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1

Deep Vadose Zone  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Mission of the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative is to protect water resources across the DOE complex over the long-term by developing effective solutions to solve DOEs most...

2

Applied Field Research Initiative Deep Vadose Zone  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Applied Field Research Initiative Applied Field Research Initiative Deep Vadose Zone Located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ AFRI) was established to protect water resources by addressing the challenge of preventing contamination in the deep vadose zone from reaching groundwater. Led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Initiative is a collaborative effort that leverages Department of Energy (DOE) investments in basic science and applied research and the work of site contractors to address the complex deep vadose zone contamination challenges. Challenge Many vadose zone environments within the DOE complex consist of complex stratified layers of unconsolidated and water-unsaturated sediments that are, in many places, con-

3

DEEP VADOSE ZONE TREATABILITY TEST PLAN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

{sm_bullet} Treatability test plan published in 2008 {sm_bullet} Outlines technology treatability activities for evaluating application of in situ technologies and surface barriers to deep vadose zone contamination (technetium and uranium) {sm_bullet} Key elements - Desiccation testing - Testing of gas-delivered reactants for in situ treatment of uranium - Evaluating surface barrier application to deep vadose zone - Evaluating in situ grouting and soil flushing

GB CHRONISTER; MJ TRUEX

2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

4

Deep Vadose ZoneApplied Field Research Initiative Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This annual report describes the background of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative, and some of the programmatic approaches and transformational technologies in groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation developed during fiscal year 2012.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

5

Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) Located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ AFRI) was established to protect water resources by addressing the challenge of preventing contamination in the deep vadose zone from reaching groundwater. Led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Initiative is a collaborative effort that leverages Department of Energy (DOE) investments in basic science and applied research and the work of site contractors to address the complex deep vadose zone contamination challenges. The Mission of the Deep Vadose

6

STRATEGIES FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINANTS AT THE HANFORD CENTRAL PLATEAU  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep vadose zone contamination poses some of the most difficult remediation challenges for the protection of groundwater at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This paper describes processes and technologies being developed to use in the ongoing effort to remediate the contamination in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Site.

CHRONISTER GB

2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

7

Integrated Strategy to Address Hanfords Deep Vadose Zone Remediation Challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A vast majority of Hanfords remaining in-ground contaminants reside in the vadose zone of the Central Plateau, where reprocessing operations occurred. The vadose zone is comprised of about 75 meters of water-unsaturated sediments above groundwater. These contaminants have, and continue to release into groundwater that discharges to the Columbia River. If left untreated, these contaminants could remain a threat for centuries. Much of this contamination resides deep in the vadose zone, below the effective depth of tradition surface remedy influence. In 2008, the Department of Energy initiated deep vadose zone treatability testing to seek remedies for technetium-99 and uranium contamination. These tests include the application of desiccation for technetium-99 and reactive gas technologies for uranium. To complement these efforts, the Department of Energy has initiated a defense-in-depth approach to address the unique challenges for characterization and remediation of the deep vadose zone. This defense-in-depth approach will implement multiple approaches to understand and control contaminant flux from the deep vadose zone to the groundwater. Among these approaches is an increased investment in science and technology solutions to resolve deep vadose zone challenges including characterization, prediction, remediation, and monitoring.

Triplett, Mark B.; Freshley, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Charboneau, Briant L.; Morse, John G.; Lober, Robert W.; Chronister, Glen B.

2010-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

8

Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Soil Desiccation Pilot Test Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes results of a pilot test of soil desiccation conducted as part of the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test program. The report is written in CERCLA treatabilty test report format.

Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Strickland, Christopher E.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Johnson, Christian D.; Greenwood, William J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Clayton, Ray E.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Peterson, John E.; Hubbard, Susan; Chronister, Glen B.; Benecke, Mark W.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Evaluation of Soil Flushing for Application to the Deep Vadose Zone in the Hanford Central Plateau  

SciTech Connect

Soil flushing was included in the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau as a technology with the potential to remove contaminants from the vadose zone. Soil flushing operates through the addition of water, and if necessary an appropriate mobilizing agent, to mobilize contaminants and flush them from the vadose zone and into the groundwater where they are subsequently captured by a pump-and-treat system. There are uncertainties associated with applying soil flushing technology to contaminants in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Central Plateau. The modeling and laboratory efforts reported herein are intended to provide a quantitative assessment of factors that impact water infiltration and contaminant flushing through the vadose zone and into the underlying groundwater. Once in the groundwater, capture of the contaminants would be necessary, but this aspect of implementing soil flushing was not evaluated in this effort. Soil flushing was evaluated primarily with respect to applications for technetium and uranium contaminants in the deep vadose zone of the Hanford Central Plateau.

Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Zhang, Z. F.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Schramke, Janet A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Gordon, Kathryn A.; Last, George V.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

TECHNICAL BASIS FOR EVALUATING SURFACE BARRIERS TO PROTECT GROUNDWATER FROM DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. DOE and its predecessors released nearly 2 trillion liters (450 billion gallons) of contaminated liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Some of the contaminants currently reside in the deeper parts of the vadose zone where they are much less accessible to characterization, monitoring, and typical remediation activities. The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) prepared a treatability test plan in 2008 to examine remediation options for addressing contaminants in the deep vadose zone; one of the technologies identified was surface barriers (also known as engineered barriers, covers, and caps). In the typical configuration, the contaminants are located relatively close to the surface, generally within 15 m, and thus they are close to the base of the surface barrier. The proximity of the surface barrier under these conditions yielded few concerns about the effectiveness of the barrier at depth, particularly for cases in which the contaminants were in a lined facility. At Hanford, however, some unlined sites have contaminants located well below depths of 15 m. The issue raised about these sites is the degree of effectiveness of a surface barrier in isolating contaminants in the deep vadose zone. Previous studies by Hanford Site and PNNL researchers suggest that surface barriers have the potential to provide a significant degree of isolation of deep vadose zone contaminants. The studies show that the actual degree of isolation is site-specific and depends on many factors, including recharge rates, barrier size, depth of contaminants, geohydrologic properties ofthe sediments, and the geochemical interactions between the contaminants and the sediments. After the DOE-RL treatability test plan was published, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted to review the information available to support surface barrier evaluation for the deep vadose zone, identify gaps in the information and outcomes necessary to fill the data gaps, and outline tasks to achieve those outcomes. Full understanding of contaminant behavior in the deep vadose zone is constrained by four key data gaps: limited access; limited data; limited time; and the lack of an accepted predictive capability for determining whether surface barriers can effectively isolate deep vadose zone contaminants. Activities designed to fill these data gaps need to have these outcomes: (1) common evaluation methodology that provides a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination; (2) deep vadose zone data that characterize the lithology, the spatial distribution of moisture and contaminants, the physical, chemical, and biological process that affect the mobility of each contaminant, and the impacts to the contaminants following placement of a surface barrier; (3) subsurface monitoring to provide subsurface characterization of initial conditions and changes that occur during and following remediation activities; and (4) field observations that span years to decades to validate the evaluation methodology. A set of six proposed tasks was identified to provide information needed to address the above outcomes. The proposed tasks are: (1) Evaluation Methodology - Develop common evaluation methodology that will provide a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination. (2) Case Studies - Conduct case studies to demonstrate the applicability ofthe common evaluation methodology and provide templates for subsequent use elsewhere. Three sites expected to have conditions that would yield valuable information and experience pertinent to deep vadose zone contamination were chosen to cover a range of conditions. The sites are BC Cribs and Trenches, U Plant Cribs, and the T Farm Interim Cover. (3) Subsurface Monitoring Technologies - Evaluate minimally invasive geophysical approaches for delineating subsurface plumes and monitoring their migration in the deep

FAYER JM; FREEDMAN VL; WARD AL; CHRONISTER GB

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

11

TECHNICAL BASIS FOR EVALUATING SURFACE BARRIERS TO PROTECT GROUNDWATER FROM DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. DOE and its predecessors released nearly 2 trillion liters (450 billion gallons) of contaminated liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Some of the contaminants currently reside in the deeper parts of the vadose zone where they are much less accessible to characterization, monitoring, and typical remediation activities. The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) prepared a treatability test plan in 2008 to examine remediation options for addressing contaminants in the deep vadose zone; one of the technologies identified was surface barriers (also known as engineered barriers, covers, and caps). In the typical configuration, the contaminants are located relatively close to the surface, generally within 15 m, and thus they are close to the base of the surface barrier. The proximity of the surface barrier under these conditions yielded few concerns about the effectiveness of the barrier at depth, particularly for cases in which the contaminants were in a lined facility. At Hanford, however, some unlined sites have contaminants located well below depths of 15 m. The issue raised about these sites is the degree of effectiveness of a surface barrier in isolating contaminants in the deep vadose zone. Previous studies by Hanford Site and PNNL researchers suggest that surface barriers have the potential to provide a significant degree of isolation of deep vadose zone contaminants. The studies show that the actual degree of isolation is site-specific and depends on many factors, including recharge rates, barrier size, depth of contaminants, geohydrologic properties ofthe sediments, and the geochemical interactions between the contaminants and the sediments. After the DOE-RL treatability test plan was published, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted to review the information available to support surface barrier evaluation for the deep vadose zone, identify gaps in the information and outcomes necessary to fill the data gaps, and outline tasks to achieve those outcomes. Full understanding of contaminant behavior in the deep vadose zone is constrained by four key data gaps: limited access; limited data; limited time; and the lack of an accepted predictive capability for determining whether surface barriers can effectively isolate deep vadose zone contaminants. Activities designed to fill these data gaps need to have these outcomes: (1) common evaluation methodology that provides a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination; (2) deep vadose zone data that characterize the lithology, the spatial distribution of moisture and contaminants, the physical, chemical, and biological process that affect the mobility of each contaminant, and the impacts to the contaminants following placement of a surface barrier; (3) subsurface monitoring to provide subsurface characterization of initial conditions and changes that occur during and following remediation activities; and (4) field observations that span years to decades to validate the evaluation methodology. A set of six proposed tasks was identified to provide information needed to address the above outcomes. The proposed tasks are: (1) Evaluation Methodology - Develop common evaluation methodology that will provide a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination. (2) Case Studies - Conduct case studies to demonstrate the applicability ofthe common evaluation methodology and provide templates for subsequent use elsewhere. Three sites expected to have conditions that would yield valuable information and experience pertinent to deep vadose zone contamination were chosen to cover a range of conditions. The sites are BC Cribs and Trenches, U Plant Cribs, and the T Farm Interim Cover. (3) Subsurface Monitoring Technologies - Evaluate minimally invasive geophysical approaches for delineating subsurface plumes and monitoring their migration in the deep

FAYER JM; FREEDMAN VL; WARD AL; CHRONISTER GB

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

12

Evaluation of In Situ Grouting as a Potential Remediation Method for the Hanford Central Plateau Deep Vadose Zone  

SciTech Connect

The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau report identifies in situ grouting as a potential remediation technology for the deep vadose zone and includes a planned effort to evaluate in situ grouting to provide information for future feasibility studies. This report represents the first step in this evaluation effort.

Truex, Michael J.; Pierce, Eric M.; Nimmons, Michael J.; Mattigod, Shas V.

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

13

Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the background of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative, and some of the programmatic approaches and transformational technologies in groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation developed during fiscal year 2011. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Innovation and Development's (OTID) mission is to transform science into viable solutions for environmental cleanup. In 2010, OTID developed the Impact Plan, Science and Technology to Reduce the Life Cycle Cost of Closure to outline the benefits of research and development of the lifecycle cost of cleanup across the DOE complex. This plan outlines OTID's ability to reduce by $50 billion, the $200 billion life-cycle cost in waste processing, groundwater and soil, nuclear materials, and deactivation and decommissioning. The projected life-cycle costs and return on investment are based on actual savings realized from technology innovation, development, and insertion into remedial strategies and schedules at the Fernald, Mound, and Ashtabula sites. To achieve our goals, OTID developed Applied Field Research Initiatives to facilitate and accelerate collaborative development and implementation of new tools and approaches that reduce risk, cost and time for site closure. The primary mission of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) is to protect our nation's water resources, keeping them clean and safe for future generations. The DVZ-AFRI was established for the DOE to develop effective, science-based solutions for remediating, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting the behavior and fate of deep vadose zone contamination. Subsurface contaminants include radionuclides, metals, organics, and liquid waste that originated from various sources, including legacy waste from the nation's nuclear weapons complexes. The DVZ-AFRI project team is translating strategy into action by working to solve these complex challenges in a collaborative environment that leverages technology and scientific expertise from DOE, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, and the broad scientific research community. As project manager for the DVZ-AFRI, I have had the privilege this past year to team with creative, talented members of the scientific community nationwide to develop effective long-term solutions to address deep vadose zone contamination. This report highlights how the DVZ-AFRI project team is delivering results by achieving significant programmatic accomplishments, and developing and field-testing transformational technologies to address the nation's most pressing groundwater and vadose zone contamination problems.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Smith, Ronald M.; Truex, Michael J.; Matthews, Hope E.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the background of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative, and some of the programmatic approaches and transformational technologies in groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation developed during fiscal year 2011. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Innovation and Development's (OTID) mission is to transform science into viable solutions for environmental cleanup. In 2010, OTID developed the Impact Plan, Science and Technology to Reduce the Life Cycle Cost of Closure to outline the benefits of research and development of the lifecycle cost of cleanup across the DOE complex. This plan outlines OTID's ability to reduce by $50 billion, the $200 billion life-cycle cost in waste processing, groundwater and soil, nuclear materials, and deactivation and decommissioning. The projected life-cycle costs and return on investment are based on actual savings realized from technology innovation, development, and insertion into remedial strategies and schedules at the Fernald, Mound, and Ashtabula sites. To achieve our goals, OTID developed Applied Field Research Initiatives to facilitate and accelerate collaborative development and implementation of new tools and approaches that reduce risk, cost and time for site closure. The primary mission of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) is to protect our nation's water resources, keeping them clean and safe for future generations. The DVZ-AFRI was established for the DOE to develop effective, science-based solutions for remediating, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting the behavior and fate of deep vadose zone contamination. Subsurface contaminants include radionuclides, metals, organics, and liquid waste that originated from various sources, including legacy waste from the nation's nuclear weapons complexes. The DVZ-AFRI project team is translating strategy into action by working to solve these complex challenges in a collaborative environment that leverages technology and scientific expertise from DOE, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, and the broad scientific research community. As project manager for the DVZ-AFRI, I have had the privilege this past year to team with creative, talented members of the scientific community nationwide to develop effective long-term solutions to address deep vadose zone contamination. This report highlights how the DVZ-AFRI project team is delivering results by achieving significant programmatic accomplishments, and developing and field-testing transformational technologies to address the nation's most pressing groundwater and vadose zone contamination problems.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Smith, Ronald M.; Truex, Michael J.; Matthews, Hope E.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

DEEP VADOSE ZONE APPLIED FIELD RESEARCH CENTER: TRANSFORMATIONAL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION  

SciTech Connect

DOE-EM, Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation and DOE Richland, in collaboration with the Hanford site and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, have established the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Center (DVZ-AFRC). The DVZ-AFRC leverages DOE investments in basic science from the Office of Science, applied research from DOE EM Office of Technology Innovation and Development, and site operation (e.g., site contractors [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Contractor and Washington River Protection Solutions], DOE-EM RL and ORP) in a collaborative effort to address the complex region of the deep vadose zone. Although the aim, goal, motivation, and contractual obligation of each organization is different, the integration of these activities into the framework of the DVZ-AFRC brings the resources and creativity of many to provide sites with viable alternative remedial strategies to current baseline approaches for persistent contaminants and deep vadose zone contamination. This cooperative strategy removes stove pipes, prevents duplication of efforts, maximizes resources, and facilitates development of the scientific foundation needed to make sound and defensible remedial decisions that will successfully meet the target cleanup goals for one of DOE EM's most intractable problems, in a manner that is acceptable by regulators.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Freshley, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.; Gephart, Roy E.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Chronister, Glen B.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Chamberlain, Skip; Marble, Justin; Ramirez, Rosa

2011-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

16

Field-Scale Assessment of Desiccation Implementation for Deep Vadose Zone Contaminants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Desiccation of the vadose zone has the potential to reduce the flux of contaminants to underlying groundwater by removing moisture and decreasing the aqueous-phase permeability of the desiccated zone. However, data to evaluate implementation of desiccation are needed to enable consideration of desiccation as a potential remedy. Implementation of desiccation was field tested by injecting dry nitrogen gas to a target treatment zone and monitoring the spatial and temporal progress of the drying process. Aqueous waste discharges to disposal cribs approximately 50 years ago distributed water and contaminants, including primarily technetium-99 and nitrate, within the 100-m deep vadose zone at the test site. A field test location was selected adjacent to one of the former disposal cribs. The test was conducted in a contaminated portion of the vadose zone dominated by fine sands with lenses of silt material. Desiccation reduced volumetric moisture content to as low as 0.01. The lateral and vertical distribution of drying from the injection well was influenced by the subsurface heterogeneity. However, over time, desiccation occurred in the initially wetter, lower permeability lenses.

Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Strickland, Christopher E.; Chronister, Glen B.; Benecke, Mark W.; Johnson, Christian D.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Potential for Microbial Stimulation in Deep Vadose Zone Sediments by Gas-Phase Nutrients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Viable microbial populations are low, typically 10{sup 4} cells per gram, in deep vadose zones in arid climates. There is evidence that microbial distribution in these environments is patchy. In addition, infiltration or injection of nutrient-laden water has the potential to spread and drive contaminants downward to the saturated zone. For these reasons, there are uncertainties regarding the feasibility of bioremediation of recalcitrant contaminants in deep vadose zones. The objectives of this study were to investigate the occurrence of denitrifying activity and gaseous carbon-utilizing activity in arid-climate deep vadose zone sediments contaminated with, and/or affected by past exposure to, carbon tetrachloride (CT). These metabolisms are known to degrade CT and/or its breakdown product chloroform under anoxic conditions. A second objective was to determine if CT would be degraded in these sediments under unsaturated, bulk-phase aerobic incubation conditions. Both denitrifier population (determined by MPN) and microbial heterotrophic activity (measured by mineralization of 14-C labeled glucose and acetate) were relatively low and the sediments with greater in situ moisture (10-21% versus 2-7%) tended to have higher activities. When sediments were amended with gaseous nutrients (nitrous oxide and triethyl/tributyl phosphate) and gaseous C sources (a mixture of methane, ethane, propylene, propane, and butane) and incubated for 6 months, approximately 50% of the samples showed removal of one or more gaseous C sources, with butane most commonly used (44% of samples), followed by propylene (42%), propane (31%), ethane (22%), and methane (4%). Gaseous N and gaseous P did not stimulate removal of gaseous C substrates compared to no addition of N and P. CT and gaseous C sources were spiked into the sediments that removed gaseous C sources to determine if hydrocarbon-degraders have the potential to degrade CT under unsaturated conditions. In summary, gaseous C sources--particularly butane and propylene--have promise for increasing the numbers and activity of indigenous microbial populations in arid-climate deep vadose zone sediments.

Li, S.W.; Plymale, A. E.; Brockman, F.J.

2006-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

18

Implementation Plan for the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Center  

SciTech Connect

The Long-Range Deep Vadose Zone Program Plan was published in October 2010. It summarized the U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) state-of-knowledge about the contaminant remediation challenges facing the deep vadose zone (DVZ) beneath the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site and their approach to solving those challenges. Developing an implementation plan is the next step to address the knowledge and capabilities required to solve DVZ challenges when needed. This multi-year plan (FY-11 through FY-20) identifies the short to long-term research, management, and execution plans required to solve those problems facing the DVZ-Applied Field Research Center (DVZ-AFRC). The schedule supporting implementation overlies existing activities and milestones from Hanfords DOE-Environmental Management (EM) end-user projects. Success relies upon multi-project teams focused on coordinated subsurface projects undertaken across the DOE Complex combined with facilitated, problem-focused, research investments implemented through the DVZ-AFRC.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Freshley, Mark D.; Gephart, Roy E.; Triplett, Mark B.; Johnson, Timothy C.

2011-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

19

Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments The Deep Vadose Zone - Applied Field Research Initiative has partnered with the Vadose Zone Journal to bring together a special section of the recent issue (November 2012). The section was prepared in association with the Deep Vadose Zone - Applied Field Research Initiative-led symposium at the annual American Chemical Society meeting on "Understanding Behavior and Fate of Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments." The section consists of 12 papers which present novel approaches to characterize, monitor, remediate, and predict the transport and fate of contaminants in vadose zone environments, many of which highlight recent work at the Hanford site. Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments

20

Laboratory investigation of explosives degradation in vadose zone soil using carbon source additions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Explosives contamination in vadose zone soil presents difficulties in remediation. Because vadose zone contamination can extend deep into the subsurface and underneath existing buildings and (more)

Radtke, Corey William

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Bioremediation of explosives in vadose zone soil using vapor phase carbon source additions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Explosives contamination in vadose zone soil presents difficulties in remediation. Because vadose zone contamination can extend deep into the subsurface and underneath existing buildings and (more)

Radtke, Corey William

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Quantifying Deep Vadose Zone Soil Water Potential Changes At A Waste Disposal Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent advances in moisture monitoring using tensiometers has allowed long-duration, high quality data sets from within the deep vadose zone. A network of about 30 advanced tensiometers in 18 wells provided field-scale data to monitor moisture conditions and movement in the subsurface in and around a mixed waste disposal site at depths ranging from 6 to over 67 m below land surface (bls). Sensors are located in both sediments and fractured rock within the geologic profile and some have been in operation for over 10 years. The moisture monitoring was able to detect long term declines in moisture content presumably in response to lower than normal precipitation and resultant infiltration over the time period from 2000 to 2004. This trend was reversed in 2005 and 2006 in more than half of the monitoring sites over the 6 to 33 m depth interval and in several monitoring sites from 33 to 67 m, in response to normal to above normal precipitation. This tensiometer data can be used to evaluate the appropriateness of the current conceptual model of flow at this site. It also shows that a moisture monitoring system should be effective to rapidly validate that a proposed remedial action (such as placement of an ET cover) would be effective in reducing the moisture movement to levels similar to those in undisturbed sites outside of the disposal area. This paper will describe the instrument design, how the instruments were installed, and the resultant data from this monitoring system.

Joel M. Hubbell; Deborah L. McElroy

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Reactant Carrier Microfoam Technology for In-Situ Remediation of Radionuclide and Metallic Contaminants in Deep Vadose Zone  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently developing advanced remedial technologies for addressing metal and radionuclide (Cr, Tc, and U) contamination in deep vadose zone environments. One of the transformational technology alternatives being considered by the DOE Office of Environmental Management, is the use of Reactant Carrier Microfoams (RCM) as a minimally invasive method for delivery and emplacement of reagents for in-situ immobilization of contaminants. Penetration of low permeability zones deep within the subsurface for Enhance Oil Recovery (EOR) has been well-established. Use of surfactant foams have also been explored for mobilizing DNAPL from sediments. So far, the concept of using RCM for immobilizing labile metal and long-lived radionuclide contaminants in the deep vadose zone has not been explored. We, at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), conducted studies to develop stable foams as a means to deliver reductive and/or precipitating reactants to the deep subsurface. To test the feasibility of this approach, we developed a preliminary foam formulation consisting of a mixture of an anionic and a nonionic surfactant with a reactant consisting of a 9:1 blend of tripoly- and orthophosphate. The MSE Technology Applications, Inc (MSE) in collaboration with PNNL, conducted a scale-up test to evaluate the efficacy of this reactant carrier foam for in-situ immobilization of U containing sediment zones in a heterogenous sediment matrix. The data indicated that successful immobilization of U contamination is feasible using specifically tailored reactant carrier foam injection technology. Studies are continuing for developing more robust optimized RCM for highly mobile contaminants such as Cr (VI), Tc (VII) in the deep vadose zone.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Zhong, Lirong; Jansik, Danielle P.; Foote, Martin; Hart, Andrea T.; Wellman, Dawn M.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments April 11, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The Deep Vadose Zone - Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) partnered with the Vadose Zone Journal to create a special section of the journal's November 2012 issue. DVZ-AFRI conducted a symposium at the annual American Chemical Society meeting on "Understanding Behavior and Fate of Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments." They produced 12 papers that present novel approaches to characterize, monitor, remediate and predict the transport and fate of contaminants in vadose zone environments, many of which highlight recent work at the Hanford site. The publications can be accessed here. For more information, contact Skip Chamberlain with the EM's Office of Soil

25

Effects of remediation amendments on vadose zone microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

Surfactant-based foam delivery technology has been studied to remediate Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment. However, the surfactants and remediation amendments have an unknown effect on indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Microbial populations are important factors to consider in remediation efforts due to their potential to alter soil geochemistry. This project focuses on measuring microbial metabolic responses to remediation amendments in batch and column studies using Deep Vadose Zone Sediments. Initial studies of the microbes from Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment showed surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and remediation amendment calcium polysulfide (CPS) had no affect on microbial growth using BiologTM Ecoplates. To move towards a more realistic field analog, soil columns were packed with Hanford 200 Area sediment. Once microbial growth in the column was verified by observing growth of the effluent solution on tryptic soy agar plates, remedial surfactants were injected into the columns, and the resulting metabolic diversity was measured. Results suggest surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) stimulates microbial growth. The soil columns were also visualized using X-ray microtomography to inspect soil packing and possibly probe for evidence of biofilms. Overall, BiologTM Ecoplates provide a rapid assay to predict effects of remediation amendments on Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone microorganisms.

Miller, Hannah M.; Tilton, Fred A.

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

26

Field evidence for strong chemical separation of contaminants in the Hanford Vadose Zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Transport in the Hanford vadose zone Conrad et al.Chemical Transport in the Hanford vadose zone Conrad et al.Vadose Zone Pore Fluids at Hanford, Washington: Vadose Zone

Conrad, Mark E.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Maher, Katharine; Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Mass transport of volatile organic compounds between the saturated and vadose zones. Master`s thesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dissolved in the saturated zone are transported into the vadose zone primarily by gaseous phase diffusion. If the saturated zone is remediated, VOCs present in the vadose zone may become a secondary source of contamination for the groundwater. The amount of VOCs that remain in the vadose zone is dependent on site hydrology, soil properties, and the chemical properties of the contaminants. The purpose of this study was to determine what conditions caused VOC concentrations in the vadose zone to significantly recontaminate the saturated zone. A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to investigate the transport of a VOC, trichioroethylene, between the saturated and vadose zones under a variety of conditions. The model featured steady-state unsaturated water flow and transient contaminant transport. Transport mechanisms included aqueous phase advection-dispersion and gaseous phase diffusion. Partitioning between the water, gas, and soil compartments were modeled as equilibrium processes. Sensitivity analyses were performed on several variables including soil type (homogeneous and heterogeneous profiles), water infiltration rate and vadose zone depth. Results indicated that recontamination was most significant rate, and vadose zone depth. Results indicated that recontamination was most significant in the presence of heterogeneous soils, low infiltration rates and deep vadose zones.

Harner, M.S.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Perched-Water Evaluation for the Deep Vadose Zone Beneath the B, BX, and BY Tank Farms Area of the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

Perched-water conditions have been observed in the vadose zone above a fine-grained zone that is located a few meters above the water table within the B, BX, and BY Tank Farms area. The perched water contains elevated concentrations of uranium and technetium-99. This perched-water zone is important to consider in evaluating the future flux of contaminated water into the groundwater. The study described in this report was conducted to examine the perched-water conditions and quantitatively evaluate 1) factors that control perching behavior, 2) contaminant flux toward groundwater, and 3) associated groundwater impact.

Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Carroll, KC; Chronister, Glen B.

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

29

Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energys Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets to validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanfords vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNLs Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated waste migration (e.g. BC Cribs and Trenches). The improved models have been also coupled with inverse models and newly-developed parameter scaling techniques to allow estimation of field-scale and effective transport parameters for the vadose zone. The development and utility of pedotransfer functions for describing fine-scale hydrogeochemical heterogeneity and for incorporating this heterogeneity into reactive transport models was explored. An approach based on grain-size statistics appears feasible and has been used to describe heterogeneity in hydraulic properties and sorption properties, such as the cation exchange capacity and the specific surface area of Hanford sediments. This work has also led to the development of inverse modeling capabilities for time-dependent, subsurface, reactive transport with transient flow fields using an automated optimization algorithm. In addition, a number of geophysical techniques investigated for their potential to provide detailed information on the subtle changes in lithology and bedding surfaces; plume delineation, leak detection. High-resolution resistivity is now being used for detecting saline plumes at several waste sites at Hanford, including tank farms. Results from the field studies and associated analysis have appeared in more than 46 publications generated over the past 4 years. These publications include test plans and status reports, in addition to numerous technical notes and peer reviewed papers.

Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

30

Remediation of Uranium in the Hanford Vadose Zone Using Gas-Transported Reactants: Laboratory Scale Experiments in Support of the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This laboratory-scale investigation is focused on decreasing mobility of uranium in subsurface contaminated sediments in the vadose zone by in situ geochemical manipulation at low water content. This geochemical manipulation of the sediment surface phases included reduction, pH change (acidic and alkaline), and additions of chemicals (phosphate, ferric iron) to form specific precipitates. Reactants were advected into 1-D columns packed with Hanford 200 area U-contaminated sediment as a reactive gas (for CO2, NH3, H2S, SO2), with a 0.1% water content mist (for NaOH, Fe(III), HCl, PO4) and with a 1% water content foam (for PO4). Uranium is present in the sediment in multiple phases that include (in decreasing mobility): aqueous U(VI) complexes, adsorbed U, reduced U(IV) precipitates, rind-carbonates, total carbonates, oxides, silicates, phosphates, and in vanadate minerals. Geochemical changes were evaluated in the ability to change the mixture of surface U phases to less mobile forms, as defined by a series of liquid extractions that dissolve progressively less soluble phases. Although liquid extractions provide some useful information as to the generalized uranium surface phases (and are considered operational definitions of extracted phases), positive identification (by x-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, other techniques) was also used to positively identify U phases and effects of treatment. Some of the changes in U mobility directly involve U phases, whereas other changes result in precipitate coatings on U surface phases. The long-term implication of the U surface phase changes to alter U mass mobility in the vadose zone was then investigated using simulations of 1-D infiltration and downward migration of six U phases to the water table. In terms of the short-term decrease in U mobility (in decreasing order), NH3, NaOH mist, CO2, HCl mist, and Fe(III) mist showed 20% to 35% change in U surface phases. Phosphate addition (mist or foam advected) showed inconsistent change in aqueous and adsorbed U, but significant coating (likely phosphates) on U-carbonates. The two reductive gas treatments (H2S and SO2) showed little change. For long-term decrease in U reduction, mineral phases created that had low solubility (phosphates, silicates) were desired, so NH3, phosphates (mist and foam delivered), and NaOH mist showed the greatest formation of these minerals. In addition, simulations showed the greatest decrease in U mass transport time to reach groundwater (and concentration) for these silicate/phosphate minerals. Advection of reactive gasses was the easiest to implement at the laboratory scale (and presumably field scale). Both mist and foam advection show promise and need further development, but current implementation move reactants shorter distances relative to reactive gasses. Overall, the ammonia and carbon dioxide gas had the greatest overall geochemical performance and ability to implement at field scale. Corresponding mist-delivered technologies (NaOH mist for ammonia and HCl mist for carbon dioxide) performed as well or better geochemically, but are not as easily upscaled. Phosphate delivery by mist was rated slightly higher than by foam delivery simply due to the complexity of foam injection and unknown effect of U mobility by the presence of the surfactant.

Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Zhong, Lirong; Williams, Mark D.; Resch, Charles T.; McKinley, James P.

2010-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

31

New Approach to Assess Volatile Contamination in Vadose Zone Provides Path  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Approach to Assess Volatile Contamination in Vadose Zone Approach to Assess Volatile Contamination in Vadose Zone Provides Path Forward for Site Closure New Approach to Assess Volatile Contamination in Vadose Zone Provides Path Forward for Site Closure April 24, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Conceptual site model for evaluating soil vapor extraction system performance to determine if the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another approach. Conceptual site model for evaluating soil vapor extraction system performance to determine if the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another approach. RICHLAND, Wash. and LOS ALAMOS, N.M. - Through the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI), scientists and engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation

32

Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the INEEL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Subsurface contamination in the vadose zone, that portion of the subsurface pathway between land surface and an underlying aquifer, poses environmental problems at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in eastern Idaho and across the U.S. Department of Energy complex. Assessing potential adverse impacts from these contaminated sites requires an understanding of the mechanisms controlling contaminant transport. Currently, vadose zone experts at the INEEL cannot with confidence predict the movement of water and contaminants in the complex, heterogeneous, fractured subsurface at the INEEL, especially within the vadose zone. In the draft version (Revision 1) of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, deficiencies in scientific understanding of flow and transport processes in the vadose zone at the INEEL were identified and grouped into 13 categories and recommendations were provided to address each of the deficiencies. The draft document provided the basis for an INEEL Vadose Zone Workshop that was conducted October 20 and 21, 1999, in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The workshop was conducted to group and rank the previously identified deficiencies and for the subsequent development of science plans to address the deficiencies that limit reliable predictions of water and contaminant movement in the subsurface. The workshop participants, comprising INEEL and scientists and project managers and non-INEEL scientists knowledgeable about the vadose zone, developed science- and technology-based recommendations derived through a series of technical sessions at the workshop. In this document, the final version of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, the draft document has been incorporated, largely intact, as well as the results from the workshop. The workshop participants grouped the deficiencies in vadose zone understanding at the INEEL into seven categories. These seven categories will be the focus areas of five science plans that are being developed to address the deficiencies. This document lays the foundation for the INEEL Site-wide vadose zone roadmap.

