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1

Transport of elliptic intense charged -particle beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The transport theory of high-intensity elliptic charged-particle beams is presented. In particular, the halo formation and beam loss problem associated with the high space charge and small-aperture structure is addressed, ...

Zhou, J. (Jing), 1978-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Light defection due to a charged, rotating body  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

According to GTR and subsequent developments in the field, it is known that there are three factors namely mass, rotation and charge that can influence the space-time geometry. Accordingly, we discuss the effect of space-time geometry of a charged, rotating body on the motion of the light ray. We obtained the expression for equatorial defection of light due to such a body up to fourth order term. In our expression for defection angle it is clear that charge can influence the path of light ray. We used the null geodesic approach of light ray for our calculation. If we set the charge to zero our expression of bending angle gets reduced to the Kerr equatorial bending angle.If we set rotation to zero our expression reduces to Resinner-Nordstr$\\ddot{o}$m defection angle and if we set both charge and rotation to zero our expression reduces to Schwarzschild bending angle. However, we get non-zero bending angle for a hypothetical massless, rotating, charged body.

Sarani Chakraborty; A. K. Sen

2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

3

Oxygen sublattice defect in cobalt oxide : formation, migration, charge localization and thermodynamic processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

643 Oxygen sublattice defect in cobalt oxide : formation, migration, charge localization of oxygen defects in CoO using classical simulations. The charge localization in the oxygen vacancy has]. The defect concentration in the oxygen sublattice is several orders of magnitude smaller, but never- theless

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

4

Nanoscale Charge Transport in Excitonic Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Excitonic solar cells, including all-organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), offer strong potential for inexpensive and large-area solar energy conversion. Unlike traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, where all the charge generation and collection processes are well understood, these excitonic solar cells contain extremely disordered structures with complex interfaces which results in large variations in nanoscale electronic properties and has a strong influence on carrier generation, transport, dissociation and collection. Detailed understanding of these processes is important for fabrication of highly efficient solar cells. Efforts to improve efficiency are underway at a large number of research groups throughout the world focused on inorganic and organic semiconductors, photonics, photophysics, charge transport, nanoscience, ultrafast spectroscopy, photonics, semiconductor processing, device physics, device structures, interface structure etc. Rapid progress in this multidisciplinary area requires strong synergetic efforts among researchers from diverse backgrounds. Such effort can lead to novel methods for development of new materials with improved photon harvesting and interfacial treatments for improved carrier transport, process optimization to yield ordered nanoscale morphologies with well defined electronic structures.

Venkat Bommisetty, South Dakota State University

2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

5

Defect-Enhanced Charge Transfer by Ion-Solid Interactions in...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

transfer effects on recoil atoms. Citation: Gao F, HY Xiao, XT Zu, M Posselt, and WJ Weber.2009."Defect-Enhanced Charge Transfer by Ion-Solid Interactions in SiC using...

6

Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport Print Layered transition metal oxides are the focus of intense research efforts because they might clarify the...

7

Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic Semiconductor Graphene, a two dimensional semi-metal made of sp 2 hybridized carbon, is an outstanding material...

8

Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic Semiconductor Friday, January 30, 2015 Graphene, a two dimensional semi-metal made of sp2 hybridized carbon, is...

9

Aspects of charge recombination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, aspects of charge reconbination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices are presented. These devices show promise relative to traditional inorganic semiconductors. We show ...

Difley, Seth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Infrared Charge-Modulation Spectroscopy of Defects in Phosphorus Doped Amorphous Silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infrared Charge-Modulation Spectroscopy of Defects in Phosphorus Doped Amorphous Silicon KAI ZHU Solar, Toano, VA 23168 USA ABSTRACT We present infrared charge-modulation absorption spectra have been developing an infrared modulation spectroscopy technique that probes the optical spectra

Schiff, Eric A.

11

CHARACTERIZING COUPLED CHARGE TRANSPORT WITH MULTISCALE MOLECULAR DYNAMICS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final progress report for Award DE-SC0004920, entitled 'Characterizing coupled charge transport with multi scale molecular dynamics'. The technical abstract will be provided in the uploaded report.

Swanson, Jessica

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

12

Charge transport in molecular devices. Nanoscience and nanotechologies: new science?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Charge transport in molecular devices. Nanoscience and nanotechologies: new science? Nanoscience and other developing countries are also joining in this scientific effort. What does nanoscience of an intrinsic nanoscale science that existed before "nanoscience". So we can now reformulate our question: what

Qian, Ning

13

Transport in charged colloids driven by thermoelectricity Alois Wrger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. There is no complete description for the underlying physical forces, and even the sign of the thermophoretic mobility negative thermophoretic mobility has been reported for charged latex spheres in a bu¤ered so- lution. Like any linear transport coe¢ cient in a viscous uid, the thermophoretic mobility DT has

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

14

Low temperature dielectric relaxation and charged defects in ferroelectric thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a dielectric relaxation in BaTiO{sub 3}-based ferroelectric thin films of different composition and with several growth modes: sputtering (with and without magnetron) and sol-gel. The relaxation was observed at cryogenic temperatures (T < 100 K) for frequencies from 100 Hz up to 10 MHz. This relaxation activation energy is always lower than 200 meV and is very similar to the relaxation that we reported in the parent bulk perovskites. Based on our Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) investigation, we ascribe this dielectric relaxation to the hopping of electrons among Ti{sup 3+}-V(O) charged defects. Being dependent on the growth process and on the amount of oxygen vacancies, this relaxation can be a useful probe of defects in actual integrated capacitors with no need for specific shaping.

Artemenko, A.; Payan, S.; Rousseau, A.; Arveux, E.; Maglione, M. [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Levasseur, D. [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); STMicroelectronics, 16 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie 37071 Tours France (France); Guegan, G. [STMicroelectronics, 16 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie 37071 Tours France (France)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

Ratchet transport for a chain of interacting charged particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study analytically and numerically the overdamped, deterministic dynamics of a chain of {\\it charged}, interacting particles driven by a longitudinal alternating electric field and additionally interacting with a smooth ratchet potential. We derive the equations of motion, analyze the general properties of their solutions and find the drift criterion for chain motion. For ratchet potentials of the form of a double-sine and a phase-modulated sine it is demonstrated that both, a so-called integer and fractional transport of the chain can occur. Explicit results for the directed chain transport for these two classes of ratchet potentials are presented.

S. I. Denisov; E. S. Denisova; P. Hänggi

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

16

Charge transport properties of CdMnTe radiation detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growth, fabrication and characterization of indium-doped cadmium manganese telluride (CdMnTe)radiation detectors have been described. Alpha-particle spectroscopy measurements and time resolved current transient measurements have yielded an average charge collection efficiency approaching 100 %. Spatially resolved charge collection efficiency maps have been produced for a range of detector bias voltages. Inhomogeneities in the charge transport of the CdMnTe crystals have been associated with chains of tellurium inclusions within the detector bulk. Further, it has been shown that the role of tellurium inclusions in degrading chargecollection is reduced with increasing values of bias voltage. The electron transit time was determined from time of flight measurements. From the dependence of drift velocity on applied electric field the electron mobility was found to be n = (718 55) cm2/Vs at room temperature.

Kim K.; Rafiel, R.; Boardman, M.; Reinhard, I.; Sarbutt, A.; Watt, G.; Watt, C.; Uxa, S.; Prokopovich, D.A.; Belas, E.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; James, R.B.

2012-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

17

Vehicle remote charge-all electric transportation system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of a pollution-free transportation system that utilizes technology from the defense industry combines two industries in a commercial venture. In conjunction with the abatement of pollution that an all-electric transportation system would realize, the defense industry is looking for a commercial market for the technology that it has developed over the years. This new transportation system will accomplish both these goals. To date, the most reliable electric source has been overhead tethered lines or on-ground tracks in public transportation. But these greatly reduce the convenience of route changes and are at the mercy of small traffic pattern changes which can cause traffic tie-ups. The ideal electric bus would have a completely mobile energy source, such as a battery pack. But the limited range of a battery powered vehicle has diminished its use to only specific cases. In private vehicles also, the limited range of zero-pollution battery power has reduced the desirability of all-electric transportation. The electric transportation system proposed here will eliminate these problems. Buses will be sent out on their routes with convenient in-route charging. There will be minimum route changes to accommodate vehicle recharging. The buses will have full mobility and can avoid any traffic tie-ups. The charging of these on-board electrical energy storage systems will take place via a wireless power transmission network that will be established along the roadside on existing power line (telephone) poles or new stand-alone poles that would be in conjunction with the existing poles. Radio frequency (RF) wavelengths such as a microwave or a millimeterwave system or optical frequencies (OF), a laser based system, are wireless energy transmission systems. Utilizing this means to establish a nationwide transportation system will take a technology that has been defense based and use it in a commercial application.

Parise, R.J.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Mass Transport Investigated with the Electrochemical and Electrogravimetric Impedance Techniques. 3. Complex Charge Transport in PPy/PSS Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mass Transport Investigated with the Electrochemical and Electrogravimetric Impedance Techniques. 3. Complex Charge Transport in PPy/PSS Films Haesik Yang and Juhyoun Kwak* Department of Chemistry, Korea AdVember 24, 1997 For the first time, the complex charge transport mechanism for polypyrrole

Kwak, Juhyoun

19

Charge Transport and Glassy Dynamics in Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit unique features such as low melting points, low vapor pressures, wide liquidus temperature ranges, high thermal stability, high ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical windows. As a result, they show promise for use in variety of applications: as reaction media, in batteries and supercapacitors, in solar and fuel cells, for electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors, for protein extraction and crystallization, and many others. Because of the ease with which they can be supercooled, ionic liquids offer new opportunities to investigate long-standing questions regarding the nature of the dynamic glass transition and its possible link to charge transport. Despite the significant steps achieved from experimental and theoretical studies, no generally accepted quantitative theory of dynamic glass transition to date has been capable of reproducing all the experimentally observed features. In this Account, we discuss recent studies of the interplay between charge transport and glassy dynamics in ionic liquids as investigated by a combination of several experimental techniques including broadband dielectric spectroscopy, pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Based on EinsteinSmoluchowski relations, we use dielectric spectra of ionic liquids to determine diffusion coefficients in quantitative agreement with independent pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, but spanning a broader range of more than 10 orders of magnitude. This approach provides a novel opportunity to determine the electrical mobility and effective number density of charge carriers as well as their types of thermal activation from the measured dc conductivity separately. We also unravel the origin of the remarkable universality of charge transport in different classes of glass-forming ionic liquids.

Sangoro, Joshua R [ORNL; Kremer, Friedrich [University of Leipzig

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Local charge transport properties of hydrazine reduced monolayer graphene oxide sheets prepared under pressure condition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Charge transport properties of chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets prepared by treatment with hydrazine were examined using conductive atomic force microscopy. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of monolayer RGO sheets prepared under atmospheric pressure followed an exponentially increase due to 2D variable-range hopping conduction through small graphene domains in an RGO sheet containing defect regions of residual sp{sup 3} carbon clusters bonded to oxygen groups, whereas RGO sheets prepared in a closed container under moderate pressure showed linear I-V characteristics with a conductivity of 267.2?537.5?S/m. It was found that the chemical reduction under pressure results in larger graphene domains (sp{sup 2} networks) in the RGO sheets when compared to that prepared under atmospheric pressure, indicating that the present reduction of GO sheets under the pressure is one of the effective methods to make well-reduced GO sheets.

Ryuzaki, Sou, E-mail: ryuzaki.soh.341@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Meyer, Jakob A. S.; Petersen, Søren; Nørgaard, Kasper; Hassenkam, Tue; Laursen, Bo W. [Nano-Science Center and Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetparken 5, 2100 Københaven Ø (Denmark)

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Controlling polymer translocation and ion transport via charge correlations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a correlation-corrected transport theory in order to predict ionic and polymer transport properties of membrane nanopores in physical conditions where mean-field electrostatics breaks down. The experimentally observed low KCl conductivity of open alpha-Hemolysin pores is quantitatively explained by the presence of surface polarization effects. Upon the penetration of a DNA molecule into the pore, these polarization forces combined with the electroneutrality of DNA sets a lower boundary for the ionic current, explaining the weak salt dependence of blocked pore conductivities at dilute ion concentrations. The addition of multivalent counterions into the solution results in the reversal of the polymer charge and the direction of the electroosmotic flow. With trivalent spermidine or quadrivalent spermine molecules, the charge inversion is strong enough to stop the translocation of the polymer and to reverse its motion. This mechanism can be used efficiently in translocation experiments in order to improve the accuracy of DNA sequencing by minimizing the translocation velocity of the polymer.

Sahin Buyukdagli; Tapio Ala-Nissila

2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

22

Charge carrier transport properties in layer structured hexagonal boron nitride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to its large in-plane thermal conductivity, high temperature and chemical stability, large energy band gap (~ 6.4 eV), hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has emerged as an important material for applications in deep ultraviolet photonic devices. Among the members of the III-nitride material system, hBN is the least studied and understood. The study of the electrical transport properties of hBN is of utmost importance with a view to realizing practical device applications. Wafer-scale hBN epilayers have been successfully synthesized by metal organic chemical deposition and their electrical transport properties have been probed by variable temperature Hall effect measurements. The results demonstrate that undoped hBN is a semiconductor exhibiting weak p-type at high temperatures (> 700?°K). The measured acceptor energy level is about 0.68 eV above the valence band. In contrast to the electrical transport properties of traditional III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors, the temperature dependence of the hole mobility in hBN can be described by the form of ? ? (T/T{sub 0}){sup ??} with ? = 3.02, satisfying the two-dimensional (2D) carrier transport limit dominated by the polar optical phonon scattering. This behavior is a direct consequence of the fact that hBN is a layer structured material. The optical phonon energy deduced from the temperature dependence of the hole mobility is ?? = 192 meV (or 1546 cm{sup -1}), which is consistent with values previously obtained using other techniques. The present results extend our understanding of the charge carrier transport properties beyond the traditional III-nitride semiconductors.

Doan, T. C.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X., E-mail: hx.jiang@ttu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

Charge transport and charge clustering in polymer electrolytes: Results from simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports results of molecular dynamics simulations on models for polymer electrolytes. These initial models use reasonable potentials, with proper thermal dynamics and appropriate treatment of boundary conditions. The solvents themselves range in complexity from simple Lennar-Jones spheres with embedded dipoles to constraint geometry models for small etheric solvents. The paper reports structural, transport and thermal dependences of these model electrolytes. The authors observe some important changes in the extent of clustering with temperature and with dielectric constant, as well as with concentration. Mechanistic interpretation, in terms of effective ion flows and charge transport characteristics, are reported. In particular, the authors find an analysis of pairing using the thermal dependence of the potential of mean force shows clearly that entropic effects, as well as reduced dielectric screening, result in cluster stabilization. In the extreme limit of oversaturation, such stabilization can actually lead to changes in the mechanism, in agreement with recent suggestions by Angell based on ionene materials.

Payne, V.A.; Forsyth, M.; Shriver, D.F.; DeLeeuw, S.W.; Ratner, M.A. [Northeastern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

24

Effect of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Charge Injection and Transport...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effect of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Charge Injection and Transport in Poly(3-hexylthiophene)-Based Field-Effect Transistors Effect of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Charge...

25

Charge transport in micas: The kinetics of FeII/III electron...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

transport in micas: The kinetics of FeIIIII electron transfer in the octahedral sheet. Charge transport in micas: The kinetics of FeIIIII electron transfer in the octahedral...

26

International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 219 (2002) 7377 Protein charge transport in gas phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature limit, the rotational energy can be transferred with very high efficiency and hence one obtainsInternational Journal of Mass Spectrometry 219 (2002) 73­77 Protein charge transport in gas phase high charge transport efficiency. (Int J Mass Spectrom 219 (2002) 73­77) © 2002 Elsevier Science B

Sheu, Sheh-Yi

27

Comparison of quantization of charge transport in periodic and open pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparison of quantization of charge transport in periodic and open pumps G.M. Graf and G. Ortelli the charges transported in two systems, a spatially periodic and an open quantum pump, both depending physical situations become the same, i.e., that of a large open pump. 1 Introduction In this note we

28

Temporal and Dose Kinetics of Tunnel Relaxation of Non-Equilibrium Near-Interfacial Charged Defects in Insulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper is devoted mainly to mathematical aspects of modeling and simulation of tunnel relaxation of nonequilibrium charged oxide traps located at/near the interface insulator - conductive channel, for instance in irradiated MOS devices. The generic form of the tunnel annealing response function was derived from the rate equation for the charged defect buildup and annealing as a linear superposition of the responses of different defects with different time constants. Using this linear response function, a number of important practical problems are analyzed and discussed. Combined tunnel and thermal or RICN annealing, power-like temporal relaxation after a single ion strike into the gate oxide, are described in context of general approach.

Zebrev, Gennady I

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Coulomb screening in graphene with topological defects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the screening of an external Coulomb charge in gapless graphene cone, which is taken as a prototype of a topological defect. In the subcritical regime, the induced charge is calculated using both the Green's function and the Friedel sum rule. The dependence of the polarization charge on the Coulomb strength obtained from the Green's function clearly shows the effect of the conical defect and indicates that the critical charge itself depends on the sample topology. Similar analysis using the Friedel sum rule indicates that the two results agree for low values of the Coulomb charge but differ for the higher strengths, especially in the presence of the conical defect. For a given subcritical charge, the transport cross-section has a higher value in the presence of the conical defect. In the supercritical regime we show that the coefficient of the power law tail of polarization charge density can be expressed as a summation of functions which vary log periodically with the distance from the Coulomb impurity. The period of variation depends on the conical defect. In the presence of the conical defect, the Fano resonances begin to appear in the transport cross-section for a lower value of the Coulomb charge. For both sub and supercritical regime we derive the dependence of LDOS on the conical defect. The effects of generalized boundary condition on the physical observables are also discussed.

Baishali Chakraborty; Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

2015-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

30

Coulomb screening in graphene with topological defects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the screening of an external Coulomb charge in gapless graphene cone, which is taken as a prototype of a topological defect. In the subcritical regime, the induced charge is calculated using both the Green's function and the Friedel sum rule. The dependence of the polarization charge on the Coulomb strength obtained from the Green's function clearly shows the effect of the conical defect and indicates that the critical charge itself depends on the sample topology. Similar analysis using the Friedel sum rule indicates that the two results agree for low values of the Coulomb charge but differ for the higher strengths, especially in the presence of the conical defect. For a given subcritical charge, the transport cross-section has a higher value in the presence of the conical defect. In the supercritical regime we show that the coefficient of the power law tail of polarization charge density can be expressed as a summation of functions which vary log periodically with the distance from the Coulomb impurity. The period of variation depends on the conical defect. In the presence of the conical defect, the Fano resonances begin to appear in the transport cross-section for a lower value of the Coulomb charge. For both sub and supercritical regime we derive the dependence of LDOS on the conical defect. The effects of generalized boundary condition on the physical observables are also discussed.

Baishali Chakraborty; Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

2015-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

31

Controllable spin-charge transport in strained graphene nanoribbon devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We theoretically investigate the spin-charge transport in two-terminal device of graphene nanoribbons in the presence of a uniform uniaxial strain, spin-orbit coupling, exchange field, and smooth staggered potential. We show that the direction of applied strain can efficiently tune strain-strength induced oscillation of band-gap of armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR). It is also found that electronic conductance in both AGNR and zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) oscillates with Rashba spin-orbit coupling akin to the Datta-Das field effect transistor. Two distinct strain response regimes of electronic conductance as function of spin-orbit couplings magnitude are found. In the regime of small strain, conductance of ZGNR presents stronger strain dependence along the longitudinal direction of strain. Whereas for high values of strain shows larger effect for the transversal direction. Furthermore, the local density of states shows that depending on the smoothness of the staggered potential, the edge states of AGNR can either emerge or be suppressed. These emerging states can be determined experimentally by either spatially scanning tunneling microscope or by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Our findings open up new paradigms of manipulation and control of strained graphene based nanostructure for application on novel topological quantum devices.

Diniz, Ginetom S., E-mail: ginetom@gmail.com; Guassi, Marcos R. [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970, Brasília-DF (Brazil); Qu, Fanyao [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970, Brasília-DF (Brazil); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

32

The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation.

Spädtke, Peter, E-mail: p.spaedtke@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)] [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

Comparison of quantization of charge transport in periodic and open pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We compare the charges transported in two systems, a spatially periodic and an open quantum pump, both depending periodically and adiabatically on time. The charge transported in a cycle was computed by Thouless, respectively by Buttiker et al. in the two cases. We show that the results agree in the limit where the two physical situations become the same, i.e., that of a large open pump.

Gian Michele Graf; Gregorio Ortelli

2007-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

34

Analysis of charge transport during lightning using balloon-borne electric field sensors and Lightning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of charge transport during lightning using balloon-borne electric field sensors is developed to separate the background field associated with instrument rotation and cloud charging processes the background electric field that would have existed if the lightning had not occurred. The estimated background

Hager, William

35

Defect chemistry and transport properties of BaxCe0.85M0.15O3-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the generation of positively charged defects, typically oxygen vacancies. Oxygen-vacancy content, in turn at vacant oxygen sites. We propose here, on the basis of x-ray powder diffraction studies, electron and derivatives) by both oxygen ions and/ or electrons has been widely studied and such materials find

36

Impact of defects on the electrical transport, optical properties and failure mechanisms of GaN nanowires.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the results of a three year LDRD project that focused on understanding the impact of defects on the electrical, optical and thermal properties of GaN-based nanowires (NWs). We describe the development and application of a host of experimental techniques to quantify and understand the physics of defects and thermal transport in GaN NWs. We also present the development of analytical models and computational studies of thermal conductivity in GaN NWs. Finally, we present an atomistic model for GaN NW electrical breakdown supported with experimental evidence. GaN-based nanowires are attractive for applications requiring compact, high-current density devices such as ultraviolet laser arrays. Understanding GaN nanowire failure at high-current density is crucial to developing nanowire (NW) devices. Nanowire device failure is likely more complex than thin film due to the prominence of surface effects and enhanced interaction among point defects. Understanding the impact of surfaces and point defects on nanowire thermal and electrical transport is the first step toward rational control and mitigation of device failure mechanisms. However, investigating defects in GaN NWs is extremely challenging because conventional defect spectroscopy techniques are unsuitable for wide-bandgap nanostructures. To understand NW breakdown, the influence of pre-existing and emergent defects during high current stress on NW properties will be investigated. Acute sensitivity of NW thermal conductivity to point-defect density is expected due to the lack of threading dislocation (TD) gettering sites, and enhanced phonon-surface scattering further inhibits thermal transport. Excess defect creation during Joule heating could further degrade thermal conductivity, producing a viscous cycle culminating in catastrophic breakdown. To investigate these issues, a unique combination of electron microscopy, scanning luminescence and photoconductivity implemented at the nanoscale will be used in concert with sophisticated molecular-dynamics calculations of surface and defect-mediated NW thermal transport. This proposal seeks to elucidate long standing material science questions for GaN while addressing issues critical to realizing reliable GaN NW devices.

Armstrong, Andrew M.; Aubry, Sylvie; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Siegal, Michael P.; Li, Qiming; Jones, Reese E.; Westover, Tyler; Wang, George T.; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Talin, Albert Alec; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Harris, C. Thomas; Huang, Jian Yu

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Charge Transport within a Three-Dimensional DNA Nanostructure Framework  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User Group and Userof a blast-resistant naval steel |ImpactCharge

38

Charging Up with the Electric Drive Transportation Association | Department  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth Day withCharacterizationDiesel RetrofitChargePointof

39

ChargePoint is Helping Electrify America's Transportation | Department of  

Energy Savers [EERE]

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40

Space Charge Compensation in the Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport Line with Negative Hydrogen Ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Tranport (LEBT) using the package IBSimu1, which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H- beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

Valerio-Lizarraga, C; Leon-Monzon, I; Lettry, J; Midttun, O; Scrivens, R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Studies on relative effects of charged and neutral defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon. Final report, 1 October 1989--31 December 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers the third year of a continuing research study to understand the relative importance of charged and neutral defects in amorphous silicon. The objective of the study is to explore the electronic structure, including neutral and charged defects, an optoelectronic effects including the formation of Staebler-Wronski defects. The study concentrated on exploring electroluminescence experimentally and interpreting the results employing a simple guiding model. The simple guiding model assumes an exponential density of states and recombination rate constants (radiative and non-radiative) which are governed by hopping transitions. Measurements were also made as a function of photodegradation of the material. The results implicate that the radiative recombination processes are not distant pair tunneling but rather results from electrons hopping down due to the coulomb interactions. Preliminary experiments have been made on the effect of photodegradation on transient space charge limited currents in n/i/n structures. These experiments can directly yield information on the occupied defects centers induced by the photodegradation and are not a result of recombination processes. To date the results seems to be consistent with a picture which places the doubly occupied defects at quite a high energy ({approx_equal} 0.4 e.v. below the conduction band).

Silver, M. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup ?} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A., E-mail: cristhian.alfonso.valerio.lizarraga@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)] [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico)] [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico); Midttun, Øystein [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Charge Transport through a Novel Zeolite Y Membrane by a Self-Exchange Process Hyunjung Lee and Prabir K. Dutta*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Charge Transport through a Novel Zeolite Y Membrane by a Self-Exchange Process Hyunjung Lee-photoresist-coated membranes were found. Accessibility of the intrazeolitic volume was examined by ion exchange and for optimally illuminated membranes was comparable to uncoated membranes. Charge transport through the membrane

Dutta, Prabir K.

44

Charge Transport Limitations in Self-Assembled TiO2 Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Charge Transport Limitations in Self-Assembled TiO2 Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Storage; Energy and Charge Transport The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) has attracted wide- spread. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, United Kingdom *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Solid-state dye-sensitized

Steiner, Ullrich

45

Charge Transport Properties in TiO2 Network with Different Particle Sizes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the large improvement in performance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) achieved in 1991, mesoporousCharge Transport Properties in TiO2 Network with Different Particle Sizes for Dye Sensitized Solar sensitized solar cells, nanoparticle size, impedance, charge transport properties INTRODUCTION Since

Cao, Guozhong

46

Charge transport through split photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Charge transport and recombination are relatively ignored parameters while upscaling dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Enhanced photovoltaic parameters are anticipated by merely widening the devices physical dimensions, viz., thickness and area as evident from the device design adopted in reported large area DSCs. These strip designs lead to ?50% loss in photocurrent compared to the high efficiency lab scale devices. Herein, we report that the key to achieving higher current density (J{sub SC}) is optimized diffusion volume rather than the increased photoelectrode area because kinetics of the devices is strongly influenced by the varied choices of diffusion pathways upon increasing the electrode area. For a given electrode area and thickness, we altered the photoelectrode design by splitting the electrode into multiple fractions to restrict the electron diffusion pathways. We observed a correlation between the device physical dimensions and its charge collection efficiency via current-voltage and impedance spectroscopy measurements. The modified electrode designs showed >50% increased J{sub SC} due to shorter transport time, higher recombination resistance and enhanced charge collection efficiency compared to the conventional ones despite their similar active volume (?3.36?×?10{sup ?4}?cm{sup 3}). A detailed charge transport characteristic of the split devices and their comparison with single electrode configuration is described in this article.

Fakharuddin, Azhar; Ahmed, Irfan; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Jose, Rajan, E-mail: rjose@ump.edu.my [Nanostructured Renewable Energy Materials Laboratory, Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Kuantan 26300 (Malaysia); Khalidin, Zulkeflee [Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Kuantan 26600 (Malaysia)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

47

Quantized Hamiltonian dynamics captures the low-temperature regime of charge transport in molecular crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The quantized Hamiltonian dynamics (QHD) theory provides a hierarchy of approximations to quantum dynamics in the Heisenberg representation. We apply the first-order QHD to study charge transport in molecular crystals and find that the obtained equations of motion coincide with the Ehrenfest theory, which is the most widely used mixed quantum-classical approach. Quantum initial conditions required for the QHD variables make the dynamics surpass Ehrenfest. Most importantly, the first-order QHD already captures the low-temperature regime of charge transport, as observed experimentally. We expect that simple extensions to higher-order QHDs can efficiently represent other quantum effects, such as phonon zero-point energy and loss of coherence in the electronic subsystem caused by phonons.

Wang, Linjun, E-mail: linjun.wang@rochester.edu, E-mail: oleg.prezhdo@rochester.edu; Chen, Liping; Prezhdo, Oleg V., E-mail: linjun.wang@rochester.edu, E-mail: oleg.prezhdo@rochester.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Akimov, Alexey V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

48

Charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers: A theoretical and experimental study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphene has been proposed as a material for semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. Understanding the charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers will be crucial for future applications. Here, we report a theoretical model to describe the transport mechanisms at the interface of graphene and semiconductors based on conventional semiconductor Schottky theory and a floating Fermi level of graphene. The contact barrier heights can be estimated through this model and be close to the values obtained from the experiments, which are lower than those of the metal/semiconductor contacts. A detailed analysis reveals that the barrier heights are as the function of the interface separations and dielectric constants, and are influenced by the interfacial states of semiconductors. Our calculations show how this behavior of lowering barrier heights arises from the Fermi level shift of graphene induced by the charge transfer owing to the unique linear electronic structure.

Zhong, Haijian; Liu, Zhenghui; Xu, Gengzhao; Shi, Lin; Fan, Yingmin; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail: kxu2006@sinano.ac.cn; Wang, Jianfeng; Ren, Guoqiang [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Suzhou Nanowin Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215123 (China)

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

49

Homogenization of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck Equations for Ion Transport in Charged Porous Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effective Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations are derived for macroscopic ion transport in charged porous media under periodic fluid flow by an asymptotic multi-scale expansion with drift. The microscopic setting is a two-component periodic composite consisting of a dilute electrolyte continuum (described by standard PNP equations) and a continuous dielectric matrix, which is impermeable to the ions and carries a given surface charge. Four new features arise in the upscaled equations: (i) the effective ionic diffusivities and mobilities become tensors, related to the microstructure; (ii) the effective permittivity is also a tensor, depending on the electrolyte/matrix permittivity ratio and the ratio of the Debye screening length to the macroscopic length of the porous medium; (iii) the microscopic fluidic convection is replaced by a diffusion-dispersion correction in the effective diffusion tensor; and (iv) the surface charge per volume appears as a continuous "background charge density", as in classical membrane models. The coefficient tensors in the upscaled PNP equations can be calculated from periodic reference cell problems. For an insulating solid matrix, all gradients are corrected by the same tensor, and the Einstein relation holds at the macroscopic scale, which is not generally the case for a polarizable matrix, unless the permittivity and electric field are suitably defined. In the limit of thin double layers, Poisson's equation is replaced by macroscopic electroneutrality (balancing ionic and surface charges). The general form of the macroscopic PNP equations may also hold for concentrated solution theories, based on the local-density and mean-field approximations. These results have broad applicability to ion transport in porous electrodes, separators, membranes, ion-exchange resins, soils, porous rocks, and biological tissues.

Markus Schmuck; Martin Z. Bazant

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

50

Coulomb screening in graphene with topological defects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the screening of an external Coulomb charge in gapless graphene cone, which is taken as a prototype of a topological defect. In the subcritical regime, the induced charge is calculated using both the Green's function and the Friedel sum rule. The dependence of the polarization charge on the Coulomb strength obtained from the Green's function clearly shows the effect of the conical defect and indicates that the critical charge itself depends on the sample topology. Similar analysis using the Friedel sum rule indicates that the two results agree for low values of the Coulomb charge but differ for the higher strengths, especially in the presence of the conical defect. For a given subcritical charge, the transport cross-section has a higher value in the presence of the conical defect. In the supercritical regime we show that the coefficient of the power law tail of polarization charge density can be expressed as a summation of functions which vary log periodically with the distance from the Coulomb imp...

Chakraborty, Baishali; Sen, Siddhartha

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Chiral vortical wave and induced flavor charge transport in a rotating quark-gluon plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show the existence of a new gapless collective excitation in a rotating fluid system with chiral fermions, named as the Chiral Vortical Wave (CVW). The CVW has its microscopic origin at the quantum anomaly and macroscopically arises from interplay between vector and axial charge fluctuations induced by vortical effects. The wave equation is obtained both from hydrodynamic current equations and from chiral kinetic theory and its solutions show nontrivial CVW-induced charge transport from different initial conditions. Using the rotating quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions as a concrete example, we show the formation of induced flavor quadrupole in QGP and estimate the elliptic flow splitting effect for Lambda baryons that may be experimentally measured.

Jiang, Yin; Liao, Jinfeng

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Mode-selective vibrational control of charge transport in $?$-conjugated molecular materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The soft character of organic materials leads to strong coupling between molecular nuclear and electronic dynamics. This coupling opens the way to control charge transport in organic electronic devices by inducing molecular vibrational motions. However, despite encouraging theoretical predictions, experimental realization of such control has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate experimentally that photoconductivity in a model organic optoelectronic device can be controlled by the selective excitation of molecular vibrations. Using an ultrafast infrared laser source to create a coherent superposition of vibrational motions in a pentacene/C60 photoresistor, we observe that excitation of certain modes in the 1500-1700 cm$^{-1}$ region leads to photocurrent enhancement. Excited vibrations affect predominantly trapped carriers. The effect depends on the nature of the vibration and its mode-specific character can be well described by the vibrational modulation of intermolecular electronic couplings. Vibrational control thus presents a new tool for studying electron-phonon coupling and charge dynamics in (bio)molecular materials.

Artem A. Bakulin; Robert Lovrin?i?; Yu Xi; Oleg Selig; Huib J. Bakker; Yves L. A. Rezus; Pabitra K. Nayak; Alexandr Fonari; Veaceslav Coropceanu; Jean-Luc Brédas; David Cahen

2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

53

Transport mechanisms and experimental evidence of positively charged dust particles in an argon plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well known that dense particle clouds often reside within the steady-state plasma; however, particle transport in the critical post-plasma period has not yet been fully explored. To better understand and characterize particle behavior, charge and transport properties of dust particles in an argon plasma, contained within a Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) reference cell, were studied in the steady-state and post-plasma regimes of a 500 mTorr, 25 W argon discharge. Using separate water chillers to control independently the temperatures of the upper and lower electrodes, various temperature gradients were imposed on the plasma and thermophoretic transport of the particle clouds observed for both steady and decaying discharges. Next, using a pulsed rf power supply and a tuned Langmuir probe, the decay times of electrons and ions were measured in the afterglow. Finally, utilizing high-speed video in concert with 10 mW He-Ne laser light, post-plasma particle trajectories were observed for various electric fields and electrode temperatures. Results were then compared to calculations from a net force model that included gravity, the electric field, fluid flow, ion drag, and thermophoresis. It was found that temperature gradients greater than {approximately} 10 C/cm significantly altered particle cloud configurations in steady plasmas, and provided a strong transport mechanism in the afterglow. Electrically, the measured ion density decay time was approximately equal to that of the electrons, consistent with ambipolar diffusion.

