Duband, L.; Hivon, E. F.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Jones, W. C.; and others

    2014-03-10

    BICEP1 is a millimeter-wavelength telescope designed specifically to measure the inflationary B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background at degree angular scales. We present results from an analysis of the data acquired during three seasons of observations at the South Pole (2006-2008). This work extends the two-year result published in Chiang et al., with additional data from the third season and relaxed detector-selection criteria. This analysis also introduces a more comprehensive estimation of band power window functions, improved likelihood estimation methods, and a new technique for deprojecting monopole temperature-to-polarization leakage that reduces this class of systematic uncertainty to a negligible level. We present maps of temperature, E- and B-mode polarization, and their associated angular power spectra. The improvement in the map noise level and polarization spectra error bars are consistent with the 52% increase in integration time relative to Chiang et al. We confirm both self-consistency of the polarization data and consistency with the two-year results. We measure the angular power spectra at 21 ≤ ℓ ≤ 335 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with Lambda cold dark matter cosmology, with the first acoustic peak of the EE spectrum now detected at 15σ. The BB spectrum remains consistent with zero. From B-modes only, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r=0.03{sub −0.23}{sup +0.27}, or r < 0.70 at 95% confidence level.

  12. Six Degrees-of-Freedom Prostate and Lung Tumor Motion Measurements Using Kilovoltage Intrafraction Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; Ng, Jin Aun; Booth, Jeremy; Keall, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Tumor positional uncertainty has been identified as a major issue that deteriorates the efficacy of radiation therapy. Tumor rotational movement, which is not well understood, can result in significant geometric and dosimetric inaccuracies. The objective of this study was to measure 6 degrees-of-freedom (6 DoF) prostate and lung tumor motion, focusing on the more novel rotation, using kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM). Methods and Materials: Continuous kilovoltage (kV) projections of tumors with gold fiducial markers were acquired during radiation therapy for 267 fractions from 10 prostate cancer patients and immediately before or after radiation therapy for 50 fractions from 3 lung cancer patients. The 6 DoF motion measurements were determined from the individual 3-dimensional (3D) marker positions, after using methods to reject spurious and smooth noisy data, using an iterative closest point algorithm. Results: There were large variations in the magnitude of the tumor rotation among different fractions and patients. Various rotational patterns were observed. The average prostate rotation angles around the left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI), and anterior-posterior (AP) axes were 1.0 ± 5.0°, 0.6 ± 3.3°, and 0.3 ± 2.0°, respectively. For 35% of the time, the prostate rotated more than 5° about the LR axis, indicating the need for intrafractional adaptation during radiation delivery. For lung patients, the average LR, SI, and AP rotation angles were 0.8 ± 4.2°, −0.8 ± 4.5°, and 1.7 ± 3.1°, respectively. For about 30% of the time, the lung tumors rotated more than 5° around the SI axis. Respiration-induced rotation was detected in 2 of the 3 lung patients. Conclusions: The prostate and lung tumors were found to undergo rotations of more than 5° for about a third of the time. The lung tumor data represent the first 6 DoF tumor motion measured by kV images. The 6 DoF KIM method can enable rotational and translational

  13. Analytical theory for the dark-soliton interaction in nonlocal nonlinear materials with an arbitrary degree of nonlocality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong Qian; Wang, Q.; Bang, O.; Krolikowski, W.

    2010-07-15

    We investigate theoretically the interaction of dark solitons in materials with a spatially nonlocal nonlinearity. In particular we do this analytically and for arbitrary degree of nonlocality. We employ the variational technique to show that nonlocality induces an attractive force in the otherwise repulsive soliton interaction.

  14. Predicting primary crystalline phase and liquidus temperature above or below 1050{degrees}C as functions of glass composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redgate, P.E.; Piepel, G.F.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the results of applying statistical empirical modeling techniques to primary crystalline phase at the liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) and (ii) whether liquidus temperature is above or below 1050{degree}C (1OO{degree}C below a melting temperature of 1150{degree}C). Data used in modeling primary crystalline phase and liquidus temperate are from the Composition Variability Study (CVS) of Hanford waste glass compositions and properties. The majority of the 123 CVS glasses are categorized into one of 13 primary crystalline phases (at the liquidus temperature). They are also classified as to having T{sub L} Above or Below 1050{degree}C. Two common statistical methods used to model such categorical data are the multinomial logit and classification tree models. The classification tree models provided an overall better modeling approach than did the multinomial logit models. The performance of models in this report should be compared to the performance of the revised ``Development of Models and Software for Liquidus Temperature of Glasses of HWVP Products`` models from Ecole Polytechnique. If the Ecole Polytechnique models perform better than the models discussed in this report, no additional effort on these models would be needed. However, if the converse is true, it may be worthwhile to invest additional effort on statistical empirical modeling methods.