Wood, Thomas Ronald; Bates, Dona Louise; Bishop, Carolyn Wagoner; Heard, Robert Eugene; Hubbell, Joel Michael; Hull, Laurence Charles; Lehman, Richard Michael; Magnuson, Swen O; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Mccarthy, James Michael; Porro, Indrek; Ritter, Paul David; Roddy, Michael Scott; Singler, Robert Edward; Smith, Richard Paul

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

GEOPHYSICS AND SITE CHARACTERIZATION AT THE HANFORD SITE THE SUCCESSFUL USE OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TO POSITION BOREHOLES TO DEFINE DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION - 11509  

SciTech Connect

Historic boreholes confirmed the presence of nitrate and radionuclide contaminants at various intervals throughout a more than 60 m (200 ft) thick vadose zone, and a 2010 electrical resistivity survey mapped the known contamination and indicated areas of similar contaminants, both laterally and at depth; therefore, electrical resistivity mapping can be used to more accurately locate characterization boreholes. At the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington, production of uranium and plutonium resulted in the planned release of large quantities of contaminated wastewater to unlined excavations (cribs). From 1952 until 1960, the 216-U-8 Crib received approximately 379,000,000 L (100,000,000 gal) of wastewater containing 25,500 kg (56,218 lb) uranium; 1,029,000 kg (1,013 tons) of nitrate; 2.7 Ci of technetium-99; and other fission products including strontium-90 and cesium-137. The 216-U-8 Crib reportedly holds the largest inventory of waste uranium of any crib on the Hanford Site. Electrical resistivity is a geophysical technique capable of identifying contrasting physical properties; specifically, electrically conductive material, relative to resistive native soil, can be mapped in the subsurface. At the 216-U-8 Crib, high nitrate concentrations (from the release of nitric acid [HNO{sub 3}] and associated uranium and other fission products) were detected in 1994 and 2004 boreholes at various depths, such as at the base of the Crib at 9 m (30 ft) below ground surface (bgs) and sporadically to depths in excess of 60 m (200 ft) bgs. These contaminant concentrations were directly correlative with the presence of observed low electrical resistivity responses delineated during the summer 2010 geophysical survey. Based on this correlation and the recently completed mapping of the electrically conductive material, additional boreholes are planned for early 2011 to identify nitrate and radionuclide contamination: (a) throughout the entire vertical length of the vadose zone (i.e., 79 m [260 ft] bgs) within the footprint of the Crib, and (b) 15 to 30 m (50 to 100 ft) east of the Crib footprint, where contaminants are inferred to have migrated through relatively permeable soils. Confirmation of the presence of contamination in historic boreholes correlates well with mapping from the 2010 survey, and serves as a basis to site future characterization boreholes that will likely intersect contamination both laterally and at depth.

GANDER MJ; LEARY KD; LEVITT MT; MILLER CW

2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

34

SOIL DESICCATION TECHNIQUES STRATEGIES FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF DEEP VADOSE CONTAMINANTS AT THE HANFORD CENTRAL PLATEAU  

SciTech Connect

Deep vadose zone contamination poses some of the most difficult remediation challenges for the protection of groundwater at the Hanford Site where processes and technologies are being developed and tested for use in the on-going effort to remediate mobile contamination in the deep vadose zone, the area deep beneath the surface. Historically, contaminants were discharged to the soil along with significant amounts of water, which continues to drive contaminants deeper in the vadose zone toward groundwater. Soil desiccation is a potential in situ remedial technology well suited for the arid conditions and the thick vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Desiccation techniques could reduce the advance of contaminants by removing the pore water to slow the rate of contaminants movement toward groundwater. Desiccation technologies have the potential to halt or slow the advance of contaminants in unsaturated systems, as well as aid in reduction of contaminants from these same areas. Besides reducing the water flux, desiccation also establishes capillary breaks that would require extensive rewetting to resume pore water transport. More importantly, these techniques have widespread application, whether the need is to isolate radio nuclides or address chemical contaminant issues. Three different desiccation techniques are currently being studied at Hanford.

BENECKE MW; CHRONISTER GB; TRUEX MJ

2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

35

EVALUATION OF VADOSE ZONE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES TO IMMOBILIZE TECHNETIUM-99  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Hanford Site End State Vision document (DOE/RL-2003-59) states: ''There should be an aggressive plan to develop technology for remediation of the contamination that could get to the groundwater (particularly the technetium [{sup 99}Tc])''. In addition, there is strong support from the public and regulatory agencies for the above statement, with emphasis on investigation of treatment alternatives. In July 2004, PNNL completed a preliminary evaluation of remediation technologies with respect to their effectiveness and implementability for immobilization of {sup 99}Tc beneath the BC Cribs in the 200 West Area (Truex, 2004). As a result of this evaluation, PNNL recommended treatability testing of in situ soil desiccation, because it has the least uncertainty of those technologies evaluated in July 2004 (Treatability Test Outline, September 30, 2004). In 2005, DOE-RL and Fluor Hanford convened an independent technical panel to review alternative remediation technologies, including desiccation, at a three-day workshop in Richland, Washington. The panel was composed of experts in vadose-zone transport, infiltration control, hydrology, geochemistry, environmental engineering, and geology. Their backgrounds include employment in academia, government laboratories, industry, and consulting. Their review, presented in this document, is based upon written reports from Hanford, oral presentations from Hanford staff, and each panel members' years of experience in their particular field of expertise. The purpose of this report is to document the panel's evaluation of various treatment alternatives with potential for minimizing contaminant migration in the deep vadose zone at the Department of Energy Hanford Site. The panel was tasked with assessing the most viable and practical approach and making recommendations for testing. The evaluation of vadose-zone treatment alternatives was conducted to be broadly applicable at a variety of locations at Hanford. However, because of limitations of time, the panel was asked to focus on one example, {sup 99}Tc contamination below the BC Cribs and Trenches. It is well recognized that conditions at BC Cribs and Trenches are not the same as those at other Hanford locations, but it was selected so that the panel could develop an understanding of site conditions at one location. The recommendations in this report are not intended to address the regulatory decision process for this site.

PETERSEN, S.W.

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Technologies Provide High-Resolution Subsurface Imaging of Vadose Zone  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technologies Provide High-Resolution Subsurface Imaging of Vadose Technologies Provide High-Resolution Subsurface Imaging of Vadose Zone Contamination at Hanford Site Technologies Provide High-Resolution Subsurface Imaging of Vadose Zone Contamination at Hanford Site May 17, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Shown here are high-resolution, three-dimensional ERT images of contaminant distribution Shown here are high-resolution, three-dimensional ERT images of contaminant distribution RICHLAND, Wash. - Cold War waste disposal practices resulted in both planned and unplanned releases of large amounts of radionuclide and heavy metal contamination into the subsurface throughout the DOE complex. Characterizing the distribution of the resulting environmental contamination remains one of the single most significant challenges limiting subsurface remediation and closure, particularly for the

37

Spectroscopic Evidence for Uranium Bearing Precipitates in Vadose Zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectroscopic Evidence for Uranium Bearing Precipitates in Vadose Zone Sediments at the Hanford 300 collected beneath the former North Process Pond (NPP) in the 300 Area of the Hanford site (Washington the Hanford site in the state of Washington (U.S.). The 300 Area is one of many

38

Vadose Zone Hydrogeology Data Package for Hanford Assessments  

SciTech Connect

This data package documents the technical basis for selecting physical and geochemical parameters and input values that will be used in vadose zone modeling for Hanford assessments. This work was originally conducted as part of the Characterization of Systems Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc., Richland, Washington, and revised as part of the Characterization of Systems Project managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). This data package describes the geologic framework, the physical, hydrologic, and contaminant transport properties of the geologic materials, and deep drainage (i.e., recharge) estimates, and builds on the general framework developed for the initial assessment conducted using the System Assessment Capability (SAC) (Bryce et al. 2002). The general approach for this work was to update and provide incremental improvements over the previous SAC data package completed in 2001. As with the previous SAC data package, much of the data and interpreted information were extracted from existing documents and databases. Every attempt was made to provide traceability to the original source(s) of the data or interpretations.

Last, George V.; Freeman, Eugene J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Fayer, Michael J.; Gee, Glendon W.; Nichols, William E.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Soil Desiccation for Vadose Zone Remediation: Report for Fiscal Year 2007  

SciTech Connect

Apart from source excavation, the options available for the remediation of vadose zone metal and radionuclide contaminants beyond the practical excavation depth (0 to 15 m) are quite limited. Of the available technologies, very few are applicable to the deep vadose zone with the top-ranked candidate being soil desiccation. An expert panel review of the work on infiltration control and supplemental technologies identified a number of knowledge gaps that would need to be overcome before soil desiccation could be deployed. The report documents some of the research conducted in the last year to fill these knowledge gaps. This work included 1) performing intermediate-scale laboratory flow cell experiments to demonstrate the desiccation process, 2) implementing a scalable version of Subsurface Transport Over Multiple PhasesWater-Air-Energy (STOMP-WAE), and 3) performing numerical experiments to identify the factors controlling the performance of a desiccation system.

Ward, Andy L.; Oostrom, Mart; Bacon, Diana H.

2008-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

40

Geophysical Monitoring of Foam used to Deliver Remediation Treatments within the Vadose Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Foam is a promising vehicle for delivering amendments into the vadose zone for in situ remediation; it is an approach being considered for in situ treatment and stabilization of metals and radionuclides located within the deep vadose zone of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site, WA. A central aspect of evaluating the effectiveness of this approach is the ability to monitor foam distribution, its transformation, and the reactions that it induces in the subsurface, ideally in a non-invasive manner. In this study, we performed laboratory experiments to evaluate the potential of geophysical methods (complex resistivity and time domain reflectometry, TDR) as tools for monitoring foam assisted amendment delivery in the deep vadose zone. Our results indicated great sensitivity of electrical methods to foam transportation and evolution in unsaturated porous media that were related to foam bubble coalescence and drainage processes. Specifically, we observed (1) a decrease of electrical resistivity (increase of electrical conductivity) by over an order of magnitude in both silica sand and natural sediment matrices during foam transportation; (2) an increase of resistivity (decrease of conductivity) by over two fold during foam coalescence and drainage; (3) a distinct phase and imaginary conductivity signature related to the evolution of water films on sediment grains during foam injection and evolution processes. To assist with the interpretation of these data, TDR measurements were used to monitor moisture content, which provided complementary information about foam distribution and drainage. Our results clearly demonstrated the sensitivity of electrical and TDR signals to foam transportation and evolution in unsaturated porous media and suggested the potential of these methods for monitoring the response of a system to foam based remediation treatments at field scales.

Wu, Yuxin; Hubbard, Susan; Wellman, Dawn M.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Vadose Zone Characterization Techniques Developed by EMSP Research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses research contributions made by Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research in the area of geophysical characterization of the subsurface. The goal of these EMSP research projects is to develop combined high-resolution measurement and interpretation packages that provide accurate, timely information needed to characterize the vadose zone. Various types of geophysical imaging techniques can be used to characterize the shallow subsurface. Since individual geophysical characterization tools all have specific limitations, many different techniques are being explored to provide more widespread applicability over a range of hydrogeologic settings. A combination of laboratory, field, theoretical, and computational studies are necessary to develop our understanding of how contaminants move through the vadose zone. This entails field tests with field-hardened systems, packaging and calibration of instrumentation, data processing and analysis algorithms, forward and inverse modeling, and so forth. DOE sites are seeking to team with EMSP researchers to leverage the basic science research investment and apply these advances to address subsurface contamination issues that plague many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites.

Guillen, Donna P.

2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

42

Characterization of Direct Push Vadose Zone Sediments from the T and TY Waste Management Areas  

SciTech Connect

This report contains all the geochemical and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from 5 direct push characterization holes emplaced to investigate vadose zone contamination associated with leaks from tanks 241-TY-105 (UPR-200-W-152) and 241-TY-106 (UPR-200-W-153). Tank 241-TY-105 is estimated to have leaked 35,000 gal of tributyl phosphate (TBP) waste from the uranium recovery process to the vadose zone in 1960. Tank 241-TY-106 is estimated to have leaked 20,000 gal of TBP-uranium recovery waste to the vadose zone in 1959. Although several drywells in the vicinity of tank 241-TY-106 contain measurable quantities of cesium-137 and/or cobalt-60, their relatively low concentrations indicate that the contaminant inventory in the vadose zone around tank 241-TY-106 is quite small. Additionally, this report contains all the geochemical and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from 7 direct push characterization holes emplaced to investigate vadose zone contamination associated with an overfill event and leak from tank 241-T-101.

Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

2007-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

43

Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Radionuclides Through The Vadose Zone  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this project was to advance the basic scientific understanding of colloid and colloid-facilitated Cs transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone. We focused our research on the hydrological and geochemical conditions beneath the leadking waste tanks at the USDOE Hanford reservation. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the lability and thermodynamic stability of colloidal materials, which form after reacting Hanford sediments with simulated Hanford Tank Waste, (2) to characterize the interactions between colloidal particles and contaminants, i.e., Cs and Eu, (3) to determine the potential of Hanford sediments for in situe mobilization of colloids, (4) to evaluate colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport through sediments under unsaturated flow, (5) to implement colloid-facilitated contaminant transport mechanisms into a transport model, and (6) to improve conceptual characterization of colloid-contaminant-soil interactions and colloid-facilitated transport for clean-up procedures and long-term risk assessment.

Markus Flury; James B. Harsh; John F. McCarthy' Peter C. Lichtner; John M. Zachara

2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

44

Vadose Zone Modeling Workshop proceedings, March 29--30, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At the Hanford Site, the record of decision for remediation of CERCLA sites is largely based on results of the baseline risk and performance assessment of the remedial action alternatives. These assessments require the ability to predict the fate and transport of contaminants along appropriate exposure pathways which, in case of the Hanford Site, includes the migration of contaminants through the vadose zone to the water table. Listed below are some of the requirements, as prescribed by the regulators, relative to CERCLA risk and performance assessment at Hanford. A workshop was organized by the Environmental Risk and Performance Assessment Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company on March 29--30, 1993 at the Richland Best Western Tower Inn. During the workshop, an assessment was made of the need for and scope of various tasks being conducted or planned as part of the Hanford Site waste isolation performance assessment/risk assessment activities. Three external, nationally-recognized experts served as part of a review panel for the workshop: (a) Professor Lynn Gelhar of MIT; (b) Professor Peter Wierenga of University of Arizona; and (c) Dr. Rien van Genuchten of US Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, California. The technical experts provided their perspectives on the current state-of-the-art in vadose zone flow and transport modeling. In addition, the technical experts provided an outside independent assessment of the work being performed or planned in support of various activities identified in TPA Milestone M-29-02. This document includes the following: Recommendations from the three peer reviewers; areas of expertise of the three peer reviewers; workshop agenda; copies of viewgraphs (where available) from presenters at the workshop; workshop minutes; and list of workshop attendees.

Khaleel, R.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Remedy Evaluation Framework for Inorganic, Non-Volatile Contaminants in the Vadose Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contaminants in the vadose zone may act as a potential long-term source of groundwater contamination and need to be considered in remedy evaluations. In many cases, remediation decisions for the vadose zone will need to be made all or in part based on projected impacts to groundwater. Because there are significant natural attenuation processes inherent in vadose zone contaminant transport, remediation in the vadose zone to protect groundwater is functionally a combination of natural attenuation and use of other remediation techniques, as needed, to mitigate contaminant flux to groundwater. Attenuation processes include both hydrobiogeochemical processes that serve to retain contaminants within porous media and physical processes that mitigate the rate of water flux. In particular, the physical processes controlling fluid flow in the vadose zone are quite different and generally have a more significant attenuation impact on contaminant transport relative to those within the groundwater system. A remedy evaluation framework is presented herein that uses an adaptation of the established EPA Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation approach and a conceptual model based approach focused on identifying and quantifying features and processes that control contaminant flux through the vadose zone. A key concept for this framework is to recognize that MNA will comprise some portion of all remedies in the vadose zone. Thus, structuring evaluation of vadose zone waste sites to use an MNA-based approach provides information necessary to either select MNA as the remedy, if appropriate, or to quantify how much additional attenuation would need to be induced by a remedial action (e.g., technologies considered in a feasibility study) to augment the natural attenuation processes and meet groundwater protection goals.

Truex, Michael J.; Carroll, Kenneth C.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Colloid Facilitated Transport of Radioactive Cations in the Vadose Zone: Field Experiments Oak Ridge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overarching goal of this study was to improve understanding of colloid-facilitated transport of radioactive cations through unsaturated soils and sediments. We conducted a suite of laboratory experiments and field experiments on the vadose-zone transport of colloids, organic matter, and associated contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The laboratory and field experiments, together with transport modeling, were designed to accomplish the following detailed objectives: 1. Evaluation of the relative importance of inorganic colloids and organic matter to the facilitation of radioactive cation transport in the vadose zone; 2. Assessment of the role of adsorption and desorption kinetics in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 3. Examination of the effects of rainfall and infiltration dynamics and in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations through the vadose zone; 4. Exploration of the role of soil heterogeneity and preferential flow paths (e.g., macropores) on the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 5. Development of a mathematical model of facilitated transport of contaminants in the vadose zone that accurately incorporates pore-scale and column-scale processes with the practicality of predicting transport with readily available parameters.

James E. Saiers

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

47

Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Radionuclides through the Vadose Zone  

SciTech Connect

The main purpose of this project was to advance the basic scientific understanding of colloid and colloid-facilitated Cs transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone. We focused our research on the hydrological and geochemical conditions beneath the leaking waste tanks at the USDOE Hanford reservation. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the lability and thermodynamic stability of colloidal materials, which form after reacting Hanford sediments with simulated Hanford Tank Waste, (2) to characterize the interactions between colloidal particles and contaminants, i.e., Cs and Eu, (3) to determine the potential of Hanford sediments for \\textit{in situ} mobilization of colloids, (4) to evaluate colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport through sediments under unsaturated flow, (5) to implement colloid-facilitated contaminant transport mechanisms into a transport model, and (6) to improve conceptual characterization of colloid-contaminant-soil interactions and colloid-facili\\-tated transport for clean-up procedures and long-term risk assessment. We have previously shown that upon contact with simulated waste tank solutions, Hanford sediments change their mineralogical composition. Certain minerals, i.e., quartz, smectite, and kaolinite, are partially dissolved, and new mineral phases, i.e., the feldspathoids cancrinite and sodalite, are formed. We have characterized these mineral transformations and clarified the mineral transformation pathways. The new minerals were mainly in the colloidal size fraction (diameter less than 2 mum), had a negative surface charge, and were microporous, meaning they contained small pores. When Cs was present during the formation of the minerals, contaminants, like Cs, could be trapped inside the mineral structure. Transport experiments under water saturated and unsaturated conditions showed that the colloids were mobile in Hanford sediments. As the water saturation of the sediments decreased, the amount of colloids transported also decreased. The colloids had the ability to enhance the migration of the radionuclide Cs; however, Cs initially sorbed to colloids was desorbed during transport through uncontaminated Hanford sediments. The finding that Cs was stripped off the colloids during the transport through uncontaminated sediments implies that colloids will likely not be an effective carrier for Cs, unless the Cs is incorporated into the mineral structure of the colloids such that the radionuclide cannot desorb from the colloids. Nevertheless, it appears that the amount of Cs that can be transported by mobile colloids beneath Hanford waste tanks is limited. Colloids will not be able to move the bulk mass of Cs through the vadose zone at Hanford. Colloid stability studies indicate that Hanford sediment form stable colloidal suspensions when suspended in Hanford sediment pore waters. Colloid stability was assessed by determination of the critical coagulation concentration, i.e., the chemical electrolyte concentration at which colloidal suspensions flocculate and settle out (become unstable). Although in the stable mode, Hanford colloids will settle out of solution after extended periods of time (months to years). Given the low recharge rates at Hanford range, which from near 0 to more than 100 mm/year, and the long travel times for rainwater to reach the groundwater of more than 40 years, it appears that colloidal transport is unlikely to occur if colloids are initially to be suspended close to the soil surface by infiltrating rainwater. However, if preferential flow or transient flow occurs, then colloidal transport may become more important. The results of this project have also led to improvements of our fundamental understanding of colloid transport and mobilization under unsaturated flow conditions in porous media. We have found that colloid attachment to the liquid-gas interface is not that relevant and that colloids rather attached near the triple phase interface where air, water, and solid phases meet. We have also found that capillary forces are the most dominant forces governing

Markus Flury; James B. Harsh; John F. McCarthy; Peter C. Lichtner; John M. Zachara

2006-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

48

Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Radionuclides through the Vadose Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main purpose of this project was to advance the basic scientific understanding of colloid and colloid-facilitated Cs transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone. We focused our research on the hydrological and geochemical conditions beneath the leaking waste tanks at the USDOE Hanford reservation. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the lability and thermodynamic stability of colloidal materials, which form after reacting Hanford sediments with simulated Hanford Tank Waste, (2) to characterize the interactions between colloidal particles and contaminants, i.e., Cs and Eu, (3) to determine the potential of Hanford sediments for \\textit{in situ} mobilization of colloids, (4) to evaluate colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport through sediments under unsaturated flow, (5) to implement colloid-facilitated contaminant transport mechanisms into a transport model, and (6) to improve conceptual characterization of colloid-contaminant-soil interactions and colloid-facili\\-tated transport for clean-up procedures and long-term risk assessment. We have previously shown that upon contact with simulated waste tank solutions, Hanford sediments change their mineralogical composition. Certain minerals, i.e., quartz, smectite, and kaolinite, are partially dissolved, and new mineral phases, i.e., the feldspathoids cancrinite and sodalite, are formed. We have characterized these mineral transformations and clarified the mineral transformation pathways. The new minerals were mainly in the colloidal size fraction (diameter less than 2 mum), had a negative surface charge, and were microporous, meaning they contained small pores. When Cs was present during the formation of the minerals, contaminants, like Cs, could be trapped inside the mineral structure. Transport experiments under water saturated and unsaturated conditions showed that the colloids were mobile in Hanford sediments. As the water saturation of the sediments decreased, the amount of colloids transported also decreased. The colloids had the ability to enhance the migration of the radionuclide Cs; however, Cs initially sorbed to colloids was desorbed during transport through uncontaminated Hanford sediments. The finding that Cs was stripped off the colloids during the transport through uncontaminated sediments implies that colloids will likely not be an effective carrier for Cs, unless the Cs is incorporated into the mineral structure of the colloids such that the radionuclide cannot desorb from the colloids. Nevertheless, it appears that the amount of Cs that can be transported by mobile colloids beneath Hanford waste tanks is limited. Colloids will not be able to move the bulk mass of Cs through the vadose zone at Hanford. Colloid stability studies indicate that Hanford sediment form stable colloidal suspensions when suspended in Hanford sediment pore waters. Colloid stability was assessed by determination of the critical coagulation concentration, i.e., the chemical electrolyte concentration at which colloidal suspensions flocculate and settle out (become unstable). Although in the stable mode, Hanford colloids will settle out of solution after extended periods of time (months to years). Given the low recharge rates at Hanford range, which from near 0 to more than 100 mm/year, and the long travel times for rainwater to reach the groundwater of more than 40 years, it appears that colloidal transport is unlikely to occur if colloids are initially to be suspended close to the soil surface by infiltrating rainwater. However, if preferential flow or transient flow occurs, then colloidal transport may become more important. The results of this project have also led to improvements of our fundamental understanding of colloid transport and mobilization under unsaturated flow conditions in porous media. We have found that colloid attachment to the liquid-gas interface is not that relevant and that colloids rather attached near the triple phase interface where air, water, and solid phases meet. We have also found that capillary forces are the most dominant forces governing

Markus Flury; James B. Harsh; John F. McCarthy; Peter C. Lichtner; John M. Zachara

2006-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

49

The impact of climate change on vadose zone pore waters and its implication for long-term monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Protecting groundwater is of growing interest as pressure on these resources grows. Recharge of groundwater takes place through the vadose zone, where complex interactions between thermal-hydrological-geochemical processes affect water quality. Monitoring ... Keywords: climate change, massively parallel computers, monitoring, nuclear waste disposal, pore water chemistry, reactive transport, vadose zone

William E. Glassley; John J. Nitao; Charles W. Grant; James W. Johnson; Carl I. Steefel; James R. Kercher

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

A National Roadmap for Vadose Zone Science and Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This roadmap is a means of achieving, to the best of our current knowledge, a reasonable scientific understanding of how contaminants of all forms move in the vadose geological environments. This understanding is needed to reduce the present uncertainties in predicting contaminant movement, which in turn will reduce the uncertainties in remediation decisions.

Kowall, Stephen Jacob

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Vadose zone transport field study: Detailed test plan for simulated leak tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology initiative was created in FY 1999 to reduce the uncertainty associated with vadose zone transport processes beneath waste sites at DOE's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This information is needed not only to evaluate the risks from transport, but also to support the adoption of measures for minimizing impacts to the groundwater and surrounding environment. The principal uncertainties in vadose zone transport are the current distribution of source contaminants and the natural heterogeneity of the soil in which the contaminants reside. Oversimplified conceptual models resulting from these uncertainties and limited use of hydrologic characterization and monitoring technologies have hampered the understanding contaminant migration through Hanford's vadose zone. Essential prerequisites for reducing vadose transport uncertainly include the development of accurate conceptual models and the development or adoption of monitoring techniques capable of delineating the current distributions of source contaminants and characterizing natural site heterogeneity. The Vadose Zone Transport Field Study (VZTFS) was conceived as part of the initiative to address the major uncertainties confronting vadose zone fate and transport predictions at the Hanford Site and to overcome the limitations of previous characterization attempts. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is managing the VZTFS for DOE. The VZTFS will conduct field investigations that will improve the understanding of field-scale transport and lead to the development or identification of efficient and cost-effective characterization methods. Ideally, these methods will capture the extent of contaminant plumes using existing infrastructure (i.e., more than 1,300 steel-cased boreholes). The objectives of the VZTFS are to conduct controlled transport experiments at well-instrumented field sites at Hanford to: identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford's waste disposal sites; reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; develop a detailed and accurate database of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. This plan provides details for conducting field tests during FY 2000 to accomplish these objectives. Details of additional testing during FY 2001 and FY 2002 will be developed as part of the work planning process implemented by the Integration Project.

AL Ward; GW Gee

2000-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

52

Conceptual Models for Migration of Key Groundwater Contaminants Through the Vadose Zone and Into the Upper Unconfined Aquifer Below the B-Complex  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The B-Complex contains 3 major crib and trench disposal sites and 3 SST farms that have released nearly 346 mega-liters of waste liquids containing the following high groundwater risk drivers: ~14,000 kg of CN, 29,000 kg of Cr, 12,000 kg of U and 145 Ci of Tc-99. After a thorough review of available vadose zone sediment and pore water, groundwater plume, field gamma logging, field electrical resistivity studies, we developed conceptual models for which facilities have been the significant sources of the contaminants in the groundwater and estimated the masses of these contaminants remaining in the vadose zone and currently present in the groundwater in comparison to the totals released. This allowed us to make mass balance calculations on how consistent our knowledge is on the current deep vadose zone and groundwater distribution of contaminants. Strengths and weaknesses of the conceptual models are discussed as well as implications on future groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation alternatives. Our hypothesized conceptual models attribute the source of all of the cyanide and most of the Tc-99 currently in the groundwater to the BY cribs. The source of the uranium is the BX-102 tank overfill event and the source of most of the chromium is the B-7-A&B and B-8 cribs. Our mass balance estimates suggest that there are much larger masses of U, CN, and Tc remaining in the deep vadose zone within ~20 ft of the water table than is currently in the groundwater plumes below the B-Complex. This hypothesis needs to be carefully considered before future remediation efforts are chosen. The masses of these groundwater risk drivers in the the groundwater plumes have been increasing over the last decade and the groundwater plumes are migrating to the northwest towards the Gable Gap. The groundwater flow rate appears to flucuate in response to seasonal changes in hydraulic gradient. The flux of contaminants out of the deep vadose zone from the three proposed sources also appears to be transient such that the evolution of the contaminant plumes is transient.

Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Keller, Jason M.; Thorne, Paul D.; Lanigan, David C.; Christensen, J. N.; Thomas, Gregory S.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

LONG-TERM COLLOID MOBILIZATION AND COLLOID-FACILITATED TRANSPORT OF RADIONUCLIDES IN A SEMI-ARID VADOSE ZONE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main purpose of this project was to improve the fundamental mechanistic understanding and quantification of long-term colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone, with special emphasis on the semi-arid Hanford site. While we focused some of the experiments on hydrogeological and geochemical conditions of the Hanford site, many of our results apply to colloid and colloid-facilitated transport in general. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the mechanisms of colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport in undisturbed Hanford sediments under unsaturated flow, (2) to quantify in situ colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated radionuclidetransport from Hanford sediments under field conditions, and (3) to develop a field-scale conceptual and numerical model for colloid mobilization and transport at the Hanford vadose zone, and use that model to predict long-term colloid and colloid- facilitated radionuclide transport. To achieve these goals and objectives, we have used a combination of experimental, theoretical, and numerical methods at different spatial scales, ranging from microscopic investigationsof single particle attachment and detachment to larger-scale field experiments using outdoor lysimeters at the Hanford site. Microscopic and single particle investigations provided fundamental insight into mechanisms of colloid interactions with the air-water interface. We could show that a moving air water interface (such as a moving water front during infiltration and drainage) is very effective in removing and mobilizing particles from a stationary surface. We further demonstrated that it is particularly the advancing air-water interface which is mainly responsible for colloid mobilization. Forces acting on the colloids calculated from theory corroborated our experimental results, and confirm that the detachment forces (surface tension forces) during the advancing air-water interface movement were stronger than during the receding movement. Theory indicates that, for hydrophilic colloids, the advancing interface movement generally exerts a stronger detachment force than the receding, except when the hysteresis of the colloid-air-water contact angle is small. These results of our study are particularly relevant for colloid mobilization and transport related to three process in the vadose zone at Hanford: (1) water infiltration into sediments during rainfall or snowmelt events, (2) groundwater fluctuations as caused by river stage fluctuations, and (3) steady-state, low-flow recharge in deep vadose zone sediments. Transient water flow, like during infiltration or groundwater level fluctuations, are most conducive for colloid mobilization, but even during steady-state, low-flow recharge, colloids can be mobile, although to a much lesser extent. The results of this project have led to a comprehensive and fundamental understanding of colloid transport and mobilization under unsaturated flow conditions at the Hanford site.

