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1

CHARGED POINT DEFECT IN RUTILE TIO2:FROM DEFECT CHARGE DISTRIBUTION TO DEFECT PHONON FREE ENERGY.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The dominant charged point defects in transition metal oxides can change with temperature (T) and oxygen partial pressure (PO2) to control the electrical properties of (more)

Li, Xin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Defects and Transport I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 8, 2012 ... Secondary Transport Phenomena in Ceramic Membranes under ... the specific case of mixed proton/oxygen vacancy/electronic conduction in a...

3

Charge Transport in Trivalent Aluminum Tungstate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2010. Symposium, International Symposium on Defects, Transport and Related Phenomena.

4

International Symposium on Defects, Transport and Related ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structure, including point and other defects in crystalline ceramic and ... Compositional Stability and Oxygen Exchange Kinetics of Oxide Hetero-Junction Electrodes ... Secondary Transport Phenomena in Ceramic Membranes under...

5

CNST Researchers Observe Nanoscale Charge Transport in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The efficiency is strongly dependent on the material morphology, making ... of nanoscale charge transport in bulk heterojunction solar cells, BH ...

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

6

Migration of positively charged defects in (alpha)-quartz  

SciTech Connect

We apply a newly developed quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics (QM/MM) scheme to simulate the migration of charged oxygen defects in {alpha}-quartz. We simulate the transition mechanism and compute the potential energy and free energy surface for the puckering of the symmetric charged oxygen vacancy and the formation of the E{prime}{sub 1} center. By overcoming low energy barriers this puckering mechanism can be reiterated allowing the drift of the positive charge localized on an over-coordinated oxygen atom. This process enhances the stability of the E{prime}{sub 1} center and can be regarded as an important channel of structural reorganization of oxygen deficient silica in the presence of strong polarizing electric fields.

Laino, T; Donadio, D; Kuo, I W

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

7

Investigation of Charge Transport Properties of CdZnTe Detectors with Synchrotron X-ray Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various internal defects, such as Te inclusions, twin boundaries, dislocation, etc., are prevalent in as-grown CdZnTe (CZT) crystals, which affect the charge transport properties of CZT crystals and, therefore, worsen the performance of CZT detectors. In order to develop high quality CZT detectors, it is imperative to clarify the effects of internal defects on the charge transport properties of CZT. Simple flood illumination with nuclear radiation source cannot reveal the nature of highly localized defects in CZT. Therefore, at Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), we have developed a unique testing system for micro-scale defect investigation of CZT, which employs an X-ray beam collimated with the spatial resolution as small as 3 x 3 {micro}m{sup 2}, a microscopic size comparable to the scale of common defects in CZT. This powerful tool enables us to investigate the effect of internal defects on charge transport properties of CZT in detail.

Yang,G.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; James, R.B.

2008-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

8

International Symposium on Defects, Transport and Related ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structure, including point and other defects in crystalline ceramic and amorphous ceramic solids, different types of in-situ and spectroscopic studies (NMR, EPR,...

9

Anomalous Charge Transport in Disordered Organic Semiconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anomalous charge carrier transport in disordered organic semiconductors is studied using fractional differential equations. The connection between index of fractional derivative and dispersion exponent is examined from the perspective of fractional Fokker-Planck equation and its link to the continuous time random walk formalism. The fractional model is used to describe the bi-scaling power-laws observed in the time-of flight photo-current transient data for two different types of organic semiconductors.

Muniandy, S. V.; Woon, K. L. [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Choo, K. Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

10

Dust Charging and Transport on Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we review laboratory studies of dust transport on surfaces in plasmas, performed for a number of different mechanisms: 1) Dust particles were levitated in plasma sheaths by electrostatic forces balancing the gravitational force. 2) Dust was observed to spread over and lift off a surface that repels electrons in a plasma. 3) Dust was transported on surfaces having different secondary electron yields in plasma with an electron beam as a consequence of differential charging. 4) We also report a mechanism of dust transport by electric fields occurring at electron beam impact/shadow boundaries. These processes are candidates to explain the formation of dust ponds that were recently observed in craters on the asteroid Eros by the NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft.

Wang, X. [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust And Atmospheric Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Robertson, S. [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust And Atmospheric Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Horanyi, M. [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust And Atmospheric Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

11

The self-energy of a charged particle in the presence of a topological defect distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we study a charged particle in the presence of both a continuous distribution of disclinations and a continuous distribution of edge dislocations in the framework of the geometrical theory of defects. We obtain the self-energy for a single charge both in the internal and external regions of either distribution. For both distributions the result outside the defect distribution is the self-energy that a single charge experiments in the presence of a single defect.

A. M. de M. Carvalho; Fernando Moraes; Claudio Furtado

2004-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

12

Charge carrier transport in indium oxide nanocrystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanocrystalline indium oxide samples with various sizes of nanocrystals are synthesized by the sol-gel method. The minimal and maximal average sizes of nanocrystals are 7-8 and 18-20 nm, respectively. An analysis of conductivity measured at dc and ac signals in a wide temperature range (T = 50-300 K) shows that the transport of charge carriers at high temperatures takes place over the conduction band, while in the low-temperature range, the hopping mechanism with a varying jump length over localized states is observed.

Forsh, E. A.; Marikutsa, A. V.; Martyshov, M. N.; Forsh, P. A., E-mail: forsh@vega.phys.msu.ru; Rumyantseva, M. N.; Gas'kov, A. M.; Kashkarov, P. K. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Aspects of charge recombination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, aspects of charge reconbination and charge transport in organic solar cells and light-emitting devices are presented. These devices show promise relative to traditional inorganic semiconductors. We show ...

Difley, Seth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Brownian dynamics determine universality of charge transport in ionic liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Broadband dielectric spectroscopy is employed to investigate charge transport in a variety of glass-forming ionic liquids over wide frequency, temperature and pressure ranges. Using a combination of Einstein, Einstein-Smoluchowski, and Langevin relations, the observed universal scaling of charge transport in ionic liquids is traced back to the dominant role of Brownian dynamics.

Sangoro, Joshua R [ORNL; Iacob, Ciprian [University of Leipzig; Mierzwa, Michal [University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka, Katowice, Poland; Paluch, Marian [University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka, Katowice, Poland; Kremer, Friedrich [University of Leipzig

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Charge transport-mediated recruitment of DNA repair enzymes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Damaged or mismatched bases in DNA can be repaired by Base Excision Repair (BER) enzymes that replace the defective base. Although the detailed molecular structures of many BER enzymes are known, how they colocalize to lesions remains unclear. One hypothesis involves charge transport (CT) along DNA [Yavin, {\\it et al.}, PNAS, {\\bf 102}, 3546, (2005)]. In this CT mechanism, electrons are released by recently adsorbed BER enzymes and travel along the DNA. The electrons can scatter (by heterogeneities along the DNA) back to the enzyme, destabilizing and knocking it off the DNA, or, they can be absorbed by nearby lesions and guanine radicals. We develop a stochastic model to describe the electron dynamics, and compute probabilities of electron capture by guanine radicals and repair enzymes. We also calculate first passage times of electron return, and ensemble-average these results over guanine radical distributions. Our statistical results provide the rules that enable us to perform implicit-electron Monte-Carlo simulations of repair enzyme binding and redistribution near lesions. When lesions are electron absorbing, we show that the CT mechanism suppresses wasteful buildup of enzymes along intact portions of the DNA, maximizing enzyme concentration near lesions.

Pak-Wing Fok; Chin-Lin Guo; Tom Chou

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

16

Charge Transport Anisotropy Due to Grain Boundaries in Directionally  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Charge Transport Anisotropy Due to Grain Charge Transport Anisotropy Due to Grain Boundaries in Directionally Crystallized Thin Films of Regio-Regular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Semicrystalline polymers, such as polythiophenes, hold much promise as active layers in printable electronic devices such as photovoltaic cells, sensors, and thin film transistors. As organic semiconductors approach commercialization, there is a need to better understand the relationship between charge transport and microstructure, in particular, to identify the inherent bottlenecks to charge transport. In semicrystalline and polycrystalline materials, charge transport is most likely dominated by grain-boundary effects, although the exact mechanism is not well understood. Unfortunately, grain boundaries in semicrystalline thin films are difficult to characterize: the grains are too small to allow for measurements across individual grain boundaries (as is often done for polycrystalline films of small molecules) and bulk measurements are complicated by the unknown orientation of polymer chains within the grain. To better understand the effect of chain orientation on grain boundaries, we use anisotropic thin films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) - one of the most well-studied polymeric semiconductors, as a tool to study charge transport.

17

Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport Print Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport Print Layered transition metal oxides are the focus of intense research efforts because they might clarify the superconducting mechanism of cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs). A case in point is NaxCoO2 with x = 0.7, which is a parent compound for a family of cobaltites that exhibits superconductivity. This class of materials is also thought to be ideal for detecting the long-sought resonating valence bond (RVB) state of matter proposed by Philip Anderson of Princeton University in 1973. Researchers from Princeton University and ALS are the first to use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to demonstrate the strongly electron correlated nature of this material and to provide evidence that charge transport is strongly influenced by topological spin frustration.

18

Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport Print Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport Print Layered transition metal oxides are the focus of intense research efforts because they might clarify the superconducting mechanism of cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs). A case in point is NaxCoO2 with x = 0.7, which is a parent compound for a family of cobaltites that exhibits superconductivity. This class of materials is also thought to be ideal for detecting the long-sought resonating valence bond (RVB) state of matter proposed by Philip Anderson of Princeton University in 1973. Researchers from Princeton University and ALS are the first to use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to demonstrate the strongly electron correlated nature of this material and to provide evidence that charge transport is strongly influenced by topological spin frustration.

19

A General Relationship between Disorder, Aggregation, and Charge Transport  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A General Relationship between Disorder, Aggregation, and Charge Transport A General Relationship between Disorder, Aggregation, and Charge Transport in Conjugated Polymers Monday, September 23, 2013 The potential for combining low-cost manufacturing and mechanical robustness with engineering of specific opto-electronic properties has recently spurred great interest in semiconducting polymers. Consequently, devices based on organic semiconductors have reached significant milestones such as ~10% solar power conversion efficiencies as well as electron and hole mobilities exceeding 1 cm2/Vs. Conjugated polymer chains have many degrees of conformational freedom and interact weakly with each other, resulting in complex microstructures in the solid state. Understanding charge transport in such systems, which have both amorphous and ordered

20

Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport Print Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport Print Layered transition metal oxides are the focus of intense research efforts because they might clarify the superconducting mechanism of cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs). A case in point is NaxCoO2 with x = 0.7, which is a parent compound for a family of cobaltites that exhibits superconductivity. This class of materials is also thought to be ideal for detecting the long-sought resonating valence bond (RVB) state of matter proposed by Philip Anderson of Princeton University in 1973. Researchers from Princeton University and ALS are the first to use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to demonstrate the strongly electron correlated nature of this material and to provide evidence that charge transport is strongly influenced by topological spin frustration.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Studies on relative effects of charged and neutral defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers the third year of a continuing research study to understand the relative importance of charged and neutral defects in amorphous silicon. The objective of the study is to explore the electronic structure, including neutral and charged defects, an optoelectronic effects including the formation of Staebler-Wronski defects. The study concentrated on exploring electroluminescence experimentally and interpreting the results employing a simple guiding model. The simple guiding model assumes an exponential density of states and recombination rate constants (radiative and non-radiative) which are governed by hopping transitions. Measurements were also made as a function of photodegradation of the material. The results implicate that the radiative recombination processes are not distant pair tunneling but rather results from electrons hopping down due to the coulomb interactions. Preliminary experiments have been made on the effect of photodegradation on transient space charge limited currents in n/i/n structures. These experiments can directly yield information on the occupied defects centers induced by the photodegradation and are not a result of recombination processes. To date the results seems to be consistent with a picture which places the doubly occupied defects at quite a high energy ({approx equal} 0.4 e.v. below the conduction band).

Silver, M. (North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Engineering Point Defects for Charge and Energy Transport in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Kinetics of Anthracite Coal and Biomass Char by Thermogravimetric Analysis ... A2: Anode Properties of MgH2 for All Solid State Lithium Ion Battery.

23

Ratchet transport for a chain of interacting charged particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study analytically and numerically the overdamped, deterministic dynamics of a chain of {\\it charged}, interacting particles driven by a longitudinal alternating electric field and additionally interacting with a smooth ratchet potential. We derive the equations of motion, analyze the general properties of their solutions and find the drift criterion for chain motion. For ratchet potentials of the form of a double-sine and a phase-modulated sine it is demonstrated that both, a so-called integer and fractional transport of the chain can occur. Explicit results for the directed chain transport for these two classes of ratchet potentials are presented.

S. I. Denisov; E. S. Denisova; P. Hnggi

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

Charge transport properties of CdMnTe radiation detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Growth, fabrication and characterization of indium-doped cadmium manganese telluride (CdMnTe)radiation detectors have been described. Alpha-particle spectroscopy measurements and time resolved current transient measurements have yielded an average charge collection efficiency approaching 100 %. Spatially resolved charge collection efficiency maps have been produced for a range of detector bias voltages. Inhomogeneities in the charge transport of the CdMnTe crystals have been associated with chains of tellurium inclusions within the detector bulk. Further, it has been shown that the role of tellurium inclusions in degrading chargecollection is reduced with increasing values of bias voltage. The electron transit time was determined from time of flight measurements. From the dependence of drift velocity on applied electric field the electron mobility was found to be n = (718 55) cm2/Vs at room temperature.

Kim K.; Rafiel, R.; Boardman, M.; Reinhard, I.; Sarbutt, A.; Watt, G.; Watt, C.; Uxa, S.; Prokopovich, D.A.; Belas, E.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; James, R.B.

2012-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

25

Ambipolar charge transport in microcrystalline silicon thin-film transistors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H) is a promising candidate for thin-film transistors (TFTs) in large-area electronics due to high electron and hole charge carrier mobilities. We report on ambipolar TFTs based on {mu}c-Si:H prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at temperatures compatible with flexible substrates. Electrons and holes are directly injected into the {mu}c-Si:H channel via chromium drain and source contacts. The TFTs exhibit electron and hole charge carrier mobilities of 30-50 cm{sup 2}/V s and 10-15 cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively. In this work, the electrical characteristics of the ambipolar {mu}c-Si:H TFTs are described by a simple analytical model that takes the ambipolar charge transport into account. The analytical expressions are used to model the transfer curves, the potential and the net surface charge along the channel of the TFTs. The electrical model provides insights into the electronic transport of ambipolar {mu}c-Si:H TFTs.

Knipp, Dietmar; Marinkovic, M. [Electronic Devices and Nanophotonics Laboratory, Jacobs University Bremen, 28759 Bremen (Germany); Chan, Kah-Yoong [IEF5-Photovoltaics, Research Center Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, 63100 Selangor (Malaysia); Gordijn, Aad [IEF5-Photovoltaics, Research Center Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Stiebig, Helmut [IEF5-Photovoltaics, Research Center Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Malibu Solar GmbH and Co. KG, 33609 Bielefeld (Germany)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

Charge and Spin Transport in Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

This proposal to the DOE outlines a three-year plan of research in theoretical and computational condensed-matter physics, with the aim of developing a microscopic theory for charge and spin dynamics in disordered materials with magnetic impurities. Important representatives of this class of materials are the dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), which have attracted great attention as a promising basis for spintronics devices. There is an intense experimental effort underway to study the transport properties of ferromagnetic DMS such as (Ga,Mn)As, and a number of interesting features have emerged: negative magnetoresistance, anomalous Hall effect, non-Drude dynamical conductivity, and resistivity maxima at the Curie temperature. Available theories have been able to account for some of these features, but at present we are still far away from a systematic microscopic understanding of transport in DMS. We propose to address this challenge by developing a theory of charge and spin dynamics based on a combination of the memory-function formalism and time-dependent density functional theory. This approach will be capable of dealing with two important issues: (a) the strong degree of correlated disorder in DMS, close to the localization transition (which invalidates the usual relaxation-time approximation to the Boltzmann equation), (b) the essentially unknown role of dynamical many-body effects such as spin Coulomb drag. We will calculate static and dynamical conductivities in DMS as functions of magnetic order and carrier density, which will advance our understanding of recent transport and infrared absorption measurements. Furthermore, we will study collective plasmon excitations in DMS (3D, 2D and quantum wells), whose linewidths could constitute a new experimental probe of the correlation of disorder, many-body effects and charge and spin dynamics in these materials.

Ullrich, Carsten A.

2009-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

27

Rapid Charge Transport in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Made from Vertically Aligned Single-Crystal Rutile TiO2 Nanowires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A rapid solvothermal approach was used to synthesize aligned 1D single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanowire (NW) arrays on transparent conducting substrates as electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The NW arrays showed a more than 200 times faster charge transport (see picture) and a factor four lower defect state density than conventional rutile nanoparticle films.

Feng, X.; Zhu, K.; Frank, A. J.; Grimes, C. A.; Mallouk, T. E.

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

28

Charge and Spin Transport in Superconducting Weak Links  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. The coherent mixing of the current states in the superconducting weak link subject to a Josephson phase difference ? and subject to an external transport current in the banks is one of the aims of this work. At ? = ? the nonlocal mixing of current states produces two vortices close to the point-contact between superconducting bulks. The effect of point-contact reflection in an impenetrable interface and effect of temperature on the vortices have been studied. It is obtained that increasing the reflection of the point-contact destroys the vortices while increasing the temperature restore these vortices. The vortex state is a new version of the interference between the macroscopic states and quantum tunnelling. Also, the weak link between unitary triplet superconductors which have f?wave and p + h?wave pairing symmetry has been studied from the spin and charge current-phase relation point of view. The main result in the second part of this thesis, is the polarization of the spin transport when a junction between triplet superconductors is used. It is observed that the spin current is the result of the misorientation between the gap vectors of two supercondcutors. In addition, the weak link between two bipolar nonunitary triplet superconductors is studied mathematically. The current-phase relations obtained in third part of this thesis are totally different from the junctions between the unitary spin-triplet superconductors and between the spin-singlet superconductors. The current phase diagrams which have been obtained in this work can be used to distinguish the symmetry of the order parameter in the crystals. PACS numbers: 74.50.+r, 74.20.Rp, 72.25.-b, 74.70.Pq, 74.70.TxCharge and Spin Transport in Superconducting Weak Links 2 1.

Gholamreza Rashedi

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Defect-induced magnetism and transport phenomena in epitaxial oxides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

observed in certain two-dimensionally conducting samples in limited temperature regimes. By optimising the (defect) structure at the interface, i.e. by introducing a single unit cell of (La0.5,Sr0.5)TiO3 or SnTiO3, it is shown that the sheet carrier density...

Schoofs, Frank

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

30

Phase Fluctuations and the Absence of Topological Defects in Photo-excited Charge Ordered Nickelate  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of an order parameter's amplitude and phase determines the collective behaviour of novel states emerging in complex materials. Time- and momentum-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, by virtue of measuring material properties at atomic and electronic time scales out of equilibrium, can decouple entangled degrees of freedom by visualizing their corresponding dynamics in the time domain. Here we combine time-resolved femotosecond optical and resonant X-ray diffraction measurements on charge ordered La{sub 1.75}Sr{sub 0.25}NiO{sub 4} to reveal unforeseen photoinduced phase fluctuations of the charge order parameter. Such fluctuations preserve long-range order without creating topological defects, distinct from thermal phase fluctuations near the critical temperature in equilibrium. Importantly, relaxation of the phase fluctuations is found to be an order of magnitude slower than that of the order parameter's amplitude fluctuations, and thus limits charge order recovery. This new aspect of phase fluctuations provides a more holistic view of the phase's importance in ordering phenomena of quantum matter.

Lee, W.S.; Chuang, Y.D.; Moore, R.G.; Zhu, Y.; Patthey, L.; Trigo, M.; Lu, D.H.; Kirchmann, P.S.; Krupin, O.; Yi, M.; Langner, M.; Huse, N.; Robinson, J.S.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, S.Y.; Coslovich, G.; Huber, B.; Reis, D.A.; Kaindl, R.A.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Doering, D.

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

Electron emission and defect formation in the interaction of slow,highly charged ions with diamond surfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report on electron emission and defect formation in theinteraction between slow (v~;0.3 vBohr) highly charged ions (SHCI) withinsulating (type IIa) and semiconducting (type IIb) diamonds. Electronemission induced by 31Pq+ (q=5 to 13), and 136Xeq+ (q=34 to 44) withkinetic energies of 9 kVxq increase linearly with the ion charge states,reaching over 100 electrons per ion for high xenon charge states withoutsurface passivation of the diamond with hydrogen. Yields from bothdiamond types are up to a factor of two higher then from reference metalsurfaces. Crater like defects with diameters of 25 to 40 nm are formed bythe impact of single Xe44+ ions. High secondary electron yields andsingle ion induced defects enable the formation of single dopant arrayson diamond surfaces.

Sideras-Haddad, E.; Shrivastava, S.; Rebuli, D.B.; Persaud, A.; Schneider, D.H.; Schenkel, T.

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

32

Charge transport in hybrid nanorod-polymer composite photovoltaiccells  

SciTech Connect

Charge transport in composites of inorganic nanorods and aconjugated polymer is investigated using a photovoltaic device structure.We show that the current-voltage (I-V) curves in the dark can be modelledusing the Shockley equation modified to include series and shuntresistance at low current levels, and using an improved model thatincorporates both the Shockley equation and the presence of a spacecharge limited region at high currents. Under illumination, theefficiency of photocurrent generation is found to be dependent on appliedbias. Furthermore, the photocurrent-light intensity dependence was foundto be sublinear. An analysis of the shunt resistance as a function oflight intensity suggests that the photocurrent as well as the fill factoris diminished as a result of increased photoconductivity of the activelayer at high light intensity. By studying the intensity dependence ofthe open circuit voltage for nanocrystals with different diameters andthus ! band gaps, it was inferred that Fermi-level pinning occurs at theinterface between the aluminum electrode and the nanocrystal.

Huynh, Wendy U.; Dittmer, Janke J.; Teclemariam, Nerayo; Milliron, Delia; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Barnham, Keith W.J.

2002-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

33

Review of the Lawrence Livermore Nationa Laboratory Identiified Defective Department of Transportation Hazardous Material Packages  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 5 Site Visit Report - Review of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Identified Defective Department of Transportation Hazardous Material Packages This site visit report documents the results of Office of Health, Safety and Security's review of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) identification, immediate actions, communications, documentation, evaluation, reporting and follow-up to the discovery of defective Department of Transportation (DOT) UN1A2 55- and 30-gallon open head single bolt closure steel drums intended for storage and transportation of hazardous waste and materials. This review, conducted on January 26-29, 2010, was sponsored by the DOE Livermore Site Office (LSO) to support interface with the lab and this report is intended to support follow-up

34

Single event induced charge transport modeling of GaAs MESFETs  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies examining single event charge collection in GaAs MESFETs have revealed enhanced charge collection, in which the drain charge collection can be as high as 8 times the amount of charge deposited in the device. The understanding of these charge amplifying mechanisms requires correlation between experimental and simulation analysis. Two-dimensional computer simulations of charge collection phenomena in GaAs MESFETs have been performed for alpha and laser ionization. In both cases more charge is collected than is created by the ionizing event. The simulations indicate that a bipolar transport mechanism (t < 60 ps) and a channel modulation mechanism (t > 40 ps) are responsible for this enhanced charge collection.

Weatherford, T.R.; Knudson, A.R. (SFA Inc., Landover, MD (United States)); McMorrow, D.; Campbell, A.B. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Curtice, W.R. (W.R. Curtice Consulting, Princeton Junction, NJ (United States))

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Optimal block-tridiagonalization of matrices for coherent charge transport  

SciTech Connect

Numerical quantum transport calculations are commonly based on a tight-binding formulation. A wide class of quantum transport algorithms require the tight-binding Hamiltonian to be in the form of a block-tridiagonal matrix. Here, we develop a matrix reordering algorithm based on graph partitioning techniques that yields the optimal block-tridiagonal form for quantum transport. The reordered Hamiltonian can lead to significant performance gains in transport calculations, and allows to apply conventional two-terminal algorithms to arbitrarily complex geometries, including multi-terminal structures. The block-tridiagonalization algorithm can thus be the foundation for a generic quantum transport code, applicable to arbitrary tight-binding systems. We demonstrate the power of this approach by applying the block-tridiagonalization algorithm together with the recursive Green's function algorithm to various examples of mesoscopic transport in two-dimensional electron gases in semiconductors and graphene.

Wimmer, Michael [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)], E-mail: Michael.Wimmer@physik.uni-regensburg.de; Richter, Klaus [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

2009-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

36

Imaging the charge transport in arrays of CdSe nanocrystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A novel method to image charge is used to measure the diffusion coefficient of electrons in films of CdSe nanocrystals at room temperature. This method makes possible the study of charge transport in films exhibiting high resistances or very small diffusion coefficients.

M. Drndic; R. Markov; M. V. Jarosz; M. G. Bawendi; M. A. Kastner; N. Markovic; M. Tinkham

2003-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

37

Studies of space-charge-dominated multispecies beam in a solenoid based beam transport line  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A self-consistent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is used to study the transport properties of a space-charge-dominated multispecies beam propagating through a solenoid-based low energy beam transport line. The evolution of the beam radius and emittance growth of each species arising due to the nonlinear space-charge forces has been investigated. The self-consistent PIC simulation shows the formation of hollow density profiles of subdominant unwanted species around the primary beam, downstream of the transport line. We have utilized this effect for efficient removal of unwanted species by making use of a slit at a suitable location in the beam line.

Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Heteroleptic cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes with charge transporting groups: A theoretical study  

SciTech Connect

Efficient and stable high energy organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are a vital component of new generation general illumination solutions. However, large charge imbalances in the emissive layer of OLEDs lead to charge accumulation and subsequent side reactions which lowers the device efficiency and dramatically shortens operational lifetime. Radical changes in the way emitter materials are designed are needed to address this problem. Conventional approaches have only focused on color tuning; however, multi-functional emitter materials are needed to assist the transport of charge in the emissive layer. We propose to design and synthesize new organometallic iridium phosphorescent materials with bipolar charge transport properties to be used in high energy OLEDs and white light configurations

Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Fernandez, Carlos A.

2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

39

On universality of charge transport in AdS/CFT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop the holographic formulation of transport in strongly coupled two-layer systems. We identify a dc conductivity, sigma^dc, that is finite even in a translationally invariant setup, and universal for CFTs with a gravity dual. The thermoelectric conductivity and heat conductivity are fully determined by the electrical conductivity matrix, as a consequence of Ward identities. We use the memory-matrix approach for double-layer systems, together with Ward identities, to show that sigma^dc - extended to finite frequency - has no Drude peak and, similarly, that its universal value is unaffected if translation invariance is softly broken.

Julian Sonner

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

40

Kinetic phenomena in charged particle transport in gases and plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The key difference between equilibrium (thermal) and non-equilibrium (low temperature - a.k.a. cold) plasmas is in the degree in which the shape of the cross sections influences the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). In this paper we will discuss the issue of kinetic phenomena from two different angles. The first will be how to take advantage of the strong influence and use low current data to obtain the cross sections. This is also known as the swarm technique and the product of a ''swarm analysis'' is a set of cross sections giving good number, momentum and energy balances of electrons or other charged particles. At the same time understanding the EEDF is based on the cross section data. Nevertheless sometimes the knowledge of the cross sections and even the behaviour of individual particles are insufficient to explain collective behaviour of the ensemble. The resulting ''kinetic'' effects may be used to favour certain properties of non-equilibrium plasmas and even may be used as the basis of some new plasma applications.

Petrovic, Zoran Lj.; Dujko, Sasa; Sasic, Olivera; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Malovic, Gordana [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 68 11080 Zemun (Serbia); Faculty of Traffic Engineering, University of Belgrade Belgrade (Serbia); Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 68 11080 Zemun (Serbia)

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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41

Charge transport in mixed CdSe and CdTe colloidal nanocrystal films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the influence of trap states on charge transport through films of mixed CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) between lateral electrodes, through layered films of CdTe and CdSe NCs in a layered geometry, and through ...

Bawendi, Moungi G.

42

Impact of defects on the electrical transport, optical properties and failure mechanisms of GaN nanowires.  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a three year LDRD project that focused on understanding the impact of defects on the electrical, optical and thermal properties of GaN-based nanowires (NWs). We describe the development and application of a host of experimental techniques to quantify and understand the physics of defects and thermal transport in GaN NWs. We also present the development of analytical models and computational studies of thermal conductivity in GaN NWs. Finally, we present an atomistic model for GaN NW electrical breakdown supported with experimental evidence. GaN-based nanowires are attractive for applications requiring compact, high-current density devices such as ultraviolet laser arrays. Understanding GaN nanowire failure at high-current density is crucial to developing nanowire (NW) devices. Nanowire device failure is likely more complex than thin film due to the prominence of surface effects and enhanced interaction among point defects. Understanding the impact of surfaces and point defects on nanowire thermal and electrical transport is the first step toward rational control and mitigation of device failure mechanisms. However, investigating defects in GaN NWs is extremely challenging because conventional defect spectroscopy techniques are unsuitable for wide-bandgap nanostructures. To understand NW breakdown, the influence of pre-existing and emergent defects during high current stress on NW properties will be investigated. Acute sensitivity of NW thermal conductivity to point-defect density is expected due to the lack of threading dislocation (TD) gettering sites, and enhanced phonon-surface scattering further inhibits thermal transport. Excess defect creation during Joule heating could further degrade thermal conductivity, producing a viscous cycle culminating in catastrophic breakdown. To investigate these issues, a unique combination of electron microscopy, scanning luminescence and photoconductivity implemented at the nanoscale will be used in concert with sophisticated molecular-dynamics calculations of surface and defect-mediated NW thermal transport. This proposal seeks to elucidate long standing material science questions for GaN while addressing issues critical to realizing reliable GaN NW devices.

Armstrong, Andrew M.; Aubry, Sylvie; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Siegal, Michael P.; Li, Qiming; Jones, Reese E.; Westover, Tyler; Wang, George T.; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Talin, Albert Alec; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Harris, C. Thomas; Huang, Jian Yu

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Thermal generation and mobility of charge carriers in collective proton transport in hydrogen-bonded chains  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The transport of protons in hydrogen-bonded systems is a long standing problem which has not yet obtained a satisfactorily theoretical description. Although this problem was examined first for ice, it is relevant in many systems and in particular in biology for the transport along proteins or for proton conductance across membranes, an essential process in cell life. The broad relevance makes the study of proton conduction very appealing. Since the original work of Bernal and Fowler on ice, the idea that the transport occurs through chains of hydrogen bonds has been well accepted. Such proton wires'' were invoked by Nagle and Morowitz for proton transport across membranes proteins and more recently across lipid bilayers. In this report, we assume the existence of such an hydrogen-bonded chain and discuss its consequences on the dynamics of the charge carriers. We show that this assumption leads naturally to the idea of soliton transport and we put a special emphasis on the role of the coupling between the protons and heavy ions motions. The model is presented. We show how the coupling affects strongly the dynamics of the charge carriers and we discuss the role it plays in the thermal generation of carriers. The work presented has been performed in 1986 and 87 with St. Pnevmatikos and N. Flyzanis and was then completed in collaboration with D. Hochstrasser and H. Buettner. Therefore the results presented in this part are not new but we think that they are appropriate in the context of this multidisciplinary workshop because they provide a rather complete example of the soliton picture for proton conduction. This paper discusses the thermal generation of the charge carriers when the coupling between the protons and heavy ions dynamics is taken into account. The results presented in this part are very recent and will deserve further analysis but they already show that the coupling can assist for the formation of the charge carriers.

Peyrard, M.; Boesch, R.; Kourakis, I. (Dijon Univ., 21 (France). Faculte des Sciences)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Thermal generation and mobility of charge carriers in collective proton transport in hydrogen-bonded chains  

SciTech Connect

The transport of protons in hydrogen-bonded systems is a long standing problem which has not yet obtained a satisfactorily theoretical description. Although this problem was examined first for ice, it is relevant in many systems and in particular in biology for the transport along proteins or for proton conductance across membranes, an essential process in cell life. The broad relevance makes the study of proton conduction very appealing. Since the original work of Bernal and Fowler on ice, the idea that the transport occurs through chains of hydrogen bonds has been well accepted. Such proton wires'' were invoked by Nagle and Morowitz for proton transport across membranes proteins and more recently across lipid bilayers. In this report, we assume the existence of such an hydrogen-bonded chain and discuss its consequences on the dynamics of the charge carriers. We show that this assumption leads naturally to the idea of soliton transport and we put a special emphasis on the role of the coupling between the protons and heavy ions motions. The model is presented. We show how the coupling affects strongly the dynamics of the charge carriers and we discuss the role it plays in the thermal generation of carriers. The work presented has been performed in 1986 and 87 with St. Pnevmatikos and N. Flyzanis and was then completed in collaboration with D. Hochstrasser and H. Buettner. Therefore the results presented in this part are not new but we think that they are appropriate in the context of this multidisciplinary workshop because they provide a rather complete example of the soliton picture for proton conduction. This paper discusses the thermal generation of the charge carriers when the coupling between the protons and heavy ions dynamics is taken into account. The results presented in this part are very recent and will deserve further analysis but they already show that the coupling can assist for the formation of the charge carriers.