Brown, D.A.; Hareland, W.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Collins, S.M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

54

The Influence of Morphology on the Charge Transport in Two-Phase Disordered Organic Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we use a three-dimensional Pauli master equation to investigate the charge carrier mobility of a two-phase system, which can mimic donor-acceptor and amorphous- crystalline bulk heterojunctions. Our approach can be separated into two parts: the morphology generation and the charge transport modeling in the generated blend. The morphology part is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of binary mixtures (donor/acceptor). The second part is carried out by numerically solving the steady-state Pauli master equation. By taking the energetic disorder of each phase, their energy offset and domain morphology into consideration, we show that the carrier mobility can have a significant different behavior when compared to a one-phase system. When the energy offset is non-zero, we show that the mobility electric field dependence switches from negative to positive at a threshold field proportional to the energy offset. Additionally, the influence of morphology, through the domain size and the interfacial roughness parameters, on the transport was also investigated.

Cristiano F. Woellner; Leonardo D. Machado; Pedro A. S. Autreto; Jose A. Freire; Douglas S. Galvao

2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

55

Charge transport properties in microcrystalline KDyFe(China){sub 6}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microcrystalline solid dysprosium(III) hexacyanoferrate(II) was synthesized by co-precipitation in aqueous solution. The resulting solid has been studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray analysis and solid state electrochemistry. The use of a cavity microelectrode was necessary to explore a wide range of time scale and minimize the (undesired) capacitive currents. Cyclic voltametric experiments were very helpful to understand the kinetic of charge transfer in such microstructure. A structure-properties relationship has been established from the crystallographic and the electrochemical properties. A square-scheme is presented to explain the unique electrochemical behavior of hexacyanoferrate containing dysprosium since this compound exhibits a second redox system. The solid presents an open channel-like morphology in which the motion of charged species occurs during the redox processes. Precisely, the electronic transfer is accompanied by a cation diffusion inside the microcrystalline structure. The size of these channels strongly suggests that the kinetic of charge transfer is limited by the cation transport into these structures. - Graphical abstract: Dy and Fe polyhedra packing in the cell of KDyFe(China){sub 6}.3.5H{sub 2}O shows occluded water molecules and potassium ions forming a pseudohexagonal 2D sub-lattice connected to each other by diffusion channels.

Aubert, P.H. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (LPPI), Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 Mail Gay-Lussac, Neuville-sur-Oise 95031, Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Goubard, F. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (LPPI), Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 Mail Gay-Lussac, Neuville-sur-Oise 95031, Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France)], E-mail: fabrice.goubard@u-cergy.fr; Chevrot, C. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (LPPI), Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 Mail Gay-Lussac, Neuville-sur-Oise 95031, Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Tabuteau, A. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (LPPI), Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 Mail Gay-Lussac, Neuville-sur-Oise 95031, Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France)

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

Nonequilibrium transport through quantum-wire junctions and boundary defects for free massless bosonic fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a model of quantum-wire junctions where the latter are described by conformal-invariant boundary conditions of the simplest type in the multicomponent compactified massless scalar free field theory representing the bosonized Luttinger liquids in the bulk of wires. The boundary conditions result in the scattering of charges across the junction with nontrivial reflection and transmission amplitudes. The equilibrium state of such a system, corresponding to inverse temperature $\\beta$ and electric potential $V$, is explicitly constructed both for finite and for semi-infinite wires. In the latter case, a stationary nonequilibrium state describing the wires kept at different temperatures and potentials may be also constructed. The main result of the present paper is the calculation of the full counting statistics (FCS) of the charge and energy transfers through the junction in a nonequilibrium situation. Explicit expressions are worked out for the generating function of FCS and its large-deviations asym...

Gaw?dzki, Krzysztof

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Paul Sellin, Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics Charge transport and mobility mapping in CdTe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Paul Sellin, Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics Charge transport and mobility mapping in CdTe, JAP 92 (2002) 3198-3206 Introduction Motivation for this Work: r THM-grown CdTe supplied by Eurorad signal response? r Pulse shape analysis can identify regions of trapping or reduced mobility r Does CdTe

Sellin, Paul

58

Dynamics of charge transport and recombination in ZnO nanorod array dye-sensitized solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamics of charge transport and recombination in ZnO nanorod array dye-sensitized solar cells Alex nanoparticles. Introduction Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) comprise an increasingly attractive alternative photovoltaic technology.1,2 These photo- electrochemical cells use molecular dyes to sensitize high-area, wide

59

Charge transport properties of p-CdTe/n-CdTe/n{sup +}-Si diode-type nuclear radiation detectors based on metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy-grown epilayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Charge transport properties of p-CdTe/n-CdTe/n{sup +}-Si diode-type nuclear radiation detectors, fabricated by growing p-and n-type CdTe epilayers on (211) n{sup +}-Si substrates using metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE), were studied by analyzing current-voltage characteristics measured at various temperatures. The diode fabricated shows good rectification properties, however, both forward and reverse biased currents deviate from their ideal behavior. The forward current exhibits typical feature of multi-step tunneling at lower biases; however, becomes space charge limited type when the bias is increased. On the other hand, the reverse current exhibits thermally activated tunneling-type current. It was found that trapping centers at the p-CdTe/n-CdTe junction, which were formed due to the growth induced defects, determine the currents of this diode, and hence limit the performance of the nuclear radiation detectors developed.

Niraula, M.; Yasuda, K.; Wajima, Y.; Yamashita, H.; Tsukamoto, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Matsumoto, M.; Takai, N.; Tsukamoto, Y.; Agata, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

60

Charge carrier transport mechanisms in perovskite CdTiO{sub 3} fibers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrical transport properties of electrospun cadmium titanate (CdTiO{sub 3}) fibers have been investigated using ac and dc measurements. Air annealing of as spun fibers at 1000?°C yielded the single phase perovskite fibers having diameter ?600 nm - 800 nm. Both the ac and dc electrical measurements were carried out at temperatures from 200 K – 420 K. The complex impedance plane plots revealed a single semicircular arc which indicates the interfacial effect due to grain boundaries of fibers. The dielectric properties obey the Maxwell-Wagner theory of interfacial polarization. In dc transport study at low voltages, data show Ohmic like behavior followed by space charge limited current (SCLC) with traps at higher voltages at all temperatures (200 K – 420 K). Trap density in our fibers system is N{sub t} = 6.27 × 10{sup 17} /cm{sup 3}. Conduction mechanism in the sample is governed by 3-D variable range hopping (VRH) from 200 K – 300 K. The localized density of states were found to be N(E{sub F}) = 5.51 × 10{sup 21} eV{sup ?1} cm{sup ?3} at 2 V. Other VRH parameters such as hopping distance (R{sub hop}) and hopping energy (W{sub hop}) were also calculated. In the high temperature range of 320 K – 420 K, conductivity follows the Arrhenius law. The activation energy found at 2 V is 0.10 eV. Temperature dependent and higher values of dielectric constant make the perovskite CdTiO{sub 3} fibers efficient material for capacitive energy storage devices.

Imran, Z.; Rafiq, M. A., E-mail: aftab@cantab.net; Hasan, M. M. [Micro and Nano Devices Group, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad, 45650 (Pakistan)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Low temperature charge transport and microwave absorption of carbon coated iron nanoparticles–polymer composite films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? Carbon coated Fe nanoparticle–PVC composite films were prepared by solution casting method. ? A low electrical percolation threshold of 2.2 was achieved. ? The low temperature electrical conductivity follows variable range hopping type conduction. ? An EMI shielding of 18 dB was achieved in 200 micron thick film. -- Abstract: In this paper, the low temperature electrical conductivity and microwave absorption properties of carbon coated iron nanoparticles–polyvinyl chloride composite films are investigated for different filler fractions. The filler particles are prepared by the pyrolysis of ferrocene at 980 °C and embedded in polyvinyl chloride matrix. The high resolution transmission electron micrographs of the filler material have shown a 5 nm thin layer graphitic carbon covering over iron particles. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the composite film changes by 10 orders of magnitude with the increase of filler concentration. A percolation threshold of 2.2 and an electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency (EMI SE) of ?18.6 dB in 26.5–40 GHz range are observed for 50 wt% loading. The charge transport follows three dimensional variable range hopping conduction.

Prasad, V., E-mail: vishnu@physics.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

Point Defect Characterization in CdZnTe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of the defect levels and performance testing of CdZnTe detectors were performed by means of Current Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (I-DLTS), Transient Charge Technique (TCT), Current versus Voltage measurements (I-V), and gamma-ray spectroscopy. CdZnTe crystals were acquired from different commercial vendors and characterized for their point defects. I-DLTS studies included measurements of defect parameters such as energy levels in the band gap, carrier capture cross sections, and defect densities. The induced current due to laser-generated carriers was measured using TCT. The data were used to determine the transport properties of the detectors under study. A good correlation was found between the point defects in the detectors and their performance.

Gul,R.; Li, Z.; Bolotnikov, A.; Keeter, K.; Rodriguez, R.; James, R.

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

63

Effect of ion mass and charge state on transport of vacuum ARC plasmas through a biased magnetic filter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of ion mass and charge state on plasma transport through a 90{sup o}-curved magnetic filter is experimentally investigated using a pulsed cathodic arc source. Graphite, copper, and tungsten were selected as test materials. The filter was a bent copper coil biased via the voltage drop across a low-ohm, ''self-bias'' resistor. Ion transport is accomplished via a guiding electric field, whose potential forms a ''trough'' shaped by the magnetic guiding field of the filter coil. Evaluation was done by measuring the filtered ion current and determination of the particle system coefficient, which can be defined as the ratio of filter ion current, divided by the mean ion charge state, to the arc current. It was found that the ion current and particle system coefficient decreased as the mass-to-charge ratio of ions increased. This result can be qualitatively interpreted by a very simply model of ion transport that is based on compensation of the centrifugal force by the electric force associated with the guiding potential trough.

Byon, Eungsun; Kim, Jong-Kuk; Kwon, Sik-Chol; Anders, Andre

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Effect of image charge on the off-axis transport of intense beams in a small aperture quadrupole lattice  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates the first order image charge effects of circular conducting pipe on an intense off-axis continuous charged particle beam propagating through an alternating-gradient focusing channel. The equations of motion for the centroid and envelopes of slightly off-axis beam are derived and used to determine the equilibrium and stability conditions for the beam transport. The envelope oscillation frequencies of the mismatched beam are obtained by the smooth approximation method and by numerical evaluation of the linearly perturbed envelope equations. Depending on the beam intensity and focusing parameters, it is found that the frequency of the out-of-phase mode of envelope oscillation is reduced due to the presence of the conducting wall. Detailed numerical results for off-axis beam transport in a quadrupole lattice are presented and the stable regimes in the parameter space are determined numerically. It is observed that the unstable region for the envelope evolution with image charge effects depends on beam intensity and external focusing strength and increases with the off centering of the beam.

Goswami, A.; Sing Babu, P.; Pandit, V. S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)] [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Charge transport through a SET with a mechanically oscillating island N. M. Chtchelkatchev,1, 2, 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the deviation of the island from its equilibrium position. (b) Equivalent circuit of the device on the mechanical displacement, thus, the vibrations of the island may influence the transport properties. Harmonic oscillations of the island and thermal vibrations change the transport characteristics in different ways

Bruder, Christoph

66

Modification of space charge transport in nanocrystalline cerium oxide by heterogeneous doping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the search for new materials for energy conversion and storage technologies such as solid oxide fuel cells, nano-ionic materials have become increasingly relevant because unique physical and transport properties that ...

Litzelman, Scott J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Charge transport, configuration interaction and Rydberg states under density functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density functional theory (DFT) is a computationally efficient formalism for studying electronic structure and dynamics. In this work, we develop DFT-based excited-state methods to study electron transport, Rydberg excited ...

Cheng, Chiao-Lun

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Effect of thermal annealing on charge exchange between oxygen interstitial defects within HfO{sub 2} and oxygen-deficient silicon centers within the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We compare the charging response of rapid thermally annealed (800 and 1000 deg. C) 4 nm thick HfO{sub 2} to as-deposited HfO{sub 2} on Si by measuring the surface potential of the HfO{sub 2} layers after vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation with 11.6 eV photons. From VUV spectroscopy, we determined all HfO{sub 2} layers show the presence of oxygen-interstitial defects (OIDs). The electronic states of OID in HfO{sub 2} line up in energy with oxygen-deficient Si centers within the SiO{sub 2} interfacial layer. This implies charge exchange between OIDs within HfO{sub 2} and the O-deficient silicon centers within the SiO{sub 2} interfacial layer are very important for controlling the radiation-induced trapped charge in HfO{sub 2} dielectric stacks.

Lauer, J. L.; Shohet, J. L. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Nishi, Y. [Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

69

Non-contact, non-destructive, quantitative probing of interfacial trap sites for charge carrier transport at semiconductor-insulator boundary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The density of traps at semiconductor–insulator interfaces was successfully estimated using microwave dielectric loss spectroscopy with model thin-film organic field-effect transistors. The non-contact, non-destructive analysis technique is referred to as field-induced time-resolved microwave conductivity (FI-TRMC) at interfaces. Kinetic traces of FI-TRMC transients clearly distinguished the mobile charge carriers at the interfaces from the immobile charges trapped at defects, allowing both the mobility of charge carriers and the number density of trap sites to be determined at the semiconductor-insulator interfaces. The number density of defects at the interface between evaporated pentacene on a poly(methylmethacrylate) insulating layer was determined to be 10{sup 12?}cm{sup ?2}, and the hole mobility was up to 6.5?cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1} after filling the defects with trapped carriers. The FI-TRMC at interfaces technique has the potential to provide rapid screening for the assessment of interfacial electronic states in a variety of semiconductor devices.

Choi, Wookjin; Miyakai, Tomoyo; Sakurai, Tsuneaki; Saeki, Akinori [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Yokoyama, Masaaki [Kaneka Fundamental Technology Research Alliance Laboratories, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Seki, Shu, E-mail: seki@chem.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Kaneka Fundamental Technology Research Alliance Laboratories, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan)

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

70

Space-charged-induced emittance growth in the transport of high-brightness electron beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The emittance induced by space charge in a drifting beam of finite length has been investigated, and a scaling law has been obtained from simple considerations of the different rates of expansion of different portions of the beam. The scaling law predicts the initial rate of emittance growth, before the beam shape has distorted significantly, and thus represents an upper bound on the rate of emittance increase. This scaling law has been substantiated by particle-in-cell simulation and the dependence on geometric factors evaluated for specific choices of the beam profile. For long, axially nonuniform beams, the geometric factors have been evaluated explicitly for Gaussian profiles, and other shapes.

Jones, M.E.; Carlsten, B.E.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Influence of plasma loss area on transport of charged particles through a transverse magnetic field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasma transport in a double plasma device from the source region to the target region through a physical window comprising of electrically grounded magnet channels (filled with permanent magnet bars) for transverse magnetic field (TMF) and a pair of stainless steel (SS) plates is studied and presented in this manuscript. The study has relevance in negative ion source research and development where both TMF created by magnet channels and bias plate are used. The experiment is performed in two stages. In the first stage, a TMF is introduced between the two regions along with the SS plates, and corresponding plasma parameter data in the two regions are recorded by changing the distance between the TMF channels. In the second stage, the TMF is withdrawn from the system, and corresponding data are taken by changing the separation between the SS plates. The experimental results are then compared with a theoretical model. In the presence of TMF, where electrons are magnetized and ions are un-magnetized, it is observed that plasma transport perpendicular to the TMF is dominated by the ambipolar diffusion of ions. In the absence of TMF, plasma is un-magnetized, and plasma transport through the SS window aperture is almost independent of open area of the SS window.

Das, B. K.; Chakraborty, M. [Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Tepesia, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

Mechanical and charge transport properties of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers on Au (111) surface: The Role of Molecular Tilt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The relationship between charge transport and mechanical properties of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAM) on Au(111) films has been investigated using an atomic force microscope with a conductive tip. Molecular tilts induced by the pressure applied by the tip cause stepwise increases in film conductivity. A decay constant {beta} = 0.57 {+-} 0.03 {angstrom}{sup -1} was found for the current passing through the film as a function of tip-substrate separation due to this molecular tilt. This is significantly smaller than the value of {approx} 1 {angstrom}{sup -1} found when the separation is changed by changing the length of the alkanethiol molecules. Calculations indicate that for isolated dithiol molecules S-bonded to hollow sites, the junction conductance does not vary significantly as a function of molecular tilt. The impact of S-Au bonding on SAM conductance is discussed.

Mulleregan, Alice; Qi, Yabing; Ratera, Imma; Park, Jeong Y.; Ashby, Paul D.; Quek, Su Ying; Neaton, J. B.; Salmeron, Miquel

2007-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

73

Thermal influence on charge carrier transport in solar cells based on GaAs PN junctions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electron and hole one-dimensional transport in a solar cell based on a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) PN junction and its dependency with electron and lattice temperatures are studied here. Electrons and heat transport are treated on an equal footing, and a cell operating at high temperatures using concentrators is considered. The equations of a two-temperature hydrodynamic model are written in terms of asymptotic expansions for the dependent variables with the electron Reynolds number as a perturbation parameter. The dependency of the electron and hole densities through the junction with the temperature is analyzed solving the steady-state model at low Reynolds numbers. Lattice temperature distribution throughout the device is obtained considering the change of kinetic energy of electrons due to interactions with the lattice and heat absorbed from sunlight. In terms of performance, higher values of power output are obtained with low lattice temperature and hot energy carriers. This modeling contributes to improve the design of heat exchange devices and thermal management strategies in photovoltaic technologies.

Osses-Márquez, Juan; Calderón-Muñoz, Williams R., E-mail: wicalder@ing.uchile.cl [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Chile, Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile)

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

74

Effects of bulk charged impurities on the bulk and surface transport in three-dimensional topological insulators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), the physics of doped semiconductors exists literally side-by-side with the physics of ultrarelativistic Dirac fermions. This unusual pairing creates a novel playground for studying the interplay between disorder and electronic transport. In this mini-review, we focus on the disorder caused by the three-dimensionally distributed charged impurities that are ubiquitous in TIs, and we outline the effects it has on both the bulk and surface transport in TIs. We present self-consistent theories for Coulomb screening both in the bulk and at the surface, discuss the magnitude of the disorder potential in each case, and present results for the conductivity. In the bulk, where the band gap leads to thermally activated transport, we show how disorder leads to a smaller-than-expected activation energy that gives way to variable-range hopping at low temperatures. We confirm this enhanced conductivity with numerical simulations that also allow us to explore different degrees of impurity compensation. For the surface, where the TI has gapless Dirac modes, we present a theory of disorder and screening of deep impurities, and we calculate the corresponding zero-temperature conductivity. We also comment on the growth of the disorder potential in passing from the surface of the TI into the bulk. Finally, we discuss how the presence of a gap at the Dirac point, introduced by some source of time-reversal symmetry breaking, affects the disorder potential at the surface and the mid-gap density of states.

Skinner, B.; Chen, T.; Shklovskii, B. I., E-mail: shklovsk@physics.spa.umn.edu [University of Minnesota, Fine Theoretical Physics Institute (United States)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

75

Efficiency of Charge Transport in a Polypeptide Chain: The Isolated System Sheh-Yi Sheu, E. W. Schlag,*, Dah-Yen Yang, and H. L. Selzle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

new single site molecular dynamics calculations to determine the time development of initialVersitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, D-85748 Garching, Germany, and Institute of Atomic and Molecular Science energization at an excitation site moving to a terminus. For this we find the efficiency of charge transport

Sheu, Sheh-Yi

76

Received 10 May 2013 | Accepted 10 Oct 2013 | Published 8 Nov 2013 Probing single-to multi-cell level charge transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-cell level charge transport in Geobacter sulfurreducens DL-1 Xiaocheng Jiang1,*, Jinsong Hu2,*, Emily R energy into electricity, represent a potentially sustainable energy technology for the future. Here we report the single-bacterium level current measurements of Geobacter sulfurreducens DL-1 to elucidate

77

Charge-carrier transport and recombination in heteroepitaxial CdTe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyze charge-carrier dynamics using time-resolved spectroscopy and varying epitaxial CdTe thickness in undoped heteroepitaxial CdTe/ZnTe/Si. By employing one-photon and nonlinear two-photon excitation, we assess surface, interface, and bulk recombination. Two-photon excitation with a focused laser beam enables characterization of recombination velocity at the buried epilayer/substrate interface, 17.5??m from the sample surface. Measurements with a focused two-photon excitation beam also indicate a fast diffusion component, from which we estimate an electron mobility of 650?cm{sup 2} (Vs){sup ?1} and diffusion coefficient D of 17?cm{sup 2}?s{sup ?1}. We find limiting recombination at the epitaxial film surface (surface recombination velocity S{sub surface}?=?(2.8?±?0.3)?×?10{sup 5?}cm?s{sup ?1}) and at the heteroepitaxial interface (interface recombination velocity S{sub interface}?=?(4.8?±?0.5)?×?10{sup 5?}cm?s{sup ?1}). The results demonstrate that reducing surface and interface recombination velocity is critical for photovoltaic solar cells and electronic devices that employ epitaxial CdTe.

Kuciauskas, Darius, E-mail: Darius.Kuciauskas@nrel.gov; Farrell, Stuart; Dippo, Pat; Moseley, John; Moutinho, Helio; Li, Jian V.; Allende Motz, A. M.; Kanevce, Ana; Zaunbrecher, Katherine; Gessert, Timothy A.; Levi, Dean H.; Metzger, Wyatt K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401-3305 (United States); Colegrove, Eric; Sivananthan, S. [Microphysics Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

78

Charge transport in silver chalcogenides in the region of phase transition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data on the {sigma}(T), R(T), and U(T) dependences in Ag{sub 2}Te, Ag{sub 2}Se, and Ag{sub 2}S in the region of the phase transition are analyzed. It is found that the phase transition in Ag{sub 2}Te is accompanied by a decrease in the electron concentration and this transition in Ag{sub 2}Se is accompanied by an increase in this concentration. The concentration of intrinsic charge carriers in Ag{sub 2}Te decreases by a factor of 4 as a result of the phase transition and increases by a factor of 2 in Ag{sub 2}Se. The effect of variation in the energy-band parameters in the region of phase transition on the electron mobility is considered. It is established that, in Ag{sub 2}Te and Ag{sub 2}S, electrons are scattered by optical phonons in the region of the phase transition, while electrons are scattered by acoustic phonons in the {alpha} and {beta} phases. It is assumed that the anomalously large increase in {sigma} and U in Ag{sub 2}S as a result of the phase transition is caused by an increase in the concentration n and a simultaneous decrease in {sigma}{sub g} and m{sub n}{sup *} by a factor of about 2.

Aliev, S. A.; Agaev, Z. F., E-mail: agayevz@rambler.ru; Zul'figarov, E. I. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

The impact of disorder on charge transport in three dimensional quantum dot resonant tunneling structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient iso-entropic energy filtering of electronic waves can be realized through nanostructures with three dimensional confinement, such as quantum dot resonant tunneling structures. Large-area deployment of such structures is useful for energy selective contacts but such configuration is susceptible to structural disorders. In this work, the transport properties of quantum-dot-based wide-area resonant tunneling structures, subject to realistic disorder mechanisms, are studied. Positional variations of the quantum dots are shown to reduce the resonant transmission peaks while size variations in the device are shown to reduce as well as broaden the peaks. Increased quantum dot size distribution also results in a peak shift to lower energy which is attributed to large dots dominating transmission. A decrease in barrier thickness reduces the relative peak height while the overall transmission increases dramatically due to lower “series resistance.” While any shift away from ideality can be intuitively expected to reduce the resonance peak, quantification allows better understanding of the tolerances required for fabricating structures based on resonant tunneling phenomena/.

Puthen-Veettil, B., E-mail: b.puthen-veettil@unsw.edu.au; Patterson, R.; König, D.; Conibeer, G.; Green, M. A. [Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics, UNSW, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

80

Higher Molecular Weight Leads to Improved Photoresponsivity Charge Transport and Interfacial Ordering in a Narrow Bandgap Semiconducting Polymer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing the molecular weight of the low-bandgap semiconducting copolymer, poly[(4,4-didoecyldithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-4,7-diyl], Si-PDTBT, from 9 kDa to 38 kDa improves both photoresponsivity and charge transport properties dramatically. The photocurrent measured under steady state conditions is 20 times larger in the higher molecular weight polymer (HM{sub n} Si-PDTBT). Different decays of polarization memory in transient photoinduced spectroscopy measurements are consistent with more mobile photoexcitations in HM{sub n} Si-PDTBT relative to the lower molecular weight counterpart (LM{sub n} Si-PDTBT). Analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of field effect transistors reveals an increase in the mobility by a factor of 700 for HM{sub n} Si-PDTBT. Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements demonstrate that LM{sub n} Si-PDTBT forms a disordered morphology throughout the depth of the film, whereas HM{sub n} Si-PDTBT exhibits pronounced {pi}-{pi} stacking in an edge-on configuration near the substrate interface. Increased interchain overlap between polymers in the edge-on configuration in HM{sub n} Si-PDTBT results in the higher carrier mobility. The improved optical response, transport mobility, and interfacial ordering highlight the subtle role that the degree of polymerization plays on the optoelectronic properties of conjugated polymer based organic semiconductors.

M Tong; S Cho; J Rogers; K Schmidt; B Hsu; D Moses; R Coffin; E Kramer; G Bazan; A Heeger

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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81

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, suppliment au no 7, Tome 41, Juillet 1980,page C6-32 Defect properties and ionic transport in layered compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and migration. 2. Methods employed. - Our studies employ the PLUTO-HADES suite of lattice simulation pro- grams with the benefit of the HADES I11 computer program to calculate the properties of the defective lattice. The defect

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

82

Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

2009-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

83

Improvement of charged particles transport across a transverse magnetic filter field by electrostatic trapping of magnetized electrons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study on the transport of charged particles across a magnetic filter field has been carried out in a double plasma device (DPD) and presented in this manuscript. The DPD is virtually divided into two parts viz. source and target regions by a transverse magnetic field (TMF) which is constructed by inserting strontium ferrite magnets into two stainless steel rectangular tubes. Plasma electrons are magnetized but ions are unmagnetized inside the TMF region. Negative voltages are applied to the TMF tubes in order to reduce the loss of electrons towards them. Plasma is produced in the source region by filament discharge method and allowed to flow towards the target region through this negatively biased TMF. It is observed that in the target region, plasma density can be increased and electron temperature decreased with the help of negatively biased TMF. This observation is beneficial for negative ion source development. Plasma diffusion across the negatively biased TMF follows Bohm or anomalous diffusion process when negative bias voltage is very less. At higher negative bias, diffusion coefficient starts deviating from the Bohm diffusion value, associated with enhanced plasma flow in the target region.

Das, B. K., E-mail: bdyt.ds@rediffmail.com; Hazarika, P.; Chakraborty, M. [Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Tepesia-782402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M., E-mail: mainak@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar-382025, Gujarat (India)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

84

Mean carrier transport properties and charge collection dynamics of single-crystal, natural type IIa diamonds from ion-induced conductivity measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ion-induced conductivity has been used to investigate the detector characteristics of diamond detectors. Both integrated-charge, and time-resolved current measurements were performed to examine the mean carrier transport properties of diamond and the dynamics of charge collection under highly-localized and high-density excitation conditions. The integrated-charge measurements were conducted with a standard pulse-counting system with {sup 241}Am radioactivity as the excitation source for the detectors. The time-resolved current measurements were performed using a 70 GHz random sampling oscilloscope with the detectors incorporated into high-speed microstrip transmission lines and the excitation source for these measurements was an ion beam of either 5-MeV He{sup +} or 10-MeV Si{sup 3+}. The detectors used in both experiments can be described as metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) devices where a volume of the detector material is sandwiched between two metal plates. A charge collection model was developed to interpret the integrated-charge measurements which enabled estimation of the energy required to produce an electron-hole pair ({epsilon}{sub di}) and the mean carrier transport properties in diamond, such as carrier mobility and lifetime, and the behavior of the electrical contacts to diamond.

Han, S.S.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Space-charge compensation measurements in electron cyclotron resonance ion source low energy beam transport lines with a retarding field analyzer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we describe the first systematic measurement of beam neutralization (space charge compensation) in the ECR low energy transport line with a retarding field analyzer, which can be used to measure the potential of the beam. Expected trends for the space charge compensation levels such as increase with residual gas pressure, beam current, and beam density could be observed. However, the overall levels of neutralization are consistently low (<60%). The results and the processes involved for neutralizing ion beams are discussed for conditions typical for ECR injector beam lines. The results are compared to a simple theoretical beam plasma model as well as simulations.

Winklehner, D.; Leitner, D., E-mail: leitnerd@nscl.msu.edu; Cole, D.; Machicoane, G.; Tobos, L. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)] [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

Direct determination of exact charge states of surface point defects using scanning tunneling microscopy: As vacancies on GaAs ,,110...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

microscopy: As vacancies on GaAs ,,110... Kuo-Jen Chao, Arthur R. Smith, and Chih-Kang Shih* Department of the charge state of surface As vacancies on p-type GaAs 110 using scanning tunneling microscopy. This method utilizes the compensation between the local band bending result- ing from the As vacancy and the p

87

Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transportation in ancient Egypt entailed the use of boats2007 Land transport in Roman Egypt: A study of economics andDieter 1991 Building in Egypt: Pharaonic stone masonry. New

Vinson, Steve

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Novel chemical pathways and charge-transport dynamics of electrodes modified with electropolymerized layers of (Co(v-terpy)/sub 2/)/sup 2 +/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electropolymerized films of (Co(v-terpy)/sub 2/)/sup 2 +/ (v-terpy is 4'-vinyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridinyl) exhibit reactivity patterns, especially with regard to ligand exchange, that differ significantly from those exhibited by (Co(terpy)/sub 2/)/sup 2 +/ in solution. These differences are attributed to the physically constrained environment present in the polymer film. The charge-transport properties follow the model of Dahms and Ruff and the predicted concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient. These electropolymerized films are also active in the electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide.

Guadalupe, A.R.; Usifer, D.A.; Potts, K.T.; Hurrell, H.C.; Mogstad, A.E.; Abruna, H.D.

1988-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

89

Transport characteristics of a Glaser magnet for an axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric space charge dominated beam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the dynamics of space charge dominated beam through a Glaser magnet which is often used to focus charged particle beams in the low energy section of accelerators and in many other devices. Various beam optical properties of the magnet and emittance evolution that results from the coupling between the two transverse planes are studied. We have derived ten independent first order differential equations for the beam sigma matrix elements assuming the linear space-charge force consistent with the assumption of the canonically transformed KV like distribution. In addition, the feasibility of using a Glaser magnet doublet in a low energy beam injection line to match an initial non-axisymmetric high intensity beam with net angular momentum to an axisymmetric system to suppress effective emittance growth after transition back to an uncoupled system, has also been studied.

Goswami, A.; Sing Babu, P.; Pandit, V. S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Nonlocal Transport Near Charge Neutrality Point in a Two-Dimensional Electron-Hole System G. M. Gusev,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transport via counterpropagating chiral modes similar to the quantum spin Hall effect at a zero magnetic creates a net current along the sample edge, and it can be detected by another pair of voltage probes away the quantum well energy spectrum experiences further transformation. A calculation of the energy spectrum

Gusev, Guennady

91

Transportation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatusButler TinaContact-Information-Transmission SignTransport

92

An improved Monte Carlo study of coherent scattering effects of low energy charged particle transport in Percus-Yevick liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We generalize a simple Monte Carlo (MC) model for dilute gases to consider the transport behavior of positrons and electrons in Percus-Yevick model liquids under highly non-equilibrium conditions, accounting rigorously for coherent scattering processes. The procedure extends an existing technique [Wojcik and Tachiya, Chem. Phys. Lett. 363, 3--4 (1992)], using the static structure factor to account for the altered anisotropy of coherent scattering in structured material. We identify the effects of the approximation used in the original method, and develop a modified method that does not require that approximation. We also present an enhanced MC technique that has been designed to improve the accuracy and flexibility of simulations in spatially-varying electric fields. All of the results are found to be in excellent agreement with an independent multi-term Boltzmann equation solution, providing benchmarks for future transport models in liquids and structured systems.

Tattersall, W J; Boyle, G J; White, R D

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Scaling patterns for the suppression of charged hadron yields in Pb+Pb collisions at Root_s = 2.76 TeV: Constraints on transport coefficients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Suppression measurements for charged hadrons are used to investigate the path length (L) and transverse momentum (p_T) dependent jet quenching patterns of the hot and dense QCD medium produced in Pb+Pb collisions at Root_s =2.76 TeV at the LHC. The observed scaling patterns, which are similar to those observed for Au+Au collisions at Root_s = 0.20 TeV at RHIC, show the trends predicted for jet-medium interactions dominated by radiative energy loss. They also allow a simple estimate of the transport coefficient $\\hat{q}$, which suggests that the medium produced in LHC collisions is somewhat less opaque than that produced at RHIC, if the same parton-medium coupling strength is assumed. The higher temperature produced in LHC collisions could reduce the parton-medium coupling strength to give identical values for $\\hat{q}$ in LHC and RHIC collisions.