Markus Flury; James B. Harsh; Fred Zhang; Glendon W. Gee; Earl D. Mattson; Peter C. L

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Long-Term Colloid Mobilization And Colloid-Facilitated Transport Of Radionuclides In A Semi-Arid Vadose Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main purpose of this project was to improve the fundamental mechanistic understanding and quantification of long-term colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone, with special emphasis on the semi-arid Hanford site. While we focused some of the experiments on hydrogeological and geochemical conditions of the Hanford site, many of our results apply to colloid and colloid-facilitated transport in general. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the mechanisms of colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport in undisturbed Hanford sediments under unsaturated flow, (2) to quantify in situ colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport from Hanford sediments under field conditions, and (3) to develop a field-scale conceptual and numerical model for colloid mobilization and transport at the Hanford vadose zone, and use that model to predict long-term colloid and colloid- facilitated radionuclide transport. To achieve these goals and objectives, we have used a combination of experimental, theoretical, and numerical methods at different spatial scales, ranging from microscopic investigations of single particle attachment and detachment to larger-scale field experiments using outdoor lysimeters at the Hanford site. Microscopic and single particle investigations provided fundamental insight into mechanisms of colloid interactions with the air-water interface. We could show that a moving air water interface (such as a moving water front during infiltration and drainage) is very effective in removing and mobilizing particles from a stationary surface. Field experiment using a vadose zone lysimeter facility at the Hanford site showed that surface-applied Eu colloids can be translocated rapidly under natural precipitation as well as artificial irrigation. Small amounts of applied colloids were translocated from the surface to a depth of two meters within two months and only 20 mm of cumulative infiltration. Large water infiltration events, mimicking snow melt, enhanced movement of Eu colloids. Nonetheless the majority of Eu colloids remained in the top 30 cm of the soil after 3.5 years of monitoring. These results suggest that colloid and radionuclide transport can occur in the near-surface vadose zone at Hanford under field conditions, but that the magnitude of the transport is less than what has been reported from laboratory studies. We further studied colloid mobilization from undisturbed sediment cores under a flow rate of 18 mm/year, a typical low flow rate at Hanford. Under this low flow rate, we observed continuous colloid mobilization from the sediments, although the total amounts of colloids mobilized are small, only 0.5% of available colloids were mobilized during 5 years of observations. These results demonstrate that colloidal particles are mobile even under the low recharge rates found in a semi-arid site like Hanford. Under higher flow rates, we would expect colloid transport to be even more pronounced. These results of our study are particularly relevant for colloid mobilization and transport related to three process in the vadose zone at Hanford: (1) water infiltration into sediments during rainfall or snowmelt events, (2) groundwater fluctuations as caused by river stage fluctuations, and (3) steady-state, low-flow recharge in deep vadose zone sediments. Transient water flow, like during infiltration or groundwater level fluctuations, are most conducive for colloid mobilization, but even during steady-state, low-flow recharge, colloids can be mobile, although to a much lesser extent. The results of this project have led to a comprehensive and fundamental understanding of colloid transport and mobilization under unsaturated flow conditions at the Hanford site.

Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Zhang, Fred; Gee, Glendon W; Mattson, Earl D; Lichtner, Peter C

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

55

Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Detailed Test Plan for Simulated Leak Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes controlled transport experiments at well-instrumented field tests to be conducted during FY 2000 in support of DOE?s Vadose Zone Transport Field Study (VZTFS). The VZTFS supports the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Initiative. The field tests will improve understanding of field-scale transport and lead to the development or identification of efficient and cost-effective characterization methods. These methods will capture the extent of contaminant plumes using existing steel-cased boreholes. Specific objectives are to 1) identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford?s waste disposal sites; 2) reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; 3) develop a detailed and accurate data base of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; and 4) identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) manages the VZTFS for DOE.

Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.

2000-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

56

Perface: Research advances in vadose zone hydrology throughsimulations with the TOUGH codes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Numerical simulators are playing an increasingly important role in advancing our fundamental understanding of hydrological systems. They are indispensable tools for managing groundwater resources, analyzing proposed and actual remediation activities at contaminated sites, optimizing recovery of oil, gas, and geothermal energy, evaluating subsurface structures and mining activities, designing monitoring systems, assessing the long-term impacts of chemical and nuclear waste disposal, and devising improved irrigation and drainage practices in agricultural areas, among many other applications. The complexity of subsurface hydrology in the vadose zone calls for sophisticated modeling codes capable of handling the strong nonlinearities involved, the interactions of coupled physical, chemical and biological processes, and the multiscale heterogeneities inherent in such systems. The papers in this special section of ''Vadose Zone Journal'' are illustrative of the enormous potential of such numerical simulators as applied to the vadose zone. The papers describe recent developments and applications of one particular set of codes, the TOUGH family of codes, as applied to nonisothermal flow and transport in heterogeneous porous and fractured media (http://www-esd.lbl.gov/TOUGH2). The contributions were selected from presentations given at the TOUGH Symposium 2003, which brought together developers and users of the TOUGH codes at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California, for three days of information exchange in May 2003 (http://www-esd.lbl.gov/TOUGHsymposium). The papers presented at the symposium covered a wide range of topics, including geothermal reservoir engineering, fracture flow and vadose zone hydrology, nuclear waste disposal, mining engineering, reactive chemical transport, environmental remediation, and gas transport. This Special Section of ''Vadose Zone Journal'' contains revised and expanded versions of selected papers from the symposium, with special attention to issues related to the vadose zone and unsaturated flow systems. The first paper, written by the original developer of TOUGH, Karsten Pruess, provides an overview of the history of the TOUGH codes, the main physical processes considered, their mathematical and numerical implementation, and case studies. That paper is followed by a review article summarizing inverse modeling applications performed by iTOUGH2. A subsequent group of papers deals with diverse unsaturated zone systems, highlighting the versatility of the code to handle a variety of processes in different geologic settings. Simulation capabilities of the TOUGH codes are increasingly used for geologic carbon sequestration studies as testified by the next group of papers. The final series of papers demonstrates the use of the TOUGH codes in support of remediation and engineering applications. These studies discuss biological and reactive chemical transport simulations, the design of clean-up operations and landfill management, and the analysis of engineered soil stabilization. As guest editors, we thank the authors for their interesting contributions, and the many reviewers for their careful and constructive review comments. Finally, on behalf of all of the authors and ourselves, we express our sincerest appreciation to Rien van Genuchten for providing the opportunity to publish these papers together in a Special Section of ''Vadose Zone Journal''.

Finsterle, Stefan; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2004-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

57

Vadose zone characterization project at the Hanford Tank Farms: U Tank Farm Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office (DOE-GJO) was tasked by the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to perform a baseline characterization of the gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides that are distributed in the vadose zone sediments beneath and around the single-shell tanks (SSTs) at the Hanford Site. The intent of this characterization is to determine the nature and extent of the contamination, to identify contamination sources when possible, and to develop a baseline of the contamination distribution that will permit future data comparisons. This characterization work also allows an initial assessment of the impacts of the vadose zone contamination as required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This characterization project involves acquiring information regarding vadose zone contamination with borehole geophysical logging methods and documenting that information in a series of reports. This information is presently limited to detection of gamma-emitting radionuclides from both natural and man-made sources. Data from boreholes surrounding each tank are compiled into individual Tank Summary Data Reports. The data from each tank in a tank farm are then compiled and summarized in a Tank Farm Report. This document is the Tank Farm Report for the U Tank Farm. Logging operations used high-purity germanium detection systems to acquire laboratory-quality assays of the gamma-emitting radionuclides in the sediments around and below the tanks. These assays were acquired in 59 boreholes that surround the U Tank Farm tanks. Logging of all boreholes was completed in December 1995, and the last Tank Summary Data Report for the U Tank Farm was issued in September 1996.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

An Experimental Study of Diffusivity of Technetium-99 in Hanford Vadose Zone Sediments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the methods being considered at the Hanford site in Washington for safely disposing of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) is to encase the waste in concrete and entomb the packages in the Hanford vadose zone sediments. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages with concrete. Any failure of the concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface sediments. It is therefore necessary to conduct an assessment of the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the surrounding soils ability to retard radionuclide migration. The retardation factors for radionuclides contained in the waste packages can be determined from measurements of diffusion coefficients for these contaminants through concrete and fill material. Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, the radionuclides, 99Tc and 129I were identified as long-term dose contributors in LLW. The leachability and/or diffusion of these radionuclide species must be measured in order to assess the long-term performance of waste grouts when contacted with vadose-zone porewater or groundwater. To measure the diffusivity, a set of experiments were conducted using 99Tc-spiked concrete (with 0 and 4% metallic iron additions) in contact with unsaturated soil half-cells that reflected the typical moisture contents of Hanford vadose zone sediments. The 99Tc diffusion profiles in the soil half cells were measured after a time lapse of ~1.9 yr. Using the concentration profiles, the 99Tc diffusivity coefficients were calculated based on Ficks Second Law.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Parker, Kent E.; Wood, Marcus I.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Simulations of Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Transport in the Vadose and Saturated Zones beneath Area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations are used to predict the migration of radionuclides from the disposal units at Material Disposal Area G through the vadose zone and into the main aquifer in support of a radiological performance assessment and composite analysis for the site. The calculations are performed with the finite element code, FEHM. The transport of nuclides through the vadose zone is computed using a three-dimensional model that describes the complex mesa top geology of the site. The model incorporates the positions and inventories of thirty-four disposal pits and four shaft fields located at Area G as well as those of proposed future pits and shafts. Only three nuclides, C-14, Tc-99, and I-129, proved to be of concern for the groundwater pathway over a 10,000-year period. The spatial and temporal flux of these three nuclides from the vadose zone is applied as a source term for the three-dimensional saturated zone model of the main aquifer that underlies the site. The movement of these nuclides in the aquifer to a downstream location is calculated, and aquifer concentrations are converted to doses. Doses related to aquifer concentrations are six or more orders of magnitude lower than allowable Department of Energy performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste sites. Numerical studies were used to better understand vadose-zone flow through the dry mesa-top environment at Area G. These studies helped define the final model used to model flow and transport through the vadose zone. The study of transient percolation indicates that a steady flow vadose-zone model is adequate for computing contaminant flux to the aquifer. The fracture flow studies and the investigation of the effect of basalt and pumice properties helped us define appropriate hydrologic properties for the modeling. Finally, the evaporation study helped to justify low infiltration rates.

Kay H. Birdsell; Kathleen M. Bower; Andrew V. Wolfsberg; Wendy E. Soll; Terry A. Cherry; Tade W. Orr

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Vadose zone characterization project at the Hanford Tank Farms: BY Tank Farm report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy Grand Junction Office (GJO) was tasked by the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to perform a baseline characterization of the contamination distributed in the vadoze zone sediment beneath and around the single-shell tanks (SSTs) at the Hanford Site. The intent of this characterization is to determine the nature and extent of the contamination, to identify contamination sources, and to develop a baseline of the contamination distribution that will permit future data comparisons. This characterization work also allows an initial assessment of the impacts of the vadose zone contamination as required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This characterization project involves acquiring information about the vadose zone contamination with borehole geophysical logging methods and documenting that information in a series of reports. Data from boreholes surrounding each tank are compiled into individual Tank Summary Data Reports. The data from each tank farm are then compiled and summarized in a Tank Farm Report. This document is the Tank Farm Report for the BY Tank Farm.

Kos, S.E.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Effects of Porous Medium Heterogeneity on Vadose Zone Desiccation: Intermediate-scale Laboratory Experiments and Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil desiccation (drying), involving water evaporation induced by dry gas injection, is a potentially robust vadose zone remediation process to limit contaminant transport through the vadose zone. A series of four intermediate-scale flow cell experiments was conducted in homogeneous and simple layered heterogeneous porous medium systems to investigate the effects of heterogeneity on desiccation of unsaturated porous media. The permeability ratios of porous medium layers ranged from about five to almost two orders of magnitude. The insulated flow cell was equipped with twenty humidity and temperature sensors and a dual-energy gamma system was used to determine water saturations at various times. The multiphase code STOMP was used to simulate the desiccation process. Results show that injected dry gas flowed predominantly in the higher permeability layer and delayed water removal from the lower permeability material. For the configurations tested, water vapor diffusion from the lower to the higher permeability zone was considerable over the duration of the experiments, resulting in much larger relative humidity values of the outgoing air than based on permeability ratios alone. Acceptable numerical matches with the experimental data were obtained when an extension of the saturation-capillary pressure relation below the residual water saturation was used. The agreements between numerical and experimental results suggest that the correct physics are implemented in the simulator and that the thermal and hydraulic properties of the porous media, flow cell wall and insulation materials were properly represented.

Oostrom, Martinus; Freedman, Vicky L.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Dane, Jacob H.; Truex, Michael J.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments from C Waste Management Area: Investigation of the C-152 Transfer Line Leak  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in January 2007. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within waste management area (WMA) C. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physiochemical characterization data compiled on vadose zone sediment recovered from direct-push samples collected around the site of an unplanned release (UPR), UPR-200-E-82, adjacent to the 241-C-152 Diversion Box located in WMA C.

Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Lanigan, David C.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

63

Geochemical Characterization of Chromate Contamination in the 100 Area Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The major objectives of the proposed study were to: 1.) determine the leaching characteristics of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from contaminated sediments collected from 100 Area spill sites; 2.) elucidate possible Cr(VI) mineral and/or chemical associations that may be responsible for Cr(VI) retention in the Hanford Site 100 Areas through the use of i.) macroscopic leaching studies and ii.) microscale characterization of contaminated sediments; and 3.) provide information to construct a conceptual model of Cr(VI) geochemistry in the Hanford 100 Area vadose zone. In addressing these objectives, additional benefits accrued were: (1) a fuller understanding of Cr(VI) entrained in the vadose zone that will that can be utilized in modeling potential Cr(VI) source terms, and (2) accelerating the Columbia River 100 Area corridor cleanup by providing valuable information to develop remedial action based on a fundamental understanding of Cr(VI) vadose zone geochemistry. A series of macroscopic column experiments were conducted with contaminated and uncontaminated sediments to study Cr(VI) desorption patterns in aged and freshly contaminated sediments, evaluate the transport characteristics of dichromate liquid retrieved from old pipelines of the 100 Area; and estimate the effect of strongly reducing liquid on the reduction and transport of Cr(VI). Column experiments used the with the column studies. Cr(VI) is found as ubiquitous coatings on sediment grain surfaces. Small, higher concentration, chromium sites are associated with secondary clay mineral inclusions, with occasional barium chromate minerals, and reduced to Cr(III) in association with iron oxides that are most likely magnetite primary minerals. Within the restricted access domains of sediment matrix, ferrous iron could also diffuse from in situ, high-surface-area minerals to cause the reductive immobilization of chromate. This process may be favored at microscale geochemical zones where ferrous iron could be supplied. Once nucleated, micrometer-scale precipitates are favored as growing locales for further accumulation, causing the formation of discrete zones of Cr(III).

Dresel, P. Evan; Qafoku, Nikolla; McKinley, James P.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Liu, Chongxuan; Ilton, Eugene S.; Phillips, J. L.

2008-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

64

The DOE Vadose Zone Science and Technology Roadmap: A National Program to Address Characeterization, Monitoring and Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Fate and Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vadose zone comprises the region lying between the earths surface and the top of the regional seasonal aquifer. Until recently contamination in the vadose zone was believed to remain relatively immobile. Thus, little attention was paid to understanding the nature of the vadose zone or the potential pathways for contaminants to migrate through it to the water table or other accessible environments. However, recent discoveries of contaminants migrating considerable distances through the vadose zone at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites have changed many assumptions both about the nature and function of the vadose zone and the importance we place on understanding this region. As a result of several vadose zone surprises, DOE Environmental Management (EM) tasked the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to lead the development of a vadose zone science and technology roadmap. The roadmap is focused on identifying research spanning the next 25 years necessary to be able to better predict the fate and transport of contaminants in the vadose zone. This in turn will provide the basis for reducing scientific uncertainty in environmental remediation and, especially, vadose zone related long-term stewardship decisions across the DOE complex. Vadose zone issues are now recognized as a national problem affecting other federal agencies as well as state and municipal sites with similar problems. Over the next few decades, dramatic and fundamental advances in computing, communication, electronics and micro-engineered systems will transform our understanding of many aspects of the scientific and technical challenges we face today. The roadmap will serve to develop a common perspective on possible future science and technology needs in an effort to help make better R&D investment decisions.

Kowall, Stephen Jacob

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Implementation of variably saturated flow into PHREEQC for the simulation of biogeochemical reactions in the vadose zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A software tool for the simulation of one-dimensional unsaturated flow and solute transport together with biogeochemical reactions in the vadose zone was developed by integrating a numerical solution of Richards' equation into the geochemical modelling ... Keywords: Cation exchange, Geochemical modelling, Hydraulic properties, Reactive transport, Surface complexation, Unsaturated flow

L. Wissmeier; D. A. Barry

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

EVALUATION OF A TECHNETIUM-99 DETECTOR BASED ON LABORATORY TESTING FOR USE IN IN-SITU VADOSE ZONE APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

This document evaluates the feasibility of in-situ detection of technetium-99 in Hanford Site vadose zone soils (the soils between the surface and groundwater) using laboratory tests. The detector system performs adequately for high technetium concentration, but more development and laboratory testing is needed before field demonstration is performed.

MANN FM; MYERS DA

2009-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

67

T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier DemonstrationVadose Zone Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste has entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank of the 241-T Tank Farm in 1973. Five tanks are assumed to have leaked in the TY Farm. Many of the contaminants from those leaks still reside within the vadose zone within the T and TY Tank Farms. The Department of Energys Office of River Protection seeks to minimize the movement of these contaminant plumes by placing interim barriers on the ground surface. Such barriers are expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plumes and moving them further. The soil water regime is monitored to determine the effectiveness of the interim surface barriers. Soil-water content and water pressure are monitored using off-the-shelf equipment that can be installed by the hydraulic hammer technique. Four instrument nests were installed in the T Farm in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and FY2007; two nests were installed in the TY Farm in FY2010. Each instrument nest contains a neutron probe access tube, a capacitance probe, and four heat-dissipation units. A meteorological station has been installed at the north side of the fence of the T Farm. This document summarizes the monitoring methods, the instrument calibration and installation, and the vadose zone monitoring plan for interim barriers in T farm and TY Farm.

Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

2010-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

68

Baseline mapping study of the Steed Pond aquifer and vadose zone beneath A/M Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the second phase of a baseline mapping project conducted for the Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) at Savannah River Site. The purpose of this second phase is to map the structure and distribution of mud (clay and silt-sized sediment) within the vadose zone beneath A/M Area. The results presented in this report will assist future characterization and remediation activities in the vadose zone and upper aquifer zones in A/M Area.

Jackson, D.G. Jr.

2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

69

Geochemical Characterization of Chromate Contamination in the 100 Area Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The major objectives of the proposed study were to: 1.) determine the leaching characteristics of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from contaminated sediments collected from 100 Area spill sites; 2.) elucidate possible Cr(VI) mineral and/or chemical associations that may be responsible for Cr(VI) retention in the Hanford Site 100 Areas through the use of i.) macroscopic leaching studies and ii.) microscale characterization of contaminated sediments; and 3.) provide information to construct a conceptual model of Cr(VI) geochemistry in the Hanford 100 Area vadose zone. In addressing these objectives, additional benefits accrued were: (1) a fuller understanding of Cr(VI) entrained in the vadose zone that will that can be utilized in modeling potential Cr(VI) source terms, and (2) accelerating the Columbia River 100 Area corridor cleanup by providing valuable information to develop remedial action based on a fundamental understanding of Cr(VI) vadose zone geochemistry. A series of macroscopic column experiments were conducted with contaminated and uncontaminated sediments to study Cr(VI) desorption patterns in aged and freshly contaminated sediments, evaluate the transport characteristics of dichromate liquid retrieved from old pipelines of the 100 Area; and estimate the effect of strongly reducing liquid on the reduction and transport of Cr(VI). Column experiments used the < 2 mm fraction of the sediment samples and simulated Hanford groundwater solution. Periodic stop-flow events were applied to evaluate the change in elemental concentration during time periods of no flow and greater fluid residence time. The results were fit using a two-site, one dimensional reactive transport model. Sediments were characterized for the spatial and mineralogical associations of the contamination using an array of microscale techniques such as XRD, SEM, EDS, XPS, XMP, and XANES. The following are important conclusions and implications. Results from column experiments indicated that most of contaminant Cr travels fast through the sediments and appears as Cr(VI) in the effluents. The significance of this for groundwater concentrations would, however, depend on the mass flux of recharge to the water table. adsorption of Cr(VI) to sediments from spiked Cr(VI) solution is low; calculated retardation coefficients are close to one. Calcium polysulfide solutions readily reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in column experiments. However a significant amount of the Cr(VI) was mobilized ahead of the polysulfide solution front. This has significant implications for in-situ reductive remediation techniques. The experiments suggest that it would be difficult to design a remedial measure using infiltration of liquid phase reductants without increasing transport of Cr(VI) toward the water table. The microscopic characterization results are consistent with the column studies. Cr(VI) is found as ubiquitous coatings on sediment grain surfaces. Small, higher concentration, chromium sites are associated with secondary clay mineral inclusions, with occasional barium chromate minerals, and reduced to Cr(III) in association with iron oxides that are most likely magnetite primary minerals. Within the restricted access domains of sediment matrix, ferrous iron could also diffuse from in situ, high-surface-area minerals to cause the reductive immobilization of chromate. This process may be favored at microscale geochemical zones where ferrous iron could be supplied. Once nucleated, micrometer-scale precipitates are favored as growing locales for further accumulation, causing the formation of discrete zones of Cr(III).

Dresel, P. Evan; Qafoku, Nikolla; McKinley, James P.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Liu, Chongxuan; Ilton, Eugene S.; Phillips, J. L.

2008-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

70

Spatially resolved U(VI) partitioning and speciation: Implications for plume scale behavior of contaminant U in the Hanford vadose zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EM/GJ1302- 2006, Stoller Hanford Office, Richland, WA. 2006.characterization of U(VI) in Hanford vadose zone poreUranium Geochemistry at the Hanford Site. Pacific Northwest

Wan, Jiamin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Geochemistry and Distribution of Contaminants in the Vadose Zone of the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This chapter provides a description of the geochemical processes that affect contaminant mobility in the vadose zone at the single-shell tank waste management areas located at the Hanford Site.

Cantrell, Kirk J.

2008-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

72

Field evidence for strong chemical separation of contaminants inthe Hanford Vadose Zone  

SciTech Connect

Water and chemical transport from a point source withinvadose zone sediments at Hanford were examined with a leak testconsisting of five 3800-liter aliquots of water released at 4.5 m depthevery week over a 4-week period. The third aliquot contained bromide, D2Oand 87Sr. Movement of the tracers was monitored for 9 months by measuringpore water compositions of samples from boreholes drilled 2-8 m from theinjection point. Graded sedimentary layers acting as natural capillarybarriers caused significant lateral spreading of the leak water. D2Oconcentrations>50 percent of the concentration in the tracer aliquotwere detected at 9-11 m depth. However, increased water contents, lowerd18O values, and geophysical monitoring of moisture changes at otherdepths signified high concentrations of leak fluids were added where D2Oconcentrations were<3 percent above background, suggesting limitedmixing between different aliquots of the leak fluids. Initially highbromide concentrations decreased more rapidly over time than D2O,suggesting enhanced transport of bromide due to anion exclusion. Nosignificant increase in 87Sr was detected in the sampled pore water,indicating strong retardation of Sr by the sediments. These resultshighlight some of the processes strongly affecting chemical transport inthe vadose zone and demonstrate the significant separation of contaminantplumes that can occur.

Conrad, Mark E.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Maher, Katharine; Gee,Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

73

Geochemical Characterization Data Package for the Vadose Zone in the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank (SST) farms at the U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical information available for the vadose zone beneath the SST farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF).

Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Krupka, Kenneth M.

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

74

A Hybrid Hydrologic-Geophysical Inverse Technique for the Assessment and Monitoring of Leachates in the Vadose Zone  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to develop and field test a new, integrated Hybrid Hydrologic-Geophysical Inverse Technique (HHGIT) for characterization of the vadose zone at contaminated sites. This new approach to site characterization and monitoring can provide detailed maps of hydrogeological heterogeneity and the extent of contamination by combining information from 3D electric resistivity tomography (ERT) and/or 2D cross borehole ground penetrating radar (XBGPR) surveys, statistical information about heterogeneity and hydrologic processes, and sparse hydrologic data. Because the electrical conductivity and dielectric constant of the vadose zone (from the ERT and XBGPR measurements, respectively) can be correlated to the fluid saturation and/or contaminant concentration, the hydrologic and geophysical measurements are related.

ALUMBAUGH,DAVID L.; YEH,JIM; LABRECQUE,DOUG; GLASS,ROBERT J.; BRAINARD,JAMES; RAUTMAN,CHRIS

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

75

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Slant Borehole SX-108 in the S-SX Waste Management Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 4.17. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is the fourth in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from a slant borehole installed beneath tank SX-108 (or simply SX-108 slant borehole).

Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Wilson, Teresa C.; Wagnon, Kenneth B.; Williams, Bruce A.; Burke, Deborah S.

2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

76

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 41-09-39 in the S-SX Waste Management Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 5.15. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole 41-09-39 installed adjacent to tank SX-109.

Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Wilson, Teresa C.; Wagnon, Kenneth B.; Williams, Bruce A.; Burke, Deborah S.

2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

77

Flow dynamics and potential for Biodegradation of Organic Contaminants in Fractured Rock Vadose Zones  

SciTech Connect

We present an experimental approach for investigating the potential for bioremediation of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in fractured-rock vadose zones. This approach is based on the coupling of fluid flow dynamics and biotransformation processes. Fluid flow and distribution within fracture networks may be a significant factor in the ability of microorganisms to degrade VOCs, as they affect the availability of substrate, moisture and nutrients. Biological activity can change liquid surface tension and generate biofilms that may change the nettability of solid surfaces, locally alter fracture permeability and redirect infiltrating liquids. Our approach has four components: (1) establishing a conceptual model for fluid and contaminant distribution in the geologic matrix of interest; (2) physical and numerical experiments of liquid seepage in the fracture plane; (3) non-destructive monitoring of biotransformations on rock surfaces at the micron-scale; and, (4) integration of flow and biological activity in natural rock ''geocosms''. Geocosms are core-scale flow cells that incorporate some aspects of natural conditions, such as liquid seepage in the fracture plane and moisture content. The experimental work was performed with rock samples and indigenous microorganisms from the site of the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), located in a basalt flow basin where VOC contamination threatens the Snake River Aquifer. The insights gained from this approach should contribute to the design of techniques to monitor and stimulate naturally occurring biological activity and control the spread of organic contaminants.

Geller, J.T.; Holman, H.-Y.; Su, T.-S.; Liou, M.S.; Conrad, M.S.; Pruess, K.; Hunter-Devera, J.C.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Summary of Uranium Solubility Studies in Concrete Waste Forms and Vadose Zone Environments  

SciTech Connect

One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. This report presents the results of investigations elucidating the uranium mineral phases controlling the long-term fate of uranium within concrete waste forms and the solubility of these phases in concrete pore waters and alkaline, circum-neutral vadose zone environments.

Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bovaird, Chase C.

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

79

Characterization and Potential Remediation Approaches for Vadose Zone Contamination at Hanford 241-SX Tank Farm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unplanned releases of radioactive and hazardous wastes have occurred at the 241-SX Tank Farm on the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. Interim and long-term mitigation efforts are currently under evaluation for 241-SX Tank Farm. Two contiguous interim surface barriers have been designed for deployment at 241-SX Tank Farm to reduce future moisture infiltration; however, construction of the surface barriers has been deferred to allow testing of alternative technologies for soil moisture reduction and possibly contaminant source term reduction. Previous tests performed by other organizations at the Hanford Site have demonstrated that: vadose zone desiccation using large diameter (greater than 4 inch) boreholes is feasible; under certain circumstances, mobile contaminants may be removed in addition to water vapor; and small diameter (approximately 2 inch) boreholes (such as those placed by the direct push hydraulic hammer) can be used to perform vapor extractions. Evaluation of the previous work combined with laboratory test results have led to the design of a field proof-of-principle test to remove water and possibly mobile contaminants at greater depths, using small boreholes placed with the direct push unit.

Eberlein, Susan J.; Sydnor, Harold A.; Parker, Danny L.; Glaser, Danney R.

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

80

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-E33-45 Near BX-102 in the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 4.22. The data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The remaining text is unchanged from the original report issued in 2002. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area B-BX-BY. This report is the first in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole 299-E33-45 installed northeast of tank BX-102.

Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Gee, Glendon W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.

2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Influence of Sources on Plutonium Mobility and Oxidation State Transformations in Vadose Zone Sediments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Well-defined solid sources of Pu(III) (PuCl3), Pu(IV) (Pu (NO3)4 and Pu (C2O4)2), and Pu(VI) (PuO2(NO3)2) were placed in lysimeters containing vadose zone sediments and exposed to natural weather conditions for 2 or 11 years. The objective of this study was to measure the release rate of Pu and the changes in the Pu oxidation states from these Pu sources with the intent to develop a reactive transport model source-term. Pu(III) and Pu(IV) sources had identical Pu concentration depth profiles and similar Pu release rates. Source release data indicate that PuIV(C2O4)2 was the least mobile, whereas PuVIO2(NO3)2 was the most mobile. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) revealed that Pu was very unevenly distributed on the sediment and Mn concentrations were too low (630 mg kg-1) and perhaps of the wrong mineralogy to influence Pu distribution. The high stability of sorbed Pu(IV) is proposed to be due to the formation of a stable hydrolyzed Pu(IV) surface species. Plutonium X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis conducted on sediment recovered at the end of the study from the PuIV(NO3)4- and PuIIICl3-amended lysimeters contained essentially identical Pu distributions: approximately 37% Pu(III), 67% Pu(IV), 0% Pu(V), and 0% Pu(VI). These results were similar to those using a wet chemistry Pu oxidation state assay, except the latter method did not detect any Pu(III) present on the sediment but instead indicated that 93-98% of the Pu existed as Pu(IV). This discrepancy was likely attributable to incomplete extraction of sediment Pu(III) by the wet chemistry method. Although Pu has been known to exist in the +3 oxidation state under microbially induced reducing conditions for decades, to our knowledge, this is the first observation of steady-state Pu(III) in association with natural sediments. On the basis of thermodynamic considerations, Pu(III) has a wide potential distribution, especially in acidic environments, and as such may warrant further investigation.

Kaplan,D.; Powell, B.; Duff, M.; Demirkanli, D.; Denham, M.; Fjeld, R.; Molz, F.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

An Investigation of Linked Physical And Biogeochemical Processes In Heterogeneous Soils In The Vadose Zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical dynamics in the vadose zone are poorly understood due to the transient nature of chemical and hydrologic conditions, but are nonetheless critical to understanding contaminant fate and transport. This work explored the effects of soil structure (i.e. layers, lenses) on linked geochemical, hydrological, and microbiological processes under changing hydrologic conditions (e.g. rainfall, introduction of groundwater, and fluctuating water table heights). A homogenized medium-grained sand, homogenized organic-rich loam and a sand-over-loam layered column were constructed for the first series of experiments. The second series of experiments employed two soil columns with lenses that were packed identically with sterilized and untreated sediments. Each consisted of two lenses of organic-rich loam in a medium-grained sand matrix. Lenses were located at different vertical depths and were horizontally offset. In-situ collocated probes collected soil hydrologic and chemical data. In the layered column, enhanced biogeochemical cycling was observed over the texturally homogeneous soil columns. Enumerations of Fe(III) and SO42- reducing microorganisms also show 1-2 orders of magnitude greater community numbers in the layered column. The greatest concentrations of aqueous FeS clusters (FeSaq) were observed in close proximity to the soil interface. To our knowledge, this was the first documentation of FeSaq in partially saturated sediments. Mineral and soil aggregate composite layers were also most abundant near the soil layer interface; the presence of which, likely contributed to an order of magnitude decrease of hydraulic conductivity. In the live lens column, Fe-oxide bands formed at the fringes of the lenses that retarded water flow rates by an order of magnitude compared to the sterilized column. Microbial activity also produced insoluble gases and that led to the creation of a separate gas phase that reduced hydraulic conductivity. This limited the interaction between groundwater with soil-pore waters that led to the formation of geochemically distinct water masses in relatively close proximity to one another. No such changes were observed in the sterilized column. When compared to homogenous columns, the presence of soil heterogeneities altered biogeochemical and hydrologic processes considerably which highlights the need to consider soil heterogeneity in contaminant fate and transport models. These findings suggest that quantifying coupled hydrologic-biogeochemical processes occurring at small scale soil interfaces is critical to accurately describing and predicting chemical changes at the larger system scale.

Hansen, David Joseph

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Geochemical Processes Data Package for the Vadose Zone in the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical process information available for the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tank farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility. Two companion reports to this one were recently published which discuss the geology of the farms (Reidel and Chamness 2007) and groundwater flow and contamination beneath the farms (Horton 2007).

Cantrell, Kirk J.; Zachara, John M.; Dresel, P. Evan; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

84

Appraisal of nuclear waste isolation in the vadose zone in arid and semiarid regions (with emphasis on the Nevada Test Site)  

SciTech Connect

An appraisal was made of the concept of isolating high-level radioactive waste in the vadose zone of alluvial-filled valleys and tuffaceous rocks of the Basin and Range geomorphic province. Principal attributes of these terranes are: (1) low population density, (2) low moisture influx, (3) a deep water table, (4) the presence of sorptive rocks, and (5) relative ease of construction. Concerns about heat effects of waste on unsaturated rocks of relatively low thermal conductivity are considered. Calculations show that a standard 2000-acre repository with a thermal loading of 40 kW/acre in partially saturated alluvium or tuff would experience an average temperature rise of less than 100{sup 0}C above the initial temperature. The actual maximum temperature would depend strongly on the emplacement geometry. Concerns about seismicity, volcanism, and future climatic change are also mitigated. The conclusion reached in this appraisal is that unsaturated zones in alluvium and tuff of arid regions should be investigated as comprehensively as other geologic settings considered to be potential repository sites.