Peyrard, M.; Boesch, R.; Kourakis, I. (Dijon Univ., 21 (France). Faculte des Sciences)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Studies on relative effects of charged and neutral defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon. Final report, 1 October 1989--31 December 1990  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers the third year of a continuing research study to understand the relative importance of charged and neutral defects in amorphous silicon. The objective of the study is to explore the electronic structure, including neutral and charged defects, an optoelectronic effects including the formation of Staebler-Wronski defects. The study concentrated on exploring electroluminescence experimentally and interpreting the results employing a simple guiding model. The simple guiding model assumes an exponential density of states and recombination rate constants (radiative and non-radiative) which are governed by hopping transitions. Measurements were also made as a function of photodegradation of the material. The results implicate that the radiative recombination processes are not distant pair tunneling but rather results from electrons hopping down due to the coulomb interactions. Preliminary experiments have been made on the effect of photodegradation on transient space charge limited currents in n/i/n structures. These experiments can directly yield information on the occupied defects centers induced by the photodegradation and are not a result of recombination processes. To date the results seems to be consistent with a picture which places the doubly occupied defects at quite a high energy ({approx_equal} 0.4 e.v. below the conduction band).

Silver, M. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

An Investigation of Spin and Charge Transport in Doped and Defected Graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fig 9-3 Test of nuclear spin effects..a series of tests. Test 1 : Nuclear spin relaxation timesnuclear spin Fig 9-3 Test of nuclear spin effects. The non-

McCreary, Kathleen M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Charge transport properties in CdZnTe detectors grown by the vertical Bridgman technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presently, a great amount of effort is being devoted to the development of CdTe and CdZnTe (CZT) detectors for a large variety of applications such as medical, industrial, and space research. We present the spectroscopic properties of some CZT crystals grown by the standard vertical Bridgman method and by the boron oxide encapsulated vertical Bridgman method, which has been recently implemented at IMEM-CNR (Parma, Italy). In this technique, the crystal is grown in an open quartz crucible fully encapsulated by a thin layer of liquid boron oxide. This method prevents contact between the crystal and the crucible, thereby allowing larger single grains with a lower dislocation density to be obtained. Several mono-electrode detectors were realized, with each having two planar gold contacts. The samples are characterized by an active area of about 7 mm x 7 mm and thicknesses ranging from 1 to 2 mm. The charge transport properties of the detectors have been studied by mobility-lifetime ({mu} x {tau}) product measurements, carried out at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble, France) in the planar transverse field configuration, where the impinging beam direction is orthogonal to the collecting electric field. We have performed several fine scans between the electrodes with a beam spot of 10 {mu}m x 10 {mu}m at various energies from 60 to 400 keV. In this work, we present the test results in terms of the ({mu} x {tau}) product of both charge carriers.

Auricchio, N.; Caroli, E. [INAF/IASF-Bologna, Bologna, 40129 (Italy); Marchini, L.; Zappettini, A. [IMEM-CNR, Parma, 43100 (Italy); Abbene, L. [DIFI, University of Palermo, Palermo, 90128 (Italy); Honkimaki, V. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, 38000 (France)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Gravity-driven Transport along Cylindrical Topological Defects : Possible Dark Matter and Nearly Frictionless States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The gravity-driven flow along an annular topological defect (string) with transversely corrugations is investigated by using the verified transition-rate model and boundary perturbation method. We found that for certain activation volume and energy there exists possible frictionless states which might be associated with the missing momentum of inertia or dark matter.

Zotin K. -H. Chu

2009-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

49

Charge transport through bio-molecular wires in a solvent: Bridging molecular dynamics and model Hamiltonian approaches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a hybrid method based on a combination of quantum/classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and a mod el Hamiltonian approach to describe charge transport through bio-molecular wires with variable lengths in presence o f a solvent. The core of our approach consists in a mapping of the bio-molecular electronic structure, as obtained f rom density-functional based tight-binding calculations of molecular structures along MD trajectories, onto a low di mensional model Hamiltonian including the coupling to a dissipative bosonic environment. The latter encodes fluctuat ion effects arising from the solvent and from the molecular conformational dynamics. We apply this approach to the c ase of pG-pC and pA-pT DNA oligomers as paradigmatic cases and show that the DNA conformational fluctuations are essential in determining and supporting charge transport.

R. Gutierrez; R. Caetano; P. B. Woiczikowski; T. Kubar; M. Elstner; G. Cuniberti

2009-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

50

Dielectric relaxation from a network of charged defects in dilute CeO/sub 2/:Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ solid solutions  

SciTech Connect

Solid solutions of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in CeO/sub 2/ are examined by the thermal depolarization (or ITC) method of dielectric relaxation. For concentrations less than or equal to 1 m/o Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, two peaks are observed. The lower temperature peak, Peak 1, is interpreted as due to the relaxation of nn YV/sub 0/ pairs (where V/sub 0/ = oxygen vacancy, and is analogous to the well-known CaV/sub 0/ pair obtained with Ca/sup 2 +/ doping. The upper peak, Peak 2, on the other hand, is a broad peak whose position is a function of concentration. It is not due to simple dipoles, but originates in the network of alternately charged (YV/sub 0/)/sup ./ pairs and isolated Y' defects by redistribution of vacancies.

Wang, D.Y.; Nowick, A.S.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Effect of ion mass and charge state on transport of vacuum ARC plasmas through a biased magnetic filter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of ion mass and charge state on plasma transport through a 90{sup o}-curved magnetic filter is experimentally investigated using a pulsed cathodic arc source. Graphite, copper, and tungsten were selected as test materials. The filter was a bent copper coil biased via the voltage drop across a low-ohm, ''self-bias'' resistor. Ion transport is accomplished via a guiding electric field, whose potential forms a ''trough'' shaped by the magnetic guiding field of the filter coil. Evaluation was done by measuring the filtered ion current and determination of the particle system coefficient, which can be defined as the ratio of filter ion current, divided by the mean ion charge state, to the arc current. It was found that the ion current and particle system coefficient decreased as the mass-to-charge ratio of ions increased. This result can be qualitatively interpreted by a very simply model of ion transport that is based on compensation of the centrifugal force by the electric force associated with the guiding potential trough.

Byon, Eungsun; Kim, Jong-Kuk; Kwon, Sik-Chol; Anders, Andre

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Charging and Transport of Aerosols near AC Transmission Lines: A Literature Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been hypothesized that the charging of airborne pollutant particles by alternating current (AC) transmission lines results in enhanced deposition and retention of these particles in the respiratory tract. This report provides an overview of the effect of AC transmission line corona on ion formation and the transfer of charge to aerosols. A literature review identified gaps in the information required to model the charging of aerosols by AC transmission lines and their dispersal downwind, so that e...

2003-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

53

Charge transport, configuration interaction and Rydberg states under density functional theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density functional theory (DFT) is a computationally efficient formalism for studying electronic structure and dynamics. In this work, we develop DFT-based excited-state methods to study electron transport, Rydberg excited ...

Cheng, Chiao-Lun

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Modification of space charge transport in nanocrystalline cerium oxide by heterogeneous doping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the search for new materials for energy conversion and storage technologies such as solid oxide fuel cells, nano-ionic materials have become increasingly relevant because unique physical and transport properties that ...

Litzelman, Scott J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

PLASMX: multigroup ionization and charge exchange cross-section code for neutral hydrogen transport in plasmas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

PLASMX generates effective multigroup macroscopic cross sections for discrete-ordinates calculations of neutral hydrogen atom transport in tokamak systems. The effective microscopic cross sections can be generated at the midpoint energies of the multigroup bin structure. Variable dimensioning presently restricts the number of energy groups to 22, the number of spatial regions to 10, and the number of Legendre polynomial moments to 7 (P/sub 6/). (MOW)

Morel, J.E.; Wienke, B.R.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Influence of plasma loss area on transport of charged particles through a transverse magnetic field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plasma transport in a double plasma device from the source region to the target region through a physical window comprising of electrically grounded magnet channels (filled with permanent magnet bars) for transverse magnetic field (TMF) and a pair of stainless steel (SS) plates is studied and presented in this manuscript. The study has relevance in negative ion source research and development where both TMF created by magnet channels and bias plate are used. The experiment is performed in two stages. In the first stage, a TMF is introduced between the two regions along with the SS plates, and corresponding plasma parameter data in the two regions are recorded by changing the distance between the TMF channels. In the second stage, the TMF is withdrawn from the system, and corresponding data are taken by changing the separation between the SS plates. The experimental results are then compared with a theoretical model. In the presence of TMF, where electrons are magnetized and ions are un-magnetized, it is observed that plasma transport perpendicular to the TMF is dominated by the ambipolar diffusion of ions. In the absence of TMF, plasma is un-magnetized, and plasma transport through the SS window aperture is almost independent of open area of the SS window.

Das, B. K.; Chakraborty, M. [Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Tepesia, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

Monte Carlo Electromagnetic Cross Section Production Method for Low Energy Charged Particle Transport Through Single Molecules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present state of modeling radio-induced effects at the cellular level neglects to account for the microscopic inhomogeneity of the nucleus from the non-aqueous contents by approximating the entire cellular nucleus as a homogenous medium of water. Charged particle track-structure calculations utilizing this principle of superposition are thereby neglecting to account for approximately 30% of the molecular variation within the nucleus. To truly understand what happens when biological matter is irradiated, charged particle track-structure calculations need detailed knowledge of the secondary electron cascade, resulting from interactions with not only the primary biological component water but also the non-aqueous contents, down to very low energies. This paper presents developments for a novel approach, which to our knowledge has never been done before, to reducing the homogenous water approximation. The purpose of our work is to develop of a completely self-consistent computational method for predicting molecule-specific ionization, excitation, and scattering cross sections in the very low energy regime that can be applied in a condensed history Monte Carlo track-structure code. The present methodology begins with the calculation of a solution to the many-body Schrdinger equation and proceeds to use Monte Carlo methods to calculate the perturbations in the internal electron field to determine the aforementioned processes. Results are computed for molecular water in the form of linear energy loss, secondary electron energies, and ionization-to-excitation ratios and compared against the low energy predictions of the GEANT4-DNA physics package of the Geant4 simulation toolkit.

Madsen, Jonathan R

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Cathode limited charge transport and performance of thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several types of thin-film rechargeable batteries based on lithium metal anodes and amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (aV{sub 2}O{sub 5}), LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes have been investigated in this laboratory. In all cases, the current density of these cells is limited by lithium ion transport in the cathodes. This paper, discusses sources of this impedance in Li-aV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Li-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin-film cells and their effect on cell performance.

Bates, J.B.; Hart, F.X.; Lubben, D.; Kwak, B.S.; van Zomeren, A.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Charge transport in silver chalcogenides in the region of phase transition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data on the {sigma}(T), R(T), and U(T) dependences in Ag{sub 2}Te, Ag{sub 2}Se, and Ag{sub 2}S in the region of the phase transition are analyzed. It is found that the phase transition in Ag{sub 2}Te is accompanied by a decrease in the electron concentration and this transition in Ag{sub 2}Se is accompanied by an increase in this concentration. The concentration of intrinsic charge carriers in Ag{sub 2}Te decreases by a factor of 4 as a result of the phase transition and increases by a factor of 2 in Ag{sub 2}Se. The effect of variation in the energy-band parameters in the region of phase transition on the electron mobility is considered. It is established that, in Ag{sub 2}Te and Ag{sub 2}S, electrons are scattered by optical phonons in the region of the phase transition, while electrons are scattered by acoustic phonons in the {alpha} and {beta} phases. It is assumed that the anomalously large increase in {sigma} and U in Ag{sub 2}S as a result of the phase transition is caused by an increase in the concentration n and a simultaneous decrease in {sigma}{sub g} and m{sub n}{sup *} by a factor of about 2.

Aliev, S. A.; Agaev, Z. F., E-mail: agayevz@rambler.ru; Zul'figarov, E. I. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

60

Understanding Defect Behavior in Nuclear Energy Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2012. Symposium, International Symposium on Defects, Transport and Related Phenomena.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Carrier transport and collection in fully depleted semiconductors by a combined action of the space charge field and the field due to electrode voltages  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor charge transport device and method for making same, characterized by providing a thin semiconductor wafer having rectifying junctions on its opposing major surfaces and including a small capacitance ohmic contact, in combination with bias voltage means and associated circuit means for applying a predetermined voltage to effectively deplete the wafer in regions thereof between the rectifying junctions and the ohmic contact. A charge transport device of the invention is usable as a drift chamber, a low capacitance detector, or a charge coupled device each constructed according to the methods of the invention for making such devices. Detectors constructed according to the principles of the invention are characterized by having significantly higher particle position indicating resolution than is attainable with prior art detectors, while at the same time requiring substantially fewer readout channels to realize such high resolution.

Rehak, Pavel (Patchogue, NY); Gatti, Emilio (Lesmo, IT)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation Li-ion rechargeable battery and LiCoO2 cathode is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

Katiyar, Ram S; Gmez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

2009-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

63

Exploring the Kinetics of Associated Defects in Ferroelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Positively charged oxygen vacancies associated with negatively charged acceptor dopants ... Secondary Transport Phenomena in Ceramic Membranes under...

64

Transportation  

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Transportation banner Home Agenda Awards Exhibitors Lodging Posters Registration T-Shirt Contest Transportation Workshops Contact Us User Meeting Archives Users' Executive...

65

Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transportation Print banner Home Agenda Awards Exhibitors Lodging Posters Registration T-Shirt Contest Transportation Workshops Contact Us User Meeting Archives Users' Executive...

66

Transportation  

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Links Transportation and Air Quality Transportation Energy Policy Analysis Batteries and Fuel Cells Buildings Energy Efficiency Electricity Grid Energy Analysis Appliance Energy...

67

Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transportation Transportation Transportation of Depleted Uranium Materials in Support of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Program Issues associated with transport of depleted UF6 cylinders and conversion products. Conversion Plan Transportation Requirements The DOE has prepared two Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) for the proposal to build and operate depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6) conversion facilities at its Portsmouth and Paducah gaseous diffusion plant sites, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The proposed action calls for transporting the cylinder at ETTP to Portsmouth for conversion. The transportation of depleted UF6 cylinders and of the depleted uranium conversion products following conversion was addressed in the EISs.

68

Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Health Risks » Transportation Health Risks » Transportation DUF6 Health Risks line line Accidents Storage Conversion Manufacturing Disposal Transportation Transportation A discussion of health risks associated with transport of depleted UF6. Transport Regulations and Requirements In the future, it is likely that depleted uranium hexafluoride cylinders will be transported to a conversion facility. For example, it is currently anticipated that the cylinders at the ETTP Site in Oak Ridge, TN, will be transported to the Portsmouth Site, OH, for conversion. Uranium hexafluoride has been shipped safely in the United States for over 40 years by both truck and rail. Shipments of depleted UF6 would be made in accordance with all applicable transportation regulations. Shipment of depleted UF6 is regulated by the

69

Transportation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transportation systems are an often overlooked critical infrastructure component. These systems comprise a widely diverse elements whose operation impact all aspects of society today. This chapter introduces the key transportation sectors and illustrates ...

Mark Hartong; Rajn Goel; Duminda Wijesekera

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Shape Defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...There are six major shape defects in coiled sheet, strip, or plate (Fig. 1): coil set; cross bow; camber;

71

Charge transport and magnetization profile at the interface between the correlated metal CaRuO{sub3} and the antiferromagnetic insulator CaMnO{sub3}.;  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combination of spectroscopic probes was used to develop a detailed experimental description of the transport and magnetic properties of superlattices composed of the paramagnetic metal CaRuO{sub 3} and the antiferromagnetic insulator CaMnO{sub 3}. The charge-carrier density and Ru valence state in the superlattices are not significantly different from those of bulk CaRuO{sub 3}. The small charge transfer across the interface implied by these observations confirms predictions derived from density-functional calculations. However, a ferromagnetic polarization due to canted Mn spins penetrates 3-4 unit cells into CaMnO{sub 3}, far exceeding the corresponding predictions. The discrepancy may indicate the formation of magnetic polarons at the interface.

Freeland, J. W.; Chakhalian, J.; Boris, A. V.; Tonnerre, J-M.; Kavich, JJ.; Yordanov, P.; Grenier,S.; Zschack, P.; Karapetrova, E.; Popovich, P.; Lee, H. N.; Keimer, B. (X-Ray Science Division); ( PSC-USR); (Univ. of Arkansas); (Max Planck Inst. for Solid State Research); (Loughborough Univ.); (CNRS and Univ. Joseph Fourier); (Univ. of Illinois); (ORNL)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Transportation  

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Meier AKMeier@lbl.gov (510) 486-4740 Links Transportation and Air Quality Batteries and Fuel Cells Buildings Energy Efficiency Electricity Grid Energy Analysis Energy...

73

Transport characteristics of a Glaser magnet for an axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric space charge dominated beam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the dynamics of space charge dominated beam through a Glaser magnet which is often used to focus charged particle beams in the low energy section of accelerators and in many other devices. Various beam optical properties of the magnet and emittance evolution that results from the coupling between the two transverse planes are studied. We have derived ten independent first order differential equations for the beam sigma matrix elements assuming the linear space-charge force consistent with the assumption of the canonically transformed KV like distribution. In addition, the feasibility of using a Glaser magnet doublet in a low energy beam injection line to match an initial non-axisymmetric high intensity beam with net angular momentum to an axisymmetric system to suppress effective emittance growth after transition back to an uncoupled system, has also been studied.

Goswami, A.; Sing Babu, P.; Pandit, V. S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Charge Carrier Chemistry in Nanoscopic Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Defect chemistry is explored in space charge zones with emphasis on mesoscopic situations. After a general overview two representative

75

Modeling of species and charge transport in Li-Ion batteries based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to improve the design of Li ion batteries the complex interplay of various physical phenomena in the active particles of the electrodes and in the electrolyte has to be balanced. The separate transport phenomena in the electrolyte and in the ...

Arnulf Latz; Jochen Zausch; Oleg Iliev

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Analysis of the baryon-, proton-, and charged particle kurtosis in heavy ion collisions within a relativistic transport approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the potential of recent lattice QCD predictions on net baryon number, net charge and net proton fluctuations (in terms of an effective kurtosis) to investigate the properties of hot and dense matter created in relativistic heavy ion reactions. Lattice QCD suggests a value for the baryon number fluctuation between 0 and 1, depending whether the system is in the hadron gas phase or in the quark gluon phase. The present analysis is performed on simulated events taking into account realistic fluctuations due to stopping, resonance decays, etc. while conserving electric and baryon charge exactly on an event-by-event basis. The investigations are performed within the UrQMD framework for Pb+Pb reactions in the energy range from E_lab = 20A to 158A GeV. We find that the effective kurtosis of net proton fluctuations (being experimentally more feasible than net baryon fluctuations) around midrapidity are compatible with 0 +/- 1. However, the baryon number effective kurtosis is found to be negative in the who...

Schuster, Tim; Mitrovski, Michael; Stock, Reinhard; Bleicher, Marcus

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

International aeronautical user charges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction: 1.1 BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION Very few issues relating to the international air transportation industry are today as divisive as those pertaining to user charges imposed at international airports and enroute ...

Odoni, Amedeo R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Due to limited parking, all visitors are strongly encouraged to: Due to limited parking, all visitors are strongly encouraged to: 1) car-pool, 2) take the Lab's special conference shuttle service, or 3) take the regular off-site shuttle. If you choose to use the regular off-site shuttle bus, you will need an authorized bus pass, which can be obtained by contacting Eric Essman in advance. Transportation & Visitor Information Location and Directions to the Lab: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is located in Berkeley, on the hillside directly above the campus of University of California at Berkeley. The address is One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720. For comprehensive directions to the lab, please refer to: http://www.lbl.gov/Workplace/Transportation.html Maps and Parking Information: On Thursday and Friday, a limited number (15) of barricaded reserved parking spaces will be available for NON-LBNL Staff SNAP Collaboration Meeting participants in parking lot K1, in front of building 54 (cafeteria). On Saturday, plenty of parking spaces will be available everywhere, as it is a non-work day.

79

Rational synthesis of unidimensional mixed valence solids. Structure oxidation state-charge transport relationships in iodinated nickel and palladium bisbenzoquinonedioximates  

SciTech Connect

A detailed study is presented of crystal structure, stoichiometry, oxidation state, and electron transport in the materials Ni(bqd)/sub 2/, Pd(bqd)/sub 2/, Ni(bqd)/sub 2/I/sub 0/ /sub 018/, Ni(bqd)/sub 2/I/sub 0/ /sub 5/ . S, and Pd(bqd)/sub 2/I/sub 0/ /sub 5/ . S, where bqd = o-benzoquinonedioximato and S = an aromatic solvent. The compound Pd(bqd)/sub 2/I/sub 0/ /sub 50/ . 0.52o-C/sub 6/H/sub 4/Cl/sub 2/ was shown by single-crystal x-ray diffraction to crystallize in the tetragonal space group D/sub 4h//sup 2/-P4/mcc, with four formula units in a cell of dimensions a = 16.048 (7) and c = 6.367 (3) A. The crystal structure consists of stacked Pd(bqd)/sub 2/ units, each staggered by 65/sup 0/ with respect to its nearest neighbors, and disordered chains of iodine atoms extending in the c direction. The Pd--Pd distance is 3.184 (3) A, Pd--N = 1.996 (7) A, and the Pd(bqd)/sub 2/ units are rigorously planar. The predominant form of the iodine present is I/sub 3//sup -/ (..nu../sub fundamental/ 107 cm/sup -1/). Crystallization of Ni(bqd)/sub 2/ from benzene containing traces of iodine produces the new orthorhombic phase Ni(bqd)/sub 2/I/sub 0/ /sub 018/. It crystallizes in the space group D/sub 2h//sup 26/-Ibam with four formula units in a unit cell of dimensions a = 16.438 (2), b = 14.759 (4), and c = 6.360 (2) A. Full-matrix least-squares refinement gave a final value of the conventional R index (on F) of 0.11 for 1026 reflections having F/sub 0//sup 2/ > 3 sigma(F/sub 0//sup 2/). The structure contains rigorously planar Ni(bqd)/sub 2/ units stacked along the c axis with each molecule staggered by 68/sup 0/ with respect to its nearest neighbors. The Ni--Ni distance is 3.180 (2) A and Ni--N = 1.88 (10) A. Single-crystal electrical conductivity measurements (dc and 100-Hz ac) in the stacking direction show an increase in conductivity upon partial oxidation of >10/sup 3/ (Ni) and >10/sup 4/ (Pd). Maximum conductivities at 300 K are determined.

Brown, L.D. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL); Kalina, D.W.; McClure, M.S.; Schultz, S.; Ruby, S.L.; Ibers, J.A.; Kannewurf, C.R.; Marks, T.J.

1979-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

80

Effect of Extended Defects in Planar and Pixelated CdZnTe Detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We evaluated a spectroscopy-grade 15 x 15 x 7 mm{sup 3} CdZnTe (CZT) crystal with a high {mu}{tau}-product, > 10{sup -2} cm{sup 2}/V, but impaired by microscopic extended defects, such as walls of dislocations, low-angle and sub-grain boundaries, and Te inclusions. First, we evaluated a planar detector fabricated from this crystal using a Microscale X-ray Detector Mapping (MXDM) technique. Then, we fabricated from the same crystal a pixel detector to study local non-uniformities of the electric field. The measured X-ray response maps confirmed the presence of non-uniformities in the charge transport, and they showed that the global- and local-distortions of the internal E-field correlated to the extended defects and space-charge buildup on the side surfaces.

C Camarda; K Andreini; A Bolotnikov; Y Cui; A Hossain; R Gul; K Kim; L Marchini; L Xu; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Features of the charge-transport mechanism in layered Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} single crystals doped with chlorine and terbium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temperature dependences (T = 5-300 K) of the resistivity in the plane of layers and in the direction perpendicular to the layers, as well as the Hall effect and the magnetoresistance (H < 80 kOe, T = 0.5-4.2 K) in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} single crystals doped with chlorine and terbium, are investigated. It is shown that the doping of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with terbium atoms results in p-type conductivity and in increasing hole concentration. The doping of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with chlorine atoms modifies also the character of its conductivity instead of changing only the type from p to n. In the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the direction perpendicular to layers, a portion arises with the activation conductivity caused by the hopping between localized states. The charge-transport mechanism in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} single crystals doped with chlorine is proposed.

Abdullaev, N. A., E-mail: anadir@azintex.com; Abdullaev, N. M.; Aliguliyeva, H. V.; Kerimova, T. G.; Mehdiyev, G. S. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Abdullaev Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan); Nemov, S. A. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Effect of the magnetic phase transition on the charge transport in layered semiconductor ferromagnets TlCrS{sub 2} and TlCrSe{sub 2}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TlCrS{sub 2} and TlCrSe{sub 2} crystals were synthesized by solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that TlCrS{sub 2} and TlCrSe{sub 2} compounds crystallize in the hexagonal crystal system with lattice parameters a = 3.538 A, c = 21.962 A, c/a {approx} 6.207, z = 3; a = 3.6999 A, c = 22.6901 A, c/a {approx} 6.133, z = 3; and X-ray densities {rho}{sub x} = 6.705 and 6.209 g/cm{sup 3}, respectively. Magnetic and electric studies in a temperature range of 77-400 K showed that TlCrS{sub 2} and TlCrSe{sub 2} are semiconductor ferromagnets. Rather large deviations of the experimental effective magnetic moment of TlCrS{sub 2} (3.26 {mu}{sub B}) and TlCrSe{sub 2} (3.05 {mu}{sub B}) from the theoretical one (3.85 {mu}{sub B}) are attributed to two-dimensional magnetic ordering in the paramagnetic region of strongly layered ferromagnets TlCrS{sub 2} and TlCrSe{sub 2}. The effect of the magnetic phase's transition on the charge transport in TlCrS{sub 2} and TlCrSe{sub 2} is detected.

Veliyev, R. G.; Sadikhov, R. Z.; Kerimova, E. M., E-mail: ekerimova@physics.ab.az; Asadov, Yu. G.; Jabbarov, A. I. [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

NIST: Theoretical Dosimetry and Radiation-Transport ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Theoretical Dosimetry and Radiation-Transport Calculations. Summary: The fundamental photon and charged particle interaction ...

2013-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

84

TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TEXASTRANS TEXAS TRANSPORTATION HALL HONOR OF HALL HONOR OF TEXASTRAN HALL HONOR OF TEXASTRAN HALL HONOR OF Inductees #12;2 TEXAS TRANSPORTATION HALL HONOR OF L NOR OF Texas is recognized as having one of the finest multimodal transportation systems in the world. The existence of this system has been key

85

Space-charge-limited currents in an Se{sub 95}As{sub 5} chalcogenide glass-like semiconductor system containing EuF{sub 3} impurities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is established that charge carrier (hole) transport in the Al-Se{sub 95}As{sub 5} Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket EuF{sub 3} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket -Te structure is effected by unipolar injection currents limited by space charges with the involvement of two capture trap groups. Shallow traps corresponding to charged intrinsic defects C{sub 1}{sup -} are related to broken selenium bonds. Deep traps corresponding to charged intrinsic defects P{sub 2}{sup -} are formed by arsenic atoms with broken coordination. It is shown that the EuF{sub 3} impurity strongly affects the concentration of the capture traps, especially those localized near the Fermi level.

Isayev, A. I.; Mekhtiyeva, S. I.; Qaribova, S. N., E-mail: sqaribova@rambler.ru [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Abdullaev Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

Transport in nanoscale systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In part I of the Thesis charge ordering and transport in arrays of coated semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dot arrays) are studied. Charge ordering in dot arrays is considered by mapping the electrons on the dots onto ...

Novikov, Dmitry S., 1976-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Research on defects and transport in amorphous-silicon-based semiconductors. Final subcontract report, 20 February 1991--19 April 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work on three individual tasks as follows. (1) Electron and hole drift measurements in a-Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:H and a-Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x}:H p-i-n solar cells. Multijunction solar cells incorporating modified band gap a-Si:H in a triple-junction structure are generally viewed as the most promising avenue for achieving an amorphous silicon-based solar call with 15% stabilized conversion efficiency. The specific objective of this task was to document the mobilities and deep-trapping mobility-lifetime products for electrons and holes in a-Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:H and a-Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x}:H alloys materials. (2) Electroabsorption measurements and built-in potential (V{sub bi}) in solar cells. V{sub bi} in a p-i-n solar call may be limiting the open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) in wide-band-gap cells (E{sub g} > 1.8 eV) currently under investigation as the top cell for 15% triple junction devices. The research addressed four issues that need to be resolved before the method can yield an error less than 0.1 V for V{sub bi}. The details are presented in this report. (3) Defect relaxation and Shockley-Read kinetics in a-Si:H. Quantitative modeling of solar cells is usually based on Shockley-Read kinetics.`` An important assumption of this approach is that the rate of emission of a photocarrier trapped on a defect is independent of quasi-Fermi level location.

Schiff, E.A.; Antoniadis, H.; Gu, Q.; Lee, J.K.; Wang, Q.; Zafar, S. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Simulation and Analysis of Human Phantoms Exposed to Heavy Charged Particle Irradiations Using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport System (PHITS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anthropomorphic phantoms are commonly used for testing radiation fields without the need to expose human subjects. One of the most widely known is RANDO phantom. This phantom is used primarily for medical X-ray applications, but a similar design known as "MATROSHKA" is now being used for space research and exposed to heavy ion irradiations from the Galactic environment. Since the radiation field in the phantom should respond in a similar manner to how it would act in human tissues and organs under an irradiation, the tissue substitute chosen for soft tissue and the level of complexity of the entire phantom are crucial issues. The phantoms, and the materials used to create them, were developed mainly for photon irradiations and have not been heavily tested under the conditions of heavy ion exposures found in the space environment or external radiotherapy. The Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System (PHITS) was used to test the phantoms and their materials for their potential as human surrogates for heavy ion irradiation. Stopping powers and depth-dose distributions of heavy charged particles (HCPs) important to space research and medical applications were first used in the simulations to test the suitability of current soft tissue substitutes. A detailed computational anthropomorphic phantom was then developed where tissue substitutes and ICRU-44 tissue could be interchanged to verify the validation of the soft tissue substitutes and and determine the required level of complexity of the entire phantom needed to achieve a specified precision as a replacement of the human body. The materials tested were common soft tissue substitutes in use and the materials which had a potential for the soft tissue substitute. Ceric sulfate dosimeter solution was closest to ICRU-44 tissue; however, it was not appropriate as the phantom material because it was a solution. A150 plastic, ED4C (fhw), Nylon (Du Pont Elvamide 8062), RM/SR4, Temex, and RW-2 were within 1% of the mean normalized difference of mass stopping powers (or stopping powers for RW-2) when compared to the ICRU-44 tissue, and their depth-dose distributions were close; therefore, they were the most suitable among the remaining solid materials. Overall, the soft tissue substitutes which were within 1% of ICRU-44 tissue in terms of stopping power produced reasonable results with respect to organ dose in the developed phantom. RM/SR4 is the best anthropomorphic phantom soft tissue substitute because it has similar interaction properties and identical density with ICRU-44 tissue and it is a rigid solid polymer giving practical advantages in manufacture of real phantoms.

Lee, Dongyoul

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Defect aggregation kinetics in calcium fluoride  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Defects in solid materials are responsible for many of their most interesting and critical properties. The authors have developed a site-selective laser technique that allows us to monitor the aggregation of rare earth ion defects in solids on the microscopic scale. This excitation absorption laser method enables us to derive kinetic rate information and thermodynamic parameters for the distribution of defects in solids. For doped materials, various types of defects arise when the dopant ions have ionic charges that differ from the charges of host crystal ions. In model systems such as alkaline earth fluorides doped with trivalent rare earth ions, some defect sites consist of a single dopant ion, while others consist of clusters of dopant cations and interstitial anions. Heat treatment of doped samples leads to a distribution of the various types of defect sites that is characteristic of the temperature and length of heat treatment and the total dopant ion concentration. The results from a study of the formation of trivalent europium ion defect aggregates in calcium fluoride indicate that our method successfully monitors changes in individual site concentrations resulting from heat treatment. The results of this study are consistent with the formation of negatively charged dimer and trimer defects in Eu{sup 3+}:CaF{sub 2} crystals from isolated europium ion and (Eu:F{sub i}) single pair defects. In addition, he presents evidence for rapid equilibrium between the isolated ion and the single pair. Other work presented in this thesis includes the development of a high-temperature fluorine oxidation apparatus that was used to convert divalent europium ions to the trivalent state in calcium fluoride single crystals. This apparatus was also used to increase the superconducting {Tc}'s of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} through modification of copper-oxygen oxidation states.