Roy A. Lacey; N. N. Ajitanand; J. M. Alexander; J. Jia; A. Taranenko

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

94

Effect of irradiation with gamma-ray photons on the charge-transport mechanism in n-CdS/p-CdTe heterostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Effect of irradiation with {gamma}-ray photons on the mechanism of charge transport in an n-CdS/p-CdTe heterostructure is considered. It is shown that the forward current-voltage characteristic of an n-CdS/p-CdTe heterostructure before and after irradiation is described by two exponential dependences: I = I{sub 01}exp(qV/C{sub 01}kT) and I = I{sub 02}exp(qV/C{sub 02}kT). It is found that, in the first portion of the current-voltage characteristic, the current is limited by thermoelectronic emission while, in the second portion, the current is limited by recombination of nonequilibrium charge carriers in the electrically neutral portion of a CdTe{sub 1-x}S{sub x} alloy at the n-CdS/p-CdTe heteroboundary. Anomalous dose dependences of parameters of the n-CdS/p-CdTe heterosystem are attributed to a variation in the degree of compensation of local centers at the CdS-CdTe{sub 1-x}S{sub x} interface and in the CdTe{sub 1-x}S{sub x} layers in relation to the dose of irradiation with {gamma}-ray photons.

Muzafarova, S. A., E-mail: samusu@rambler.ru; Mirsagatov, S. A., E-mail: mirsagatov@rambler.ru; Dzhamalov, F. N. [Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Physicotechnical Institute, Researh-and-Production Association Sun Physics (Uzbekistan)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

All optical method for investigation of spin and charge transport in semiconductors: Combination of spatially and time-resolved luminescence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new approach is demonstrated for investigating charge and spin diffusion as well as surface and bulk recombination in unpassivated doped semiconductors. This approach consists in using two complementary, conceptually related, techniques, which are time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and spatially resolved microluminescence (?PL) and is applied here to p{sup +} GaAs. Analysis of the sole TRPL signal is limited by the finite risetime. On the other hand, it is shown that joint TRPL and ?PL can be used to determine the diffusion constant, the bulk recombination time, and the spin relaxation time. As an illustration, the temperature variation of these quantities is investigated for p{sup +} GaAs.

Cadiz, F.; Paget, D.; Grebenkov, D.; Korb, J. P.; Rowe, A. C. H. [Physique de la matière condensée, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Barate, P.; Amand, T. [Université de Toulouse, INSA-CNRS-UPS, 31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Arscott, S.; Peytavit, E. [Institut d'Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), University of Lille, CNRS, Avenue Poincaré, Cité Scientifique, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France)

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

96

International aeronautical user charges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction: 1.1 BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION Very few issues relating to the international air transportation industry are today as divisive as those pertaining to user charges imposed at international airports and enroute ...

Odoni, Amedeo R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Determination of Dose From Light Charged Ions Relevant to Hadron Therapy Using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport System (PHITS)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Radiation Protection (ICRP) relates Q and LET together by eqn (9). G733 Gd4c Gd5d G373G372G1e4G375G374G72eG727G736 Gd46 G374G1e4G374G375G372G372 G3beG72eG727G736G3a4 G3G3G3G1 G3G745G742G3G3G3G3G3G3 G72eG727G736G3 Gd51 G373G372G373G372 Gd4f G72eG727G736 Gd4... to note that eqn (9) is a simplified approximation made by the ICRP and although very useful to approximate Q, there are factors other than LET, such as delta ray creation, that influence Q for different ions. The effects that charged particles have...

Butkus, Michael Patrick

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

98

Space-charge-limited currents in an Se{sub 95}As{sub 5} chalcogenide glass-like semiconductor system containing EuF{sub 3} impurities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is established that charge carrier (hole) transport in the Al-Se{sub 95}As{sub 5} Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket EuF{sub 3} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket -Te structure is effected by unipolar injection currents limited by space charges with the involvement of two capture trap groups. Shallow traps corresponding to charged intrinsic defects C{sub 1}{sup -} are related to broken selenium bonds. Deep traps corresponding to charged intrinsic defects P{sub 2}{sup -} are formed by arsenic atoms with broken coordination. It is shown that the EuF{sub 3} impurity strongly affects the concentration of the capture traps, especially those localized near the Fermi level.

Isayev, A. I.; Mekhtiyeva, S. I.; Qaribova, S. N., E-mail: sqaribova@rambler.ru [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Abdullaev Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

Native point defects in GaSb  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have applied positron annihilation spectroscopy to study native point defects in Te-doped n-type and nominally undoped p-type GaSb single crystals. The results show that the dominant vacancy defect trapping positrons in bulk GaSb is the gallium monovacancy. The temperature dependence of the average positron lifetime in both p- and n-type GaSb indicates that negative ion type defects with no associated open volume compete with the Ga vacancies. Based on comparison with theoretical predictions, these negative ions are identified as Ga antisites. The concentrations of these negatively charged defects exceed the Ga vacancy concentrations nearly by an order of magnitude. We conclude that the Ga antisite is the native defect responsible for p-type conductivity in GaSb single crystals.

Kujala, J.; Segercrantz, N.; Tuomisto, F.; Slotte, J. [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 AALTO (Finland)

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

100

Effect of the magnetic phase transition on the charge transport in layered semiconductor ferromagnets TlCrS{sub 2} and TlCrSe{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

TlCrS{sub 2} and TlCrSe{sub 2} crystals were synthesized by solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that TlCrS{sub 2} and TlCrSe{sub 2} compounds crystallize in the hexagonal crystal system with lattice parameters a = 3.538 A, c = 21.962 A, c/a {approx} 6.207, z = 3; a = 3.6999 A, c = 22.6901 A, c/a {approx} 6.133, z = 3; and X-ray densities {rho}{sub x} = 6.705 and 6.209 g/cm{sup 3}, respectively. Magnetic and electric studies in a temperature range of 77-400 K showed that TlCrS{sub 2} and TlCrSe{sub 2} are semiconductor ferromagnets. Rather large deviations of the experimental effective magnetic moment of TlCrS{sub 2} (3.26 {mu}{sub B}) and TlCrSe{sub 2} (3.05 {mu}{sub B}) from the theoretical one (3.85 {mu}{sub B}) are attributed to two-dimensional magnetic ordering in the paramagnetic region of strongly layered ferromagnets TlCrS{sub 2} and TlCrSe{sub 2}. The effect of the magnetic phase's transition on the charge transport in TlCrS{sub 2} and TlCrSe{sub 2} is detected.

Veliyev, R. G.; Sadikhov, R. Z.; Kerimova, E. M., E-mail: ekerimova@physics.ab.az; Asadov, Yu. G.; Jabbarov, A. I. [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Features of the charge-transport mechanism in layered Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} single crystals doped with chlorine and terbium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The temperature dependences (T = 5-300 K) of the resistivity in the plane of layers and in the direction perpendicular to the layers, as well as the Hall effect and the magnetoresistance (H < 80 kOe, T = 0.5-4.2 K) in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} single crystals doped with chlorine and terbium, are investigated. It is shown that the doping of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with terbium atoms results in p-type conductivity and in increasing hole concentration. The doping of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with chlorine atoms modifies also the character of its conductivity instead of changing only the type from p to n. In the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the direction perpendicular to layers, a portion arises with the activation conductivity caused by the hopping between localized states. The charge-transport mechanism in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} single crystals doped with chlorine is proposed.

Abdullaev, N. A., E-mail: anadir@azintex.com; Abdullaev, N. M.; Aliguliyeva, H. V.; Kerimova, T. G.; Mehdiyev, G. S. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Abdullaev Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan); Nemov, S. A. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

102

Current leakage relaxation and charge trapping in ultra-porous low-k materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Time dependent dielectric failure has become a pivotal aspect of interconnect design as industry pursues integration of sub-22?nm process-technology nodes. Literature has provided key information about the role played by individual species such as electrons, holes, ions, and neutral impurity atoms. However, no mechanism has been shown to describe how such species interact and influence failure. Current leakage relaxation in low-k dielectrics was studied using bipolar field experiments to gain insight into how charge carrier flow becomes impeded by defects within the dielectric matrix. Leakage current decay was correlated to injection and trapping of electrons. We show that current relaxation upon inversion of the applied field can be described by the stretched exponential function. The kinetics of charge trapping events are consistent with a time-dependent reaction rate constant, k=k{sub 0}?(t+1){sup ??1}, where 0?charge trapping reactions in amorphous solids by W. H. Hamill and K. Funabashi, Phys. Rev. B 16, 5523–5527 (1977). We explain the relaxation process in charge trapping events by introducing a nonlinear charge trapping model. This model provides a description on the manner in which the transport of mobile defects affects the long-tail current relaxation processes in low-k films.

Borja, Juan; Plawsky, Joel L., E-mail: plawsky@rpi.edu; Gill, William N. [Howard P. Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lu, T.-M. [Department of Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Bakhru, Hassaram [University at Albany's College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE), Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

103

Charged Amino Acids (R83, E567, D617, E625, R669, and K678) of CusA Are Required for Metal Ion Transport in the Cus Efflux System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gram-negative bacteria expel various toxic chemicals via tripartite efflux pumps belonging to the resistance-nodulation-cell division superfamily. These pumps span both the inner and outer membranes of the cell. The three components of these tripartite systems are an inner-membrane, substrate-binding transporter (or pump); a periplasmic membrane fusion protein (or adaptor); and an outer-membrane-anchored channel. These three efflux proteins interact in the periplasmic space to form the three-part complexes. We previously presented the crystal structures of both the inner-membrane transporter CusA and membrane fusion protein CusB of the CusCBA tripartite efflux system from Escherichia coli. We also described the co-crystal structure of the CusBA adaptor-transporter, revealing that the trimeric CusA efflux pump assembles with six CusB protein molecules to form the complex CusB{sub 6}-CusA{sub 3}. We here report three different conformers of the crystal structures of CusBA-Cu(I), suggesting a mechanism on how Cu(I) binding initiates a sequence of conformational transitions in the transport cycle. Genetic analysis and transport assays indicate that charged residues, in addition to the methionine pairs and clusters, are essential for extruding metal ions out of the cell.

Su, Chih-Chia; Long, Feng; Lei, Hsiang-Ting; Reddy Bolla, Jani; Do, Sylvia V.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Yu, Edward W. (Cornell); (Iowa State)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

104

COMMUNICATION Escherichia coli tatC Mutations that Suppress Defective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COMMUNICATION Escherichia coli tatC Mutations that Suppress Defective Twin-Arginine Transporter@che.utexas.edu. Abbreviations used: Tat, twin-arginine translocation; MBP, maltose-binding protein; GFP, green fluorescence

Georgiou, George

105

E-Print Network 3.0 - agglomerates behavioral defects Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

exceed the tensile strength of concrete these micro- cracksmicro-defects evolve. The control of concrete Source: Southwest Region University Transportation Center Collection:...

106

Collective thermoelectrophoresis of charged colloids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermally driven colloidal transport is, to a large extent, due to the thermoelectric or Seebeck effect of the charged solution.We show that, contrary to the generally adopted single-particle picture, the transport coefficient depends on the colloidal concentration. For solutions that are dilute in the hydrodynamic sense, collective effects may significantly affect the thermophoretic mobility. Our results provide an explanation for recent experimental observations on polyelectrolytes and charged particles and suggest that for charged colloids collective behavior is the rule rather than the exception.

Arghya Majee; Alois Würger

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

107

Net-baryon-, net-proton-, and net-charge kurtosis in heavy-ion collisions within a relativistic transport approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore the potential of net-baryon, net-proton and net-charge kurtosis measurements to investigate the properties of hot and dense matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Contrary to calculations in a grand canonical ensemble we explicitly take into account exact electric and baryon charge conservation on an event-by-event basis. This drastically limits the width of baryon fluctuations. A simple model to account for this is to assume a grand-canonical distribution with a sharp cut-off at the tails. We present baseline predictions of the energy dependence of the net-baryon, net-proton and net-charge kurtosis for central ($b\\leq 2.75$ fm) Pb+Pb/Au+Au collisions from $E_{lab}=2A$ GeV to $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV from the UrQMD model. While the net-charge kurtosis is compatible with values around zero, the net-baryon number decreases to large negative values with decreasing beam energy. The net-proton kurtosis becomes only slightly negative for low $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$.

Marlene Nahrgang; Tim Schuster; Michael Mitrovski; Reinhard Stock; Marcus Bleicher

2012-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

108

Interlayer coupling enhancement in graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures by intercalated defects or vacancies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), a remarkable material with a two-dimensional atomic crystal structure, has the potential to fabricate heterostructures with unusual properties. We perform first-principles calculations to determine whether intercalated metal atoms and vacancies can mediate interfacial coupling and influence the structural and electronic properties of the graphene/hBN heterostructure. Metal impurity atoms (Li, K, Cr, Mn, Co, and Cu), acting as extrinsic defects between the graphene and hBN sheets, produce n-doped graphene. We also consider intrinsic vacancy defects and find that a boron monovacancy in hBN acts as a magnetic dopant for graphene, whereas a nitrogen monovacancy in hBN serves as a nonmagnetic dopant for graphene. In contrast, the smallest triangular vacancy defects in hBN are unlikely to result in significant changes in the electronic transport of graphene. Our findings reveal that a hBN layer with some vacancies or metal impurities enhances the interlayer coupling in the graphene/hBN heterostructure with respect to charge doping and electron scattering.

Park, Sohee [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Changwon [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Kim, Gunn, E-mail: gunnkim@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics and Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

109

On the electrical stress-induced oxide-trapped charges in thin HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric stack  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxide charge buildup and its generation kinetics during constant voltage stress in TaN/HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si structures have been experimentally investigated. From the oxide charge relaxation experiments, nature and energy location of the as-fabricated intrinsic hole traps in the gate stack have also been determined. Our measurement results indicate that the dispersive proton transport through the interfacial SiO{sub 2} contributes larger than hole trapping in positive charge buildup in the stack. From the bias temperature stress measurement results in both control oxide and HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} stacks, we have identified overcoordinated [Si{sub 2}=OH]{sup +} centers as the proton-induced defects located in the interfacial SiO{sub 2} layer of the stack. Finally, an empirical equation is proposed to explain the stress-induced oxide positive charge buildup.

Samanta, Piyas; Zhu Chunxiang; Chan, Mansun [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2007-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

110

Charged Condensation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider Bose-Einstein condensation of massive electrically charged scalars in a uniform background of charged fermions. We focus on the case when the scalar condensate screens the background charge, while the net charge of the system resides on its boundary surface. A distinctive signature of this substance is that the photon acquires a Lorentz-violating mass in the bulk of the condensate. Due to this mass, the transverse and longitudinal gauge modes propagate with different group velocities. We give qualitative arguments that at high enough densities and low temperatures a charged system of electrons and helium-4 nuclei, if held together by laboratory devices or by force of gravity, can form such a substance. We briefly discuss possible manifestations of the charged condensate in compact astrophysical objects.

Gregory Gabadadze; Rachel A. Rosen

2007-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

111

Simulation and Analysis of Human Phantoms Exposed to Heavy Charged Particle Irradiations Using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport System (PHITS)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. ...................................................................... 10 5 Dose distributions as the result of the MASTOSHKA experiment ........... 11 6 The exterior shapes of the MIRD-5 and ORNL-UF phantom models ....... 19 7 The interior shapes of the MIRD-5 and ORNL-UF phantom models ........ 20 8... phantoms such as Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) 3 approach [6], and others derived from MIRD, were based on A General Monte Carlo N- Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and are, therefore, limited only to neutron, photon, and electron exposures [7...

Lee, Dongyoul

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

112

Analysis of carrier transport and carrier trapping in organic diodes with polyimide-6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene double-layer by charge modulation spectroscopy and optical second harmonic generation measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We studied the carrier transport and carrier trapping in indium tin oxide/polyimide (PI)/6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene)/Au diodes by using charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS) and time-resolved electric field induced optical second harmonic generation (TR-EFISHG) measurements. TR-EFISHG directly probes the spatial carrier behaviors in the diodes, and CMS is useful in explaining the carrier motion with respect to energy. The results clearly indicate that the injected carriers move across TIPS-pentacene thorough the molecular energy states of TIPS-pentacene and accumulate at the PI/TIPS-pentacene interface. However, some carriers are trapped in the PI layers. These findings take into account the capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the diodes.

Lim, Eunju, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Nanosensor and Biotechnology, Dankook University, Jukjeon-dong, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Taguchi, Dai, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

113

Do the Defects Make It Work? Defect Engineering in Pi-Conjugated Polymers and Their Solar Cells: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The charged defect density in common pi-conjugated polymers such as poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, is around 1018 cm-3. Despite, or perhaps because of, this huge defect density, bulk heterojunction solar cells made from these polymers and a C60 derivative such as PCBM exhibit some of the highest efficiencies (~5%) yet obtained in solid state organic photovoltaic cells. We discuss defects in molecular organic semiconductors and in pi-conjugated polymers. These defects can be grouped in two categories, covalent and noncovalent. Somewhat analogous to treating amorphous silicon with hydrogen, we introduce chemical methods to modify the density and charge of the covalent defects in P3HT by treating it with electrophiles such as dimethyl sulfate and nucleophiles such as sodium methoxide. The effects of these treatments on the electrical and photovoltaic properties and stability of organic PV cells is discussed in terms of the change in the number and chemical properties of the defects. Finally, we address the question of whether the efficiency of OPV cells requires the presence of these defects which function as adventitious p-type dopants. Their presence relieves the resistance limitations usually encountered in cleaner organic semiconductors and can create built-in electric fields at junctions.

Wang, D.; Reese, M.; Kopidakis N.; Gregg, B. A.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Graphene materials having randomly distributed two-dimensional structural defects  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Graphene-based storage materials for high-power battery applications are provided. The storage materials are composed of vertical stacks of graphene sheets and have reduced resistance for Li ion transport. This reduced resistance is achieved by incorporating a random distribution of structural defects into the stacked graphene sheets, whereby the structural defects facilitate the diffusion of Li ions into the interior of the storage materials.

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

115

Thermophoresis of charged colloidal particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermally induced particle flow in a charged colloidal suspension is studied in a fluid-mechanical approach. The force density acting on the charged boundary layer is derived in detail. From Stokes' equation with no-slip boundary conditions at the particle surface, we obtain the particle drift velocity and the thermophoretic transport coefficients. The results are discussed in view of previous work and available experimental data.

S. Fayolle; T. Bickel; A. Würger

2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

Effect of Ferroelectric Polarization on Ionic Transport and Resistance ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

... into account the nonperiod- ic boundary conditions for solving the electrochemical transport ... play an important role in charge carrier transport and leakage.

2014-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

117

Affine Defects and Gravitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We argue that the structure general relativity (GR) as a theory of affine defects is deeper than the standard interpretation as a metric theory of gravitation. Einstein-Cartan theory (EC), with its inhomogenous affine symmetry, should be the standard-bearer for GR-like theories. A discrete affine interpretation of EC (and gauge theory) yields topological definitions of momentum and spin (and Yang Mills current), and their conservation laws become discrete topological identities. Considerations from quantum theory provide evidence that discrete affine defects are the physical foundation for gravitation.

R. J. Petti

2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

118

Piston-assisted charge pumping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine charge transport through a system of three sites connected in series in the situation when an oscillating charged piston modulates the energy of the middle site. We show that with an appropriate set of parameters, charge can be transferred against an applied voltage. In this scenario, when the oscillating piston shifts away from the middle site, the energy of the site decreases and it is populated by a charge transferred from the lower energy site. On the other hand, when the piston returns to close proximity, the energy of the middle site increases and it is depopulated by the higher energy site. Thus through this process, the charge is pumped against the potential gradient. Our results can explain the process of proton pumping in one of the mitochondrial enzymes, Complex I. Moreover, this mechanism can be used for electron pumping in semiconductor nanostructures.

Kaur, D; Mourokh, L

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Non-contact Nondestructive Probing of Charge Carrier Conductivity...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

transport processes at interfaces is one of the most important subjects in organic electronics. Charge carriers are injected or extracted through metalsemiconductor...

120

Role of defects in BiFeO{sub 3} multiferroic films and their local electronic structure by x-ray absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Present study reports the role of defects in the electrical transport in BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) multiferroic films and its local electronic structure investigated by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure. Defects created by high energy 200?MeV Ag{sup +15} ion irradiation with a fluence of ?5?×?10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} results in the increase in structural strain and reduction in the mobility of charge carriers and enhancement in resistive (I-V) and polarization (P-E) switching behaviour. At higher fluence of ?5?×?10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}, there is a release in the structural strain due to local annealing effect, resulting in an increase in the mobility of charge carriers, which are released from oxygen vacancies and hence suppression in resistive and polarization switching. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure studies at Fe L{sub 3,2}- and O K-edges show a significant change in the spectral features suggesting the modifications in the local electronic structure responsible for changes in the intrinsic magnetic moment and electrical transport properties of BFO.

Ravalia, Ashish; Vagadia, Megha; Solanki, P. S.; Shah, N. A.; Kuberkar, D. G., E-mail: dgkuberkar@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Saurashtra University, Rajkot 360 005 (India); Gautam, S.; Chae, K. H. [Nano Material Analysis Centre, Korean Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-79 (Korea, Republic of); Asokan, K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Electron and phonon renormalization near charged defects in carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technologies, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29621, USA 6 Divis~ao de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizac¸ ~ao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ

Novotny, Lukas

122

Defect mapping system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline materials in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a laser for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturing light scattered by etched dislocation pits in an intermediate range away from specular reflection while allowing light scattered by etched grain boundaries in a near range from specular reflection to pass through, and optical detection devices for detecting and measuring intensities of the respective intermediate scattered light and near specular scattered light. A center blocking aperture or filter can be used to screen out specular reflected light, which would be reflected by nondefect portions of the polycrystalline material surface. An X-Y translation stage for mounting the polycrystalline material and signal processing and computer equipment accommodate rastor mapping, recording, and displaying of respective dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A special etch procedure is included, which prepares the polycrystalline material surface to produce distinguishable intermediate and near specular light scattering in patterns that have statistical relevance to the dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. 20 figures.

Sopori, B.L.

1995-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

123

Electrochemical characterization of surface-bound redox polymers derived from 1,1'-bis(((3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)amino)carbonyl)cobaltocenium: charge transport, anion binding, and use in photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the behavior of electrode-bound redox material derived from the hydrolysis of the -Si(OEt)/sub 3/ groups of 1,1'-bis(((3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)amino)carbonyl)cobaltocenium (I). Surfaces of the conventional electrodes SnO/sub 2/ and Pt derivatized with I have a reversible electrochemical response in H/sub 2/O/electrolyte; the E/sup 0/' is pH independent at -0.62 V vs. SCE. The photoelectrochemical behavior of p-type Si photocathodes derivatized with I reveals that the photoreduction of the cobaltocenium derivative can be effected at an electrode potential approx. 500 mV more positive than on metallic electrodes, consistent with the known behavior of p-type Si photocathodes. When polymer from I is deposited on p-type Si and subsequently coated with a small amount of Rh or Pd (approx. 10/sup -7/ mol/cm/sup 2/), the photoelectrochemical generation of H/sub 2/ is possible with 632.8-nm (approx. 15 mW/cm/sup 2/) radiation and efficiencies in the vicinity of 2%. The polymer derived from I is more optically transparent and more durable at negative potentials than redox polymers derived from vilogen monomers. Potential-step measurements and steady-state-current measurements for mediated redox processes show that the charge-transport rate for the polymer derived from I is about the same as for polymers from viologen monomers. 32 references, 8 figures.

Simon, R.A.; Mallouk, T.E.; Daube, K.A.; Wrighton, M.S.

1985-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

124

Delocalised oxygen as the origin of two-level defects in Josephson junctions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the key problems facing superconducting qubits and other Josephson junction devices is the decohering effects of bi-stable material defects. Although a variety of phenomenological models exist, the true microscopic origin of these defects remains elusive. For the first time we show that these defects may arise from delocalisation of the atomic position of the oxygen in the oxide forming the Josephson junction barrier. Using a microscopic model, we compute experimentally observable parameters for phase qubits. Such defects are charge neutral but have non-zero response to both applied electric field and strain. This may explain the observed long coherence time of two-level defects in the presence of charge noise, while still coupling to the junction electric field and substrate phonons.

Timothy C. DuBois; Manolo C. Per; Salvy P. Russo; Jared H. Cole

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

125

Structure, defects, and strain in silicon-silicon oxide interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structure of the interfaces between silicon and silicon-oxide is responsible for proper functioning of MOSFET devices while defects in the interface can deteriorate this function and lead to their failure. In this paper we modeled this interface and characterized its defects and strain. MD simulations were used for reconstructing interfaces into a thermodynamically stable configuration. In all modeled interfaces, defects were found in the form of three-coordinated silicon atom, five coordinated silicon atom, threefold-coordinated oxygen atom, or displaced oxygen atom. Three-coordinated oxygen atom can be created if dangling bonds on silicon are close enough. The structure and stability of three-coordinated silicon atoms (P{sub b} defect) depend on the charge as well as on the electric field across the interface. The negatively charged P{sub b} defect is the most stable one, but the electric field resulting from the interface reduces that stability. Interfaces with large differences in periodic constants of silicon and silicon oxide can be stabilized by buckling of silicon layer. The mechanical stress resulted from the interface between silicon and silicon oxide is greater in the silicon oxide layer. Ab initio modeling of clusters representing silicon and silicon oxide shows about three time larger susceptibility to strain in silicon oxide than in silicon if exposed to the same deformation.

Kova?evi?, Goran, E-mail: gkova@irb.hr; Pivac, Branko [Department of Materials Physics, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijeni?ka 56, P.O.B. 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

126

Friedel sum rule in the presence of topological defects for graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Friedel sum rule is extended to deal with topological defects for the case of a graphene cone in the presence of an external Coulomb charge. The dependence in the way the number of states change due to both the topological defect as well as the Coulomb charge are studied. Our analysis addresses both the cases of a subcritical as well as a supercritical value of the Coulomb charge. We also discuss the experimental implications of introducing a self-adjoint extension of the system Hamiltonian. We argue that the boundary conditions following from the self-adjoint extension encode the effect of short range interactions present in the system.

Baishali Chakraborty; Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

127

AirTAP BriefingsA publication of the AirTAP program of the Center for Transportation Studies at the University of Minnesota Setting rates and charges can be one of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the University of Minnesota Setting rates and charges can be one of the most challenging tasks an airport services, and rates and charges can fluctu- ate depending on the types of services that are offered. Finally, if rates and charges are set too high at an airport, pilots can easily relocate their aircraft

Minnesota, University of

128

Defective graphene as promising anode material for Na-ion battery and Ca-ion battery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have investigated adsorption of Na and Ca on graphene with divacancy (DV) and Stone-Wales (SW) defect. Our results show that adsorption is not possible on pristine graphene. However, their adsorption on defective sheet is energetically favorable. The enhanced adsorption can be attributed to the increased charge transfer between adatoms and underlying defective sheet. With the increase in defect density until certain possible limit, maximum percentage of adsorption also increases giving higher battery capacity. For maximum possible DV defect, we can achieve maximum capacity of 1459 mAh/g for Na-ion batteries (NIBs) and 2900 mAh/g for Ca-ion batteries (CIBs). For graphene full of SW defect, we find the maximum capacity of NIBs and CIBs is around 1071 mAh/g and 2142 mAh/g respectively. Our results will help create better anode materials with much higher capacity and better cycling performance for NIBs and CIBs.

Datta, Dibakar; Shenoy, Vivek B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Who named the quantum defect?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The notion of the quantum defect is important in atomic and molecular spectroscopy and also in unifying spectroscopy with collision theory. In the latter context, the quantum defect may be viewed as an ancestor of the phase shift. However, the origin of the term quantum defect does not seem to be explained in standard textbooks. It occurred in a 1921 paper by Schroedinger, preceding quantum mechanics, yet giving the correct meaning as an index of the short-range interactions with the core of an atom. The authors present the early history of the quantum-defect idea, and sketch its recent developments.

Rau, A.R.P. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Inokuti, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Combined Charge Carrier Transport and Photoelectrochemical Characteriz...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

valuable insight into this material as a photoanode. Citation: Rettie AJ, HC Lee, LG Marshall, JF Lin, C Capen, J Lindemuth, JS McCloy, J Zhou, AJ Bard, and CB...

131

Combined Charge Carrier Transport and Photoelectrochemical Characterization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New SubstationClean Communities ofCellulosic(SNfactory) |InnovationA P P E N

132

Composition dependent intrinsic defect structures in SrTiO3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intrinsic point defect complexes in SrTiO3 under different chemical conditions are studied using density functional theory. The Schottky defect complex consisting of nominally charged Sr, Ti and O vacancies is predicted to be the most stable defect structure in stoichiometric SrTiO3, with a relatively low formation energy of 1.64 eV/defect. In addition, the mechanisms of defect complex formation in nonstoichiometric SrTiO3 are investigated. Excess SrO leads to the formation of the oxygen vacancies and a strontium-titanium antisite defect, while a strontium vacancy together with an oxygen vacancy and the titanium-strontium antisite defect are produced in an excess TiO2 environment. Since point defects, such as oxygen vacancies and cation antisite defects, are intimately related to the functionality of SrTiO3, these results provide guidelines for controlling the formation of intrinsic point defects and optimizing the functionality of SrTiO3 by controlling nonstoichiometric chemical compositions of SrO and TiO2 in experiments.

Liu, Bin [ORNL] [ORNL; Cooper, Valentino R [ORNL] [ORNL; Xu, Haixuan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Xiao, Haiyan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL] [ORNL; Weber, William J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Study of space charge compensation phenomena in charged particle beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The propagation of a charged particle beam is accompanied by the production of secondary particles created in the interaction of the beam itself with the background gas flowing in the accelerator tube. In the drift region, where the electric field of the electrodes is negligible, secondary particles may accumulate giving a plasma which shields the self-induced potential of the charged beam. This phenomenon, known as space charge compensation is a typical issue in accelerator physics, where it is usually addressed by means of 1D radial transport codes or Monte Carlo codes. The present paper describes some theoretical studies on this phenomenon, presenting a Particle in Cell-Monte Carlo (PIC-MC) Code developed ad hoc where both radial and axial confinements of secondary particles are calculated. The features of the model, offering a new insight on the problem, are described and some results discussed.

Veltri, P.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35100 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, Viale dell'Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

Ch 16 Electric Charge &Ch 16. Electric Charge & Electric Field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ch 16 Electric Charge &Ch 16. Electric Charge & Electric Field Liu UCD Phy1B 2012 #12;I Basic ConceptsI. Basic Concepts Static electricity: charges at rest Electric charge Like charges repel Unlike charges attract Liu UCD Phy1B 2012 #12;Electric ChargeElectric Charge Electron charge: -eElectron charge

Yoo, S. J. Ben

135

Fractional electric charge and quark confinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Owing to their fractional electric charges, quarks are blind to transformations that combine a color center phase with an appropriate electromagnetic one. Such transformations are part of a global $Z_6$-like center symmetry of the Standard Model that is lost when quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is treated as an isolated theory. This symmetry and the corresponding topological defects may be relevant to non-perturbative phenomena such as quark confinement, much like center symmetry and ordinary center vortices are in pure SU($N$) gauge theories. Here we report on our investigations of an analogous symmetry in a 2-color model with dynamical Wilson quarks carrying half-integer electric charge.

Sam R. Edwards; André Sternbeck; Lorenz von Smekal

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

136

Defect dynamics in active nematics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Topological defects are distinctive signatures of liquid crystals. They profoundly affect the viscoelastic behavior of the fluid by constraining the orientational structure in a way that inevitably requires global changes not achievable with any set of local deformations. In active nematic liquid crystals topological defects not only dictate the global structure of the director, but also act as local sources of motion, behaving as self-propelled particles. In this article we present a detailed analytical and numerical study of the mechanics of topological defects in active nematic liquid crystals.

Luca Giomi; Mark J. Bowick; Prashant Mishra; Rastko Sknepnek; M. Cristina Marchetti

2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

137

Energy Dissipation and Defect Generation for Nanocrystalline...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dissipation and Defect Generation for Nanocrystalline Silicon Carbide. Energy Dissipation and Defect Generation for Nanocrystalline Silicon Carbide. Abstract: Large-scale molecular...

138

First-principles core-level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy calculation on arsenic defects in silicon crystal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) binding energies of As 3d in Si for various defects in neutral and charged states by first-principles calculation. It is found that the complexes of a substitutional As and a vacancy in charged and neutral states explain the experimentally observed unknown peak very well.

Kishi, Hiroki; Miyazawa, Miki; Matsushima, Naoki; Yamauchi, Jun [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan)

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

139

Topological Defects from the Multiverse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many theories of the early universe predict the existence of a multiverse where bubbles continuously nucleate giving rise to observers in their interior. In this paper, we point out that topological defects of several dimensionalities will also be produced in de Sitter like regions of the multiverse. In particular, defects could be spontaneously nucleated in our parent vacuum. We study the evolution of these defects as they collide with and propagate inside of our bubble. We estimate the present distribution of defects in the observable part of the universe. The expected number of such nearby defects turns out to be quite small, even for the highest nucleation rate. We also study collisions of strings and domain walls with our bubble in our past light cone. We obtain simulated full-sky maps of the loci of such collisions, and find their angular size distribution. Similarly to what happens in the case of bubble collisions, the prospect of detecting any collisions of our bubble with ambient defects is greatly enhanced in the case where the cosmological constant of our parent vacuum is much higher than the vacuum energy density during inflation in our bubble.

Jun Zhang; Jose J. Blanco-Pillado; Jaume Garriga; Alexander Vilenkin

2015-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

140

Charging Graphene for Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 2004, graphene, including single atomic layer graphite sheet, and chemically derived graphene sheets, has captured the imagination of researchers for energy storage because of the extremely high surface area (2630 m2/g) compared to traditional activated carbon (typically below 1500 m2/g), excellent electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and potential for low cost manufacturing. These properties are very desirable for achieving high activity, high capacity and energy density, and fast charge and discharge. Chemically derived graphene sheets are prepared by oxidation and reduction of graphite1 and are more suitable for energy storage because they can be made in large quantities. They still contain multiply stacked graphene sheets, structural defects such as vacancies, and oxygen containing functional groups. In the literature they are also called reduced graphene oxide, or functionalized graphene sheets, but in this article they are all referred to as graphene for easy of discussion. Two important applications, batteries and electrochemical capacitors, have been widely investigated. In a battery material, the redox reaction occurs at a constant potential (voltage) and the energy is stored in the bulk. Therefore, the energy density is high (more than 100 Wh/kg), but it is difficult to rapidly charge or discharge (low power, less than 1 kW/kg)2. In an electrochemical capacitor (also called supercapacitors or ultracapacitor in the literature), the energy is stored as absorbed ionic species at the interface between the high surface area carbon and the electrolyte, and the potential is a continuous function of the state-of-charge. The charge and discharge can happen rapidly (high power, up to 10 kW/kg) but the energy density is low, less than 10 Wh/kg2. A device that can have both high energy and high power would be ideal.