Wollenberg, H.A.; Wang, J.S.Y.; Korbin, G.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the C Tank Farm: Borehole C4297 and RCRA Borehole 299-E27-22  

SciTech Connect

This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.7 and 4.25. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in September 2006. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at the Hanford Site. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) C. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physiochemical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole C4297, installed adjacent to tank C-105, and from borehole 299-E27-22, installed directly north of the C Tank Farm. This report also presents the interpretation of data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone below the C Tank Farm. The information presented in this report supports the WMA A-AX, C, and U field investigation report in preparation by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc.

Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Parker, Kent E.; Lindberg, Michael J.

2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

86

ReproducedfromVadoseZoneJournal.PublishedbySoilScienceSocietyofAmerica.Allcopyrightsreserved. Colloid Transport in the Subsurface: Past, Present, and Future Challenges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

VadoseZoneJournal.PublishedbySoilScienceSocietyofAmerica.Allcopyrightsreserved. Colloid Transport in the Subsurface: Past, Present, and Future Challenges John F. McCarthy* and Larry D between wells and septic fieldssection on colloid transport within a more general perspective) for individual homes, subsurface systems. The focus will be on the transport of colloidal were based on empirical

McCarthy, John F.

87

Geochemical Characterization of Chromate Contamination in the 100 Area Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site - Part 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At the Hanford Site, chromate was used throughout the 100 Areas (100-B, 100-C, 100-D/DR, 100-F, 100-H, and 100 K) as a corrosion inhibitor in reactor cooling water. Chromate was delivered in rail cars, tanker trucks, barrels, and local pipelines as dichromate granular solid or stock solution. In many occasions, chromate was inevitably discharged to surface or near-surface ground through spills during handling, pipeline leaks, or during disposal to cribs. The composition of the liquids that were discharged is not known and it is quite possible that Cr(VI) fate and transport in the contaminated sediments would be a function of the chemical composition of the waste fluids. The major objectives of this investigation which was limited in scope by the financial resources available, were to 1) determine the leaching characteristics of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from contaminated sediments collected from 100-D Area spill sites; 2) elucidate possible Cr(VI) mineral and/or chemical associations that may be responsible for Cr(VI) retention in the Hanford Site 100 Areas through the use of macroscopic leaching studies, and microscale characterization of contaminated sediments; and 3) provide information to construct a conceptual model of Cr(VI) geochemistry in the Hanford 100 Area vadose zone that can be used for developing options for environmental remediation. The information gathered from this research effort will help to further improve our understanding of Cr(VI) behavior in the vadose zone and will also help in accelerating the 100 Area Columbia River Corridor cleanup by providing valuable information to develop remedial action based on a fundamental understanding of Cr(VI) vadose zone geochemistry. A series of column experiments were conducted with contaminated sediments to study Cr(VI) desorption patterns. Column experiments used the field size fraction of the sediment samples and a simulated Hanford Site groundwater solution. Periodic stop flow events were applied to evaluate the change in elemental concentration during time periods of no flow and greater fluid residence time. Sediments were characterized for the spatial and mineralogical associations of the contamination using some microscale techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Mssbauer spectroscopy.

Qafoku, Nikolla; Dresel, P. Evan; McKinley, James P.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Um, Wooyong; Resch, Charles T.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Petersen, Scott W.

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

88

A Long-Term Strategic Plan for Hanford Sediment Physical Property and Vadose Zone Hydraulic Parameter Databases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Physical property data and unsaturated hydraulic parameters are critical input for analytic and numerical models used to predict transport and fate of contaminants in variably saturated porous media and to assess and execute remediation alternatives. The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) project, managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), has been compiling physical and hydraulic property data and parameters to support risk analyses and waste management decisions at Hanford. Efforts have been initiated to transfer sediment physical property data and vadose zone hydraulic parameters to CHPRC for inclusion in HEIS-Geo, a new instance of the Hanford Environmental Information System database that is being developed for borehole geologic data. This report describes these efforts and a strategic plan for continued updating and improvement of these datasets.

Rockhold, Mark L.; Last, George V.; Middleton, Lisa A.

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

89

T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY10 Report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energys Office of River Protection has constructed interim surface barriers over a portion of the T and TY tank farms as part of the Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The interim surface barriers (hereafter referred to as the surface barriers or barriers) are designed to minimize the infiltration of precipitation into the soil zones containing radioactive contaminants and minimize the movement of the contaminants. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barriers at reducing soil moisture. Solar-powered systems were installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations in the T (i.e., instrument Nests TA, TB, TC, and TD) and the TY (i.e., instrument Nests TYA and TYB) Farms beneath the barriers and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nests TA and TYA are placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serve as controls, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barriers. Nest TB provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests TC, TD, and TYB are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barriers. Except for occasional times for TC and TD and planned dates for TYB, during FY10, the battery voltage at the TMS and instrument Nests in both T and TY tank farms remained above 12.0 V, denoting that the battery voltages were sufficient for the stations to remain functional. All the HDUs were functioning normally, but some pressure-head values were greater than the upper measurement limit. The values that exceeded the upper limit may indicate wet soil conditions and/or measurement error, but they do not imply a malfunction of the sensors. Similar to FY07 through FY09, in FY10, the soil under natural conditions in the T Farm (Nest TA) was generally recharged during the winter period (OctoberMarch), and they discharged during the summer period (AprilSeptember). Soil water conditions above about 1.5-m to 2-m depth from all three types of measurements (i.e., CP, NP, and HDU) showed relatively large variation during the seasonal wetting-drying cycle. For the soil below 2-m depth, the seasonal variation of soil water content was relatively small. The construction of the TISB was completed in April 2008. In the soil below the TISB (Nests TC and TD), the CP-measured water content showed that ? at the soil between 0.6-m and 2.3-m depths was stable, indicating no climatic impacts on soil water conditions beneath the barrier. The NP-measured water content in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 12.2 m (40 ft) since the completion of the barrier decreased by 0.007 to 0.014 m3 m-3. The HDU-measured soil-water pressure at 1-m, 2-m, and 5-m depths decreased by 0.7 to 2.4 m, indicating soil water drainage at these depths of the soil. In the soil below the edge of the TISB (Nest TB), the CP-measured water content was relatively stable through the year; the NP-measured water content showed that soil water drainage was occurring in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 12.2 m (40 ft) but at a slightly smaller magnitude than in Nests TC and TD; the HDU-measurements show that the pressure head changes at Nest TB since the completion of the barrier were generally less than those at TC and TD, but more than those at TA. These results indicate that the TISB is performing as expected by intercepting the meteoric water from infiltrating into the soil, and the soil is becoming drier gradually. The barrier also had some effects on the soil below the barrier edge, but at a reduced magnitude. There was no significant difference in soil-water regime between the two nests in the TY tank farm because the barrier at the TY Farm was just completed one month before the end of the FY.

Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

2011-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

90

Field evidence for strong chemical separation of contaminants in the Hanford Vadose Zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zone Transport Field Study, PNNL-13454, Pacific NorthwestZone Transport Field Study, PNNL-13631, Pacific Northwestplan for simulated leak tests. PNNL-13263. Pacific Northwest

Conrad, Mark E.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Maher, Katharine; Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY09 Report  

SciTech Connect

DOEs Office of River Protection constructed a temporary surface barrier over a portion of the T Tank Farm as part of the T Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barrier at reducing soil moisture. A solar-powered system was installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations (i.e., instrument Nests A, B, C, and D) beneath the barrier and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nest A is placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serves as a control, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barrier. Nest B provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests C and D are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barrier. Each instrument nest is composed of a capacitance probe (CP) with multiple sensors, multiple heat-dissipation units (HDUs), and a neutron probe (NP) access tube. The monitoring results in FY09 are summarized below. The solar panels functioned normally and could provide sufficient power to the instruments. The CP in Nest C after September 20, 2009, was not functional. The CP sensors in Nest B after July 13 and the 0.9-m CP sensor in Nest D before June 10 gave noisy data. Other CPs were functional normally. All the HDUs were functional normally but some pressure-head values measured by HDUs were greater than the upper measurement-limit. The higher-than-upper-limit values might be due to the very wet soil condition and/or measurement error but do not imply the malfunction of the sensors. Similar to FY07 and FY08, in FY09, the soil under natural conditions (Nest A) was generally recharged during the winter period (October-March) and discharged during the summer period (April-September). Soil water conditions above about 1.5-m to 2-m depth from all three types of measurements (i.e., CP, NP and HDU) showed relatively large variation during the seasonal wetting-drying cycle. For the soil below 2-m depth, the seasonal variation of soil water content was relatively small. The construction of the surface barrier was completed in April 2008. In the soil below the surface barrier (Nests C and D), the CP measurements showed that water content at the soil between 0.6-m and 2.3-m depths was very stable, indicating no climatic impacts on soil water condition beneath the barrier. The NP-measured water content showed that soil water drainage seemed occurring in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 9.1 m (30 ft) in FY09. The HDU-measured water pressure decreased consistently in the soil above 5-m depth, indicating soil water drainage at these depths of the soil. In the soil below the edge of the surface barrier (Nest B), the CP-measured water content was relatively stable through the year except at the 0.9-m depth; the NP-measured water content showed that soil water drainage was occurring in the soil between about 3.4 m (11 ft) and 9.1 m (30 ft) but at a slightly smaller magnitude than those in Nests C and D; the HDU-measurements show that the pressure head changes in FY09 in Nest B were less than those for C and D but more than those for A. The soil-water-pressure head was more sensitive to soil water regime changes under dry conditions. In the soil beneath the barrier, the theoretical steady-state values of pressure head is equal to the negative of the distance to groundwater table. Hence, it is expected that, in the future, while the water content become stable, the pressure head will keep decreasing for a long time (e.g., many years). These results indicate that the T Tank Farm surface barrier was performing as expected by intercepting the meteoric water from infiltrating into the soil and the soil was becoming drier gradually. The barrier also has some effects on the soil below the barrier edge but at a reduced magnitude.

Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the T Tank Farm: Boreholes C4104, C4105, 299-W10-196, and RCRA Borehole 299-W11-39  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.8, 4.28, and 4.52. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in September 2004. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) T-TX-TY. This report is the second of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from boreholes C4104 and C4105 in the T Tank Farm, and from borehole 299-W-11-39 installed northeast of the T Tank Farm. Finally, the measurements on sediments from borehole C4104 are compared with a nearby borehole drilled in 1993, 299- W10-196, through the tank T-106 leak plume.

Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Orr, Robert D.; Brown, Christopher F.

2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

93

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-E33-46 Near B 110 in the B BX-BY Waste Management Area  

SciTech Connect

This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-ectractable sodium data from Table 4.17. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in December 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area. This report is the third in a series of three reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from a borehole installed approximately 4.5 m (15 ft) northeast of tank B- 110 (borehole 299-E33-46).

Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Gee, Glendon W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; mccain, r. G.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Orr, Robert D.; Legore, Virginia L.; Clayton, Ray E.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Kutynakov, I. V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Royack, Lisa J.

2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

94

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the TX Tank Farm: Boreholes C3830, C3831, C3832 and RCRA Borehole 299-W10-27  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.8, 4.28,4.43, and 4.59. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in April 2004. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) T-TX-TY. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from boreholes C3830, C3831, and C3832 in the TX Tank Farm, and from borehole 299-W-10-27 installed northeast of the TY Tank Farm.

Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.

2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

95

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the TX Tank Farm: Probe Holes C3830, C3831, C3832 and 299-W10-27  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area T-TX-TY. This report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from three probe holes (C3830, C3831, and C3832) in the TX Tank Farm, and from borehole 299-W-10-27. Sediments from borehole 299-W-10-27 are considered to be uncontaminated sediments that can be compared with contaminated sediments. This report also presents our interpretation of the sediment lithologies, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone and groundwater below the TX Tank Farm. Sediment from the probe holes was analyzed for: moisture, radionuclide and carbon contents;, one-to-one water extracts (soil pH, electrical conductivity, cation, trace metal, and anion data), and 8 M nitric acid extracts. Overall, our analyses showed that common ion exchange is a key mechanism that influences the distribution of contaminants within that portion of the vadose zone affected by tank liquor. We did not observe significant indications of caustic alteration of the sediment mineralogy or porosity, or significant zones of slightly elevated pH values in the probe holes. The sediments do show that sodium-, nitrate-, and sulfate-dominated fluids are present. The fluids are more dilute than tank fluids observed below tanks at the SX and BX Tank Farms. Three primary stratigraphic units were encountered in each probe hole: (1) backfill material, (2) the Hanford formation, and (3) the Cold Creek unit. Each of the probe holes contain thin fine-grained layers in the Hanford H2 stratigraphic unit that may impact the flow of leaked fluids and effect irregular and horizontal flow. The probe holes could not penetrate below the enriched calcium carbonate strata of the Cold Creek lower subunit; therefore, we did not identify the maximum vertical penetration of the tank related plumes. However, the more elevated portions of the electrical conductivity (EC) profile at probe hole C3830 currently resides at the bottom of a fine-grained thin lens in the Hanford H2 unit at 87 ft bgs. At C3831, we lack good sample coverage to ascertain whether the salt plume has significantly descended into the Cold Creek Unit. There is strong indication at probe hole C3832 that the saline plume has descended into the Cold Creek Unit. The profiles do collectively suggest that the deepest penetration of tank related fluids is found in probe hole C3832. The water potential data from 299-W10-27?s H2 unit, the unit where most of the contaminants reside in the TX probe holes, are consistent with a draining profile. Despite the evidence that elevated EC values may be present in all three probe holes to their depth of refusal, the concentrations of long-term risk drivers are not large. The inventories of potential contaminants of concern, nitrate, technetium-99, uranium, and chromium, are provided. In addition, in situ desorption Kd values for these contaminants are provided. For conservative modeling purposes, we recommend using Kd values of 0 mL/g for nitrate and technetium-99, a value of 1 mL/g for uranium, and 10 mL/g for chromium to represent the entire vadose zone profile from the bottoms of the tanks to the water table. These conservative Kd values along with the provided inventories in the vadose zone sediments obtained from the three probe holes can be used in long-term risk projections that rely on estimates of water recharge and vadose zone and aquifer transport calculations.

Serne, R JEFFREY.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; LeGore, Virginia L.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

www.VadoseZoneJournal.org | 12011, Vol. 10 Flow Processes in the Dry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(OBM). In the case of tight-gas sands, our method explains the marginal productivity of deeply invaded partially-depleted hydrocarbon-bearing sands and tight-gas sands. SIMULATION METHOD Petrophysical Analysis example considers a tight-gas sand invaded with WBM. The second example considers an oil-bearing zone

Wildenschild, Dorthe

97

Remediation of Uranium in the Hanford Vadose Zone Using Ammonia Gas: FY 2010 Laboratory-Scale Experiments  

SciTech Connect

This investigation is focused on refining an in situ technology for vadose zone remediation of uranium by the addition of ammonia (NH3) gas. Objectives are to: a) refine the technique of ammonia gas treatment of low water content sediments to minimize uranium mobility by changing uranium surface phases (or coat surface phases), b) identify the geochemical changes in uranium surface phases during ammonia gas treatment, c) identify broader geochemical changes that occur in sediment during ammonia gas treatment, and d) predict and test injection of ammonia gas for intermediate-scale systems to identify process interactions that occur at a larger scale and could impact field scale implementation.Overall, NH3 gas treatment of low-water content sediments appears quite effective at decreasing aqueous, adsorbed uranium concentrations. The NH3 gas treatment is also fairly effective for decreasing the mobility of U-carbonate coprecipitates, but shows mixed success for U present in Na-boltwoodite. There are some changes in U-carbonate surface phases that were identified by surface phase analysis, but no changes observed for Na-boltwoodite. It is likely that dissolution of sediment minerals (predominantly montmorillonite, muscovite, kaolinite) under the alkaline conditions created and subsequent precipitation as the pH returns to natural conditions coat some of the uranium surface phases, although a greater understanding of these processes is needed to predict the long term impact on uranium mobility. Injection of NH3 gas into sediments at low water content (1% to 16% water content) can effectively treat a large area without water addition, so there is little uranium mobilization (i.e., transport over cm or larger scale) during the injection phase.

Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Zhong, Lirong; Qafoku, Nikolla; Williams, Mark D.; McKinley, James P.; Wang, Zheming; Bargar, John; Faurie, Danielle K.; Resch, Charles T.; Phillips, Jerry L.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Hanford Tank Farms Vadose Zone, Addendum to the TX Tank Farm Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This addendum to the TX Tank Farm Report (GJO-97-13-TAR, GJO-HAN-11) published in September 1997 incorporates the results of high-rate and repeat logging activities along with shape factor analysis of the logging data. A high-rate logging system was developed and deployed in the TX Tank Farm to measure cesium-137 concentration levels in high gamma flux zones where the spectral gamma logging system was unable to collect usable data because of high dead times and detector saturation. This report presents additional data and revised visualizations of subsurface contaminant distribution in the TX Tank Farm at the DOE Hanford Site in the state of Washington.

Spatz, R.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing zones in deep  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing zones in deep wells, Raft River geothermal area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Book: Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing zones in deep wells, Raft River geothermal area Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Fracture characteristics in the sedimentary and metamorphic rocks in the Raft River KGRA of Idaho are analyzed using geological, hydrological and borehole geophysical data from five deep geothermal production wells. Particular emphasis is placed on fracture identification using borehole

100

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the C Tank Farm: Borehole C4297 and RCRA Borehole 299-E27-22  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) C. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole C4297, installed adjacent to Tank C-105, and from borehole 299-E27-22, installed directly north of the C Tank Farm. Sediments from borehole 299-E27-22 were considered to be background uncontaminated sediments against which to compare contaminated sediments for the C Tank Farm characterization effort. This report also presents our interpretation of the data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone and groundwater below the C Tank Farm. The information presented in this report supports the A-AX, C and U Waste Management Area field investigation report(a) in preparation by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. A core log was generated for both boreholes and a geologic evaluation of all core samples was performed at the time of opening. Aliquots of sediment from the borehole core samples were analyzed and characterized in the laboratory for the following parameters: moisture content, gamma-emitting radionuclides, one-to-one water extracts (which provide soil pH, electrical conductivity, cation, trace metal, and anion data), total carbon and inorganic carbon content, and 8 M nitric acid extracts (which provide a measure of the total leachable sediment content of contaminants). Two key radiocontaminants, technetium-99 and uranium-238, along with other trace metals were determined in acid and water extracts by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. JEFFREY; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Parker, Kent E.; Lindberg, Michael J.

2006-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

300 Area Treatability Test: Laboratory Development of Polyphosphate Remediation Technology for In Situ Treatment of Uranium Contamination in the Vadose Zone and Capillary Fringe  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results from bench-scale treatability studies conducted under site-specific conditions to optimize the polyphosphate amendment for implementation of a field-scale technology demonstration to stabilize uranium within the 300 Area vadose and smear zones of the Hanford Site. The general treatability testing approach consisted of conducting studies with site sediment and under site conditions, to develop an effective chemical formulation and infiltration approach for the polyphosphate amendment under site conditions. Laboratory-scale dynamic column tests were used to 1) quantify the retardation of polyphosphate and its degradation products as a function of water content, 2) determine the rate of polyphosphate degradation under unsaturated conditions, 3) develop an understanding of the mechanism of autunite formation via the reaction of solid phase calcite-bound uranium and aqueous polyphosphate remediation technology, 4) develop an understanding of the transformation mechanism, the identity of secondary phases, and the kinetics of the reaction between uranyl-carbonate and -silicate minerals with the polyphosphate remedy under solubility-limiting conditions, and 5) quantify the extent and rate of uranium released and immobilized based on the infiltration rate of the polyphosphate remedy and the effect of and periodic wet-dry cycling on the efficacy of polyphosphate remediation for uranium in the vadose zone and smear zone.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Oostrom, Martinus; Gunderson, Katie M.; Webb, Samuel M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Clayton, Eric T.; Parker, Kent E.; Ermi, Ruby M.; Baum, Steven R.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

102

Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone--A case study using uranium isotopes at Pena Blanca, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and {alpha}-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Pena Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Remediation of chromium(VI) in the vadose zone: stoichiometry and kinetics of chromium(VI) reduction by sulfur dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Immobilization and detoxification of chromium in the vadose zone is made possible by the existence of an effective reductant, SO2, that exists in a gaseous form at room temperature. Experimental studies were designed to characterize stoichiometry and kinetics of chromium reduction both in aqueous solutions at pH values near neutrality and in soil. First, batch experiments and elemental analyses were conducted to characterize the stoichiometry and kinetics of Cr(VI) reduction in water. The stoichiometric ratio of S(IV) removed to Cr(VI) removed ranged between 1.6 and 1.8. The overall reaction is believed to be the result of a linear combination of two reactions in which dithionate is an intermediate and sulfate is the stable oxidized product. The reaction was also rapid, with the half-time of about 45 minutes at pH 6 and about 16 hours at pH 7. A two-step kinetic model was developed to describe changes in concentrations of Cr(VI), S(IV), and S(V). Nonlinear regression was applied to obtain the kinetic parameters. The rate of reaction was assumed to be second-order with respect to [Cr(VI)] and first-order with respect to [S(IV)], and [S(V)]. The values for the rate coefficient for the first reaction (k1) were found to be 4.5 (?10%), 0.25 (?9.4%) (mM-2h-1) at pH 6 and 7, respectively. The values of the rate coefficient for the second reaction (k2) were 25 (?29%), 1.1 (? 30%) (mM-2h-1) at pH 6 and 7, respectively. The reaction rate decreased as pH increased. Experiments showed that the rate at pH 7 was lower than that at pH 6 by one order of magnitude. Second, batch experiments and elemental analyses were conducted to characterize the stoichiometry and kinetics of Cr(VI) reduction in soil. The stoichiometric ratio of S(IV) removed to Cr(VI) removed was almost 2, which is slightly higher than that for the reaction in water. This higher value may be due to S(IV) oxidation by soil-derived Fe(III). The reaction was rapid, with the half-time less than 2 minutes, which is faster than in water. The rate coefficients, k1 and k2, were 22 (?41%) and 13 (?77%) (M-2h-1), respectively.

Ahn, Min

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Characterization of Direct-Push Vadose Zone Sediments from the 241-B and 241-BX Tank Farms  

SciTech Connect

Geochemical tests provide evidence for the transit of a plume of caustic waste solution through the sediment column at the Hanford 241-B and -BX Tank Farms. Direct-push samples recovered from boreholes surrounding Tanks 241-B-110 and 241-BX-102 and related waste transfer lines and diversion boxes included sediments typical of those previously recovered from other localities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford formation sediments are dominantly quartzo-feldspathic sands strewn with lithic fragments, displaying a range of particle size distributions and sorting characteristics. Some moderately well-sorted, fine-grained lithologies are interpreted as lenticular bodies irregularly dispersed in coarser-grained, more poorly sorted sediments. Tier I tests conducted on the vadose zone sediments revealed an inverse correlation between moisture content and sediment size fraction (i.e., there is greater moisture content in finer-grained sediments). The Tier I tests also showed that the pore water solutions were likely sodium-rich, moderately saline, and possessed higher pH values than background (untainted) sediments. These data are characteristic of sediments that have encountered sodium-rich, saline, caustic waste solution, as documented in other reports at other suspect contamination sites around Hanford. Analyses of solutions from 1:1 water extracts reveal relatively balanced cation and anion concentrations, indicating that most of the geochemical species have been accounted for. The water extract data for affected sediments also indicate unusually high concentrations of aluminum, iron, and phosphorus. The relatively high concentrations of aluminum and iron may be the result of dissolution of secondary amorphous phases that precipitated after a reactive plume partially dissolved aluminum- and iron-bearing phases as it migrated through the sediment column. On the other hand, the presence of elevated concentrations of phosphorous may be the tell-tale signature of wastes derived from the bismuth phosphate separation process. Elements typically mobile in the geosphere, such as technetium-99, are present at either low concentrations or are below the analytical detection limit. However, we expect that the mobile elements would be present mainly along a narrow plume front, and if this front had passed deeper into the sediment profile than depths sampled, the retention of these elements would be minor. On the other hand for the direct push sediments from around BX Tank Farm, uranium-238 was detected in nearly all sediment specimens (by acid extract experiments) at concentrations above the natural crustal average (0.763 pCi/g), and we also detected the presence of several anthropogenic radioisotopes, such as cobalt-60, cesium-137, europium-154, and europium-155 (by gamma energy analysis). These data are direct confirmation of contamination of the sediments.

Brown, Christopher F.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Iovin, Cristian; Lanigan, David C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

105

ESTIMATING FATE AND TRANSPORT OF MULTIPLE CONTAMINANTS IN THE VADOSE ZONE USING A MULTI-LAYERED SOIL COLUMN AND THREE-PHASE EQUILIBRIUM PARTITIONING MODEL  

SciTech Connect

Soils at waste sites must be evaluated for the potential of residual soil contamination to leach and migrate to the groundwater beneath the disposal area. If migration to the aquifer occurs, contaminants can travel vast distances and contaminate drinking water wells, thus exposing human receptors to harmful levels of toxins and carcinogens. To prevent groundwater contamination, a contaminant fate and transport analysis is necessary to assess the migration potential of residual soil contaminates. This type of migration analysis is usually performed using a vadose zone model to account for complex geotechnical and chemical variables including: contaminant decay, infiltration rate, soil properties, vadose zone thickness, and chemical behavior. The distinct advantage of using a complex model is that less restrictive, but still protective, soil threshold levels may be determined avoiding the unnecessary and costly remediation of marginally contaminated soils. However, the disadvantage of such modeling is the additional cost for data collection and labor required to apply these models. In order to allay these higher costs and to achieve a less restrictive but still protective clean-up level, a multiple contaminant and multi layered soil column equilibrium partitioning model was developed which is faster, simpler and less expensive to use.

Rucker, G

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: RCRA Borehole 299-E33-338 Located Near the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area  

SciTech Connect

This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 4.8. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in June 2003. The overall goals of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., are: 1) to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities, 2) to identify and evaluate the efficacy of interim measures, and 3) to aid via collection of geotechnical information and data, future decisions that must be made by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the near-term operations, future waste retrieval, and final closure activities for the single-shell tank waste management areas. For a more complete discussion of the goals of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, see the overall work plan, Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas (DOE 1999). Specific details on the rationale for activities performed at the B-BX-BY tank farm waste management area are found in CH2M HILL (2000).

Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Gee, Glendon W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Royack, Lisa J.

2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

107

Quantifying the effects of small-scale heterogeneities on fl ow and transport in undisturbed cores from the Hanford formation. Vadose Zone J  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT more than 4 million liters of hazardous and radioactive Accelerated migration of contaminants in the vadose zone has waste in the vadose zone. Relatively mobile radionuclides such as 99Tc, 129I, U, and 3 been observed beneath tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energys H have traveled further Hanford Reservation, Richland, WA. This paper focuses on quantify- than predicted by current models and have been deing hydrologic processes that control the fate and transport of contami- tected in the groundwater, which eventually flows to nants in the unsaturated sediments beneath the Hanford tank farms. the Columbia River (Dirkes and Hanf, 1997; Hartman The experimental approach involved the use of field relevant, longterm unsaturated nonreactive transport experiments in undisturbed sediments from the Hanford Formation. Undisturbed sediment cores were collected from a laminated fine-grained sand unit within the Hanford Formation in both the vertical direction (flow cross bedding) and the horizontal direction (flow bedding parallel). Laboratory-scale saturated and unsaturated flow experiments were conducted using multiple nonreactive tracers to investigate hydrologic processes controlling

M. N. Pace; M. A. Mayes; P. M. Jardine; T. L. Mehlhorn; J. M. Zachara; B. N. Bjornstad

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Limited hydrologic response to Pleistocene climate change in deep vadose zones --Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

regulations for radiation releases from the planned permanent U.S. nuclear-waste repository in Yucca Mountain releases from the proposed U.S. nuclear-waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada.1 E.P.A. recommended these guarantees for Yucca Mountain. Instead E.P.A. recommends changes both in the exposure-limits and in how

Holliday, Vance T.

109

Tensiometer for shallow or deep measurements including vadose zone and aquifers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two cell tensiometer is described in which water level in the lower cell is maintained at a relatively constant height, and in equilibrium with the water pressure of materials that surround the tensiometer. An isolated volume of air in the lower cell changes pressure proportionately to the changing water pressure of the materials that surround the tensiometer. The air pressure is measured remotely. The tensiometer can be used in drying as well as wetting cycles above and below the water table.

Faybishenko, Boris (Berkeley, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Deep vadose zone hydrology demonstrates fate of nitrate in eastern San Joaquin Valley  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the experimental site. Sandy loam is the most fre quentare: SL1 recent Hanford sandy loam C clay, very thinVar2 various textures, sandy loam to clay loam S medium

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Electrical Resistivity Correlation to Vadose Zone Sediment and Pore-Water Composition for the BC Cribs and Trenches Area  

SciTech Connect

This technical report documents the results of geochemical and soil resistivity characterization of sediment obtained from four boreholes drilled in the BC Cribs and Trench area. Vadose zone sediment samples were obtained at a frequency of about every 2.5 ft from approximately 5 ft bgs to borehole total depth. In total, 505 grab samples and 39 six-inch long cores were obtained for characterization. The pore-water chemical composition data, laboratory-scale soil resistivity and other ancillary physical and hydrologic measurements and analyses described in this report are designed to provide a crucial link between direct measurements on sediments and the surface-based electrical-resistivity information obtained via field surveys. A second goal of the sediment characterization was to measure the total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants of concern as a function of depth and distance from the footprints of inactive disposal facilities. The total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants will be used to update contaminant distribution conceptual models and to provide more data for improving base-line risk predictions and remedial alternative selections. The ERC ground truthing exercise for the individual boreholes showed mixed results. In general, the high concentrations of dissolved salts in the pore waters of sediments from C5923, C5924 and C4191 produced a low resistivity target in the processed resistivity field surveys, and variability could be seen in the resistivity data that could relate to the variability in pore- water concentrations but the correlations (regression R2 were mediocre ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 at best; where perfect correlation is 1.0). The field-based geophysical data also seemed to suffer from a sort of vertigo, where looking down from the ground surface, the target (e.g., maximum pore-water salt concentration) depth was difficult to resolve. The best correlations between the field electrical resistivity surveys and borehole pore water data sets were obtained when focusing on areal extent of the salt plume. Lateral resolution of the geophysical field data is best conducted by comparing an aggregated set of geophysical data on all boreholes together. When assembling the pore-water data for all four boreholes in an aerial view, the field ERC data produce a reasonable aerial picture of where high salt plumes exist below the BC Cribs and Trenches area. Future work that relies on more laboratory soil resistivity and incorporation of other field data (spectral gamma, neutron moisture and soil density logs) and physical and hydraulic measurements on samples obtained from the boreholes will used develop a more detailed petrophysical model of the sediments below BC Cribs and Trenches. This more detailed model can be used as a more realistic earth model in the inversion process to better manipulate the raw field survey data. It is also recommended that one more borehole be drilled after a thorough vetting of the current data with geophysics experts and other Hanford stakeholder to optimize where to place the borehole, what electrical and other geophysical surveys should be conducted , where to take sediment samples and what parameters should be measured on the sediments to attempt one more ground truthing exercise.

Serne, R. Jeffrey; Ward, Anderson L.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Rucker, Dale F.; Lanigan, David C.; Benecke, Mark W.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Coupled Vadose Zone and Atmospheric Surface-Layer Transport of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1999. Reichle, D. et al. , Carbon sequestration research andfrom geologic carbon sequestration sites: unsaturated zoneCO 2 from a geologic carbon sequestration site showing the

Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Unger, Andre J.A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Influence of Wetting and Mass Transfer Properties of Organic Chemical Mixtures in Vadose Zone Materials on Groundwater Contamination by Nonaqueous Phase Liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous studies have found that organic acids, organic bases, and detergent-like chemicals change surface wettability. The wastewater and NAPL mixtures discharged at the Hanford site contain such chemicals, and their proportions likely change over time due to reaction-facilitated aging. The specific objectives of this work were to (1) determine the effect of organic chemical mixtures on surface wettability, (2) determine the effect of organic chemical mixtures on CCl4 volatilization rates from NAPL, and (3) accurately determine the migration, entrapment, and volatilization of organic chemical mixtures. Five tasks were proposed to achieve the project objectives. These are to (1) prepare representative batches of fresh and aged NAPL-wastewater mixtures, (2) to measure interfacial tension, contact angle, and capillary pressure-saturation profiles for the same mixtures, (3) to measure interphase mass transfer rates for the same mixtures using micromodels, (4) to measure multiphase flow and interphase mass transfer in large flow cell experiments, all using the same mixtures, and (5) to modify the multiphase flow simulator STOMP in order to account for updated P-S and interphase mass transfer relationships, and to simulate the impact of CCl4 in the vadose zone on groundwater contamination. Results and findings from these tasks and summarized in the attached final report.