Cirillo, K.M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

A Theoretical Study of the Interactions of In+ and In+3 with a Stone-Wales Defect Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experimental techniques [1] have demonstrated the controllable, reversible and mass transport exchange of indium nanocrystals along surfaces of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). In particular, at certain sites robust nucleation occurs suggesting preferred locations for controlled manipulation. We believe these site locations represent structural defects, like rehybridization, incomplete bonding and topological defects within the carbon network. Although minute, these defects can drastically modify the electrical, chemical and mechanical properties of CNTs. This study was devoted to understand the role of structural defects, specifically a Stone-Wales (SW) defect in the surface transport and interaction properties of the In{sup +1} and In{sup +3} for both the singlet and triplet state. The effects of CNT surface curvature on In+1 and In{sup +3} is also studied and compared to graphite. Geometries of complexes were optimized at the B3LYP level. The standard 6-31G(d) basis set was used for carbon and hydrogen atoms while an effective core potential (ECP) was used for indium. All calculations were performed using the Gaussian 03 suite of programs. The computed Mulliken charges and HOMOLUMO gap energies, interactions and interaction energy (corrected by the basis set superposition error) of the systems have been studied and will be discussed. Figure 1 represents the comparison of the molecular electrostatic potential maps for (a) In{sup +} and (b) In{sup +3} with a SW defect CNT.

Simeon, T; Balasubramanian, K; Leszczynski, J

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

91

Net-baryon-, net-proton-, and net-charge kurtosis in heavy-ion collisions within a relativistic transport approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the potential of net-baryon, net-proton and net-charge kurtosis measurements to investigate the properties of hot and dense matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Contrary to calculations in a grand canonical ensemble we explicitly take into account exact electric and baryon charge conservation on an event-by-event basis. This drastically limits the width of baryon fluctuations. A simple model to account for this is to assume a grand-canonical distribution with a sharp cut-off at the tails. We present baseline predictions of the energy dependence of the net-baryon, net-proton and net-charge kurtosis for central ($b\\leq 2.75$ fm) Pb+Pb/Au+Au collisions from $E_{lab}=2A$ GeV to $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV from the UrQMD model. While the net-charge kurtosis is compatible with values around zero, the net-baryon number decreases to large negative values with decreasing beam energy. The net-proton kurtosis becomes only slightly negative for low $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$.

Marlene Nahrgang; Tim Schuster; Michael Mitrovski; Reinhard Stock; Marcus Bleicher

2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

92

Crystal Defects in CdZnTe Crystals Grown by the Modified Low-Pressure Bridgman Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) is among the most promising materials for room-temperature X- and gamma-ray detectors. However, crystal defects such as Te inclusions and subgrain boundaries significantly hamper their performances. In this work, we evaluated CZT crystals grown by the modified low-pressure Bridgman technique at the IMEM Institute, Parma. We characterized the crystals by IR microscopy to identify the sizes and concentrations of the Te inclusions, along with high spatial resolution X-ray response mapping to measure the uniformity of their charge-transport properties. In addition, we employed white X-ray beam diffraction topography to analyze their crystalline structure.

Bolotnikov A.; Marchini, L.; Zappettini, M.; Zha, M.; Zambelli, N.; Camarda, G.S.; James, R.B.

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

93

Defects and Transport in Ceramics IV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 19, 2011... Oxide Transparent Conductors: Gabriela Gonzalez Aviles1; Rofeideh Mansourian1; Bryan Hardnacke1; Anna Wesolik1; Jordan Gardner1;...

94

Defects and Transport Processes in Beryllium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microstructures and Relationships between Rare-Earth Elements and Actinides in U-Pu-Zr-Np-Am Alloys with 8% ... Uranium Localization in Alpha-Plutonium...

95

International Symposium on Defects, Transport and Related ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Temperature Steam Permeation via Ambipolar Diffusion in Perovskite Proton ... Local Structure and Cation Distribution in Mullite-Type Bi2(FexAl1-x)4O

96

International Symposium on Defects, Transport and Related ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Beta Gallia Rutile Intergrowths as Thermoelectric Oxides ... of Electrochemical Polarization in Oxide Thin Film Electrolyte under Intense Applied Field.

97

International Symposium on Defects, Transport and Related ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relaxation phenomena, including ionic, electronic, impedance spectroscopy, NMR (dynamics), experimental work, modeling, and calculations.

98

Do the Defects Make it Work? Defect Engineering in ..pi.. - Conjugated Polymer Films and Their Solar Cells (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The summaries of this report are: (1) charged defects produce 10{sup 15}-10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} free carriers; (2) treatment with nucleophiles decreases p{sub f} and {sigma} while treatment with electrophiles does not change p{sub f} but increases {sigma}; (3) both treatments increase {mu}{sub p}, L{sub ex} and stability against photo-degradation; (4) charged defects can improve OPV by increasing conductivity and creating interfacial electric fields but they hurt {mu}{sub p}, L{sub ex} and chemical stability; and (5) a better way--synthesize materials without covalent defects and dope with purposely added, bound dopants.

Gregg, B. A.; Wang, D.; Reese, M. O.; Kopidakis, N.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Extended Defects in Cdznte Radiation Detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-volume CdZnTe (CZT) single crystals with electron lifetime exceeding 10 mus have recently become commercially available. This opened the opportunity for making room temperature CZT gamma-ray detectors with extended thicknesses and larger effective areas. However, the extended defects that are present even in the highest-quality material remain a major drawback which affects the availability and cost of large CZT detectors. In contrast to the point defects that control electron lifetime and whose effects on the charge collection can be electronically corrected, the extended defects introduce significant fluctuations in the collected charge, which increase with a crystal's thickness. The extended defects limit the uniformity in the electrons' drift distance in CZT crystals, above which electron trapping cannot effectively be corrected. In this paper, we illustrate the roles of the extended defects in CZT detectors with different geometries. We emphasize that the crystallinity of commercial CZT materials remains a major obstacle on the path to developing thick, large-volume CZT detectors for gamma-ray imaging and spectroscopy.

Bolotnikov, A.; Babalola, S; Camarda, G; Chen, H; Awadalla, S; Cui, Y; Egarievwe, S; Fochuk, P; Hawrami, R; et. al.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

A charged particle transport analysis of the dose to a silicon-germanium thermoelectric element due to a solar flare event  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A version of the BRYNTRN baryon transport code written at the NASA Langley Research Center has been used to analyze the dose to a typical space reactor thermoelectric (TE) element due to a solar flare event. The code has been used in the past to calculate the dose/dose equivalent distributions to astronauts due to solar flares. It has been modified to accommodate multiple layers of spacecraft and component material. Differential and integrated doses to the TE element are presented and discussed. 5 refs.

Dandini, V.J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Assessment of Crack in Corrosion Defects in Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Pipelines are one of the safest forms of transportation for oil and gas. However, pipelines may experience some defects, such as cracks, corrosion and cracks (more)

Hosseini, Seyed Aliakbar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

A General Relationship between Disorder, Aggregation, and Charge...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aggregation, and Charge Transport in Conjugated Polymers Monday, September 23, 2013 The potential for combining low-cost manufacturing and mechanical robustness with engineering...

103

Charge Depleting:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0.5 seconds 0.5 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 18.6 seconds Maximum Speed: 83.2 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 100.6 MPH Charge Sustaining: Acceleration 0-60 MPH Time: 10.6 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 18.6 seconds Maximum Speed: 82.8 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 101.9 MPH Brake Test @ 60 MPH Distance Required: 145.1 ft UDDS Fuel Economy 6 HWFET Fuel Economy 6,10 Distance (miles) Fuel Economy (mpg) AC Energy Consumed (kWh) 7 Distance (miles) Fuel Economy (mpg) AC Energy Consumed (kWh) 7 10 118.5 2.85 10 53.0 1.80 20 116.8 5.49 20 56.6 3.37 40 116.0 10.50 40 58.0 6.38 60 90.7 11.34 60 55.3 9.48 80 76.6 11.34 80 51.4 11.11 100 68.0 11.34 100 47.2 11.13 200 50.9 11.34 200 38.7 11.13 Fuel Economy with A/C Off 1 Cold Start Charge Depleting 2 : Fuel Economy: 119.7 MPG AC kWh Consumed 7 : 0.282 kWh/mi Charge Depleting

104

Electric:SpaceCharge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... OOF2: The Manual. Electric:SpaceCharge. Prev, 6.4.1. Material Properties, Next. Name. Electric:SpaceCharge Spatial charge density. Details. ...

2013-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

105

Investigation on non-glass laser fusion targets: their fabrication, characterization, and transport. Charged Particle Research Laboratory report No. 2-81, progress report, June 1, 1980-January 31, 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A summary is presented of the research progress made under LLNL Subcontract 8320003 for the period of June 1, 1980 through January 31, 1981. The main theme of the research has continued to be the development of techniques for fabricating, characterizing, and transporting laser fusion targets on a continuous basis. The target fabrication techniques are intended mainly for non-glass spherical shell targets, both cryogenic and non-cryogenic. Specifically, progress has been made in each of the following categories. (1) Investigation of liquid hydrogen behavior inside a spherical laser fusion target. (2) Development of automated target characterization scheme. (3) Study of cryogenic target fabrication scheme utilizing cold-gas-levitation and electric field positioning. (4) Development of a cryogenic target fabrication system based on target free-fall method. (5) Generation of hydrogen powder using electro-hydrodynamic spraying. (6) Study of target-charging techniques for application to contactless cryogenic target fabrication. (7) Development of hollow metal sphere production technique. A brief summary of the research progress made in each category is presented.

Kim, K.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Charge Depleting:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 seconds 3 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.3 seconds Maximum Speed: 74.3 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 103.4 MPH Charge Sustaining: Acceleration 0-60 MPH Time: 13.4 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.4 seconds Maximum Speed: 74.8 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 104.0 MPH Brake Test @ 60 MPH Distance Required: 153.0 ft UDDS Fuel Economy 6 HWFET Fuel Economy 6 Distance (miles)

107

Charge Depleting:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 seconds 0 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.1 seconds Maximum Speed: 75.7 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 104.9 MPH Charge Sustaining: Acceleration 0-60 MPH Time: 12.8 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.0 seconds Maximum Speed: 75.7 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 105.0 MPH Brake Test @ 60 MPH Distance Required: 126.8 ft UDDS Fuel Economy 6 HWFET Fuel Economy 6 Distance (miles)

108

ChargePoint America Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ChargePoint America Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report Project Status to Date through: March 2012 Number of Charging Units Charging Electricity Charging Unit -...

109

Do the Defects Make It Work? Defect Engineering in Pi-Conjugated Polymers and Their Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The charged defect density in common pi-conjugated polymers such as poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, is around 1018 cm-3. Despite, or perhaps because of, this huge defect density, bulk heterojunction solar cells made from these polymers and a C60 derivative such as PCBM exhibit some of the highest efficiencies (~5%) yet obtained in solid state organic photovoltaic cells. We discuss defects in molecular organic semiconductors and in pi-conjugated polymers. These defects can be grouped in two categories, covalent and noncovalent. Somewhat analogous to treating amorphous silicon with hydrogen, we introduce chemical methods to modify the density and charge of the covalent defects in P3HT by treating it with electrophiles such as dimethyl sulfate and nucleophiles such as sodium methoxide. The effects of these treatments on the electrical and photovoltaic properties and stability of organic PV cells is discussed in terms of the change in the number and chemical properties of the defects. Finally, we address the question of whether the efficiency of OPV cells requires the presence of these defects which function as adventitious p-type dopants. Their presence relieves the resistance limitations usually encountered in cleaner organic semiconductors and can create built-in electric fields at junctions.

Wang, D.; Reese, M.; Kopidakis N.; Gregg, B. A.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Charge storage in nanocrystal systems: Role of defects?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wet thermal oxidations of polycrystalline Si?.??Ge?.?? films at 600C for 30 and 50 min were carried out. A stable mixed oxide was obtained for films that were oxidized for 50 min. ...

Kan, Eric Win Hong

111

Electrostatic in Reissner-Nordstrom space-time with a conical defect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the electrostatic potential generated by a point charge in the space-time of Reissner-Nordstrom with a conical defect. An expression for the self-energy is also presented.

J. Spinelly; V. B. Bezerra

2000-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

112

Morphology and Charge Transport in Conjugated Polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in regioregular poly(thio- phene) thin film transistors", J. Appl. Phys. 2004, 96 (4), 2063­2070. 12. Basescu, N

McGehee, Michael

113

Graphene materials having randomly distributed two-dimensional structural defects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Graphene-based storage materials for high-power battery applications are provided. The storage materials are composed of vertical stacks of graphene sheets and have reduced resistance for Li ion transport. This reduced resistance is achieved by incorporating a random distribution of structural defects into the stacked graphene sheets, whereby the structural defects facilitate the diffusion of Li ions into the interior of the storage materials.

Kung, Harold H; Zhao, Xin; Hayner, Cary M; Kung, Mayfair C

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

114

ChargePoint America Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

period: May 2011 through December 2011 ChargePoint Charging Electricity Charge Unit Usage - Charging Units Events Consumed By State Installed Performed (AC MWh) California 657...

115

Charge state simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The charge state balance (eg, the population of different charge states) inside the EBIT is determined by the balance between the different ...

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

116

Electric Vehicle Public Charging -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electric Vehicle Public Charging - Time vs. Energy March, 2013 A critical factor for successful PEV adoption is the deployment and use of charging infrastructure in non-...

117

Influence of Process Induced Defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Advanced Materials, Processes and Applications for Additive ... Process induced defects were characterized by computer tomography (CT),...

118

Nested Domain Defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An example of a supersymmetric model involving two interacting chiral superfields is presented here which allows for solutions describing string-like ``domain ribbon'' defects embedded within a domain wall. It is energetically favorable for the fermions within the wall to populate the domain ribbons, and an explicit solution is found for the fermion zero modes. The Fermi gas within ribbons can allow them to stabilize in the form of small loops.

J. R. Morris

1997-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

119

Battery charging system  

SciTech Connect

A battery charging system designed to charge a battery, especially a nickel-cadmium (Ni-cd) battery from a lead acid power supply without overcharging, and to charge uniformly a plurality of batteries in parallel is described. A non-linear resistance is utilized and is matched to the voltage difference of the power supply battery and the batteries being charged.

Komatsu, K.; Mabuchi, K.

1982-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

120

Battery charging system  

SciTech Connect

A highly efficient battery charging system is described in which the amperehour discharge of the battery is sensed for controlling the battery charging rate. The battery is charged at a relatively high charge rate during a first time period proportional to the extent of battery discharge and at a second lower rate thereafter.

Bilsky, H.W.; Callen, P.J.

1982-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Electron tomography of defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

semiconductor specimens with sufficiently low amounts of damage as to give some area with defect structure typical of the material before sample preparation. A similar study in brass [18] (more ductile, with more damage expected) found the maximum depth... for these samples [19]. As seen by comparing silicon and brass, subjecting a ductile material to abrasion causes much deeper disruption than in a brittle material, as energy is diverted to plastic deformation. 1.3.2 Non-mechanical shaping methods Spark cutting may...

Sharp, Joanne

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

122

Nonadiabatic charged spherical gravitational collapse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a complete set of the equations and matching conditions required for the description of physically meaningful charged, dissipative, spherically symmetric gravitational collapse with shear. Dissipation is described with both free-streaming and diffusion approximations. The effects of viscosity are also taken into account. The roles of different terms in the dynamical equation are analyzed in detail. The dynamical equation is coupled to a causal transport equation in the context of Israel-Stewart theory. The decrease of the inertial mass density of the fluid, by a factor which depends on its internal thermodynamic state, is reobtained, with the viscosity terms included. In accordance with the equivalence principle, the same decrease factor is obtained for the gravitational force term. The effect of the electric charge on the relation between the Weyl tensor and the inhomogeneity of the energy density is discussed.

Di Prisco, A.; Herrera, L. [Escuela de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela); Le Denmat, G. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS/UMR 8112, LERMA/ERGA, Boite 142, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Observatoire de Paris (France); MacCallum, M. A. H. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Santos, N. O. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica, 25651-070 Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts (Brochure), Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Workplace Workplace Charging Hosts Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts 2 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 PEV Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Charging Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Benefits of Workplace Charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Evaluating and Planning for Workplace Charging . . . . . . . 9 Workplace Charging Management and Policy Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Workplace Charging Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Electrifying Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Clean Cities Helps Establish Charging Infrastructure The U .S . Department of Energy's Clean Cities program supports local actions to reduce petroleum use in transportation . Nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions across the country work

124

Defective graphene as promising anode material for Na-ion battery and Ca-ion battery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated adsorption of Na and Ca on graphene with divacancy (DV) and Stone-Wales (SW) defect. Our results show that adsorption is not possible on pristine graphene. However, their adsorption on defective sheet is energetically favorable. The enhanced adsorption can be attributed to the increased charge transfer between adatoms and underlying defective sheet. With the increase in defect density until certain possible limit, maximum percentage of adsorption also increases giving higher battery capacity. For maximum possible DV defect, we can achieve maximum capacity of 1459 mAh/g for Na-ion batteries (NIBs) and 2900 mAh/g for Ca-ion batteries (CIBs). For graphene full of SW defect, we find the maximum capacity of NIBs and CIBs is around 1071 mAh/g and 2142 mAh/g respectively. Our results will help create better anode materials with much higher capacity and better cycling performance for NIBs and CIBs.

Datta, Dibakar; Shenoy, Vivek B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Sustainable Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THOUGHT PIECE Sustainable Transport by Melvin M. Webberwant to sustain any mode of transport only if we judge it todraconian in rejecting transport modes that have failed in

Webber, Melvin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Medium energy charged particle data for evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Medium energy charged particles incident on targets can cause a variety of nuclear reactions. Charged particle transport calculations require access to a large body of cross-section data which results in interest in an evaluated charge particle data library. Developing an evaluated data library can involve several steps. An index to the literature on measurements and theory is useful to locate information relevant to data evaluation. A computerized compilation of measurements facilitates the intercomparison of different experiments and the determination of how well data are known. Nuclear models, based on theory or phenonological evidence, are compared with experiment and where validated, are used to fill in regions where experimental data are not available. Finally, the selected data is placed into computer readable formats for use in transport calculations. 16 refs.

Pearlstein, S.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

The role of oxygen-related defects and hydrogen impurities in HfO2 and ZrO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the properties of oxygen-related defects and hydrogen impurities in monoclinic HfO"2 and ZrO"2 using first-principles calculations based on a hybrid functional. We examine how the formation energy of these defects depend on the Fermi level ... Keywords: Defects in semiconductors, First-principles calculations, HfO2, High-k dielectrics, Hydrogen impurities, Oxygen interstitial, Oxygen vacancy, Sources of fixed charge, ZrO2

J. L. Lyons; A. Janotti; C. G. Van de Walle

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

IC defect sensitivity for footprint-type spot defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While it is important to exhaustively verify IC designs for their functional performance, it is equally important to verify their robustness against spot defects, that is, to foresee what will happen to the design when it is exposed to defect conditions ...

J. Pineda de Gyvez; C. Di

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Soldier power. Battery charging.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soldier power. Marine. Battery charging. Advertising. Remote. SOFC (NanoDynamics, AMI) 60 watts q SOFC #12;

Hong, Deog Ki

130

ChargePoint America Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

June 2013 Number of Charging Units Charging Electricity Charging Unit - Private Not Installed to Events Consumed By Region Residential Commercia Public Specified Date Performed...

131

Electrically charged pulsars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

n the present work we investigate one possible variation on the usual electrically neutral pulsars: the inclusion of electric charge. We study the effect of electric charge in pulsars assuming that the charge distribution is proportional to the energy density. All calculations were performed for zero temperature and fixed entropy equations of state.

M. D. Alloy; D. P. Menezes

2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

132

Electrically charged pulsars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

n the present work we investigate one possible variation on the usual electrically neutral pulsars: the inclusion of electric charge. We study the effect of electric charge in pulsars assuming that the charge distribution is proportional to the energy density. All calculations were performed for zero temperature and fixed entropy equations of state.

Alloy, M D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Hydrodynamics of R-charged black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider hydrodynamics of N=4 supersymmetric SU(N_c) Yang-Mills plasma at a nonzero density of R-charge. In the regime of large N_c and large 't Hooft coupling the gravity dual description involves an asymptotically Anti- de Sitter five-dimensional charged black hole solution of Behrnd, Cvetic and Sabra. We compute the shear viscosity as a function of chemical potentials conjugated to the three U(1) \\subset SO(6)_R charges. The ratio of the shear viscosity to entropy density is independent of the chemical potentials and is equal to 1/4\\pi. For a single charge black hole we also compute the thermal conductivity, and investigate the critical behavior of the transport coefficients near the boundary of thermodynamic stability.

Dam T. Son; Andrei O. Starinets

2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

134

Correlations Between Crystal Defects and Performance of CdZnTe Detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poor crystallinity remains a major problem affecting the availability and cost of CdZnTe (CZT) detectors. Point defects are responsible for small gradual charge loss and correlated with the electron clouds' drift times, which allows electronic correction of the output signals to achieve high spectral-resolution even with large-volume CZT detectors. In contrast, extended defects causes significant charge losses, which typically are uncorrelated, and, thus, result in much greater fluctuations of the output signals that cannot be corrected. Although extended defects do not affect all the interaction events, their fraction rapidly increases with the crystal's thickness and volume. In this paper, we summarize our recent results from testing CZT material and detectors that emphasize the particular roles of two types of extended defects, and their contributions to the device's overall performance.

A Bolotnikov; S Babalola; G Camarda; Y Cui; R Gul; S Egarievwe; P Fochuk; M Fuerstnau; J Horace; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

135

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Public Charging Public Charging Station Hosts Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts 2 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 PEV Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Charging Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Benefits and Costs of Hosting a Charging Station . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Charging Station Locations and Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Ownership and Payment Models . . . . . . 14 Installing and Maintaining Charging Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Electrifying the Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Clean Cities Helps Establish PEV Charging Stations Establishing plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations requires unique knowledge and skills . If you need help, contact your local Clean Cities coordinator . Clean Cities is the U .S . Department of Energy's flagship alterna- tive-transportation deployment initiative . It is supported

136

Defects and instabilities in Hf-dielectric/SiON stacks (Invited Paper)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, a review on the recent progress in understanding defects and instabilities in Hf-dielectric/SiON stacks will be given for both nMOSFETs and pMOSFETs. The key issues addressed for nMOSFETs include the capture cross section of electron traps, ... Keywords: Defects, Hf-silicates, HfO2, High-k dielectrics, Instability, NBTI, PBTI, Positive charges, Traps

J. F. Zhang

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

H Diffusion for Impurity and Defect Passivation: A Physical Model for Solar Cell Processing; Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We propose a physical model for diffusion of H in Si containing impurities and defects. The diffusion occurs via several parallel mechanisms, involving complex formation (trapping) and dissociation (detrapping) at impurities and defects, hopping in lattice interstitial sites, and charge-state conversion. The role of bulk and process-induced traps is considered to explain observations from plasma, ion implantation, and PECVD-nitridation processes.

Sopori, B. L.; Zhang, Y.; Reedy, R.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

2010 Defects in Semiconductors GRC  

SciTech Connect

Continuing its tradition of excellence, this Gordon Conference will focus on research at the forefront of the field of defects in semiconductors. The conference will have a strong emphasis on the control of defects during growth and processing, as well as an emphasis on the development of novel defect detection methods and first-principles defect theories. Electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors will be discussed in detail. In contrast to many conferences, which tend to focus on specific semiconductors, this conference will deal with point and extended defects in a broad range of electronic materials. This approach has proved to be extremely fruitful for advancing fundamental understanding in emerging materials such as wide-band-gap semiconductors, oxides, sp{sup 2} carbon based-materials, and photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and in understanding important defect phenomena such as doping bottleneck in nanostructures and the diffusion of defects and impurities. The program consists of about twenty invited talks and a number of contributed poster sessions. The emphasis should be on work which has yet to be published. The large amount of discussion time provides an ideal forum for dealing with topics that are new and/or controversial.

Shengbai Zhang

2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

139

Theoretical assessment on the possibility of constraining point defect energetics by pseudo-phase transition pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Making use of the energetics and equations of state of defective uranium dioxide that calculated with first-principles method, we demonstrate a possibility of constraining the formation energy of point defects by measuring the transition pressures of the corresponding pseudo-phase of defects. The mechanically stable range of fluorite structure of UO2, which dictates the maximum possible pressure of relevant pseudo-phase transitions, gives rise to defect formation energies that span a wide band and overlap with the existing experimental estimates. We reveal that the knowledge about pseudo-phase boundaries can not only provide important information of energetics that is helpful for reducing the scattering in current estimates, but also be valuable for guiding theoretical assessments, even to validate or disprove a theory. In order to take defect interactions into account and to extrapolate the physical quantities at finite stoichiometry deviations to that near the stoichiometry, we develop a general formalism to describe the thermodynamics of a defective system. We also show that it is possible to include interactions among defects in a simple expression of point defect model (PDM) by introducing an auxiliary constant mean-field. This generalization of the simple PDM leads to great versatility that allows one to study nonlinear effects of stoichiometry deviation on materials' behavior. It is a powerful tool to extract the defect energetics from finite defect concentrations to the dilute limit. Besides these, the full content of the theoretical formalism and some relevant and interesting issues, including reentrant pseudo-transition, multi-defect coexistence, charged defects, and possible consequence of instantaneous defective response in a quantum crystal, are explored and discussed.

Hua Y. Geng; Hong X. Song; Q. Wu

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

140

Novolyte Charging Up Electric Vehicle Sector | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Novolyte Charging Up Electric Vehicle Sector Novolyte Charging Up Electric Vehicle Sector Novolyte Charging Up Electric Vehicle Sector August 11, 2010 - 10:15am Addthis Electric vehicles are powered by electricity that comes in the form of electrically charged molecules known as ions. Those ions need a substance to transport them throughout the system as they travel from the anode to the cathode and back again. That substance is an electrolyte. | Staff Photo Illustration Electric vehicles are powered by electricity that comes in the form of electrically charged molecules known as ions. Those ions need a substance to transport them throughout the system as they travel from the anode to the cathode and back again. That substance is an electrolyte. | Staff Photo Illustration Joshua DeLung What does this mean for me?

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Theory of space charge limited currents  

SciTech Connect

Space-charge-limited currents are important in energy devices such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes, but the available theory from the 1950's finds it necessary to postulate an exponential density of defect energy levels to match data. Here we revisit the theory and show that this postulate is not warranted. Instead, we demonstrate that dopants and the concomitant Frenkel effect, which have been neglected, control the shape of measured current-voltage characteristics. We also account for the observed peak in the noise power. Finally, the new theory can anchor efforts to develop experimental techniques to measure deep-trap levels.

Zhang, Xiaoguang [ORNL; Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Vanderbilt University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

System Benefits Charge  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

New York's system benefits charge (SBC), established in 1996 by the New York Public Service Commission (PSC), supports energy efficiency, education and outreach, research and development, and low...

143

Linear Thermite Charge  

The Linear Thermite Charge (LTC) is designed to rapidly cut through concrete and steel structural components by using extremely high temperature thermite reactions jetted through a linear nozzle.

144

Sequential detection of web defects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for detecting defects on a moving web having a sequential series of identical frames uses an imaging device to form a real-time camera image of a frame and a comparitor to comparing elements of the camera image with corresponding elements of an image of an exemplar frame. The comparitor provides an acceptable indication if the pair of elements are determined to be statistically identical; and a defective indication if the pair of elements are determined to be statistically not identical. If the pair of elements is neither acceptable nor defective, the comparitor recursively compares the element of said exemplar frame with corresponding elements of other frames on said web until one of the acceptable or defective indications occur.

Eichel, Paul H. (Albuquerque, NM); Sleefe, Gerard E. (Cedar Crest, NM); Stalker, K. Terry (Albuquerque, NM); Yee, Amy A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the following tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints; Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability; Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres; Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures; Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability; and Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Documents: Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Search Documents: Search PDF Documents View a list of all documents Transportation PDF Icon Transportation Impact Assessment for Shipment of Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6) Cylinders...

147

Electric Transportation Technology Update Newsletter, September 2013  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Welcome to Electric Transportation's first Technology Update Newsletter. The purpose of this newsletter is to provide high level information on EPRI research, highlight member projects, and discuss other relevant topics of interest in electric transportation. This first newsletter focuses on plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure, including interoperability for networked charging equipment, a status update on DC fast charging protocols, GIS modeling for statewide infrastructure deployment, and the ..

2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

148

Electrically charged compact stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review here the classical argument used to justify the electrical neutrality of stars and show that if the pressure and density of the matter and gravitational field inside the star are large, then a charge and a strong electric field can be present. For a neutron star with high pressure (~ 10^{33} to 10^{35} dynes /cm^2) and strong gravitational field (~ 10^{14} cm/s^2), these conditions are satisfied. The hydrostatic equation which arises from general relativity, is modified considerably to meet the requirements of the inclusion of the charge. In order to see any appreciable effect on the phenomenology of the neutron stars, the charge and the electrical fields have to be huge (~ 10^{21} Volts/cm). These stars are not however stable from the viewpoint that each charged particle is unbound to the uncharged particles, and thus the system collapses one step further to a charged black hole

Subharthi Ray; Manuel Malheiro; Jose' P. S. Lemos; Vilson T. Zanchin

2006-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

149

Auxiliary battery charging terminal  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the present invention there is provided an auxiliary battery charging terminal that may selectively engage battery charging circuitry inside a portable radio pager. There is provided a current conducting cap having a downwardly and outwardly flared rim that deforms to lock under the crimped edge an insulating seal ring of a standard rechargeable cell by application of a compressive axial force. The auxiliary battery charging terminal is further provided with a central tip axially projecting upwardly from the cap. The auxiliary terminal may be further provided with a cap of reduced diameter to circumferentially engage the raised battery cathode terminal on the battery cell. A mating recess in a remote battery charging receptacle may receive the tip to captivate the battery cell against lateral displacement. The tip may be further provided with a rounded apex to relieve localized frictional forces upon insertion and removal of the battery cell from the remote battery charging receptacle.

Field, H.; Richter, R. E.

1985-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

150

Defect Energetics and Fission Product Transport in ZrC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Route Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using Copper Nitrate Solution ... Enhancing Mineral Beneficiation by High Intensity Power Ultrasound.

151

Defect Structures and Electronic Properties of Graphene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Defect Structures and Electronic Properties of Graphene. Summary: Graphene and related materials have remarkable physical ...

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

Photon: history, mass, charge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The talk consists of three parts. ``History'' briefly describes the emergence and evolution of the concept of photon during the first two decades of the 20th century. ``Mass'' gives a short review of the literature on the upper limit of the photon's mass. ``Charge'' is a critical discussion of the existing interpretation of searches for photon charge. Schemes, in which all photons are charged, are grossly inconsistent. A model with three kinds of photons (positive, negative and neutral) seems at first sight to be more consistent, but turns out to have its own serious problems.

L. B. Okun

2006-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

153

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately, given their various advantageous mechanical properties. Their resistance to stress has had researchers proposing nanocrystals as a promising new protective coating for advanced gas turbine and jet engines. But recent studies conducted at the ALS show that the tiny size of nanocrystals does not safeguard them from defects. Engineering Nanocrystal Materials Most nanocrystal materials are made up of small crystals, called "grains," and what happens at the boundaries between these grains is critical to material properties. Based on computer simulations and electron microscopy analysis, the belief has been that dislocation-mediated plastic deformation becomes inactive below a grain size of at least 10 nanometers, and possibly as large as 30 nanometers.

154

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately, given their various advantageous mechanical properties. Their resistance to stress has had researchers proposing nanocrystals as a promising new protective coating for advanced gas turbine and jet engines. But recent studies conducted at the ALS show that the tiny size of nanocrystals does not safeguard them from defects. Engineering Nanocrystal Materials Most nanocrystal materials are made up of small crystals, called "grains," and what happens at the boundaries between these grains is critical to material properties. Based on computer simulations and electron microscopy analysis, the belief has been that dislocation-mediated plastic deformation becomes inactive below a grain size of at least 10 nanometers, and possibly as large as 30 nanometers.

155

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately, given their various advantageous mechanical properties. Their resistance to stress has had researchers proposing nanocrystals as a promising new protective coating for advanced gas turbine and jet engines. But recent studies conducted at the ALS show that the tiny size of nanocrystals does not safeguard them from defects. Engineering Nanocrystal Materials Most nanocrystal materials are made up of small crystals, called "grains," and what happens at the boundaries between these grains is critical to material properties. Based on computer simulations and electron microscopy analysis, the belief has been that dislocation-mediated plastic deformation becomes inactive below a grain size of at least 10 nanometers, and possibly as large as 30 nanometers.

156

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately, given their various advantageous mechanical properties. Their resistance to stress has had researchers proposing nanocrystals as a promising new protective coating for advanced gas turbine and jet engines. But recent studies conducted at the ALS show that the tiny size of nanocrystals does not safeguard them from defects. Engineering Nanocrystal Materials Most nanocrystal materials are made up of small crystals, called "grains," and what happens at the boundaries between these grains is critical to material properties. Based on computer simulations and electron microscopy analysis, the belief has been that dislocation-mediated plastic deformation becomes inactive below a grain size of at least 10 nanometers, and possibly as large as 30 nanometers.

157

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Thursday, 20 June 2013 10:41 Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately, given their various advantageous mechanical properties. Their resistance to stress has had researchers proposing nanocrystals as a promising new protective coating for advanced gas turbine and jet engines. But recent studies conducted at the ALS show that the tiny size of nanocrystals does not safeguard them from defects. Engineering Nanocrystal Materials Most nanocrystal materials are made up of small crystals, called "grains," and what happens at the boundaries between these grains is critical to material properties. Based on computer simulations and electron microscopy analysis, the belief has been that dislocation-mediated plastic deformation becomes inactive below a grain size of at least 10 nanometers, and possibly as large as 30 nanometers.