Liu, Jun

2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

SciTech Connect: Atomistic mechanisms of rapid energy transport...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

(fuels), solid state lighting, charge transport, materials and chemistry by design, optics, synthesis (novel materials), synthesis (self-assembly), synthesis (scalable...

142

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers the following tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints; Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability; Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres; Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures; Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability; and Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Native defects in MBE-grown CdTe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deep-level traps in both n- and p-type CdTe layers, grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates, have been investigated by means of deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Four of the traps revealed in the DLTS spectra, which displayed exponential kinetics for capture of charge carriers into the trap states, have been assigned to native point defects: Cd interstitial, Cd vacancy, Te antisite defect and a complex formed of the Te antisite and Cd vacancy. Three further traps, displaying logarithmic capture kinetics, have been ascribed to electron states of treading dislocations generated at the mismatched interface with the substrate and propagated through the CdTe layer.

Olender, Karolina; Wosinski, Tadeusz; Makosa, Andrzej; Tkaczyk, Zbigniew; Kolkovsky, Valery; Karczewski, Grzegorz [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

144

Higgsless superconductivity from topological defects in compact BF terms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new Higgsless model of superconductivity, inspired from anyon superconductivity but P- and T-invariant and generalizable to any dimension. While the original anyon superconductivity mechanism was based on incompressible quantum Hall fluids as average field states, our mechanism involves topological insulators as average field states. In D space dimensions it involves a (D-1)-form fictitious pseudovector gauge field which originates from the condensation of topological defects in compact low-energy effective BF theories. In the average field approximation, the corresponding uniform emergent charge creates a gap for the (D-2)-dimensional branes via the Magnus force, the dual of the Lorentz force. One particular combination of intrinsic and emergent charge fluctuations that leaves the total charge distribution invariant constitutes an isolated gapless mode leading to superfluidity. The remaining massive modes organise themselves into a D-dimensional charged, massive vector. There is no massive Higgs scalar as there is no local order parameter. When electromagnetism is switched on, the photon acquires mass by the topological BF mechanism. Although the charge of the gapless mode (2) and the topological order (4) are the same as those of the standard Higgs model, the two models of superconductivity are clearly different since the origins of the gap, reflected in the high-energy sectors are totally different. In 2D this type of superconductivity is explicitly realized as global superconductivity in Josephson junction arrays. In 3D this model predicts a possible phase transition from topological insulators to Higgsless superconductors.

M. Cristina Diamantini; Carlo A. Trugenberger

2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

145

Defect Chemistry of Yttrium-Doped Barium Zirconate: A Thermodynamic Analysis of Water Uptake  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generates oxygen vacancies as charge compensating defects. By means of treatment in water vapor holes are generated (the oxidation reaction8 ). Thus, protons, oxygen vacancies, and electronic holes thereof. In contrast to oxygen ion conductors, which typically have a constant carrier (oxygen vacancy

146

The Charging-Scheduling Problem for Electric Vehicle Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Design, Singapore University of New Mexico, USA {zhumingpassional, yanglet, linghe.kong, rmshen, shu, mwu}@sjtu.edu.cn Abstract--Electric vehicle (EV) is a promising transportation with plenty of advantages, e.g., low carbon emission, high energy efficiency. However, it requires frequent and long time charging. In public charging

147

Congestion control in charging of electric vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The increasing penetration of electric vehicles over the coming decades, taken together with the high cost to upgrade local distribution networks, and consumer demand for home charging, suggest that managing congestion on low voltage networks will be a crucial component of the electric vehicle revolution and the move away from fossil fuels in transportation. Here, we model the max-flow and proportional fairness protocols for the control of congestion caused by a fleet of vehicles charging on distribution networks. We analyse the inequality in the charging times as the vehicle arrival rate increases, and show that charging times are considerably more uneven in max-flow than in proportional fairness. We also analyse the onset of instability, and find that the critical arrival rate is indistinguishable between the two protocols.

Carvalho, Rui; Gibbens, Richard; Kelly, Frank

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Transportation Services  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transportation Services Transporting nuclear materials within the United States and throughout the world is a complicated and sometimes highly controversial effort requiring...

149

Local Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Local Transportation. Transportation from the Airport to Hotel. There are two types of taxi companies that operate at the airport: special and regular taxis (

150

Greening Transportation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transportation Goal 2: Greening Transportation LANL supports and encourages employees to reduce their personal greenhouse gas emissions by offering various commuting and work...

151

ChargePoint America Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

March 2013 Number of Charging Units Charging Electricity Charging Unit - Private Not Installed to Events Consumed By Region Residential Commercia Public Specified Date...

152

ChargePoint America Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

June 2013 Number of Charging Units Charging Electricity Charging Unit - Private Not Installed to Events Consumed By Region Residential Commercia Public Specified Date Performed...

153

ChargePoint America Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

December 2012 Number of Charging Units Charging Electricity Charging Unit - Private Not Installed to Events Consumed By Region Residential Commercia Public Specified Date...

154

ChargePoint America Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Report Project Status to Date through: March 2012 Number of Charging Units Charging Electricity Charging Unit - Private Installed to Events Consumed By State Residential...

155

ChargePoint America Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

September 2012 Number of Charging Units Charging Electricity Charging Unit - Private Installed to Events Consumed By State Residential Commercial Public Not Specified Date...

156

ChargePoint America Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

June 2012 Number of Charging Units Charging Electricity Charging Unit - Private Installed to Events Consumed By State Residential Commercial Public Not Specified Date Performed...

157

Particle transport in plasma reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SEMATECH and the Department of Energy have established a Contamination Free Manufacturing Research Center (CFMRC) located at Sandia National Laboratories. One of the programs underway at the CFMRC is directed towards defect reduction in semiconductor process reactors by the application of computational modeling. The goal is to use fluid, thermal, plasma, and particle transport models to identify process conditions and tool designs that reduce the deposition rate of particles on wafers. The program is directed toward defect reduction in specific manufacturing tools, although some model development is undertaken when needed. The need to produce quantifiable improvements in tool defect performance requires the close cooperation among Sandia, universities, SEMATECH, SEMATECH member companies, and equipment manufacturers. Currently, both plasma (e.g., etch, PECVD) and nonplasma tools (e.g., LPCVD, rinse tanks) are being worked on under this program. In this paper the authors summarize their recent efforts to reduce particle deposition on wafers during plasma-based semiconductor manufacturing.

Rader, D.J.; Geller, A.S.; Choi, Seung J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kushner, M.J. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Chamber transport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

OLSON,CRAIG L.

2000-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

159

Anticorrelation between Surface and Subsurface Point Defects...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

between Surface and Subsurface Point Defects and the Impact on the Redox Chemistry of TiO2(110). Anticorrelation between Surface and Subsurface Point Defects and the...

160

Optical method and apparatus for detection of surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser is used in a non-destructive manner to detect surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics and particularly in ceramic bodies with complex shapes such as ceramic bearings, turbine blades, races, and the like. The laser`s wavelength is selected based upon the composition of the ceramic sample and the laser can be directed on the sample while the sample is static or in dynamic rotate or translate motion. Light is scattered off surface and subsurface defects using a preselected polarization. The change in polarization angle is used to select the depth and characteristics of surface/subsurface defects. The scattered light is detected by an optical train consisting of a charge coupled device (CCD), or vidicon, television camera which, in turn, is coupled to a video monitor and a computer for digitizing the image. An analyzing polarizer in the optical train allows scattered light at a given polarization angle to be observed for enhancing sensitivity to either surface or near-subsurface defects. Application of digital image processing allows subtraction of digitized images in near real-time providing enhanced sensitivity to subsurface defects. Storing known ``feature masks`` of identified defects in the computer and comparing the detected scatter pattern (Fourier images) with the stored feature masks allows for automatic classification of detected defects. 29 figs.

Ellingson, W.A.; Brada, M.P.

1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Optical method and apparatus for detection of surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser is used in a non-destructive manner to detect surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics and particularly in ceramic bodies with complex shapes such as ceramic bearings, turbine blades, races, and the like. The laser's wavelength is selected based upon the composition of the ceramic sample and the laser can be directed on the sample while the sample is static or in dynamic rotate or translate motion. Light is scattered off surface and subsurface defects using a preselected polarization. The change in polarization angle is used to select the depth and characteristics of surface/subsurface defects. The scattered light is detected by an optical train consisting of a charge coupled device (CCD), or vidicon, television camera which, in turn, is coupled to a video monitor and a computer for digitizing the image. An analyzing polarizer in the optical train allows scattered light at a given polarization angle to be observed for enhancing sensitivity to either surface or near-subsurface defects. Application of digital image processing allows subtraction of digitized images in near real-time providing enhanced sensitivity to subsurface defects. Storing known "feature masks" of identified defects in the computer and comparing the detected scatter pattern (Fourier images) with the stored feature masks allows for automatic classification of detected defects.

Ellingson, William A. (Naperville, IL); Brada, Mark P. (Goleta, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Multiplexed Electric Vehicle Charging”, US20130154561A1,Chynoweth, ”Intelligent Electric Vehicle Charging System”,of RFID Mesh Network for Electric Vehicle Smart Charging

Chung, Ching-Yen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Method for mask repair using defect compensation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for repair of amplitude and/or phase defects in lithographic masks. The method involves modifying or altering a portion of the absorber pattern on the surface of the mask blank proximate to the mask defect to compensate for the local disturbance (amplitude or phase) of the optical field due to the defect.

Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Learning Defect Predictors:Lessons from the Trenches Learning Defect Predictors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Learning Defect Predictors:Lessons from the Trenches Learning Defect Predictors: Lessons from the Trenches Tim Menzies LCSEE, WVU tim@menzies.us October 28, 2008 1 / 40 #12;Learning Defect Predictors:Lessons change the rules of the game. 2 / 40 #12;Learning Defect Predictors:Lessons from the Trenches

Menzies, Tim

165

Effects of Stone-Wales and vacancy defects in atomic-scale friction on defective graphite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphite is an excellent solid lubricant for surface coating, but its performance is significantly weakened by the vacancy or Stone-Wales (SW) defect. This study uses molecular dynamics simulations to explore the frictional behavior of a diamond tip sliding over a graphite which contains a single defect or stacked defects. Our results suggest that the friction on defective graphite shows a strong dependence on defect location and type. The 5-7-7-5 structure of SW defect results in an effectively negative slope of friction. For defective graphite containing a defect in the surface, adding a single vacancy in the interior layer will decrease the friction coefficients, while setting a SW defect in the interior layer may increase the friction coefficients. Our obtained results may provide useful information for understanding the atomic-scale friction properties of defective graphite.

Sun, Xiao-Yu [Department of Engineering Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Key Laboratory of Hubei Province for Water Jet Theory and New Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wu, RunNi; Xia, Re [Key Laboratory of Hubei Province for Water Jet Theory and New Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chu, Xi-Hua; Xu, Yuan-Jie, E-mail: yj-xu@whu.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

166

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Electric Charge and Electric Field Electrostatics: Charge at rest  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 16 Electric Charge and Electric Field #12;Electrostatics: Charge at rest Electric Charges of conservation of Electric Charge: The net amount of electric charge produced in any process is zero. Model, neutral). #12;· All protons and electrons have same magnitude of electric charge but their masses

Yu, Jaehoon

168

Nature of Radiation-Induced Defects in Quartz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although quartz ($\\rm \\alpha$-form) is a mineral used in numerous applications wherein radiation exposure is an issue, the nature of the atomistic defects formed during radiation-induced damage have not been fully clarified. Especially, the extent of oxygen vacancy formation is still debated, which is an issue of primary importance as optical techniques based on charged oxygen vacancies have been utilized to assess the level of radiation damage in quartz. In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are applied to study the effects of ballistic impacts on the atomic network of quartz. We show that the defects that are formed mainly consist of over-coordinated Si and O, as well as Si--O connectivity defects, e.g., small Si--O rings and edge-sharing Si tetrahedra. Oxygen vacancies, on the contrary, are found in relatively low abundance, suggesting that characterizations based on $E^{\\prime}$ centers do not adequately capture radiation-induced structural damage in quartz. Finally, we evaluate the dependenc...

Wang, Bu; Pignatelli, Isabella; Sant, Gaurav N; Bauchy, Mathieu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Conformal nets III: fusion of defects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conformal nets provides a mathematical model for conformal field theory. We define a notion of defect between conformal nets, formalizing the idea of an interaction between two conformal field theories. We introduce an operation of fusion of defects, and prove that the fusion of two defects is again a defect, provided the fusion occurs over a conformal net of finite index. There is a notion of sector (or bimodule) between two defects, and operations of horizontal and vertical fusion of such sectors. Our most difficult technical result is that the horizontal fusion of the vacuum sectors of two defects is isomorphic to the vacuum sector of the fused defect. Equipped with this isomorphism, we construct the basic interchange isomorphism between the horizontal fusion of two vertical fusions and the vertical fusion of two horizontal fusions of sectors.

Arthur Bartels; Christopher L. Douglas; André Henriques

2015-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

170

Defective flagellar assembly and length regulation in LF3 null mutants in Chlamydomonas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

defective in intraflagellar transport. We have cloned the wild-type LF3 gene and characterized a hypomorphic mutant allele of LF3. LF3p is a novel protein located predominantly in the cell body. It cosediments with the product of the LF1 gene in sucrose...

Tam, Lai-Wa; Dentler Jr, William L.; Lefebvre, Paul A.

2003-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

171

Environment Assisted Quantum Transport in Organic Molecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the new discoveries in quantum biology is the role of Environment Assisted Quantum Transport (ENAQT) in excitonic transport processes. In disordered quantum systems transport is most efficient when the environment just destroys quantum interferences responsible for localization, but the coupling does not drive the system to fully classical thermal diffusion yet. This poised realm between the pure quantum and the semi-classical domains has not been considered in other biological transport processes, such as charge transport through organic molecules. Binding in receptor-ligand complexes is assumed to be static as electrons are assumed to be not able to cross the ligand molecule. We show that ENAQT makes cross ligand transport possible and efficient between certain atoms opening the way for the reorganization of the charge distribution on the receptor when the ligand molecule docks. This new effect can potentially change our understanding how receptors work. We demonstrate room temperature ENAQT on the c...

Vattay, Gabor

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

System Benefits Charge  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

New York's system benefits charge (SBC), established in 1996 by the New York Public Service Commission (PSC), supports energy efficiency, education and outreach, research and development, and low...

173

Nano watermill driven by the revolving charge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a novel nanoscale watermill for unidirectional transport of water molecules through a curved single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In this nanoscale system, a revolving charge is introduced to drive water chain confined inside the SWNT, which is served as nano waterwheel and nano engine. A resonance-like phenomenon is found that the revolving frequency of the charge plays a key role in pumping water chain. The water flux across the SWNT increases with respect to the revolving frequency of the external charge and reaches the maximum when the frequency is 4 THz. Correspondingly, the number of the hydrogen bonds of water chain inside the SWNT decreases dramatically with the frequency ranging from 4 THz to 25 THz. The mechanism behind the resonant phenomenon has been investigated systematically. Our findings are helpful for designing nanoscale fluidic devices and energy converters.

Zhou, Xiaoyan; Nie, Xuechuan; Wu, Fengmin; Liu, Yang; Lu, Hangjun

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Evolution of Topological Defects During Inflation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Topological defects can be formed during inflation by phase transitions as well as by quantum nucleation. We study the effect of the expansion of the Universe on the internal structure of the defects. We look for stationary solutions to the field equations, i.e. solutions that depend only on the proper distance from the defect core. In the case of very thin defects, whose core dimensions are much smaller than the de Sitter horizon, we find that the solutions are well approximated by the flat space solutions. However, as the flat space thickness parameter $\\delta_0$ increases we notice a deviation from this, an effect that becomes dramatic as $\\delta_0$ approaches $(H)^{-1}/{\\sqrt 2}$. Beyond this critical value we find no stationary solutions to the field equations. We conclude that only defects that have flat space thicknesses less than the critical value survive, while thicker defects are smeared out by the expansion.

R. Basu; A. Vilenkin

1994-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

175

Asymmetric Electron Transport at Monolayer-Bilayer Heterojunctions of Epitaxial Graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The symmetry of the graphene honeycomb lattice is a key element determining many of graphene s unique electronic properties, such as the linear energy-momentum dispersion and the suppressed backscattering 1,2. However, line defects in large-scale epitaxial graphene films, such as grain boundaries, edges, surface steps, and changes in layer thickness, often break the sublatttice symmetry and can impact transport properties of graphene profoundly 3-6. Here we report asymmetric electron transport upon polarity reversal at individual monolayer-bilayer (ML-BL) boundaries in epitaxial graphene on SiC (0001), revealed by scanning tunneling potentiometry. A greater voltage drop is observed when the current flows from BL to ML graphene than in the reverse direction, and the difference remains nearly unchanged with increasing current. This is not a typical nonlinear conductance due to electron transmission through an asymmetric potential. Rather, it indicates the opening of a dynamic energy gap at the Fermi energy due to the Coulomb interaction between the injected nonequilibrium electron density and the pseudospin polarized Friedel oscillation charge density at the boundary. This intriguing heterojunction transport behavior opens a new avenue towards novel quantum functions such as quantum switching.

Li, An-Ping [ORNL] [ORNL; Clark, Kendal W [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Xiaoguang [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Gong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); He, Guowei [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)] [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU); Feenstra, Randall [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)] [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Magnetic guidance of charged particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many experiments and devices in physics use static magnetic fields to guide charged particles from a source onto a detector, and we ask the innocent question: What is the distribution of particle intensity over the detector surface? One should think that the solution to this seemingly simple problem is well known. We show that, even for uniform guide fields, this is not the case and present analytical point spread functions (PSF) for magnetic transport that deviate strongly from previous results. The "magnetic" PSF shows unexpected singularities, which were recently also observed experimentally, and which make detector response very sensitive to minute changes of position, field amplitude, or particle energy. In the field of low-energy particle physics, these singularities may become a source of error in modern high precision experiments, or may be used for instrument tests, for instance in neutrino mass retardation spectrometers.

Dubbers, Dirk

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Image Charge Differential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Image Charge Differential Amplifier FT 0 Crude Oil Time (s) 543210 Frequency (kHz) m/z m q B f Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) uses the frequency of cyclotron motion of the ions in a static magnetic field to determine the mass-to-charge ratio, which is then used

Weston, Ken

178

Threshold displacement energies and defect formation energies...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

energies and defect formation energies in Y2Ti2O7. Abstract: Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to determine both the threshold displacement...

179

Charging Black Saturn?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct new charged static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in five dimensions via a solution generation technique utilizing the symmetries of the reduced Lagrangian. By applying our method on the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in four dimensions, we generate the multi-Reissner-Nordstrom solution in five dimensions. We focus on the five-dimensional solution describing a pair of charged black objects with general masses and electric charges. This solution includes the double Reissner-Nordstrom solution as well as the charged version of the five-dimensional static black Saturn. However, all the black Saturn configurations that we could find present either a conical singularity or a naked singularity. We also obtain a non-extremal configuration of charged black strings that reduces in the extremal limit to a Majumdar-Papapetrou like solution in five dimensions.

Brenda Chng; Robert Mann; Eugen Radu; Cristian Stelea

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

180

Investigation of oxygen point defects in cubic ZrO2 by density functional theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energetics of formation and migration of the oxygen vacancy and interstitial in cubic ZrO2 are investigated by density functional theory calculations. In an O-rich environment, the negatively charged oxygen interstitial is the most dominant defect whereas, the positively charged oxygen vacancy is the most dominant defect under O-poor conditions. Oxygen interstitial migration occurs by the interstitialcy and the direct interstitial mechanisms, with calculated migration energy barriers of 2.94 eV and 2.15 eV, respectively. For the oxygen vacancy, diffusion is preferred along the <100> direction, and the calculated energy barriers are 0.26 eV for , 0.27 eV for and 0.54 eV for . These results indicate that oxygen diffusivity is higher through the vacancy-migration mechanism.

Liu, Bin [ORNL] [ORNL; Xiao, Haiyan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL] [ORNL; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S [ORNL] [ORNL; Weber, William J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Electrical charging during the sharkskin instability of a metallocene melt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flow instabilities are widely studied because of their economical and theoretical interest, however few results have been published about the polymer electrification during the extrusion. Nevertheless the generation of the electrical charges is characteristic of the interaction between the polymer melt and the die walls. In our study, the capillary extrusion of a metallocene polyethylene (mPE) through a tungsten carbide die is characterized through accurate electrical measurements thanks a Faraday pail. No significant charges are observed since the extrudate surface remains smooth. However, as soon as the sharkskin distortion appears, measurable charges are collected (around 5 10-8 C/m2). Higher level of charges are measured during the spurt or the gross-melt fracture (g.m.f) defects. This work is focused on the electrical charging during the sharkskin instability. The variation of the electrical charges versus the apparent wall shear stress is investigated for different die geometries. This curve exhibits a linear increase, followed by a sudden growth just before the onset of the spurt instability. This abrupt charging corresponds also to the end of the sharkskin instability. It is also well-known that wall slip appears just at the same time, with smaller velocity values than during spurt flow. Our results indicate that electrification could be a signature of the wall slip. We show also that the electrification curves can be shifted according to the time-temperature superposition principle, leading to the conclusion that molecular features of the polymer are also involved in this process.

S. Tonon; A. Lavernhe-Gerbier; F. Flores; A. Allal; C. Guerret-Piécourt

2007-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

182

taking charge : optimizing urban charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis analyses the opportunities and constraints of deploying charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles in urban environments. Existing electric vehicle charging infrastructure for privately owned vehicles ...

Subramani, Praveen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder A China Paper on Type 4;Industrial Computed Tomography (CT) Examination of Composite Gas Cylinder #12;CT of 01-01 Layer at 4.8MPa during the gas compressing and releasing processes are the direct causes for liner defect - Since

184

DefectDomain Wall Interactions in Trigonal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Defect­Domain Wall Interactions in Trigonal Ferroelectrics Venkatraman Gopalan,1 Volkmar Dierolf,2 walls in the trigonal ferroelectrics lithium niobate and lithium tantalate. It is shown that extrinsic questions re- garding intrinsic widths, defect­domain wall interactions, and static versus dynamic wall

Gopalan, Venkatraman

185

Transportation Security  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Preliminary Draft - For Review Only 1 Transportation Security Draft Annotated Bibliography Review July 2007 Preliminary Draft - For Review Only 2 Work Plan Task * TEC STG Work...

186

Computational Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), in-vehicle computers, and computers in the transportation infrastructure are integrated ride- sharing, real-time multi-modal routing and navigation, to autonomous/assisted driving

Illinois at Chicago, University of

187

Synthesis and charge-transport properties of polymers derived from the oxidation of 1-hydro-1'-(6-(pyrrol-1-yl)hexyl)-4,4'-bipyridium Bis(hexafluorophosphate) and demonstration of pH-sensitive microelectrochemical transistor derived from the redox properties of a conventional redox center  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes the synthesis and electrochemical properties of redox polymers, having a polypyrrole backbone and viologen subunits, derived from oxidative electropolymerization of 1-methyl-1'-(6-(pyrrol-1-yl)hexyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium (P-V-Me/sup 2 +/) and 1-hydro-1'-(6-(pyrrol-1-yl)hexyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium (P-V-H/sup 2 +/). Closely spaced (approx. 1.5 ..mu..M) Au microelectrode arrays (approx. 2.5 ..mu..m wide /times/ 50 ..mu..m long /times/ 0.1 ..mu..m high) modified with the polymers can be used to study aspects of the charge-transport behavior of the viologen redox system. Poly(P-V-Me/sup 2 +/) have been used to investigate the characteristics of microelectrochemical transistors based on a viologen redox center and a similar redox center, protonated, monoquaternized bipyridinium, which is pH dependent. The interesting properties from poly(P-V-Me/sup 2 +/) and poly(P-V-H/sup 2 +/) stem from behavior of the pendant viologen redox centers. The device based on poly(P-V-Me/sup 2 +/) has a narrow region (approx. 200 mV) of gate voltage, V/sub G/, where the source-drain current, I/sub D/, is nonzero and has a sharp, pH-independent peak in the I/sub D/-V/sub G/ plot at approx. 0.53 V versus SCE associated with the reversible, one-electron reduction of viologen. This result is consistent with electron self-exchange between redox centers being the mechanism for charge transport. The device based on poly(P-V-H/sup 2 +/) shows a pH-dependent I/sub D/ at fixed V/sub G/, as expected from the electrochemical behavior from reversible protonation of the terminal N of the bipyridinium group of poly(P-V-H/sup 2 +/). The microelectrochemical transistor based on poly(P-V-H/sup 2 +/) illustrates the design of chemically sensitive, molecule-based devices using conventional redox materials.

Shu, C.F.; Wrighton, M.S.

1988-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

188

Societal Benefits Charge  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

New Jersey's 1999 electric-utility restructuring legislation created a "societal benefits charge" (SBC) to support investments in energy efficiency and "Class I" renewable energy. The SBC funds New...

189

Abstract adiabatic charge pumping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper is devoted to the analysis of an abstract formula describing quantum adiabatic charge pumping in a general context. We consider closed systems characterized by a slowly varying time-dependent Hamiltonian depending on an external parameter $\\alpha$. The current operator, defined as the derivative of the Hamiltonian with respect to $\\alpha$, once integrated over some time interval, gives rise to a charge pumped through the system over that time span. We determine the first two leading terms in the adiabatic parameter of this pumped charge under the usual gap hypothesis. In particular, in case the Hamiltonian is time periodic and has discrete non-degenerate spectrum, the charge pumped over a period is given to leading order by the derivative with respect to $\\alpha$ of the corresponding dynamical and geometric phases.

A. Joye; V. Brosco; F. Hekking

2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

190

Charged Schrodinger black holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct charged and rotating asymptotically Schrödinger black hole solutions of type IIB supergravity. We begin by obtaining a closed-form expression for the null Melvin twist of a broad class of type IIB backgrounds, ...

Adams, Allan

191

Thermal and electronic charge transport in bulk nanostructured Zr{sub 0.25}Hf{sub 0.75}NiSn composites with full-Heusler inclusions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bulk Zr{sub 0.25}Hf{sub 075}NiSn half-Heusler (HH) nanocomposites containing various mole fractions of full-Heusler (FH) inclusions were prepared by solid state reaction of pre-synthesized HH alloy with elemental Ni at 1073 K. The microstructures of spark plasma sintered specimens of the HH/FH nanocomposites were investigated using transmission electron microscopy and their thermoelectric properties were measured from 300 K to 775 K. The formation of coherent FH inclusions into the HH matrix arises from solid-state Ni diffusion into vacant sites of the HH structure. HH(1-y)/FH(y) composites with mole fraction of FH inclusions below the percolation threshold, y{approx}0.2, show increased electrical conductivity, reduced Seebeck coefficient and increased total thermal conductivity arising from gradual increase in the carrier concentration for composites. A drastic reduction ({approx}55%) in {kappa}{sub l} was observed for the composite with y=0.6 and is attributed to enhanced phonon scattering due to mass fluctuations between FH and HH, and high density of HH/FH interfaces. - Graphical abstract: Large reduction in the lattice thermal conductivity of bulk nanostructured half-Heusler/full-Heusler (Zr{sub 0.25}Hf{sub 075}NiSn/ Zr{sub 0.25}Hf{sub 075}Ni{sub 2}Sn) composites, obtained by solid-state diffusion at 1073 K of elemental Ni into vacant sites of the half-Heusler structure, arising from the formation of regions of spinodally decomposed HH and FH phases with a spatial composition modulation of {approx}2 nm. Highlights: > Bulk composites from solid state transformation of half-Heusler matrix through Ni diffusion. > Formation of coherent phase boundaries between half-Heusler matrix and full-Heusler inclusion. > Alteration of thermal and electronic transports with increasing full-Heusler inclusion. > Enhanced phonon scattering at half-Heusler/ full-Heusler phase boundaries.

Makongo, Julien P.A.; Misra, Dinesh K. [Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Salvador, James R. [Chemical Sciences and Materials Systems Laboratory, General Motors R and D Center, Warren, MI 48090 (United States); Takas, Nathan J. [Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Wang, Guoyu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Shabetai, Michael R.; Pant, Aditya; Paudel, Pravin [Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Uher, Ctirad [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stokes, Kevin L. [Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Department of Physics, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Poudeu, Pierre F.P., E-mail: ppoudeup@umich.edu [Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Laboratory for Emerging Energy and Electronic Materials, Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

Improving dielectric performance in anodic aluminum oxide via detection and passivation of defect states  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electronic and ionic transports in 32–56?nm thick anodic aluminum oxide films are investigated before and after a 1-h anneal at 200–400?°C in argon. Results are correlated to their defect density as measured by the Mott-Schottky technique. Solid state measurements show that electronic conduction upon annealing is hindered by an increase in the Schottky emission barrier, induced by a reduction in dopant density. Using an electrochemical contact, the films fail rapidly under cathodic polarization, unless defect density is decreased down to 10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3}, resulting in a three order of magnitude reduction in current and no visible gas evolution. Under anodic polarization, the decrease in defect density delays the onset of ionic conduction as well as further oxide growth and failure.

Mibus, M.; Zangari, G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Jensen, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Hu, X.; Reed, M. L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Knospe, C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

193

A qualitative study of spin polarization effect in defect tuned Co/graphene/Co nanostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Theoretical reports predict that in contact with a ferromagnetic giant spin, spin polarization evolves in defective graphene since defects in graphene act as local spin moments. We have synthesized different Co/graphene/Co nano spin valve like structures tuning the degree of defect applying ultrasonic vibration and characterized them by Raman spectroscopy. Initially with increasing I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio in Raman spectra, antiferromagnetic coupling between the Co nanosheets on either sides of graphene enhances leading to betterment in spin transport through graphene. But for highest I{sub D}/I{sub G}, a totally new phenomenon called antiferro quadrupolar ordering (AFQ) takes place which eventually reduces the spin polarization effect.

Mandal, Sumit, E-mail: smtdone@gmail.com, E-mail: cnssks@iacs.res.in; Saha, Shyamal K., E-mail: smtdone@gmail.com, E-mail: cnssks@iacs.res.in [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

Transportation Market Distortions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Highways, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Evaluating Criticism of Transportation Costing, VictoriaFrom Here: Evaluating Transportation Diversity, Victoria

Litman, Todd

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Irradiation-induced defect clustering and amorphization in silicon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Irradiation-induced defect clustering and amorphization in silicon carbide. Irradiation-induced defect clustering and amorphization in silicon carbide. Abstract: Previous computer...

196

Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a...

197

Defect classes - an overdue paradigm for CMOS IC testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The IC test industry has struggled for more than 30 years to establish a test approach that would guarantee a low defect level to the customer. We propose a comprehensive strategy for testing CMOS ICs that uses defect classes based on measured defect electrical properties. Defect classes differ from traditional fault models. Our defect class approach requires that the test strategy match the defect electrical properties, while fault models require that IC defects match the fault definition. We use data from Sandia Labs failure analysis and test facilities and from public literature. We describe test pattern requirements for each defect class and propose a test paradigm.

Hawkins, C.F. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Soden, J.M.; Righter, A.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ferguson, F.J. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Modification of Defect Structures in Graphene by Electron Irradiation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Modification of Defect Structures in Graphene by Electron Irradiation: Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations. Modification of Defect Structures in Graphene by Electron...

199

Exploring the interaction between lithium ion and defective graphene...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Exploring the interaction between lithium ion and defective graphene surface using dispersion corrected DFT studies. Exploring the interaction between lithium ion and defective...

200

Radioactive Fission Product Release from Defective Light Water Reactor Fuel Elements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are provided of the experimental investigation of radioactive fission product (RFP) release, i.e., krypton, xenon, and iodine radionuclides from fuel elements with initial defects during long-term (3 to 5 yr) irradiation under low linear power (5 to 12 kW/m) and during special experiments in the VK-50 vessel-type boiling water reactor.The calculation model for the RFP release from the fuel-to-cladding gap of the defective fuel element into coolant was developed. It takes into account the convective transport in the fuel-to-cladding gap and RFP sorption on the internal cladding surface and is in good agreement with the available experimental data. An approximate analytical solution of the transport equation is given. The calculation dependencies of the RFP release coefficients on the main parameters such as defect size, fuel-to-cladding gap, temperature of the internal cladding surface, and radioactive decay constant were analyzed.It is shown that the change of the RFP release from the fuel elements with the initial defects during long-term irradiation is, mainly, caused by fuel swelling followed by reduction of the fuel-to-cladding gap and the fuel temperature. The calculation model for the RFP release from defective fuel elements applicable to light water reactors (LWRs) was developed. It takes into account the change of the defective fuel element parameters during long-term irradiation. The calculation error according to the program does not exceed 30% over all the linear power change range of the LWR fuel elements (from 5 to 26 kW/m)

Konyashov, Vadim V.; Krasnov, Alexander M. [State Scientific Centre of Russian Federation-Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (Russian Federation)

2002-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Quick charge battery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

Parise, R.J.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Brake Defect Causation and Abatement Study (BDCAS)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Brake Defect Causation and Abatement Study (BDCAS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed by UT corrective actions and validate true abatement of initial out-of- service causation the FMCSA began the BDCAS

203

Generalized quantum defect methods in quantum chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The reaction matrix of multichannel quantum defect theory, K, gives a complete picture of the electronic structure and the electron - nuclear dynamics for a molecule. The reaction matrix can be used to examine both bound ...

Altunata, Serhan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Di-interstitial defect in silicon revisited  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the defect spectrum of Cz-Si samples following fast neutron irradiation. We mainly focus on the band at 533 cm{sup ?1}, which disappears from the spectra at ?170 °C, exhibiting similar thermal stability with the Si-P6 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum previously correlated with the di-interstitial defect. The suggested structural model of this defect comprises of two self-interstitial atoms located symmetrically around a lattice site Si atom. The band anneals out following a first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 0.88 ± 0.3 eV. This value does not deviate considerably from previously quoted experimental and theoretical values for the di-interstitial defect. The present results indicate that the 533 cm{sup ?1} IR band originates from the same structure as that of the Si-P6 EPR spectrum.