Charles J Werth; Albert J Valocchi, Hongkyu Yoon

2011-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

114

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the T Tank Farm: Boreholes C4104, C4105, 299-W10-196 and RCRA Borehole 299-W11-39  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains geologic, geochemical, and physical characterization data collected on sediment recovered from boreholes C4104 and C4105 in the T Tank Farm, and 299-W-11-39 installed northeast of the T Tank Farm. The measurements on sediments from borehole C4104 are compared to a nearby borehole 299-W10-196 placed through the plume from the 1973 T-106 tank leak. This report also presents the data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone and groundwater below the T Tank Farm. Sediment samples were characterized for: moisture content, gamma-emission radionuclides, one-to-one water extracts (which provide soil pH, electrical conductivity, cation, trace metal, radionuclide and anion data), total carbon and inorganic carbon content, and 8 M nitric acid extracts (which provide a measure of the total leachable sediment content of contaminants). Overall, our analyses showed that common ion exchange is a key mechanism that influences the distribution of contaminants within that portion of the vadose zone affected by tank liquor. We observed slight elevated pH values in samples from borehole C4104. The sediments from the three boreholes, C4104, C4105, and 299-W10-196 do show that sodium-, nitrate-, and sulfate-dominated fluids are present below tank T-106 and have formed a salt plume. The fluids are more dilute than tank fluids observed below tanks at the SX and BX Tank Farms and slightly less than those from the most saline porewater found in contaminated TX tank farm sediments. The boreholes could not penetrate below the gravel-rich strata of the Ringold Formation Wooded Island member (Rwi) (refusal was met at about 130 ft bgs); therefore, we could not identify the maximum vertical penetration of the tank related plumes. The moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate, and technetium-99 profiles versus depth in the three contaminated boreholes around T-106 do not clearly identify the leading edge of the plume. However, the profiles do collectively suggest that bulk of tank-related fluids (center of mass) still resides in Ringold Formation Taylor Flats member fine-grained sediments. Most of the chemical data, especially the nitrate and technetium-99 distributions with depth, support a flow conceptual model that suggests vertical percolation through the Hanford formation H2 unit near T-106 and then a strong horizontal spreading within the CCUu unit followed by more slow vertical percolation, perhaps via diffusion, into the deeper strata. Slow flushing by enhanced recharge and rapid snow melt events (Feb. 1979) appear to lead to more horizontal movement of the tank fluids downgradient towards C4105. The inventories as a function of depth of potential contaminants of concern, nitrate, technetium, uranium, and chromium, are provided. In-situ Kd values were calculated from water and acid extract measurements. For conservative modeling purposes we recommend using Kd values of 0 mL/g for nitrate, Co-60, and technetium-99, a value of 0.1 mL/g for uranium near borehole C4104 and 10 mL/g for U near borehole C4105, and 1 mL/g for chromium to represent the entire vadose zone profile from the bottoms of the tanks to the water table. A technetium-99 groundwater plume exists northeast and east of T WMA. The highest technetium-99 concentration in fiscal year 2003 was 9,200 pCi/L in well 299-W11-39. The most probable source for the technetium-99 is the T waste management area. Groundwater from wells in the west (upgradient) and north of WMA T appear to be highly influenced by wastes disposed to the cribs and trenches on the west side of the WMA. Groundwater from wells at the northeast corner and the east side of the WMA appears to be evolving towards tank waste that has leaked from T-101 or T-106.

Serne, R JEFFREY.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; LeGore, Virginia L.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Orr, Robert D.; Brown, Christopher F.

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world s oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g., soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared to the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the stream.

Buss, Heather [University of Bristol, UK; Brantley, S. L. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Scatena, Fred [University of Pennsylvania; Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Blum, Alex [U. S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO; Schulz, M [University of Pennsylvania; Jimenez, M [University of Pennsylvania; White, Art [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA; Cole, David [Ohio State University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Application of a modified denitrifying bacteria method for analyzing groundwater and vadose zone pore water nitrate at the Hanford Site, WA, USA.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

zone pore water nitrate at the Hanford Site, WA, USA. Woods,and Conrad, Mark The Hanford Site in southern WashingtonL have been reported for Hanford groundwaters, where nitrate

Woods, Katharine N.; Singleton, Michael J.; Conrad, Mark

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Multiphase Reactive Transport modeling of Stable Isotope Fractionation of Infiltrating Unsaturated Zone Pore Water and Vapor Using TOUGHREACT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of transport and isotope fractionation provide a method to quantitatively interpret vadose zone pore water stable isotope depth profiles based on soil properties, climatic conditions, and infiltration. We incorporate the temperature-dependent equilibration of stable isotopic species between water and water vapor, and their differing diffusive transport properties into the thermodynamic database of the reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. These simulations are used to illustrate the evolution of stable isotope profiles in semiarid regions where recharge during wet seasons disturbs the drying profile traditionally associated with vadose zone pore waters. Alternating wet and dry seasons lead to annual fluctuations in moisture content, capillary pressure, and stable isotope compositions in the vadose zone. Periodic infiltration models capture the effects of seasonal increases in precipitation and predict stable isotope profiles that are distinct from those observed under drying (zero infiltration) conditions. After infiltration, evaporation causes a shift to higher 18O and D values, which are preserved in the deeper pore waters. The magnitude of the isotopic composition shift preserved in deep vadose zone pore waters varies inversely with the rate of infiltration.

Singleton, Michael J.; Sonnenthal, Eric L.; Conrad, Mark E.; DePaolo, Donald J.

2003-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

118

Comparison of resource assessment methods and geologic controls--deep natural gas plays and zones, United States and Russia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep (greater than 4.5 km--15,000 ft) conventional natural gas resources will play an important role in the future energy needs of the United States and Russia. Deep sedimentary basins are widespread in these countries and have formed in a variety of depositional and tectonic settings. Significant volumes of undiscovered deep natural gas are in the Gulf Coast, Anadarko, Permian, and Rocky Mountain basins of the U.S., and in the Timan-Pechora, West Siberia, East Siberia, and North and South Caspian basins of the former Soviet Union. Deep natural gas resources are regularly assessed by the All-Russia Petroleum Research Exploration Institute (VNIGRI) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of their normal research activities. Both VNIGRI and the USGS employ similar assessment methods involving play (or zone) analysis using geological data and based on an analysis of confirmed and hypothetical plays using field-size distributions, discovery-process models, and statistical estimation procedures that yield probabilistic estimates of undiscovered accumulations. Resource estimates for the deep structural and statigraphic plays of the Anadarko basin and deep Paleozoic zones in the Timan-Pechora basin are compared and contrasted using both methods. Differences in results of assessments between VNIGRI and USGS arise due to (1) the way in which plays/zones are defined, (2) different geochemical models for hydrocarbon generation as applied to hypothetical plays, (3) variations in the ways in which statistical estimation procedures are applied to plays and regions, and (4) differences in economic and technologic assumptions, reserve growth calculations, and accumulation size limits and ranges.

Dyman, T.S. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Belonin, M.D. (All-Russia Petroleum Research Exploration Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)) (and others)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Advanced Vadose Zone Simulations Using TOUGH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

multiphase flow and multicomponent transport in porous andmultiphase, multicomponent fluids in permeable (fractured and porous)multiphase fluid flow, heat transfer, and deformation in fractured porous

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Advanced Vadose Zone Simulations Using TOUGH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for modeling fluid and heat flow in fractured porous media.flows of multiphase, multicomponent fluids in permeable (fractured and porous) media (

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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121

Advanced Vadose Zone Simulations Using TOUGH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Technology. Within the ice phase (to T = 50 K and P ? 200the phase transition from liquid or gas to ice and viceand ice-liquid equilibrium lines of the water phase diagram)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

MODELING U TRANSPORT IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE AT PENA BLANCA, MEXICO  

SciTech Connect

We present a quantitative model to describe transport of radionuclides underground. Applicable to unsaturated (vadose) as well as saturated (phreatic) layers, the model provides constraints on the in-situ migratory behavior of radioisotopes in dissolved and colloidal pools of a groundwater system. It shows, for examples, that uranium in water percolating through the vadose zone will have its concentration and ratio {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U linearly correlated under the ideal condition of a constant removal of the two U isotopes from vadose-zone solids. The intercept and slope of the linearity serve to constrain removal rates of the two uranium isotopes from solids to the solution through dissolution and alpha recoil. The model also allows estimation of the fluid transit time in the vadose zone. At Pena Blanca, the uneven distribution of rainfall between winter (wet) and summer (dry) results in a conspicuous seasonal variability in uranium removal rate, hence dissolved uranium signals, within the unsaturated zone. Our data indicate a much higher uranium dissolution rate during the dry season than during the wet season, possibly reflecting a condition of increased oxygenation in the zone during the dry period.

T.L. Ku; S. Luo; M. Murrell; S. Goldstein

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Field testing plan for unsaturated zone monitoring and field studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The University of Arizona, in cooperation with the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, and Stephens and Associates in Albuquerque, New Mexico has developed a field testing plan for evaluating subsurface monitoring systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has requested development of these testing plans for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (LLW) and for monitoring at decommissioned facilities designated under the {open_quotes}Site Decommissioning Management Plan{close_quotes} (SDMP). The tests are conducted on a 50 m by 50 m plot on the University of Arizona`s Maricopa Agricultural Center. Within the 50 m by 50 m plot one finds: (1) an instrumented buried trench, (2) monitoring islands similar to those proposed for the Ward Valley, California LLW Facility, (3) deep borehole monitoring sites, (4) gaseous transport monitoring, and (5) locations for testing non-invasive geophysical measurement techniques. The various subplot areas are instrumented with commercially available instruments such as neutron probes, time domain reflectometry probes, tensiometers, psychrometers, heat dissipation sensors, thermocouples, solution samplers, and cross-hole geophysics electrodes. Measurement depths vary from ground surface to 15 m. The data from the controlled flow and transport experiments, conducted over the plot, will be used to develop an integrated approach to long-term monitoring of the vadose zone at waste disposal sites. The data will also be used to test field-scale flow and transport models. This report describes in detail the design of the experiment and the methodology proposed for evaluating the data.

Young, M.H.; Wierenga, P.J.; Warrick, A.W. [and others

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Dynamics of the Shallow Meridional Circulation around Intertropical Convergence Zones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The generally accepted view of the meridional circulation in the tropical east Pacific is that of a single deep overturning cell driven by deep convective heating in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), similar to the zonal mean Hadley ...

David S. Nolan; Chidong Zhang; Shu-hua Chen

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

MODELING LONG-TERM PLUTONIUM TRANSPORT IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE VADOSE ZONE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The natural climate created a dynamic hydrologic system for the lysimeter experiments. Thus, for the purpose of evaluating the effects of flow dynamics on Pu (more)

Demirkanli, Deniz

126

Geochemical and Geophysical Changes during Ammonia Gas Treatment of Vadose Zone Sediments for Uranium Remediation  

SciTech Connect

NH3 gas treatment of low water content sediments resulted in a significant decrease in aqueous and adsorbed uranium, which is attributed to incorporation into precipitates. Uranium associated with carbonates showed little change. Uranium associated with hydrous silicates such as Na-boltwoodite showed a significant decrease in mobility but no change in Na-boltwoodite concentration (by EXAFS/XANES), so is most likely caused by non-U precipitate coatings. Complex resistivity changes occurred in the sediment during NH3 and subsequent N2 gas injection, indicating ERT/IP could be used at field scale for injection monitoring.

Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Zhong, Lirong; Johnson, Timothy C.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Williams, Mark D.; Greenwood, William J.; Wallin, Erin L.; Bargar, John R.; Faurie, Danielle K.

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

127

SPECIAL SECTION: HANFORD SITE Hanford Site Vadose Zone Studies: An Overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a sparsely populated area in the rain shadow of the Cascade Mountains, adjacent to the Columbia River in southeastern Washington State (Fig. 1). The Hanford Site was set aside in the early 1940s by the U.S. Government to perform a top-secret mission, the Manhattan Project, for production of plutonium for atomic weapons used to end World War II and later to support the Cold War with the Soviet Union. Starting in 1943 1945, Hanford employed thousands of workers on the largest construction project in the world at that time. The workers built a series of nuclear reactors along with large monolithic concrete buildings used to reprocess wastes. Plutonium production continued at Hanford for over 40 yr. During the late 1980s, in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, plutonium production was suspended at Hanford (Gephart, 2003). Since then, efforts at

G. W. Gee; M. Oostrom; M. D. Freshley; M. L. Rockhold; J. M. Zachara

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Geophysical monitoring of foam used to deliver remediation treatments within the vadose zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transport in the hanford sediments under hyperalkalinethe Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site, WA. A centralThe Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site and elsewhere (

Wu, Y.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Final draft 20-01-2004 For submittal to Vadose Zone Journal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-tortuosity tensor for conduction of water in anisotropi c unsaturated soils. Peter A.C. Raats1 , Z. Fred Zhang2 to stratified soils. Theoretical analysis based on stochastic methods (Yeh et al., 1985) suggests head and water content of the soil decrease. Using the stochastic approach, Polmann et al. (1991

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

130

A Hydrologic-geophysical Method for Characterizing Flow and Transport Processes Within The Vadose Zone  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this project was to employ two geophysical imaging techniques, electrical resistivity tomography and cross-borehole ground penetrating radar, to image a controlled infiltration of a saline tracer under unsaturated flow conditions. The geophysical techniques have been correlated to other more traditional hydrologic measurements including neutron moisture measurements and induction conductivity logs. Images that resulted during two successive infiltrations indicate the development of what appear to be preferential pathways through the finer grained materials, although the results could also be produced by cationic capture of free ions in clays. In addition the site as well as the developing solute plume exhibits electrical anisotropy which is likely related to flow properties. However the geologic significance of this phenomenon is still under investigation.

David Alumbaugh; Douglas LaBrecque; James Brainard; T.C. (Jim) Yeh

2004-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

131

Uranium Geochemistry in Vadose Zone and Aquifer Sediments from the 300 Area Uranium Plume  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents research conducted by the RCS Project to update the record of decision for the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit on the Hanford Site.

Zachara, John M.; Davis, Jim A.; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Qafoku, Nik; Wellman, Dawn M.; Yabusaki, Steven B.

2005-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

132

Geophysical monitoring of foam used to deliver remediation treatments within the vadose zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

long electrode electrical resistivity. Journal of Applied1991. Hysteresis in the electrical resistivity of partiallyG.E. 1942. The electrical resistivity log as an aid in

Wu, Y.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

INTRODUCTION The remediation of organic chemicals in the vadose zone has been  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

program entitled KU Mix, (2) free-shrinkage tests to evaluate potential LC-HPC mixtures developed for use.......................................................................68 CHAPTER 2: EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM....................................................69 2.1 GENERAL.....................................................................................................81 #12;vii 2.8 FREE SHRINKAGE TEST PROGRAMS................................................82 2

Hazen, Terry

134

Vadose Zone Monitoring System Installation Report for McClellan AFB  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

100 ft but the cuttings indicated sandy sediment. The mostwas the predominance of sandy silt in the top 30 ft ofat 0942 in field: 0 ppm SANDY SILT (ML), with interlayered

Zawislanski, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

delivery technology has been studied to remediate Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment. However Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment showed surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS with Hanford 200 Area sediment. Once microbial growth in the column was verified by observing growth

136

Method of deep drilling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: (1) Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. (2) Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. (3) Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

Colgate, Stirling A. (4616 Ridgeway, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Deep Lysimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A deep lysimeter including a hollow vessel having a chamber, a fill conduit extending into the chamber through apertures, a semi-permeable member mounted on the vessel and in fluid communication with the fill conduit, and a line connection for retrieving the lysimeter.

Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sisson, James B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

A field strategy to monitor radioactivity associated with investigation derived wastes returned from deep drilling sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA) is drilling deep (>1500m) monitoring wells that penetrate both unsaturated (vadose) and saturated zones potentially contaminated by sub-surface nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Drill site radiological monitoring returns data on drilling effluents to make informed management decisions concerning fluid management. Because of rapid turn-around required for on-site monitoring, a representative sample will be analyzed simultaneously for {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} emitters by instrumentation deployed on-site. For the purposes of field survey, accurate and precise data is returned, in many cases, with minimal sample treatment. A 30% efficient high purity germanium detector and a discriminating liquid scintillation detector are being evaluated for {gamma} and {alpha}/{beta} monitoring respectively. Implementation of these detector systems complements a successful on-site tritium monitoring program. Residual radioactivity associated with underground nuclear tests include tritium, activation products, fission products and actinides. Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) is used in {alpha}/{beta} liquid scintillation counting and is a function of the time distribution of photon emission. In particular, we hope to measure {sup 241}Am produced from {sup 241}Pu by {beta} decay. Because {sup 241}Pu is depleted in fissile bomb fuels, maximum PSD resolution will be required. The high purity germanium detector employs a multichannel analyzer to count gamma emitting radionuclides; we will designate specific window configurations to selectively monitor diagnostic fission product radionuclides (i.e., {sup 137}Cs).

Rego, J.H.; Smith, D.K.; Friensehner, A.V.

1995-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

139

Transport of Bottom Water in the Romanche Fracture Zone and the Chain Fracture Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two moored arrays deployed in the Romanche Fracture Zone and Chain Fracture Zone in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean provide two-year-long time series of current and temperature in the Lower North Atlantic Deep Water and the Antarctic Bottom Water. ...

Herl Mercier; Kevin G. Speer

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Dorchester County- Renewable Zoning  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Dorchester County zoning codes specifically permit solar arrays and small wind turbines in many zoning districts.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Deep Convective Rotational Solitary Waves and Mesoscale Convective Complexes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As an extension of CCI (conditional convective instability) theory, three-dimensional, deep and steady convective waves in a barotropic basic flow with an embedded moist zone were studied via perturbation methods. The basic state is assumed to be ...

Qin Xu

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Student Zone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Student Zone Student Zone Homework Helpers All About Atoms - Learn about the parts of the atom! Virginia State Standards of Learning Practice Tests - Practice taking the SOL tests! Subjects currently include algebra, math, science and technology. Table of Elements - Basic physical and historical information about the elements! [Printable Version] Questions and Answers - Have a question? Need an answer? Check here first! Glossary of Science Terms - Definitions of some of the terms used on this site. Jefferson Lab Virtual Tour - How do scientists explore inside atoms? Video Resources Frostbite Theater - Short science experiments using liquid nitrogen, static electricity and more! Physics Out Loud - Jefferson Lab scientists and other experts explain some of the common words and terms used in nuclear physics research.

143

Mixing in the Romanche Fracture Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Romanche Fracture Zone is a major gap in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the equator, which is deep enough to allow significant eastward flows of Antarctic Bottom Water from the Brazil Basin to the Sierra Leone and Guinea Abyssal Plains. While ...

Bruno Ferron; Herl Mercier; Kevin Speer; Ann Gargett; Kurt Polzin

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

FATE AND TRANSPORT OF RADIONUCLIDES [U(VI), Sr, Cs] IN VADOSE ZONE SEDIMENTS AT THE HANFORD SITE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conference Center (NCC) Lansdowne, Virginia Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) This work Hanford IFRC--Zachara ..................................................................................................101 Hanford IFRC

Flury, Markus

145

Coupled Vadose Zone and Atmospheric Surface-Layer Transport of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

editors, Dense Gas Dispersion, Chemical EngineeringResearch Forum (PERF) Dense Gas Dispersion Modeling Project,on the problem of dense gas dispersion in the surface layer.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Unger, Andre J.A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

FATE AND TRANSPORT OF RADIONUCLIDES [U(VI), Sr, Cs] IN VADOSE ZONE SEDIMENTS AT THE HANFORD SITE .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Physical and chemical heterogeneities are inherent in subsurface environments due to varying: mineralogy, pore geometry, solution saturation, and solute concentration. The goals of this research (more)

[No author

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

ReproducedfromVadoseZoneJournal.PublishedbySoilScienceSocietyofAmerica.Allcopyrightsreserved. Analytical Solutions for Vertical Flow in Unsaturated, Rooted Soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

analytical solutions may be divided into two classes;describe the distribution of pressure head, water for the hydraulic ner, 1958; Warrick, 1975; Lomen and Warrick, 1978; Sri- conductivity and water content as function of the pressure head are vastava and Yeh, 1991; Basha, 2000; Chen et al., 2003), exponential, (ii) the initial

Lu, Zhiming

148

Treatability Test Report: Characterization of Vadose Zone Carbon Tetrachloride Source Strength Using Tomographic Methods at the 216-Z-9 Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A treatability test was conducted in 2011 at the 216-Z-9 Trench to evaluate methods for collecting characterization information that supports refined assessment of SVE performance goals based on impact to groundwater. The characterization information can also provide input to operational strategies for continued SVE operation and decisions regarding closure of the SVE system or transition to other remedies, if necessary.

Truex, Michael J.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Rohay, Virginia J.; Mackley, Rob D.; Parker, Kyle R.

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

149

V12-0159.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the results of a fi eld test at a 100-m-deep vadose zone test site contaminated with technetium-99 and nitrate. Th e fi eld test confi rmed the results of laboratory...

150

Nuclear-waste isolation in the unsaturated zone of arid regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vadose zone in arid regions is considered as a possible environment for geologic isolation of nuclear waste. There are several topographic and lithologic combinations in the vadose zone of arid regions that may lend themselves to waste isolation considerations. In some cases, topographic highs such as mesas and interbasin ranges - comprised of several rock types, may contain essentially dry or partially saturated conditions favorable for isolation. The adjacent basins, especially in the far western and southwestern US, may have no surface or subsurface hydrologic connections with systems ultimately leading to the ocean. Some rock types may have the favorable characteristics of very low permeability and contain appropriate minerals for the strong chemical retardation of radionuclides. Environments exhibiting these hydrologic and geochemical attributes are the areas underlain by tuffaceous rocks, relatively common in the Basin and Range geomorphic province. Adjacent valley areas, where tuffaceous debris makes up a significant component of valley fill alluvium, may also contain thick zones of unsaturated material, and as such also lend themselves to strong consideration as respository environments. This paper summarizes the aspects of nuclear waste isolation in unsaturated regimes in alluvial-filled valleys and tuffaceous rocks of the Basin and Range province.

Wollenberg, H.A.; Wang, J.S.Y.; Korbin, G.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Technology Zones (Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Virginias 26 designated Technology Zones offer tax relief in the form of abatements, credits, deductions, deferrals, exemptions, or rebates. Local governments may designate technology zones to...

152

Deep drilling technology for hot crystalline rock  

SciTech Connect

The development of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal systems at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico site has required the drilling of four deep boreholes into hot, Precambrian granitic and metamorphic rocks. Thermal gradient holes, four observation wells 200 m (600 ft) deep, and an exploration core hole 800 m (2400 ft) deep guided the siting of the four deep boreholes. Results derived from the exploration core hole, GT-1 (Granite Test No. 1), were especially important in providing core from the granitic rock, and establishing the conductive thermal gradient and heat flow for the granitic basement rocks. Essential stratigraphic data and lost drilling-fluid zones were identified for the volcanic and sedimentary rocks above the contact with the crystalline basement. Using this information drilling strategies and well designs were then devised for the planning of the deeper wells. The four deep wells were drilled in pairs, the shallowest were planned and drilled to depths of 3 km in 1975 at a bottom-hole temperature of nearly 200/sup 0/C. These boreholes were followed by a pair of wells, completed in 1981, the deepest of which penetrated the Precambrian basement to a vertical depth of 4.39 km at a temperature of 320/sup 0/C.

Rowley, J.C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Enterprise Zone Program (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Enterprise Zone Program provides eligible businesses that relocate or expand to a designated zone with tax incentives such as: 1) an investment tax credit; 2) a job tax credit for each job...

154

MODIFIED ZONE METHOD CALCULATOR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Zone Method is recommended for R-value calculations in steel stud walls by the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals ASHRAE 1997. The Modified Zone Method is similar to the...

155

Reinvestment Zones (Texas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Reinvestment Zones a local economic development tool used by municipalities and counties throughout the state of Texas. These zones can be created for the purpose of granting local businesses ad...

156

ASHRAE Climate Zones | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ASHRAE Climate Zones Jump to: navigation, search Subtype A Subtype B Subtype C Climate Zone Number 1 Zone 1A Zone 1B NA Climate Zone Number 2 Zone 2A Zone 2B NA Climate Zone...

157

Submonthly Convective Variability over South America and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relationships between deep convection over South America and the atmospheric circulation are examined, with emphasis on submonthly variations of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) during austral summer. Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) ...

Brant Liebmann; George N. Kiladis; JosA. Marengo; Trcio Ambrizzi; John D. Glick

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Exploration for deep coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The most important factor in safe mining is the quality of the roof. The article explains how the Rosebud Mining Co. conducts drilling and exploration in 11 deep coal mine throughout Pennsylvania and Ohio. Rosebud uses two Atlas Copco CS10 core drilling rigs mounted on 4-wheel drive trucks. The article first appeared in Atlas Copco's in-house magazine, Deep Hole Driller. 3 photos.

NONE

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

159

MHK Technologies/Deep Gen Tidal Turbines | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Deep Gen Tidal Turbines Deep Gen Tidal Turbines < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Deep Gen Tidal Turbines.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Tidal Generation Ltd Project(s) where this technology is utilized *MHK Projects/Tidal Generation Ltd EMEC Technology Resource Click here Current/Tidal Technology Type Click here Axial Flow Turbine Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 1-3: Discovery / Concept Definition / Early Stage Development & Design & Engineering Technology Description The DEEP Gen 1 MW fully submerged tidal turbine best exploits resources in depths 30m The horizontal axis turbine is inexpensive to construct and easy to install due to the lightweight 80 tons MW support structure allows rapid removal and replacement of powertrains enabling safe maintenance in a dry environment and is located out of the wave zone for improved survivability

160

High gain photoconductive semiconductor switch having tailored doping profile zones  

SciTech Connect

A photoconductive semiconductor switch with tailored doping profile zones beneath and extending laterally from the electrical contacts to the device. The zones are of sufficient depth and lateral extent to isolate the contacts from damage caused by the high current filaments that are created in the device when it is turned on. The zones may be formed by etching depressions into the substrate, then conducting epitaxial regrowth in the depressions with material of the desired doping profile. They may be formed by surface epitaxy. They may also be formed by deep diffusion processes. The zones act to reduce the energy density at the contacts by suppressing collective impact ionization and formation of filaments near the contact and by reducing current intensity at the contact through enhanced current spreading within the zones.

Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mar, Alan (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J (Albuquerque, NM); Hjalmarson, Harold P. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Edgewood, NM); O' Malley, Martin W. (Edgewood, NM); Helgeson, Wesley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Denison, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Brown, Darwin J. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, Charles T. (Albuquerque, NM); Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Geothermal: Educational Zone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GEOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGIES LEGACY COLLECTION - Educational Zone Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us | Admin Log On HomeBasic Search About...

162

Renaissance Zones (North Dakota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Renaissance Zones allow qualifying businesses and individuals to claim one or more tax incentives for purchasing, leasing, or making improvements to real property located in a North Dakota...

163

Challenges of deep drilling  

SciTech Connect

Deep drilling poses major problems when high temperatures, high pressures, and acid gases are encountered. A combination of these items usually requires extensive planning, exotic materials, long drilling times, and heavy expenditures. Only 2 wells have been drilled below 30,000 ft in the US, the deeper a 31,441-ft hole in 1974. The deepest well in the world is reported to be in the Soviet Union, recently drilled below 34,895 ft, with a target depth of 15,000 m (49,212 ft). A review of current deep drilling technology and its capabilities is given.

Chadwick, C.E.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

11 - 15020 of 28,560 results. 11 - 15020 of 28,560 results. Download High Level Waste Corporate Board Charter http://energy.gov/em/downloads/high-level-waste-corporate-board-charter Page Attachment A.1: Summary of Mandatory Language Provisions 1. Regulatory and non-regulatory activities http://energy.gov/em/attachment-a1-summary-mandatory-language-provisions Download Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments The Deep Vadose Zone - Applied Field Research Initiative has partnered with the Vadose Zone Journal to bring together a special section of the recent issue (November 2012). The section was prepared... http://energy.gov/em/downloads/contaminants-vadose-zone-environments Rebate Interconnection Guidelines '''''Note: Delaware law ([http://delcode.delaware.gov/title26/c010/index.shtml#1014 26 Del. C. §

165

Influence of the Extratropical Ocean Circulation on the Intertropical Convergence Zone in an Idealized Coupled General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors present coupled model simulations in which the ocean's meridional overturning circulation (MOC) sets the zonal mean location of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the hemisphere with deep-water production. They use a coarse-...

Neven S. Fu?kar; Shang-Ping Xie; Riccardo Farneti; Elizabeth A. Maroon; Dargan M. W. Frierson

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Development Opportunity Zone Credit  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Development Opportunity Zone Credits incent new and expanding businesses in the Cities of Beloit, Janesville and Kenosha by providing non-refundable tax credits to assist with the creation and...

167

Keystone Opportunity Zones (Pennsylvania)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Keystone Opportunity Zones allows businesses located within designated areas to qualify for a tax exemption, deduction, credit, or abatement of state and local taxes such as sales and use tax,...

168

Estimation of field-scale soil hydraulic and dielectric parameters through joint inversion of GPR and hydrological data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zone Hydraulic Properties for the Hanford Site, Report PNNL-Percolation Theory: Tests of Hanford Site Soils, Vadose Zone200 East Vadose Test Site Hanford, Washington, Electrical

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Queen Anne's County- Solar Zoning  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Queen Anne's County zoning code allows for ground mounted solar arrays in areas zoned as "open space," "agricultural," and "countryside" districts.

170

Clad vent set cup closure-weld-zone grinding evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Clad vent set (CVS) cups were ground in the closure-weld zone to reduce the wall-thickness variation created by the cup deep-drawing process. A significantly more uniform wall thickness would be beneficial for the CVS closure-weld operation. The goal was to reduce the average within-cup wall-thickness variation (defined as the range of wall thicknesses in the closure-weld zone) approximately 50% from the Cassini production value of 42 {micro}m. This goal was shown to be achievable but, unfortunately, not with the existing blank and formed cup thicknesses.

Ulrich, G.B.; Woods, A.T. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States); Ohriner, E.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

A New Definition of the Virtual Temperature, Valid for the Atmosphere and the CO2-Rich Air of the Vadose Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In speleological environments, partial pressures of carbon dioxide (CO2) are often large enough to affect overall air density. Excluding this gas when defining the gas constant for air, a new definition is proposed for the virtual temperature T? ...

Andrew S. Kowalski; Enrique Prez Snchez-Caete

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Hydraulic properties of the vadose zone at two typical sites in the Western Cape for the assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Aquifer vulnerability assessment is increasingly becoming a very significant basis in order to fulfill the water demands in South Africa. Knowledge of soil hydraulic (more)

Samuels, Donovan.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone--A case study using uranium isotopes at Pena Blanca, Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

seepage at the Nopal I Uranium mine, Chihuahua, Mexico. In:mine adit are composed of welded tuffs that host the uraniumuranium isotopic systematics, we have made additional measurements of U concentrations and 234 U/ 238 U ratios in waters from the mine

Ku, T. L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Spatially resolved U(VI) partitioning and speciation: Implications for plume scale behavior of contaminant U in the Hanford vadose zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Technology 2006, 40, Sandia National Laboratories,Technol. 2004, 38, 5591-5597. Sandia National Laboratories,

Wan, Jiamin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

DE FG02-06ER64193: Final Technical Report Nucleation and Precipitation Processes in the Vadose Zone during Contaminant Transport  

SciTech Connect

The report describes results of experiments to synthesize and characterize uranium(VI)-silicates from solutions containing dissolved U(VI), Si, Na, and nitrate as a function of solution pH and Si:U ratio under ambient conditions. Solids characterization was accomplished by X-ray diffraction, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and high-energy X-ray scattering (HEXS) analysis. The purpose was to develop a framework for describing the formation of U(VI)-silicate solids that might form in contaminated soils and sediments under oxidizing conditions in the presence of aqueous uranium, and are known to exist naturally in geologic uranium deposits.

Kathryn L. Nagy

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

176

IN-SITU ASSAY OF TRANSURANIC RADIONUCLIDES IN THE VADOSE ZONE USING HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTRAL GAMMA LOGGING - A HANFORD CASE STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution spectral gamma logging in steel-cased boreholes is used to detect and quantify transuranic radionuclides in the subsurface. Pu-239, Pu-241, Am-241, and Np-237 are identified based on characteristic decay gammas. Typical minimum detectable levels are on the order of 20 to 40 nCi/g. In intervals of high transuranic concentrations, gamma rays from other sources may complicate analysis and interpretation. Gamma rays detected in the borehole may originate from three sources: decay of the parent transuranic radionuclide or a daughter; alpha interactions; and interactions with neutrons resulting from either spontaneous fission or alpha particle interactions.