158

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately, given their various advantageous mechanical properties. Their resistance to stress has had researchers proposing nanocrystals as a promising new protective coating for advanced gas turbine and jet engines. But recent studies conducted at the ALS show that the tiny size of nanocrystals does not safeguard them from defects. Engineering Nanocrystal Materials Most nanocrystal materials are made up of small crystals, called "grains," and what happens at the boundaries between these grains is critical to material properties. Based on computer simulations and electron microscopy analysis, the belief has been that dislocation-mediated plastic deformation becomes inactive below a grain size of at least 10 nanometers, and possibly as large as 30 nanometers.

159

ChargePoint America Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Availability: Range of Charging Units with a Vehicle Connected versus Time of Day Percentage Max percentage of charging units connected across all days Inner-quartile range of...

160

taking charge : optimizing urban charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis analyses the opportunities and constraints of deploying charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles in urban environments. Existing electric vehicle charging infrastructure for privately owned vehicles ...

Subramani, Praveen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Primitive Virtual Negative Charge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction electric equilibrium of the earth is discussed, especially about the electric field and magnetic field of the earth. For unsettled phenomena related with the earth's gravity, such as antigravity phenomenon, gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses, the connection between geomagnetic storms and earthquakes, etc., possible explanations are discussed.

Kim, Kiyoung

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Primitive Virtual Negative Charge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction electric equilibrium of the earth is discussed, especially about the electric field and magnetic field of the earth. For unsettled phenomena related with the earth's gravity, such as antigravity phenomenon, gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses, the connection between geomagnetic storms and earthquakes, etc., possible explanations are discussed.

Kiyoung Kim

2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

163

Tracking defect warnings across versions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various static analysis tools will analyze a software artifact in order to identify potential defects, such as misused APIs, race conditions and deadlocks, and security vulnerabilities. For a number of reasons, it is important to be able to track the ... Keywords: FindBugs, Java, bug histories, bug tracking, static analysis

Jaime Spacco; David Hovemeyer; William Pugh

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Causes of Paint Film Defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 9   Common causes of paint film defects...Dip, flow, roller, spray Improper applicator/metering roll speeds Roller Undesirable pattern Swelling of roll Roller Roll improperly ground Roller Foreign material on roll Roller Poor spray gun technique Spray Runs (curtains, sags) Too much solvent Dip, flow, spray Paint surface or drying atmosphere...

165

Quantum fields with topological defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Domain walls, strings and monopoles are extended objects, or defects, of quantum origin with topologically non--trivial properties and macroscopic behavior. They are described in Quantum Field Theory in terms of inhomogeneous condensates. We review the related formalism in the framework of the spontaneous breakdown of symmetry.

M. Blasone; P. Jizba; G. Vitiello

2004-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

166

Guidelines on Airflow and Refrigerant Charge Verification and Diagnostics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GUIDELINES ON AIRFLOW AND GUIDELINES ON AIRFLOW AND REFRIGERANT CHARGE VERIFICATION AND DIAGNOSTICS Alliance for Residential Building Innovation David Springer, Davis Energy Group Context  Airflow and refrigerant charge defects in existing air conditioning systems are well documented  Failure to address these problems represents a missed opportunity for home performance contractors  To ensure cost-effective solutions, a systematic approach is needed to quickly and accurately diagnose and resolve problems  Target:  Home performance contractors  HVAC contractors & technicians The Impact of Defects Non-TXV TXV 15% duct leakage 1 -18.10% 23% low airflow -4.70% 50% condenser coil blockage -5.80% 50% evaporator coil blockage 2 -4.60% -4.20% 20% overcharge -3.50% -7.90%

167

Electrical charging during the sharkskin instability of a metallocene melt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flow instabilities are widely studied because of their economical and theoretical interest, however few results have been published about the polymer electrification during the extrusion. Nevertheless the generation of the electrical charges is characteristic of the interaction between the polymer melt and the die walls. In our study, the capillary extrusion of a metallocene polyethylene (mPE) through a tungsten carbide die is characterized through accurate electrical measurements thanks a Faraday pail. No significant charges are observed since the extrudate surface remains smooth. However, as soon as the sharkskin distortion appears, measurable charges are collected (around 5 10-8 C/m2). Higher level of charges are measured during the spurt or the gross-melt fracture (g.m.f) defects. This work is focused on the electrical charging during the sharkskin instability. The variation of the electrical charges versus the apparent wall shear stress is investigated for different die geometries. This curve exhibits a linear increase, followed by a sudden growth just before the onset of the spurt instability. This abrupt charging corresponds also to the end of the sharkskin instability. It is also well-known that wall slip appears just at the same time, with smaller velocity values than during spurt flow. Our results indicate that electrification could be a signature of the wall slip. We show also that the electrification curves can be shifted according to the time-temperature superposition principle, leading to the conclusion that molecular features of the polymer are also involved in this process.

S. Tonon; A. Lavernhe-Gerbier; F. Flores; A. Allal; C. Guerret-Picourt

2007-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

168

EV Charging Infrastructure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Charging Infrastructure Charging Infrastructure JOHN DAVIS: Virtually anywhere in the U.S. you can bring light to a room with the flick of a finger. We take it for granted, but creating the national electric grid to make that possible took decades to accomplish. Now, in just a few years, we've seen the birth of a new infrastructure that allows electric vehicles to quickly recharge their batteries at home, work, or wherever they may roam. But this rapid growth has come with a few growing pains. Starting with less than 500 in 2009, there are now over 19,000 public-access charging outlets available to electric vehicles owners at commuter lots, parking garages, airports, retail areas and thousands of

169

High-Resolution Field Effect Sensing of Ferroelectric Charges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoscale manipulation of surface charges and their imaging are essential for understanding local electronic behaviors of polar materials and advanced electronic devices. Electrostatic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy have been extensively used to probe and image local surface charges responsible for electrodynamics and transport phenomena. However, they rely on the weak electric force modulation of cantilever that limits both spatial and temporal resolutions. Here we present a field effect transistor embedded probe that can directly image surface charges on a length scale of 25 nm and a time scale of less than 125 {micro}s. On the basis of the calculation of net surface charges in a 25 nm diameter ferroelectric domain, we could estimate the charge density resolution to be as low as 0.08 {micro}C/cm{sup 2}, which is equivalent to 1/20 electron per nanometer square at room temperature.

Ko, Hyoungsoo [Samsung Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Korea; Ryu, Kyunghee [Kookmin University; Park, Hongsik [Samsung Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Korea; Park, Chulmin [Samsung Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Korea; Jeon, Daeyoung [Samsung Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Korea; Kim, Yong Kwan [Samsung Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Korea; Jung, Juhwan [Samsung Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Korea; Min, Dong-Ki [Samsung Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Korea; Kim, Yunseok [Max-Planck-Institut fur Mikrostrukturphysik, Germany; Lee, Ho Nyung [ORNL; Park, Yoondong [Samsung Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Korea; Shin, Hyunjung [Kookmin University; Hong, Seungbum [Samsung Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Korea

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Optical method and apparatus for detection of surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser is used in a non-destructive manner to detect surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics and particularly in ceramic bodies with complex shapes such as ceramic bearings, turbine blades, races, and the like. The laser`s wavelength is selected based upon the composition of the ceramic sample and the laser can be directed on the sample while the sample is static or in dynamic rotate or translate motion. Light is scattered off surface and subsurface defects using a preselected polarization. The change in polarization angle is used to select the depth and characteristics of surface/subsurface defects. The scattered light is detected by an optical train consisting of a charge coupled device (CCD), or vidicon, television camera which, in turn, is coupled to a video monitor and a computer for digitizing the image. An analyzing polarizer in the optical train allows scattered light at a given polarization angle to be observed for enhancing sensitivity to either surface or near-subsurface defects. Application of digital image processing allows subtraction of digitized images in near real-time providing enhanced sensitivity to subsurface defects. Storing known ``feature masks`` of identified defects in the computer and comparing the detected scatter pattern (Fourier images) with the stored feature masks allows for automatic classification of detected defects. 29 figs.

Ellingson, W.A.; Brada, M.P.

1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

171

Optical method and apparatus for detection of surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser is used in a non-destructive manner to detect surface and near-subsurface defects in dense ceramics and particularly in ceramic bodies with complex shapes such as ceramic bearings, turbine blades, races, and the like. The laser's wavelength is selected based upon the composition of the ceramic sample and the laser can be directed on the sample while the sample is static or in dynamic rotate or translate motion. Light is scattered off surface and subsurface defects using a preselected polarization. The change in polarization angle is used to select the depth and characteristics of surface/subsurface defects. The scattered light is detected by an optical train consisting of a charge coupled device (CCD), or vidicon, television camera which, in turn, is coupled to a video monitor and a computer for digitizing the image. An analyzing polarizer in the optical train allows scattered light at a given polarization angle to be observed for enhancing sensitivity to either surface or near-subsurface defects. Application of digital image processing allows subtraction of digitized images in near real-time providing enhanced sensitivity to subsurface defects. Storing known "feature masks" of identified defects in the computer and comparing the detected scatter pattern (Fourier images) with the stored feature masks allows for automatic classification of detected defects.

Ellingson, William A. (Naperville, IL); Brada, Mark P. (Goleta, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Aggregation in Charged Nano Suspensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to control aggregation phenomena in suspensions of nanoparticles, one often charges the particles electrically, e.g. by triboelectric charging. Stabilization of suspensions against aggregation of particles is an important issue, which may be realized by monopolar charging, where particles repel each other. Contrarily, bipolar charging may be used in coating processes, where smaller particles of one material coat larger particles of another material. When the two particle fractions are charged oppositely, aggregation between equally charged particles is hindered whereas aggregation between oppositely charged particles is preferred, thereby improving the coating process. We study various aspects of these two situations by theoretical investigations and computer simulations.

J. H. Werth; S. M. Dammer; H. A. Knudsen; H. Hinrichsen; D. E. Wolf

2005-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

173

Charged Metallic Clusters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Usually in Nuclear Physics the minimum of the liquid drop model (LDM) energy occurs at a mass asymmetry which is different from the minimum of shell correction. Charged metallic clusters are ideal emitters of singly ionized trimers because both LDM and shell correction are reaching a minimum for the same mass asymmetry corresponding to the emission of a charged particle with two delocalized electrons. Maximum dissociation energy (Q-value) is obtained for metallic clusters with high surface tension and low Wigner-Seitz radius (transition metals). The Q-values for spheroidal shapes are much larger than for hemispheroids.

Poenaru, D. N.; Gherghescu, R. A. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Solov'yov, A. V.; Greiner, W. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

174

Charged Vacuum Bubble Stability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A type of scenario is considered where electrically charged vacuum bubbles, formed from degenerate or nearly degenerate vacuua separated by a thin domain wall, are cosmologically produced due to the breaking of a discrete symmetry, with the bubble charge arising from fermions residing within the domain wall. Stability issues associated with wall tension, fermion gas, and Coulombic effects for such configurations are examined. The stability of a bubble depends upon parameters such as the symmetry breaking scale and the fermion coupling. A dominance of either the Fermi gas or the Coulomb contribution may be realized under certain conditions, depending upon parameter values.

J. R. Morris

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

175

Inspection of lithographic mask blanks for defects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A visible light method for detecting sub-100 nm size defects on mask blanks used for lithography. By using optical heterodyne techniques, detection of the scattered light can be significantly enhanced as compared to standard intensity detection methods. The invention is useful in the inspection of super-polished surfaces for isolated surface defects or particulate contamination and in the inspection of lithographic mask or reticle blanks for surface defects or bulk defects or for surface particulate contamination.

Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Second workshop role of point defects/defect complexes in silicon device fabrication  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Abstracts are presented of 24 papers, arranged under the following session/panel headings: defects and impurities in commercial photovoltaic Si substrates, point defects and point defect processes, impurity gettering for Si solar cells, gettering in Si solar cells, and passivation of impurities and defects.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Second workshop role of point defects/defect complexes in silicon device fabrication. Book of abstracts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Abstracts are presented of 24 papers, arranged under the following session/panel headings: defects and impurities in commercial photovoltaic Si substrates, point defects and point defect processes, impurity gettering for Si solar cells, gettering in Si solar cells, and passivation of impurities and defects.

Not Available

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Reflection and Transmission for Conformal Defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider conformal defects joining two conformal field theories along a line. We define two new quantities associated to such defects in terms of expectation values of the stress tensors and we propose them as measures of the reflectivity and transmissivity of the defect. Their properties are investigated and they are computed in a number of examples. We obtain a complete answer for all defects in the Ising model and between certain pairs of minimal models. In the case of two conformal field theories with an enhanced symmetry we restrict ourselves to non-trivial defects that can be obtained by a coset construction.

Thomas Quella; Ingo Runkel; Gerard M. T. Watts

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

179

Transportation Demand  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

page intentionally left blank page intentionally left blank 69 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Transportation Demand Module The NEMS Transportation Demand Module estimates transportation energy consumption across the nine Census Divisions (see Figure 5) and over ten fuel types. Each fuel type is modeled according to fuel-specific technology attributes applicable by transportation mode. Total transportation energy consumption is the sum of energy use in eight transport modes: light-duty vehicles (cars and light trucks), commercial light trucks (8,501-10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), freight trucks (>10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), buses, freight and passenger aircraft, freight and passenger rail, freight shipping, and miscellaneous

180

Superconformal defects in the tricritical Ising model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study superconformal defect lines in the tricritical Ising model in 2 dimensions. By the folding trick, a superconformal defect is mapped to a superconformal boundary of the N=1 superconformal unitary minimal model of c=7/5 with D_6-E_6 modular invariant. It turns out that the complete set of the boundary states of c=7/5 D_6-E_6 model cannot be interpreted as the consistent set of the superconformal defects in the tricritical Ising model since it does not contain the ``no defect'' boundary state. Instead, we find a set of 18 consistent superconformal defects including ``no defect'' and satisfying the Cardy condition. This set also includes some defects which are not purely transmissive or purely reflective.

Gang, Dongmin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Superconformal defects in the tricritical Ising model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study superconformal defect lines in the tricritical Ising model in 2 dimensions. By the folding trick, a superconformal defect is mapped to a superconformal boundary of the N=1 superconformal unitary minimal model of c=7/5 with D_6-E_6 modular invariant. It turns out that the complete set of the boundary states of c=7/5 D_6-E_6 model cannot be interpreted as the consistent set of superconformal defects in the tricritical Ising model since it does not contain the "no defect" boundary state. Instead, we find a set of 18 consistent superconformal defects including "no defect" and satisfying the Cardy condition. This set also includes some defects which are not purely transmissive or purely reflective.

Dongmin Gang; Satoshi Yamaguchi

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Conformal nets III: fusion of defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conformal nets provides a mathematical model for conformal field theory. We define a notion of defect between conformal nets, formalizing the idea of an interaction between two conformal field theories. We introduce an operation of fusion of defects, and prove that the fusion of two defects is again a defect, provided the fusion occurs over a conformal net of finite index. There is a notion of sector (or bimodule) between two defects, and operations of horizontal and vertical fusion of such sectors. Our most difficult technical result is that the horizontal fusion of the vacuum sectors of two defects is isomorphic to the vacuum sector of the fused defect. Equipped with this isomorphism, we construct the basic interchange isomorphism between the horizontal fusion of two vertical fusions and the vertical fusion of two horizontal fusions of sectors.

Arthur Bartels; Christopher L. Douglas; Andr Henriques

2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

183

Road Transportation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The recession of the early 1990s marked the starting point for a transformation of the Swedish transportation industry. Cost oriented production techniques by the (more)

Gudmundsson, Erik

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Transportation Revolution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

To transform the vehicle sector, the U.S. auto manufacturing industry is actively developing new technologies and products. This transportation revolution will also affect...

185

Transportation Security  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

For Review Only 1 Transportation Security Draft Annotated Bibliography Review July 2007 Preliminary Draft - For Review Only 2 Work Plan Task * TEC STG Work Plan, dated 8206,...

186

WIPP Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transuranic Waste Transportation Container Documents Documents related to transuranic waste containers and packages. CBFO Tribal Program Information about WIPP shipments across...

187

ChargePoint America Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Report period: May 1, 2011 through August 31, 2011 Includes all charging units that were in use by the end of the reporting period A charging event is defined as the...

188

HZETRN: Description of a Free-Space Ion and Nucleon Transport and Shielding Computer Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high-charge-and-energy (HZE) transport computer program HZETRN is developed to address the problems of free-space radiation transport and shielding. The HZETRN program is intended specifically for the design engineer who is interested in obtaining ...

Wilson John W.; Badavi Francis F.; Cucinotta Francis A.; Shinn Judy L.; Badhwar Gautam D.; Silberberg R.; Tsao C. H.; Townsend Lawrence W.; Tripathi Ram K.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Blasting charge and method  

SciTech Connect

This is a process for setting off a blasting charge employing nitrate explosions in a thick aqueous slurry. There is formed in the bore a blasting charge consisting, in part, of a thick aqueous slurry of dispersed ammonium nitrate particles as the predominant explosive material with or without a lesser amount of sodium, calcium, or other nitrate in like dispersion. In addition, one or more localized or undispersed solid bodies of booster explosive are included in the body of the slurry. Conventional means are used for detonating the booster, such as a blasting cap, an electric blasting cap, or a detonating fuse. The slurry may be formed in the bore or may be preformed and packaged for shipment, the latter being preferable.

Towle, L.W.

1966-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

190

Charge! for Scientists  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Charge! for Scientists Charge! for Scientists This show can be adapted for grades 2-8. Materials This equipment is located in the Lederman Science Center. Please talk to Susan Dahl. Balloons PVC pipe and wool Electroscope (glass jar with wire hanging from top and two small pieces of aluminum foil hanging from wire) Van de Graaff generator Bar magnets with opposite ends painted blue and red Circular magnets and pencils Compass Iron filings Battery, wire and nail Things kids can do at home Olga's overheads David Christian's PowerPoint Demos Balloons - Ask for a few volunteers and have them rub a balloon on their head or shirt. PVC pipe and wool - Pour a bunch of pieces of various material onto the table in the front of the room, including pieces of aluminum foil, styrofoam peanuts, paper clips, staples. Have a student rub the wool on the

191

Green-Energy Transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Battery technology is the key bottleneck in many cyberphysical systems (CPS). For green-energy CPS transportation applications, such as hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), the battery system design is mostly based on lithium-ion rechargeable electrochemical battery technology, which is bulky, expensive, unreliable, and is the primary roadblock for PHEV adoption and market penetration. For PHEVs, the battery system performance and lifetime reliability are further affected by various user-dependent effects. Battery system modeling and user study are thus essential for battery system design and optimization. This paper presents detailed investigation on battery system modeling and user study for emerging PHEVs. The proposed modeling solution can accurately characterize battery system run-time charge-cycle efficiency, and long-term cycle life. In particular, it models battery system capacity variation and fading due to fabrication and run-time aging effects. An embedded monitoring system is designed and deployed in a number of HEVs and PHEVs, which can monitor users driving behavior and battery usage at real time. Using the proposed modeling and monitoring solutions, we conduct user study to investigate battery system run-time usage, characterize user driving behavior, and study the impact of user driving patterns on battery system run-time charge-cycle efficiency, capacity variation and reliability, and life-cycle economy. This work is the first step in battery system design and optimization for emerging green-energy CPS transportation applications. 1.

Kun Li; Jie Wu; Yifei Jiang; Li Shang; Qin Lv; Robert Dick; Dragan Maksimovic; Kun Li; Jie Wu; Yifei Jiang; Li Shang; Qin Lv; Robert Dick; Dragan Maksimovic

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

A Stable Massive Charged Particle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the possibility of the existence of a stable massive charged particle by a minimal extension of the standard model particle content. Absolute stability in the case of singly charged particle is not possible if the usual doublet Higgs exists, unless a discrete symmetry is imposed.But a doubly charged particle is absolutely stable.

G. Rajasekaran

2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

193

Transportation Market Distortions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Highways, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Evaluating Criticism of Transportation Costing, VictoriaFrom Here: Evaluating Transportation Diversity, Victoria

Litman, Todd

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Raytheon Raytheon has installed seven dual 220-volt plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations (14 charging points) at three...

195

Argonne's Pilot Electric Vehicle Charging Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Argonne's Pilot Electric Vehicle Charging Project solar array and charging station Solar array and charging station. View larger image. As part of Argonne's continuing efforts to...

196

Fermilab | Fermilab Director Search | Process and Charge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Process and Charge Charge to the Director Search Committee Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory The Fermi Research Alliance, LLC Board of Directors charges the Committee to engage...

197

Defense Transportation - Center for Transportation Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Defense Transportation The Center for Transportation Analysis provides analytical, planning, and operational support to defense transportation related projects. This includes the...

198

Stochastic modeling of molecular charge transport networks Bjorn Baumeier,1,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.g., organic light emitting diode and organic photovoltaic device). Note that ``hybrid'' molecules are defined

Schmidt, Volker

199

"Light-Induced Charge Transport within a Single Asymmetric Nanowire"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lead to a PEC system with energy conversion efficiency asenergy conversion efficiency than a single band gap system.

LIU, CHONG

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Charge transport in hybrid nanorod-polymer composite photovoltaic cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

circuit diagram for a photovoltaic cell under illumination.Within a simple model a photovoltaic cell is a diode with ananocrystal-polymer photovoltaic cell with electron and hole

Huynh, Wendy U.; Dittmer, Janke J.; Teclemariam, Nerayo; Milliron, Delia; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Barnham, Keith W.J.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

GG4, Investigations of Charge Transport and Bias Stress in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Film microstructure was characterized at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). X-ray diffraction experiments confirm the unique in-plane and ...

202

Inorganic Shells for CZTS Nanocrystals With Enhanced Charge Transport Capabilities  

derived from fossil fuels due to their high cost and low electrical output. In order to better compete with fossil fuels, researchers are attempting to create a second generation of cheaper, more efficient solar cells. Nanocrystal inks are the ...

203

Charge transport in hybrid nanorod-polymer composite photovoltaic cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

e - h + PEDOT PEDOT P3HT -CdSe Hole -blocking h + blockingV) Fig. 3 Current Density (mA/cm ) (a) (b) E P3HT CdSe ITOPEDOT CdSe-P3HT Voltage (V) Al Au Fig. 4 Ideality Factor

Huynh, Wendy U.; Dittmer, Janke J.; Teclemariam, Nerayo; Milliron, Delia; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Barnham, Keith W.J.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

"Light-Induced Charge Transport within a Single Asymmetric Nanowire"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

broad absorption of the solar spectrum as well as band edgescoverage of the solar spectrum, 7 and it was predicted that

LIU, CHONG

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Charge transport in molecular devices. Nanoscience and nanotechologies: new science?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resolution the electronic energy level of atoms and molecules and also determine the structure i. The technology of thin films is nowadays widely used in particular in the electronic industry. This science has nanoparticles can have mechanical properties comparable with the hardest stainless steel while normal nickel

Qian, Ning

206

Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

because they might clarify the superconducting mechanism of cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs). A case in point is NaxCoO2 with x 0.7, which is a parent...

207

EXAMINING ELECTRON TRANSFER AND CHARGE TRANSPORT IN ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAIC MATERIALS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Energy consumption is extremely high and costly in the world today. The use of fossil fuels is climbing at a rapid rate; and with the (more)

Barbour, Larry

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Hawking radiation via Landauer transport model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently, Nation et al confirmed that fluxes of Hawking radiation energy and entropy from a black hole can be regarded as a one-dimensional (1D) Landauer transport process. Their work can be extended to background spacetimes with gauge potential. The result shows that the energy flux, which is indicated to be equal to the energy-momentum tensor flux, contains not only the contribution of thermal flux but also that of particle flux. We find that the charge can also be regarded as transporting via a 1D quantum channel and the charge flux is equal to the gauge flux.

Xiao-Xiong Zeng; Wen-Biao Liu

2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

209

Improved, Defect-Free Electrode Materials  

The present invention provides simple, cost effective methods for the preparation of lithium iron phosphate material that is defect-free and therefore ...

210

Defects and Properties of Cast Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conference Tools for 2012 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition ... In many instances the mechanism for the generation of the defects arises from a combination of...

211

Improved, Defect-Free Electrode Materials - Energy ...  

The present invention provides simple, cost effective methods for the preparation of lithium iron phosphate material that is defect-free and therefore ...

212

Suspect/Counterfeit and Defective Items  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Items Home SuspectCounterfeit Items Defective Items Safety Advisories Safety Alerts Safety Bulletins SCI Points of Contact SCI Studies References Topical Search SCI-DI...

213

Computational Modeling of Defect Evolution under Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 14, 2012 ... Radiation Effects in Ceramic Oxide and Novel LWR Fuels: Computational Modeling of Defect Evolution under Irradiation Sponsored by: The...

214

Quantifying Edge Defects in Drilled FRP Composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Drilling of Aramid and Carbon Fiber Polymer Composites,the Exit Defects in Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Plateswith a High Modulus CFRP (Carbon- Fiber Reinforced Polymer)

Vijayaraghavan, Athulan; Dornfeld, David; Dharan, C. K. Hari

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Structure, Defects, and Scattering in Graphene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structure, Defects, and Scattering in Graphene. ... (b) STM image of a complex moir pattern observed in multilayer graphene grown on SiC. ...

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

216

Condition responsive battery charging circuit  

SciTech Connect

A battery charging circuit includes a ferroresonant transformer having a rectified output for providing a constant output voltage to be supplied to a battery to be charged. Battery temperature is sensed providing an input to a control circuit which operates a shunt regulator associated with the ferroresonant transformer to provide battery charge voltage as a function of battery temperature. In response to a high battery temperature the controller functions to lower the output voltage to the battery, and in response to a low battery temperature, operates to provide a higher output voltage, with suitable control for any battery temperature between minus 10* and plus 150* fahrenheit. As the battery approaches full charge and battery acceptance current falls below a predetermined level, a charge cycle termination control allows charging to continue for a period preset by the operator, at the end of which period, line voltage is removed from the charger thereby terminating the charge cycle.

Reidenbach, S.G.

1980-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

217

Defect and dopant properties of MgTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomistic computer simulation techniques have been used, for the first time, to reproduce the crystal structure of MgTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} and to investigate the defect chemistry and dopant properties of this material. The calculated defect energetics suggest that the concentration of intrinsic atomic defects in this phase is insignificant and that the system is probably stable to both oxidation and reduction. Dopant solution energy versus ion size trends are found for both isovalent and aliovalent dopant incorporation at Mg and Ta sites. Divalent dopants (e.g. Ca, Cu) preferentially occupy the Mg site whereas dopants with higher charge (e.g. Sc, Zr, Nb) are more favorable on the Ta site. High migration activation energies (>2eV) predict limited ionic conductivity in this material.

Tealdi, Cristina [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica 'M. Rolla', Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Viale Taramelli, No. 16, PV 27100, Pavia (Italy); Saiful Islam, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Malavasi, Lorenzo [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica 'M. Rolla', Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Viale Taramelli, No. 16, PV 27100, Pavia (Italy)]. E-mail: lorenzo.malavasi@unipv.it; Flor, Giorgio [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica 'M. Rolla', Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Viale Taramelli, No. 16, PV 27100, Pavia (Italy)

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Sustainable Transportation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) leads U.S. researchers and other partners in making transportation cleaner and more efficient through solutions that put electric drive...

219

electrifyingthefuture transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

programme of electrification and the potential introduction of diesel hybrids. The Department for Transport vehicles Wind turbine systems Industrial equipment The lab has full ethernet capability which will enable

Birmingham, University of

220

Electrically charged curvaton  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the possibility that the primordial curvature perturbation was generated through the curvaton mechanism from a scalar field with an electric charge, or precisely the Standard Model U(1) weak hypercharge. This links the dynamics of the very early universe concretely to the Standard Model of particle physics, and because the coupling strength is known, it reduces the number of free parameters in the curvaton model. The gauge coupling also introduces several new physical effects. Charge fluctuations are generated during inflation, but they are screened by electron-positron pairs therefore do not violate observational constraints. After inflation, the curvaton interacts with thermal radiation which destroys the curvaton condensate and prevents the generation of curvature perturbations, unless the inflaton dynamics satisfy strong constraints. The curvaton also experiences a period of parametric resonance with the U(1) gauge field. Using the standard perturbative approach, we find that the model can generate the observed density perturbation for Hubble rate H_* > 10^8 GeV and curvaton mass m > 0.01 H_*, but with a level of non-Gaussianity (f_NL > 130) that violates observational constraints. However, previous studies have shown that the parametric resonance changes the predicted perturbations significantly, and therefore fully non-linear numerical field theory simulations are required.

Michela D'Onofrio; Rose N. Lerner; Arttu Rajantie

2012-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

222

Local phase transformation in alloys during charged-particle irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Among the various mechanisms and processes by which energetic irradiation can alter the phase stability of alloys, radiation-induced segregation is one of the most important phenomena. Radiation-induced segregation in alloys occurs as a consequence of preferential coupling between persistent fluxes of excess defects and solute atoms, leading to local enrichment or depletion of alloying elements. Thus, this phenomenon tends to drive alloy systems away from thermodynamic equilibrium, on a local scale. During charged-particle irradiations, the spatial nonuniformity in the defect production gives rise to a combination of persistent defect fluxes, near the irradiated surface and in the peak-damage region. This defect-flux combination can modify the alloy composition in a complex fashion, i.e., it can destabilize pre-existing phases, causing spatially- and temporally-dependent precipitation of new metastable phases. The effects of radiation-induced segregation on local phase transformations in Ni-based alloys during proton bombardment and high-voltage electron-microscope irradiation at elevated temperatures are discussed.

Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Transportation Network Modeling in Passenger Transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Summary & Future work 2 #12;NETPLAN Energy and Transportation Integration model A modeling frameworkTransportation Network Modeling in NETPLAN Passenger Transportation Venkat Krishnan Eirini;Outline 1. Introduction to NETPLAN 2. Transportation modeling- A review Freight Passenger 3. Developed

Daniels, Thomas E.

224

Canonical suppression in microscopic transport models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate the occurrence of canonical suppression associated with the conservation of an U(1)-charge in current transport models. For this study a pion gas is simulated within two different transport approaches by incorporating inelastic and volume-limited collisions $\\pi\\pi\\leftrightarrow K\\bar{K}$ for the production of kaon pairs. Both descriptions can dynamically account for the suppression in the yields of rare strange particles in a limited box, being in full accordance with a canonical statistical description.

O. Fochler; S. Vogel; M. Bleicher; C. Greiner; P. Koch-Steinheimer; Z. Xu

2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

225

Photon and Charged Particle Data Center  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photon and Charged Particle Data Center. Summary: The Photon and Charged Particle Data Center has long been an ...

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

226

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Southern California Edison on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging...

227

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Chrysler Group LLC on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner:...

228

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: WESCO International, Inc. on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: WESCO...

229

Charge Density Wave Compounds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fisher Research Group Fisher Research Group Layered Chalcogenides 29 February 2008 Controlling the Wave by Brad Plummer, SLAC Communications Stanford University researchers working in part at SSRL have discovered a novel set of properties pertaining to a compound of materials called tritellurides. These compounds, composed of three atoms of tellurium and a single atom of one of the rare earth elements, demonstrate unique electronic properties that can be controlled by altering the temperature of the material. The tritellurides display phenomena known as charge density waves (CDW). In a normal conductive metal, electrons persist in a "sea" wherein they are evenly distributed and equally available, or conductive. A CDW occurs under certain circumstances and causes the electrons to clump together, lowering their availability, and thereby lowering the compound's conductivity. Tellurium, when crystallized into quasi-two-dimensional planes and combined with rare earth elements, produces a material with CDWs that can be manipulated and controlled.

230

NERSC HPSS Charging  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HPSS Charging NERSC uses Storage Resource Units (SRUs) to help manage HPSS storage. The goal is to provide a balanced computing environment with appropriate amounts of storage and adequate bandwidth to keep the compute engines fed with data. Performance and usage tracking allows NERSC to anticipate demand and maintain a responsive storage environment. Storage management also recognizes storage as a distinct resource in support of an increasing amount of data intensive computing. Storage management and the quota system are intended to encourage efficient usage by the user community. SRU Management SRUs are reported and managed through the NERSC Information Management (NIM) system. If a user is out of SRUs in all of their HPSS repositories that user will be restricted so that they can no longer write data to HPSS

231

Stable Charged Cosmic Strings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the quantum stabilization of a cosmic string by a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. We show that charged strings, obtained by populating fermionic bound state levels, become stable if the electroweak bosons are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. This result suggests that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Numerically we find the most favorable string profile to be a simple trough in the Higgs vacuum expectation value of radius {approx_equal}10{sup -18} m. The vacuum remains stable in our model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored.