Londos, C. A.; Antonaras, G. [Solid State Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, 157 84 Athens (Greece)] [Solid State Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, 157 84 Athens (Greece); Chroneos, A. [Engineering and Innovation, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom) [Engineering and Innovation, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

205

Simulation of localized barrier defects in resonant tunneling diodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . 30 14 PVCR versus left energy and position for right defect atxt = 2152 A and Et =-0. 1 eV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 15 16 17 PVCR versus left defect position and energy for the right defect at xt... = 2152 A and Et = 0. 15 eV. . . . . . . . PVCR versus left defect position and energy for the right defect at xt = 2142 A and Et = 0. 15 eV. . . . . . . PVCR versus left defect position and energy for the right defect at x I = 2122 A and Et = 0 e...

Stoneberg, Jason Neal

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. This project has the following 6 main tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

AVTA: Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced...

208

Role of point defects/defect complexes in silicon device processing. Book of abstracts, fourth workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 41 abstracts are arranged into 6 sessions: impurities and defects in commercial substrates: their sources, effects on material yield, and material quality; impurity gettering in silicon: limits and manufacturability of impurity gettering and in silicon solar cells; impurity/defect passivation; new concepts in silicon growth: improved initial quality and thin films; and silicon solar cell design opportunities.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Manufacturing Defects Common to Composite Wind Turbine Blades: Effects of Defects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

uni-directional wind turbine fiber-reinforced composite material with an epoxy resin were utilized of wind turbine blades have essentially dictated the use of low cost fiberglass composite materials. Even1 Manufacturing Defects Common to Composite Wind Turbine Blades: Effects of Defects Jared W. Nelson

210

Influence of defects on thermal and mechanical properties of metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SDen ..................................... 33 13 Copper with 8 interstitials at 1600K ....................................................... 34 14 Temperature Vs time for copper without defects at 1360K .................... 39 15 Potential energy Vs time for copper without defects... at 1360K .............. 40 16 Total energy Vs time for copper without defects at 1360K .................... 40 17 Average volume Vs temperature for pure copper without defects .......... 41 18 Total energy Vs temperature for copper without defects...

Kamani, Sandeep Kumar

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

THE ELECTRIC PROGRAM INVESTMENT CHARGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE ELECTRIC PROGRAM INVESTMENT CHARGE: PROPOSED 201214 TRIENNIAL INVESTMENT PLAN The California Energy Commission has prepared this triennial investment plan (2012 ­ 2014) for the new Electric, 2012, Phase 2 Decision 1205037. This decision established the Electric Program Investment Charge

212

Charge Transport and Structural Dynamics in Polymerized Ionic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

actuators, field-effect transistors, light emitting electrochemical cells, and electrochromic devices, among others. Despite their promising prospects as ideal polymer...

213

Charge transport in hybrid nanorod-polymer composite photovoltaic cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circuit diagram for a photovoltaic cell under illumination.Polymer Composite Photovoltaic Cells Wendy U. Huynh ‡ ,devices such as photovoltaic cells and light-emitting-

Huynh, Wendy U.; Dittmer, Janke J.; Teclemariam, Nerayo; Milliron, Delia; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Barnham, Keith W.J.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Surface-Plasmon Assisted Exciton and Charge Carrier Transport...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of their use as functional materials in a broad range of electronic and optoelectronic applications. Low-dimensional semiconductor materials (e.g., quantum dots, quantum...

215

Charge Transport through Organized Organic Assemblies in Confined Geometries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pA, (d) Vbias = -1.4 V, Itunnel = 10 pA. ...................................................................... 127 4.12 Electrostatic potential maps of (a) the free base and (b) zinc coordinated porphyrin thiol molecules. The maps were... images of 1 day zinc bipodal porphyrin thiol/DDT mixed SAM, (A) topography and (B) friction. ................................................................ 152 5.12 AFM images of 1 day zinc bipodal porphyrin thiol/DDT mixed SAM, (A) before...

Schuckman, Amanda Eileen

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

216

Role of collector alternating charged patches on transport of...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

microsphere in 2-dimensional micromodels was studied. The cylindrical silica collectors within the micromodels were coated with 0, 10, 20, 50 and 100% Fe2O3 patches. The...

217

Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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218

Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr Flickr Editor'sshortGeothermalGo BackGrants &Graphene

219

Charge Transport Anisotropy Due to Grain Boundaries in Directionally  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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220

A General Relationship between Disorder, Aggregation, and Charge Transport  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformation for planningtoA Journey InsideVortices

222

Role of collector alternating charged patches on transport of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 Resource ProgramEnergy InnovationSludgeWater in

223

Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching.348ASSEMBLYInfluence of Topological Spin Fluctuations

224

Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching.348ASSEMBLYInfluence of Topological Spin

225

Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching.348ASSEMBLYInfluence of Topological SpinInfluence of

226

Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching.348ASSEMBLYInfluence of Topological SpinInfluence

227

Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching.348ASSEMBLYInfluence of Topological

228

Sewerage service charges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SEWER&.GE SERVICE CHARGES A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major Subject* Municipal suid Sanitary... Engineering By Samuel Robert Wright May 1946 BA.GRV ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The writer wishes to express appreciation to the State Health Department and to Mr* E. E. McA-dams of the League of Texas Municipalities for their aid and assistance in the collection...

Wright, Samuel Robert

1946-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Means and method for the focusing and acceleration of parallel beams of charged particles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel apparatus and method for focussing beams of charged particles comprising planar arrays of electrostatic quadrupoles. The quadrupole arrays may comprise electrodes which are shared by two or more quadrupoles. Such quadrupole arrays are particularly adapted to providing strong focussing forces for high current, high brightness, beams of charged particles, said beams further comprising a plurality of parallel beams, or beamlets, each such beamlet being focussed by one quadrupole of the array. Such arrays may be incorporated in various devices wherein beams of charged particles are accelerated or transported, such as linear accelerators, klystron tubes, beam transport lines, etc.

Maschke, Alfred W. (East Moriches, NY)

1983-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

230

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental Katzer #12;CHARGE TO THE ALTF PANEL · Evaluate technologies for converting biomass and coal to liquid for liquid fuels produced from coal or biomass. · Evaluate environmental, economic, policy, and social

231

High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized.

Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

A Stable Massive Charged Particle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the possibility of the existence of a stable massive charged particle by a minimal extension of the standard model particle content. Absolute stability in the case of singly charged particle is not possible if the usual doublet Higgs exists, unless a discrete symmetry is imposed.But a doubly charged particle is absolutely stable.

G. Rajasekaran

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

233

Tools for charged Higgs bosons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the status of publicly available software tools applicable to charged Higgs physics. A selection of codes are highlighted in more detail, focusing on new developments that have taken place since the previous charged Higgs workshop in 2008. We conclude that phenomenologists now have the tools ready to face the LHC data. A new webpage collecting charged Higgs resources is presented.

Oscar Stål

2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

234

Holography, charge and baryon asymmetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The reason for baryon asymmetry in our universe has been a pertinent question for many years. The holographic principle suggests a charged preon model underlies the Standard Model of particle physics and any such charged preon model requires baryon asymmetry. This note estimates the baryon asymmetry predicted by charged preon models in closed inflationary Friedmann universes.

T. R. Mongan

2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

235

Neurotransmitter Transporters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at specialized synaptic junctions where electrical excitability in the form of an action potential is translated membrane of neurons and glial cells. Transporters harness electrochemical gradients to force the movement.els.net #12;The response produced when a transmitter interacts with its receptors, the synaptic potential

Bergles, Dwight

236

Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser plasma accelerator, charge diagnostics, Lanex, ICT,Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators K .CHARGE DIAGNOSTICS CROSS-CALIBRATIONS WITH LASER PLASMA

Nakamura, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

The effects of fastener hole defects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) August 1991 ABSTRACT The Effects of Fastener Hole Defects. (August 1991) Scot D. Andrews, B. S. , Texas A8rM University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Orden O. Ochoa The influence of drilling-induced defects, such as delamination, on the fatigue... ambient and elevated temperature wet conditions. Specimens were tested in a bearing tension frame to static failure in order to measure the failure load and to calculate pin bearing stress. From static test results, a fatigue load was selected as 66...

Andrews, Scot D.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Defect-Enhanced Charge Transfer by Ion-Solid Interactions in SiC using  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData Files Data Files 1B&W Y-12studies in ion

239

Texas State Planning Region 3 Report of Regional Transportation Coordination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the 24 regions studying public transportation in their area was charged with assessing Barriers, Constraints and Best Practices in public transportation. This Coordination Committee addressed this issue with enthusiasm, generating significant topics...DOT requirement that all vehicles be ADA compliant, Medicaid restrictions and Insurance as significant barriers to public transportation. Best practices included sharing of information regarding this project through publication in rural newspapers, inter...

Nortex Regional Planning Commission

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

NERSC HPSS Charging  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Dynamics of Non-adiabatic Charged Cylindrical Gravitational Collapse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper is devoted to study the dynamics of gravitational collapse in the Misner and Sharp formalism. We take non-viscous heat conducting charged anisotropic fluid as a collapsing matter with cylindrical symmetry. The dynamical equations are derived and coupled with the transport equation for heat flux obtained from the M$\\ddot{u}$ller-Israel-Stewart causal thermodynamic theory. We discuss the role of anisotropy, electric charge and radial heat flux over the dynamics of the collapse with the help of coupled equation.

M. Sharif; G. Abbas

2011-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

242

Defect analysis using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) ......................................................................... 62 Figure 4.5 FEA models of (a) Y Bend 1, (b) X Torsion 1, and (c) Z Bend 1 ......................................................................................... 64 Figure 4.6 Change in frequency vs. defect depth for mode Y Bend 1...................................................................................................... ix LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................... xiii 1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................... 1 1.1...

Flynn, Kevin Joseph

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

Defect Characterization for Scaling of QCA Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

operation and ultra low power dissipation [8]. Among these new devices, quantum dot cellular automata (QCA promising new computing scheme in the nano-scale regimes. As an emerging technology, QCA relies on radically voter, the inverter and the binary wire, are provided to show that defects have definitive trends

244

Triplet Transport to and Trapping by Acceptor End Groups on Conjugated Polyfluorene Chains  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Triplet excited states created in polyfluorene (pF) molecules having average lengths up to 170 repeat units were transported to and captured by trap groups at the ends in less {approx}40 ns. Almost all of the triplets attached to the chains reached the trap groups, ruling out the presence of substantial numbers of defects that prevent transport. The transport yields a diffusion coefficient D of at least 3 x 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, which is 30 times typical molecular diffusion and close to a value for triplet transport reported by Keller (J. Am. Chem. Soc.2011, 133, 11289-11298). The triplet states were created in solution by pulse radiolysis; time resolution was limited by the rate of attachment of triplets to the pF chains. Naphthylimide (NI) or anthraquinone (AQ) groups attached to the ends of the chains acted as traps for the triplets, although AQ would not have been expected to serve as a trap on the basis of triplet energies of the separate molecules. The depths of the NI and AQ triplet traps were determined by intermolecular triplet transfer equilibria and temperature dependence. The trap depths are shallow, just a few times thermal energy for both, so a small fraction of the triplets reside in the pF chains in equilibrium with the end-trapped triplets. Trapping by AQ appears to arise from charge transfer interactions between the pF chains and the electron-accepting AQ groups. Absorption bands of the end-trapped triplet states are similar in peak wavelength (760 nm) and shape to the 760 nm bands of triplets in the pF chains but have reduced intensities. When an electron donor, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), is added to the solution, it reacts with the end-trapped triplets to remove the 760 nm bands and to make the trapping irreversible. New bands created upon reaction with TMPD may be due to charge transfer states.

Sreearunothai, P.; Miller, J.; Estrada, A.; Asaoka, S.; Kowalczyk, M.; Jang, S.; Cook, A.R.; Preses, J.M.

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

245

Increasing the creation yield of shallow single defects in diamond by surface plasma treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond close to the crystal surface are very promising magnetic field sensors with very high sensitivity. Here, we report the enhanced creation of very shallow (less than 3 nm below the diamond surface) NV centers by using fluorine and oxygen plasma treatment. We observe a four fold increase—from 0.11% to about 0.45% in the production yield when the sample surface is terminated with fluorine or oxygen atoms. This effect is explained by the stabilization of the NV's negative charge state which is influenced by the various defects present on the diamond surface.

Osterkamp, Christian; Scharpf, Jochen; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor [Institut für Quantenoptik, Ulm University, Albert Einstein Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany)] [Institut für Quantenoptik, Ulm University, Albert Einstein Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Pezzagna, Sebastien; Meijer, Jan [Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Abteilung Nukleare Festkörperphysik, Universität Leipzig, Linnestraße 5, Leipzig 04103 (Germany)] [Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Abteilung Nukleare Festkörperphysik, Universität Leipzig, Linnestraße 5, Leipzig 04103 (Germany); Diemant, Thomas; Jürgen Behm, Rolf [Institut für Oberflächenchemie und Katalyse, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, Ulm 89081 (Germany)] [Institut für Oberflächenchemie und Katalyse, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, Ulm 89081 (Germany)

2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

246

Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

247

NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Future of Sustainable Transportation This is the January 2015 issue of the Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter. Illustration of an electric vehicle Illustration of an...

248

Determination of Grain Boundary Charging in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface potential mapping of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) aims to understand the minority-carrier recombination at the grain boundaries (GBs) of this polycrystalline material by examining GB charging, which has resulted in a number of publications. However, the reported results are highly inconsistent. In this paper, we report on the potential mapping by measuring wide-bandgap or high-Ga-content films and by using a complementary atomic force microscopy-based electrical technique of scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). The results demonstrate consistent, positively charged GBs on our high-quality films with minimal surface defects/charges. The potential image taken on a low-quality film with a 1.2-eV bandgap shows significantly degraded potential contrast on the GBs and degraded potential uniformity on grain surfaces, resulting from the surface defects/charges of the low-quality film. In contrast, the potential image on an improved high-quality film with the same wide bandgap shows significantly improved GB potential contrast and surface potential uniformity, indicating that the effect of surface defects is critical when examining GB charging using surface potential data. In addition, we discuss the effect of the SKPFM setup on the validity of potential measurement, to exclude possible artifacts due to improper SKPFM setups. The SKPFM results were corroborated by using SCM measurements on the films with a CdS buffer layer. The SCM image shows clear GB contrast, indicating different electrical impedance on the GB from the grain surface. Further, we found that the GB contrast disappeared when the CdS window layer was deposited after the CIGS film was exposed extensively to ambient, which was caused by the creation of CIGS surface defects by the ambient exposure.

Jiang, C. S.; Contreras, M. A.; Repins, I.; Moutinho, H. R.; Noufi, R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and Customer Charging...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

The report also examines when consumers want to recharge vehicles, and to what extent pricing and incentives can encourage consumers to charge during off-peak periods. Evaluating...

250

Atomic-Level Computer Simulation of SiC: Defect Accumulation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic-Level Computer Simulation of SiC: Defect Accumulation, Mechanical Properties and Defect Recovery. Atomic-Level Computer Simulation of SiC: Defect Accumulation, Mechanical...

251

Estimating the expected latency to failure due to manufacturing defects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Manufacturers of digital circuits test their products to find defective parts so they are not sold to customers. Despite extensive testing, some of their products that are defective pass the testing process. To combat this problem, manufacturers...

Dorsey, David Michael

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

252

Defect site prediction based upon statistical analysis of fault signatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Good failure analysis is the ability to determine the site of a circuit defect quickly and accurately. We propose a method for defect site prediction that is based on a site's probability of excitation, making no assumptions about the type...

Trinka, Michael Robert

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

253

THE DEFECT STRUCTURE OF CdTe (*) F. A. KRGER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE DEFECT STRUCTURE OF CdTe (*) F. A. KR�GER David Packard Professor of Electrical Engineering haute résistivité. Abstract. 2014 Evidence concerning the defect structure of CdTe is reviewed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

254

Buckling and Topological Defects in Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

defect formation energy in carbon nanotubes and graphene”.Carbon Nanotubes strain e zz Defect Formation Energies fromCARBON NANOTUBES Figure 4.3: Contour plots of strain energy

Chen, Shuo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation at nano-crystalline ZrO2SiO2Si Interfaces . Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation at...

256

Healing of defects in a two-dimensional granular crystal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using a macroscopic analog for a two dimensional hexagonal crystal, we perform an experimental investigation of the self-healing properties of circular grain defects with an emphasis on defect orientation. A circular grain ...

Rice, Marie C

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

High dynamic range charge measurements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A charge amplifier for use in radiation sensing includes an amplifier, at least one switch, and at least one capacitor. The switch selectively couples the input of the switch to one of at least two voltages. The capacitor is electrically coupled in series between the input of the amplifier and the input of the switch. The capacitor is electrically coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. A method of measuring charge in radiation sensing includes selectively diverting charge from an input of an amplifier to an input of at least one capacitor by selectively coupling an output of the at least one capacitor to one of at least two voltages. The input of the at least one capacitor is operatively coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. The method also includes calculating a total charge based on a sum of the amplified charge and the diverted charge.

De Geronimo, Gianluigi

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

258

Strongly Enhanced Thermal Transport in a Lightly Doped Mott Insulator at Low Temperature V. Zlatic1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for various power generation or refrigeration applications which involve so-called green technologies for the charge and thermal transport in a slightly doped Mott insulator that is described by the Falicov, since the magnetic order rarely has a large effect on charge and heat transport in strongly correlated

Freericks, Jim

259

Greening Transportation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Big Sky LearningGetGraphene's 3D CounterpartDepartmentTransportation

260

Transportation Infrastructure  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Collective phenomena in defect crystals Reimer Kuhn1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by quantum effects. Both thermal and dynamical properties are considered. The influence of interactions Talence cedex, France Received 25 April 2000 We investigate the effects of interactions between substitutional defects on the properties of defect crystals at low temperatures, where defect motion is governed

Kühn, Reimer

262

Space Charge Correction on Emittance Measurement of Low Energy Electron Beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of any particle accelerator is to optimize the transport of a charged particle beam along a set path by confining the beam to a small region close to the design trajectory and directing it accurately along the beamline. To do so in the simplest fashion, accelerators use a system of magnets that exert approximately linear electromagnetic forces on the charged beam. These electromagnets bend the beam along the desired path, in the case of bending magnets, and constrain the beam to the desired area through alternating focusing and defocusing effects, in the case of quadrupole magnets. We can model the transport of such a beam through transfer matrices representing the actions of the various beamline elements. However, space charge effects, produced from self electric fields within the beam, defocus the beam and must be accounted for in the calculation of beam emittance. We present below the preliminary results of a MATLAB code built to model the transport of a charged particle beam through an accelerator and measure the emittance under the influence of space charge effects. We demonstrate the method of correctly calculating the emittance of a beam under space charge effects using a least square fit to determine the initial properties of the beam given the beam size measured at a specific point after transport.

Treado, Colleen J.; /Massachusetts U., Amherst

2012-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

263

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared with the results from the previous batch.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Metastable light induced defects in pentacene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study we analyzed one of the environmental factors that could affect organic materials. Pentacene thin film samples were fabricated and the degradation of their electrical characteristics was measured when the devices were exposed to ultraviolet light irradiation. The results have been reported in terms of a trap density model, which provides a description of the dynamics of light induced electrically active defects in an organic semiconductor.

Liguori, R.; Aprano, S.; Rubino, A. [Department of Industrial Engineering (DIIn), University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

265

Integrated circuit failure analysis by low-energy charge-induced voltage alteration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A scanning electron microscope apparatus and method are described for detecting and imaging open-circuit defects in an integrated circuit (IC). The invention uses a low-energy high-current focused electron beam that is scanned over a device surface of the IC to generate a charge-induced voltage alteration (CIVA) signal at the location of any open-circuit defects. The low-energy CIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any open-circuit defects. A low electron beam energy is used to prevent electrical breakdown in any passivation layers in the IC and to minimize radiation damage to the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs.

Cole, Jr., Edward I. (2116 White Cloud St., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Pulverization Induced Charge: In-Line Dry Coal Cleaning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to boilers in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

Schaefer, J.L.; Stencel, J.M.

1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

267

PULVERIZATION INDUCED CHARGE: IN-LINE DRY COAL CLEANING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to burners in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

JOHN M. STENCEL

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Pulverization Induced Charge: In-Line Dry Coal Cleaning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to burners in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

John M. Stencel

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

269

Pulverization Induced Charge: In-Line Dry Coal Cleaning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to burners in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

John M. Stencel

1998-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

270

Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on fusion devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For fusion, obtaining reliable measurements of basic plasma parameters like ion and electron densities and temperatures is a primary goal. For theory, measurements are needed as a function of time and space to understand plasma transport and confinement with the ultimate goal of achieving economic nuclear fusion power. Electron profile measurements and plasma spectroscopy for the plasma ions are introduced. With the advent of Neutral Beam auxiliary plasma heating, Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy provides accurate and time resolved measurements of the ions in large volume fusion devices. In acknowledgement of Nicol Peacock's role in the development of these techniques, still at the forefront of plasma fusion research, this paper describes the evolution of this diagnostic method.

Duval, B. P. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

271

R-charge Kills Monopoles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Large charge density, unlike high temperature, may lead to nonrestoration of global and gauge symmetries. Supersymmetric GUTs with the appealing scenario of unification scale being generated dynamically naturally contain global continuous $R$ symmetries. We point out that the presence of a large $R$ charge in the early Universe can lead to GUT symmetry nonrestoration. This provides a simple way out of the monopole problem.

Borut Bajc; Antonio Riotto; Goran Senjanovic

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

272

Further investigation of the characteristics of nodular defects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To increase the understanding of the damage sensitivity of nodular defects and provide exact evidence for theoretical study, the structures and the damage behavior of nodular defects in electron-beam deposited mirrors of HfO2/SiO2 are systemically investigated with a double-beam microscope (focused ion beam, scanning electron microscope). Nodular defects are classified into two kinds. In one kind the boundaries between nodules and the surrounding layers have become continuous for the last deposited materials, and in the other there are discontinuous boundaries between nodules and the surrounding layers. Nodular defects of the first kind typically have low domes, and the second have high domes. Laser damage experiments show that nodular defects of the first kind usually have a high laser resistance, and the laser-induced damage thresholds are limited in the second class of nodules. The dominant parameter of nodular defects related to damage is the height of the nodular defect.

Liu Xiaofeng; Li Dawei; Zhao Yuan'an; Li Xiao

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Transporting particulate material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A material transporting system comprises a material transporting apparatus (100) including a material transporting apparatus hopper structure (200, 202), which comprises at least one rotary transporting apparatus; a stationary hub structure (900) constraining and assisting the at least one rotary transporting apparatus; an outlet duct configuration (700) configured to permit material to exit therefrom and comprising at least one diverging portion (702, 702'); an outlet abutment configuration (800) configured to direct material to the outlet duct configuration; an outlet valve assembly from the material transporting system venting the material transporting system; and a moving wall configuration in the material transporting apparatus capable of assisting the material transporting apparatus in transporting material in the material transporting system. Material can be moved from the material transporting apparatus hopper structure to the outlet duct configuration through the at least one rotary transporting apparatus, the outlet abutment configuration, and the outlet valve assembly.

Aldred, Derek Leslie (North Hollywood, CA); Rader, Jeffrey A. (North Hollywood, CA); Saunders, Timothy W. (North Hollywood, CA)

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

274

Ultrafast Charge Separation and Nongeminate Electron-Hole Recombination in Organic Photovoltaics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mechanism of electron-hole separation in organic solar cells is currently hotly debated. Recent experimental work suggests that these charges can separate on extremely short timescales (<100 fs). This can be understood in terms of delocalised transport within fullerene aggregates, which is thought to emerge on short timescales before vibronic relaxation induces polaron formation. However, in the optimal heterojunction morphology, electrons and holes will often re-encounter each other before reaching the electrodes. If such charges trap and cannot separate, then device efficiency will suffer. Here we extend the theory of ultrafast charge separation to incorporate polaron formation, and find that the same delocalised transport used to explain ultrafast charge separation can account for the suppression of nongeminate recombination in the best devices.

Samuel L Smith; Alex W Chin

2014-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

275

Transportation Security | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transportation Security SHARE Global Threat Reduction Initiative Transportation Security Cooperation Secure Transport Operations (STOP) Box Security of radioactive material while...

276

Charge-pump voltage converter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

277

Adiabatic charge pumping in open quantum systems J.E. Avron(a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adiabatic charge pumping in open quantum systems J.E. Avron(a) , A. Elgart(b) , G.M. Graf(c) , L for charge transport in quantum pumps connected to a number of external leads. It is proved that under rather the pump is given by a formula of B¨uttiker, Pr^etre, and Thomas, relating it to the frozen S

278

Strategic Freight Transportation Contract Procurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based Procurement for Transportation Services, Journal ofCoia, A. , Evolving transportation exchanges, World trade,an Auction Based Transportation Marketplace, Transportation

Nandiraju, Srinivas

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

"Educating transportation professionals."  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"Educating transportation professionals." Michael Demetsky Henry L. Kinnier Professor mjd of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 434.924.7464 Transportation Engineering & Management Research Our group works closely with the Virginia Center for Transportation Innovation and Research (VCTIR), located

Acton, Scott

280

Sandia National Laboratories: Defect-Carrier Interactions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0EnergySandia InvolvesDOE-BER NASA AwardDefect-Carrier Interactions

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.

Morris, Christopher (Los Alamos, NM); Fraser, Andrew Mcleod (Los Alamos, NM); Schultz, Larry Joe (Los Alamos, NM); Borozdin, Konstantin N. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich (Maynard, MA); Sossong, Michael James (Los Alamos, NM); Blanpied, Gary (Lexington, SC)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

282

Space charge modeling in electron-beam irradiated polyethylene: Fitting model and experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical model for describing charge accumulation in electron-beam irradiated low density polyethylene has been put forward recently. It encompasses the generation of positive and negative charges due to impinging electrons and their transport in the insulation. However, the model was not optimized to fit all the data available regarding space charge dynamics obtained using up-to-date pulsed electro-acoustic techniques. In the present approach, model outputs are compared with experimental space charge distribution obtained during irradiation and post-irradiation, the irradiated samples being in short circuit conditions or with the irradiated surface at a floating potential. A unique set of parameters have been used for all the simulations, and it encompasses the transport parameters already optimized for charge transport in polyethylene under an external electric field. The model evolution in itself consists in describing the recombination between positive and negative charges according to the Langevin formula, which is physically more accurate than the previous description and has the advantage of reducing the number of adjustable parameters of the model. This also provides a better description of the experimental behavior underlining the importance of recombination processes in irradiated materials.

Le Roy, S.; Laurent, C.; Teyssedre, G. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Baudoin, F.; Griseri, V. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

283

E-Print Network 3.0 - air transport association Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

21st Century Air Law... Trading As Market-Based Options in Air Transport Air Law Emissions trading, tax, charge, environment, ICAO... , comptence Azzie, Ralph V p. 3 Second...

284

E-Print Network 3.0 - air transportable package Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

21st Century Air Law... Trading As Market-Based Options in Air Transport Air Law Emissions trading, tax, charge, environment, ICAO... , comptence Azzie, Ralph V p. 3 Second...

285

Transportation Efficiency Resources  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Transportation efficiency reduces travel demand as measured by vehicle miles traveled (VMT). While transportation efficiency policies are often implemented under local governments, national and...

286

Chapter 12 Transportation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2-1 November 2012 Words in bold and acronyms are defined in Chapter 32, Glossary and Acronyms. Chapter 12 Transportation This chapter describes existing transportation resources in...

287

Sustainability and Transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2005. Integrating Sustainability into the Trans- portationTHOUGHT PIECE Sustainability and Transport by Richardof the concept of sustainability to transport planning. In

Gilbert, Richard

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Correlation between nuclear response and defects in CZT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vertical high pressure Bridgman (VHPB) was considered until now to be the most successful crystal growth method to produce Cd{sub 1{minus}x}Zn{sub x}Te (CZT), (0.04 < x < 0.24), for X- and gamma-ray detector crystals. Recently Horizontal Bridgman (HB) Cd{sub 1{minus}x}Zn{sub x}Te crystals produced by IMARAD Co. have also been successfully fabricated into nuclear spectroscopic radiation detectors. In view of the database of many years' study of the electrical properties of VHPB CZT grown and obtained from various sources, the authors also studied the HB CZT crystals in order to compare the defects present in both different kinds of crystals grown by different methods. The VHB-grown samples were examined using thermoelectric emission spectroscopy (TEES), X- and gamma ray spectroscopy and laser induced transient charge technique (TCT). The surface and the bulk crystalline homogeneity were mapped using triaxial double crystal x-ray diffraction (TADXRD) and infrared transmission spectroscopy (IR). They have found a correlation between crystallinity, IR transmission microstructure and trapping times. Spectrometer grade VHPB CZT crystals exhibit trapping times of 20 {micro}s for electrons and 7 {micro}s for holes, however, regions, which were opaque to IR transmission, had trapping times shorter by one order of magnitude. The trapping times of HB CZT for electrons, were 10--15 {micro}s. A similar trend has been observed on VHPB CZT crystals with poor crystallinity. The HB CZT crystals that they measured in this study had a crystallinity that was inferior to that of the best spectroscopic grade VHPB crystals.

H. Hermon; M. Schieber; R. B. James; E. Lee; E. Cross; M. Goorsky; T. Lam; T. E. Schlesinger; M. Greaves

1999-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

289

Turbo-Charged Lighting Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TURBO-CHARGED LIGHTING DESIGN William H. Clark II Design Engineer O'Connell Robertson & Assoc Austin/ Texas ABSTRACT The task of the lighting designer has become very complex, involving thousands of choices for fixture types and hundreds...

Clark, W. H. II

290

Physisorption of molecular hydrogen on carbon nanotube with vacant defects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Physisorption of molecular hydrogen on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is important for its engineering applications and hydrogen energy storage. Using molecular dynamics simulation, we study the physisorption of molecular hydrogen on a SWCNT with a vacant defect, focusing on the effect of the vacant defect size and external parameters such as temperature and pressure. We find that hydrogen can be physisorbed inside a SWCNT through a vacant defect when the defect size is above a threshold. By controlling the size of the defects, we are able to extract hydrogen molecules from a gas mixture and store them inside the SWCNT. We also find that external parameters, such as low temperature and high pressure, enhance the physisorption of hydrogen molecules inside the SWCNT. In addition, the storage efficiency can be improved by introducing more defects, i.e., reducing the number of carbon atoms on the SWCNT.

Sun, Gang; Shen, Huaze; Wang, Enge; Xu, Limei, E-mail: limei.xu@pku.edu.cn [International Center for Quantum Materials and School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Tangpanitanon, Jirawat [University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB2 1TP (United Kingdom); Wen, Bo [International Center for Quantum Materials and School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Heqing Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Xue, Jianming [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

291

Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

292

A holographic charged preon model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Standard Model (SM) is a successful approach to particle physics calculations. However, there are indications that the SM is only a good approximation to an underlying non-local reality involving fundamental entities (preons) that are not point particles. Furthermore, our universe seems to be dominated by a vacuum energy/cosmological constant. The holographic principle then indicates only a finite number of bits of information will ever be available to describe the observable universe, and that requires a holographic preon model linking the (0,1) holographic bits to SM particles. All SM particles have charges 0, 1/3, 2/3 or 1 in units of the electron charge, so the bits in a holographic preon model must be identified with fractional electric charge. Such holographic charged preon models require baryon asymmetry and also suggest a mechanism for stationary action. This paper outlines a holographic charged preon model where preons are strands with finite energy density specified by bits of information identifying the charge on each end. In the model, SM particles consist of three strands with spin states corresponding to wrapped states of the strands. SM particles in this wrapped preon model can be approximated by preon bound states in non-local dynamics based on three-preon Bethe-Salpeter equations with instantaneous three-preon interactions. The model can be falsified by data from the Large Hadron Collider because it generates baryon asymmetry without axions, and does not allow more than three generations of SM fermions.

T. R. Mongan

2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

293

A Graphene Quantum Dot with a Single Electron Transistor as Integrated Charge Sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have developed an etching process to fabricate a quantum dot and a nearby single electron transistor as a charge detector in a single layer graphene. The high charge sensitivity of the detector is used to probe Coulomb diamonds as well as excited spectrum in the dot, even in the regime where the current through the quantum dot is too small to be measured by conventional transport means. The graphene based quantum dot and integrated charge sensor serve as an essential building block to form a solid-state qubit in a nuclear-spin-free quantum world.

Ling-Jun Wang; Gang Cao; Tao Tu; Hai-Ou Li; Cheng Zhou; Xiao-Jie Hao; Zhan Su; Guang-Can Guo; Guo-Ping Guo; Hong-Wen Jiang

2010-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

294

Charge solitons and their dynamical mass in one-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate charge transport in one-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions. In the interesting regime of ''small charge solitons'' (polarons), {Lambda}E{sub J}>E{sub C}>E{sub J}, where {Lambda} is the (electrostatic) screening length, the charge dynamics are strongly influenced by the polaronic effects (i.e., by dressing of a Cooper pair by charge dipoles). In particular, the soliton's mass in this regime scales approximately as E{sub J}{sup -2}. We employ two theoretical techniques: the many-body tight-binding approach and the mean-field approach, and the results of the two approaches agree in the regime of ''small charge solitons.'' Renormalization of the soliton's mass could be observed; for example, as enhancement of the persistent current in a ring-shaped array.

Homfeld, Jens [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Protopopov, Ivan [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, RU-119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Rachel, Stephan [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Shnirman, Alexander [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Junction Transport in Epitaxial Film Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report our progress toward low-temperature HWCVD epitaxial film silicon solar cells on inexpensive seed layers, with a focus on the junction transport physics exhibited by our devices. Heterojunctions of i/p hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si) on our n-type epitaxial crystal Si on n++ Si wafers show space-charge-region recombination, tunneling or diffusive transport depending on both epitaxial Si quality and the applied forward voltage.

Young, D. L.; Li, J. V.; Teplin, C. W.; Stradins, P.; Branz, H. M.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs : numerical supplement.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide, GaAs, as computed by density functional theory. This Report serves as a numerical supplement to the results published in: P.A. Schultz and O.A. von Lilienfeld, 'Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs', Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci Eng., Vol. 17, 084007 (2009), and intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models. The numerical results for density functional theory calculations of properties of simple intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide are presented.