ROHAY VJ; HENWOOD P; MCCAIN R

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

177

Spatially resolved U(VI) partitioning and speciation: Implications for plume scale behavior of contaminant U in the Hanford vadose zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B-BX-BY waste management area. PNNL-14083; Pacific NorthwestNorthwest National Laboratory, PNNL- Jones, T. E. ; Simpson,Fate of Fission Products. PNNL-14120, Pacific Northwest

Wan, Jiamin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone--A case study using uranium isotopes at Pena Blanca, Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

T.L. (2000) In-situ radionuclide transport and preferentialseries constraints on radionuclide transport and groundwater1998) Assessing in-situ radionuclide migration from natural

Ku, T. L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Subduction Zone | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Subduction Zone Subduction Zone Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Subduction Zone Dictionary.png Subduction Zone: A tectonic process in which one tectonic plate is forced beneath another and sinks into the mantle as the plates converge Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Tectonic Settings List of tectonic settings known to host modern geothermal systems: Extensional Tectonics Subduction Zone Rift Zone Hot Spot Non-Tectonic Strike-Slip A classic cartoon illustrating a typical simplified subduction zone. http://www.columbia.edu/~vjd1/subd_zone_basic.htm Subduction zones occur where one tectonic plate is pulled under another. Most often the subducting plate is oceanic crust and contains many hydrous minerals. As the oceanic plate subducts it dewaters into the mantle,

180

Accommodation Zone | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Accommodation Zone Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Accommodation Zone Dictionary.png Accommodation Zone: Accommodation zones occur at fault intersections consisting of belts of interlocking, oppositely dipping normal faults. Multiple subsurface fault intersections in these zones are a favorable host for geothermal activity. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Controlling Structures List of controlling structures typically associated with geothermal systems: Major Normal Fault Termination of a Major Normal Fault Stepover or Relay Ramp in Normal Fault Zones

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Magmatic History Of The East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Based On  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Magmatic History Of The East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Based On Magmatic History Of The East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Based On Drill Core From Soh 1 Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Magmatic History Of The East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Based On Drill Core From Soh 1 Details Activities (4) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Deep drilling has allowed for the first time an examination of most of the shield stage of a Hawaiian volcano when it is centered over the hotspot and most of its volume is produced. We determined the lithologies, ages, geochemical characteristics and accumulation rates of rocks from the continuously cored, ~1.7 km deep Scientific Observation Hole (SOH) 1, which was drilled into Kilauea's East Rift Zone. The uppermost ~750 m of this hole contain relatively unaltered subaerially quenched lavas; the lower

182

2013 AAOCS Deep Frying Course  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This workshop is designed to bring together various topics pertaining to deep-frying principles and frying oils. It is a must-attend for anyone interested in deep-frying and frying oils from personnel dealing with frying oils, lipid technologists, m

183

Building Technologies Office: Climate Zones  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate Zones to Climate Zones to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Climate Zones on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Climate Zones on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Climate Zones on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Climate Zones on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Climate Zones on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Climate Zones on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner With DOE Activities Solar Decathlon Building America Research Innovations Research Tools Building Science Education Climate-Specific Guidance Solution Center Partnerships Meetings Publications Home Energy Score Home Performance with ENERGY STAR Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Challenge Home Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals

184

Rift Zone | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rift Zone Rift Zone Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Rift Zone Dictionary.png Rift Zone: A divergent plate boundary within a continent Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Tectonic Settings List of tectonic settings known to host modern geothermal systems: Extensional Tectonics Subduction Zone Rift Zone Hot Spot Non-Tectonic Strike-Slip The Rio Grande Rift exemplifies rift zone tectonics - increased volcanic activity and the formation of graben structures (reference: science-art.com) Rift valleys occur at divergent plate boundaries, resulting in large graben structures and increased volcanism. The East African Rift is an example of a continental rift zone with increased volcanism, while the Atlantic's spreading Mid-Ocean Ridge is host to an enormous amount of geothermal

185

The Enterprise Zone (Rhode Island)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Enterprise Zone offers tax incentives to business expanding their workforce by 5% at facilities in designated enterprise zones. The tax credit is equal to 50% of the annual wages paid to a new...

186

Radiant zone heated particulate filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

187

CO2 Emissions - Panama Canal Zone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Panama Canal Zone Graphics CO2 Emissions from Panama Canal Zone Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Panama Canal Zone...

188

Transition Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Transition Zone Geothermal Region (Redirected from Transition Zone) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Transition Zone Geothermal Region edit Details...

189

EM News | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

April 24, 2012 April 24, 2012 Conceptual site model for evaluating soil vapor extraction system performance to determine if the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another approach. New Approach to Assess Volatile Contamination in Vadose Zone Provides Path Forward for Site Closure RICHLAND, Wash. and LOS ALAMOS, N.M. - Through the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI), scientists and engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, federal agencies, and the scientific community are collaborating to develop effective, science-based solutions for remediating, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting the behavior and fate of deep vadose zone contamination. April 23, 2012 A controlled, phased

190

Liquid zone seal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A seal assembly that provides a means for establishing multiple pressure zones within a system. The seal assembly combines a plate extending from the inner wall of a housing or inner enclosure that intersects with and is immersed in the fluid contained in a well formed in a tray contained within the enclosure. The fluid is a low vapor pressure oil, chemically inert and oxidation resistant. The use of a fluid as the sealing component provides a seal that is self-healing and mechanically robust not subject to normal mechanical wear, breakage, and formation of cracks or pinholes and decouples external mechanical vibrations from internal structural members.

Klebanoff, Leonard E. (Dublin, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Climate Zone 5C | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone 5C Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 5 and Climate Zone Subtype C. Climate Zone...

192

Internal Structure Of Puna Ridge- Evolution Of The Submarine East Rift Zone  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Internal Structure Of Puna Ridge- Evolution Of The Submarine East Rift Zone Internal Structure Of Puna Ridge- Evolution Of The Submarine East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Internal Structure Of Puna Ridge- Evolution Of The Submarine East Rift Zone Of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Multichannel seismic reflection, sonobuoy, gravity and magnetics data collected over the submarine length of the 75 km long Puna Ridge, Hawaii, resolve the internal structure of the active rift zone. Laterally continuous reflections are imaged deep beneath the axis of the East Rift Zone (ERZ) of Kilauea Volcano. We interpret these reflections as a layer of abyssal sediments lying beneath the volcanic edifice of Kilauea. Early

193

Breathing zone air sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Western Renewable Energy Zones (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation summarizes recent developments and trends pertaining to competitive renewable energy zones, transmission planning and the integration of renewable generation resources.

Hein, J.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

DOE Solar Decathlon: Comfort Zone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Decathlon Comfort Zone Contest, teams design their houses to keep temperature and humidity steady, uniform, and comfortable. Full points are awarded for maintaining narrow...

196

Interfacial Transition Zone Bibliography Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Saito, M., and Kawamura, M., Effect of Fly Ash and Slag on the Interfacial Zone Between Cement and Aggregate , in ACI SP 114: Fly Ash, Silica ...

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

197

FORT UNION DEEP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback was a four-fold increase over the prestimulation rate with production essentially returning to prestimulation rates after 30 days. The physical stimulation was conducted over a 14-day period. Problems with the stimulation injection resulted in a coal bed fire that was quickly quenched when production was resumed. The poststimulation, stabilized production was three to four times the prestimulation rate. The methane content was approximately 45% after one day and increased to 65% at the end of 30 days. The gas production rate was still two and one-half times the prestimulation rate at the end of the 30-day test period. The field results were a good match to the numerical simulator predictions. The physical stimulation did increase the production, but did not produce a commercial rate.

Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

FORT UNION DEEP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback was a four-fold increase over the prestimulation rate with production essentially returning to prestimulation rates after 30 days. The physical stimulation was conducted over a 14-day period. Problems with the stimulation injection resulted in a coal bed fire that was quickly quenched when production was resumed. The poststimulation, stabilized production was three to four times the prestimulation rate. The methane content was approximately 45% after one day and increased to 65% at the end of 30 days. The gas production rate was still two and one-half times the prestimulation rate at the end of the 30-day test period. The field results were a good match to the numerical simulator predictions. The physical stimulation did increase the production, but did not produce a commercial rate.

Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Deep electromagnetic sounding in central Nevada  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sixteen shallow and deep controlled source electromagnetic soundings were performed in Buena Vista Valley, near Winnemucca, Nevada, to investigate an intra-basement conductor previously detected with magnetotellurics. The survey was carried out with the LBL EM-60 system using a remote magnetic reference for low-frequency geomagnetic noise cancellation, 100-m- and 2.8-km-diameter transmitter loops, and a minicomputer for in-field processing. EM soundings were made at distances from 0.5 to 30 km from three loops over the frequency range 0.02 to 500 Hz. Data were interpreted by means of 1-D inversions and the resulting layered models were pieced together to yield an approximate 2-D geoelectric model along the N-S axis of the valley. The EM soundings and one MT sounding show a 3 to 7 ohm-m zone at a depth of four to seven km. The conductor appears to be deepest at the northern end of the valley and shallowest beneath a basement ridge that seems to divide Buena Vista Valley into two basinal structures. Similar intra-basement conductors are also reported 50 to 75 miles south in the Carson Sink-Fallon areas, suggesting a common source, probably related to an anomalously hot, thin crust.

Wilt, M.; Goldstein, N.E.; Haught, J.R.; Morrison, H.F.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Zone refining of plutonium metal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

Blau, M.S.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. An assessment of historical deep gas well drilling activity and forecast of future trends was completed during the first six months of the project; this segment of the project was covered in Technical Project Report No. 1. The second progress report covers the next six months of the project during which efforts were primarily split between summarizing rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep reservoirs and contacting operators about case studies of deep gas well stimulation.

None

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

202

STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEEP WELL COMPLETIONS  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a project to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. Phase 1 was recently completed and consisted of assessing deep gas well drilling activity (1995-2007) and an industry survey on deep gas well stimulation practices by region. Of the 29,000 oil, gas and dry holes drilled in 2002, about 300 were drilled in the deep well; 25% were dry, 50% were high temperature/high pressure completions and 25% were simply deep completions. South Texas has about 30% of these wells, Oklahoma 20%, Gulf of Mexico Shelf 15% and the Gulf Coast about 15%. The Rockies represent only 2% of deep drilling. Of the 60 operators who drill deep and HTHP wells, the top 20 drill almost 80% of the wells. Six operators drill half the U.S. deep wells. Deep drilling peaked at 425 wells in 1998 and fell to 250 in 1999. Drilling is expected to rise through 2004 after which drilling should cycle down as overall drilling declines.

Stephen Wolhart

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Visual Data Analysis as an Integral Part of Environmental Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to understand and predict the fate of nuclear contaminants and their transport in natural and engineered systems. Geologists, hydrologists, physicists and computer scientists are working together to create models in the direction of a nearby creek [3]. The Deep Vadose Zone (Hanford Site) is located near Richland, Washington [4

Hubbard, Susan

205

DOE/RL-2010-89 Review Copy October 1, 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

investments from different DOE organizations working in basic science, applied research, and site engineering the contaminant cleanup challenges facing the deep vadose zone beneath the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site was the location of Hanford's major uranium fuel reprocessing, waste management, and liquid disposal facilities

Hubbard, Susan

206

Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies conducted a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project was to review U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. This report documents results from this project.

Stephen Wolhart

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

207

Loop Current and Deep Eddies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In contrast to the Loop Current and rings, much less is known about deep eddies (deeper than 1000 m) of the Gulf of Mexico. In this paper, results from a high-resolution numerical model of the Gulf are analyzed to explain their origin and how ...

L-Y. Oey

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Impact of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zone architecture on mass removal mechanisms in strongly layered heterogeneous porous media during soil vapor extraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An existing multiphase flow simulator was modified in order to determine the effects of four mechanisms on NAPL mass removal in a strongly layered heterogeneous vadose zone during soil vapor extraction (SVE): a) NAPL flow, b) diffusion and dispersion from low permeability zones, c) slow desorption from sediment grains, and d) rate-limited dissolution of trapped NAPL. The impact of water and NAPL saturation distribution, NAPL type (i.e., free, residual, or trapped) distribution, and spatial heterogeneity of the permeability field on these mechanisms were evaluated. Two different initial source zone architectures (one with and one without trapped NAPL) were considered and these architectures were used to evaluate seven different SVE scenarios. For all runs, slow diffusion from low permeability zones that gas flow bypassed was a dominant factor for diminished SVE effectiveness at later times. This effect was more significant at high water saturation due to the decrease of gas-phase relative permeability. Transverse dispersion contributed to fast NAPL mass removal from the low permeability layer in both source zone architectures, but longitudinal dispersion did not affect overall mass removal time. Both slow desorption from sediment grains and rate-limited mass transfer from trapped NAPL only marginally affected removal times. However, mass transfer from trapped NAPL did affect mass removal at late time, as well as the NAPL distribution. NAPL flow from low to high permeability zones contributed to faster mass removal from the low permeability layer, and this effect increased when water infiltration was eliminated. These simulations indicate that if trapped NAPL exists in heterogeneous porous media, mass transfer can be improved by delivering gas directly to zones with trapped NAPL and by lowering the water content, which increases the gas relative permeability and changes trapped NAPL to free NAPL.

Yoon, Hongkyu; Werth, Charlie; Valocchi, Albert J.; Oostrom, Martinus

2008-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

209

Laboratory and Modeling Evaluations in Support of Field Testing for Desiccation at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau includes testing of the desiccation technology as a potential technology to be used in conjunction with surface infiltration control to limit the flux of technetium and other contaminants in the vadose zone to the groundwater. Laboratory and modeling efforts were conducted to investigate technical uncertainties related to the desiccation process and its impact on contaminant transport. This information is intended to support planning, operation, and interpretation of a field test for desiccation in the Hanford Central Plateau.

Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Freedman, Vicky L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Ward, Anderson L.

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

210

Climate Zone 1B | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 1 and Climate Zone Subtype B. Climate Zone 1B is defined as Dry with...

211

Climate Zone 8B | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 8 and Climate Zone Subtype B. Climate Zone 8B is defined as Subarctic...

212

Climate Zones | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Buildings » Building America » Climate Zones Residential Buildings » Building America » Climate Zones Climate Zones Building America determines building practices based on climate zones to achieve the most energy savings in a home. This page offers some general guidelines on the definitions of the various climate regions based on heating degree-days, average temperatures, and precipitation. You can also view the Guide to Determining Climate Regions by County. Hot-Humid A hot-humid climate is generally defined as a region that receives more than 20 in. (50 cm) of annual precipitation and where one or both of the following occur: A 67°F (19.5°C) or higher wet bulb temperature for 3,000 or more hours during the warmest 6 consecutive months of the year; or A 73°F (23°C) or higher wet bulb temperature for 1,500 or more

213

Alternative Energy Zone (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alternative Energy Zone (Ohio) Alternative Energy Zone (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Local Government StateProvincial Govt Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Water Home...

214

Transition Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Transition Zone Geothermal Region Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Transition Zone Geothermal Region edit Details Areas (5) Power Plants (0) Projects...

215

EM News Flashes | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

April 11, 2013 April 11, 2013 Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments The Deep Vadose Zone - Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) partnered with the Vadose Zone Journal to create a special section of the journal's November 2012 issue. April 10, 2013 EM Rolls Out Fiscal Year 2014 Budget Request WASHINGTON, D.C. - Today EM Senior Advisor David Huizenga rolled out a $5.622 billion budget request for fiscal year 2014 that enables EM progress in all areas of the nuclear cleanup program while maintaining safety and compliance across the complex. April 8, 2013 Spanning 34 acres, the Savannah River Site Biomass Cogeneration Facility is the culmination of 30 months and more than 600,000 hours of labor. EM Exceeds Sustainability Goal by Reducing Carbon Footprint WASHINGTON, D.C. - EM has surpassed another DOE sustainability goal, this

216

Table C10A. Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Climate Zone ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 All Buildings ..... 1,086 1,929 1,243 1,386 879 11,529 ...

217

Development of Characterization Technology for Fault Zone Hydrology  

SciTech Connect

Several deep trenches were cut, and a number of geophysical surveys were conducted across the Wildcat Fault in the hills east of Berkeley, California. The Wildcat Fault is believed to be a strike-slip fault and a member of the Hayward Fault System, with over 10 km of displacement. So far, three boreholes of ~;; 150m deep have been core-drilled and borehole geophysical logs were conducted. The rocks are extensively sheared and fractured; gouges were observed at several depths and a thick cataclasitic zone was also observed. While confirming some earlier, published conclusions from shallow observations about Wildcat, some unexpected findings were encountered. Preliminary analysis indicates that Wildcat near the field site consists of multiple faults. The hydraulic test data suggest the dual properties of the hydrologic structure of the fault zone. A fourth borehole is planned to penetrate the main fault believed to lie in-between the holes. The main philosophy behind our approach for the hydrologic characterization of such a complex fractured system is to let the system take its own average and monitor a long term behavior instead of collecting a multitude of data at small length and time scales, or at a discrete fracture scale and to ?up-scale,? which is extremely tenuous.

Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Gasperikova, Erika; Goto, Junichi; Tsuchi, Hiroyuki; Miwa, Tadashi; Ueta, Keiichi; Kiho, Kenzo; MIyakawa, Kimio

2010-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

218

Category:ASHRAE Climate Zones | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ASHRAE Climate Zones ASHRAE Climate Zones Jump to: navigation, search Climate Zones defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standards. Pages in category "ASHRAE Climate Zones" The following 30 pages are in this category, out of 30 total. C Climate Zone 1A Climate Zone 1B Climate Zone 2A Climate Zone 2B Climate Zone 3A Climate Zone 3B Climate Zone 3C Climate Zone 4A Climate Zone 4B Climate Zone 4C C cont. Climate Zone 5A Climate Zone 5B Climate Zone 5C Climate Zone 6A Climate Zone 6B Climate Zone 7A Climate Zone 7B Climate Zone 8A Climate Zone 8B Climate Zone Number 1 C cont. Climate Zone Number 2 Climate Zone Number 3 Climate Zone Number 4 Climate Zone Number 5 Climate Zone Number 6 Climate Zone Number 7 Climate Zone Number 8 Climate Zone Subtype A Climate Zone Subtype B Climate Zone Subtype C Retrieved from

219

Isotopic Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Kennedy & Van  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kennedy & Van Kennedy & Van Soest, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Kennedy & Van Soest, 2007) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness useful regional reconnaissance DOE-funding Unknown Notes The correspondence of helium isotope ratios and active transtensional deformation indicates a deformation-enhanced permeability and that mantle fluids can penetrate the ductile lithosphere, even in regions where there is no substantial magmatism. Superimposed on the regional trend are local, high 3He/4He anomalies indicating hidden magmatic activity and/or deep

220

Underground mining and deep geologic disposal - Two compatible and complementary activities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Active and mature underground mining districts offer conditions favorable to deep geologic disposal because their geology is known in more detail, the feasibility of underground excavations has already been demonstrated, mining leaves distinctive footprints and records that alert subsequent generations to the anthropogenic alterations of the underground environment, and subsequent exploration and production proceeds with great care and accuracy to locate and generally to avoid old mine workings. Compatibility of mining with deep geologic waste disposal has been proven by decades of experience with safe storage and disposal in former mines and in the mined-out areas of still active mining operations. Mineral extraction around an intended repository reduces the incentive for future disturbance. Incidental features of mineral exploration and extraction such as lost circulation zones, allochthonous backfill, and permanent surface markers can deter future intrusion into a repository. Thus exploration and production of mineral resources should be compatible with, and complementary to, deep geologic waste disposal.

Rempe, N.T.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Microbial metabolism in the deep ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon flux through the oceans twilight zone. Science 316:sinking particle flux in the oceans twilight zone. LimnolRespiration in the dark ocean. Geophys Res Lett 30:doi:

Hansman, Roberta Lynn

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Microbial Metabollism in the Deep Ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon flux through the oceans twilight zone. Science 316:sinking particle flux in the oceans twilight zone. LimnolRespiration in the dark ocean. Geophys Res Lett 30:doi:

Hansman, Roberta L

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

The physical role of transverse deep zones in improving constructed treatment wetland performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Velocity heterogeneity is often present in wetland systems and results in some influent water remaining in the wetland for less than the expected residence time. This phenomenon, known as short-circuiting, alters the ...

Lightbody, Anne F. (Anne Fraser), 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Deep-Sea Research II 49 (2002) 60696093 Plankton distribution associated with frontal zones in the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

117851, Russia. Tel.: +1-95-124-8515; fax: +1-94-124-5983. E-mail addresses: m flint@orc.ru (M.V. Flint

225

Quick egress from deep underground  

SciTech Connect

A method of storage of missiles deep underground in a protected environment capable of withstanding nuclear blasts while allowing access for maintenance and rapid egress when necessary-- even after exposure to severe environments due to an explosion at or near the surface of the earth. To accomplish this, the objects to be stored are contained in a closed container of positive buoyancy in quicksand. A shaft is excavated in the earth and filled with sand. The water content of the sand backfill is controlled and maintained at that percentage of saturation which will provide the best compromise between rapidity and ease of container egress on one hand and resistance to hostile surface environments on the other. Means for the introduction of additional water at the bottom of the sand-filled shaft are provided. When the sand column is fluidized by the injection of water at the bottom thereof, quicksand is formed in the shaft and the container can be drawn to the bottom by a tether line. When water injection is stopped, the sand returns to its normal solid condition and provides a protective layer for the buried container while restraining it in its deep buried position. The sand, in its normal tightly packed solid condition also acts to preserve the egress path to the surface by preventing the entry of dislodged earth material in the attack environment. To access the container for maintenance or for use of the contents, the shaft is again fluidized allowing the container to float to the surface.

Funston, N.E.

1976-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

226

Zone refining of plutonium metal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Challenges of deep drilling. Part 2  

SciTech Connect

This installment delineates current deep drilling technology limitations and discusses needed advances for the future. Problem areas are identified as material and seal problems in wellhead equipment, new fluid carriers for well stimulation, quality control/inspection/testing for equipment and performance flaws, arctic environment conditions, and experienced personnel. The main factors of operating environment that challenge advanced deep drilling are identified as temperature extremes, pressure extremes, acid gases, and deep-water presence.

Chadwick, C.E.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

229

Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. An assessment of historical deep gas well drilling activity and forecast of future trends was completed during the first six months of the project; this segment of the project was covered in Technical Progress Report No. 1. During the next six months, efforts were primarily split between summarizing rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep reservoirs and contacting operators about case studies of deep gas well stimulation as documented in Technical Progress Report No. 2. This report details work done with Anadarko and ChevronTexaco in the Table Rock Field in Wyoming.

None

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

230

Science Accelerator : Main View : Deep Federated Search  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Us | OSTI HOME ADVANCED SEARCH ALERTS ABOUT RESOURCE DESCRIPTIONS Powered by Deep Web Technologies Science Accelerator QR Code | RSS | RSS Archive | Share | Widget Help |...

231

Practice and Analysis on Deep Dephosphorization and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Practice and Analysis on Deep Dephosphorization and Desulfurization Pretreatment of Hot Metal by Soda Ash. Author(s), Bing Dai, Jianliang...

232

Establishment of Deep Ocean Circulation Driven by Deep-Water Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A linear, two-layer baroclinic model of deep circulation driven by deep water production is formulated. In distinction to the Stommel-Arons model where a uniform middepth upwelling is prescribed, the present model determines upwelling internally ...

Mitsuhiro Kawase

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Enterprise Zone Program (Louisiana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enterprise Zone Program (Louisiana) Enterprise Zone Program (Louisiana) Enterprise Zone Program (Louisiana) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Fuel Distributor Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Nonprofit Retail Supplier Systems Integrator Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Louisiana Program Type Corporate Tax Incentive Enterprise Zone Provider Louisiana Economic Development The Enterprise Zone Program is a jobs incentive program providing Louisiana income and franchise tax credits to businesses hiring at least 35% of net, new jobs from targeted groups. Enterprise Zones (EZs) are areas with high unemployment, low income, or a high percentage of residents receiving some

234

Enterprise Zone Program (Alabama) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alabama) Alabama) Enterprise Zone Program (Alabama) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Alabama Program Type Enterprise Zone Provider Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs The Enterprise Zone Program provides certain tax incentives to corporations, partnerships and proprietorships that locate or expand within designated Enterprise Zones. In addition to state-level tax incentives, businesses may also receive local tax and non-tax incentives for locating or expanding within a designated Enterprise Zone. Section 5 of the Alabama Enterprise Zone Program offers the following tax incentives: Credit based

235

Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Local Government Savings Category Bioenergy Solar Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Heating & Cooling Swimming Pool Heaters Water Heating Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Wind Maximum Rebate None Program Info Start Date 07/12/2006 State Michigan Program Type Industry Recruitment/Support Rebate Amount 100% abatement of Michigan Business Tax, state education tax, personal and real property taxes, and local income taxes Provider Michigan Economic Development Corporation In 2006, Michigan enacted legislation allowing for the creation of Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones (RERZ). Renaissance zones -- renewable energy renaissance zones are just one type -- offer significant tax

236

Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.

J. Conca

2000-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

237

The Border Cities Enterprise Zone Program (Minnesota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Border Cities Enterprise Zone Program provides business tax credits to businesses that invest, develop, expand, and create jobs in identified Border-Cities Enterprise Zones. Companies may be...

238

Enterprise Zone Real Property Investment Grant (Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Enterprise Zone Real Property Investment Grantprovides qualified zone investors with cash grants for industrial, commercial or mixed use property. The grant is equal to 20% of the excess...

239

Enterprise Zone Sales Tax Exemption (Kansas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Enterprise Zone Sales Tax Exemption offers businesses located in such economic development zones a 100 percent sales tax exemption on the purchase of labor and materials to construct or remodel...

240

Leonard and Swap on 'Deep Smarts'  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An interview with Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap: The first issue that any organization has to face is the identification of the deep smarts. Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap are co-authors of the new book 'Deep Smarts: How to Cultivate and Transfer ...

Ubiquity staff

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Gulf of California Rift Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of California Rift Zone Geothermal Region (Redirected from Gulf of California Rift Zone) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Gulf of California Rift Zone...

242

Allegan County, Michigan ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Allegan County, Michigan ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Allegan County, Michigan ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

243

Becker County, Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Becker County, Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Becker County, Minnesota ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

244

Anchorage Borough, Alaska ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Anchorage Borough, Alaska ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anchorage Borough, Alaska ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

245

Benton County, Tennessee ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tennessee ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Benton County, Tennessee ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate...

246

Arapahoe County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Arapahoe County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Arapahoe County, Colorado ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

247

Alfalfa County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Alfalfa County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alfalfa County, Oklahoma ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

248

Augusta County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Augusta County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Augusta County, Virginia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

249

Benton County, Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Benton County, Minnesota ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate...

250

Barron County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Barron County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Barron County, Wisconsin ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

251

Bedford County, Tennessee ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bedford County, Tennessee ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Bedford County, Tennessee ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

252

Audrain County, Missouri ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Audrain County, Missouri ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Audrain County, Missouri ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

253

Anderson County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Anderson County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, Kentucky ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

254

Adams County, Pennsylvania ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pennsylvania ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Pennsylvania ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

255

Ballard County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ballard County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Ballard County, Kentucky ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

256

Ashland County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ashland County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Ashland County, Wisconsin ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

257

Accomack County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Accomack County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Accomack County, Virginia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

258

Benton County, Washington ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Washington ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Benton County, Washington ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate...

259

Asotin County, Washington ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Asotin County, Washington ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Asotin County, Washington ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

260

Property:ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Number | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Number Number Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Page. Pages using the property "ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Number" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A Abbeville County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 3 + Acadia Parish, Louisiana ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 2 + Accomack County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 4 + Ada County, Idaho ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 5 + Adair County, Iowa ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 5 + Adair County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 4 + Adair County, Missouri ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 5 + Adair County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 3 +

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Property:ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Subtype | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Subtype ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Subtype Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Page. Pages using the property "ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Subtype" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A Abbeville County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype A + Acadia Parish, Louisiana ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype A + Accomack County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype A + Ada County, Idaho ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype B + Adair County, Iowa ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype A + Adair County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype A + Adair County, Missouri ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype A +

262

Enterprise Zones (Iowa) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Zones (Iowa) Zones (Iowa) Enterprise Zones (Iowa) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Iowa Program Type Enterprise Zone Industry Recruitment/Support Training/Technical Assistance Provider Iowa Economic Development Authority The Enterprise Zones Program is an incentive for business expansion designed to stimulate development by targeting economically distressed areas in Iowa. Through state and local tax incentives, businesses and developers are encouraged to make new investments, and create or retain

263

Enterprise Zone Program (Georgia) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Georgia) Georgia) Enterprise Zone Program (Georgia) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Georgia Program Type Enterprise Zone Personal Tax Incentives Property Tax Incentive Provider Georgia Department of Community Affairs The Enterprise Zone Program provides various tax incentives to businesses within designated underdeveloped zones in rural or urban areas. The State Enterprise Zone program intends to improve geographic areas within cities

264

Geothermal Lost Circulation Zone Mapping Tool  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lost circulation is an expensive and often encountered problem when drilling into geothermal formations. A method is needed to more accurately describe loss zones encountered during geothermal drilling to allow for more realistic testing since present testing techniques are inadequate. A Lost Circulation Zone Mapping Tool (LCZMT) is being developed that will quickly locate a loss zone and then provide a visual image of this zone as it intersects the wellbore. A modified Sandia high temperature Acoustic Borehole Televiewer should allow modeling of geothermal loss zones, which would in turn lead to testing that can be performed to evaluate lost circulation materials under simulated downhole conditions. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Bauman, T.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

An integrated methodology for characterizing flow and transport processes in fractured rock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unsaturated Zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Water-Resourcesof the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, NV from three-in fractured tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Vadose Zone Journal,

Wu, Yu-Shu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Coring in deep hardrock formations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy is involved in a variety of scientific and engineering feasibility studies requiring extensive drilling in hard crystalline rock. In many cases well depths extend from 6000 to 20,000 feet in high-temperature, granitic formations. Examples of such projects are the Hot Dry Rock well system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico and the planned exploratory magma well near Mammoth Lakes, California. In addition to these programs, there is also continuing interest in supporting programs to reduce drilling costs associated with the production of geothermal energy from underground sources such as the Geysers area near San Francisco, California. The overall progression in these efforts is to drill deeper holes in higher temperature, harder formations. In conjunction with this trend is a desire to improve the capability to recover geological information. Spot coring and continuous coring are important elements in this effort. It is the purpose of this report to examine the current methods used to obtain core from deep wells and to suggest projects which will improve existing capabilities. 28 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Drumheller, D.S.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Zoned heating and air conditioning system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a zoned heating and air conditioning system comprising: a central air handling system with an air heating means and an air cooling means and a blower connected to an air duct system; thermostats each have heating and cooling set points, respectively associated with and located in different zones of a building; dampers respectively associated with each building zone positioned in the air duct system. Each damper has an open position allowing air into the respective zone from the duct system and a closed position; relay means for connecting one thermostat to the air handling system upon a call for heating or cooling by one thermostat and disconnecting all other thermostats by connecting one thermostat's connections between the thermostat and air handling system. Only one thermostat is connected to the air handling system at a time and the relay means disconnects one thermostat from the air handling system after one thermostat is satisified; and damper actuating means for unlocking each damper in one building zone responsive actuated by a respective zone thermostat connected to the air handling system by the relay means. The damper actuates means including a damper solenoid for each damper located adjacent each damper and connected to a respective zone thermostat. It unlocks each damper in one building zone responsive to being actuated by the respective zone thermostat and unlocks the dampers in one building zone when one thermostat is actuated while preventing the dampers in another thermostat's building zone from unlocking.

Beachboard, S.A.