Weigel, H. [Physics Department, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602 (South Africa); Quandt, M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Tuebingen University, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Graham, N. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College , Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States)

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

232

High dynamic range charge measurements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A charge amplifier for use in radiation sensing includes an amplifier, at least one switch, and at least one capacitor. The switch selectively couples the input of the switch to one of at least two voltages. The capacitor is electrically coupled in series between the input of the amplifier and the input of the switch. The capacitor is electrically coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. A method of measuring charge in radiation sensing includes selectively diverting charge from an input of an amplifier to an input of at least one capacitor by selectively coupling an output of the at least one capacitor to one of at least two voltages. The input of the at least one capacitor is operatively coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. The method also includes calculating a total charge based on a sum of the amplified charge and the diverted charge.

De Geronimo, Gianluigi

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

233

The role of point defects and defect complexes in silicon device processing. Summary report and papers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is the summary of the third workshop on the role of point defects and defect complexes in silicon device processing. The workshop was organized: (1) to discuss recent progress in the material quality produced by photovoltaic Si manufacturers, (2) to foster the understanding of point defect issues in Si device processing, (3) to review the effects of inhomogeneities on large- area solar cell performance, (4) to discuss how to improve Si solar cell processing, and (5) to develop a new understanding of gettering, defect passivation, and defect annihilation. Separate abstract were prepared for the individual papers, for the database.

Sopori, B.; Tan, T.Y.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Gauge turbulence, topological defect dynamics, and condensation in Higgs models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appear in the gauge field which are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixed point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signalled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of Yang-Mills fields and potential mechanisms how confinement and condensation in non-abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates.

Thomas Gasenzer; Larry McLerran; Jan M. Pawlowski; Dnes Sexty

2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

235

Identification of the Charge Carriers in Cerium Phosphate Ceramics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The total conductivity of Sr-doped cerium orthophosphate changes by nearly two orders of magnitude depending on the oxygen and hydrogen content of the atmosphere. The defect model for the system suggests that this is because the identity of the dominant charge carrier can change from electron holes to protons when the sample is in equilibrium with air vs. humidified hydrogen. In this work are presented some preliminary measurements that can help to clarify this exchange between carriers. The conduction behavior of a 2percent Sr-doped CePO4 sample under symmetric atmospheric conditions is investigated using several techniques, including AC impedance, H/D isotope effects, and chronoamperometry.

Ray, Hannah L.; Jonghe, Lutgard C. De

2010-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

236

Reading Comprehension - Charges and Electricity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Charges and Electricity Atoms, the basic building blocks of matter, are made of three basic components: protons, neutrons and electrons. The protons and neutrons cluster together...

237

Argonne Transportation Current News  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Multimedia TransFORUM Magazine Subscribe to read about Argonne's advances in transportation research » flickr logo See our photos on Flickr Youtube logo View our YouTube Videos argonne logo Argonne Experts Guide Logo of google plus Video: Argonne Virtual Field Trip -- "Vehicle Electrification" Logo of BBC Future Video: How X-ray Vision Will Fuel Better Car Engines Logo of BBC Future Video: The Lab Pushing Petrol Car Engines to New Extremes Image of front end of car Video: What is EcoCAR 3? Logo of BBC Future Video: Electric Vehicles: A Universal Plug for All Models? Jon Stewart of the BBC visits Argonne's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center seeking answers about creating common standards for electric vehicles and charging stations. Photo of Daniel Abraham Interview: Daniel Abraham Talks to The Battery Show about Developments in Lithium-ion Battery Technology

238

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental Katzer #12;CHARGE TO THE ALTF PANEL · Evaluate technologies for converting biomass and coal to liquid for liquid fuels produced from coal or biomass. · Evaluate environmental, economic, policy, and social

239

Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved ETA-TP008  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 Revision 2 Effective March 1, 1997 Battery Charging Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: _______________________________ Date:__________ Jude M. Clark Approved by: ______________________________________________ Date: _______________ Donald B. Karner Procedure ETA-TP008 Revision 2 2 ©1997 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Objectives 3 2.0 Purpose 3 3.0 Documentation 3 4.0 Initial Conditions and Prerequisites 4 5.0 Testing Activity Requirements 5 6.0 Glossary 8 7.0 References 10 Appendices Appendix A - Charging Checklist 11 Appendix B - Charging Data Sheet 12 Appendix C - Metrology Usage Sheet 13

240

Polymers in anisotropic environment with extended defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conformational properties of flexible polymers in d dimensions in environments with extended defects are analyzed both analytically and numerically. We consider the case, when structural defects are correlated in \\varepsilon_d dimensions and randomly distributed in the remaining d-\\varepsilon_d. Within the lattice model of self-avoiding random walks (SAW), we apply the pruned enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM) and find the estimates for scaling exponents and universal shape parameters of polymers in environment with parallel rod-like defects (\\varepsilon_d=1). An analytical description of the model is developed within the des Cloizeaux direct polymer renormalization scheme.

V. Blavatska; K. Haydukivska

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Battery charging and testing circuit  

SciTech Connect

A constant current battery charging circuit is provided by which the battery receives a full charge until the battery voltage reaches a threshold. When the battery voltage is above the threshold, the battery receives a trickle charge. The actual battery voltage is compared with a reference voltage to determine whether the full charge circuit should be in operation. Hysteresis is provided for preventing a rapid on/off operation around the threshold. The reference voltage is compensated for temperature variations. The hysteresis system and temperature compensation system are independent of each other. A separate test circuit is provided for testing the battery voltage. During testing of the battery, the full charge circuit is inoperative.

Wicnienski, M. F.; Charles, D. E.

1984-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

242

Excess charges in semiconductor nanocrystallites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors explore in this report the effects of excess electrons on the edge of the absorption spectrum of small semiconductor particles. The presence of these charges leads to strong bleaching of the absorption at the exciton region and to slight enhancement of the absorption on both sides of the bleaching. They show that the effect is independent of the origin of the charge; it occurs whether the charge is injected into the particle or only attached to its surface, and it appears even when the charge is deeply localized within the band gap. They conclude that the effect arises from the electric field associated with the charge and not from its presence in the band.

Laungdilok, C.; Lawless, D.; Cook, A.R.; Meisel, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Capacitive charging system for high power battery charging  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document describes a project to design, build, demonstrate, and document a Level 3 capacitive charging system, and it will be based on the existing PEZIC prototype capacitive coupler. The capacitive coupler will be designed to transfer power at a maximum of 600 kW, and it will transfer power by electric fields. The power electronics will transfer power at 100 kW. The coupler will be designed to function with future increases in the power electronics output power and increases in the amp/hours capacity of sealed batteries. Battery charging algorithms will be programmed into the control electronics. The finished product will be a programmable battery charging system capable of transferring 100 kW via a capacitive coupler. The coupler will have a low power loss of less than 25 watts when transferring 240 kW (400 amps). This system will increase the energy efficiency of high power battery charging, and it will enhance mobility by reducing coupler failures. The system will be completely documented. An important deliverable of this project is information. The information will be distributed to the Army`s TACOM-TARDEC`s Advanced Concept Group, and it will be distributed to commercial organizations by the Society of Automotive Engineers. The information will be valuable for product research, development, and specification. The capacitive charging system produced in this project will be of commercial value for future electric vehicles. The coupler will be designed to rapid charge batteries that have a capacity of several thousand amp/hours at hundreds of volts. The charging system built here will rapid charge batteries with several hundred amp/hours capacity, depending on the charging voltage.

NONE

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

244

Electron Scattering in InSb Quantum Wells due to Micro-twin Defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transport electron scattering due to micro-twin (MT) defects in InSb quantum wells (QWs) has been investigated at room temperature (RT). A linear-regression-based scattering analysis showed that Matthiessen's rule is applicable to the RT electron mobility in 20-nm-thick InSb QWs that contain MTs (whose density is 5.6x10{sup 2}-1.2x10{sup 4} /cm) and threading dislocations (8.7x10{sup 8}-3.2x10{sup 9} /cm{sup 2}) as dominant structural defects. For such an InSb QW whose local electron mobility in its non-MT regions is 2.8x10{sup 4}-4.5x10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/(Vs), the MT-originated energy barrier against the electron transport is deduced to be 0.081-0.093 eV at RT.

Mishima, T. D.; Santos, M. B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Center for Semiconductor Physics in Nanostructure University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

2011-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

245

Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on fusion devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For fusion, obtaining reliable measurements of basic plasma parameters like ion and electron densities and temperatures is a primary goal. For theory, measurements are needed as a function of time and space to understand plasma transport and confinement with the ultimate goal of achieving economic nuclear fusion power. Electron profile measurements and plasma spectroscopy for the plasma ions are introduced. With the advent of Neutral Beam auxiliary plasma heating, Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy provides accurate and time resolved measurements of the ions in large volume fusion devices. In acknowledgement of Nicol Peacock's role in the development of these techniques, still at the forefront of plasma fusion research, this paper describes the evolution of this diagnostic method.

Duval, B. P. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

246

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Public Charging Station Hosts 2 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 PEV Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Charging Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Benefits and Costs of Hosting a Charging Station . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Charging Station Locations and Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Ownership and Payment Models . . . . . . 14 Installing and Maintaining Charging Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Electrifying the Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Clean Cities Helps Establish PEV Charging Stations Establishing plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations requires unique knowledge and skills . If you need help, contact your local Clean Cities coordinator . Clean Cities is the U .S . Department of Energy's flagship alterna- tive-transportation

247

Generalized quantum defect methods in quantum chemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reaction matrix of multichannel quantum defect theory, K, gives a complete picture of the electronic structure and the electron - nuclear dynamics for a molecule. The reaction matrix can be used to examine both bound ...

Altunata, Serhan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

types of mask defects recorded in several state-of-the-art tools: the AIT, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and a commercial deep ultraviolet (DUV) mask inspection tool....

249

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

La Fontaine, A. Tchikoulaeva, and C. Holfeld, "Actinic imaging of native and programmed defects on a full-field mask," Proc. SPIE 7636, 76361A (2010). ALS Science Highlight 213...

250

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tchikoulaeva, and C. Holfeld, "Actinic imaging of native and programmed defects on a full-field mask," Proc. SPIE 7636, 76361A (2010). ALS Science Highlight 213 ALSNews Vol. 311...

251

Space Charge Correction on Emittance Measurement of Low Energy Electron Beams  

SciTech Connect

The goal of any particle accelerator is to optimize the transport of a charged particle beam along a set path by confining the beam to a small region close to the design trajectory and directing it accurately along the beamline. To do so in the simplest fashion, accelerators use a system of magnets that exert approximately linear electromagnetic forces on the charged beam. These electromagnets bend the beam along the desired path, in the case of bending magnets, and constrain the beam to the desired area through alternating focusing and defocusing effects, in the case of quadrupole magnets. We can model the transport of such a beam through transfer matrices representing the actions of the various beamline elements. However, space charge effects, produced from self electric fields within the beam, defocus the beam and must be accounted for in the calculation of beam emittance. We present below the preliminary results of a MATLAB code built to model the transport of a charged particle beam through an accelerator and measure the emittance under the influence of space charge effects. We demonstrate the method of correctly calculating the emittance of a beam under space charge effects using a least square fit to determine the initial properties of the beam given the beam size measured at a specific point after transport.

Treado, Colleen J.; /Massachusetts U., Amherst

2012-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

252

Conservation and renewable energy technologies for transportation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) is charged with long-term, high-risk, and potentially high-payoff research and development of promising transportation technologies that are unlikely to be undertaken by the private sector alone. OTT activities are designed to develop an advanced technology base within the US transportation industry for future manufacture of more energy-efficient, fuel-flexible, and environmentally sound transportation systems. OTT operations are focused on three areas: advanced automotive propulsion systems including gas turbines, low heat rejection diesel, and electric vehicle technologies; advanced materials development and tribology research; and research, development, demonstration, test, and evaluation (including field testing in fleet operations) of alternative fuels. Five papers describing the transportation technologies program have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Not Available

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Supersymmetric K field theories and defect structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct supersymmetric K field theories (i.e., theories with a non-standard kinetic term) in 1+1 and 2+1 dimensions such that the bosonic sector just consists of a nonstandard kinetic term plus a potential. Further, we study the possibility of topological defect formation in these supersymmetric models. Finally, we consider more general supersymmetric K field theories where, again, topological defects exist in some cases.

Adam, C; Sanchez-Guillen, J; Wereszczynski, A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Determination of Grain Boundary Charging in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Surface potential mapping of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) aims to understand the minority-carrier recombination at the grain boundaries (GBs) of this polycrystalline material by examining GB charging, which has resulted in a number of publications. However, the reported results are highly inconsistent. In this paper, we report on the potential mapping by measuring wide-bandgap or high-Ga-content films and by using a complementary atomic force microscopy-based electrical technique of scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). The results demonstrate consistent, positively charged GBs on our high-quality films with minimal surface defects/charges. The potential image taken on a low-quality film with a 1.2-eV bandgap shows significantly degraded potential contrast on the GBs and degraded potential uniformity on grain surfaces, resulting from the surface defects/charges of the low-quality film. In contrast, the potential image on an improved high-quality film with the same wide bandgap shows significantly improved GB potential contrast and surface potential uniformity, indicating that the effect of surface defects is critical when examining GB charging using surface potential data. In addition, we discuss the effect of the SKPFM setup on the validity of potential measurement, to exclude possible artifacts due to improper SKPFM setups. The SKPFM results were corroborated by using SCM measurements on the films with a CdS buffer layer. The SCM image shows clear GB contrast, indicating different electrical impedance on the GB from the grain surface. Further, we found that the GB contrast disappeared when the CdS window layer was deposited after the CIGS film was exposed extensively to ambient, which was caused by the creation of CIGS surface defects by the ambient exposure.

Jiang, C. S.; Contreras, M. A.; Repins, I.; Moutinho, H. R.; Noufi, R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Transportation and its Infrastructure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transport and its infrastructure Coordinating Lead Authors:5 Transport and its infrastructure Chandler, K. , E. Eberts,5 Transport and its infrastructure Sausen, R. , I. Isaksen,

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Intelligent Transport Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Sustainable Urban Transport: City Interview Synthesis (of Leeds, Institute for Transport Studies, forthcoming.I NTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS LINKING TECHNOLOGY AND

Deakin, Elizabeth; Frick, Karen Trapenberg; Skabardonis, Alexander

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Preface: Nonclassical Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

models of solute transport in highly heterogeneous geologicSemenov. 2008b. Nonclassical transport processes in geologicand L. Matveev. 2008. Transport regimes and concentration

Bolshov, L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Sustainability and Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gilbert is a Toronto-based transport and energy consultantof the forthcoming book Transport Revolutions: Making theand substantial transition to transport systems based on

Gilbert, Richard

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Transportation Energy Futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Comparative Analysis of Future Transportation Fuels. ucB-prominentlyin our transportation future, powering electricTransportation Energy Futures Daniel Sperling Mark A.

DeLuchi, Mark A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Achieving Sustainable Transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a serious concern for future transportation planning, but itplanning for the future. Transportation should be at the topsustainable transportation look like? Again, the future will

Mason, Jonathan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Transportation Issues  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Issues Issues and Resolutions - Compilation of Laboratory Transportation Work Package Reports Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition Campaign Compiled by Paul McConnell Sandia National Laboratories September 30, 2012 FCRD-UFD-2012-000342 Transportation Issues and Resolutions ii September 2012 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. DISCLAIMER This information was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U.S. Government. Neither the U.S. Government nor any

262

Transportation Security  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

For Review Only 1 Transportation Security Draft Annotated Bibliography Review July 2007 Preliminary Draft - For Review Only 2 Work Plan Task * TEC STG Work Plan, dated 8/2/06, Product #16, stated: "Develop an annotated bibliography of publicly-available documents related to security of radioactive material transportation." * Earlier this year, a preliminary draft annotated bibliography on this topic was developed by T-REX , UNM, to initially address this STG Work Plan Task. Preliminary Draft - For Review Only 3 Considerations in Determining Release of Information * Some "Publicly-available" documents could potentially contain inappropriate information according to standards set by DOE information security policy and DOE Guides. - Such documents would not be freely

263

LNG transportation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the beginning of 1965, the participants to the starting up of first French LNG transportation system between ARZEW and LE HAVRE were indeed pioneers when they started the cool-down of the three tanks of LE HAVRE, with a LNG freight delivered by old liberty-ship ''BEAUVAIS''. Could they forecast the development of LNG industry in FRANCE and in the world and imagine that modest 'JULES VERNE' and his two english brothers would have, 25 years later, 80 successors - more than five times as big, for the main part of them, that 12 liquefaction plants would be running in the world, supplying about twenty LNG terminals. For the first time, a country - FRANCE - can draw the lessons from the exploitation of the 3 LNG transportation systems during a long period. That is the subject of the present paper.

Picard, J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Argonne Transportation Links  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cars: Hybrid, Electric and Alternative-Fuel Vehicles presented by the Chicago Tribune Smartgrid.gov ChargePoint Network (find electric vehicle charging stations near you) American...

265

The Energy of Charged Matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this talk I will discuss some of the techniques that have been developed over the past 35 years to estimate the energy of charged matter. These techniques have been used to solve stability of (fermionic) matter in different contexts, and to control the instability of charged bosonic matter. The final goal will be to indicate how these techniques with certain improvements can be used to prove Dyson's 1967 conjecture for the energy of a charged Bose gas--the sharp $N^{7/5}$ law.

Jan Philip Solovej

2004-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

266

Transportation Planning & Decision Science Group Transportation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Poster Presentations: Stacy Davis - "Transportation Data Programs: Transportation Energy Data Book, Vehicle Technologies Market Report, and the Vehicle Technologies Fact of...

267

taking charge : optimizing urban charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles; Optimizing urban charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis analyses the opportunities and constraints of deploying charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles in urban environments. Existing electric vehicle charging infrastructure for privately (more)

Subramani, Praveen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Transportation Research Internship Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transportation Research Internship Program Civil & Coastal Engineering Overview The Transportation Research Internship Program (TRIP) is conducted by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) and the Center is to provide undergraduates an exciting opportunity to learn about transportation engineering

Slatton, Clint

269

Car Charging Group Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Car Charging Group Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Car Charging Group, Inc. Place Miami Beach, Florida Product Miami Beach, USA based installer of plug-in vehicle charge...

270

Two-dimensional defect modes in optically induced photonic lattices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article, localized linear defect modes due to band gap guidance in two-dimensional photonic lattices with localized or nonlocalized defects are investigated theoretically. First, when the defect is localized and weak, eigenvalues of defect modes bifurcated from edges of Bloch bands are derived analytically. It is shown that in an attractive (repulsive) defect, defect modes bifurcate out from Bloch-band edges with normal (anomalous) diffraction coefficients. Furthermore, distances between defect-mode eigenvalues and Bloch-band edges decrease exponentially with the defect strength, which is very different from the one-dimensional case where such distances decrease quadratically with the defect strength. It is also found that some defect-mode branches bifurcate not from Bloch-band edges, but from quasiedge points within Bloch bands, which is very unusual. Second, when the defect is localized but strong, defect modes are determined numerically. It is shown that both the repulsive and attractive defects can support various types of defect modes such as fundamental, dipole, quadrupole, and vortex modes. These modes reside in various band gaps of the photonic lattice. As the defect strength increases, defect modes move from lower band gaps to higher ones when the defect is repulsive, but remain within each band gap when the defect is attractive, similar to the one-dimensional case. The same phenomena are observed when the defect is held fixed while the applied dc field (which controls the lattice potential) increases. Lastly, if the defect is nonlocalized (i.e., it persists at large distances in the lattice), it is shown that defect modes can be embedded inside the continuous spectrum, and they can bifurcate out from edges of the continuous spectrum algebraically rather than exponentially.

Wang Jiandong; Yang Jianke; Chen Zhigang [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132 (United States)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

Pattern formation from defect chaosa theory of chevrons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: Turing patterns, coupled amplitude equations, defect chaos, electronconvection in liquid crystals

A. G. Rossberg; L. Kramer

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Tools for Charged Higgs Bosons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to identify the Higgs sector realized in nature, the predictions for Higgs boson masses, production cross sections and decay widths have to be compared with experimental results. We give a brief overview about computer codes for the evaluation of the properties of charged Higgs bosons, mostly focusing on the case of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We briefly review the relevance of the various contributions to the charged MSSM Higgs boson mass arising at the one-loop level.

S. Heinemeyer

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

273

Policy Implications from: -Charging Surveys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;Workplace Charging 0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120.00% ToyotaPlug-In Prius ChevyVolt Nissan.00% 120.00% ToyotaPlug-In Prius ChevyVolt Nissan Leaf FreeWorkplaceCharging morethan 5 times aweek 4.00% ToyotaPlug-In Prius ChevyVolt Nissan Leaf WorkplaceSame Price AsHome Electricity morethan 5 times aweek 4

California at Davis, University of

274

Electrically charged dilatonic black rings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this note we present (electrically) charged dilatonic black ring solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in five dimensions and we consider their physical properties. These solutions are static and as in the neutral case possess a conical singularity. We show how one may remove the conical singularity by application of a Harrison transformation, which physically corresponds to supporting the charged ring with an electric field. Finally, we discuss the slowly rotating case for arbitrary dilaton coupling.

Hari K. Kunduri; James Lucietti

2004-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

275

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Guidelines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

automotive manufacturers plan to launch plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) in 2010, the future of transportation is being propelled by a fundamental shift to cleaner and more...

276

Field collapse due to band-tail charge in amorphous silicon solar cells  

SciTech Connect

It is common for the fill factor to decrease with increasing illumination intensity in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells. This is especially critical for thicker solar cells, because the decrease is more severe than in thinner cells. Usually, the fill factor under uniformly absorbed red light changes much more than under strongly absorbed blue light. The cause of this is usually assumed to arise from space charge trapped in deep defect states. The authors model this behavior of solar cells using the Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures (AMPS) simulation program. The simulation shows that the decrease in fill factor is caused by photogenerated space charge trapped in the band-tail states rather than in defects. This charge screens the applied field, reducing the internal field. Owing to its lower drift mobility, the space charge due to holes exceeds that due to electrons and is the main cause of the field screening. The space charge in midgap states is small compared with that in the tails and can be ignored under normal solar-cell operating conditions. Experimentally, the authors measured the photocapacitance as a means to probe the collapsed field. They also explored the light intensity dependence of photocapacitance and explain the decrease of FF with the increasing light intensity.

Wang, Qi; Crandall, R.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Schiff, E.A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coca-Cola Company. plug-in electric vehicles parked at charging stations in parking garage Fast Facts Joined the Workplace Charging Challenge: February 27, 2013 Headquarters:...

278

PropagateUnequalCharges3.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beams of Unequal Charges through the same Lattice Abstract: In the Enhanced Transformer Ratio experiment, a train of 4 electron bunches, each with a different charge must...

279

American Battery Charging Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edit with form History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon American Battery Charging Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name American Battery Charging Inc Place...

280

Method and apparatus for rapid battery charging  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for charging electrical storage batteries having a known nominal amperage are described. The method consists in discharging the battery to a predetermined value and then charging the battery with a charging current initially several times greater than the nominal battery amperage. The charging current decreases exponentially from the initial charging current to a charging current much less than the nominal battery amperage when the battery is fully charged. The apparatus uses the discharge rate of an RC circuit to control the charging current applied to the battery. 3 figures, 1 table.

Samsioe, P.E.

1979-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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281

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: ABB Inc. on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: ABB Inc....

282

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Google to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Google on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging...

283

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Cisco Systems, Inc. on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Cisco...

284

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: 3M on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: 3M on...

285

Role of point defects/defect complexes in silicon device processing. Book of abstracts, fourth workshop  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The 41 abstracts are arranged into 6 sessions: impurities and defects in commercial substrates: their sources, effects on material yield, and material quality; impurity gettering in silicon: limits and manufacturability of impurity gettering and in silicon solar cells; impurity/defect passivation; new concepts in silicon growth: improved initial quality and thin films; and silicon solar cell design opportunities.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Manufacturing Defects Common to Composite Wind Turbine Blades: Effects of Defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Manufacturing Defects Common to Composite Wind Turbine Blades: Effects of Defects Jared W. Nelson The Blade Reliability Collaborative has been formed to perform comprehensive studies to improve wind turbine uni-directional wind turbine fiber-reinforced composite material with an epoxy resin were utilized

287

TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS Transportation systems are the building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS Transportation systems are the building blocks of modern society. Efficient mobility improves the quality of life. However, transportation systems by their very nature also affect quality. The transportation systems graduate pro- gram provides in-depth knowledge on the design

Wang, Yuhang

288

Intelligent Transportation Systems - Center for Transportation Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intelligent Transportation Systems Intelligent Transportation Systems The Center for Transportation Analysis does specialty research and development in intelligent transportation systems. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are part of the national strategy for improving the operational safety, efficiency, and security of our nation's highways. Since the early 1990s, ITS has been the umbrella under which significant efforts have been conducted in research, development, testing, deployment and integration of advanced technologies to improve the measures of effectiveness of our national highway network. These measures include level of congestion, the number of accidents and fatalities, delay, throughput, access to transportation, and fuel efficiency. A transportation future that includes ITS will involve a significant improvement in these

289

ACTIVE CATHODES FOR SUPER-HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS THROUGH SPACE CHARGE EFFECTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work done during the fifth quarter of the project. Effort was directed in two areas: (1) Further development of the model on the role of connectivity on ionic conductivity of porous bodies, including the role of grain boundaries and space charge region. (2) Fabrication of porous samaria-doped ceria (SDC) and investigation of the effect of thermal treatment on its conductivity. The model developed accounts for transport through three regions: (a) Transport through the bulk of the grain, RI, which includes parallel transport through space charge region. (b) Transport through the space charge region adjacent to the neck (grain boundary), RII. (c) Transport through the structural part of the neck (grain boundary), RIII. The work on the model development involves calculation RI, RII, RIII, and the sum of these three terms, which is the total resistance, as a function of the grain radius ranging between 0.5 and 5 microns and as a function of the relative neck size, described in terms of the angle theta, ranging between 5 and 45{sup o}. Three values of resistivity of the space charge region were chosen; space charge resistivity greater than grain resistivity, equal to grain resistivity, and lower than grain resistivity. Experimental work was conducted on samaria (Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3})-doped ceria (SDC) samples of differing porosity levels, before and after thermal treatment at 1200 C. The conductivity in the annealed samples was lower, consistent with enhanced Debye length. This shows the important role of space charge on ionic transport, and its implications concerning cathode polarization.

Anil V. Virkar

2004-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

290

Integrated circuit failure analysis by low-energy charge-induced voltage alteration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A scanning electron microscope apparatus and method are described for detecting and imaging open-circuit defects in an integrated circuit (IC). The invention uses a low-energy high-current focused electron beam that is scanned over a device surface of the IC to generate a charge-induced voltage alteration (CIVA) signal at the location of any open-circuit defects. The low-energy CIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any open-circuit defects. A low electron beam energy is used to prevent electrical breakdown in any passivation layers in the IC and to minimize radiation damage to the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs.

Cole, Jr., Edward I. (2116 White Cloud St., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Integrated circuit failure analysis by low-energy charge-induced voltage alteration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A scanning electron microscope apparatus and method are described for detecting and imaging open-circuit defects in an integrated circuit (IC). The invention uses a low-energy high-current focused electron beam that is scanned over a device surface of the IC to generate a charge-induced voltage alteration (CIVA) signal at the location of any open-circuit defects. The low-energy CIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any open-circuit defects. A low electron beam energy is used to prevent electrical breakdown in any passivation layers in the IC and to minimize radiation damage to the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs. 5 figs.

Cole, E.I. Jr.

1996-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

292

GaN: Defect and Device Issues  

SciTech Connect

The role of extended and point defects, and key impurities such as C, O and H, on the electrical and optical properties of GaN is reviewed. Recent progress in the development of high reliability contacts, thermal processing, dry and wet etching techniques, implantation doping and isolation and gate insulator technology is detailed. Finally, the performance of GaN-based electronic and photonic devices such as field effect transistors, UV detectors, laser diodes and light-emitting diodes is covered, along with the influence of process-induced or grown-in defects and impurities on the device physics.

Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Zolper, J.C.

1998-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

293

The Full Cost of Intercity Highway Transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction There has been a great deal of recent interest in identifying and measuring the full costs of transportation, particularly highways (see for instance: Keeler et al. 1974, Fuller et al. 1983, Quinet 1990, Mackenzie et al. 1992, INRETS 1993, Miller and Moffet 1993, IWW/INFRAS 1995, IBI 1995, Levinson et al. 1996, Delucchi 1996). This debate questions whether various modes of transportation are implicitly subsidized and to what extent this biases investment and usage decisions. While environmental impacts are used to stop new infrastructure, the full costs to society of transportation are not generally calculated for financing projects or charging for their use. In this paper we review the theoretical and empirical literature on the cost structure of the provision of intercity highway transportation and specify and estimate our own cost functions . In defining this framework we distinguish between internal (private) and external (social) costs, long and short run cos

David Gillen; David Levinson; David M. Levinson

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

A Graphene Quantum Dot with a Single Electron Transistor as Integrated Charge Sensor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed an etching process to fabricate a quantum dot and a nearby single electron transistor as a charge detector in a single layer graphene. The high charge sensitivity of the detector is used to probe Coulomb diamonds as well as excited spectrum in the dot, even in the regime where the current through the quantum dot is too small to be measured by conventional transport means. The graphene based quantum dot and integrated charge sensor serve as an essential building block to form a solid-state qubit in a nuclear-spin-free quantum world.

Ling-Jun Wang; Gang Cao; Tao Tu; Hai-Ou Li; Cheng Zhou; Xiao-Jie Hao; Zhan Su; Guang-Can Guo; Guo-Ping Guo; Hong-Wen Jiang

2010-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

295

Electric Charge Quantization in Standard Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the framework of Standard Model for the arbitrary values of Higgs and fermions fields hypercharges, taking into account parity invariance of electromagnetic interaction, expressions for the fermions charges, testifying the electric charge quantization are obtained. From the chiral anomalies cancellation condition within one family of leptons and quarks, numerical values of fermions charges, coinciding with standard values of charges have been obtained.

O. B. Abdinov; F. T. Khalil-zade; S. S. Rzaeva

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

296

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

297

Puerto Rico Refinery Desulfurization, Gasoline Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Puerto Rico Refinery Desulfurization, Gasoline Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

298

Mississippi Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Mississippi Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

299

Louisiana Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Louisiana Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

300

Oklahoma Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Oklahoma Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Mississippi Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Mississippi Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

302

Free form hemispherical shaped charge  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hemispherical shaped charge has been modified such that one side of the hemisphere is spherical and the other is a spherical allowing a wall thickness variation in the liner. A further modification is to use an elongated hemispherical shape. The liner has a thick wall at its pole and a thin wall at the equator with a continually decreasing wall thickness from the pole to the equator. The ratio of the wall thickness from the pole to the equator varies depending on liner material and HE shape. Hemispherical shaped charges have previously been limited to spherical shapes with no variations in wall thicknesses. By redesign of the basic liner thicknesses, the jet properties of coherence, stability, and mass distribution have been significantly improved. It is an object of this invention to provide an improved shape charge for oil well perforation.

Haselman, L.C. Jr.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

303

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bloomberg LP to someone by E-mail Bloomberg LP to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bloomberg LP on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bloomberg LP on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bloomberg LP on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bloomberg LP on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bloomberg LP on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bloomberg LP on AddThis.com... Goals Research & Development Testing and Analysis Workplace Charging Partners Ambassadors Resources Community and Fleet Readiness

304

Electric Charge in Interaction with Magnetically Charged Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the angular momentum of an electric charge e placed at rest outside a dilaton black hole with magnetic charge Q. The electromagnetic angular momentum which is stored in the electromagnetic field outside the black hole shows several common features regardless of the dilaton coupling strength, though the dilaton black holes are drastically different in their spacetime structure depending on it. First, the electromagnetic angular momentum depends on the separation distance between the two objects and changes monotonically from eQ to 0 as the charge goes down from infinity to the horizon, if rotational effects of the black hole are discarded. Next, as the black hole approaches extremality, however, the electromagnetic angular momentum tends to be independent of the distance between the two objects. It is then precisely $eQ$ as in the electric charge and monopole system in flat spacetime. We discuss why these effects are exhibited and argue that the above features are to hold in widely generic settings including black hole solutions in theories with more complicated field contents, by addressing the no hair theorem for black holes and the phenomenon of field expulsion exhibited by extremal black holes.

J. H. Kim; Sei-Hoon Moon

2007-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

305

Method and apparatus for battery charging  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of charging a battery and terminating the charging thereof upon determination of the existence of a prescribed condition comprising the steps of: applying charging current to the battery; measuring the battery voltage soon after the charging current is applied; determining, on the basis of the battery voltage measurement, the knee voltage of the charging characteristic of the particular battery being charged; calculating a battery voltage limit beyond which no further charging current is to be applied, the voltage limit being the point at which the instantaneous battery voltage is a pre-determined value greater than the knee voltage of the battery's charging characteristic; continued measuring of the battery voltage as the charging current is applied; and terminating the application of charging current when the battery voltage limit is reached.

Westhaver, L.A.; Ruksznis, R.E.