Schultz, Peter Andrew

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

The case against scaling defect models of cosmic structure formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate predictions from defect models of structure formation for both the matter and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) over all observable scales. Our results point to a serious problem reconciling the observed large-scale galaxy distribution with the COBE normalization, a result which is robust for a wide range of defect parameters. We conclude that standard scaling defect models are in conflict with the data, and show how attempts to resolve the problem by considering non-scaling defects would require radical departures from the standard scaling picture.

Andreas Albrecht; Richard A. Battye; James Robinson

1997-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

298

Course Notes: United States Particle Accelerator School Beam Physics with Intense Space-Charge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this course is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the physics of beams with intense space charge. This course is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in accelerator systems that require sufficient high intensity where mutual particle interactions in the beam can no longer be neglected. This course is intended to give the student a broad overview of the dynamics of beams with strong space charge. The emphasis is on theoretical and analytical methods of describing the acceleration and transport of beams. Some aspects of numerical and experimental methods will also be covered. Students will become familiar with standard methods employed to understand the transverse and longitudinal evolution of beams with strong space charge. The material covered will provide a foundation to design practical architectures. In this course, we will introduce you to the physics of intense charged particle beams, focusing on the role of space charge. The topics include: particle equations of motion, the paraxial ray equation, and the Vlasov equation; 4-D and 2-D equilibrium distribution functions (such as the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij, thermal equilibrium, and Neuffer distributions), reduced moment and envelope equation formulations of beam evolution; transport limits and focusing methods; the concept of emittance and the calculation of its growth from mismatches in beam envelope and from space-charge non-uniformities using system conservation constraints; the role of space-charge in producing beam halos; longitudinal space-charge effects including small amplitude and rarefaction waves; stable and unstable oscillation modes of beams (including envelope and kinetic modes); the role of space charge in the injector; and algorithms to calculate space-charge effects in particle codes. Examples of intense beams will be given primarily from the ion and proton accelerator communities with applications from, for example, heavy-ion fusion, spallation neutron sources, nuclear waste transmutation, etc.

Barnard, J.J.; Lund, S.M.

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

299

Nonradiative coherent carrier captures and defect reaction at deep-level defects via phonon-kick mechanism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We simulated the time evolution of electron-lattice coupling mode, and a series of nonradiative carrier captures by a deep-level defect in a semiconductor. For lattice relaxation energy of the order of the band gap, a series of coherent (athermal) electron and hole captures by a defect is possible for high carrier densities, which results in an inflation in the induced lattice vibration, which in turn enhances a defect reaction.

Wakita, Masaki; Suzuki, Kei; Shinozuka, Yuzo [Faculty of Systems Engineering, Wakayama University, 930 Sakaedani, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan)

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

300

Graduate Certificate in Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graduate Certificate in Transportation Nohad A. Toulan School of Urban Studies and Planning of Engineering and Computer Science integrated transportation systems. The Graduate Certificate in Transportation their capabilities. Students in the program can choose among a wide range of relevant courses in transportation

Bertini, Robert L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

TRANSPORTATION Annual Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2003 CENTER FOR TRANSPORTATION STUDIES Annual Report #12;Center for Transportation Studies University of Minnesota 200 Transportation and Safety Building 511 Washington Avenue S.E. Minneapolis, MN publication is a report of transportation research, education, and outreach activities for the period July

Minnesota, University of

302

Regional Transportation Coordination Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regional Planning Commission Wanda Carter-Dyer Public Transportation Coordinator Texas Department of Transportation Councilperson Debra Martinez Briseno Cities in Calhoun County Laura G. Sanders Executive Director Golden Crescent Workforce... Regional Planning Commission Wanda Carter-Dyer Public Transportation Coordinator Texas Department of Transportation Councilperson Debra Martinez Briseno Cities in Calhoun County Laura G. Sanders Executive Director Golden Crescent Workforce...

Golden Crescent Regional Planning Commission

303

Electric Field-Induced Skyrmion Crystals via Charged Monopoles in Insulating Helimagets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrons propagating in a magnetically ordered medium experience an additional gauge field associated with the Berry phase of their spin following the local magnetic texture. In contrast to the usual electromagnetic field, this gauge field admits monopole excitations, corresponding to hedgehog defects of the magnetic order. In an insulator, these hedgehogs carry a well-defined electric charge allowing for them to be controlled by electric fields. One particularly robust mechanism that contributes to the charge is the orbital magnetoelectric effect, captured by a $\\theta$ angle, which leads to a charge of $e\\theta/2\\pi$ on hedgehogs. This is a direct consequence of the Witten effect for magnetic monopoles in a $\\theta$ medium. A physical consequence is that external electric fields can induce skyrmion crystal phases in insulating helimagnets.

Haruki Watanabe; Ashvin Vishwanath

2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

304

Multi-modal Transportation > Highway Transportation > Trucking > Railroad transportation > Public transit > Rural transportation > Rural transit > Freig pipeline transportation > Airport planning and development > Airport maintenance > Bicycle and pedestr  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multi-modal Transportation > Highway Transportation > Trucking > Railroad transportation > Public transit > Rural transportation > Rural transit > Freig pipeline transportation > Airport planning and development > Airport maintenance > Bicycle and pedestrian > Ports and waterways >>> Transportation ope

305

Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Single Crystal Organic Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed research aims to achieve quantitative, molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped crystalline organic semiconductors via in situ linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy, in conjunction with transport measurements and molecular/crystal engineering. Organic semiconductors are emerging as viable materials for low-cost electronics and optoelectronics, such as organic photovoltaics (OPV), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Despite extensive studies spanning many decades, a clear understanding of the nature of charge carriers in organic semiconductors is still lacking. It is generally appreciated that polaron formation and charge carrier trapping are two hallmarks associated with electrical transport in organic semiconductors; the former results from the low dielectric constants and weak intermolecular electronic overlap while the latter can be attributed to the prevalence of structural disorder. These properties have lead to the common observation of low charge carrier mobilities, e.g., in the range of 10-5 - 10-3 cm2/Vs, particularly at low carrier concentrations. However, there is also growing evidence that charge carrier mobility approaching those of inorganic semiconductors and metals can exist in some crystalline organic semiconductors, such as pentacene, tetracene and rubrene. A particularly striking example is single crystal rubrene (Figure 1), in which hole mobilities well above 10 cm2/Vs have been observed in OFETs operating at room temperature. Temperature dependent transport and spectroscopic measurements both revealed evidence of free carriers in rubrene. Outstanding questions are: what are the structural features and physical properties that make rubrene so unique? How do we establish fundamental design principles for the development of other organic semiconductors of high mobility? These questions are critically important but not comprehensive, as the nature of charge carriers is known to evolve as the carrier concentration increases, due to the presence of intrinsic disorder in organic semiconductors. Thus, a complementary question is: how does the nature of charge transport change as a function of carrier concentration?

Zhu, Xiaoyang

2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

306

Energetics of Defects on Graphene through Fluorination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present study, we used FGS[5] as the substrate and implemented low temperature (<=150 oC) direct fluorination on graphene sheets. The fluorine content has been modulated to investigate the formation mechanism of different functional groups such as C-F, CF2, O-CF2 and (C=O)F during the fluorination process. The detailed structure and chemical bonds were simulated theoretically and quantified experimentally by using density function theory (DFT) calculations and NMR techniques, respectively. The adjustable power/energy ratio from fluorinated graphene as cathode for primary lithium batteries is also discussed. From a combination of NMR spectroscopy and theoretical calculation, we conclude that the topological defects without oxygen containing groups provide most of the reactive sites to react with F. FGS also contain a small number of COOH groups which contribute for the fluorination reaction. Hydroxyl or epoxy groups contribute to another fraction of the reaction products.

Xiao, Jie; Meduri, Praveen; Chen, Honghao; Wang, Zhiguo; Gao, Fei; Hu, Jian Z.; Feng, Ju; Hu, Mary Y.; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Suree; Adcock, Jamie L.; Deng, Zhiqun; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Zhang, Jiguang

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Graduate Studies Transportation Systems Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graduate Studies Transportation Systems Engineering TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS The transportation that transportation systems engineering can promote a thriving economy and a better quality of life by ensuring that transportation systems themselves affect the environment through operations, construction, and maintenance

Jacobs, Laurence J.

308

Introduction Transport in disordered graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction Transport in disordered graphene Summary Ballistic transport in disordered graphene P, Gornyi, Mirlin Ballistic transport in disordered graphene #12;Introduction Transport in disordered graphene Summary Outline 1 Introduction Model Experimental motivation Transport in clean graphene 2

Fominov, Yakov

309

Minnesota's Transportation Economic Development (TED)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Minnesota's Transportation Economic Development (TED) Pilot Program Center for Transportation Studies Transportation Research Conference May 24-25, 2011 #12;Transportation Role in Economic Development · Carefully targeted transportation infrastructure improvements will: ­ Stimulate new economic development

Minnesota, University of

310

Electric Charge Quantization in Standard Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the framework of Standard Model for the arbitrary values of Higgs and fermions fields hypercharges, taking into account parity invariance of electromagnetic interaction, expressions for the fermions charges, testifying the electric charge quantization are obtained. From the chiral anomalies cancellation condition within one family of leptons and quarks, numerical values of fermions charges, coinciding with standard values of charges have been obtained.

O. B. Abdinov; F. T. Khalil-zade; S. S. Rzaeva

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

311

Building model systems to understand Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in heme : spectroscopic investigation of charge transfer to axially bound diimide acceptors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer (PCET) is an important mechanistic motif in chemistry, which allows for efficient charge transport in many biological systems. We seek to understand how the proton and electron motions are ...

Hanson, Christina J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Simple intrinsic defects in InAs : numerical predictions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in indium arsenide, InAs, as computed by density functional theory using semi-local density functionals, intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models.

Schultz, Peter Andrew

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Understanding of Defect Physics in Polycrystalline Photovoltaic Materials: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of thin-film solar cells is influenced by the quality of interfaces and formation of defects such as point defects, stacking faults, twins, dislocations, and grain boundaries. It is important to understand the defect physics so that appropriate methods may be developed to suppress the formation of harmful defects. Here, we review our understanding of defect physics in thin-film photovoltaic (PV) materials such as Si, CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), Cu2ZnSnSe2 (CZTSe), and Cu2ZnSnS2 (CZTS) using the combination of nanoscale electron microscopy characterization and density-functional theory (DFT). Although these thin-film PV materials share the same basic structural feature - diamond structure based - the defect physics in them could be very different. Some defects, such as stacking faults and special twins, have similar electronic properties in these thin-film materials. However, some other defects, such as grain boundaries and interfaces, have very different electronic properties in these materials. For example, grain boundaries produce harmful deep levels in Si and CdTe, but they do not produce significant deep levels in CIGS, CZTSe, and CZTS. These explain why passivation is critical for Si and CdTe solar cells, but is less important in CIS and CZTS solar cells. We further provide understanding of the effects of interfaces on the performance of solar cells made of these PV materials.

Yan, Y.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Apple Defect Segmentation by Artificial Neural Networks Devrim Unay a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Apple Defect Segmentation by Artificial Neural Networks Devrim Unay a Bernard Gosselin a a TCTS Lab-colored apple fruits performed by several artificial neural networks. Pixel-wise classification approach apple defects. 1 Introduction Quality of apple fruits depends on size, color, shape and presence

Dupont, Stéphane

315

Actinic characterization of EUV bump-type phase defects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite tremendous progress and learning with EUV lithography, quantitative experimental information about the severity of point-like phase defects remains in short supply. We present a study of measured, EUV aerial images from a series of well-characterized, open-field, bump-type programmed phase defects, created on a substrate before multilayer deposition.

Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Liang, Ted

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

316

CHARACTERIZATION OF VIBRATIONINDUCED IMAGE DEFECTS IN INPUT SCANNERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) by dynamic errors of gears, timing bets, and motors, and indirectly by structural vibrations induced by gearsCHARACTERIZATION OF VIBRATION­INDUCED IMAGE DEFECTS IN INPUT SCANNERS Robert P. Loce George Wolberg. Keywords: image defects, digital documents, scanned documents, vibrations, motion quality 1. INTRODUCTION

Wolberg, George

317

Electrostatic wire stabilizing a charged particle beam  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

Prono, D.S.; Caporaso, G.J.; Briggs, R.J.

1983-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

318

Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), range-extended electric vehicles (EREV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV), draw some or all of their power from electricity stored in batteries, which are charged by the electric grid. In order for PEVs to be accepted by the mass market, electric charging infrastructure must also be deployed. Charging infrastructure must be safe, convenient, and financially sustainable. Additionally, electric utilities must be able to manage PEV charging demand on the electric grid. In the Fall of 2009, a large scale PEV infrastructure demonstration was launched to deploy an unprecedented number of PEVs and charging infrastructure. This demonstration, called The EV Project, is led by Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. eTec is partnering with Nissan North America to deploy up to 4,700 Nissan Leaf BEVs and 11,210 charging units in five market areas in Arizona, California, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington. With the assistance of the Idaho National Laboratory, eTec will collect and analyze data to characterize vehicle consumer driving and charging behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of charging infrastructure, and understand the impact of PEV charging on the electric grid. Trials of various revenue systems for commercial and public charging infrastructure will also be conducted. The ultimate goal of The EV Project is to capture lessons learned to enable the mass deployment of PEVs. This paper is the first in a series of papers documenting the progress and findings of The EV Project. This paper describes key research objectives of The EV Project and establishes the project background, including lessons learned from previous infrastructure deployment and PEV demonstrations. One such previous study was a PHEV demonstration conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), led by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). AVTA's PHEV demonstration involved over 250 vehicles in the United States, Canada, and Finland. This paper summarizes driving and charging behavior observed in that demonstration, including the distribution of distance driven between charging events, charging frequency, and resulting proportion of operation charge depleting mode. Charging demand relative to time of day and day of the week will also be shown. Conclusions from the PHEV demonstration will be given which highlight the need for expanded analysis in The EV Project. For example, the AVTA PHEV demonstration showed that in the absence of controlled charging by the vehicle owner or electric utility, the majority of vehicles were charged in the evening hours, coincident with typical utility peak demand. Given this baseline, The EV Project will demonstrate the effects of consumer charge control and grid-side charge management on electricity demand. This paper will outline further analyses which will be performed by eTec and INL to documenting driving and charging behavior of vehicles operated in a infrastructure-rich environment.

John Smart; Stephen Schey

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Non-intrusive measurement of particle charge: Electrostatic dry coal cleaning. Technical progress report No. 11, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As has been previously reported, the charge measurement portion of this project has been broadened to include direct measurement techniques which yield an average particle charge per unit mass. These methods, which now include current measurements from the charging loop, an electrolytic collection solution and a Faraday cage have been employed to expand the charge measurement capabilities over those that were originally developed using the PDPA. The effects of gas velocity, humidity and temperature as well as particle size on charge was evaluated for different coals and silica. The charge accumulated on silica particles was linearly dependent on their velocity in the tribocharger for the velocities and mass loadings which were investigated. For coals, a linear increase in charge occurred over a more limited velocity range. Transport gas humidity had a much stronger effect on the charge established on silica particles than on coal particles.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Disentangling defects and sound modes in disordered solids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a new method to isolate localized defects from extended vibrational modes in disordered solids. This method augments particle interactions with an artificial potential that acts as a high-pass filter: it preserves small-scale structures while pushing extended vibrational modes to higher frequencies. The low-frequency modes that remain are "bare" defects; they are exponentially localized without the quadrupolar tails associated with elastic interactions. We identify a robust definition for the energy barrier associated with each defect, which is an important parameter in continuum models for plasticity. Surprisingly, we find that the energy barriers associated with "bare" defects are generally higher than those for defects decorated with elastic tails, suggesting that elastic interactions may help to constitutively activate particle rearrangements.

Sven Wijtmans; M. Lisa Manning

2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Magnetic moment versus tensor charge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We express the baryon magnetic moments in terms of the baryon tensor charges, considering the quarks as relativistic interacting objects. Once tensor charges get measured accurately, the formula for the baryon magnetic moment will serve to extract precise information on the quark anomalous magnetic moment, the quark effective mass and the ratio of the quark constituent mass to the quark effective mass. The analogous formula for the baryon electric dipole moment is of no great use as it gets eventually sizable contributions from various CP- violating sources not necessary associated to the quark electric dipole moment.

M. Mekhfi

2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

322

Charge amplifier with bias compensation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion beam uniformity monitor for very low beam currents using a high-sensitivity charge amplifier with bias compensation. The ion beam monitor is used to assess the uniformity of a raster-scanned ion beam, such as used in an ion implanter, and utilizes four Faraday cups placed in the geometric corners of the target area. Current from each cup is integrated with respect to time, thus measuring accumulated dose, or charge, in Coulombs. By comparing the dose at each corner, a qualitative assessment of ion beam uniformity is made possible. With knowledge of the relative area of the Faraday cups, the ion flux and areal dose can also be obtained.

Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Transportation Baseline Schedule  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The “1999 National Transportation Program - Transportation Baseline Report” presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste/material transportation. The companion “1999 Transportation ‘Barriers’ Analysis” analyzes the data and identifies existing and potential problems that may prevent or delay transportation activities based on the data presented. The “1999 Transportation Baseline Schedule” (this report) uses the same data to provide an overview of the transportation activities of DOE EM waste/materials. This report can be used to identify areas where stakeholder interface is needed, and to communicate to stakeholders the quantity/schedule of shipments going through their area. Potential bottlenecks in the transportation system can be identified; the number of packages needed, and the capacity needed at receiving facilities can be planned. This report offers a visualization of baseline DOE EM transportation activities for the 11 major sites and the “Geologic Repository Disposal” site (GRD).

Fawcett, Ricky Lee; John, Mark Earl

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING ONLY Must be ACTIVELY Charging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING ONLY Must be ACTIVELY Charging All Others Subject to Citation. PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING RATES Monday­Friday, 7:30am­5pm Hours Power Parking Power+Parking 1://chargepoint.net PAYMENT IS REQUIRED FOR USE OF A CHARGING STATION The rate for charging your vehicle is $1/hour. Please

Bigelow, Stephen

325

Transportation Center Seminar........ "Overview of Power Grid Research at Argonne  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

projects on impact of electric vehicle charging on power grid operations. I will also introduce various. The scope of our work spans a multitude of areas including smart grid, electric vehicles, buildings sciencesTransportation Center Seminar........ "Overview of Power Grid Research at Argonne National

Bustamante, Fabián E.

326

A non-isothermal PEM fuel cell model including two water transport mechanisms in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A non-isothermal PEM fuel cell model including two water transport mechanisms in the membrane K Freiburg Germany A dynamic two-phase flow model for proton exchange mem- brane (PEM) fuel cells and the species concentrations. In order to describe the charge transport in the fuel cell the Poisson equations

Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität

327

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 195409 (2013) Effects of disorder and contacts on transport through graphene nanoribbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 195409 (2013) Effects of disorder and contacts on transport through graphene; published 12 November 2013) We study the transport of charge carriers through finite graphene structures samples beyond the Dirac-cone approximation. Particularly we investigate disordered nanoribbons, normal-conductor/graphene

Fehske, Holger

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

THE STRONGLY CONFINED SCHRDINGER-POISSON SYSTEM FOR THE TRANSPORT OF ELECTRONS IN A NANOWIRE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE STRONGLY CONFINED SCHR�DINGER-POISSON SYSTEM FOR THE TRANSPORT OF ELECTRONS IN A NANOWIRE of the three-dimensional Schrödinger-Poisson system with a singular perturbation, to model a quantum electron in the nanoelectronic industry and the functioning of many electronic devices is based on the transport of charged

Boyer, Edmond

329

NEST Scientific Report 2007-2009 Transport phenomena in self-assembled nanowires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NEST Scientific Report 2007-2009 Transport phenomena in self-assembled nanowires 21 S elf incompatible materials can be combined into advanced ­ in some cases unprecedented ­ nanostructures and charge transport in self-assembled structures as well as Josephson coupling in devices combining

Abbondandolo, Alberto

330

Determination of Electrochemical Performance and Thermo-Mechanical-Chemical Stability of SOFCs from Defect Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research was focused on two distinct but related issues. The first issue concerned using defect modeling to understand the relationship between point defect concentration and the electrochemical, thermo-chemical and mechano-chemical properties of typical solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) materials. The second concerned developing relationships between the microstructural features of SOFC materials and their electrochemical performance. To understand the role point defects play in ceramics, a coherent analytical framework was used to develop expressions for the dependence of thermal expansion and elastic modulus on point defect concentration in ceramics. These models, collectively termed the continuum-level electrochemical model (CLEM), were validated through fits to experimental data from electrical conductivity, I-V characteristics, elastic modulus and thermo-chemical expansion experiments for (nominally pure) ceria, gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) with consistently good fits. The same values for the material constants were used in all of the fits, further validating our approach. As predicted by the continuum-level electrochemical model, the results reveal that the concentration of defects has a significant effect on the physical properties of ceramic materials and related devices. Specifically, for pure ceria and GDC, the elastic modulus decreased while the chemical expansion increased considerably in low partial pressures of oxygen. Conversely, the physical properties of YSZ remained insensitive to changes in oxygen partial pressure within the studied range. Again, the findings concurred exactly with the predictions of our analytical model. Indeed, further analysis of the results suggests that an increase in the point defect content weakens the attractive forces between atoms in fluorite-structured oxides. The reduction treatment effects on the flexural strength and the fracture toughness of pure ceria were also evaluated at room temperature. The results reveal that the flexural strength decreases significantly after heat treatment in very low oxygen partial pressure environments; however, in contrast, fracture toughness is increased by 30-40% when the oxygen partial pressure was decreased to 10{sup -20} to 10{sup -22} atm range. Fractographic studies show that microcracks developed at 800 oC upon hydrogen reduction are responsible for the decreased strength. To understand the role of microstructure on electrochemical performance, electrical impedance spectra from symmetric LSM/YSZ/LSM cells was de-convoluted to obtain the key electrochemical components of electrode performance, namely charge transfer resistance, surface diffusion of reactive species and bulk gas diffusion through the electrode pores. These properties were then related to microstructural features, such as triple-phase boundary length and tortuosity. From these experiments we found that the impedance due to oxygen adsorption obeys a power law with pore surface area, while the impedance due to charge transfer is found to obey a power-law with respect to triple phase boundary length. A model based on kinetic theory explaining the power-law relationships observed was then developed. Finally, during our EIS work on the symmetric LSM/YSZ/LSM cells a technique was developed to improve the quality of high-frequency impedance data and their subsequent de-convolution.

Eric Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

331

Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE...

332

Final Technical Report for DE-SC0001878 [Theory and Simulation of Defects in Oxide Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We explored a wide variety of oxide materials and related problems, including materials at the nanoscale and generic problems associated with oxide materials such as the development of more efficient computational tools to examine these materials. We developed and implemented methods to understand the optical and structural properties of oxides. For ground state properties, our work is predominantly based on pseudopotentials and density functional theory (DFT), including new functionals and going beyond the local density approximation (LDA): LDA+U. To study excited state properties (quasiparticle and optical excitations), we use time dependent density functional theory, the GW approach, and GW plus Bethe-Salpeter equation (GW-BSE) methods based on a many-body Green function approaches. Our work focused on the structural, electronic, optical and magnetic properties of defects (such as oxygen vacancies) in hafnium oxide, titanium oxide (both bulk and clusters) and related materials. We calculated the quasiparticle defect states and charge transition levels of oxygen vacancies in monoclinic hafnia. we presented a milestone G0W0 study of two of the crystalline phases of dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} clusters. We employed hybrid density functional theory to examine the electronic structure of sexithiophene/ZnO interfaces. To identify the possible effect of epitaxial strain on stabilization of the ferromagnetic state of LaCoO{sub 3} (LCO), we compare the total energy of the magnetic and nonmagnetic states of the strained theoretical bulk structure.

Chelikowsky, James R. [University of Texas at Austin] [University of Texas at Austin

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

333

Stability of charged thin shells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article we study the mechanical stability of spherically symmetric thin shells with charge, in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. We analyze linearized perturbations preserving the symmetry, for shells around vacuum and shells surrounding noncharged black holes.

Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Simeone, Claudio [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Adiabatic charge pumping in open quantum systems J.E. Avron (a) , A. Elgart (b) , G.M. Graf (c) , L. Sadun (d) , K. Schnee (e)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adiabatic charge pumping in open quantum systems J.E. Avron (a) , A. Elgart (b) , G.M. Graf (c) , L for charge transport in quantum pumps connected to a number of external leads. It is proved that under rather the pump is given by a formula of Buttiker, Pr^etre, and Thomas, relating it to the frozen S

335

Adiabatic charge pumping in open quantum systems J.E. Avron (a) , A. Elgart (b) , G.M. Graf (c) , L. Sadun (d) , K. Schnee (e)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adiabatic charge pumping in open quantum systems J.E. Avron (a) , A. Elgart (b) , G.M. Graf (c) , L for charge transport in quantum pumps connected to a number of external leads. It is proved that under rather the pump is given by a formula of BË?uttiker, Prâ??etre, and Thomas, relating it to the frozen S

336

Asymmetric energy transport in defected boron nitride nanoribbons: Implications for thermal rectification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This was further confirmed by ap- propriate analysis of direction dependent thermal diffusivity estimations in BNNR. Related Articles Intrinsic nanoscale phase separation in miscible mixtures and supramolecular assemblies article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3

Deymier, Pierre

337

The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

Frisch, J.D.

1990-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

338

Transportation Infrastructure and Sustainable Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Better Forecasting Tool for Transportation Decision-making,” Mineta Transportation Institute, San Jose Stateat the 2008 meeting of the Transportation Research Board and

Boarnet, Marlon G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Transportation Analysis | Clean Energy | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transportation Analysis SHARE Transportation Analysis Transportation Analysis efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory contribute to the efficient, safe, and free movement of...

340

The universal radiative transport equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE UNIVERSAL RADIATIVE TRANSPORT EQUATION Rudolph W.The Universal Radiative Transport Equation Rudolph W.The various radiative transport equations used in general

Preisendorfer, Rudolph W

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Transportation Management Research Collection /  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Peterbilt Motors, and General Electric. He was a national panel member of the American Arbitration, Noise and Environmental Pollution, Transportation Co-ordination and Consolidation, Transportation -- Docket 8613 1957 Civil Aeronautics Board ­ General passenger fare investigation -- Docket 8008 et al

Handy, Todd C.

343

Packaging and Transportation Safety  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials andor modal transport. Cancels DOE 1540.2 and DOE 5480.3

1995-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

344

Packaging and Transportation Safety  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Canceled by DOE 460.1A

1995-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

345

Packaging and Transportation Safety  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Cancels DOE O 460.1.

1996-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

346

Transportation Investment and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transportation Investment and Economic Development: Has the TIED turned? David Levinson University Transportation Investments was Historically Concomitant with Land and Economic Development #12;Canals Railways Surfaced Roads Crude Oil Pipelines Gas Pipelines Telegraph 1825 1985 Proportion of Maximum Extent Growth

Levinson, David M.

347

Spin Transport in Semiconductor heterostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focus of the research performed under this grant has been the investigation of spin transport in magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. The interest in these systems is motivated both by their intriguing physical properties, as the physical embodiment of a spin-polarized Fermi liquid, as well as by their potential applications as spintronics devices. In our work we have analyzed several different problems that affect the spin dynamics in single and bi-layer spin-polarized two-dimensional (2D) systems. The topics of interests ranged from the fundamental aspects of the electron-electron interactions, to collective spin and charge density excitations and spin transport in the presence of the spin-orbit coupling. The common denominator of these subjects is the impact at the macroscopic scale of the spin-dependent electron-electron interaction, which plays a much more subtle role than in unpolarized electron systems. Our calculations of several measurable parameters, such as the excitation frequencies of magneto-plasma modes, the spin mass, and the spin transresistivity, propose realistic theoretical estimates of the opposite-spin many-body effects, in particular opposite-spin correlations, that can be directly connected with experimental measurements.

Domnita Catalina Marinescu

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

348

Lubbock Metropolitan Transportation Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Users (SAFETEA-LU) and its predecessors, the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) and the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991, specified the transportation systems on which certain federal funds can... in Chapter 5 ? Streets and Highways; Chapter 6 ? Public Transportation; Chapter 7 ? Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan; Chapter 8 ? Lubbock International Airport and Chapter 9 ? Railroads and Trucking. Federally funded transit projects were developed...

Lubbock Metropolitan Planning Organization

2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

349

Transportation and its Infrastructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

subsidies on fossil transport fuels, subsidies on commutingC. , 2003: Subsidies that encourage fossil fuel use in

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-World Data for Transportation Planning and Land Use Analysis (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) have launched the free, web-based Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC). The TSDC (www.nrel.gov/tsdc) preserves respondent anonymity while making vital transportation data available to a broad group of users through secure, online access. The TSDC database provides free-of-charge web-based access to valuable transportation data that can be used for: Transit planning, Travel demand modeling, Homeland Security evacuation planning, Alternative fuel station planning, and Validating transportation data from other sources. The TSDC's two levels of access make composite data available with simple online registration, and allow researchers to use detailed spatial data after completing a straight forward application process.

Not Available

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Point defect balance in epitaxial GaSb  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Positron annihilation spectroscopy in both conventional and coincidence Doppler broadening mode is used for studying the effect of growth conditions on the point defect balance in GaSb:Bi epitaxial layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Positron annihilation characteristics in GaSb are also calculated using density functional theory and compared to experimental results. We conclude that while the main positron trapping defect in bulk samples is the Ga antisite, the Ga vacancy is the most prominent trap in the samples grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The results suggest that the p–type conductivity is caused by different defects in GaSb grown with different methods.

Segercrantz, N., E-mail: natalie.segercrantz@aalto.fi; Slotte, J.; Makkonen, I.; Kujala, J.; Tuomisto, F. [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto Espoo (Finland); Song, Y.; Wang, S. [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

352

Diffraction of light by topological defects in liquid crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study light scattering by a hedgehog-like and linear disclination topological defects in a nematic liquid crystal by a metric approach. Light propagating near such defects feels an effective metric equivalent to the spatial part of the global monopole and cosmic string geometries. We obtain the scattering amplitude and the differential and total scattering cross section for the case of the hedgehog defect, in terms of the characteristic parameters of the liquid crystal. Studying the disclination case, a cylindrical partial wave method is developed. As an application of the previous developments, we also examine the temperature influence on the localization of the diffraction patterns.

E. Pereira; F. Moraes

2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

353

Probing graphene defects and estimating graphene quality with optical microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a simple and accurate method for detecting graphene defects that utilizes the mild, dry annealing of graphene/Cu films in air. In contrast to previously reported techniques, our simple approach with optical microscopy can determine the density and degree of dislocation of defects in a graphene film without inducing water-related damage or functionalization. Scanning electron microscopy, confocal Raman and atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis were performed to demonstrate that our nondestructive approach to characterizing graphene defects with optimized thermal annealing provides rapid and comprehensive determinations of graphene quality.

Lai, Shen [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kyu Jang, Sung [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jae Song, Young, E-mail: yjsong@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungjoo, E-mail: leesj@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

354

Northwestern University Transportation Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Northwestern University Transportation Center 2011 Business Advisory Committee NUTC #12;#12;I have the pleasure of presenting our Business Advisory Committee members--a distinguished group of transportation industry lead- ers who have partnered with the Transportation Center in advancing the state of knowledge

Bustamante, Fabián E.

355

PalladianDigest Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PalladianDigest CONNECT. EMPOWER. GROW. Tackling Transportation Challenges Nebraska has been a vital link in the nation's transportation system since the days when carts, wagons to University of Nebraska­Lincoln research. That's fine with UNL transportation researchers, said Larry Rilett

Farritor, Shane

356

TRANSPORTATION: THE POTENTIAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION: THE POTENTIAL AND THE CHALLENGE A Summary Report 2003 #12;June 2003 To the Reader This report summarizes the second James L. Oberstar Forum on Transportation Policy and Technology. Over two days, we explored the chal- lenges and opportunities in intermodal transportation, addressing

Minnesota, University of

357

Louisiana Transportation Research Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Louisiana Transportation Research Center LTRC www.ltrc.lsu.edu 2012-13 ANNUALREPORT #12;The Louisiana Transportation Research Center (LTRC) is a research, technology transfer, and training center administered jointly by the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (DOTD) and Louisiana State

Harms, Kyle E.

358

Introduction to Transportation Planning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction to Transportation Planning CMP 4710/6710 Fall 2012 3 Credit Hours Room: ARCH 229 on a Saturday night, transportation is not an objective in and of itself, but a means to carry out the functions of daily living (i.e., it's a "derived good"). As a consequence, the transportation systems we build

Tipple, Brett

359

Rural Intelligent Transportation Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rural Intelligent Transportation Systems In a technical session at the 2011 NACE conference, Dennis Foderberg of SEH Inc. discussed intelligent transportation systems (ITS) developed by SEH in collaboration with Network Transportation Technologies, Inc. These systems address the problem of crashes on low-volume roads

Minnesota, University of

360

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic scale defect Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

assembled DNA nanostructures. Atomic force microscope (AFM) images are used... of defect identification. 4.1 Defect ... Source: Chakrabarty, Krishnendu - Department of Electrical...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Modeling and experimental characterization of stepped and v-shaped (311) defects in silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose an atomistic model to describe extended (311) defects in silicon. It is based on the combination of interstitial and bond defect chains. The model is able to accurately reproduce not only planar (311) defects but also defect structures that show steps, bends, or both. We use molecular dynamics techniques to show that these interstitial and bond defect chains spontaneously transform into extended (311) defects. Simulations are validated by comparing with precise experimental measurements on actual (311) defects. The excellent agreement between the simulated and experimentally derived structures, regarding individual atomic positions and shape of the distinct structural (311) defect units, provides strong evidence for the robustness of the proposed model.

Marqués, Luis A., E-mail: lmarques@ele.uva.es; Aboy, María [Departamento de Electrónica, Universidad de Valladolid, E.T.S.I. de Telecomunicación, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Dudeck, Karleen J.; Botton, Gianluigi A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Knights, Andrew P. [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Gwilliam, Russell M. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

362

E-Print Network 3.0 - automatic defect detection Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Food Packages Using the Ultrasonic Contrast Summary: a signicant impact on the DBAI value. The utility of DBAI for detecting defects makes it a useful... detection of defects....