  15. Rare-earth elements in hot brines (165 to 190 degree C) from the Salton Sea geothermal field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Rare-earth element (REE) concentrations are important indicators for revealing various chemical fractionation processes (water/rock interactions) and source region geochemistry. Since the REE patterns are characteristic of geologic materials (basalt, granite, shale, sediments, etc.) and minerals (K-feldspar, calcite, illite, epidote, etc.), their study in geothermal fluids may serve as a geothermometer. The REE study may also enable us to address the issue of groundwater mixing. In addition, the behavior of the REE can serve as analogs of the actinides in radioactive waste (e.g., neodymium is an analog of americium and curium). In this paper, the authors port the REE data for a Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) brine (two aliquots: port 4 at 165{degree}C and port 5 at 190{degree}C) and six associated core samples.

  16. Expectations for Oil Shale Production (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain relatively large amounts of kerogen, which can be converted into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons (petroleum liquids, natural gas liquids, and methane) by heating the rock, usually in the absence of oxygen, to 650 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit (in situ retorting) or 900 to 950 degrees Fahrenheit (surface retorting). (Oil shale is, strictly speaking, a misnomer in that the rock is not necessarily a shale and contains no crude oil.) The richest U.S. oil shale deposits are located in Northwest Colorado, Northeast Utah, and Southwest Wyoming. Currently, those deposits are the focus of petroleum industry research and potential future production. Among the three states, the richest oil shale deposits are on federal lands in northwest Colorado.

  17. Contribution of counterions and degree of ionization for birefringence creation and relaxation kinetics parameters of PAH/PAZO films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raposo, Maria Monteiro Timóteo, Ana Rita; Ribeiro, Paulo A.; Ferreira, Quirina; Botelho do Rego, Ana Maria

    2015-09-21

    Photo induced birefringent materials can be used to develop optical and conversion energy devices, and consequently, the study of the variables that influences the creation and relaxation of birefringence should be carefully analyzed. In this work, the parameters of birefringence creation and relaxation kinetics curves obtained on layer-by-layer (LBL) films, prepared from azo-polyectrolyte poly[1-[4-(3-carboxy-4 hydroxyphenylazo) benzene sulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] (PAZO) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride)(PAH), are related with the presence of counterions and the degree of ionization of the polyelectrolytes. Those kinetics curves obtained on PAH/PAZO LBL films, prepared from PAH solutions with different pHs and maintaining the pH of PAZO solution constant at pH = 9, were analyzed taking into account the films composition which was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The creation and relaxation birefringence curves are justified by two processes: one associated to local mobility of the azobenzene with a characteristic time 30 s and intensity constant and other associated with polymeric chains mobility with the characteristic time and intensity decreasing with pH. These results allow us to conclude that the birefringence creation process, associated to local mobility of azobenzenes is independent of the degree of ionization and of number of counterions or co-ions present while the birefringence creation process associated to mobility of chains have its characteristic time and intensity dependent of both degree of ionization and number of counterions. The birefringence relaxation processes are dependent of the degree of ionization. The analysis of the films composition revealed, in addition, the presence of a protonated secondary or tertiary amine revealing that PAZO may have positive charges and consequently a zwitterionic behavior.

  18. {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100>, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit

    2012-05-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100> oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  19. Structural stability of 1100[degree]C heated Pd/k during absorption cycling in protium. [Palladium supported on kieselguhr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, I.A.

    1993-03-12

    Pd/k is a hydride forming packing material which is used in the Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP). Palladium is supported on kieselguhr to create a packing material which will provide adequate void space to prevent excessive pressure drops and flow restrictions. The use of unsupported palladium would result in blockage of columns and clogging of filters due to the small particle size of unsupported palladium hydride powder. During pilot scale demonstrations, it was noted that the Pd/k packing material had degraded causing severe flow restrictions within the TCAP column. A solution to the problem involved the heating of Pd/k at 1,110[degree]C to strengthen the packing material, and render it more resistant to breakdown. The 1, 100[degree]C heated Pd/k has been shown to be more resistant to mechanical breakdown than the Pd/k prior to heat treatment. Two primary modes of Pd/k particle degradation have been identified: mechanical breakdown caused by particle fluidization and degradation caused by absorption/desorption cycling. Absorption/desorption cycling causes the palladium particles within the packing to expanded and contract upon formation and decomposition of the hydride, respectively. This expansion and contraction causes large localized stresses within the packing material, which if these stresses can not be accommodated within the packing will cause the material to crack and degrade. The purpose of this report is to document the results of the absorption/desorption cycling of 1,100[degree]C heated Pd/k and compare these results to the results obtained from the absorption/desorption cycling of Pd/k which had not been heated at 1, 100[degree]C.