1987-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

306

Charged particle mobility refrigerant analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for analyzing a gaseous electronegative species comprises the steps of providing an analysis chamber; providing an electric field of known potential within the analysis chamber; admitting into the analysis chamber a gaseous sample containing the gaseous electronegative species; providing a pulse of free electrons within the electric field so that the pulse of free electrons interacts with the gaseous electronegative species so that a swarm of electrically charged particles is produced within the electric field; and, measuring the mobility of the electrically charged particles within the electric field.

Allman, Steve L. (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Chung-Hsuan (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Fuzzy Logic Connectivity in Semiconductor Defect Clustering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In joining defects on semiconductor wafer maps into clusters, it is common for defects caused by different sources to overlap. Simple morphological image processing tends to either join too many unrelated defects together or not enough together. Expert semiconductor fabrication engineers have demonstrated that they can easily group clusters of defects from a common manufacturing problem source into a single signature. Capturing this thought process is ideally suited for fuzzy logic. A system of rules was developed to join disconnected clusters based on properties such as elongation, orientation, and distance. The clusters are evaluated on a pair-wise basis using the fuzzy rules and are joined or not joined based on a defuzzification and threshold. The system continuously re-evaluates the clusters under consideration as their fuzzy memberships change with each joining action. The fuzzy membership functions for each pair-wise feature, the techniques used to measure the features, and methods for improving the speed of the system are all developed. Examples of the process are shown using real-world semiconductor wafer maps obtained from chip manufacturers. The algorithm is utilized in the Spatial Signature Analyzer (SSA) software, a joint development project between Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) and SEMATECH.

Gleason, S.S.; Kamowski, T.P.; Tobin, K.W.

1999-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

308

Design and defect tolerance beyond CMOS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is well recognized that novel computational models, devices and technologies are needed in order to sustain the remarkable advancement of CMOS-based VLSI circuits and systems. Regardless of the models, devices and technologies, any enhancement/replacement ... Keywords: cmol, defect tolerance, nanotechnology, qca, spin wave

Xiaobo Sharon Hu; Alexander Khitun; Konstantin K. Likharev; Michael T. Niemier; Mingqiang Bao; Kang Wang

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Defect-free ultrahigh flux asymmetric membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Defect-free, ultrahigh flux integrally-skinned asymmetric membranes having extremely thin surface layers (<0.2 .mu.m) comprised of glassy polymers are disclosed. The membranes are formed by casting an appropriate drope followed by forced convective evaporation of solvent to obtain a dry phase separated asymmetrical structure. The structure is then washed in a precipitation liquid and dried.

Pinnau, Ingo (Austin, TX); Koros, William J. (Austin, TX)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

A high transmission analyzing magnet for intense high charge state beams  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The low energy beam transport (LEBT) for VENUS will provide for extraction, mass analysis and transport to the axial injection line for the 88-Inch Cyclotron. The new LEBT was designed from the beginning to handle high intensity beams where space charge forces strongly affect the transmission. The magnet has a unique design with specially shaped poles to apply sextupole correction in both the horizontal and vertical plane.

Leitner, M.; Abbott, S.R.; Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C.

2002-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

311

Method for charging a storage battery  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for charging a lead-acid storage battery, the method comprising the steps of charging the battery at an initially high rate during an initial stage of the charging cycle, monitoring the internal battery voltage, charging the battery at a lower, finishing rate after a preselected battery voltage has been monitored, and periodically interrupting the finishing charge until the battery is recharged.

Fallon, W.H.; Kirby, D.W.; Neukirch, E.O.; Schober, W.R.

1983-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

312

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Guidelines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

major automotive manufacturers plan to launch plug-in electric vehicles (EV) in 2010, the future of transportation is being propelled by a fundamental shift to cleaner and more...

313

Argonne TTRDC - Transportation Publications - Fact Sheets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Green Transportation Technologies Fact Sheets Green Transportation Technologies Fact Sheets Advancing Next-Generation Vehicles (2010; 210 kB pdf) Computing Tools for the Automotive Industry (2010; 212 kB pdf) Enhancing Thermal Conductivity and Reducing Friction (2010; 204 kB pdf) Improving Energy Use in Heavy-Duty Vehicles (2020; 220 kB pdf) Recycling Automotive Scrap (2010; 216 kB pdf) Reducing Diesel Engine Emissions (2010; 234 kB pdf) Just the Basics Fact Sheets Fuel Cells (425 kB pdf) Hybrid Electric Vehicles (523 kB pdf) Projects Smart Charging: Joint Argonne-Sweden Research (pdf) The Smart Grid (pdf) Argonne-China Collaborations Benefit Both Nations (English version) (中文版) Vehicle-Grid Interface Key to Smart Charging Plug-in Vehicles (January 2010; 618 kB pdf) Battery-in-the-Loop (December 2009; 587 kB pdf)

314

Transportation Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to systematically identify and examine possible near and long-term ecological and environmental effects from the production of hydrogen from various energy sources based on the DOE hydrogen production strategy and the use of that hydrogen in transportation applications. This project uses state-of-the-art numerical modeling tools of the environment and energy system emissions in combination with relevant new and prior measurements and other analyses to assess the understanding of the potential ecological and environmental impacts from hydrogen market penetration. H2 technology options and market penetration scenarios will be evaluated using energy-technology-economics models as well as atmospheric trace gas projections based on the IPCC SRES scenarios including the decline in halocarbons due to the Montreal Protocol. Specifically we investigate the impact of hydrogen releases on the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, the long-term stability of the ozone layer due to changes in hydrogen emissions, the impact of hydrogen emissions and resulting concentrations on climate, the impact on microbial ecosystems involved in hydrogen uptake, and criteria pollutants emitted from distributed and centralized hydrogen production pathways and their impacts on human health, air quality, ecosystems, and structures under different penetration scenarios

Wuebbles, D.J.; Dubey, M.K., Edmonds, J.; Layzell, D.; Olsen, S.; Rahn, T.; Rocket, A.; Wang, D.; Jia, W.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Stability of charged thin shells  

SciTech Connect

In this article we study the mechanical stability of spherically symmetric thin shells with charge, in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. We analyze linearized perturbations preserving the symmetry, for shells around vacuum and shells surrounding noncharged black holes.

Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Simeone, Claudio [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

Transmission Access Charge Informational Filing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of any new Participating Transmission Owner (Participating TO) during the proceeding six months or (2) changes to Transmission Revenue Requirements of any of the Participating TOs. 1 Because the Access Charges are determined through a formula rate mechanism, these semi-annual adjustments take place automatically. In the enclosed informational filing, the ISO is providing notice regarding the updated Access Charges that reflect the charges that will be in effect beginning January 1, 2002 in accordance with the formula rate. The adjusted charges are based on the modified Transmission Revenue Requirements, both High Voltage and Low Voltage as a result of: (1) the Offer of Settlement accepted by the Commission in Pacific Gas & Electric Companys (PG&E) Docket No. ER01-66-000, (2) San Diego Gas and Electric Companys supplemental surcharge accepted, subject to refund, in Docket No. ER01-3074-000, and (3) the annual adjustment to the Transmission Revenue Balancing Account (TRBA) of the Participating TOs. 1 Capitalized terms not otherwise defined herein are defined in the Master Definitions

unknown authors

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Transportation Security | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transportation Security SHARE Global Threat Reduction Initiative Transportation Security Cooperation Secure Transport Operations (STOP) Box Security of radioactive material while...

318

Erosion and Optimal Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

383 pp. EROSION AND OPTIMAL TRANSPORT [23] I. Ekeland and T.and D. Simons, Sediment transport capacity of overland ?ow,measure spaces via optimal transport, Ann. of Math. (2),

Birnir, Bjorn; Rowlett, Julie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

How Usage is Charged at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

usage usage is charged How usage is charged MPP Charging (Computational Systems) When a job runs on a NERSC MPP system, such as Hopper, charges accrue against one of the user's repository allocations. The unit of accounting for these charges is the "MPP Hour". A parallel job is charged for exclusive use of each multi-core node allocated to the job. The MPP charge for such a job is calculated as the product of: the job's elapsed wall-clock time in hours, the number of nodes allocated to the job (regardless of the number actually used), the number of cores available on each allocated node, a machine charge factor (MCF) based on typical performance of the machine relative to Hopper (MCF=1.0), and a queue charge factor (QCF). Queue priority scheduling gives users

320

Session AA: Oxide Defects, Localized States, and Nanostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 24, 2010 ... 1:30 PM AA1, Vacancy Defect and Defect Cluster Energetics in ... to correlate the commonly observed 1.9-2.1 eV red and 2.3-2.5 eV green...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Transportation Market Distortions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transport Prices and Markets, Victoria Transport PolicySurvey: Survey Suggests Market-Based Vision of Smart Growth,G. 1996. Roads in a Market Economy, Avebury (Aldershot).

Litman, Todd

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Sustainability and Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2005. Integrating Sustainability into the Trans- portationTHOUGHT PIECE Sustainability and Transport by Richardof the concept of sustainability to transport planning. In

Gilbert, Richard

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Transportation Demand This  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

69 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Transportation Demand Module The NEMS Transportation Demand Module estimates...

324

Transportation / Field Trips  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... In the event that a child misses the transportation, parents may choose the ... their child's class on an outing and possibly transport themselves or their ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

325

PBA Transportation Websites  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Useful Websites for Transportation from PBA From: Patterson, Philip (DOE HQ) Subject: Useful Websites for Transportation from PBA Here are some websites you might want to check...

326

Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), range-extended electric vehicles (EREV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV), draw some or all of their power from electricity stored in batteries, which are charged by the electric grid. In order for PEVs to be accepted by the mass market, electric charging infrastructure must also be deployed. Charging infrastructure must be safe, convenient, and financially sustainable. Additionally, electric utilities must be able to manage PEV charging demand on the electric grid. In the Fall of 2009, a large scale PEV infrastructure demonstration was launched to deploy an unprecedented number of PEVs and charging infrastructure. This demonstration, called The EV Project, is led by Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. eTec is partnering with Nissan North America to deploy up to 4,700 Nissan Leaf BEVs and 11,210 charging units in five market areas in Arizona, California, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington. With the assistance of the Idaho National Laboratory, eTec will collect and analyze data to characterize vehicle consumer driving and charging behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of charging infrastructure, and understand the impact of PEV charging on the electric grid. Trials of various revenue systems for commercial and public charging infrastructure will also be conducted. The ultimate goal of The EV Project is to capture lessons learned to enable the mass deployment of PEVs. This paper is the first in a series of papers documenting the progress and findings of The EV Project. This paper describes key research objectives of The EV Project and establishes the project background, including lessons learned from previous infrastructure deployment and PEV demonstrations. One such previous study was a PHEV demonstration conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), led by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). AVTA's PHEV demonstration involved over 250 vehicles in the United States, Canada, and Finland. This paper summarizes driving and charging behavior observed in that demonstration, including the distribution of distance driven between charging events, charging frequency, and resulting proportion of operation charge depleting mode. Charging demand relative to time of day and day of the week will also be shown. Conclusions from the PHEV demonstration will be given which highlight the need for expanded analysis in The EV Project. For example, the AVTA PHEV demonstration showed that in the absence of controlled charging by the vehicle owner or electric utility, the majority of vehicles were charged in the evening hours, coincident with typical utility peak demand. Given this baseline, The EV Project will demonstrate the effects of consumer charge control and grid-side charge management on electricity demand. This paper will outline further analyses which will be performed by eTec and INL to documenting driving and charging behavior of vehicles operated in a infrastructure-rich environment.

John Smart; Stephen Schey

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Controlling Defect Density in Polymer-Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Controlling Defect Density in Polymer-Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Optimizing ... Engineering Carbon Nanomaterials for Energy Application.

328

Thermodynamic Control of Stoichiometry-Induced Defects in ...  

Thermodynamic Control of Stoichiometry-Induced Defects in Photovoltaic Materials Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity.

329

Enhanced Lattice Defect Formation Associated with Hydrogen and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Enhanced Lattice Defect Formation Associated with Hydrogen and Hydrogen Embrittlement under Elastic Stress of High-Strength Steel.

330

Impurities and defects in photovoltaic Si devices: A review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The performance of commercial photovoltaic Si devices is strongly controlled by the impurities and defects present in the substrates. A well-designed solar cell processing sequence can mitigate their effects to yield high efficiency devices. Such a process-design requires a comprehensive knowledge of the properties of defects, impurities, and impurity-defect interactions that can occur during device processing. This paper reviews the recent understanding of the impurity and defect issues in Si-photovoltaics.

Sopori, B.

1999-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

331

Charging effect simulation model used in simulations of plasma etching of silicon  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the consequences of local surface charging on the evolving etching profile is a critical challenge in high density plasma etching. Deflection of the positively charged ions in locally varying electric fields can cause profile defects such as notching, bowing, and microtrenching. We have developed a numerical simulation model capturing the influence of the charging effect over the entire course of the etching process. The model is fully integrated into ViPER (Virtual Plasma Etch Reactor)-a full featured plasma processing simulation software developed at Ilmenau University of Technology. As a consequence, we show that local surface charge concurrently evolves with the feature profile to affect the final shape of the etched feature. Using gas chopping (sometimes called time-multiplexed) etch process for experimental validation of the simulation, we show that the model provides excellent fits to the experimental data and both, bowing and notching effects are captured-as long as the evolving profile and surface charge are simultaneously simulated. In addition, this new model explains that surface scallops, characteristic of gas chopping technique, are eroded and often absent in the final feature profile due to surface charging. The model is general and can be applied across many etching chemistries.

Ishchuk, Valentyn; Volland, Burkhard E.; Hauguth, Maik; Rangelow, Ivo W. [Department of Micro- and Nanoelectronic Systems, Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau 98693 (Germany); Cooke, Mike [Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology, North End, Yatton, Bristol BS49 4AP (United Kingdom)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

Metrics of Risk Associated with Defects Rediscovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Software defects rediscovered by a large number of customers affect various stakeholders and may: 1) hint at gaps in a software manufacturer's Quality Assurance (QA) processes, 2) lead to an over-load of a software manufacturer's support and maintenance teams, and 3) consume customers' resources, leading to a loss of reputation and a decrease in sales. Quantifying risk associated with the rediscovery of defects can help all of these stake-holders. In this chapter we present a set of metrics needed to quantify the risks. The metrics are designed to help: 1) the QA team to assess their processes; 2) the support and maintenance teams to allocate their resources; and 3) the customers to assess the risk associated with using the software product. The paper includes a validation case study which applies the risk metrics to industrial data. To calculate the metrics we use mathematical instruments like the heavy-tailed Kappa distribution and the G/M/k queuing model.

Miranskyy, Andriy V; Reesor, Mark

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Charge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ARM-0501 ARM-0501 Marine Stratus Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) Science Plan June 2005 M.A. Miller Brookhaven National Laboratory Earth System Science Division Upton, New York A. Bucholtz Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, California B. Albrecht and P. Kollias Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science Miami, Florida Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research M.A. Miller et al., June 2005, DOE/ER-ARM-0501 Abstract Marine stratus is one of the most prevalent and under sampled cloud types on earth and is an important component of the earth's climate system. Marine stratus is thought to be susceptible to infusions of anthropogenic aerosols that alter in-cloud microphysical processes and is known to

334

Charge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

001 001 The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Infrastructure Review Report (AIR): Summary of Recommendations January 2001 Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research DOE/SC-ARM-0001 The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Infrastructure Review Report (AIR): Summary of Recommendations The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Infrastructure Review committee feels that the organization of the ARM Infrastructure must change as the amount of required work grows and budgets remain fixed. The current structure may not lend itself to the more efficient operation that will be needed. The current ARM Infrastructure is site centric; that structure served ARM well in its early years of development but is one that has become limiting.

335

Charge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Mixed-Phase Cloud Microphysics for Global Climate Models First Quarter 2007 ARM Metric Report January 2007 Xiaohong Liu and Steven J. Ghan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research X. Liu and S.J. Ghan, DOE/SC-ARM-0701 iii Summary Mixed-phase clouds are composed of a mixture of cloud droplets and ice crystals. The partitioning of condensed water into liquid droplets and ice crystals in clouds varies throughout the life cycle of clouds, with droplets forming initially but crystals dominating later as ice forms first by crystal nucleation and then by vapor deposition. This report documents an ice nucleation

336

Charge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 DOE Review of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility February 3-4, 2005 American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C. June 2005 W.R. Ferrell Climate Change Research Division Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research DOE/SC-ARM-0502 CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 1 2. SUMMARY OF ACRF INFRASTRUCTURE REVIEW PANEL COMMENTS................ 3 2.1 Management.................................................................................................................... 3 2.2 Research Support ............................................................................................................

337

Point defects in silicon crystals studied via complexes with hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We studied the properties of irradiation-induced point defects and thermal equilibrium vacancies in Si by detecting hydrogen interacting with these point defects. First, we show the irradiation temperature dependence of the point defect concentration. ... Keywords: Frenkel pairs, hydrogen, migration energy, self-interstitials, silicon, vacancies

M. Suezawa; N. Fukata; Y. Takada; R. Taniguchi; F. Hori; R. Oshima

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Investigation of the Charge Collection Efficiency of CdMnTe Radiation Detectors  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the growth, fabrication and characterization of indium-doped cadmium manganese telluride (CdMnTe) crystals grown by the vertical Bridgman technique. The 10 x 10 x 1.9 mm{sup 3} samples have been fabricated, and the charge collection properties of the CdMnTe detectors have been measured. Alpha-particle spectroscopy measurements have yielded an average charge collection efficiency approaching 100%. Ion beam induced charge (IBIC) measurements have been performed by raster scanning focused 5.5 MeV {sup 4}He beams onto the detectors. Spatially resolved charge collection efficiency maps have been produced for a range of detector bias voltages. Inhomogeneities in the charge transport of the CdMnTe crystals have been associated with chains of Te inclusions within the detector bulk, and the reduction in charge collection efficiency in their locality has been quantified. It has been shown that the role of Te inclusions in degrading charge collection is reduced with increasing values of bias voltage. IBIC measurements for a range of low biases have highlighted the evolution of the charge collection uniformity across the detectors.

Bolotnikov A.; Rafiei, R.; Boardman, D.; Sarbutt, A.; Prokopovich, A.; Kim, K.; Reinhard, M.I.; James, R.B.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Building model systems to understand Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in heme : spectroscopic investigation of charge transfer to axially bound diimide acceptors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer (PCET) is an important mechanistic motif in chemistry, which allows for efficient charge transport in many biological systems. We seek to understand how the proton and electron motions are ...

Hanson, Christina J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Since the 1970s, the semiconductor industry has strived to shrink the cost and size of circuit patterns printed onto computer chips in accordance with Moore's law, doubling the number of transistors on a computer's central processing unit (CPU) every two years. The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, printing chips using 13-nm-wavelength light, opens the way to future generations of smaller, faster, and cheaper semiconductors. EUV lithography relies on specialized lenses made of curved mirrors with reflective coatings called multilayers to print patterns with high resolution. One special flat mirror called a mask is particularly sensitive to even the smallest imperfections. To better detect and characterize mask defects, scientists at Berkeley Lab worked with SEMATECH, an international semiconductor industry consortium, to create a unique Fresnel zone-plate microscope on Advanced Light Source Beamline 11.3.2 called the SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT).

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigating Extreme Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Wednesday, 28 July 2010 00:00 Since the 1970s, the semiconductor industry has strived to shrink the cost and size of circuit patterns printed onto computer chips in accordance with Moore's law, doubling the number of transistors on a computer's central processing unit (CPU) every two years. The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, printing chips using 13-nm-wavelength light, opens the way to future generations of smaller, faster, and cheaper semiconductors. EUV lithography relies on specialized lenses made of curved mirrors with reflective coatings called multilayers to print patterns with high resolution. One special flat mirror called a mask is particularly sensitive to even the smallest imperfections. To better detect and characterize mask defects, scientists at Berkeley Lab worked with SEMATECH, an international semiconductor industry consortium, to create a unique Fresnel zone-plate microscope on Advanced Light Source Beamline 11.3.2 called the SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT).

342

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Since the 1970s, the semiconductor industry has strived to shrink the cost and size of circuit patterns printed onto computer chips in accordance with Moore's law, doubling the number of transistors on a computer's central processing unit (CPU) every two years. The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, printing chips using 13-nm-wavelength light, opens the way to future generations of smaller, faster, and cheaper semiconductors. EUV lithography relies on specialized lenses made of curved mirrors with reflective coatings called multilayers to print patterns with high resolution. One special flat mirror called a mask is particularly sensitive to even the smallest imperfections. To better detect and characterize mask defects, scientists at Berkeley Lab worked with SEMATECH, an international semiconductor industry consortium, to create a unique Fresnel zone-plate microscope on Advanced Light Source Beamline 11.3.2 called the SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT).

343

Defect structure of web silicon ribbon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Web silicon ribbon has recently emerged as a material for the production of high efficiency solar cells. Since defects introduced during growth may influence locally minority carrier recombination rates, there is now a need to examine the defect structure in detail and to correlate it with electrical activity. This work describes initial observations made on web material by EBIC and HVEM. Although EBIC investigations have shown that dislocations emerging at the web surface enhance minority carrier recombination rates, their density is low enough (typically 10/sup 5/cm/sup -2/) to have only a small effect on the efficiency of the material as a solar cell. Since a condition for dendritic web growth is that the dendrites contain at least two twin boundaries it is usual to find that some of these boundaries extend into the web. These boundaries are formed parallel to the (111) growth surface and are found to be sites of strong electrical activity. HVEM has been used to study the defect structure at the twin boundary. Two types of dislocation networks lying on different (111) planes have been observed, presumably corresponding to two adjacent twin boundaries.

Cunningham, B.; Strunk, H.; Ast, D.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Junction Transport in Epitaxial Film Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report our progress toward low-temperature HWCVD epitaxial film silicon solar cells on inexpensive seed layers, with a focus on the junction transport physics exhibited by our devices. Heterojunctions of i/p hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si) on our n-type epitaxial crystal Si on n++ Si wafers show space-charge-region recombination, tunneling or diffusive transport depending on both epitaxial Si quality and the applied forward voltage.

Young, D. L.; Li, J. V.; Teplin, C. W.; Stradins, P.; Branz, H. M.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Free form hemispherical shaped charge  

SciTech Connect

A hemispherical shaped charge has been modified such that one side of the hemisphere is spherical and the other is aspherical allowing a wall thickness variation in the liner. A further modification is to use an elongated hemispherical shape. The liner has a thick wall at its pole and a thin wall at the equator with a continually decreasing wall thickness from the pole to the equator. The ratio of the wall thickness from the pole to the equator varies depending on liner material and HE shape. Hemispherical shaped charges have previously been limited to spherical shapes with no variations in wall thicknesses. By redesign of the basic liner thicknesses, the jet properties of coherence, stability, and mass distribution have been significantly improved.

Haselman, Jr., Leonard C. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Position sensing by charge division  

SciTech Connect

A summary of a comprehensive analysis of theoretical and practical aspects of position sensing by charge division from resistive electrodes is presented. Properties of transformer decoupling of the resistive electrode from detector bias voltage are analyzed and compared to the usual capacitive decoupling methods. Optimization and limitiation of signal shaping is discussed as a function of diffusion time constant, signal rise times, and notes. (auth)

Alberi, J.L.; Radeka, V.

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Method for controlled hydrogen charging of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for controlling hydrogen charging of hydride forming metals through a window of a superimposed layer of a non-hydriding metal overlying the portion of the hydride forming metals to be charged.

Cheng, Bo-Ching (Fremont, CA); Adamson, Ronald B. (Fremont, CA)

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

348

Graduate Certificate in Transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Graduate Certificate in Transportation Nohad A. Toulan School of Urban Studies and Planning of Engineering and Computer Science integrated transportation systems. The Graduate Certificate in Transportation their capabilities. Students in the program can choose among a wide range of relevant courses in transportation

Bertini, Robert L.

349

TRANSPORTATION Annual Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and educate the future transportation workforce. An example of what we can accomplish is shown2003 CENTER FOR TRANSPORTATION STUDIES Annual Report #12;Center for Transportation Studies University of Minnesota 200 Transportation and Safety Building 511 Washington Avenue S.E. Minneapolis, MN

Minnesota, University of

350

Transportation Organization and Functions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Office of Packaging and Transportation list of organizations and functions, with a list of acronyms.

351

Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator - Energy ...  

... -phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, ...

352

Electrochemically controlled charging circuit for storage batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemically controlled charging circuit for charging storage batteries is disclosed. The embodiments disclosed utilize dc amplification of battery control current to minimize total energy expended for charging storage batteries to a preset voltage level. The circuits allow for selection of Zener diodes having a wide range of reference voltage levels. Also, the preset voltage level to which the storage batteries are charged can be varied over a wide range.

Onstott, E.I.

1980-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

353

Multi-modal Transportation > Highway Transportation > Trucking > Railroad transportation > Public transit > Rural transportation > Rural transit > Freight pipeline transportation > Airport planning and development > Airport maintenance > Bicycle and pedes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multi-modal Transportation > Highway Transportation > Trucking > Railroad transportation > Public transit > Rural transportation > Rural transit > Freight pipeline transportation > Airport planning and development > Airport maintenance > Bicycle and pedestrian > Ports and waterways >>> Transportation operat

354

POPCORN: privacy-preserving charging for emobility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Upcoming years will see a massive deployment of electric vehicles and, combined with this, of charging infrastructure. This will require protocols and standards that will control authentication, authorization, and billing of electric-vehicle charging. ... Keywords: electric vehicle charging, iso/iec 15118, privacy, privacy enhancing technologies, security

Christina Hfer, Jonathan Petit, Robert Schmidt, Frank Kargl

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

The role of point defects and defect complexes in silicon device processing. Summary report and papers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a summary of a workshop hold on August 24--26, 1992. Session 1 of the conference discussed characteristics of various commercial photovoltaic silicon substrates, the nature of impurities and defects in them, and how they are related to the material growth. Session 2 on point defects reviewed the capabilities of theoretical approaches to determine equilibrium structure of defects in the silicon lattice arising from transitional metal impurities and hydrogen. Session 3 was devoted to a discussion of the surface photovoltaic method for characterizing bulk wafer lifetimes, and to detailed studies on the effectiveness of various gettering operations on reducing the deleterious effects of transition metals. Papers presented at the conference are also included in this summary report.

Sopori, B.; Tan, T.Y.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

357

Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Organic Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

This research project aims to achieve quantitative and molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped organic semiconductors via in situ optical absorption spectroscopy, in conjunction with time-resolved electrical measurements. During the funding period, we have made major progress in three general areas: (1) probed charge injection at the interface between a polymeric semiconductor and a polymer electrolyte dielectric and developed a thermodynamic model to quantitatively describe the transition from electrostatic to electrochemical doping; (2) developed vibrational Stark effect to probe electric field at buried organic semiconductor interfaces; (3) used displacement current measurement (DCM) to study charge transport at organic/dielectric interfaces and charge injection at metal/organic interfaces.

Zhu, Xiaoyang; Frisbie, C Daniel

2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

358

Phase stable rf transport system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an RF transport system which delivers a phase-stable RF signal to a load, such as an RF cavity of a charged particle accelerator. A circuit generates a calibration signal at an odd multiple frequency of the RF signal where the calibration signal is superimposed with the RF signal on a common cable that connects the RF signal with the load. Signal isolating diplexers are located at both the RF signal source end and load end of the common cable to enable the calibration to be inserted and extracted from the cable signals without any affect on the RF signal. Any phase shift in the calibration signal during traverse of the common cable is then functionally related to the phase shift in the RF signal. The calibration phase shift is used to control a phase shifter for the RF signal to maintain a stable RF signal at the load.

Curtin, M.T.; Natter, E.F.; Denney, P.M.

1991-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

359

Phase stable RF transport system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An RF transport system delivers a phase-stable RF signal to a load, such as an RF cavity of a charged particle accelerator. A circuit generates a calibration signal at an odd multiple frequency of the RF signal where the calibration signal is superimposed with the RF signal on a common cable that connects the RF signal with the load. Signal isolating diplexers are located at both the RF signal source end and load end of the common cable to enable the calibration to be inserted and extracted from the cable signals without any affect on the RF signal. Any phase shift in the calibration signal during traverse of the common cable is then functionally related to the phase shift in the RF signal. The calibration phase shift is used to control a phase shifter for the RF signal to maintain a stable RF signal at the load.

Curtin, Michael T. (Los Alamos, NM); Natter, Eckard F. (San Francisco, CA); Denney, Peter M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Transportation Planning & Decision Science Group Transportation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Award on January 16, 2013, during the Chairman's Luncheon at the 92nd Annual Transportation Research Board (TRB) Meeting in Washington, DC. Dr. Greene was honored for his...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

EV Project Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Range of Percent of Charging Units with a Vehicle Connected versus Time of Day Max percentage of charging units connected across all days Min percentage of charging units...

362

Charge It: The Promise of Plug-in Electric Hybrids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our study found that a simple upgrade from 120-volt to240-volt charging outlets allowed for charging durationsaffordable conversion from 120-volt to 240-volt charging at

Recker, W.W.; Kang, J.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Charge It: The Promise of Plug-in Electric Hybrids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our study found that a simple upgrade from 120-volt to240-volt charging outlets allowed for charging durationsaffordable conversion from 120-volt to 240-volt charging at

Recker, W. W.; Kang, J. E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

U.S. Refinery Catalytic Hydrocracking, Gas Oil Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Cat. Hydro-Cracking Gas Oil Downstream Charge Capacity ; Cat. Hydro-Cracking Gas Oil Downstream Charge Capacity ; U.S. Downstream Charge Capacity of Operable ...

365

EV Project Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Max percentage of charging units connected across all days Inner-quartile range of charging units connected across all days Median percentage of charging units connected across all...

366

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems to Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace

367

Alternative Transportation ExpoAlternative Transportation ExpoAlternative Transportation Expo SPONSORED BY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alternative Transportation ExpoAlternative Transportation ExpoAlternative Transportation Expo providers,Exhibits and vehicles from auto manufacturers, energy providers, entrepreneurs, transportation providers, and an art contest.entrepreneurs, transportation providers, and an art contest

de Lijser, Peter

368

Outlook for Charged Higgs Physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Almost all extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of charged Higgs bosons. This talk focuses on the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM), which is relatively predictive. The outlook for detecting supersymmetric particles and Higgs bosons at the LHC are discussed, as are the prospects for finding indirect effects of supersymmetric Higgs bosons at low energies, e.g., in K decays. The outlook for discovering observable effects of CP-violating supersymmetric phases at high energies or in B decays is also mentioned.

John Ellis

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

369

Correlation between nuclear response and defects in CZT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vertical high pressure Bridgman (VHPB) was considered until now to be the most successful crystal growth method to produce Cd{sub 1{minus}x}Zn{sub x}Te (CZT), (0.04 < x < 0.24), for X- and gamma-ray detector crystals. Recently Horizontal Bridgman (HB) Cd{sub 1{minus}x}Zn{sub x}Te crystals produced by IMARAD Co. have also been successfully fabricated into nuclear spectroscopic radiation detectors. In view of the database of many years' study of the electrical properties of VHPB CZT grown and obtained from various sources, the authors also studied the HB CZT crystals in order to compare the defects present in both different kinds of crystals grown by different methods. The VHB-grown samples were examined using thermoelectric emission spectroscopy (TEES), X- and gamma ray spectroscopy and laser induced transient charge technique (TCT). The surface and the bulk crystalline homogeneity were mapped using triaxial double crystal x-ray diffraction (TADXRD) and infrared transmission spectroscopy (IR). They have found a correlation between crystallinity, IR transmission microstructure and trapping times. Spectrometer grade VHPB CZT crystals exhibit trapping times of 20 {micro}s for electrons and 7 {micro}s for holes, however, regions, which were opaque to IR transmission, had trapping times shorter by one order of magnitude. The trapping times of HB CZT for electrons, were 10--15 {micro}s. A similar trend has been observed on VHPB CZT crystals with poor crystallinity. The HB CZT crystals that they measured in this study had a crystallinity that was inferior to that of the best spectroscopic grade VHPB crystals.

H. Hermon; M. Schieber; R. B. James; E. Lee; E. Cross; M. Goorsky; T. Lam; T. E. Schlesinger; M. Greaves

1999-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

370

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

lynda.com to someone by E-mail lynda.com to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: lynda.com on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: lynda.com on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: lynda.com on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: lynda.com on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: lynda.com on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: lynda.com on AddThis.com... Goals Research & Development Testing and Analysis Workplace Charging Partners Ambassadors Resources Community and Fleet Readiness Workforce Development

371

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BookFactory to someone by E-mail BookFactory to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: BookFactory on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: BookFactory on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: BookFactory on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: BookFactory on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: BookFactory on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: BookFactory on AddThis.com... Goals Research & Development Testing and Analysis Workplace Charging Partners Ambassadors Resources Community and Fleet Readiness

372

Primary charge separation in isolated photosystem II reaction centers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Primary charge-separation in isolated bacterial reaction center (RC) complex occurs in 2.8 ps at room temperature and 0.7--1.2 ps at 10 K. Because of similarities between the bacterial and photosystem II (PSII) RCs, it has been of considerable interest to obtain analogous charge-separation rates in the higher plant system. Our previous femtosecond transient absorption studies used PSII RC material stabilized with PEG or by exchanging dodecyl maltoside (DM) for Triton in the isolation procedure. These materials gave charge-separation 1/e times of 3.0 {plus_minus} 0.6 ps at 4{degree}C and 1.4{plus_minus} 0.2 ps at 15 K based on the risetime of transient absorption kinetics at 820 nm. These values were thought to represent the time required for formation of the P680{sup +}-Pheo{sup {minus}} state. Recent results of Hastings et al. obtained at high data acquisition rates and low flash intensities, suggest that the Pheo{sup {minus}} state may form more slowly. In light of this work, we have carried out additional time domain studies of both electron transport and energy transfer phenomena in stabilized DM PSII RCs at room temperature. We used a 1-kHz repetition rate femtosecond transient absorption spectrometer with a 200 fs instrumental time resolution and compared the results with those obtained by others using frequency domain hole-burning techniques.