363

Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Organic Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research project aims to achieve quantitative and molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped organic semiconductors via in situ optical absorption spectroscopy, in conjunction with time-resolved electrical measurements. During the funding period, we have made major progress in three general areas: (1) probed charge injection at the interface between a polymeric semiconductor and a polymer electrolyte dielectric and developed a thermodynamic model to quantitatively describe the transition from electrostatic to electrochemical doping; (2) developed vibrational Stark effect to probe electric field at buried organic semiconductor interfaces; (3) used displacement current measurement (DCM) to study charge transport at organic/dielectric interfaces and charge injection at metal/organic interfaces.

Zhu, Xiaoyang; Frisbie, C Daniel

2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

364

Angular neutron transport investigation in the HZETRN free-space ion and nucleon transport and shielding computer program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extension of the high charge and energy (HZE) transport computer program HZETRN for angular transport of neutrons is considered. For this paper, only light ion transport, He{sup 4} and lighter, will be analyzed using a pure solar proton source. The angular transport calculator is the ANISN/PC program which is being controlled by the HZETRN program. The neutron flux values are compared for straight-ahead transport and angular transport in one dimension. The shield material is aluminum and the target material is water. The thickness of these materials is varied; however, only the largest model calculated is reported which is 50 gm/cm{sup 2} of aluminum and 100 gm/cm{sup 2} of water. The flux from the ANISN/PC calculation is about two orders of magnitude lower than the flux from HZETRN for very low energy neutrons. It is only a magnitude lower for the neutrons in the 10 to 20 MeV range in the aluminum and two orders lower in the water. The major reason for this difference is in the transport modes: straight-ahead versus angular. The angular treatment allows a longer path length than the straight-ahead approximation. Another reason is the different cross section sets used by the ANISN/PC-BUGLE-80 mode and the HZETRN mode. The next step is to investigate further the differences between the two codes and isolate the differences to just the angular versus straight-ahead transport mode. Then, create a better coupling between the angular neutron transport and the charged particle transport.

Singleterry, R.C. Jr. [Argonne National Lab. - West, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wilson, J.W. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Transportation YOU 2013 DC Youth Summit WTS Transportation YOU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transportation YOU 2013 DC Youth Summit WTS Transportation YOU CTS Research Conference May 21, 2014 Lisa Rasmussen, WTS / Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc #12;Transportation YOU 2013 DC Youth SummitTransportation YOU 2013 DC Youth Summit Agenda What is Transportation YOU? Transportation YOU ­ WTS Local Chapter

Minnesota, University of

366

Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Defects Interim Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), along with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), has an interest in overweight commercial motor vehicles, how they affect infrastructure, and their impact on safety on the nation s highways. To assist both FHWA and FMCSA in obtaining more information related to this interest, data was collected and analyzed from two separate sources. A large scale nationwide data collection effort was facilitated by the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance as part of a special study on overweight vehicles and an additional, smaller set, of data was collected from the state of Tennessee which included a much more detailed set of data. Over a six-month period, 1,873 Level I inspections were performed in 18 different states that volunteered to be a part of this study. Of the 1,873 inspections, a vehicle out-of-service (OOS) violation was found on 44.79% of the vehicles, a rate significantly higher than the national OOS rate of 27.23%. The main cause of a vehicle being placed OOS was brake-related defects, with approximately 30% of all vehicles having an OOS brake violation. Only about 4% of vehicles had an OOS tire violation, and even fewer had suspension and wheel violations. Vehicle weight violations were most common on an axle group as opposed to a gross vehicle weight violation. About two thirds of the vehicles cited with a weight violation were overweight on an axle group with an average amount of weight over the legal limit of about 2,000 lbs. Data collection is scheduled to continue through January 2014, with more potentially more states volunteering to collect data. More detailed data collections similar to the Tennessee data collection will also be performed in multiple states.

Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Theory of contributon transport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A general discussion of the physics of contributon transport is presented. To facilitate this discussion, a Boltzmann-like transport equation for contributons is obtained, and special contributon cross sections are defined. However, the main goal of this study is to identify contributon transport equations and investigate possible deterministic solution techniques. Four approaches to the deterministic solution of the contributon transport problem are investigated. These approaches are an attempt to exploit certain attractive properties of the contributon flux, psi = phi phi/sup +/, where phi and phi/sup +/ are the solutions to the forward and adjoint Boltzmann transport equations.

Painter, J.W.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; Pomraning, G.C.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Methods for reduction of charging emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the most critical subjects in coking plants are charging emissions. The paper reviews the systems that have been used over the years to reduce charging emissions. The advantages and disadvantages are summarized for the following systems: Double collecting main with aspiration on both oven sides; Single collecting main with/without aspiration via standpipe, and extraction and cleaning of charging gas on charging car; Single collecting main with aspiration via standpipe and pretreatment of charging gas on the charging car as well as additional stationary exhaust and cleaning of charging gas; Single collecting main with aspiration via single standpipe; and Single collecting main with simultaneous aspiration via two standpipes and a U-tube connecting the oven chamber with the neighboring oven. The paper then briefly discusses prerequisites for reduction of charging emissions.

Schuecker, F.J.; Schulte, H. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

369

Fast Methods for Bimolecular Charge Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report a Hessian-implicit optimization method to quickly solve the charge optimization problem over protein molecules: given a ligand and its complex with a receptor, determine the ligand charge distribution that minimizes ...

Bardhan, Jaydeep P.

370

Free form hemispherical shaped charge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hemispherical shaped charge has been modified such that one side of the hemisphere is spherical and the other is aspherical allowing a wall thickness variation in the liner. A further modification is to use an elongated hemispherical shape. The liner has a thick wall at its pole and a thin wall at the equator with a continually decreasing wall thickness from the pole to the equator. The ratio of the wall thickness from the pole to the equator varies depending on liner material and HE shape. Hemispherical shaped charges have previously been limited to spherical shapes with no variations in wall thicknesses. By redesign of the basic liner thicknesses, the jet properties of coherence, stability, and mass distribution have been significantly improved. 8 figs.

Haselman, L.C. Jr.

1996-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

371

Free form hemispherical shaped charge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hemispherical shaped charge has been modified such that one side of the hemisphere is spherical and the other is aspherical allowing a wall thickness variation in the liner. A further modification is to use an elongated hemispherical shape. The liner has a thick wall at its pole and a thin wall at the equator with a continually decreasing wall thickness from the pole to the equator. The ratio of the wall thickness from the pole to the equator varies depending on liner material and HE shape. Hemispherical shaped charges have previously been limited to spherical shapes with no variations in wall thicknesses. By redesign of the basic liner thicknesses, the jet properties of coherence, stability, and mass distribution have been significantly improved.

Haselman, Jr., Leonard C. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Vortex Structure in Charged Condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study magnetic fields in the charged condensate that we have previously argued should be present in helium-core white dwarf stars. We show that below a certain critical value the magnetic field is entirely expelled from the condensate, while for larger values it penetrates the condensate within flux-tubes that are similar to Abrikosov vortex lines; yet higher fields lead to the disruption of the condensate. We find the solution for the vortex lines in both relativistic and nonrelativistic theories that exhibit the charged condensation. We calculate the energy density of the vortex solution and the values of the critical magnetic fields. The minimum magnetic field required for vortices to penetrate the helium white dwarf cores ranges from roughly 10^7 to 10^9 Gauss. Fields of this strength have been observed in white dwarfs. We also calculate the London magnetic field due to the rotation of a dwarf star and show that its value is rather small.

Gabadadze, Gregory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Vortex Structure in Charged Condensate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study magnetic fields in the charged condensate that we have previously argued should be present in helium-core white dwarf stars. We show that below a certain critical value the magnetic field is entirely expelled from the condensate, while for larger values it penetrates the condensate within flux-tubes that are similar to Abrikosov vortex lines; yet higher fields lead to the disruption of the condensate. We find the solution for the vortex lines in both relativistic and nonrelativistic theories that exhibit the charged condensation. We calculate the energy density of the vortex solution and the values of the critical magnetic fields. The minimum magnetic field required for vortices to penetrate the helium white dwarf cores ranges from roughly 10^7 to 10^9 Gauss. Fields of this strength have been observed in white dwarfs. We also calculate the London magnetic field due to the rotation of a dwarf star and show that its value is rather small.

Gregory Gabadadze; Rachel A. Rosen

2009-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

374

Charge  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User Group and Userof a blast-resistant naval steel |Impact ofARM-0501

375

Charge  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User Group and Userof a blast-resistant naval steel |Impact ofARM-05012

376

Charge  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User Group and Userof a blast-resistant naval steel |Impact

377

Charge  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation SitesStandingtheir AtmosphericAnalysisVents Using1 Mixed-Phase Cloud

378

Center for Intermodal Transportation Safety  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for Intermodal Transportation Safety and Security Panagiotis Scarlatos, Ph.D., Director Transportation Safety and Security #12;Center for Intermodal Transportation Safety and Security Partners #12 evacuations · Tracking systems for hazardous materials Center for Intermodal Transportation Safety

Fernandez, Eduardo

379

Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study Minneapolis City of Lakes Minneapolis Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study #12;Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study Minneapolis City Works Transportation Infrastructure Study Minneapolis City of Lakes Background: · Currently, funding

Minnesota, University of

380

Recovery Act – Transportation Electrification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ChargePoint America demonstrated the viability, economic and environmental benefits of an electric vehicle-charging infrastructure. Electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in electric vehicles (PHEVs) arrived in late 2010, there was a substantial lack of infrastructure to support these vehicles. ChargePoint America deployed charging infrastructure in ten (10) metropolitan regions in coordination with vehicle deliveries targeting those same regions by our OEM partners: General Motors, Nissan, Fisker Automotive, Ford, smart USA, and BMW. The metropolitan regions include Central Texas (Austin/San Antonio), Bellevue/Redmond (WA), Southern Michigan, Los Angeles area (CA), New York Metro (NY), Central Florida (Orlando/Tampa), Sacramento (CA), San Francisco/San Jose (CA), Washington DC and Boston (MA). ChargePoint America installed more than 4,600 Level 2 (220v) SAE J1772™ UL listed networked charging ports in home, public and commercial locations to support approximately 2000 program vehicles. ChargePoint collected data to analyze how individuals, businesses and local governments used their vehicles. Understanding driver charging behavior patterns will provide the DoE with critical information as EV adoption increases in the United States.

Gogineni, Kumar

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

CHARGED PARTICLE MULTIPLICITIES AT BRAHMS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the measurement of charged particle multiplicity densities dN/d{eta} in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions as function of {eta} and the centrality of the collisions. This distributions were extracted from data collected by the BRAHMS collaboration during the first RHK run with gold ions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 130A {center_dot} GeV. The analysis method is described and, results are compared to some model predictions.

DEBBE, R., FOR THE BRAHMS COLLABORATION

2001-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

382

Quarks with Integer Electric Charge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Within the context of the Standard Model, quarks are placed in a $(\\mathbf{3},\\mathbf{2})\\oplus (\\mathbf{3},\\bar{\\mathbf{2}})$ matter field representation of $U_{EW}(2)$. Although the quarks carry unit intrinsic electric charge in this construction, anomaly cancellation constrains the Lagrangian in such a way that the quarks' associated currents couple to the photon with the usual 2/3 and 1/3 fractional electric charge associated with conventional quarks. The resulting model is identical to the Standard Model in the $SU_C(3)$ sector: However, in the $U_{EW}(2)$ sector it is similar but not necessarily equivalent. Off hand, the model appears to be phenomenologically equivalent to the conventional quark model in the electroweak sector for experimental conditions that preclude observation of individual constituent currents. On the other hand, it is conceivable that detailed analyses for electroweak reactions may reveal discrepancies with the Standard Model in high energy and/or large momentum transfer reactions. The possibility of quarks with integer electric charge strongly suggests the notion that leptons and quarks are merely different manifestations of the same underlying field. A speculative model is proposed in which a phase transition is assumed to occur between $SU_C(3)\\otimes U_{EM}(1)$ and $U_{EM}(1)$ regimes. This immediately; explains the equality of lepton/quark generations and lepton/hadron electric charge, relates neutrino oscillations to quark flavor mixing, reduces the free parameters of the Standard Model, and renders the issue of quark confinement moot.

J. LaChapelle

2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

383

Quality improvement and control based on defect reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis addresses the quality improvement in a printing process at a food packaging company now experiencing hundreds of printing defects. Methodologies of Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC), and ...

Dai, Qi, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Spin properties of very shallow nitrogen vacancy defects in diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate spin and optical properties of individual nitrogen vacancy centers located within 1–10 nm from the diamond surface. We observe stable defects with a characteristic optically detected magnetic-resonance ...

Ofori-Okai, Benjamin Kwasi

385

Design and process solutions for decreasing vendor defects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Why do some new initiatives fail while others succeed? This thesis attempts to answer this complex question by investigating the failure of a defect tracking initiative at Amazon and examining how a reintroduction of the ...

Joyce, Michael (Michael Sagar)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Role of defects in III-nitride based electronics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LDRD entitled ``Role of Defects in III-Nitride Based Devices'' is aimed to place Sandia National Laboratory at the forefront of the field of GaN materials and devices by establishing a scientific foundation in areas such as material growth, defect characterization/modeling, and processing (metalization and etching) chemistry. In this SAND report the authors summarize their studies such as (1) the MOCVD growth and doping of GaN and AlGaN, (2) the characterization and modeling of hydrogen in GaN, including its bonding, diffusion, and activation behaviors, (3) the calculation of energetic of various defects including planar stacking faults, threading dislocations, and point defects in GaN, and (4) dry etching (plasma etching) of GaN (n- and p-types) and AlGaN. The result of the first AlGaN/GaN heterojunction bipolar transistor is also presented.

HAN,JUNG; MYERS JR.,SAMUEL M.; FOLLSTAEDT,DAVID M.; WRIGHT,ALAN F.; CRAWFORD,MARY H.; LEE,STEPHEN R.; SEAGER,CARLETON H.; SHUL,RANDY J.; BACA,ALBERT G.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

RIS-M-2478 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, DEFECT STRUCTURE AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BACKGROUND 7 THEORY 8 MODEL FOR CALCULATION OF THEORETICAL DENSITY IN THE SYSTEM 10 EXPERIMENTAL 12 sensors, fuel c e l l s and electrolyzers. The defect responsible for the high conductivity

388

The geodesic rule for higher codimensional global defects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We generalize the geodesic rule to the case of formation of higher codimensional global defects. Relying on energetic arguments, we argue that, for such defects, the geometric structures of interest are the totally geodesic submanifolds. On the other hand, stochastic arguments lead to a diffusion equation approach, from which the geodesic rule is deduced. It turns out that the most appropriate geometric structure that one should consider is the convex hull of the values of the order parameter on the causal volumes whose collision gives rise to the defect. We explain why these two approaches lead to similar results when calculating the density of global defects by using a theorem of Cheeger and Gromoll. We present a computation of the probability of formation of strings/vortices in the case of a system, such as nematic liquid crystals, whose vacuum is $\\mathbb{R}P^2$.

Anthony J. Creaco; Nikos Kalogeropoulos

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Modeling rough energy landscapes in defected condensed matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation is a computational and theoretical investigation of the behavior of defected condensed matter and its evolution over long time scales. The thesis provides original contributions to the methodology used ...

Monasterio Velásquez, Paul Rene

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Liability for Defective Documentation FloridaInstitute of Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liability for Defective Documentation Cem Kaner FloridaInstitute of Technology 150 West University behind its claims. False claims in documentation might subject the manufacturer to liability for breach Engineering]: Distribution, Maintenance and Enhancement ­ documentation. General Terms Documentation, Human

391

Method and apparatus for inspecting reflection masks for defects  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An at-wavelength system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blank defect detection is provided. When a focused beam of wavelength 13 nm is incident on a defective region of a mask blank, three possible phenomena can occur. The defect will induce an intensity reduction in the specularly reflected beam, scatter incoming photons into an off-specular direction, and change the amplitude and phase of the electric field at the surface which can be monitored through the change in the photoemission current. The magnitude of these changes will depend on the incident beam size, and the nature, extent and size of the defect. Inspection of the mask blank is performed by scanning the mask blank with 13 nm light focused to a spot a few .mu.m in diameter, while measuring the reflected beam intensity (bright field detection), the scattered beam intensity (dark-field detection) and/or the change in the photoemission current.

Bokor, Jeffrey (Oakland, CA); Lin, Yun (Berkeley, CA)

2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

392

Topological defect motifs in two-dimensional Coulomb clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The most energetically favourable arrangement of low-density electrons in an infinite two-dimensional plane is the ordered triangular Wigner lattice. However, in most instances of contemporary interest one deals instead with finite clusters of strongly interacting particles localized in potential traps, for example, in complex plasmas. In the current contribution we study distribution of topological defects in two-dimensional Coulomb clusters with parabolic lateral confinement. The minima hopping algorithm based on molecular dynamics is used to efficiently locate the ground- and low-energy metastable states, and their structure is analyzed by means of the Delaunay triangulation. The size, structure and distribution of geometry-induced lattice imperfections strongly depends on the system size and the energetic state. Besides isolated disclinations and dislocations, classification of defect motifs includes defect compounds --- grain boundaries, rosette defects, vacancies and interstitial particles. Proliferatio...

Radzvilavi?ius, A; 10.1088/0953-8984/23/38/385301

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Defects and impurities in graphene-like materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene-like materials could be used in the fabrication of electronic and optoelectronic devices, gas sensors, biosensors, and batteries for energy storage. Since it is almost impossible to work with defect-free or ...

Terrones, Mauricio

394

Wave propagation in periodic lattices with defects of smaller dimension  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The procedure of evaluating of the spectrum for discrete periodic operators perturbed by operators of smaller dimensions is obtained. This result allows to obtain propagative, guided, localised spectra for different kind of physical operators on graphs with defects.

A. A. Kutsenko

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

395

Transportation System Requirements Document  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Electrochemically controlled charging circuit for storage batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemically controlled charging circuit for charging storage batteries is disclosed. The embodiments disclosed utilize dc amplification of battery control current to minimize total energy expended for charging storage batteries to a preset voltage level. The circuits allow for selection of Zener diodes having a wide range of reference voltage levels. Also, the preset voltage level to which the storage batteries are charged can be varied over a wide range.

Onstott, E.I.

1980-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

397

Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(California, Texas Gulf Coast, New England Atlantic Coast) will be of particular interest. The goal is to conduct a quantitative risk assessment on the pipeline, truck, and rail transportation modes to these areas. As a result of the quantitative risk...

Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

Defect reaction network in Si-doped InP : numerical predictions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Report characterizes the defects in the defect reaction network in silicon-doped, n-type InP deduced from first principles density functional theory. The reaction network is deduced by following exothermic defect reactions starting with the initially mobile interstitial defects reacting with common displacement damage defects in Si-doped InP until culminating in immobile reaction products. The defect reactions and reaction energies are tabulated, along with the properties of all the silicon-related defects in the reaction network. This Report serves to extend the results for intrinsic defects in SAND 2012-3313: %E2%80%9CSimple intrinsic defects in InP: Numerical predictions%E2%80%9D to include Si-containing simple defects likely to be present in a radiation-induced defect reaction sequence.

Schultz, Peter Andrew

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels,...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced Efficiency, and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced...

400

Automated defect spatial signature analysis for semiconductor manufacturing process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for performing automated defect spatial signature alysis on a data set representing defect coordinates and wafer processing information includes categorizing data from the data set into a plurality of high level categories, classifying the categorized data contained in each high level category into user-labeled signature events, and correlating the categorized, classified signature events to a present or incipient anomalous process condition.

Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W. (Harriman, TN); Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Karnowski, Thomas P. (Knoxville, TN); Sari-Sarraf, Hamed (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Relative projective cover works for Broue's abelian defect group  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University, Chiba, Japan Tue. 22 June, 2010 Joint work with J¨urgen M¨uller and Felix Noeske Brou´e's abelian that A is a block algebra of OG with a defect group P and that AN is a block algebra of ONG(P) which is the Brauer´e's abelian defect group conjecture holds for all primes p and for all block algebras of OG if G = Co3, where

Thévenaz, Jacques

402

Electric Vehicle Charging as an Enabling Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric Vehicle Charging as an Enabling Technology Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy technologies, electric vehicles and the appurtenant charging infrastructure, is explored in detail to determine regarding system load profiles, vehicle charging strategies, electric vehicle adoption rates, and storage

403

Charged Cosmic Rays And Particle Dark Matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Charged Particle Astrophysics With Pamela Combination of tracker and calorimeter enable charge, mass, and energy determinations Very accurate particle ID Tracker Calorimeter e- e+ p+ Dan Hooper screwed up? Charge-dependent solar modulation important below 5-10 GeV! (Pamela's sub-10 GeV positrons

Maryland at College Park, University of

404

STATE OF CALIFORNIA CHARGE INDICATOR DISPLAY (CID)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RA3.4.2. If refrigerant charge verification is required for compliance, and a CID has been installed compliance with the refrigerant charge verification requirement for that system, thus submittal of a standard refrigerant charge verification compliance form (MECH 25) is not required for a system that has a passing CID

405

Gradient Improvement by Removal of Identified Local Defects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent experience of ILC cavity processing and testing at Jefferson Lab has shown that some 9-cell cavities are quench limited at a gradient in the range of 15-25 MV/m. Further studies reveal that these quench limits are often correlated with sub-mm sized and highly localized geometrical defects at or near the equator weld. There are increasing evidence to show that these genetic defects have their origin in the material or in the electron beam welding process (for example due to weld irregularities or splatters on the RF surface and welding porosity underneath the surface). A local defect removal method has been proposed at Jefferson Lab by locally re-melting the niobium material. Several 1-cell cavities with known local defects have been treated by using the JLab local e-beam re-melting method, resulting in gradient and Q0 improvement. We also sent 9-cell cavities with known gradient limiting local defects to KEK for local grinding and to FNAL for global mechanical polishing. We report on the results of gradient improvements by removal of local defects in these cavities.

R.L. Geng, W.A. Clemens, C.A. Cooper, H. Hayano, K. Watanabe

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Crystal defect studies using x-ray diffuse scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microscopic lattice defects such as point (single atom) defects, dislocation loops, and solute precipitates are characterized by local electronic density changes at the defect sites and by distortions of the lattice structure surrounding the defects. The effect of these interruptions of the crystal lattice on the scattering of x-rays is considered in this paper, and examples are presented of the use of the diffuse scattering to study the defects. X-ray studies of self-interstitials in electron irradiated aluminum and copper are discussed in terms of the identification of the interstitial configuration. Methods for detecting the onset of point defect aggregation into dislocation loops are considered and new techniques for the determination of separate size distributions for vacancy loops and interstitial loops are presented. Direct comparisons of dislocation loop measurements by x-rays with existing electron microscopy studies of dislocation loops indicate agreement for larger size loops, but x-ray measurements report higher concentrations in the smaller loop range. Methods for distinguishing between loops and three-dimensional precipitates are discussed and possibilities for detailed studies considered. A comparison of dislocation loop size distributions obtained from integral diffuse scattering measurements with those from TEM show a discrepancy in the smaller sizes similar to that described above.

Larson, B.C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

A detail study of defect models for cosmic structure formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate predictions from wide class of `active' models of cosmic structure formation which allows us to scan the space of possible defect models. We calculate the linear cold dark matter power spectrum and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies over all observable scales using a full linear Einstein-Boltzmann code. Our main result, which has already been reported, points to a serious problem reconciling the observed amplitude of the large-scale galaxy distribution with the COBE normalization. Here, we describe our methods and results in detail. The problem is present for a wide range of defect parameters, which can be used to represent potential differences among defect models, as well as possible systematic numerical errors. We explicitly examine the impact of varying the defect model parameters and we show how the results substantiate these conclusions. The standard scaling defect models are in serious conflict with the current data, and we show how attempts to resolve the problem by considering non-scaling defects or modified stress-energy components would require radical departures from what has become the standard picture.

A. Albrecht; R. A. Battye; J. Robinson

1997-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

408

Space Charge and Equilibrium Emittances in Damping Rings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SPACE CHARGE AND EQUILIBRIUM EMITTANCES IN DAMPING RINGS ?for the pos- sible impact of space charge on the equilibriumrings. INTRODUCTION Direct space charge effects have the

Venturini, Marco; Oide, Katsunobu; Wolski, Andy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

On the nature of charge carrier scattering in Ag{sub 2}Se at low temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electric and thermoelectric properties of silver selenide in the temperature range of 4.2-300 K have been studied. The data obtained are interpreted within the theory of one-type carriers and Kane dispersion relation, with allowance for the character of electron-electron interaction. It is established that, for the concentrations n {<=} 7.8 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}, charge carriers are scattered by impurity ions at T {<=} 30 K and by acoustic and optical phonons and point defects at T {>=} 30 K. Electron-electron interactions are found to be elastic at T < 30 K.

Jafarov, M. B., E-mail: cmentiq@box.az [Azerbaijan State Agrarian University (Azerbaijan)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

411

Workplace Charging Challenge: Promote PEVs and Charging at Work |  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomen Owned SmallOf TheViolations |Join the Challenge Workplace ChargingDepartment of

412

DEFECT ASSESSMENT USING CONFORMABLE ARRAY DATA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conformable array data acquisition system consists of the array, the data acquisition and analysis hardware, and the data acquisition and analysis software. The following decisions were made in the development of the system. Array design decisions include the following: (a) The flexible array board will be approximately 8 by 12 inches square with the active coil section confined to a smaller 6-inch-square section at the center of the board. The outer edges of the board will be used for switching and other circuitry. (b) The diameter of the array coils will be approximately 0.375 inch (9.5 mm). Data acquisition strategy includes: (a) The corrosion spots will be mapped by successive interrogations of the active section of the array board. Approximately 10,000 samples will be acquired for each coil. The 10,000 readings will be averaged to produce one lower-noise value for each coil. This will be repeated for each coil in the array in a sequential manner. The total corrosion image for the sector will be built from the individual coil data. (b) Corrosion larger than the operational portion of the array board will be measured using a grid technique. Uniquely identified areas in the grid will overlay a corroded area, and data collected for each area will be connected by the display and assessment software to form a composite image for the corroded area. (c) Defect assessment will be invoked on the corrosion image by ''boxing'' selected areas on the color contour map. Software decisions consisted of selecting the appropriate LABVIEW modules running in a Windows XP operating system to obtain the required functionality. This third quarterly report of the project presents the activity and conclusions reached to date. Specifically, the design of the conformable array was completed and work was started on obtaining the data acquisition hardware. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and Clock Spring{reg_sign} staff met at the SwRI facilities in June 2003 to discuss the project. The Clock Spring representative was given the latest version of the data acquisition and analysis software for evaluation. Comments were received.

Alfred E. Crouch

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Residual dust charges in discharge afterglow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An on-ground measurement of dust-particle residual charges in the afterglow of a dusty plasma was performed in a rf discharge. An upward thermophoretic force was used to balance the gravitational force. It was found that positively charged, negatively charged, and neutral dust particles coexisted for more than 1 min after the discharge was switched off. The mean residual charge for 200-nm-radius particles was measured. The dust particle mean charge is about -5e at a pressure of 1.2 mbar and about -3e at a pressure of 0.4 mbar.

Coueedel, L.; Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L.; Samarian, A. A. [GREMI - Groupe de Recherches sur l'Energetique des Milieux Ionises, CNRS/Universite d'Orleans, 14 rue d'Issoudun, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

Defect studies in low-temperature-grown GaAs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High content of excess As is incorporated in GaAs grown by low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (LTMBE). The excess As exists primarily as As antisite defects AsGa and a lesser extent of gallium vacancies V{sub Ga}. The neutral AsGa-related defects were measured by infrared absorption at 1{mu}m. Gallium vacancies, V{sub Ga}, was investigated by slow positron annihilation. Dependence of defect contents on doping was studied by Si and Be dopants. No free carriers are generated by n-type or p-type doping up to 10{sup 19} cm{sup {minus}3} Si or Be. Raman data indicate Be occupies Ga substitutional sites but Si atom is not substitutional. Si induces more As{sub Ga} in the layer. As As{sub Ga} increases, photoquenchable As{sub Ga} decreases. Fraction of photoquenchable defects correlates to defects within 3 nearest neighbor separations disrupting the metastability. Annealing reduces neutral As{sub Ga} content around 500C, similar to irradiation damaged and plastically deformed Ga{sub As}, as opposed to bulk grown GaAs in which As{sub Ga}-related defects are stable up to 1100C. The lower temperature defect removal is due to V{sub Ga} enhanced diffusion of As{sub Ga} to As precipitates. The supersaturated V{sub GA} and also decreases during annealing. Annealing kinetics for As{sub Ga}-related defects gives 2.0 {plus_minus} 0.3 eV and 1.5 {plus_minus} 0.3 eV migration enthalpies for the As{sub Ga} and V{sub Ga}. This represents the difference between Ga and As atoms hopping into the vacancy. The non-photoquenchable As{sub Ga}-related defects anneal with an activation energy of 1.1 {plus_minus} 0.3eV. Be acceptors can be activated by 800C annealing. Temperature difference between defect annealing and Be activation formation of As{sub Ga}-Be{sub Ga} pairs. Si donors can only be partially activated.

Bliss, D.E.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Defect studies in low-temperature-grown GaAs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High content of excess As is incorporated in GaAs grown by low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (LTMBE). The excess As exists primarily as As antisite defects AsGa and a lesser extent of gallium vacancies V[sub Ga]. The neutral AsGa-related defects were measured by infrared absorption at 1[mu]m. Gallium vacancies, V[sub Ga], was investigated by slow positron annihilation. Dependence of defect contents on doping was studied by Si and Be dopants. No free carriers are generated by n-type or p-type doping up to 10[sup 19] cm[sup [minus]3] Si or Be. Raman data indicate Be occupies Ga substitutional sites but Si atom is not substitutional. Si induces more As[sub Ga] in the layer. As As[sub Ga] increases, photoquenchable As[sub Ga] decreases. Fraction of photoquenchable defects correlates to defects within 3 nearest neighbor separations disrupting the metastability. Annealing reduces neutral As[sub Ga] content around 500C, similar to irradiation damaged and plastically deformed Ga[sub As], as opposed to bulk grown GaAs in which As[sub Ga]-related defects are stable up to 1100C. The lower temperature defect removal is due to V[sub Ga] enhanced diffusion of As[sub Ga] to As precipitates. The supersaturated V[sub GA] and also decreases during annealing. Annealing kinetics for As[sub Ga]-related defects gives 2.0 [plus minus] 0.3 eV and 1.5 [plus minus] 0.3 eV migration enthalpies for the As[sub Ga] and V[sub Ga]. This represents the difference between Ga and As atoms hopping into the vacancy. The non-photoquenchable As[sub Ga]-related defects anneal with an activation energy of 1.1 [plus minus] 0.3eV. Be acceptors can be activated by 800C annealing. Temperature difference between defect annealing and Be activation formation of As[sub Ga]-Be[sub Ga] pairs. Si donors can only be partially activated.

Bliss, D.E.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

In-situ Investigation of Vanadium Ion Transport in Redox Flow Battery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We will show a new method to differentiate the vanadium transport from concentration gradient and that from electric field. Flow batteries with vanadium and iron redox couples as the electro-active species were employed to investigate the transport behavior of vanadium ions in the presence of electric field. It was shown that electric field accelerated the positive-to-negative and reduced the negative-to-positive vanadium ions transport in charge process and affected the vanadium ions transport in an opposite way in discharge process. In addition, a method was designed to differentiate the concentration gradient-driven vanadium ions diffusion and electric field-driven vanadium ions migration. Simplified mathematical model was established to simulate the vanadium ions transport in real charge-discharge operation of flow battery. The concentration gradient diffusion coefficients and electric-migration coefficients of V2+, V3+, VO2+, and VO2+ across Nafion membrane were obtained by fitting the experimental data.

Luo, Qingtao; Li, Liyu; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Bin; Chen, Baowei; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

417

EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

J. Prouty

2006-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

418

Generation of Initial Kinetic Distributions for Simulation of Long-Pulse Charged Particle Beams with High Space-Charge intensity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Self-consistent Vlasov-Poisson simulations of beams with high space-charge intensity often require specification of initial phase-space distributions that reflect properties of a beam that is well adapted to the transport channel--both in terms of low-order rms (envelope) properties as well as the higher-order phase-space structure. Here, we first review broad classes of kinetic distributions commonly in use as initial Vlasov distributions in simulations of unbunched or weakly bunched beams with intense space-charge fields including: the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV) equilibrium, continuous-focusing equilibria with specific detailed examples, and various non-equilibrium distributions, such as the semi-Gaussian distribution and distributions formed from specified functions of linear-field Courant-Snyder invariants. Important practical details necessary to specify these distributions in terms of usual accelerator inputs are presented in a unified format. Building on this presentation, a new class of approximate initial kinetic distributions are constructed using transformations that preserve linear-focusing single-particle Courant-Snyder invariants to map initial continuous-focusing equilibrium distributions to a form more appropriate for non-continuous focusing channels. Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are employed to show that the approximate initial distributions generated in this manner are better adapted to the focusing channels for beams with high space-charge intensity. This improved capability enables simulation applications that more precisely probe intrinsic stability properties and machine performance.

Lund, Steven M.; Kikuchi, Takashi; Davidson, Ronald C.

2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

419

Generation of initial Vlasov distributions for simulation of charged particle beams with high space-charge intensity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Self-consistent Vlasov simulations of beams with high space-charge intensity often require specification of initial phase-space distributions that reflect properties of a beam that is well adapted to the transport channel, both in terms of low-order rms (envelope) properties as well as the higher-order phase-space structure. Here, we first review broad classes of distributions commonly in use as initial Vlasov distributions in simulations of beams with intense space-charge fields including: the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV) equilibrium, continuous-focusing equilibria with specific detailed examples, and various non-equilibrium distributions, such as the semi-Gaussian distribution and distributions formed from specified functions of linear-field Courant-Snyder invariants. Important practical details necessary to specify these distributions in terms of usual accelerator inputs are presented in a unified format. Building on this presentation, a new class of approximate initial distributions are constructed using transformations that preserve linear-focusing single-particle Courant-Snyder invariants to map initial continuous-focusing equilibrium distributions to a form more appropriate for non-continuous focusing channels. Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are employed to show that the approximate initial distributions generated in this manner are better adapted to the focusing channels for beams with high space-charge intensity. This improved capability enables simulation applications that more precisely probe intrinsic stability properties and machine performance.