1987-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

268

Overview: Zoning for Small Wind Turbines  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

Overview: Overview: Zoning for Small Wind Turbines Jim Green NREL ASES Small Wind Division Webinar January 17, 2008 2 Zoning Basics * Zoning is one form of land use law * Based on legal principle of "police power:" the power to regulate in order to promote the health, morals, safety, and general welfare of the community * Zoning authority originates from state laws called "zoning enabling legislation" - Standard Zoning Enabling Act, Dept. of Commerce, 1920s * Enabling legislation delegates land use authority to local jurisdictions, "Home Rule" - counties, parishes, boroughs, townships, municipalities, cities, villages, etc. 3 Zoning is Daunting * 3,034 counties (National Association of Counties) * 16,504 townships * 19,429 municipalities (National League of Cities)

269

Enhanced Enterprise Zones (Missouri) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enhanced Enterprise Zones (Missouri) Enhanced Enterprise Zones (Missouri) Enhanced Enterprise Zones (Missouri) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Missouri Program Type Enterprise Zone Corporate Tax Incentive Provider Missouri Department of Economic Development Enhanced Enterprise Zones aim at attracting new businesses or promoting an expansion of existing business in Missouri Enhanced Enterprise Zone. Tax credits will be an amount authorized by DED, based on the state economic benefit, supported by the number of new jobs, wages and new capital investment that the project will create. To qualify, individual business eligibility will be determined by the zone, based on creation of

270

Rate-limited U(VI) desorption during a small-scale tracer test in a hetereogeneous uranium contaminated aquifer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Contaminants in the Hanford Vadose Zone, Vadose Zone J. ,transport in a contaminated Hanford sediment, Environ. Sci.of U(VI) observed in Hanford sediment column experiments. A

Fox, P.M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS  

SciTech Connect

From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations using laboratory pyrolysis methods have provided much information on the origins of deep gas. Technologic problems are one of the greatest challenges to deep drilling. Problems associated with overcoming hostile drilling environments (e.g. high temperatures and pressures, and acid gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) for successful well completion, present the greatest obstacles to drilling, evaluating, and developing deep gas fields. Even though the overall success ratio for deep wells is about 50 percent, a lack of geological and geophysical information such as reservoir quality, trap development, and gas composition continues to be a major barrier to deep gas exploration. Results of recent finding-cost studies by depth interval for the onshore U.S. indicate that, on average, deep wells cost nearly 10 times more to drill than shallow wells, but well costs and gas recoveries vary widely among different gas plays in different basins. Based on an analysis of natural gas assessments, many topical areas hold significant promise for future exploration and development. One such area involves re-evaluating and assessing hypothetical unconventional basin-center gas plays. Poorly-understood basin-center gas plays could contain significant deep undiscovered technically-recoverable gas resources.

Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

2002-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

272

Property:Buildings/ModelClimateZone | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ModelClimateZone ModelClimateZone Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Page. It links to pages that use the form Buildings Model. The allowed values for this property are: Climate Zone 1A Climate Zone 1B Climate Zone 2A Climate Zone 2B Climate Zone 3A Climate Zone 3B Climate Zone 3C Climate Zone 4A Climate Zone 4B Climate Zone 4C Climate Zone 5A Climate Zone 5B Climate Zone 5C Climate Zone 6A Climate Zone 6B Climate Zone 7A Climate Zone 7B Climate Zone 8A Climate Zone 8B Pages using the property "Buildings/ModelClimateZone" Showing 12 pages using this property. G General Merchandise 2009 TSD Chicago High Plug Load 50% Energy Savings + Climate Zone 5A + General Merchandise 2009 TSD Chicago High Plug Load Baseline + Climate Zone 5A + General Merchandise 2009 TSD Chicago Low Plug Load 50% Energy Savings + Climate Zone 5A +

273

U.S. Climate Zones Map for Commercial Buildings  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Past Climate Zones U. S. Climate Zones for 1979-1999 CBECS: climate zone map Return to Climate Zones for 2003 CBECS Return to CBECS Home Page Note:Map updated with corrections,...

274

U.S. Climate Zones Map for Commercial Buildings  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Climate Zone U. S. Climate Zones for 2003 CBECS: climate zones map Note:Map updated with corrections, February 2012 Further Explanation on How Climate Zones are Defined...

275

Why sequence novel haloarchaea from Deep Lake?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

novel haloarchaea from Deep Lake? novel haloarchaea from Deep Lake? Antarctica's Deep Lake was isolated from the ocean by glaciers long ago, creating a salt water lake with a unique ecosystem for studying the evolution of marine microorganisms in harsh extremes. Among these microorganisms are haloarchaea, members of the halophile community which need high salt concentrations in order to grow. Haloarchaea are a distinct evolutionary branch of the Archaea, and are considered extremophiles. The haloarchaea from Deep Lake are naturally adapted to cold, nutrient-limited and high saline level conditions that would kill almost any other life. The enzymes in these naturally adapted microorganisms can provide insight into bioprospecting and bioengineering cold active and salt-adapted enzymes. Understanding how haloarchaea

276

On Deep Quasi-geostrophic Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep quasi-geostrophic theory applies to large-scale flow whose vertical depth scale is comparable to the potential temperature scale height. The appropriate expression for the potential vorticity equation is derived from the general formulation ...

Peter R. Bannon

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Deep-Flow Variability at Drake Passage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A rotary empirical orthogonal function analysis of the currents measured in central Drake Passage during DRAKE 79 shows that the deep (2500 m) flow has the same spatial and temporal structure as the flow at 500 m, suggesting that current ...

John M. Klinck; Eileen E. Hofmann

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Deep Space Mission Radiation Shielding Optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions. In the present report, we ...

Tripathi R. K.; Wilson J. W.; Cucinotta F. A.; Nealy J. E.; Clowdsley M. S.; Kim M-H. Y.

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Preconditioning Deep Convection with Cumulus Congestus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent studies have pushed forward the idea that congestus clouds, through their moistening of the atmosphere, could promote deep convection. On the other hand, older studies have tended to relate convective initiation to the large-scale forcing. ...

Cathy Hohenegger; Bjorn Stevens

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Technological review of deep ocean manned submersibles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

James Cameron's dive to the Challenger Deep in the Deepsea Challenger in March of 2012 marked the first time man had returned to the Mariana Trench since the Bathyscaphe Trieste's 1960 dive. Currently little is known about ...

Vaskov, Alex Kikeri

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Energetics of Deep-Decoupling Oscillations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of single-hemisphere ocean models, when forced with steady mixed boundary conditions, have produced self-sustaining oscillations with century to millennial scale periods. Here the energetics of these deep-decoupling oscillations are ...

Michael Winton

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Deep Blue No. 1-A Slimhole Geothermal Discovery at Blue Mountain, Humboldt  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

No. 1-A Slimhole Geothermal Discovery at Blue Mountain, Humboldt No. 1-A Slimhole Geothermal Discovery at Blue Mountain, Humboldt County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Deep Blue No. 1-A Slimhole Geothermal Discovery at Blue Mountain, Humboldt County, Nevada Abstract The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the geology, drilling operations, and down-hole measurements obtained during the drilling of Deep Blue No.1. This well was sited on the basis of proximity to numerous gold exploration holes that indicated thermal water, high temperature gradients recorded in the 12 shallow gradient holes, and low resistivity values associated with certain interpreted major faults. The well was targeted to intersect fracture zones associated with the West and Central Faults, two

283

Deep Blue No 1- A Slimhole Geothermal Discovery At Blue Mountain, Humboldt  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1- A Slimhole Geothermal Discovery At Blue Mountain, Humboldt 1- A Slimhole Geothermal Discovery At Blue Mountain, Humboldt County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Deep Blue No 1- A Slimhole Geothermal Discovery At Blue Mountain, Humboldt County, Nevada Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the geology, drilling operations, and down-hole measurements obtained during the drilling of Deep Blue No.1. This well was sited on the basis of proximity to numerous gold exploration holes that indicated thermal water, high temperature gradients recorded in the 12 shallow gradient holes, and low resistivity values associated with certain interpreted major faults. The well was targeted to intersect fracture zones associated with the West and

284

TOUGH +: Modeling Fluid and Heat Flow in Porous and Fractured ...  

geologic carbon sequestration sites; saline and freshwater aquifers (including the vadose zone) sites contaminated by radionuclides or volatile organic compounds;

285

Available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/watres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and by the need of controlling biogas migration into the vadose zone. Recent advances involving the use

286

Sampling and Analysis Instruction for Installation of UPR-100-N-17 Bioremediation Wells and Performance of Bioventing Pilot Tests  

SciTech Connect

Sampling and analytical requirements for in situ bioremediation pilot study for remediation of vadose zone petroleum hydrocarbon contamination.

W. S. Thompson

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

287

Climate Zone 3B | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone 3B Climate Zone 3B Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 3 and Climate Zone Subtype B. Climate Zone 3B is defined as Dry with IP Units 4500 < CDD50ºF ≤ 6300 and SI Units 2500 < CDD10ºC < 3500 . The following places are categorized as class 3B climate zones: Andrews County, Texas Baylor County, Texas Borden County, Texas Brewster County, Texas Butte County, California Callahan County, Texas Chaves County, New Mexico Childress County, Texas Clark County, Nevada Cochise County, Arizona Coke County, Texas Coleman County, Texas Collingsworth County, Texas Colusa County, California Concho County, Texas Contra Costa County, California Cottle County, Texas Crane County, Texas Crockett County, Texas

288

Coastal Zone Management Act | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zone Management Act Zone Management Act Jump to: navigation, search Statute Name Coastal Zone Management Act Year 1972 Url [[File:|160px|link=]] Description The Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (CZMA; Pub.L. 92-583, 86 Stat. 1280, enacted October 27, 1972, 16 U.S.C. §§ 1451-1464, Chapter 33) is an Act of Congress passed in 1972 to encourage coastal states to develop and implement coastal zone management plans (CZMPs). This act was established as a United States National policy to preserve, protect, develop, and where possible, restore or enhance, the resources of the Nation's coastal zone for this and succeeding generations. References Wikipedia[1] National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration[2] The U.S. Congress recognized the importance of meeting the challenge of

289

Displacement Transfer Zone | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Displacement Transfer Zone Displacement Transfer Zone Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Displacement Transfer Zone Dictionary.png Displacement Transfer Zone: Displacement transfer zones facilitate the transfer of strain between normal and strike-slip faults. Intersections between strike-slip faults in the Walker Lane and N- to NNE-striking normal faults commonly host geothermal systems, focused along the normal faults proximal to their dilational intersections with nearby strike-slip faults. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Controlling Structures List of controlling structures typically associated with geothermal systems: Major Normal Fault Termination of a Major Normal Fault Stepover or Relay Ramp in Normal Fault Zones Apex or Salient of Normal Fault

290

Climate Zone 5A | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zone 5A Zone 5A Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 5 and Climate Zone Subtype A. Climate Zone 5A is defined as Cool- Humid with IP Units 5400 < HDD65ºF ≤ 7200 and SI Units 3000 < HDD18ºC ≤ 4000 . The following places are categorized as class 5A climate zones: Adair County, Iowa Adair County, Missouri Adams County, Illinois Adams County, Indiana Adams County, Iowa Adams County, Nebraska Adams County, Pennsylvania Albany County, New York Allegan County, Michigan Alleghany County, North Carolina Allegheny County, Pennsylvania Allen County, Indiana Allen County, Ohio Andrew County, Missouri Antelope County, Nebraska Appanoose County, Iowa Armstrong County, Pennsylvania Arthur County, Nebraska

291

Climate Zone 5B | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone 5B Climate Zone 5B Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 5 and Climate Zone Subtype B. Climate Zone 5B is defined as Dry with IP Units 5400 < HDD65ºF ≤ 7200 and SI Units 3000 < HDD18ºC ≤ 4000 . The following places are categorized as class 5B climate zones: Ada County, Idaho Adams County, Colorado Adams County, Washington Apache County, Arizona Arapahoe County, Colorado Asotin County, Washington Baker County, Oregon Beaver County, Utah Benewah County, Idaho Bent County, Colorado Benton County, Washington Boulder County, Colorado Broomfield County, Colorado Canyon County, Idaho Carson City County, Nevada Cassia County, Idaho Catron County, New Mexico Chelan County, Washington Cheyenne County, Colorado

292

Climate Zone Number 1 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone Number 1 Climate Zone Number 1 Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard. Climate Zone Number 1 is defined as Very Hot - Humid(1A) with IP Units 9000 < CDD50ºF and SI Units 5000 < CDD10ºC Dry(1B) with IP Units 9000 < CDD50ºF and SI Units 5000 < CDD10ºC . The following places are categorized as class 1 climate zones: Broward County, Florida Hawaii County, Hawaii Honolulu County, Hawaii Kalawao County, Hawaii Kauai County, Hawaii Maui County, Hawaii Miami-Dade County, Florida Monroe County, Florida Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Climate_Zone_Number_1&oldid=21604" Category: ASHRAE Climate Zones What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties

293

Climate Zone 2A | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone 2A Climate Zone 2A Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 2 and Climate Zone Subtype A. Climate Zone 2A is defined as Hot - Humid with IP Units 6300 < CDD50ºF ≤ 9000 and SI Units 3500 < CDD10ºC ≤ 5000 . The following places are categorized as class 2A climate zones: Acadia Parish, Louisiana Alachua County, Florida Allen Parish, Louisiana Anderson County, Texas Angelina County, Texas Appling County, Georgia Aransas County, Texas Ascension Parish, Louisiana Assumption Parish, Louisiana Atascosa County, Texas Atkinson County, Georgia Austin County, Texas Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana Bacon County, Georgia Baker County, Florida Baker County, Georgia Baldwin County, Alabama Bastrop County, Texas

294

Enterprise Zone Program (Texas) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enterprise Zone Program (Texas) Enterprise Zone Program (Texas) Enterprise Zone Program (Texas) < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Texas Program Type Corporate Tax Incentive Enterprise Zone Provider Texas Wide Open for Business The Enterprise Zone Program eligible projects to apply for state sales and use tax refunds on purchases of all taxable items purchased for use at qualified business sites related to the project or activity. The level and amount of refund is related to the capital investment and jobs created at the qualified business site. In addition, local communities must offer incentives to participants under the enterprise zone program, such as tax

295

V12-0159.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

VadoseZoneJournal.org VadoseZoneJournal.org Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments Contaminants in vadose zone environments pose a long-term source and threat to groundwater resources, human health, and the environment. A number of technical, regulatory, and policy challenges and opportuni es are associated with contamina on in vadose zone environments, par cularly in remedia on. In this special sec on, 12 papers present novel approaches to characterize, monitor, remediate, and predict the transport and fate of contaminants in vadose zone environments. Abbrevia ons: LNAPL, light nonaqueous phase liquid. Vadose zone contamina on is a signifi cant global issue for protection of ground- water resources. While much of the focus is generally on arid and semiarid regions, vadose

296

Pilot Residential Deep Energy Retrofits and the PNNL Lab Homes  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes research investigating the technical and economic feasibility of several pilot deep energy retrofits, or retrofits that save 30% to 50% or more on a whole-house basis while increasing comfort, durability, combustion safety, and indoor air quality. The work is being conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program as part of the Building America Program. As part of the overall program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers are collecting and analyzing a comprehensive dataset that describes pre- and post-retrofit energy consumption, retrofit measure cost, health and comfort impacts, and other pertinent information for each home participating in the study. The research and data collection protocol includes recruitment of candidate residences, a thorough test-in audit, home energy modeling, and generation of retrofit measure recommendations, implementation of the measures, test-out, and continued evaluation. On some homes, more detailed data will be collected to disaggregate energy-consumption information. This multi-year effort began in October 2010. To date, the PNNL team has performed test-in audits on 51 homes in the marine, cold, and hot-humid climate zones, and completed 3 retrofits in Texas, 10 in Florida, and 2 in the Pacific Northwest. Two of the retrofits are anticipated to save 50% or more in energy bills and the others - savings are in the 30% to 40% range. Fourteen other retrofits are under way in the three climate zones. Metering equipment has been installed in seven of these retrofits - three in Texas, three in Florida, and one in the Pacific Northwest. This report is an interim update, providing information on the research protocol and status of the PNNL deep energy retrofit project as of December, 2011. The report also presents key findings and lessons learned, based on the body of work to date. In addition, the report summarizes the status of the PNNL Lab Homes that are new manufactured homes procured with minimal energy-efficiency specifications typical of existing homes in the region, and sited on the PNNL campus. The Lab Homes serve as a flexible test facility (the first of its kind in the Pacific Northwest) to rapidly evaluate energy-efficient and grid-smart technologies that are applicable to residential construction.

Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Parker, Graham B.; Sande, Susan; Blanchard, Jeremy; Stroer, Dennis; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Streamside Management Zones (Montana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Streamside Management Zones (Montana) Streamside Management Zones (Montana) Streamside Management Zones (Montana) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Montana Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation This chapter sets streamside management zones as encompassing a strip at

298

Enterprise Zone Incentives (Florida) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Incentives (Florida) Incentives (Florida) Enterprise Zone Incentives (Florida) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fuel Distributor Industrial Retail Supplier Systems Integrator Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Florida Program Type Enterprise Zone Provider Florida Department of Economic Opportunity Enterprise Zone Incentives encourage business growth within certain geographic areas targeted for economic revitalization. Businesses which create jobs within a designated zone are eligible for several tax incentives, including sales and use tax credit, tax refunds for machinery or equipment, sales tax refund for building materials, and a sales tax exemption for electrical energy

299

Eulerian Measurements of the North Atlantic Deep Water Deep Western Boundary Current at 18S  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An 18-month time series of moored current meter observations near 18S in the Atlantic is used to study the deep western boundary current (DWBC) of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). This flow is taken to extend from about the shelf break seaward ...

Georges L. Weatherly; Yoo Yin Kim; Evgeny A. Kontar

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Harnessing the Deep Web: Present and Future  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past few years, we have built a system that has exposed large volumes of Deep-Web content to Google.com users. The content that our system exposes contributes to more than 1000 search queries per-second and spans over 50 languages and hundreds of domains. The Deep Web has long been acknowledged to be a major source of structured data on the web, and hence accessing Deep-Web content has long been a problem of interest in the data management community. In this paper, we report on where we believe the Deep Web provides value and where it does not. We contrast two very different approaches to exposing Deep-Web content -- the surfacing approach that we used, and the virtual integration approach that has often been pursued in the data management literature. We emphasize where the values of each of the two approaches lie and caution against potential pitfalls. We outline important areas of future research and, in particular, emphasize the value that can be derived from analyzing large collections of potenti...

Madhavan, Jayant; Antova, Lyublena; Halevy, Alon

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A Prognostic Relationship for Entrainment Zone Thickness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thickness of the entrainment zone at the top of the atmospheric mixed layer is analyzed using measurements made with a ground-based lidar during the BLX83 and CIRCE field programs. When the entrainment-zone depth normalized by mixed-layer ...

Eric Nelson; Roland Stull; Edwin Eloranta

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Climate Zone 7B | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

B B Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 7 and Climate Zone Subtype B. Climate Zone 7A is defined as Very Cold with IP Units 9000 < HDD65ºF ≤ 12600 and SI Units 5000 < HDD18ºC ≤ 7000 . The following places are categorized as class 7B climate zones: Clear Creek County, Colorado Grand County, Colorado Gunnison County, Colorado Hinsdale County, Colorado Jackson County, Colorado Lake County, Colorado Lincoln County, Wyoming Mineral County, Colorado Park County, Colorado Pitkin County, Colorado Rio Grande County, Colorado Routt County, Colorado San Juan County, Colorado Sublette County, Wyoming Summit County, Colorado Teton County, Wyoming Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Climate_Zone_7B&oldid=2161

303

Climate Zone 6B | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Climate Zone 6B Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 6 and Climate Zone Subtype B. Climate Zone 6B is defined as Dry with IP Units 7200 < HDD65ºF ≤ 9000 and SI Units 4000 < HDD18ºC ≤ 5000 . The following places are categorized as class 6B climate zones: Adams County, Idaho Alamosa County, Colorado Albany County, Wyoming Alpine County, California Archuleta County, Colorado Bannock County, Idaho Bear Lake County, Idaho Beaverhead County, Montana Big Horn County, Montana Big Horn County, Wyoming

304

Climate Zone 4C | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Climate Zone 4C Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 4 and Climate Zone Subtype C. Climate Zone 4C is defined as Mixed - Marine with IP Units 3600 < HDD65ºF ≤ 5400 and SI Units 2000 < HDD18ºC ≤ 3000 . The following places are categorized as class 4C climate zones: Benton County, Oregon Clackamas County, Oregon Clallam County, Washington Clark County, Washington Clatsop County, Oregon Columbia County, Oregon Coos County, Oregon Cowlitz County, Washington Curry County, Oregon Douglas County, Oregon

305

Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

Ferguson, K.L.

1994-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

306

Trace Element Geochemical Zoning in the Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Trace Element Geochemical Zoning in the Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Trace Element Geochemical Zoning in the Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah Abstract Chemical interaction of thermal brines with reservoir rock in the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area has resulted in the development of distinctive trace element signatures. Geochemical analysis of soil sample, shallow temperature gradient drill hole cuttings and deep drill hole cutting provides a three dimensional perspective of trace element distributions within the system. Distributions of As, Hg and Li provide the clearest expression of hydrothermal activity. Comparison of these distribution

307

Review of Literature on Terminal Box Control, Occupancy Sensing Technology and Multi-zone Demand Control Ventilation (DCV)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents an overall review of the standard requirement, the terminal box control, occupancy sensing technology and DCV. There is system-specific guidance for single-zone systems, but DCV application guidance for multi-zone variable air volume (VAV) systems is not available. No real-world implementation case studies have been found using the CO2-based DCV. The review results also show that the constant minimum air flow set point causes excessive fan power consumption and potential simultaneous heating and cooling. Occupancy-based control (OBC) is needed for the terminal box in order to achieve deep energy savings. Key to OBC is a technology for sensing the actual occupancy of the zone served in real time. Several technologies show promise, but none currently fully meets the need with adequate accuracy and sufficiently low cost.

Liu, Guopeng; Dasu, Aravind R.; Zhang, Jian

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Deep Laboratory Supporting Vital National Security Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, work began on the nearly 200,000-square-foot Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) complex that will house by the accelerated cleanup of the Hanford Site's 300 Area. This federally financed replacement facility is jointly - Office of Nonproliferation Research and Engineering DeeP Laboratory DesigN features April 2009 PNNL

309

Deep Space Formation Flying Spacecraft Path Planning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Efficient algorithms for collision-free energy sub-optimal path planning for formations of spacecraft flying in deep space are presented. The idea is to introduce a set of way-points through which the spacecraft are required to pass, combined with ... Keywords: formation flying spacecraft, path planning for multiple mobile robot systems, trajectory generation

Cornel Sultan; Sanjeev Seereram; Raman K. Mehra

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Gravity Currents in a Deep Anelastic Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents analytic results for steady gravity currents in a channel using the deep anelastic equations. Results are cast in terms of a nondimensional parameter H/H0 that relates the channel depth H to a scale depth H0 (the depth at ...

George H. Bryan; Richard Rotunno

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Underwater Vehicles for Deep Ocean Exploration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Underwater Vehicles for Deep Ocean Exploration Louis L. Whitcomb Ph.D. Associate Professor Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C. March 8, 2003 Outline · Introduction to Underwater Robotics · Johns Hopkins University Research Vehicle: JHU ROV · Research in Underwater Vehicle Navigation: ­ DVLNAV Navigation Program

Whitcomb, Louis L.

312

A Simple Method for Measuring Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The glass-pipe technology used for RAFOS floats is applied to the monitoring of convection in deep mixed layers. The velocity of a vertical current is estimated from the relationship between the drag force exerted on a float by the vertical ...

Edward J. Kearns; H. Thomas Rossby

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Current Status of Deep Geological Repository Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This talk provided an overview of the current status of deep-geological-repository development worldwide. Its principal observation is that a broad consensus exists internationally that deep-geological disposal is the only long-term solution for disposition of highly radioactive nuclear waste. Also, it is now clear that the institutional and political aspects are as important as the technical aspects in achieving overall progress. Different nations have taken different approaches to overall management of their highly radioactive wastes. Some have begun active programs to develop a deep repository for permanent disposal: the most active such programs are in the United States, Sweden, and Finland. Other countries (including France and Russia) are still deciding on whether to proceed quickly to develop such a repository, while still others (including the UK, China, Japan) have affirmatively decided to delay repository development for a long time, typically for a generation of two. In recent years, a major conclusion has been reached around the world that there is very high confidence that deep repositories can be built, operated, and closed safely and can meet whatever safety requirements are imposed by the regulatory agencies. This confidence, which has emerged in the last few years, is based on extensive work around the world in understanding how repositories behave, including both the engineering aspects and the natural-setting aspects, and how they interact together. The construction of repositories is now understood to be technically feasible, and no major barriers have been identified that would stand in the way of a successful project. Another major conclusion around the world is that the overall cost of a deep repository is not as high as some had predicted or feared. While the actual cost will not be known in detail until the costs are incurred, the general consensus is that the total life-cycle cost will not exceed a few percent of the value of the electricity generated by the power reactors that have produced the waste. Of course, the current international situation is that no nation is currently willing to take any radioactive waste from another nation for deep disposal. This means that every nation will ultimately need to develop its own deep repository. This makes no sense, however--many nations have only a modest amount of waste, or do not have appropriate geological settings for a repository, or both. Ultimately, the need for one or more multi-national or international repositories will emerge, although so far this has not happened.

Budnitz, R J

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

314

Category:County Climate Zones | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

County Climate Zones County Climate Zones Jump to: navigation, search This category contains county climate zone information in the United States of America. Contents: Top - 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Pages in category "County Climate Zones" The following 200 pages are in this category, out of 3,141 total. (previous 200) (next 200) A Abbeville County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Acadia Parish, Louisiana ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Accomack County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Ada County, Idaho ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Adair County, Iowa ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Adair County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Adair County, Missouri ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Adair County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone

315

Deep borehole disposition of surplus fissile materials-The site selection process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One option for disposing of excess weapons plutonium is to place it near the base of deep boreholes in stable crystalline rocks. The technology exists to immediately begin the design of this means of disposition and there are many attractive sites available within the conterminous US. The borehole system utilizes mainly natural barriers to preven migration of Pu and U to the Earth`s surface. Careful site selection ensures favorable geologic conditions that provide natural long-lived migration barriers; they include deep, extremely stable rock formations, strongly reducing brines that exhibit increasing salinity with depth, and most importantly, demonstrated isolation or non-communication of deep fluids with the biosphere for millions of years. This isolation is the most important characteristic, with the other conditions mainly being those that will enhance the potential of locating and maintaining the isolated zones. Candidate sites will probably be located on the craton in very old Precambrian crystalline rocks, most likely the center of a granitic pluton. The sites will be located in tectonically stable areas with no recent volcanic or seismic activity, and situated away from tectonic features that might become active in the near geologic future.

Heiken, G.; WoldeGabriel, G.; Morley, R.; Plannerer, H

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Observing Surf-Zone Dispersion with Drifters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surf-zone dispersion is studied using drifter observations collected within about 200 m of the shoreline (at depths of less than about 5 m) on a beach with approximately alongshore uniform bathymetry and waves. There were about 70 individual ...

Matthew Spydell; Falk Feddersen; R. T. Guza; W. E. Schmidt

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Climate Zone 3C | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

C C Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 3 and Climate Zone Subtype C. Climate Zone 3C is defined as Warm - Marine with IP Units CDD50ºF ≤ 4500 AND HDD65ºF ≤ 3600 and SI Units CDD10ºC ≤ 2500 AND HDD18ºC ≤ 2000 . The following places are categorized as class 3C climate zones: Alameda County, California Marin County, California Mendocino County, California Monterey County, California Napa County, California San Benito County, California San Francisco County, California San Luis Obispo County, California San Mateo County, California Santa Barbara County, California Santa Clara County, California Santa Cruz County, California Sonoma County, California Ventura County, California

318

Climate Zone 3A | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

A A Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 3 and Climate Zone Subtype A. Climate Zone 3A is defined as Warm - Humid with IP Units 4500 < CDD50ºF ≤ 6300 and SI Units 2500 < CDD10ºC < 3500 . The following places are categorized as class 3A climate zones: Abbeville County, South Carolina Adair County, Oklahoma Adams County, Mississippi Aiken County, South Carolina Alcorn County, Mississippi Alfalfa County, Oklahoma Allendale County, South Carolina Amite County, Mississippi Anderson County, South Carolina Anson County, North Carolina Archer County, Texas Arkansas County, Arkansas Ashley County, Arkansas Atoka County, Oklahoma Attala County, Mississippi Autauga County, Alabama Baldwin County, Georgia

319

Definition: Accommodation Zone | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Accommodation Zone Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Accommodation Zone Accommodation zones occur at fault intersections consisting of belts of interlocking, oppositely dipping normal faults. Multiple subsurface fault intersections in these zones are a favorable host for geothermal activity.[2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition References ↑ James E. Faulds,Nicholas H. Hinz,Mark F. Coolbaugh,Patricia H. Cashman,Christopher Kratt,Gregory Dering,Joel Edwards,Brett Mayhew,Holly McLachlan. 2011. Assessment of Favorable Structural Settings of Geothermal Systems in the Great Basin, Western USA. In: Transactions. GRC Anual Meeting; 2011/10/23; San Diego, CA. Davis, CA: Geothermal Resources

320

Climate Zone Number 7 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone Number 7 Climate Zone Number 7 Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard. Climate Zone Number 7 is defined as Very Cold with IP Units 9000 < HDD65ºF ≤ 12600 and SI Units 5000 < HDD18ºC ≤ 7000 . The following places are categorized as class 7 climate zones: Aitkin County, Minnesota Aleutians East Borough, Alaska Aleutians West Census Area, Alaska Anchorage Borough, Alaska Aroostook County, Maine Ashland County, Wisconsin Baraga County, Michigan Barnes County, North Dakota Bayfield County, Wisconsin Becker County, Minnesota Beltrami County, Minnesota Benson County, North Dakota Bottineau County, North Dakota Bristol Bay Borough, Alaska Burke County, North Dakota Burnett County, Wisconsin Carlton County, Minnesota Cass County, Minnesota

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Climate Zone 2B | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

B B Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 2 and Climate Zone Subtype B. Climate Zone 2B is defined as Dry with IP Units 6300 < CDD50ºF ≤ 9000 and SI Units 3500 < CDD10ºC ≤ 5000 . The following places are categorized as class 2B climate zones: Bandera County, Texas Dimmit County, Texas Edwards County, Texas Frio County, Texas Imperial County, California Kinney County, Texas La Paz County, Arizona La Salle County, Texas Maricopa County, Arizona Maverick County, Texas Medina County, Texas Pima County, Arizona Pinal County, Arizona Real County, Texas Uvalde County, Texas Val Verde County, Texas Webb County, Texas Yuma County, Arizona Zapata County, Texas Zavala County, Texas Retrieved from

322

Climate Zone 4A | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

A A Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 4 and Climate Zone Subtype A. Climate Zone 4A is defined as Mixed - Humid with IP Units CDD50ºF ≤ 4500 AND 3600 < HDD65ºF ≤ 5400 and SI Units CDD10ºC ≤ 2500 AND HDD18ºC ≤ 3000 . The following places are categorized as class 4A climate zones: Accomack County, Virginia Adair County, Kentucky Adams County, Ohio Alamance County, North Carolina Albemarle County, Virginia Alexander County, Illinois Alexander County, North Carolina Alexandria County, Virginia Allegany County, Maryland Alleghany County, Virginia Allen County, Kansas Allen County, Kentucky Amelia County, Virginia Amherst County, Virginia Anderson County, Kansas Anderson County, Kentucky

323

Climate Zone 4B | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

B B Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 4 and Climate Zone Subtype B. Climate Zone 4B is defined as Dry with IP Units CDD50ºF ≤ 4500 AND 3600 < HDD65ºF ≤ 5400 and SI Units CDD10ºC ≤ 2500 AND HDD18ºC ≤ 3000 . The following places are categorized as class 4B climate zones: Amador County, California Armstrong County, Texas Baca County, Colorado Bailey County, Texas Beaver County, Oklahoma Bernalillo County, New Mexico Briscoe County, Texas Calaveras County, California Carson County, Texas Castro County, Texas Cibola County, New Mexico Cimarron County, Oklahoma Cochran County, Texas Curry County, New Mexico Dallam County, Texas De Baca County, New Mexico Deaf Smith County, Texas

324

Climate Zone 6A | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard consisting of Climate Zone Number 6 and Climate Zone Subtype A. Climate Zone 6A is defined as Cold - Humid with IP Units 7200 < HDD65ºF ≤ 9000 and SI Units 4000 < HDD18ºC ≤ 5000 . The following places are categorized as class 6A climate zones: Adams County, North Dakota Adams County, Wisconsin Addison County, Vermont Alcona County, Michigan Alger County, Michigan Allamakee County, Iowa Allegany County, New York Alpena County, Michigan Androscoggin County, Maine Anoka County, Minnesota Antrim County, Michigan Arenac County, Michigan Aurora County, South Dakota Barron County, Wisconsin Beadle County, South Dakota Belknap County, New Hampshire Bennington County, Vermont

325

Pine Tree Development Zones Program (Maine)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Pine Tree Development Zones program offers eligible businesses the chance to reduce, and sometimes eliminate, state taxes for up to ten years. There is a statutory requirement of hiring a...

326

Climate Zone Number 8 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Climate Zone Number 8 Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE...

327

Climate Zone 1A | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Climate Zone 1A Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE...