Seibert, M.; Toon, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Govindjee [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); O`Neil, M.P.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

373

Transportation | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transportation Transportation Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Fuels, Engines, Emissions Transportation Analysis Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Propulsion Materials Lightweight Materials Bioenergy Fuel Cell Technologies Clean Energy Home | Science & Discovery | Clean Energy | Research Areas | Transportation SHARE Transportation Research ORNL researcher Jim Szybist uses a variable valve-train engine to evaluate different types of fuels, including ethanol blends, and their effects on the combustion process in an internal combustion engine. Oak Ridge National Laboratory brings together science and technology experts from across scientific disciplines to partner with government and industry in addressing transportation challenges. Research objectives are

374

Volume 2, Chapter 12: Eliminating Defects and Knowing the Reasons Behind Defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

down to the surface.] One should gradually sand (or rasp) the bridge down, checking the results it tight. The defects of the nut and yin­t'o; that is, striking noises, shadow sounds, striking fingers fasteners should not be too tight or too loose. If too tight, then tuning the strings will be difficult

Binkley, Jim

375

Studies of plasma transport  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the charge-coupled device camera and other plasma diagnostic equipment used to measure plasma density and other plasma properties. (LSP)

Malmberg, J.H.; O' Neil, T.M.; Driscoll, C.F.

1991-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

376

Local Transportation Sales Taxes: California's Experiment in Transportation Finance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Section 131051, County Transportation Expenditure Plans. Fresno County Transportation Authority, Annual Report (1994-D.A. Niemeier, Comparing Transportation Project Development

Crabbe, Amber E.; Hiatt, Rachel; Poliwka, Susan D.; Wachs, Martin

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research is aimed at assessing the quantitative risks involved with an ethanol pipeline. Pipelines that run from the Midwest, where the vast majority of ethanol is produced, to the target areas where reformulated gasoline is required (California, Texas Gulf Coast, New England Atlantic Coast) will be of particular interest. The goal is to conduct a quantitative risk assessment on the pipeline, truck, and rail transportation modes to these areas. As a result of the quantitative risk assessment, we are able to compare the risk associated with the different modes of transportation for ethanol. In order to perform and compare the quantitative risk assessment, the following challenges are addressed: 1) Identify target areas requiring reformulated gasoline 2) Map detailed route for each transportation mode to all three target areas 3) Perform a quantitative risk assessment for each transportation mode 4) Compare quantitative risk assessment results for each route and transportation mode The focus is on California, Texas Gulf Coast, and New England Atlantic Coast because of the large volume. It is beneficial to look at these areas as opposed to the smaller areas because pipeline transportation requires very large volumes. In order to find a meaningful comparison between all three transportation modes, only the areas with the three large volumes were evaluated. Since the risk assessment is completed using historical data, each route is segmented in a way that is consistent with the data that is available. All of the curves support the hypothesis that pipeline transportation poses the least societal risk when transporting ethanol from the Midwest to target areas. Rail transportation poses the largest amount of societal risk. While overall rail incidents are not as frequent as road incidents, the frequency of a fatality is much higher when an incident does occur.

Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research is aimed at assessing the quantitative risks involved with an ethanol pipeline. Pipelines that run from the Midwest, where the vast majority of ethanol is produced, to the target areas where reformulated gasoline is required (California, Texas Gulf Coast, New England Atlantic Coast) will be of particular interest. The goal is to conduct a quantitative risk assessment on the pipeline, truck, and rail transportation modes to these areas. As a result of the quantitative risk assessment, we are able to compare the risk associated with the different modes of transportation for ethanol. In order to perform and compare the quantitative risk assessment, the following challenges are addressed: Identify target areas requiring reformulated gasoline Map detailed route for each transportation mode to all three target areas Perform a quantitative risk assessment for each transportation mode Compare quantitative risk assessment results for each route and transportation mode The focus is on California, Texas Gulf Coast, and New England Atlantic Coast because of the large volume. It is beneficial to look at these areas as opposed to the smaller areas because pipeline transportation requires very large volumes. In order to find a meaningful comparison between all three transportation modes, only the areas with the three large volumes were evaluated. Since the risk assessment is completed using historical data, each route is segmented in a way that is consistent with the data that is available. All of the curves support the hypothesis that pipeline transportation poses the least societal risk when transporting ethanol from the Midwest to target areas. Rail transportation poses the largest amount of societal risk. While overall rail incidents are not as frequent as road incidents, the frequency of a fatality is much higher when an incident does occur.

Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Electronic transport in nanoscale structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?, from a negatively charged chlorine ion, in the plane per-single negatively charged chlorine ion inside a large waterz, from a negatively charged chlorine, in the center of the

Lagerqvist, Johan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Spin Transport in Semiconductor heterostructures  

SciTech Connect

The focus of the research performed under this grant has been the investigation of spin transport in magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. The interest in these systems is motivated both by their intriguing physical properties, as the physical embodiment of a spin-polarized Fermi liquid, as well as by their potential applications as spintronics devices. In our work we have analyzed several different problems that affect the spin dynamics in single and bi-layer spin-polarized two-dimensional (2D) systems. The topics of interests ranged from the fundamental aspects of the electron-electron interactions, to collective spin and charge density excitations and spin transport in the presence of the spin-orbit coupling. The common denominator of these subjects is the impact at the macroscopic scale of the spin-dependent electron-electron interaction, which plays a much more subtle role than in unpolarized electron systems. Our calculations of several measurable parameters, such as the excitation frequencies of magneto-plasma modes, the spin mass, and the spin transresistivity, propose realistic theoretical estimates of the opposite-spin many-body effects, in particular opposite-spin correlations, that can be directly connected with experimental measurements.

Domnita Catalina Marinescu

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Atomistic Study of Transport Properties at the Nanoscale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A first approach to engineering problems in nanosized systems requires a thorough understanding of how physical properties change as size decreases from the macroscale. One important class of properties that can be severely affected by such a downward size shift are transport properties - classical mass, momentum and energy transport. Using atomistic simulation techniques, primarily molecular dynamics, and statistical expressions for diffusion, viscosity, and thermal conductivity formulated in terms of atomistic properties, three case studies of transport in important, nanosized systems are investigated, including confined water systems, silicon-germanium nanos- tructures, and carbon nanostructures. In the first study of confined water systems, diffusion and viscosity are of primary interest, as recent experimental studies have shown notably increased rates of diffusion through nano-confined carbon nanotube structures. In this work, a full treatment of the transport properties is provided in both water clusters and water thin films, both having characteristic size scales under 11 nm. The diffusion, viscosity, and thermal conductivity in the nanosized systems are all shown to be significantly different from bulk water systems, with diffusion and thermal transport increasing and viscosity decreasing. For silicon-germanium nanostructures, the thermal transport properties are exclusively considered, with the problem of interest concerning the control of thermal transport through a strict control on the nanostructure. Quantum dot superlattices are shown to be effective structures for controlling the thermal transport properties, the available range of thermal conductivity using these structures being 0.1-160 W/mK. The final study concerns graphene nanostructures, which in terms of thermal transport have some of the highest thermal conductivities of any available materials. Control of thermal transport properties is again of primary importance, with various physical aspects - defects, shape, and size - being probed in graphene, graphene nano ribbons, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes to determine their influence on transport; overall, these structures yield a large range of thermal transport, 10-2500 W/mK.

Haskins, Justin

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

transportation | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

transportation transportation Dataset Summary Description The 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) provides information to assist transportation planners and policy makers who need comprehensive data on travel and transportation patterns in the United States. The 2009 NHTS updates information gathered in the 2001 NHTS and in prior Nationwide Personal Transportation Surveys (NPTS) conducted in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, and 1995. Source U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration Date Released February 28th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords NHTS TEF transportation Transportation Energy Futures travel trip Data application/zip icon Travel Day Trip File (zip, 42.6 MiB) application/zip icon Household File (zip, 5 MiB) application/zip icon Person File (zip, 17.4 MiB)

383

Linear Motor Powered Transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This special issue on linear-motor powered transportation covers both supporting technologies and innovative transport systems in various parts of the World, as this technology moves from the lab to commercial operations. ...

Thornton, Richard D.

384

Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Cross-Gyre Transports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

What is the fate of surface Ekman transport entering a subtropical gyre through its zonal boundaries? This question is investigated by resolving interior transport of a deep surface layer into nonvortical (potential flow) and nondivergent (...

G. T. Csanady

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

WIPP Transportation (FINAL)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

WIPP TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM Waste Isolation Pilot Plant U.S. Department Of Energy The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established an elaborate system for safely transporting...

387

Transportation and its Infrastructure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

prices and alternative transport fuels; R&D outcomes in several areas, especially biomassprices and the economic viability of alternative transport fuels; R&D outcomes in several areas, especially biomass

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Transportation Demand This  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Transportation Demand Transportation Demand This page inTenTionally lefT blank 75 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Transportation Demand Module The NEMS Transportation Demand Module estimates transportation energy consumption across the nine Census Divisions (see Figure 5) and over ten fuel types. Each fuel type is modeled according to fuel-specific and associated technology attributes applicable by transportation mode. Total transportation energy consumption is the sum of energy use in eight transport modes: light-duty vehicles (cars and light trucks), commercial light trucks (8,501-10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), freight trucks (>10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), buses, freight and passenger aircraft, freight

389

Anomalous radial transport in tokamak edge plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.2 Transport in tokamakAnomalous radial transport model for edge plasma . . . . . .Anomalous transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bodi, Vasudeva Raghavendra Kowsik

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation...

391

Space charge limited degradation of bipolar oxides at low electric-fields  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Radiation-induced degradation of many types of bipolar transistors and circuits is more severe following low dose rate exposure than following high dose rate exposure. Since microelectronic devices in space are generally subjected to low dose rate irradiation, this complicates the hardness assurance testing of linear circuits and can lead to an overestimation of device lifetime in space. Previous work examining the physical mechanisms responsible for this dose rate effect has focused primarily on oxide trapped charge. Reduced net positive oxide trapped charge densities at high dose rates and zero bias have been attributed to space charge effects from slowly transporting holes trapped metastably at O vacancy complexes. Decreasing the dose rate or increasing the irradiation temperature leads to an increase in net positive oxide trapped charge near the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface by reducing these space charge effects. In this work, concentrations of hydrogen transport through two types of bipolar oxides are estimated from dopant passivation measurements in MOS capacitors. For unbiased irradiations, hydrogen passivation of substrate acceptors is greatly reduced at high dose rates compared to that at low dose rates or elevated temperatures. Consistent with other widely accepted models, it is argued that fewer interface traps are formed by high dose rate irradiation under zero bias, because fewer H{sup +} ions can drift to the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface and react with trap precursors. Similar to hole transport in these oxides, drift of the H{sup +} ions is inhibited at high dose rates by space charge accumulated in the oxide bulk.

Witczak, S.C.; Lacoe, R.C.; Mayer, D.C. [Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Electronics Technology Center; Fleetwood, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schrimpf, R.D.; Galloway, K.F. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Transport coefficients of D1-D5-P system and the membrane paradigm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I discuss a correspondence between string theory and the black hole membrane paradigm in the context of the D1-D5-P system. By using the Kubo formula, I calculate transport coefficients of the effective string model induced by two kinds of minimal scalars. Then, I show that these transport coefficients exactly agree with the corresponding membrane transport coefficients of a five-dimensional near-extremal black hole with three charges.

Yuya Sasai

2011-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

393

A holographic perspective on non-relativistic conformal defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study defects in non-relativistic conformal field theories. As in the well-studied case of relativistic conformal defects, we find that a useful tool to organize correlation functions is the defect operator expansion (dOPE). We analyze how the dOPE is implemented in theories with a holographic dual, highlighting some interesting aspects of the operator/state mapping in non-relativistic holography.

Andreas Karch; Piotr Surowka; Ethan G. Thompson

2009-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

394

Photoinduced Charge-Transfer Materials For Nonlinear Optical...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Information Technology & Communications Photoinduced Charge-Transfer Materials For Nonlinear Optical Applications Photoinduced Charge-Transfer Materials For Nonlinear Optical...

395

Argonne Transportation Current News  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

materials (pdf) clean cities logo Clean Cities Transportation Workshop for Almaty, Kazakhstan Jeff Chamberlain Jeff Chamberlain discusses Argonne's breakthrough cathode...

396

NIST Transportation to NIST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transportation to NIST. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is located approximately 25 miles north of Washington ...

2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

397

Transportation and its Infrastructure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy. OECD, 2004b: Current international shipping market trends -trends continue. In contrast, transport energy use in the mature market

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Transportation Security Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) final rules issued in 2003 required persons who offer for transportation or transport certain hazardous materials to develop and implement security plans. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) formed a Transportation Security Implementation Working Group, which included representation from the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), to identify key projects, which were documented in the original report in 2005. This report updates information in the original rep...

2011-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

399

Transport Properties for Combustion Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PRACTICE FOR CALCULATING TRANSPORT PROPERTIES V. 1. T HEcases; (4) performing more transport property measurementsFOR THE CALCULATION OF TRANSPORT PROPERTIES: III. EVALUATION

Brown, N.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Transportation Infrastructure and Sustainable Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Better Forecasting Tool for Transportation Decision-making, Mineta Transportation Institute, San Jose Stateat the 2008 meeting of the Transportation Research Board and

Boarnet, Marlon G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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401

Transportation Analysis | Clean Energy | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transportation Analysis SHARE Transportation Analysis Transportation Analysis efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory contribute to the efficient, safe, and free movement of...

402

FCT Technology Validation: Transportation Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transportation Projects to someone by E-mail Share FCT Technology Validation: Transportation Projects on Facebook Tweet about FCT Technology Validation: Transportation Projects on...

403

Defective Carbon Nanomaterials as the Cathodes for High ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Defective carbon nanotubes used as the cathodes for lithium batteries show capacitance of ~580 F/g, which can store lithium ions up to an energy density of...

404

Imaging and Spectroscopy of Chemical and Structural Defects in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present annular dark-field images and electron energy-loss spectra from graphene, and carbon nanotubes with and without structural and chemical defects.

405

Defect in Graphene May Present Bouquet of Possibilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... rigid lattice already is stronger than steel, but the defects might allow it a little flexibility, making it even more resilient to tearing or fracturing. ...

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

406

Defect Chemistry and Kinetics of Electrons in Ion Conducting Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Defect Chemistry and Kinetics of Electrons in Ion Conducting Materials Recent Results and Applications. Author(s), Hans D. Wiemhfer.

407

Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs : numerical supplement.  

SciTech Connect

This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide, GaAs, as computed by density functional theory. This Report serves as a numerical supplement to the results published in: P.A. Schultz and O.A. von Lilienfeld, 'Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs', Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci Eng., Vol. 17, 084007 (2009), and intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models. The numerical results for density functional theory calculations of properties of simple intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide are presented.

Schultz, Peter Andrew

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Theoretical Investigation on Interplay of Defect Clusters and Fission ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A prominent effect of the self-defect clusters in bulk matrix on the thermodynamic behavior of fission gases is found, a thermodynamic competition between the...

409

Hydrogen-Defect Interactions in the Framework of the Defactant ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Multiscale Approaches to Hydrogen-assisted Degradation of Metals. Presentation Title, Hydrogen-Defect Interactions in the Framework of the...

410

Atomic Scale Modeling of Point Defects in Materials: Coupling Ab ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Atomic Scale Modeling of Point Defects in Materials: Coupling Ab Initio and Elasticity ... Electrochemical Shock of Lithium Battery Materials.

411

Modeling the Effect of Stress on Defect Migration and Void ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The internal stress, in turn, affects the defect dynamic within the material. In this work, we ... Effect of Neutron Radiation Exposure on Low Cycle Fatigue of 304SS

412

Defect in Graphene May Present Bouquet of Possibilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A class of decorative, flower-like defects in the nanomaterial graphene could have potentially important effects on the material's already unique ...

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

413

Transportation Research and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center Transportation Research and Analysis to supercomputers, we can simulate how individual bridges interact with sediment transport, local topography the bridge. Computer-based research at this highly detailed level promises to prevent future bridge disasters

Kemner, Ken

414

Nevada University Transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

illnesses and disabilities · Development of professionals and future leaders in the area of transportationNUTC Nevada University Transportation Center University of Nevada, Las Vegas Sustainable Transporation in Arid Regions 2007-2009 Biennial Report 5 #12;2007-2009 Nevada University Transportation Center

Ahmad, Sajjad

415

PalladianDigest Transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PalladianDigest CONNECT. EMPOWER. GROW. Tackling Transportation Challenges Nebraska has been a vital link in the nation's transportation system since the days when carts, wagons to University of Nebraska­Lincoln research. That's fine with UNL transportation researchers, said Larry Rilett

Farritor, Shane

416

Northwestern University Transportation Center  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Northwestern University Transportation Center 2011 Business Advisory Committee NUTC #12;#12;I have the pleasure of presenting our Business Advisory Committee members--a distinguished group of transportation industry lead- ers who have partnered with the Transportation Center in advancing the state of knowledge

Bustamante, Fabián E.

417

Introduction to Transportation Planning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction to Transportation Planning CMP 4710/6710 Fall 2012 3 Credit Hours Room: ARCH 229 on a Saturday night, transportation is not an objective in and of itself, but a means to carry out the functions of daily living (i.e., it's a "derived good"). As a consequence, the transportation systems we build

Tipple, Brett

418

Louisiana Transportation Research Center  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Louisiana Transportation Research Center LTRC www.ltrc.lsu.edu 2012-13 ANNUALREPORT #12;The Louisiana Transportation Research Center (LTRC) is a research, technology transfer, and training center administered jointly by the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (DOTD) and Louisiana State

Harms, Kyle E.

419

TRANSPORTATION: THE POTENTIAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION: THE POTENTIAL AND THE CHALLENGE A Summary Report 2003 #12;June 2003 To the Reader This report summarizes the second James L. Oberstar Forum on Transportation Policy and Technology. Over two days, we explored the chal- lenges and opportunities in intermodal transportation, addressing

Minnesota, University of

420

Transportation Demand Management Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transportation Demand Management Plan FALL 2009 #12;T r a n s p o r t a t i o n D e m a n d M a n the transportation impacts the expanded enrollment will have. Purpose and Goal The primary goal of the TDM plan is to ensure that adequate measures are undertaken and maintained to minimize the transportation impacts

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Charge asymmetry of top quarks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The LHC is a promising machine to discover new physics in the top sector. There are several models that predict the existence of heavy colored resonances decaying to top quarks in the TeV energy range. The production of such resonances might generate a sizable charge asymmetry of top versus antitop quarks. At the Tevatron, a 2 sigma discrepancy with the SM prediction for the forward--backward asymmetry has been found, boosting a renewed interest for this kind of models. We consider a toy model with general flavour dependent couplings of the resonance to quarks, of both vector and axial-vector kind and investigate the possible constraints on the coupling space from the measurement of the asymmetry and the invariant mass distribution at the Tevatron. Then, we define a central asymmetry in a specific kinematic region and investigate its signature at the LHC as well as its statistical significance, for exclusive processes.

Ferrario, Paola

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Charge asymmetry of top quarks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The LHC is a promising machine to discover new physics in the top sector. There are several models that predict the existence of heavy colored resonances decaying to top quarks in the TeV energy range. The production of such resonances might generate a sizable charge asymmetry of top versus antitop quarks. At the Tevatron, a 2 sigma discrepancy with the SM prediction for the forward--backward asymmetry has been found, boosting a renewed interest for this kind of models. We consider a toy model with general flavour dependent couplings of the resonance to quarks, of both vector and axial-vector kind and investigate the possible constraints on the coupling space from the measurement of the asymmetry and the invariant mass distribution at the Tevatron. Then, we define a central asymmetry in a specific kinematic region and investigate its signature at the LHC as well as its statistical significance, for exclusive processes.

Paola Ferrario; German Rodrigo

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

423

Electricity Demand of PHEVs Operated by Private Households and Commercial Fleets: Effects of Driving and Charging Behavior  

SciTech Connect

Automotive and energy researchers have made considerable efforts to predict the impact of plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) charging on the electrical grid. This work has been done primarily through computer modeling and simulation. The US Department of Energys (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), in partnership with the University of California at Daviss Institute for Transportation Stuides, have been collecting data from a diverse fleet of PHEVs. The AVTA is conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory for DOEs Vehicle Technologies Program. This work provides the opportunity to quantify the petroleum displacement potential of early PHEV models, and also observe, rather than simulate, the charging behavior of vehicle users. This paper presents actual charging behavior and the resulting electricity demand from these PHEVs operating in undirected, real-world conditions. Charging patterns are examined for both commercial-use and personal-use vehicles. Underlying reasons for charging behavior in both groups are also presented.

John Smart; Matthew Shirk; Ken Kurani; Casey Quinn; Jamie Davies

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-World Data for Transportation Planning and Land Use Analysis (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) have launched the free, web-based Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC). The TSDC (www.nrel.gov/tsdc) preserves respondent anonymity while making vital transportation data available to a broad group of users through secure, online access. The TSDC database provides free-of-charge web-based access to valuable transportation data that can be used for: Transit planning, Travel demand modeling, Homeland Security evacuation planning, Alternative fuel station planning, and Validating transportation data from other sources. The TSDC's two levels of access make composite data available with simple online registration, and allow researchers to use detailed spatial data after completing a straight forward application process.

Not Available

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Charged fermions tunneling from regular black holes  

SciTech Connect

We study Hawking radiation of charged fermions as a tunneling process from charged regular black holes, i.e., the Bardeen and ABGB black holes. For this purpose, we apply the semiclassical WKB approximation to the general covariant Dirac equation for charged particles and evaluate the tunneling probabilities. We recover the Hawking temperature corresponding to these charged regular black holes. Further, we consider the back-reaction effects of the emitted spin particles from black holes and calculate their corresponding quantum corrections to the radiation spectrum. We find that this radiation spectrum is not purely thermal due to the energy and charge conservation but has some corrections. In the absence of charge, e = 0, our results are consistent with those already present in the literature.

Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk; Javed, W., E-mail: wajihajaved84@yahoo.com [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics (Pakistan)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location. 26 figs.

Garnett, R.W.; Dobelbower, M.C.

1995-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

427

Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location.

Garnett, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM); Dobelbower, M. Christian (Toledo, OH)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Review of Variable Generation Integration Charges  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The growth of wind and solar generation in the United States, and the expectation of continued growth of these technologies, dictates that the future power system will be operated in a somewhat different manner because of increased variability and uncertainty. A small number of balancing authorities have attempted to determine an 'integration cost' to account for these changes to their current operating practices. Some balancing authorities directly charge wind and solar generators for integration charges, whereas others add integration charges to projected costs of wind and solar in integrated resource plans or in competitive solicitations for generation. This report reviews the balancing authorities that have calculated variable generation integration charges and broadly compares and contrasts the methodologies they used to determine their specific integration charges. The report also profiles each balancing authority and how they derived wind and solar integration charges.

Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Buckley, M.; Rogers, J.; Hodge, B. M.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Longitudinal Space Charge Microbunching Starting From Shot Noise  

SciTech Connect

The commissioning of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) injector showed unexpected coherent optical transition radiation (COTR) for an uncompressed electron bunch downstream of a dog-leg transport line. In this paper, we develop a three-dimensional analysis of longitudinal space charge microbunching to explain the phenomenon. Our analysis takes into account the transverse correlation of the longitudinal space charge field due to shot-noise startup and finite observation angles of the radiation. We also apply this analysis to the LCLS COTR observations.

Ratner, D.; Chao, A.; Huang, Z.

2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

430

Enhanced Lithium-Ion Intercalation Properties of V[subscript 2]O[subscript 5] Xerogel Electrodes with Surface Defects  

SciTech Connect

V{sub 2}O{sub 5} xerogel films were fabricated by casting V{sub 2}O{sub 5} sols onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates and annealing at 300 C for 3 h in different annealing atmospheres of air and nitrogen. Films prepared in different annealing conditions possess different grain sizes and crystallinity, while the vanadium ion oxidation state also varies, as identified by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A nitrogen annealing atmosphere induces the presence of defects, such as V{sup 4+} ions, and associated oxygen vacancies. Thus, the presence of defects, whether on the film surface or in the bulk, can be controlled by using air and nitrogen annealing atmospheres in the proper order. Electrochemical impedance analyses reveal enhanced charge-transfer conductivity in films with more V{sup 4+} and oxygen vacancies on the film surface, that is, a film annealed, first, for 0.5 h in air and then for 2.5 h in nitrogen. Lithium-ion intercalation measurements show that, at a charge/discharge current density of 600 mA g{sup -1}, this film possesses a noticeably better lithium-ion storage capability than films without surface defects. This sample starts with an initial discharge capacity of 139 mA h g{sup -1}, and the capacity increases slowly to a maximum value of 156 mA h g{sup -1} in the 15th cycle, followed by a mild capacity degradation in later cycles. After 50 cycles, the discharge capacity is still as high as 136 mA h g{sup -1}. A much improved lithium-ion intercalation capacity and cyclic stability are attributed to V{sup 4+} surface defects and associated oxygen vacancies introduced by N{sub 2} annealing.

Liu, Dawei; Liu, Yanyi; Pan, Anquiang; Nagle, Kenneth P.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Jeong, Yoon-Ha; Cao, Guozhong (UWASH); (POSTECH)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Doubly charged Higgsinos at the Tevatron  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several supersymmetric models with extended gauge structures, motivated by either grand unification or by neutrino mass generation, predict light doubly charged Higgsinos. In this work we study the signals of doubly charged Higgsinos at the Tevatron in both pair- and single-production modes, and show that it is possible, especially from the events containing same-sign same-flavor isolated leptons, to disentangle the effects of doubly charged Higgsinos in the Tevatron data.

Demir, Durmus A. [Department of Physics, Izmir Institute of Technology, IZTECH, TR35430 Izmir (Turkey); Frank, Mariana; Turan, Ismail [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada); Ghosh, Dilip Kumar [Department of Theoretical Physics and Centre for Theoretical Sciences, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Huitu, Katri; Rai, Santosh Kumar [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland) and Helsinki Institute of Physics, Post Office Box 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Effect of charging methods on battery electrodes  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the effect of modified charging methods on the structure and behavior of several battery electrodes. These include the alkaline cadmium, zinc, silver oxide and nickel oxide electrodes. Also included are recent results obtained for pasted zinc electrodes and in acidic zinc chloride electrolytes. Modified charging methods can greatly affect electrodes perticularly when the charging reaction involving the nucleation, and growth of a new phase. Many of the observed morphological effects can be a described to nucleation and orientation effects.

McBreen, J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Defect behavior of polycrystalline solar cell silicon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major objective of this study, conducted from October 1988 to September 1991, was to gain an understanding of the behavior of impurities in polycrystalline silicon and the influence of these impurities on solar cell efficiency. The authors studied edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) and cast poly-Si materials and solar cells. With EFG Si they concentrated on chromium-doped materials and cells to determine the role of Cr on solar cell performance. Cast poly-Si samples were not deliberately contaminated. Samples were characterized by cell efficiency, current-voltage, deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), surface photovoltage (SPV), open-circuit voltage decay, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. They find that Cr forms Cr-B pairs with boron at room temperature and these pairs dissociate into Cr{sub i}{sup +} and B{sup {minus}} during anneals at 210{degrees}C for 10 min. Following the anneal, Cr-B pairs reform at room temperature with a time constant of 230 h. Chromium forms CrSi{sub 2} precipitates in heavily contaminated regions and they find evidence of CrSi{sub 2} gettering, but a lack of chromium segregation or precipitation to grain boundaries and dislocations. Cr-B pairs have well defined DLTS peaks. However, DLTS spectra of other defects are not well defined, giving broad peaks indicative of defects with a range of energy levels in the band gap. In some high-stress, low-efficiency cast poly-Si they detect SiC precipitates, but not in low-stress, high-efficiency samples. SPV measurements result in nonlinear SPV curves in some materials that are likely due to varying optical absorption coefficients due to locally varying stress in the material.

Schroder, D.K.; Park, S.H.; Hwang, I.G.; Mohr, J.B.; Hanly, M.P. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (US). Center for Solid State Electronics Research

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and explore additional installations at its corporate headquarters near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Fast Facts Joined the Workplace Charging Challenge: February 27, 2013...

435

Randomly charged polymers in porous environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the conformational properties of charged polymers in a solvent in the presence of structural obstacles correlated according to a power law \\sim x^{-a}. We work within the continuous representation of a model of linear chain considered as a random sequence of charges $q_i=\\pm q_0$. Such a model captures the properties of polyampholytes -- heteropolymers, comprising both positively and negatively charged monomers. We apply the direct polymer renormalization scheme and analyze the scaling behavior of charged polymers up to the first order of an $\\epsilon=6-d$, $\\delta=4-a$-expansion.

V. Blavatska; C. von Ferber

2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

436

Societal Benefits Charge | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Societal Benefits Charge Societal Benefits Charge Societal Benefits Charge < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government General Public/Consumer Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Utility Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Solar Heating & Cooling Water Heating Wind Program Info State New Jersey Program Type Public Benefits Fund Provider New Jersey Board of Public Utilities New Jersey's 1999 electric-utility restructuring legislation created a "societal benefits charge" (SBC) to support investments in energy efficiency and "Class I" renewable energy. The SBC funds New Jersey's Clean Energy Program (NJCEP), a statewide initiative administered by the

437

Electric Vehicle Charging Levels and Requirements Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and certification Safety standards and certification * Charging definitions * EVSE ( (electric vehicle supp pp y ly eq quip pment) ) examp ples * Installation requirements * Siting...

438

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ambassadors Resources Community and Fleet Readiness Workforce Development Plug-in Electric Vehicle Basics Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: CFV Solar Test Laboratory,...

439

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

440

Wafer-scale charge isolation technique  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are described which improve the performance of charge-coupled devices (CCD) in the presence of ionizing radiation. The invention is a wafer scale charge isolation technique which inhibits or reduces the flow of electrons created by the passage of ionizing radiation in the bulk regions of a silicon CCD. The technique has been tested in a device designed for operating in the infra-red wavelength band. The technique prevents charge from reaching the active charge collection volume of a pixel in a CCD.

Colella, N.J.; Kimbrough, J.R.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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441

Charge-collection mechanisms of heterostructure FETs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ion- and laser-induced charge-collection transients measured for AlGaAs/InGaAs heterostructure insulated-gate field-effect transistors (HIGFETs) reveal evidence for two mechanisms of enhanced charge collection: a channel-modulation mechanism that dominates the charge-collection processes at positive gate biases and can persist for several nanoseconds; and a parasitic bipolar transistor mechanism that shows a sensitive dependence on the density of free carriers injected into the device, and is complete within a few hundred picoseconds. The results reinforce the utility of the laser technique for investigating the charge-collection mechanisms of semiconductor devices.

McMorrow, D.; Melinger, J.S.; Thantu, N.; Campbell, A.B. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Weatherford, T.R.; Knudson, A.R.; Tran, L.H. (SFA, Inc., Landover, MD (United States)); Peczalski, A. (Honeywell, Inc., Bloomington, MN (United States))

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Energy Distribution of a Charged Regular  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the energy distribution of a charged regular black hole by using the energy-momentum complexes of Einstein and Mller.

Black Hole; I. Radinschi

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Wireless Charging System for Electric Vehicles  

Technology Summary ORNL researchers have made wireless power transfer more efficient by using an air core ... communication system in the wireless charging apparatus.

444

Consumers (Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure) Consumer...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CONSUMERS (CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE AND CHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE) EV Everywhere Workshop July 30, 2012 Consumer Acceptance Group A Breakout Session 1 - Brainstorm Consumer Acceptance...

445

Wireless Charging System for Electric Vehicles  

OEM Electric Vehicles OEM EV Manufacturers Plug-in; internal technology development Street / highway in-motion charging systems Federal / State / Local

446

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Schneider Electric to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Schneider Electric on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies...

447

Vehicle Technologies Office: EV Everywhere Workplace Charging...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

worksites, and a best practice goal of assessing and meeting all PEV-driving employee demand. Take action by implementing a plan to install charging stations for their...

448

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vehicle Basics Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Hertz Hertz has embraced plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) as an integral part of both employee commutes and business rentals....

449

Slow Wave Structures for Charged Particle Applications  

of light in free space. This slower wave speed is important for acceleration of charged particles. The special shape of the cross-

450

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

current public charging already exists across the country. Tools and Resources The AFDC offers a large collection of helpful tools. These calculators, interactive maps, and...