Lund, S M; Kikuchi, T; Davidson, R C

2007-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

420

Context-based automated defect classification system using multiple morphological masks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Automatic detection of defects during the fabrication of semiconductor wafers is largely automated, but the classification of those defects is still performed manually by technicians. This invention includes novel digital image analysis techniques that generate unique feature vector descriptions of semiconductor defects as well as classifiers that use these descriptions to automatically categorize the defects into one of a set of pre-defined classes. Feature extraction techniques based on multiple-focus images, multiple-defect mask images, and segmented semiconductor wafer images are used to create unique feature-based descriptions of the semiconductor defects. These feature-based defect descriptions are subsequently classified by a defect classifier into categories that depend on defect characteristics and defect contextual information, that is, the semiconductor process layer(s) with which the defect comes in contact. At the heart of the system is a knowledge database that stores and distributes historical semiconductor wafer and defect data to guide the feature extraction and classification processes. In summary, this invention takes as its input a set of images containing semiconductor defect information, and generates as its output a classification for the defect that describes not only the defect itself, but also the location of that defect with respect to the semiconductor process layers.

Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Hunt, Martin A. (Knoxville, TN); Sari-Sarraf, Hamed (Lubbock, TX)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Systems and methods for forming defects on graphitic materials and curing radiation-damaged graphitic materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods are disclosed herein for forming defects on graphitic materials. The methods for forming defects include applying a radiation reactive material on a graphitic material, irradiating the applied radiation reactive material to produce a reactive species, and permitting the reactive species to react with the graphitic material to form defects. Additionally, disclosed are methods for removing defects on graphitic materials.

Ryu, Sunmin; Brus, Louis E.; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Liu, Haitao

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

422

Quantum transport via evanescent waves in undoped graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Charge carriers in graphene are chiral quasiparticles ("massless Dirac fermions"). Graphene provides therefore an amazing opportunity to study subtle quantum relativistic effects in condensed matter experiment. Here I review a theory of one of these unusual features of graphene, a "pseudodiffusive" transport in the limit of zero charge carrier concentration, which is related to existence of zero-modes of the Dirac operator and to the Zitterbewegung of unltrarelativistic particles. A conformal mapping technique is a powerful mathematical tool to study these phenomena, as demonstrated here, using the Aharonov-Bohm effect in graphene rings with Corbino geometry as an example.

M. I. Katsnelson

2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

423

Alternative Fuel Transportation Program  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Merit Review: EPAct State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets "Alternative Fuel Transportation Program" Dana O'Hara, DOE Ted Sears, NREL Vehicle Technologies Program June 20,...

424

Sustainable Transportation (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document highlights DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's advancements in transportation technologies, alternative fuels, and fuel cell technologies.

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

UZ Colloid Transport Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations.

M. McGraw

2000-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

426

Energy Storage and Transportation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Storage and Transportation INL Logo Search Skip Navigation Links Home Newsroom About INL Careers Research Programs Energy and Environment National and Homeland Security New Energy...

427

Transportation and its Infrastructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Options for Liquid Biofuels Development in Ireland. SEI, 562006: Outlook for advanced biofuels. Energy Policy, 34(17),40 pp. IEA, 2004c: Biofuels for Transport: An International

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Radioactive Material Transportation Practices  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes standard transportation practices for Departmental programs to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials including radioactive waste. Does not cancel other directives.

2002-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

429

DECAY CONSTANTS OF CHARGED PSEUDO-SCALAR MESONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- and D+ s decays, the existence of a charged Higgs boson (or any other charged object beyond the Standard

430

DECAY CONSTANTS OF CHARGED PSEUDO-SCALAR MESONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the existence of a charged Higgs boson (or any other charged object beyond the Standard Model) would modify

431

2006 TRANSPORTATION TOMORROW SURVEY JOINT PROGRAM IN TRANSPORTATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2006 TRANSPORTATION TOMORROW SURVEY JOINT PROGRAM IN TRANSPORTATION UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 2006 Transportation Tomorrow Survey Data Presentation #12;2006 TRANSPORTATION TOMORROW SURVEY JOINT PROGRAM IN TRANSPORTATION UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO City of Hamilton City of Kawartha Lakes City of Guelph City of Brantford

Toronto, University of

432

Hydrogen bond rearrangements and the motion of charge defects in water viewed using multidimensional ultrafast infrared spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compared with other molecular liquids, water is highly structured due to its ability to form up to four hydrogen bonds to its nearest neighbors, resulting in a tetrahedral network of molecules. However, this network is ...

Roberts, Sean T. (Sean Thomas)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Invisible surface defects in a tight-binding lattice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface Tamm states arise in one-dimensional lattices from some defects at the lattice edge and their energy generally falls in a gap of the crystal. The defects at the surface change rather generally the phase of propagative Bloch waves scattered off at the lattice edge, so that an observer, far from the surface, can detect the existence of edge defects from e.g. time-of-flight measurements as a delay or an advancement of a Bloch wave packet. Here we show that a special class of defects can sustain surface Tamm states which are invisible, in a sense that reflected waves acquire the same phase as in a fully homogeneous lattice with no surface state. Surface states have an energy embedded into the tight-binding lattice band and show a lower than exponential (algebraic) localization. Like most of bound states in the continuum of von Neumann - Wigner type, such states are fragile and decay into resonance surface states in presence of perturbations or lattice disorder. The impact of structural lattice imperfections and disorder on the invisibility of the defects is investigated by numerical simulations.

Stefano Longhi

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

434

Biofuels and Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biofuels and Transportation Impacts and Uncertainties Some Observations of a Reformed Ethanol and Logistics Symposium 3 Topics · Why Biofuels · Ethanol Economics · Ethanol Transportation Equipment Biofuels? · National Security · Reduce Imports of oil · Peak Oil · Replace Fossil Resources

Minnesota, University of

435

Packaging and Transportation Safety  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The order establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of DOE, including NNSA, offsite shipments and onsite transfers of radioactive and other hazardous materials and for modal transportation. Cancels DOE O 460.1B, 5-14-10

2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

436

Packaging and Transportation Safety  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To establish safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Cancels DOE O 460.1A. Canceled by DOE O 460.1C.

2003-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

437

Northwestern University Transportation Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and challenges for our society. Energy and sustainability, economic growth and development, quality of life in the world to recognize transportation as an interdisciplinary field, the Transportation Center was founded, as the tradition lives on, and the Center continues to renew itself and engage faculty and students with new

MacIver, Malcolm A.

438

MAESTRAEN TRANSPORTE ESPECIALIZACINEN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

investigaciones que permitan la comprensión de distintos componentes delsistema del transporte así como para Investigación de Operaciones y Redes de transporte Medidas y Administración del Tránsito Tecnologías de

Vásquez, Carlos

439

Native defects in tetradymite Bi2(TexSe3-x) topological insulators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Formation energies of native defects in Bi2(TexSe3-x), with comparison to ideal Bi2Te2S, are calculated in density-functional theory to assess transport properties. Bi2Se3 is found to be n type for both Bi- and Se-rich growth conditions, while Bi2Te3 changes from n to p type going from Te- to Bi-rich conditions, as observed. Bi2Te2Se and Bi2Te2S are generally n type, explaining observed heavily doped n-type behavior in most samples. A (0/-) transition level at 16 meV above valence-band maximum for Bi on Te antisites in Bi2Te2Se is related to the observed thermally active transport gap causing a p-to-n transition at low temperature. Bi2(TexSe3-x) with x>2 are predicted to have high bulk resistivity due to effective carrier compensation when approaching the n-to-p crossover. Predicted behaviors are confirmed from characterization of our grown single crystals.

Wang, Lin-Lin [Ames Laboratory; Huang, Mianliang [South Dakota School of Mines; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa [Ames Laboratory; Alam, Aftab [Ames Laboratory; Budko, Sergey L. [Ames Laboratory; Kaminski, Adam [Ames Laboratory; Lograsso, Thomas A. [Ames Laboratory; Canfield, Paul [Ames Laboratory; Johnson, Duane D. [Ames Laboratory

2013-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

440

Exciton harvesting, charge transfer, and charge-carrier transport in amorphous-silicon nanopillar/polymer hybrid solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

report on the device physics of nanostructured amorphous-silicon a-Si:H /polymer hybrid solar cells and nanostructured a-Si:H/polymer systems. We find that strong energy transfer occurs in the a-Si:H/MEH-PPV system. However, inefficient hole transfer from the a-Si:H to the polymers renders negligible photocurrent

McGehee, Michael

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Effect of dimerization on dynamics of spin-charge separation in Pariser-Parr-Pople model: A time-dependent density matrix renormalization group study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the effect of static electron-phonon coupling, on real-time dynamics of spin and charge transport in $\\pi$-conjugated polyene chains. The polyene chain is modeled by the Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian with dimerized nearest-neighbor parameter $t_{0}(1+\\delta)$ for short bonds and $t_{0}(1-\\delta)$ for long bonds, and long-range electron-electron interactions. We follow the time evolution of the spin and charge using time-dependent density matrix renormalization group technique, when a hole is injected at one end of the chain in its ground state. We find that spin and charge dynamics followed through spin and charge velocities, depend both on chain length and extent of dimerization, $\\delta$. Analysis of the results requires focusing on physical quantities such as average spin and charge polarizations, particularly in the large dimerization limit. In the dimerization range 0.0 $\\le$ $\\delta$ $\\le$ 0.15, spin-charge dynamics is found to have a well defined behavior, with spin-charge separation (measured as the ratio of charge velocity to spin velocity) as well as, the total amount of charge and spin transported in a given time, along the chain, decreasing as dimerization increases. However, in the range 0.3 $\\le$ $\\delta$ $\\le$ 0.5, it is observed that the dynamics of spin and charge transport becomes complicated. It is observed that for large $\\delta$ values, spin-charge separation is suppressed and the injected hole fails to travel the entire length of the chain.

Tirthankar Dutta; S. Ramasesha

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

442

INLAND PORT TRANSPORTATION EVALUATION GUIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INLAND PORT TRANSPORTATION EVALUATION GUIDE by Robert Harrison, Center for Transportation Research Transportation Institute, The Texas A&M University System; and Jolanda Prozzi, Center for Transportation Research, The University of Texas at Austin CENTER FOR TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH Bureau of Engineering Research

Texas at Austin, University of

443

http://tti.tamu.edu Multi-modal Transportation > Highway Transportation > Trucking > Railroad transportation > Public transit > Rural transportation > Rural transit > Freight  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

http://tti.tamu.edu Multi-modal Transportation > Highway Transportation > Trucking > Railroad transportation > Public transit > Rural transportation > Rural transit > Freight pipeline transportation >>> Transportation operat > Freight traffic > Commodities > Travel time > Travel demand > http

444

Apparatus and method for defect testing of integrated circuits  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for defect and failure-mechanism testing of integrated circuits (ICs) is disclosed. The apparatus provides an operating voltage, V.sub.DD, to an IC under test and measures a transient voltage component, V.sub.DDT, signal that is produced in response to switching transients that occur as test vectors are provided as inputs to the IC. The amplitude or time delay of the V.sub.DDT signal can be used to distinguish between defective and defect-free (i.e. known good) ICs. The V.sub.DDT signal is measured with a transient digitizer, a digital oscilloscope, or with an IC tester that is also used to input the test vectors to the IC. The present invention has applications for IC process development, for the testing of ICs during manufacture, and for qualifying ICs for reliability.

Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM); Soden, Jerry M. (Placitas, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Apparatus and method for defect testing of integrated circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for defect and failure-mechanism testing of integrated circuits (ICs) is disclosed. The apparatus provides an operating voltage, V(DD), to an IC under test and measures a transient voltage component, V(DDT), signal that is produced in response to switching transients that occur as test vectors are provided as inputs to the IC. The amplitude or time delay of the V(DDT) signal can be used to distinguish between defective and defect-free (i.e. known good) ICs. The V(DDT) signal is measured with a transient digitizer, a digital oscilloscope, or with an IC tester that is also used to input the test vectors to the IC. The present invention has applications for IC process development, for the testing of ICs during manufacture, and for qualifying ICs for reliability.

Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.

2000-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

446

Ultrasonic imaging system for in-process fabric defect detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultrasonic method and system are provided for monitoring a fabric to identify a defect. A plurality of ultrasonic transmitters generate ultrasonic waves relative to the fabric. An ultrasonic receiver means responsive to the generated ultrasonic waves from the transmitters receives ultrasonic waves coupled through the fabric and generates a signal. An integrated peak value of the generated signal is applied to a digital signal processor and is digitized. The digitized signal is processed to identify a defect in the fabric. The digitized signal processing includes a median value filtering step to filter out high frequency noise. Then a mean value and standard deviation of the median value filtered signal is calculated. The calculated mean value and standard deviation are compared with predetermined threshold values to identify a defect in the fabric.

Sheen, Shuh-Haw (Naperville, IL); Chien, Hual-Te (Naperville, IL); Lawrence, William P. (Downers Grove, IL); Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Why do Particle Clouds Generate Electric Charges?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Grains in desert sandstorms spontaneously generate strong electrical charges; likewise volcanic dust plumes produce spectacular lightning displays. Charged particle clouds also cause devastating explosions in food, drug, and coal processing industries. Despite the wide-ranging importance of granular charging in both nature and industry, even the simplest aspects of its causes remain elusive, for it is difficult to understand how inert grains in contact with little more than other inert grains can generate the large charges observed. In this paper, we present a simple yet predictive explanation for the charging of granular materials in collisional flows. We argue from very basic considerations that charge transfer can be expected in collisions of identical dielectric grains, and we confirm the model's predictions using discrete element simulations and a tabletop granular experiment.

T. Pähtz; H. J. Herrmann; T. Shinbrot

2010-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

448

Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location.

Garnett, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM); Dobelbower, M. Christian (Toledo, OH)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location. 26 figs.

Garnett, R.W.; Dobelbower, M.C.

1995-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

450

Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A non-intrusive refrigerant charge level indicator includes a structure for measuring at least one temperature at an outside surface of a two-phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, and can be converted to a pressure of the refrigerant in the line section and compared to a recommended pressure range to determine whether the system is under-charged, properly charged or over-charged. A non-intrusive method for assessing the refrigerant charge level in a system containing a refrigerant fluid includes the step of measuring a temperature at least one outside surface of a two-phase region of a refrigerant containing refrigerant line, wherein the temperature measured can be converted to a refrigerant pressure within the line section.

Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.; Kweller, Esher

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

451

Why do Particle Clouds Generate Electric Charges?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Grains in desert sandstorms spontaneously generate strong electrical charges; likewise volcanic dust plumes produce spectacular lightning displays. Charged particle clouds also cause devastating explosions in food, drug and coal processing industries. Despite the wide-ranging importance of granular charging in both nature and industry, even the simplest aspects of its causes remain elusive, because it is difficult to understand how inert grains in contact with little more than other inert grains can generate the large charges observed. Here, we present a simple yet predictive explanation for the charging of granular materials in collisional flows. We argue from very basic considerations that charge transfer can be expected in collisions of identical dielectric grains in the presence of an electric field, and we confirm the model's predictions using discrete-element simulations and a tabletop granular experiment.

T. Pähtz; H. J. Herrmann; T. Shinbrot

2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

452

Review of Variable Generation Integration Charges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growth of wind and solar generation in the United States, and the expectation of continued growth of these technologies, dictates that the future power system will be operated in a somewhat different manner because of increased variability and uncertainty. A small number of balancing authorities have attempted to determine an 'integration cost' to account for these changes to their current operating practices. Some balancing authorities directly charge wind and solar generators for integration charges, whereas others add integration charges to projected costs of wind and solar in integrated resource plans or in competitive solicitations for generation. This report reviews the balancing authorities that have calculated variable generation integration charges and broadly compares and contrasts the methodologies they used to determine their specific integration charges. The report also profiles each balancing authority and how they derived wind and solar integration charges.

Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Buckley, M.; Rogers, J.; Hodge, B. M.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS OF ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTING POLYPEPTIDE MEDIATED TRANSPORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The organic anion transporting polypeptides (human: OATP; other: Oatp) form a mammalian transporter superfamily that mediates the transport of structurally unrelated compounds across the cell membrane. Members in this ...

Weaver, Yi Miao

2010-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

454

On the Electric Charge of the Neutrino  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exact expression is obtained for the differential cross section of elastic electroweak scattering of longitudinal polarized massive Dirac neutrinos with the electric charge and anomalous magnetic moment on a spinless nucleus. This formula contains all necessary information about the nature of the neutrino mass, charge and magnetic moment. Some of them state that between the mass of the neutrino its electric charge there exists an interconnection.

Rasulkhozha S. Sarafiddinov

2010-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

455

Particle accelerator employing transient space charge potentials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides an accelerator for ions and charged particles. The plasma is generated and confined in a magnetic mirror field. The electrons of the plasma are heated to high temperatures. A series of local coils are placed along the axis of the magnetic mirror field. As an ion or particle beam is directed along the axis in sequence the coils are rapidly pulsed creating a space charge to accelerate and focus the beam of ions or charged particles.

Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

I{sub DDQ} Testing and Defect Classes: A Tutorial  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

I{sub DDQ} testing of CMOSICs is a technique for production quality and reliability improvement, design validation, and failure analysis. The origin and basic concepts of I{sub DDQ} testing are reviewed. The relationship of I{sub DDQ} testing to other test methods is considered in the context of the whole IC life cycle from design, fabrication, and test through end use. A comprehensive test strategy is described that uses defect classes based on defect electrical properties rather than traditional fault models.

Soden, J.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hawkins, C.F. [New Mexico State Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

457

On the defect induced gauge and Yukawa fields in graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider lattice deformations (both continuous and topological) in the hexagonal lattice Hubbard model in the tight binding approximation to graphene, involving operators with the range up to next-to-neighbor. In the low energy limit, we find that these deformations give rise to couplings of the electronic Dirac field to an external scalar (Yukawa) and gauge fields. The fields are expressed in terms of original defects. As a by-product we establish that the next-to-nearest order is the minimal range of deformations which produces the complete gauge and scalar fields. We consider an example of Stone--Wales defect, and find the associated gauge field.

Corneliu Sochichiu

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

458

On the material geometry of continuously defective corrugated graphene sheets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geometrical objects describing the material geometry of continuously defective graphene sheets are introduced and their compatibility conditions are formulated. Effective edge dislocations embedded in the Riemann-Cartan material space and defined by their scalar density and by local Burgers vectors, are considered. The case of secondary curvature-type defects created by this distribution of dislocations is analysed in terms of the material space. The variational geometry of the material space closely related with the existence of a characteristic length parameter is proposed. The formula which describes, in a reference temperature, the influence of dislocations on the material Riemannian metric, is given.

Andrzej Trzesowski

2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

459

Fundamental Studies of Charge Migration and Delocalization Relevant to Solar Energy Conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program aimed to understand the molecular-level principles by which complex chemical systems carry out photochemical charge separation, transport, and storage, and how these insights could impact the design of practical solar energy conversion and storage devices. Towards these goals, this program focused on: (1) carrying out fundamental mechanistic and transient dynamical studies of proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) reactions; (2) characterizing and interrogating via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic methods novel conjugated materials that feature large charge delocalization lengths; and (3) exploring excitation delocalization and migration, as well as polaron transport properties of meso-scale assemblies that are capable of segregating light-harvesting antennae, nanoscale wire-like conduction elements, and distinct oxidizing and reducing environments.

Michael J. Therien

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

EV Project: Solar-Assisted Charging Demo  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Melissa Lapsa 2014 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Review Presentation EV Project - Solar- Assisted Charging Demo VSS138 2014 U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge: Resources | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

the basics of electric vehicles and their charging needs. Vehicle Basics The Alternative Fuel Data Center's section on Plug-in Vehicles provides basic information on these...

462

Randomly charged polymers in porous environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the conformational properties of charged polymers in a solvent in the presence of structural obstacles correlated according to a power law $\\sim x^{-a}$. We work within the continuous representation of a model of linear chain considered as a random sequence of charges $q_i=\\pm q_0$. Such a model captures the properties of polyampholytes -- heteropolymers comprising both positively and negatively charged monomers. We apply the direct polymer renormalization scheme and analyze the scaling behavior of charged polymers up to the first order of an $\\epsilon=6-d$, $\\delta=4-a$-expansion.

V. Blavatska; C. von Ferber

2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

463

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment Guidelines...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Guidelines: British Columbia Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment Guidelines: British Columbia Agency...

464

Vehicle Technologies Office: EV Everywhere Workplace Charging...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

States are parked at overnight locations with access to plugs, providing a great foundation for the country's plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging infrastructure. However,...

465

Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: National Renewable Energy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

advance related science and engineering, and transfer knowledge and innovations. A 1,800-car parking garage at NREL's South Table Mountain Campus includes 36 charging stations. In...

466

Soret Motion of a Charged Spherical Colloid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thermophoretic motion of a charged spherical colloidal particle and its accompanying cloud of counterions and co-ions in a temperature gradient is studied theoretically. Using the Debye-Huckel approximation, the Soret drift velocity of a weakly charged colloid is calculated analytically. For highly charged colloids, the nonlinear system of electrokinetic equations is solved numerically, and the effects of high surface potential, dielectrophoresis, and convection are examined. Our results are in good agreement with some of the recent experiments on highly charged colloids without using adjustable parameters.

Seyyed Nader Rasuli; Ramin Golestanian

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

467

An experimental and modeling study of isothermal charge/discharge behavior of commercial NiMH cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is used to predict and compare various charge algorithms so as to provide guidelines for application and hybrid-electric vehicles. For clean transportation, Ni­MH battery is presently the most promising battery evolution reaction was coupled with main electro- chemical reactions on both electrodes. A sensitivity

468

Theory of transport phenomena in polycrystalline lead chalcogenide films. Mobility. Nondegenerate statistics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mobility of nondegenerate electrons in quasi-single-crystal and polycrystalline PbTe films is experimentally investigated. The results obtained are compared with the data for bulk crystals at the same charge-carrier concentration. Under the assumption of limitation of the charge-carrier mobility by intercrystallite potential barriers, electron transport in an electric field is theoretically considered. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experiment.

Atakulov, Sh. B., E-mail: atakulovsh@mail.ru; Zaynolobidinova, S. M. [Fergana State University (Uzbekistan); Nabiev, G. A., E-mail: gulamnabi@mail.ru [Fergana Polytechnical Institute (Uzbekistan); Nabiyev, M. B. [Fergana State University (Uzbekistan); Yuldashev, A. A. [Fergana Polytechnical Institute (Uzbekistan)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

469

Transportation activity analysis using smartphones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transportation activity surveys investigate when, where and how people travel in urban areas to provide information necessary for urban transportation planning. In Singapore, the Land Transport Authority (LTA) carries out ...

Xiao, Yu

470

Study of Electron Transport and Amplification in Diamond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a successful completion of this award, my group has demonstrated world-leading electron gain from diamond for use in a diamond-amplified photocathode. Also, using high-resolution photoemission measurements we were able to uncover exciting new physics of the electron emission mechanisms from hydrogen terminated diamond. Our work, through the continued support of HEP, has resulted in a greater understanding of the diamond material science, including current limits, charge transport modeling, and spatial uniformity.

Muller, Erik M.; Ben-Zvi, Ilan

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

471

Regional Public Coordination Transportation Plan Texoma Region #22  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in conjunction with TxDOT to increase public awareness of the project. As an integral part of this project, each of the 24 regions studying public transportation in their area was charged with assessing Barriers, Constraints and Best Practices in public... Sherman TAPS TAPS TAPS operates in seven (7) counties, with three (3) of the counties in the Texoma Region. TAPS services include demand response, commuter bus services and special services. Square Miles Population ?00 Rider Trips ?05 Clay 1...

Texoma Council of Governments

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two- magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

Tan, Joseph N; Guise, Nicholas D; 10.1063/1.3685246

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Numerical studies of emittance exchange in 2-D charged-particle beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe results obtained from a two-dimensional particle-following computer code that simulates a continuous, nonrelativistic, elliptical charged-particle beam with linear continuous focusing. Emittances and focusing strengths can be different in the two transverse directions. The results can be applied, for example, for a quadrupole transport system in a smooth approximation to a real beam with unequal emittances in the two planes. The code was used to study emittance changes caused by kinetic-energy exchange between transverse directions and by shifts in charge distributions. Simulation results for space-charge-dominated beams agree well with analytic formulas. From simulation results, an empirical formula was developed for a ''partition parameter'' (the ratio of kinetic energies in the two directions) as a function of initial conditions and beamline length. Quantitative emittance changes for each transverse direction can be predicted by using this parameter. Simulation results also agree with Hofmann's generalized differential equation relating emittance and field energy.

Guy, F.W.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Transportation Economic Assistance Program (Wisconsin)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Transportation Economic Assistance Program provides state grants to private business and local governments to improve transportation to projects improving economic conditions and creating or...

475

EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

J.D. Schreiber

2005-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

476

Identifying the Charge Carriers of the Quark-Gluon Plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Charge correlations in lattice gauge calculations suggest that up, down and strange charges move independently in the QGP (quark-gluon plasma), and that the density of such charges is similar to what is expected from simple thermal arguments. Here, we show how specific elements of the charge-charge correlation matrix in the QGP survive hadronization and become manifest in final-state charge-charge correlation measurements.

Scott Pratt

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

477

Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the quantitative risks involved with an ethanol pipeline. Pipelines that run from the Midwest, where the vast majority of ethanol is produced, to the target areas where reformulated gasoline is required (California, Texas Gulf Coast, New England Atlantic Coast... Atlantic Coast because of the large volume. It is beneficial to look at these areas as opposed to the iv smaller areas because pipeline transportation requires very large volumes. In order to find a meaningful comparison between all three...

Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

478

Higher Derivative Corrections to Charged Fluids in 2n Dimensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study anomalous charged fluid in $2n$-dimensions ($n\\geq 2$) up to sub-leading derivative order. Only the effect of gauge anomaly is important at this order. Using the Euclidean partition function formalism, we find the constraints on different sub-leading order transport coefficients appearing in parity-even and odd sectors of the fluid. We introduce a new mechanism to count different fluid data at arbitrary derivative order. We show that only the knowledge of independent scalar-data is sufficient to find the constraints. In appendix we further extend this analysis to obtain fluid data at sub-sub-leading order (where both gauge and gravitational anomaly contribute) for parity-odd fluid.

Nabamita Banerjee; Suvankar Dutta; Akash Jain

2015-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

479

Higher Derivative Corrections to Charged Fluids in 2n Dimensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study anomalous charged fluid in $2n$-dimensions ($n\\geq 2$) up to sub-leading derivative order. Only the effect of gauge anomaly is important at this order. Using the Euclidean partition function formalism, we find the constraints on different sub-leading order transport coefficients appearing in parity-even and odd sectors of the fluid. We introduce a new mechanism to count different fluid data at arbitrary derivative order. We show that only the knowledge of independent scalar-data is sufficient to find the constraints. In appendix we further extend this analysis to obtain fluid data at sub-sub-leading order (where both gauge and gravitational anomaly contribute) for parity-odd fluid.

Banerjee, Nabamita; Jain, Akash

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Higher Derivative Corrections to Charged Fluids in 2n Dimensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study anomalous charged fluid in $2n$-dimensions ($n\\geq 2$) up to sub-leading derivative order. Only the effect of gauge anomaly is important at this order. Using the Euclidean partition function formalism, we find the constraints on different sub-leading order transport coefficients appearing in parity-even and odd sectors of the fluid. We introduce a new mechanism to count different fluid data at arbitrary derivative order. We show that only the knowledge of independent scalar-data is sufficient to find the constraints. In appendix we further extend this analysis to obtain fluid data at sub-sub-leading order (where both gauge and gravitational anomaly contribute) for parity-odd fluid.

Nabamita Banerjee; Suvankar Dutta; Akash Jain

2015-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Empirical Evaluation of Defect Projection Models for Widely-deployed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Reliability Engineering, Defect modeling, empirical research, COTS, open source software, maintenance resource. *Bonnie Ray and P. Santhanam are researchers at the Center for Software Engineering at IBM T. J. Watson Research Center. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grand CCR-0086003

482

Empirical Evaluation of Defect Projection Models for Widelydeployed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Reliability Engineering, Defect modeling, empirical research, COTS, open source software, maintenance resource. *Bonnie Ray and P. Santhanam are researchers at the Center for Software Engineering at IBM T. J. Watson Research Center. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grand CCR­0086003

483

An Empirical Comparison of Field Defect Modeling Methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Management, Measurement, Reliability, Experimentation, Defect modeling, empirical research, COTS, maintenance of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh PA, 15213 *Center for Software Engineering IBM T.J. Watson Research Center Hawthorne, NY 10532 This research was supported by the National Science Foundation

484

Defect of villous cytotrophoblast differentiation into syncytiotrophoblast in Down syndrome  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Defect of villous cytotrophoblast differentiation into syncytiotrophoblast in Down syndrome FRENDO: evain@pharmacie.univ-paris5.fr Running title: Trophoblast and Down syndrome Key words: Trisomy 21 the formation and function of the ST in trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). We first used the in vitro model

Boyer, Edmond

485

Measuring Point Defect Density in Individual Carbon Nanotubes Using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

based on defec- tive nanotubes also show improved sensitivity.7 Recently, high-energy electron and ionMeasuring Point Defect Density in Individual Carbon Nanotubes Using Polarization-Dependent X in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dramatically alter their physical, mechani- cal, and electronic properties.1

Hitchcock, Adam P.

486

Preparation and characterization of low-defect surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silver crystal surfaces with low defect densities were prepared electrochemically from aqueous solutions using capillary-growth techniques. These surfaces had low rates for the nucleation of new silver layers. The impedance of these inert silver/aqueous silver nitrate interfaces was used to determine silver adatom concentration and water dipole reorientation energetics.

Robinson, T.O.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Modeling of three dimensional defects in integrated circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

properties that result from the interaction between the IC and the defect size in two coordinate spaces: x-y and z. The approach is a natural extension to the concept of critical areas, namely, the extraction of critical volumes. Through the course...

Dani, Sameer Manohar

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Infrared photothermal radiometry of deep subsurface defects in semiconductor materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infrared photothermal radiometry of deep subsurface defects in semiconductor materials M. E. Rodri-resistivity Si wafer with a mechanical damage on the backsurface, probed from the front intact surface that the position of the underlying damage is well resolved in both images, with the phase image showing

Mandelis, Andreas

489

Convergence properties of the local defect correction method for parabolic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and, for a one-dimensional heat equation, we study its properties analytically. Numerical experiment of adaptive grid techniques. In adaptive grid methods, a fine grid spacing and a relatively small time step requirements are minimized. An adaptive grid technique of particular interest is the Local Defect Correction

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

490

Defects and Faults in Quantum Cellular Automata at Nano Scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Defects and Faults in Quantum Cellular Automata at Nano Scale Mehdi Baradaran Tahoori, Mariam considerable research on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) as a new computing scheme in the nano, quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) not only gives a solution at nano scale, but also it offers a new

491

Graphene defect formation by extreme ultraviolet generated photoelectrons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied the effect of photoelectrons on defect formation in graphene during extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiation. Assuming the major role of these low energy electrons, we have mimicked the process by using low energy primary electrons. Graphene is irradiated by an electron beam with energy lower than 80?eV. After e-beam irradiation, it is found that the D peak, I(D), appears in the Raman spectrum, indicating defect formation in graphene. The evolution of I(D)/I(G) follows the amorphization trajectory with increasing irradiation dose, indicating that graphene goes through a transformation from microcrystalline to nanocrystalline and then further to amorphous carbon. Further, irradiation of graphene with increased water partial pressure does not significantly change the Raman spectra, which suggests that, in the extremely low energy range, e-beam induced chemical reactions between residual water and graphene are not the dominant mechanism driving defect formation in graphene. Single layer graphene, partially suspended over holes was irradiated with EUV radiation. By comparing with the Raman results from e-beam irradiation, it is concluded that the photoelectrons, especially those from the valence band, contribute to defect formation in graphene during irradiation.

Gao, A., E-mail: a.gao@utwente.nl; Lee, C. J.; Bijkerk, F. [FOM-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein, The Netherlands and XUV Optics Group, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands)

2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

492

Charged Higgs boson searches at the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the latest results from searches for singly charged Higgs bosons carried out by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the LHC. Both experiments have searched for production of charged Higgs bosons in pp collisions of up to 20 (5) fb^-

Chakraborty, Dhiman; The ATLAS collaboration

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Optimal Decentralized Protocols for Electric Vehicle Charging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Optimal Decentralized Protocols for Electric Vehicle Charging Lingwen Gan Ufuk Topcu Steven Low Abstract--We propose decentralized algorithms for optimally scheduling electric vehicle (EV) charging. The algorithms exploit the elasticity and controllability of electric vehicle loads in order to fill the valleys

Low, Steven H.

494

INTRODUCTION The Electrical Charge and Relativity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTRODUCTION The Electrical Charge and Relativity This course starts with the introduction of concepts related to just electricity: charge, electric field, electric potential energy, conservation of electric energy, etc. Notice that latter terms sound already very familiar to what you have learned in PH

495

Algebraic charge liquids RIBHU K. KAUL1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to this fermion as a `holon'. The holon comes in two species, carrying charges ±1 in its interaction holons with charges ±1. From the f± and aµ, we can construct a variety of observables whose correlations

Loss, Daniel

496

ELECTROCHEMICAL POWER FOR TRANSPORTATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be generated from coal and nuclear energy in contrast to 7%in the use of coal and nuclear energy for transportation andparticularly for coal and nuclear energy utilization, would

Cairns, Elton J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Managing Director Buildings, Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Site Development Will Terris Manager Gardening Maintenance Jim Gish Manager Landscape Specialty Tegwyn Maintenance and project Delivery Scott Sherwood Director Transportation Services Glenl Wear Director Grounds Supervisor Specialty Crews 17 Area supervisors Custodial Maintenance Charles Anderson Supervisor Activity

Seamons, Kent E.

498