  20. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE„4/1/00-3/31/01

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 - March 31, 2006 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor First Position Present Position Elizabeth Bell 2005 N /Z Equilibration S.J. Yennello Graduate Research Assistant Chemistry Instructor st Blinn College, Texas Fakhriddin Pirlepesov 2005 Asymptotic scattering wave function for three charged particles and astrophysical capture processes R.E. Tribble/ A.M. Mukhamedzhanov Graduate Teaching Assistant Pursuing degree at Department of Statistics, Texas A&M University Jim Musser 2005 Measurement of

  1. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE„4/1/00-3/31/01

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE April 1, 2010 - March 31, 2011 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor Present Position Zach Kohley 2010 Transverse Collective Flow and Emission Order of Mid- Rapidity Fragments in Fermi Energy Heavy Ion Collisions S. J. Yennello Post Doc., HRIBF, ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Xingbo Zhao 2010 Charmonium in Hot Medium Ralf Rapp Post Doc., Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa Sarah Nicole

  2. Development of an Energy Efficient High temperature Natural Gas Fired Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Mark G. Stevens; Dr. H. Kenneth Staffin; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-02-28

    The design concept is designated the ''Porous Wall Radiation Barrier'' heating mantle. In this design, combustion gas flows through a porous wall surrounding the retort, transferring its heat to the porous wall, which then radiates heat energy to the retort. Experiments demonstrate that heat transfer rates of 1.8-2.4 times conventional gas fired mantles are achievable in the temperature range of 1600-2350 degrees fahrenheit.

  3. Microsoft Word - winter.doc

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 2 1 8 9 8 1 2 2 5 9 8 1 1 9 9 1 8 9 9 1 1 5 9 9 1 2 2 Degrees in Fahrenheit A c t u a l N o r m a l ( C h i c a g o , K a n s a s C i t y , N e w Y o r k ,...

  4. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Country Definitions Key Terms Definition Imports Natural Gas received in the Continental United States (including Alaska) from a foreign country. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. Pipeline A continuous pipe conduit, complete with such equipment as valves, compressor stations, communications systems, and meters, for transporting natural and/or supplemental gas from one

  5. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Point of Entry Definitions Key Terms Definition Imports Natural Gas received in the Continental United States (including Alaska) from a foreign country. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. Pipeline A continuous pipe conduit, complete with such equipment as valves, compressor stations, communications systems, and meters, for transporting natural and/or supplemental gas

  6. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Point of Exit Definitions Key Terms Definition Exports Natural Gas deliveries out of the Continental United States and Alaska to foreign countries. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. Pipeline A continuous pipe conduit, complete with such equipment as valves, compressor stations, communications systems, and meters, for transporting natural and/or supplemental gas from

  7. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Imports & Exports by State Definitions Key Terms Definition Exports Natural Gas deliveries out of the Continental United States and Alaska to foreign countries. Imports Natural Gas received in the Continental United States (including Alaska) from a foreign country. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. Pipeline A continuous pipe conduit, complete with such equipment

  8. Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    FRONT COVER Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration DOE/EIS-0288-S1 August 2014 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS CFR Code of Federal Regulations CLWR commercial light water reactor CO2e carbon dioxide equivalent DOE U.S. Department of Energy EIS environmental impact statement EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency °F degrees Fahrenheit FR Federal Register

  9. NREL Seeks to Optimize Individual Comfort in Buildings - News Feature |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Seeks to Optimize Individual Comfort in Buildings October 7, 2015 Photo shows two people sitting in a white room, holding smartphones in front of laptops. Scott Jensen and Grace Brown were the first volunteers to take part in testing in NREL's Comfort Suite (C-Suite). Photo by Dennis Schroeder On a typical early fall morning in Golden, Colorado, the temperature outside was about 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Tucked inside a unique structure at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Idle Reduction Requirement A diesel- or gasoline-powered motor vehicle may not idle for more than three consecutive minutes, except under the following conditions: 1) to operate power takeoff equipment including, but not limited to, cement mixers, refrigeration systems, and delivery vehicles; 2) to operate private passenger vehicles; or 3) to operate heating equipment for five minutes when the ambient temperature is 32 degrees Fahrenheit or below. (Reference District of Columbia Municipal