451

Transportation Business Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Transportation Business Plan is a step in the process of procuring the transportation system. It sets the context for business strategy decisions by providing pertinent background information, describing the legislation and policies governing transportation under the NWPA, and describing requirements of the transportation system. Included in the document are strategies for procuring shipping casks and transportation support services. In the spirit of the NWPA directive to utilize the private sector to the maximum extent possible, opportunities for business ventures are obvious throughout the system development cycle.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Angular neutron transport investigation in the HZETRN free-space ion and nucleon transport and shielding computer program  

SciTech Connect

Extension of the high charge and energy (HZE) transport computer program HZETRN for angular transport of neutrons is considered. For this paper, only light ion transport, He{sup 4} and lighter, will be analyzed using a pure solar proton source. The angular transport calculator is the ANISN/PC program which is being controlled by the HZETRN program. The neutron flux values are compared for straight-ahead transport and angular transport in one dimension. The shield material is aluminum and the target material is water. The thickness of these materials is varied; however, only the largest model calculated is reported which is 50 gm/cm{sup 2} of aluminum and 100 gm/cm{sup 2} of water. The flux from the ANISN/PC calculation is about two orders of magnitude lower than the flux from HZETRN for very low energy neutrons. It is only a magnitude lower for the neutrons in the 10 to 20 MeV range in the aluminum and two orders lower in the water. The major reason for this difference is in the transport modes: straight-ahead versus angular. The angular treatment allows a longer path length than the straight-ahead approximation. Another reason is the different cross section sets used by the ANISN/PC-BUGLE-80 mode and the HZETRN mode. The next step is to investigate further the differences between the two codes and isolate the differences to just the angular versus straight-ahead transport mode. Then, create a better coupling between the angular neutron transport and the charged particle transport.

Singleterry, R.C. Jr. [Argonne National Lab. - West, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wilson, J.W. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Transportation Planning & Decision Science Group Transportation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Viewer Unveiled at ITS-America Meeting in Nashville At the Annual Intelligent Transportation Association of America (ITS-A) meeting held in Nashville on April 22 - 24, the...

454

National Transportation Stakeholders Forum  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transportation Stakeholders Forum Transportation Stakeholders Forum May 14-16, 2013 Tuesday, May 14 7:00 am - 5:00 pm Registration Niagara Foyer 7:00 am - 7:45 am Breakfast and Networking Grand A 8:00 am - 10:00 am National Updates for Transportation Stakeholder Groups and Guests - Panel Grand BC Moderator: John Giarrusso Jr., MA Emergency Management Agency / Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Co-Chair US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management - Steve O'Connor, Director, Office of Packaging & Transportation US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - Earl P. Easton, Senior Level Advisor (retired) and David W. Pstrak, Transportation and Storage Specialist, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation

455

Transportation System Requirements Document  

SciTech Connect

This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Transport-related impacts and instruments for sensitive areas | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Transport-related impacts and instruments for sensitive areas Transport-related impacts and instruments for sensitive areas Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Transport-related impacts and instruments for sensitive areas Agency/Company /Organization: European Commission Complexity/Ease of Use: Not Available Website: ec.europa.eu/environment/air/pdf/sat/4_annexes.pdf Transport Toolkit Region(s): Europe Related Tools Global Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Database Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment Guidelines: British Columbia Transportation Energy Data Book ... further results Find Another Tool FIND TRANSPORTATION TOOLS This report is a study on transport-related impacts on environmentally sensitive areas, and possible measures and policy instruments to address them. When to Use This Tool While building a low emission strategy for your country's transportation

457

Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study Minneapolis City of Lakes Minneapolis Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study #12;Public Works Transportation Infrastructure Study Minneapolis City Works Transportation Infrastructure Study Minneapolis City of Lakes Background: · Currently, funding

Minnesota, University of

458

Center for Intermodal Transportation Safety  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center for Intermodal Transportation Safety and Security Panagiotis Scarlatos, Ph.D., Director Transportation Safety and Security #12;Center for Intermodal Transportation Safety and Security Partners #12 evacuations · Tracking systems for hazardous materials Center for Intermodal Transportation Safety

Fernandez, Eduardo

459

Point defects and transport mechanisms in transparent conducting oxides of intermediate conductivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and indium-tin oxide (ITO), would enable all-oxide and all-transparent electronics and optoelectronics [3-type TCO with properties (especially mobility) comparable to the best n-type TCOs, such as tin oxide Renewable Energy Laboratory. References [1] H. Kawazoe, M. Yasukawa, H. Hyodo, M. Kurita, H. Yanagi, H

Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

460

B41: Phase-Field Modeling of Defect Transport and Current ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A16: Analysis of Surface Physic-Chemical Properties of Titanium Heat Treated ... B31: In-Situ Oxygen Surface Exchange Coefficient Determination via a New Bi-

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Effects of image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, and surface roughness on the zeta potential of spherical electric double layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the effects of image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, and surface roughness on spherical electric double layers in electrolyte solutions with divalent counter-ions in the setting of the primitive model. By using Monte Carlo simulations and the image charge method, the zeta potential profile and the integrated charge distribution function are computed for varying surface charge strengths and salt concentrations. Systematic comparisons were carried out between three distinct models for interfacial charges: 1) SURF1 with uniform surface charges, 2) SURF2 with discrete point charges on the interface, and 3) SURF3 with discrete interfacial charges and finite excluded volume. By comparing the integrated charge distribution function (ICDF) and potential profile, we argue that the potential at the distance of one ion diameter from the macroion surface is a suitable location to define the zeta potential. In SURF2 model, we find that image charge effects strongly enhance charge inversion for monovalent interfacial charges, and strongly suppress charge inversion for multivalent interfacial charges. For SURF3, the image charge effect becomes much smaller. Finally, with image charges in action, we find that excluded volumes (in SURF3) suppress charge inversion for monovalent interfacial charges and enhance charge inversion for multivalent interfacial charges. Overall, our results demonstrate that all these aspects, i.e., image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, their excluding volumes have significant impacts on the zeta potential, and thus the structure of electric double layers.

Zecheng Gan; Xiangjun Xing; Zhenli Xu

2012-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

462

Defect detection effectiveness and product quality in global software development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global software development (GSD) has become a common practice in the software development industry. The main challenge organizations have to overcome is to minimize the effect of organizational diversity on the effectiveness of their GSD collaboration. ... Keywords: defect density, defect detection effectiveness, global software development, software quality

Tihana Galinac Grbac; Darko Huljeni?

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

ULTRASONIC DETECTION OF SURFACE-BREAKING RAILHEAD DEFECTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We recently presented measurements of defects on the railhead, using a novel pitch-catch ultrasonic system comprising of two electro-magnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) generating and detecting Rayleigh waves. Current systems used on the UK rail network for detecting surface breaking defects are limited in speed (5 mm). The non-contact EMAT system has the potential to operate at higher line speed, improving network inspection coverage. The current system detects signals and performs an FFT in less than 1 ms, and changes in the detected signal amplitude and frequency content are used to characterise defects. A new set of simulated defects on sections of rail have been produced, including half-face slots machined normal to the railhead surface, clusters of angled slots, and pocket defects more typical of real defects. The smallest pocket defects are difficult to detect, with changes in signal amplitude and cut-off falling close to the noise level. However, at chosen higher frequencies a drop in FFT magnitude indicates the presence of a defect, and this indicator can be logically combined with amplitude and cut-off measurements to provide a more reliable result. Preparation for testing on a rotating rail rig at high speeds is ongoing.

Edwards, R. S.; Fan, Y.; Dixon, S. [University of Warwick, Department of Physics, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Papaelias, M.; Davis, C. L.; Roberts, C. [University of Birmingham, School of Engineering, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

464

A self-organizing defect tolerant SIMD architecture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The continual decrease in transistor size (through either scaled CMOS or emerging nanotechnologies) promises to usher in an era of tera to peta-scale integration but with increasing defects. Regardless of fabrication methodology (top-down or bottom-up), ... Keywords: DNA, SIMD, Self-organizing, bit-serial, data parallel, defect tolerance, nanocomputing

Jaidev Patwardhan; Chris Dwyer; Alvin R. Lebeck

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Understanding of Defect Physics in Polycrystalline Photovoltaic Materials: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The performance of thin-film solar cells is influenced by the quality of interfaces and formation of defects such as point defects, stacking faults, twins, dislocations, and grain boundaries. It is important to understand the defect physics so that appropriate methods may be developed to suppress the formation of harmful defects. Here, we review our understanding of defect physics in thin-film photovoltaic (PV) materials such as Si, CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), Cu2ZnSnSe2 (CZTSe), and Cu2ZnSnS2 (CZTS) using the combination of nanoscale electron microscopy characterization and density-functional theory (DFT). Although these thin-film PV materials share the same basic structural feature - diamond structure based - the defect physics in them could be very different. Some defects, such as stacking faults and special twins, have similar electronic properties in these thin-film materials. However, some other defects, such as grain boundaries and interfaces, have very different electronic properties in these materials. For example, grain boundaries produce harmful deep levels in Si and CdTe, but they do not produce significant deep levels in CIGS, CZTSe, and CZTS. These explain why passivation is critical for Si and CdTe solar cells, but is less important in CIS and CZTS solar cells. We further provide understanding of the effects of interfaces on the performance of solar cells made of these PV materials.

Yan, Y.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

The Charge Induced on a Conducting Cylinder by a Point Charge and Its Application to the Measurement of Charge on Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solution of the electrostatic boundary value problem for a point charge inside an infinite cylinder is applied to sensors employed in the measurement of charge on precipitation. With these devices the charge induced on a cylindrical segment ...

Andrew J. Weinheimer

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Analysis for the Electric Vehicle Charging Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Through collaboration with transportation agencies, industry and other universities, OTREC aims to address the transportation needs of Oregon, the Northwest, and the nation. OTREC sponsors research, education and technology transfer projects at our partner universities with a grant from the U.S. Department of Transportation. Projects contribute to USDOT objectives including: safety, environmental sustainability, livability, state of good repair and economic competitiveness.

Christoph Rauch; Mirjam Mueller; Katja Hengstermann; Christoph Rauch; Sophie Becker; Katja Hengstermann; Sophie Becke; Mirjam Mueller; Christoph Rauch; Katja Hengstermann; Sophie Becker

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Determination of Electrochemical Performance and Thermo-Mechanical-Chemical Stability of SOFCs from Defect Modeling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research was focused on two distinct but related issues. The first issue concerned using defect modeling to understand the relationship between point defect concentration and the electrochemical, thermo-chemical and mechano-chemical properties of typical solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) materials. The second concerned developing relationships between the microstructural features of SOFC materials and their electrochemical performance. To understand the role point defects play in ceramics, a coherent analytical framework was used to develop expressions for the dependence of thermal expansion and elastic modulus on point defect concentration in ceramics. These models, collectively termed the continuum-level electrochemical model (CLEM), were validated through fits to experimental data from electrical conductivity, I-V characteristics, elastic modulus and thermo-chemical expansion experiments for (nominally pure) ceria, gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) with consistently good fits. The same values for the material constants were used in all of the fits, further validating our approach. As predicted by the continuum-level electrochemical model, the results reveal that the concentration of defects has a significant effect on the physical properties of ceramic materials and related devices. Specifically, for pure ceria and GDC, the elastic modulus decreased while the chemical expansion increased considerably in low partial pressures of oxygen. Conversely, the physical properties of YSZ remained insensitive to changes in oxygen partial pressure within the studied range. Again, the findings concurred exactly with the predictions of our analytical model. Indeed, further analysis of the results suggests that an increase in the point defect content weakens the attractive forces between atoms in fluorite-structured oxides. The reduction treatment effects on the flexural strength and the fracture toughness of pure ceria were also evaluated at room temperature. The results reveal that the flexural strength decreases significantly after heat treatment in very low oxygen partial pressure environments; however, in contrast, fracture toughness is increased by 30-40% when the oxygen partial pressure was decreased to 10{sup -20} to 10{sup -22} atm range. Fractographic studies show that microcracks developed at 800 oC upon hydrogen reduction are responsible for the decreased strength. To understand the role of microstructure on electrochemical performance, electrical impedance spectra from symmetric LSM/YSZ/LSM cells was de-convoluted to obtain the key electrochemical components of electrode performance, namely charge transfer resistance, surface diffusion of reactive species and bulk gas diffusion through the electrode pores. These properties were then related to microstructural features, such as triple-phase boundary length and tortuosity. From these experiments we found that the impedance due to oxygen adsorption obeys a power law with pore surface area, while the impedance due to charge transfer is found to obey a power-law with respect to triple phase boundary length. A model based on kinetic theory explaining the power-law relationships observed was then developed. Finally, during our EIS work on the symmetric LSM/YSZ/LSM cells a technique was developed to improve the quality of high-frequency impedance data and their subsequent de-convolution.

Eric Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

469

Eddy Current Testing for Detecting Small Defects in Thin Films  

SciTech Connect

Presented here is a technique of using Eddy Current based Giant Magneto-Resistance sensor (GMR) to detect surface and sub-layered minute defects in thin films. For surface crack detection, a measurement was performed on a copper metallization of 5-10 microns thick. It was done by scanning the GMR sensor on the surface of the wafer that had two scratches of 0.2 mm, and 2.5 mm in length respectively. In another experiment, metal coatings were deposited over the layers containing five defects with known lengths such that the defects were invisible from the surface. The limit of detection (resolution), in terms of defect size, of the GMR high-resolution Eddy Current probe was studied using this sample. Applications of Eddy Current testing include detecting defects in thin film metallic layers, and quality control of metallization layers on silicon wafers for integrated circuits manufacturing.

Obeid, Simon; Tranjan, Farid M. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, UNCC (United States); Dogaru, Teodor [Albany Instruments, 426-O Barton Creek, Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States)

2007-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

470

Nonlinear beam deflection in photonic lattices with negative defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that a nonlinear beam can be reflected by a negative defect in a photonic lattice if the incident angle is below a threshold value. Above this threshold angle, the beam simply passes through the defect. This phenomenon occurs in both one- and two-dimensional photonic lattices, and it provides a way to use the incident angle to control beam propagation in a lattice network. If the defect is absent or positive, no evident transition from reflection to transmission occurs. These nonlinear phenomena are also compared with linear nondiffracting-beam propagation in a photonic lattice with a defect, and both similarities and differences are observed. In addition, some important features in linear and nonlinear beam propagations are explained analytically by using a linear model with a delta-function defect.

Wang Jiandong [College of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Ye Zhuoyi; Lou Cibo [TEDA Applied Physical School, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Miller, Alexandra; Zhang Peng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132 (United States); Hu Yi; Chen Zhigang [TEDA Applied Physical School, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132 (United States); Yang Jianke [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

471

Charging generator for a vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A charging generator is described for a vehicle, comprising: an annular casing having an axis, and having a radially outer periphery and front and rear axial side walls defined by axially spaced front and rear brackets which are fixed to one another; a rotary shaft extending through the casing along the axis and being rotatably supported by bearings of the front and rear brackets; a rotor mounted on the rotary shaft; a stator fixed to one of the brackets; at least one window in the front bracket, at least a portion of at least one window extending along a portion of the outer periphery between the rotor and the front side wall; and partition plate fixed within the front bracket between the rotor and the front side wall, the partition plate extending radially to at least one window being spaced from the rotor and the front side wall to divide each at least one window into an air intake window and an air discharge window, the air intake and discharge windows being connected by a radially extending air inlet passage on one side of the partition plate and a radially extending air discharge passage on the other side of the partition plate.

Gotoh, H.

1987-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

472

Gravitating Dyons with Large Electric Charge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider non-Abelian dyons in Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory. The dyons are spherically symmetric with unit magnetic charge. For large values of the electric charge the dyons approach limiting solutions, related to the Penney solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory.

Rustam Ibadov; Burkhard Kleihaus; Jutta Kunz; Ulrike Neemann

2007-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

473

PRECISE CHARGE MEASUREMENT FOR LASER PLASMA ACCELERATORS  

SciTech Connect

Cross-calibrations of charge diagnostics are conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). Employed diagnostics are a scintillating screen, activation based measurement, and integrating current transformer. The diagnostics agreed within {+-}8 %, showing that they can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs provided they are used properly.

Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen; Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Donahue, Rich; Rodgers, David; Smith, Alan; Byrne, Warren; Leemans, Wim

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

474

Adaptive Battery Charge Scheduling with Bursty Workloads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Adaptive Battery Charge Scheduling with Bursty Workloads Dylan Lexie , Shan Lin, and Jie Wu.wu@temple.edu Abstract--Battery-powered wireless sensor devices need to be charged to provide the desired functionality after deployment. Task or even device failures can occur if the voltage of the battery is low

Wu, Jie

475

Charging system for nickel-zing batteries  

SciTech Connect

A source of constant current or constant power supplies charging current to a nickel-zinc battery to produce a generally S-shaped battery voltage waveform. To improve battery life, charging is terminated at the inflection point where the slope of the battery voltage changes from increasing to decreasing.

Jones, R. A.; Reoch, W. D.

1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

476

Charged Black Holes in New Massive Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct charged black hole solutions to three-dimensional New Massive Gravity (NMG), by adding electromagnetic Maxwell and Chern-Simons actions. We find charged black holes in the form of warped AdS_3 and "log" solutions in specific critical point. The entropy, mass and angular momentum of these black holes are computed.

Ghodsi, Ahmad

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

A User Programmable Battery Charging System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rechargeable batteries are found in almost every battery powered application. Be it portable, stationary or motive applications, these batteries go hand in hand with battery charging systems. With energy harvesting being targeted in this day and age, high energy density and longer lasting batteries with efficient charging systems are being developed by companies and original equipment manufacturers. Whatever the application may be, rechargeable batteries, which deliver power to a load or system, have to be replenished or recharged once their energy is depleted. Battery charging systems must perform this replenishment by using very fast and efficient methods to extend battery life and to increase periods between charges. In this regard, they have to be versatile, efficient and user programmable to increase their applications in numerous battery powered systems. This is to reduce the cost of using different battery chargers for different types of battery powered applications and also to provide the convenience of rare battery replacement and extend the periods between charges. This thesis proposes a user programmable charging system that can charge a Lithium ion battery from three different input sources, i.e. a wall outlet, a universal serial bus (USB) and an energy harvesting system. The proposed charging system consists of three main building blocks, i.e. a pulse charger, a step down DC to DC converter and a switching network system, to extend the number of applications it can be used for. The switching network system is to allow charging of a battery via an energy harvesting system, while the step down converter is used to provide an initial supply voltage to kick start the energy harvesting system. The pulse charger enables the battery to be charged from a wall outlet or a USB network. It can also be reconfigured to charge a Nickel Metal Hydride battery. The final design is implemented on an IBM 0.18m process. Experimental results verify the concept of the proposed charging system. The pulse charger is able to be reconfigured as a trickle charger and a constant current charger to charge a Li-ion battery and a Nickel Metal Hydride battery, respectively. The step down converter has a maximum efficiency of 90% at an input voltage of 3V and the charging of the battery via an energy harvesting system is also verified.

Amanor-Boadu, Judy M

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Effects of composition and phonon scattering mechanisms on thermal transport in MFI zeolite films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and lattice dynamical modeling in the framework of the Boltzmann equation. MFI films with different Si for the MFI crystal structure with different Si/Al ratios and incorporated into a Boltzmann transport model umklapp, defect, and boundary scattering processes. The model predicts the observed thermal conductivity

Nair, Sankar

479

Coding-error based defects in enterprise resource planning software: Prevention, discovery, elimination and mitigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Software defects due to coding errors continue to plague the industry with disastrous impact, especially in the enterprise application software category. Identifying how much of these defects are specifically due to coding errors is a challenging problem. ... Keywords: Code auditing, Coding defects, Defect density, Defect reduction, ERP, Software development, Software testing, Static code analysis

Isaac Woungang; Felix O. Akinladejo; David W. White; Mohammad S. Obaidat

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Silicon surface and bulk defect passivation by low temperature PECVD oxides and nitrides  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effectiveness of PECVD passivation of surface and bulk defects in Si, as well as phosphorous diffused emitters, Is investigated and quantified. Significant hydrogen incorporation coupled with high positive charge density in the PECVD SiN layer is found to play an important role in bulk and surface passivation. It is shown that photo-assisted anneal in a forming gas ambient after PECVD depositions significantly improves the passivation of emitter and bulk defects. PECVD passivation of phosphorous doped emitters and boron doped bare Si surfaces is found to be a strong function of doping concentration. Surface recombination velocity of less than 200 cm/s for 0.2 Ohm-cm and less than 1 cm/s for high resistivity substrates ({approximately} Ohm-cm) were achieved. PECVD passivation improved bulk lifetime in the range of 30% to 70% in multicrystalline Si materials. However, the degree of the passivation was found to be highly material specific. Depending upon the passivation scheme, emitter saturation current density (J{sub oe}) can be reduced by a factor of 3 to 9. Finally, the stability of PECVD oxide/nitride passivation under prolonged UV exposure is established.

Chen, Z.; Rohatgi, A. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Univ. Center of Excellence for Photovoltaics Research and Education; Ruby, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "defects charge transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment Guidelines: British  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment Guidelines: British Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment Guidelines: British Columbia Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment Guidelines: British Columbia Agency/Company /Organization: Natural Resources Canada, British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority Focus Area: Vehicles Topics: Best Practices Website: www.bchydro.com/etc/medialib/internet/documents/environment/EVcharging A major component of winning public acceptance for plug-in vehicles is the streamlining of the private electric vehicle charging or supply equipment permitting and installation process as well as the public and commercial availability of charging locations. These guidelines are intended to anticipate the questions and requirements to ensure customer satisfaction.

482

On the charge of the photon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The papers setting upper bounds on the value of electric charge of the photon are briefly reviewed. The theoretical framework of these bounds is shown to be incomplete. Hence the bounds seem to be unreliable. There exists about a dozen of papers questioning the neutrality of photon and setting an upper limit on its charge. The title of the first paper [1] was Experimental limit on the charge of the photon. Please note that the word charge was in quotation marks, which, I suspect, reflected the scepticism of the authors. They searched for the effect of electric field V = 20 kv on the energy of 14.4 KeV photons emitted by Fe 57 and investigated with the use of recoilless resonance scattering. Neither an energy shift nor a line broadening has been observed allowing the authors to set the limit e?/e < 10 ?15. The authors of experiment [2] were searching for small charge (<

L. B. Okun

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Cooper pairing near charged black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that a quartic contact interaction between charged fermions can lead to Cooper pairing and a superconducting instability in the background of a charged asymptotically Anti-de Sitter black hole. For a massless fermion we obtain the zero mode analytically and compute the dependence of the critical temperature T_c on the charge of the fermion. The instability we find occurs at charges above a critical value, where the fermion dispersion relation near the Fermi surface is linear. The critical temperature goes to zero as the marginal Fermi liquid is approached, together with the density of states at the Fermi surface. Besides the charge, the critical temperature is controlled by a four point function of a fermionic operator in the dual strongly coupled field theory.

Hartman, Thomas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Cooper pairing near charged black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that a quartic contact interaction between charged fermions can lead to Cooper pairing and a superconducting instability in the background of a charged asymptotically Anti-de Sitter black hole. For a massless fermion we obtain the zero mode analytically and compute the dependence of the critical temperature T_c on the charge of the fermion. The instability we find occurs at charges above a critical value, where the fermion dispersion relation near the Fermi surface is linear. The critical temperature goes to zero as the marginal Fermi liquid is approached, together with the density of states at the Fermi surface. Besides the charge, the critical temperature is controlled by a four point function of a fermionic operator in the dual strongly coupled field theory.

Thomas Hartman; Sean A. Hartnoll

2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

485

Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

486

Proximity charge sensing for semiconductor detectors  

SciTech Connect

A non-contact charge sensor includes a semiconductor detector having a first surface and an opposing second surface. The detector includes a high resistivity electrode layer on the first surface and a low resistivity electrode on the high resistivity electrode layer. A portion of the low resistivity first surface electrode is deleted to expose the high resistivity electrode layer in a portion of the area. A low resistivity electrode layer is disposed on the second surface of the semiconductor detector. A voltage applied between the first surface low resistivity electrode and the second surface low resistivity electrode causes a free charge to drift toward the first or second surface according to a polarity of the free charge and the voltage. A charge sensitive preamplifier coupled to a non-contact electrode disposed at a distance from the exposed high resistivity electrode layer outputs a signal in response to movement of free charge within the detector.

Luke, Paul N; Tindall, Craig S; Amman, Mark

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

487

Fundamental Studies of Charge Migration and Delocalization Relevant to Solar Energy Conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program aimed to understand the molecular-level principles by which complex chemical systems carry out photochemical charge separation, transport, and storage, and how these insights could impact the design of practical solar energy conversion and storage devices. Towards these goals, this program focused on: (1) carrying out fundamental mechanistic and transient dynamical studies of proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) reactions; (2) characterizing and interrogating via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic methods novel conjugated materials that feature large charge delocalization lengths; and (3) exploring excitation delocalization and migration, as well as polaron transport properties of meso-scale assemblies that are capable of segregating light-harvesting antennae, nanoscale wire-like conduction elements, and distinct oxidizing and reducing environments.

Michael J. Therien

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Diffusion Dynamics of Charged Dust Particles in Capacitively Coupled RF Discharge System  

SciTech Connect

Dusty plasma is loosely defined as electron-ion plasma with additional charged components of micron-sized dust particles. In this study, we developed a particle diagnostic technique based on light scattering and particle tracking velocimetry to investigate the dynamics of micron-sized titanium oxide particles in Argon gas capacitively coupled rf-discharge. The particle trajectories are constructed from sequence of image frames and treated as sample paths of charged Brownian motion. At specific sets of plasma parameters, disordered liquid-like dust particle configuration are observed. Mean-square-displacement of the particle trajectories are determined to characterize the transport dynamics. We showed that the dust particles in disordered liquid phase exhibit anomalous diffusion with different scaling exponents for short and large time scales, indicating the presence of slow and fast modes which can be related to caging effect and dispersive transport, respectively.

Chew, W. X.; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S.; Yap, S. L.; Tan, K. S. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

489

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

490

In-situ Investigation of Vanadium Ion Transport in Redox Flow Battery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We will show a new method to differentiate the vanadium transport from concentration gradient and that from electric field. Flow batteries with vanadium and iron redox couples as the electro-active species were employed to investigate the transport behavior of vanadium ions in the presence of electric field. It was shown that electric field accelerated the positive-to-negative and reduced the negative-to-positive vanadium ions transport in charge process and affected the vanadium ions transport in an opposite way in discharge process. In addition, a method was designed to differentiate the concentration gradient-driven vanadium ions diffusion and electric field-driven vanadium ions migration. Simplified mathematical model was established to simulate the vanadium ions transport in real charge-discharge operation of flow battery. The concentration gradient diffusion coefficients and electric-migration coefficients of V2+, V3+, VO2+, and VO2+ across Nafion membrane were obtained by fitting the experimental data.

Luo, Qingtao; Li, Liyu; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Bin; Chen, Baowei; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

491

Transportation | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transportation Transportation From modeling and simulation programs to advanced electric powertrains, engines, biofuels, lubricants, and batteries, Argonne's transportation research is vital to the development of next-generation vehicles. Revolutionary advances in transportation are critical to reducing our nation's petroleum consumption and the environmental impact of our vehicles. Some of the most exciting new vehicle technologies are being ushered along by research conducted at Argonne National Laboratory. Our Transportation Technology R&D Center (TTRDC) brings together scientists and engineers from many disciplines across the laboratory to work with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), automakers and other industrial partners. Our goal is to put new transportation technologies on the road that improve

492

Transportation Services | Staff Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transportation Services Transportation Services The BNL Transportation Office, located at 20 Brookhaven Avenue, Building 400A, is available to assist BNL employees, guests and visitors with transportation needs in support of Laboratory programs. The hours of operation are 8:30 AM - 5:00 PM Monday through Friday. To contact the Transportation Office call (631) 344-2535. Stony Brook Parking Passes The Transportation Office has a limited number of parking passes for the three (3) parking garages at Stony Brook University. The passes are available to and are intended for use by BNL employees/scientific staff on official business only. Passes may be used at the Administration, University Hospital and Health Services Center garages on the Stony Brook campus when visiting SBU on official business.

493

Transportation technology at Sandia  

SciTech Connect

Industrial and military activities in the US produce large amounts of hazardous mixed waste, which includes both radioactive and toxic substances. The already overburdened environment is faced with the task of safely disposing of these complex wastes. A very important aspect of this effort is the safe and economical transportation of radioactive and toxic chemical wastes to projected repositories. Movement of wastes to the repository sites is accomplished by a combination of truck, rail, ship, and air. The DOE directs transportation activities including cask development technology for use in single or multimode transport. Sandia National Laboratories` Transportation Technology programs provide the technology and know-how to support DOE in achieving safe, efficient, and economical packaging and transportation of nuclear and other hazardous waste materials. This brochure describes the Transportation Technology programs and the specialized techniques and capabilities they offer to prospective users.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

494

Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions January 27, 2011 - 4:07pm Addthis Dennis A. Smith Director, National Clean Cities The closest most people get to a vehicle before it is offered to the general public is seeing it on TV or at an auto show. But five fortunate Clean Cities coordinators were able to test Toyota's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) as part of the demonstration project for the PHEV Prius, which is expected to be released in 2012. Clean Cities is an initiative in the Department's Vehicle Technologies Program that is focused on reducing petroleum use in transportation - which makes this demonstration a perfect fit. A PHEV Prius can run for up to 13 miles on all-electric power before

495

Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions Plug-In Demo Charges up Clean Cities Coalitions January 27, 2011 - 4:07pm Addthis Dennis A. Smith Director, National Clean Cities The closest most people get to a vehicle before it is offered to the general public is seeing it on TV or at an auto show. But five fortunate Clean Cities coordinators were able to test Toyota's plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) as part of the demonstration project for the PHEV Prius, which is expected to be released in 2012. Clean Cities is an initiative in the Department's Vehicle Technologies Program that is focused on reducing petroleum use in transportation - which makes this demonstration a perfect fit. A PHEV Prius can run for up to 13 miles on all-electric power before

496

Directed flow of Identified Charged Particles from the RHIC Beam Energy Scan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the STAR measurements of directed flow, v1, for {\\pi}{\\pm}, K{\\pm}, protons and antiprotons, as well as for all detected charged particles in Au + Au collisions at {\\surd}sNN = 7.7, 11.5 and 39 GeV as a function of transverse momentum, rapidity and centrality. Results are compared to the predictions from transport models.

Yadav Pandit; for the STAR Collaboration

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

497

Triplet Transport to and Trapping by Acceptor End Groups on Conjugated  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Triplet Transport to and Trapping by Acceptor End Groups on Conjugated Triplet Transport to and Trapping by Acceptor End Groups on Conjugated Polyfluorene Chains Paiboon Sreearunothai, Alexis Estrada, Sadayuki Asaoka, Marta Kowalczyk, Seogjoo Jang, Andrew R. Cook, Jack M. Preses and John R. Miller J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 19569-19577 (2011). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: Triplet excited states created in polyfluorene (pF) molecules having average lengths up to 170 repeat units were transported to and captured by trap groups at the ends in less ~40 ns. Almost all of the triplets attached to the chains reached the trap groups, ruling out the presence of substantial numbers of defects that prevent transport. The transport yields a diffusion coefficient D of at least 3 x 10-4 cm2 s-1, which is 30 times typical molecular diffusion and close to a value for triplet transport

498

I5, Improving Thermoelectric Power Generation Efficiency with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

J10, Role of Defect States in Charge Transport in Semiconductor Nanowires J1, Molecular Surface Passivation Effects on Indium Oxide Nanowire Transistors.

499

Similarities and distinctions of defect production by fast electron and proton irradiation: Moderately doped silicon and silicon carbide of n-type  

SciTech Connect

Effects of irradiation with 0.9 MeV electrons as well as 8 and 15 MeV protons on moderately doped n-Si grown by the floating zone (FZ) technique and n-SiC (4H) grown by chemical vapor deposition are studied in a comparative way. It has been established that the dominant radiation-produced defects with involvement of V group impurities differ dramatically in electron- and proton-irradiated n-Si (FZ), in spite of the opinion on their similarity widespread in literature. This dissimilarity in defect structures is attributed to a marked difference in distributions of primary radiation defects for the both kinds of irradiation. In contrast, DLTS spectra taken on electron- and proton-irradiated n-SiC (4H) appear to be similar. However, there are very much pronounced differences in the formation rates of radiation-produced defects. Despite a larger production rate of Frenkel pairs in SiC as compared to that in Si, the removal rates of charge carriers in n-SiC (4H) were found to be considerably smaller than those in n-Si (FZ) for the both electron and proton irradiation. Comparison between defect production rates in the both materials under electron and proton irradiation is drawn.

Emtsev, V. V., E-mail: emtsev@mail.ioffe.ru; Ivanov, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation); Kozlovski, V. V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Lebedev, A. A.; Oganesyan, G. A.; Strokan, N. B. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation); Wagner, G. [Leibniz-Institute for Crystal Growth (Germany)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

500

Hydrogen bond rearrangements and the motion of charge defects in water viewed using multidimensional ultrafast infrared spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compared with other molecular liquids, water is highly structured due to its ability to form up to four hydrogen bonds to its