328

Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

Ulloa, Osvaldo

329

Seismic imaging of the mantle transition zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, we developed a generalized Radon transform of SS precursors for large-scale, high-resolution seismo-stratigraphy of the upper mantle transition zone. The generalized Radon transform (GRT) is based on the ...

Cao, Qin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Zone control system for energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

A zone control system adapted to control temperatures in a building is described having a temperature modifying plant to modify the temperature of a heat exchange medium, circulator means to circulate the medium, and flow control means to regulate the flow of the medium. The system includes zone thermostats with one thermostat per controlled zone, and with each thermostat including temperature responsive means and heat anticipator means to modify the temperature of the temperature responsive means; at least one of the flow control means per controlled zone, and each of the flow control means being capable of energizing the circulator means when the flow control means operates to permit circulation of the heat exchange medium; each zone thermostat including on-off timer means having normally open switch means, and further including intermediate on timer means having normally open switch means; first zone control circuit means including a temperature responsive means of the first thermostat, a heat anticipator means of the first thermostat, and circuit means with normally closed switch means capable of energizing a first flow control means to an open position upon the first thermostat calling for operation of the temperature modifying plant. The timer means of the first thermostat is actuated by the first thermostat calling for operation of the temperature modifying plant; a first of the on-off timer means operating its switch means to an on state after a fixed time interval to latch the first flow control means into an open condition; a first of the intermediate on timer means operating its switch means to an on state after a second fixed time interval to energize the modifying plant and complete a circuit to a secondary anticipation heater of a second zone thermostat capable of adding heat to the second zone thermostat; and the first on-off timer means maintaining its switch means closed.

Nelson, L.W.

1986-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

331

Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

332

U-PLANT GEOGRAPHIC ZONE CLEANUP PROTOTYPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as ''cleanup items'') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will provide a focal point for integrating UPZ actions, including field cleanup activities, waste staging and handling, and post-cleanup monitoring and institutional controls.

ROMINE, L.D.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

Vinegar, Harold J

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

334

PHOTOMULTIPLIER CHARACTERISTICS CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEEP UNDERWATER MUON AND NEUTRINO DETECTION SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Presented at the Deep Underwater Huon and Neutrino DetectionCONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEEP UNDERWATER HUON AND NEUTRINOPresented at the Deep Underwater Huon and Neutrino Detection

Leskovar, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

NETL: Releases & Briefs - Deep Ocean in the Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deep Ocean in the Lab Deep Ocean in the Lab Researchers at DOEs National Energy Technology Laboratory have designed and constructed a high-pressure water tunnel that simulates...

336

The geomechanics of CO2 storage in deep sedimentary formations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unminable coalformations, including oil and gas reservoirs and deep salineGCS consist mainly of oil and gas reservoirs and deep saline

Rutqvist, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Gulf of California Rift Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gulf of California Rift Zone Geothermal Region Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Gulf of California Rift Zone Geothermal Region edit Details Areas (15)...

338

Anderson County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Anderson County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, South Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

339

Androscoggin County, Maine ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Androscoggin County, Maine ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Androscoggin County, Maine ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

340

Bennington County, Vermont ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bennington County, Vermont ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Bennington County, Vermont ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Abbeville County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Abbeville County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Abbeville County, South Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

342

Baltimore County, Maryland ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Baltimore County, Maryland ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Baltimore County, Maryland ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

343

Barnwell County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Barnwell County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Barnwell County, South Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

344

Berkshire County, Massachusetts ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Berkshire County, Massachusetts ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Berkshire County, Massachusetts ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

345

Aleutians East Borough, Alaska ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Aleutians East Borough, Alaska ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Aleutians East Borough, Alaska ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

346

Alexander County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Alexander County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alexander County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

347

Albemarle County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Albemarle County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Albemarle County, Virginia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

348

Berks County, Pennsylvania ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Berks County, Pennsylvania ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Berks County, Pennsylvania ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

349

Bayfield County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bayfield County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Bayfield County, Wisconsin ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

350

Alamance County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Alamance County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alamance County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

351

Archuleta County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Archuleta County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Archuleta County, Colorado ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

352

Beauregard Parish, Louisiana ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Beauregard Parish, Louisiana ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Beauregard Parish, Louisiana ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

353

Allendale County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Allendale County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Allendale County, South Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

354

Baltimore City County, Maryland ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Baltimore City County, Maryland ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Baltimore City County, Maryland ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

355

Berkeley County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Berkeley County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Berkeley County, South Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

356

Alameda County, California ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Alameda County, California ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alameda County,...

357

Bedford City County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone |...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bedford City County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Bedford City County, Virginia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

358

Beaufort County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

History Facebook icon Twitter icon Beaufort County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Beaufort County, North...

359

Alleghany County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Alleghany County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alleghany County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

360

Aitkin County, Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Aitkin County, Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Aitkin County, Minnesota...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Barbour County, West Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone |...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Barbour County, West Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Barbour County, West Virginia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

362

Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

363

Beltrami County, Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Beltrami County, Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Beltrami County, Minnesota ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

364

Belknap County, New Hampshire ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone |...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Belknap County, New Hampshire ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Belknap County, New Hampshire ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

365

Bertie County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone |...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bertie County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Bertie County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

366

Arlington County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Arlington County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Arlington County, Virginia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

367

Bamberg County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bamberg County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Bamberg County, South Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

368

Geographic Information System At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geographic Information System At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration...

369

Geographic Information System At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geographic Information System At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2005 - 2) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal...

370

Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City:...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

& Publications Reference Buildings by Climate Zone and Representative City: 2A Houston, Texas Reference Buildings by Building Type: Small Hotel Reference Buildings by Climate Zone...

371

Baoding High Tech Industry Development Zone | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zone" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleBaodingHighTechIndustryDevelopmentZone&oldid342524" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies...

372

Pages that link to "Baoding High Tech Industry Development Zone...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zone. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwikiSpecial:WhatLinksHereBaodingHighTechIndustryDevelopmentZone" Special pages About us Disclaimers Energy blogs Developer...

373

Variation in sericite composition from fracture zones within...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

zones of the crystalline basement contain coarse-grained relict muscovite, whereas rock alteration near fracture zones at temperatures > 150C is characterized by abundant...

374

Renewable Energy Generation Zone Property Tax Abatement | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Generation Zone Property Tax Abatement Renewable Energy Generation Zone Property Tax Abatement Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings For Bioenergy Biofuels Alternative Fuel...

375

Details of U.S. Climate Zones:  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Details of U.S. Climate Zones Details of U.S. Climate Zones Details of U.S. Climate Zones: The CBECS climate zones are groups of climate divisions, as defined by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which are regions within a state that are as climatically homogeneous as possible. Each NOAA climate division is placed into one of five CBECS climate zones based on its 30-year average heating degree-days (HDD) and cooling degree-days (CDD) for the period 1971 through 2000. (These climate zones have been updated for the 2003 CBECS. All previous CBECS used averages for the 45-year period from 1931 through 1975.) A HDD is a measure of how cold a location was over a period of time, relative to a base temperature (in CBECS, 65 degrees Fahrenheit). The heating degree-day is the difference between that day's average temperature and 65 degrees if the daily average is less than 65; it is zero if the daily average temperature is greater than or equal to 65. For example, if the average temperature for a given day is 40 degrees, then the heating degree-days for that single day equal 25. Heating degree-days for a year are the sum of the daily heating degree-days that year.

376

Deep NLD Plasma Etching of Fused Silica and Borosilicate Glass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 92697 Email: mahamed@uci.edu Abstract-- In this paper, we report development of deep plasma etching

Tang, William C

377

Surface CO2 leakage during the first shallow subsurface CO2 release experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

verification of geologic carbon sequestration, Geophys. Res.from geologic carbon sequestration sites: unsaturated zoneCO 2 from geologic carbon sequestration sites, Vadose Zone

Lewicki, J.L.; Oldenburg, C.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

U-Sr isotopic speedometer: Fluid flow and chemical weathering rates inaquifers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

zone sediment from the Hanford ReservationRCRA boreholecontamination at the Hanford Site in Washington using high-vadose zone pore fluids at Hanford, Washington: implications

Maher, Kate; DePaolo, Donald J.; Christensen, John N.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Deep Frying: Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical ApplicationsChapter 20 Sensory Evaluation of Frying Fat and Deep-Fried Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep Frying: Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical Applications Chapter 20 Sensory Evaluation of Frying Fat and Deep-Fried Products Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Bioch

380

Deep Frying: Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical ApplicationsChapter 4 Volatile Odor and Flavor Components Formed in Deep Frying  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep Frying: Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical Applications Chapter 4 Volatile Odor and Flavor Components Formed in Deep Frying Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Bioch

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

SOAJ Search : Main View : Deep Federated Search  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

SOAJ Search SOAJ Search Search Powered By Deep Web Technologies New Search Preferences Powered by Deep Web Technologies HOME ABOUT ADVANCED SEARCH CONTACT US HELP Science Open Access Journals (SOAJ) Science Open Access Journals Main View This view is used for searching all possible sources. Additional Information Keyword: Title: Additional Information Author: Fields to Match: All Any Field(s) Additional Information Date Range: Beginning Date Range Pick Year 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 toEnding Date Range Pick Year 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 DWT Logo Search Clear All Help Simple Search Select All

382

Deep Bed Iodine Sorbent Testing FY 2011 Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products that increasingly interfere with the fission process as their concentrations increase. Some of these fission and activation products tend to evolve in gaseous species during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Analyses have shown that I129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Deep-bed iodine sorption testing has been done to evaluate the performance of solid sorbents for capturing iodine in off-gas streams from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The objectives of the FY 2011 deep bed iodine sorbent testing are: (1) Evaluate sorbents for iodine capture under various conditions of gas compositions and operating temperature (determine sorption efficiencies, capacities, and mass transfer zone depths); and (2) Generate data for dynamic iodine sorption modeling. Three tests performed this fiscal year on silver zeolite light phase (AgZ-LP) sorbent are reported here. Additional tests are still in progress and can be reported in a revision of this report or a future report. Testing was somewhat delayed and limited this year due to initial activities to address some questions of prior testing, and due to a period of maintenance for the on-line GC. Each test consisted of (a) flowing a synthetic blend of gases designed to be similar to an aqueous dissolver off-gas stream over the sorbent contained in three separate bed segments in series, (b) measuring each bed inlet and outlet gas concentrations of iodine and methyl iodide (the two surrogates of iodine gas species considered most representative of iodine species expected in dissolver off-gas), (c) operating for a long enough time to achieve breakthrough of the iodine species from at least one (preferably the first two) bed segments, and (d) post-test purging with pure N2 to drive loosely or physisorbed iodine species off of the sorbent. Post-test calculations determine the control efficiencies for each bed, iodine loadings on the sorbent, and mass transfer zone depths. Portions of the iodine-laden sorbent from the first bed of two of the tests have been shipped to SNL for waste form studies. Over the past three years, we have explored a full range of inlet iodine and methyl iodide concentrations ranging from {approx}100 ppb to {approx}100 ppm levels, and shown adequate control efficiencies within a bed depth as shallow as 2 inches for lower concentrations and 4 inches for higher concentrations, for the AgZ-type sorbents. We are now performing a limited number of tests in the NC-77 sorbent from SNL. Then we plan to continue to (a) fill in data gaps needed for isotherms and dynamic sorbent modeling, and (b) test the performance of additional sorbents under development.

Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Kenya-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Kenya-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Kenya-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Name Kenya-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Agency/Company /Organization Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International Partner European Union (EU), the Netherlands Sector Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Economic Development, Grid Assessment and Integration, Industry, People and Policy Topics Adaptation, Background analysis, Finance, Implementation, Low emission development planning, Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment Website http://www.gvepinternational.o Program Start 2008 Program End 2013 Country Kenya Eastern Africa References Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP)[1]

384

Uganda-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Uganda-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Uganda-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Uganda-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Name Uganda-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Agency/Company /Organization Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International Partner European Union (EU), the Netherlands Sector Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Economic Development, Grid Assessment and Integration, Industry, People and Policy Topics Adaptation, Background analysis, Finance, Implementation, Low emission development planning, Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment Website http://www.gvepinternational.o Program Start 2008 Program End 2013 Country Uganda Eastern Africa References Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP)[1]

385

Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Enterprises Project (DEEP) Enterprises Project (DEEP) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Name Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Agency/Company /Organization Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International Partner European Union (EU), the Netherlands Sector Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Economic Development, Grid Assessment and Integration, Industry, People and Policy Topics Adaptation, Background analysis, Finance, Implementation, Low emission development planning, Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment Website http://www.gvepinternational.o Program Start 2008 Program End 2013 Country Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda Eastern Africa, Eastern Africa, Eastern Africa References Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP)[1]

386

Tanzania-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tanzania-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Tanzania-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Tanzania-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Name Tanzania-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Agency/Company /Organization Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International Partner European Union (EU), the Netherlands Sector Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Economic Development, Grid Assessment and Integration, Industry, People and Policy Topics Adaptation, Background analysis, Finance, Implementation, Low emission development planning, Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment Website http://www.gvepinternational.o Program Start 2008 Program End 2013 Country Tanzania Eastern Africa References Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP)[1]

387

Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing and evolve in gaseous species into the reprocessing facility off-gas systems. Analyses have shown that I-129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Iodine capture is an important aspect of the Separations and Waste Forms Campaign Off-gas Sigma Team (Jubin 2011, Pantano 2011). Deep-bed iodine sorption tests for both silver-functionalized Aerogel and silver zeolite sorbents were performed during Fiscal Year 2012. These tests showed that: Decontamination factors were achieved that exceed reasonably conservative estimates for DFs needed for used fuel reprocessing facilities in the U.S. to meet regulatory requirements for I-129 capture. Silver utilizations approached or exceeded 100% for high inlet gas iodine concentrations, but test durations were not long enough to approach 100% silver utilization for lower iodine concentrations. The depth of the mass transfer zone was determined for both low iodine concentrations (under 10 ppmv) and for higher iodine concentrations (between 10-50 ppmv); the depth increases over time as iodine is sorbed. These sorbents capture iodine by chemisorption, where the sorbed iodine reacts with the silver to form very non-volatile AgI. Any sorbed iodine that is physisorbed but not chemically reacted with silver to form AgI might not be tightly held by the sorbent. The portion of sorbed iodine that tends to desorb because it is not chemisorbed (reacted to form AgI) is small, under 1%, for the AgZ tests, and even smaller, under 0.01%, for the silver-functionalized Aerogel.

Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Regional and Local Trends in helium isotopes, basin and rangeprovince, western North America: Evidence for deep permeablepathways  

SciTech Connect

Fluids from the western margin of the Basin and Range have helium isotope ratios as high as {approx}6-7 Ra, indicating a strong mantle melt influence and consistent with recent and current volcanic activity. Moving away from these areas, helium isotope ratios decrease rapidly to ''background'' values of around 0.6 Ra, and then gradually decrease toward the east to low values of {approx}0.1 Ra at the eastern margin of the Basin and Range. Superimposed on this general regional trend are isolated features with elevated helium isotope ratios (0.8-2.1 Ra) compared to the local background. Spring geochemistry and local geology indicate that these ''He-spikes'' are not related to current or recent magmatic activity, suggesting that the spikes may reflect either localized zones deep mantle melting or deep permeable pathways (faults) with high vertical fluid flowrates. A detailed study of one of the He-spikes (Dixie Valley and the Stillwater Range Front Fault system), indicates that features with high 3He/4He ratios are confined to the range front normal faults characteristic of the extensional regime in the Basin and Range, suggesting that these faults are deep permeable pathways. However, not all range front fault systems transmit fluids with a mantle signature, implying that not all have deep permeable pathways.

Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Earthquake Patterns in Diverse Tectonic Zones of the Globe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fast ridge. * western Aleutians orogen: (4) Trench. * geographic name like Aleutian; instead, each zone has a

Kagan, Y. Y.; Bird, P.; Jackson, D. D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation (DSGRE-AE) is to evaluate the postulated hypothesis that a hydrogen GRE may occur in Hanford tanks containing waste sludges at levels greater than previously experienced. There is a need to understand gas retention and release hazards in sludge beds which are 200 -300 inches deep. These sludge beds are deeper than historical Hanford sludge waste beds, and are created when waste is retrieved from older single-shell tanks (SST) and transferred to newer double-shell tanks (DST).Retrieval of waste from SSTs reduces the risk to the environment from leakage or potential leakage of waste into the ground from these tanks. However, the possibility of an energetic event (flammable gas accident) in the retrieval receiver DST is worse than slow leakage. Lines of inquiry, therefore, are (1) can sludge waste be stored safely in deep beds; (2) can gas release events (GRE) be prevented by periodically degassing the sludge (e.g., mixer pump); or (3) does the retrieval strategy need to be altered to limit sludge bed height by retrieving into additional DSTs? The scope of this effort is to provide expert advice on whether or not to move forward with the generation of deep beds of sludge through retrieval of C-Farm tanks. Evaluation of possible mitigation methods (e.g., using mixer pumps to release gas, retrieving into an additional DST) are being evaluated by a second team and are not discussed in this report. While available data and engineering judgment indicate that increased gas retention (retained gas fraction) in DST sludge at depths resulting from the completion of SST 241-C Tank Farm retrievals is not expected and, even if gas releases were to occur, they would be small and local, a positive USQ was declared (Occurrence Report EM-RP--WRPS-TANKFARM-2012-0014, "Potential Exists for a Large Spontaneous Gas Release Event in Deep Settled Waste Sludge"). The purpose of this technical report is to (1) present and discuss current understandings of gas retention and release mechanisms for deep sludge in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex waste storage tanks; and (2) to identify viable methods/criteria for demonstrating safety relative to deep sludge gas release events (DSGRE) in the near term to support the Hanford C-Farm retrieval mission. A secondary purpose is to identify viable methods/criteria for demonstrating safety relative to DSGREs in the longer term to support the mission to retrieve waste from the Hanford Tank Farms and deliver it to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The potential DSGRE issue resulted in the declaration of a positive Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ). C-Farm retrievals are currently proceeding under a Justification for Continued Operation (JCO) that only allows tanks 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106 sludge levels of 192 inches and 195 inches, respectively. C-Farm retrievals need deeper sludge levels (approximately 310 inches in 241-AN-101 and approximately 250 inches in 241-AN-106). This effort is to provide analytical data and justification to continue retrievals in a safe and efficient manner.

Sams, Terry L.

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Opportunity and Enterprise Zones (Oklahoma) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Opportunity and Enterprise Zones (Oklahoma) Opportunity and Enterprise Zones (Oklahoma) Opportunity and Enterprise Zones (Oklahoma) < Back Eligibility Utility Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Retail Supplier Institutional Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Transportation Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Oklahoma Program Type Enterprise Zone Provider Oklahoma Department of Commerce Opportunity and Enterprise Zones provide enhanced financial incentives for businesses located in such zones aimed at stimulating economic expansion in rural and disadvantaged communities Opportunity Zones are those census

392

Zoned electrical heater arranged in spaced relationship from particulate filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Definition: Displacement Transfer Zone | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Displacement Transfer Zone Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Displacement Transfer Zone Displacement transfer zones facilitate the transfer of strain between normal and strike-slip faults. Intersections between strike-slip faults in the Walker Lane and N- to NNE-striking normal faults commonly host geothermal systems, focused along the normal faults proximal to their dilational intersections with nearby strike-slip faults.[2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition References ↑ James E. Faulds,Nicholas H. Hinz,Mark F. Coolbaugh,Patricia H. Cashman,Christopher Kratt,Gregory Dering,Joel Edwards,Brett Mayhew,Holly McLachlan. 2011. Assessment of Favorable Structural Settings of Geothermal

394

Evolution of the conceptual model of unsaturated zone hydrology at yucca mountain, nevada  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain is an arid site proposed for consideration as the United States' first underground high-level radioactive waste repository. Low rainfall (approximately 170 mm/yr) and a thick unsaturated zone (500-1000 m) are important physical attributes of the site because the quantity of water likely to reach the waste and the paths and rates of movement of the water to the saturated zone under future climates would be major factors in controlling the concentrations and times of arrival of radionuclides at the surrounding accessible environment. The framework for understanding the hydrologic processes that occur at this site and that control how quickly water will penetrate through the unsaturated zone to the water table has evolved during the past 15 yr. Early conceptual models assumed that very small volumes of water infiltrated into the bedrock (0.5-4.5 mm/yr, or 2-3 percent of rainfall), that much of the infiltrated water flowed laterally within the upper nonwelded units because o f capillary barrier effects, and that the remaining water flowed down faults with a small amount flowing through the matrix of the lower welded, fractured rocks. It was believed that the matrix had to be saturated for fractures to show. However, accumulating evidence indicated that infiltration rates were higher than initially estimated, such as infiltration modeling based on neutron borehole data, bomb-pulse isotopes deep in the mountain, perched water analyses and thermal analyses. Mechanisms supporting lateral diversion did not apply at these higher fluxes, and the flux calculated in the lower welded unit exceeded the conductivity of the matrix, implying vertical flow of water into the high permeability fractures of the potential repository host rock, and disequilibrium between matrix and fracture water potentials. The development of numerical modeling methods and parameter values evolved concurrently with the conceptual model in order to account for the observed field data, particularly fracture flow deep in the unsaturated zone. This paper presents the history of the evolution of conceptual models of hydrology and numerical models of unsaturated zone flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (Flint, A.L., Flint, L.E., Kwicklis, E.M., Bodvarsson, G.S., Fabryka-Martin, J.M., 2001. Hydrology of Yucca Mountain. Reviews of Geophysics in press). This retrospective is the basis for recommendations for optimizing the efficiency with which a viable and robust conceptual model can be developed for a complex site. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [References: 87

Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Bodvarsson, G. S.; Kwicklis, E. M.; Fabryka-Martin, J.

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Deep Read: A Reading Comprehension System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes initial work on Deep Read, an automated reading comprehension system that accepts arbitrary text input (a story) and answers questions about it. We have acquired a corpus of 60 development and 60 test stories of 3 rd to 6 th grade material; each story is followed by short-answer questions (an answer key was also provided). We used these to construct and evaluate a baseline system that uses pattern matching (bag-of-words) techniques augmented with additional automated linguistic processing (stemming, name identification, semantic class identification, and pronoun resolution). This simple system retrieves the sentence containing the answer 30--40% of the time.

Lynette Hirschman Marc; Marc Light; Eric Breck; John D. Burger

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Deep Read: A reading comprehension system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes initial work on Deep Read, an automated reading comprehension system that accepts arbitrary text input (a story) and answers questions about it. We have acquired a corpus of 60 development and 60 test stories of 3 rd to 6 th grade material; each story is followed by short-answer questions (an answer key was also provided). We used these to construct and evaluate a baseline system that uses pattern matching (bag-of-words) techniques augmented with additional automated linguistic processing (stemming, name identification, semantic class identification, and pronoun resolution). This simple system retrieves the sentence containing the answer 3040 % of the time. 1

Lynette Hirschman; Marc Light; Eric Breck; John D. Burger

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Coiled tubing facilitates deep underbalanced workover  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recent workover shows the technical capability and cost effectiveness of coiled tubing for cleaning out scale in a 22,611-ft, low pressure, high-temperature gas well. The well, operated by Chevron USA Production Co., is in the Fort Stockton Gas Unit 5-1 Gomez (Ellenburger) field, in West Texas. The development of reliable 100,000-psi minimal yield strength coiled tubing was a major factor that allowed this work to succeed. The methods demonstrated by this workover are becoming a standard for deep well cleanouts in the Gomez (Ellenburger) field. The paper describes coiled tubing advantages, well history, and implementation.

Adams, L.S. [Chevron USA Production Co., Midland, TX (United States); Overstreet, C.C. [CUDD Pressure Control Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

398

Deep inelastic scattering and diffraction at HERA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent results on deep inelastic scattering and diffraction at HERA obtained by the H1 and ZEUS experiments are presented. The proton structure function F 2 has been measured with the 1994 data in a new kinematic region of Q 2?2 GeV2 and x?4.510?5. The rise in F 2 with decreasing x persists. Results on the determination of the gluon momentum density of the proton are also presented. The diffractive structure function has been measured using large rapidity gap events. The results are interpreted in terms of the pomeron structure.

Johnny S. T. Ng; on behalf of the H1 and ZEUS collaborations

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Near-Surface Frontal Zone Trapping and Deep Upward Propagation of Internal Wave Energy in the Japan/East Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The full-depth current structure in the Japan/East Sea was investigated using direct velocity measurements performed with lowered and shipboard acoustic current Doppler profilers. Rotary spectral analysis was used to investigate the three-...

Andrey Y. Shcherbina; Lynne D. Talley; Eric Firing; Peter Hacker

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Net community production in the deep euphotic zone of the subtropical North Pacific gyre from glider surveys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

using light emitting diode (LED) service and warning lights on their vehicles. Almost all the responding

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Airborne Pseudo-Dual-Doppler Analysis of a Rear-Inflow Jet and Deep Convergence Zone within a Supercell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 22 May 1995, numerous thunderstorms, several of which produced large hail and small tornadoes, formed along a dryline in the central and northern Texas Panhandle. The only long-lasting, daytime, severe storms developed later, south of the ...

Howard B. Bluestein; Stephen G. Gaddy

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Origin of the South Pacific Convergence Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The importance of the presence of South America and Australia to the existence and orientation of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) during January is explored using the ECMWF T21 model. Each of the continents is removed from the model and ...

George N. Kiladis; Hans von Storch; Harryvan Loon

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.

Clotworthy, A.W.; Hingoyon, C.S.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

A GPS-Tracked Surf Zone Drifter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A drifter designed to measure surf zone circulation has been developed and field tested. Drifter positions accurate to within a few meters are estimated in real time at 0.1 Hz using the global positioning system (GPS) and a shore-to-drifter radio ...

W. E. Schmidt; B. T. Woodward; K. S. Millikan; R. T. Guza; B. Raubenheimer; Steve Elgar

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

FREE ZONE Rb-276 Chiller Monitoring Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regulations prohibiting the production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have spurred the development of alternative refrigerants with similar thermodynamic properties and operating characteristics for use in large chiller systems. This study evaluates refrigerant FREE ZONE RB-276, a "drop in" replacement for R-12, which has been out of production since January 1, 1996.

1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

406

National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance. Evaluation of strategies is structured around the critical control functions of water, airflow, vapor flow, and thermal control. The aim of the research project is to develop guidance that could serve as a foundation for wider adoption of high performance, 'deep' retrofit work. The project will identify risk factors endemic to advanced retrofit in the context of the general building type, configuration and vintage encountered in the National Grid DER Pilot. Results for the test homes are based on observation and performance testing of recently completed projects. Additional observation would be needed to fully gauge long-term energy performance, durability, and occupant comfort.

Neuhauser, K.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Generic Deep Geologic Disposal Safety Case | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Deep Geologic Disposal Safety Case Deep Geologic Disposal Safety Case Generic Deep Geologic Disposal Safety Case The Generic Deep Geologic Disposal Safety Case presents generic information that is of use in understanding potential deep geologic disposal options in the U.S. for used nuclear fuel (UNF) from reactors and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Potential disposal options include mined disposal in a variety of geologic media (e.g., salt, shale, granite), and deep borehole disposal in basement rock. The Generic Safety Case is intended to be a source of information to provide answers to questions that may arise as the U.S. works to develop strategies to dispose of current and future inventories of UNF and HLW. DOE is examining combinations of generic geologic media and facility designs that could potentially support

408

Research, Development, and Demonstration Roadmap for Deep Borehole Disposal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Research, Development, and Demonstration Roadmap for Deep Borehole Research, Development, and Demonstration Roadmap for Deep Borehole Disposal Research, Development, and Demonstration Roadmap for Deep Borehole Disposal This roadmap is intended to advance deep borehole disposal (DBD) from its current conceptual status to potential future deployment as a disposal system for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW). The objectives of the DBD RD&D roadmap include providing the technical basis for fielding a DBD demonstration project, defining the scientific research activities associated with site characterization and postclosure safety, as well as defining the engineering demonstration activities associated with deep borehole drilling, completion, and surrogate waste canister emplacement. Research, Development, and Demonstration Roadmap for Deep Borehole Disposal

409

NETL: News Release - New Tools for Deep Gas...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

May 29, 2003 May 29, 2003 New Tools for Deep Gas... DOE Adds Three New Projects to "Deep Trek" Program - Photo - Drill Rig MORGANTOWN, WV - The need to probe ever deeper to locate and produce the natural gas Americans will need in the future has led the Department of Energy to add three new research projects to its "Deep Trek" program. "Deep Trek" is a program being carried out by the Energy Department's Office of Fossil Energy to develop "smart" drilling systems tough enough to withstand the extreme conditions of deep reservoirs, yet economical enough to make the natural gas they encounter affordable to produce. Today, more than 70 percent of gas produced in the continental United States comes from wells 5,000 feet deep or shallower. But as America's

410

Deep Borehole Disposal Research: Demonstration Site Selection Guidelines,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Deep Borehole Disposal Research: Demonstration Site Selection Deep Borehole Disposal Research: Demonstration Site Selection Guidelines, Borehole Seals Design, and RD&D Needs Deep Borehole Disposal Research: Demonstration Site Selection Guidelines, Borehole Seals Design, and RD&D Needs The U.S. Department of Energy has been investigating deep borehole disposal as one alternative for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive waste forms, along with research and development for mined repositories in salt, granite, and clay, as part of the used fuel disposition (UFD) campaign. The deep borehole disposal concept consists of drilling a borehole on the order of 5,000 m deep, emplacing waste canisters in the lower part of the borehole, and sealing the upper part of the borehole with bentonite and concrete seals. A reference design of the

411

Corrosion Resistant Metallic Materials for Ultra-deep Well Drilling ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... corrosion fatigue, etc., can be a primary cause of catastrophic degradation of tubular components during ultra-deep drilling of oil and natural gas shale.

412

New Insights Into Deep Convective Core Vertical Velocities Using...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Insights Into Deep Convective Core Vertical Velocities Using ARM UHF Wind Profilers For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govscience...

413

Deep Geothermal Well and Power Plant Project Final Environmental...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) Deep Geothermal Well and Power Plant Project Final Environmental Assessment September 2008 Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy 1617 Cole...

414

AAO support observations for the Hubble Deep Field Sout  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present proposed ground-based support observations at the AAO for the forthcoming Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) campaign.

B. J. Boyle

1998-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

415

Characterizing Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: Applications for Safe Exploration and Production Activities Semi-Annual Report" Report Type: Semi-Annual No:...

416

Economic Analysis of a Representative Deep-Water Gas Production ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends 181 Appendix C Economic Analysis of a Representative Deep-Water Gas Production Project

417

Deep Energy Retrofits-Eleven California Case Studies Brennan...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deep Energy Retrofits-Eleven California Case Studies Brennan Less, Jeremy Fisher and Iain Walker Environmental Energy Technologies Division October 2012 LBNL-6166E Disclaimer This...

418

Why Sequence Bacteria in Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria in Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents? The project focuses on using single-cell genomics to sequence nearly a dozen genomes of uncultivated bacteria that are found in...

419

Behind the pine curtain: community theatres of Deep East Texas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??"Behind the Pine Curtain" is a common term that has come to identify the region known as Deep East Texas. The purpose in writing this (more)

Vaughn, Patrick Clay

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Oil price, mean reversion and zone readjustments  

SciTech Connect

Observing OPEC`s short-term price-output ceiling behavior during the late 1980s and 1990s, one can conclude that it attempts to stabilize the market price within a range of its announced target price by controlling the output ceiling. If the price moves within four to five dollars below the target price, it usually reduces the output ceiling and assigns new quotas to its member countries to keep the price close to the target price. In reality, OPEC established a band for the market price positioned round the target price by basically choosing suitable upper and lower limits for the output or, at least in soft markets, it places tolerance zone below the target price in order to restrict the discrepancy between the market price and the target price. The lower limit is particularly needed because it sets a price floor and ensures that the market price stays above the significantly lower marginal cost of oil production. If the limits of these zones are backed by a perfectly credible intervention policy, they can generate an expectations process that should turn the market prices around even before any intervention takes place. While OPEC in some sense observes the target zones for its prices, those zones are neither well defined nor vigorously defended. It can not always or may not be willing to maintain the price within the limits of the desired zone by cutting the output ceiling; it must sometimes readjust the target price and output ceiling, and thus create a new target zone to reflect the market`s new fundamentals. This is particularly true now because OPEC is losing market share to the other oil producers and is contemplating to shift the current band. Actual readjustments in the target price can be so large, as in 1980 and 1985, that the newmarket price must jump as well. They can occur when both the market price is near the limits of the band as well as when it is inside the band but still further away from those limits.

Hammoudeh, S. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Problem of Vain Energy Consumption in a VAV Air Conditioning System Shared By an Inner Zone and Exterior Zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In northern China, there are a large number of space buildings divided in inner zone and exterior zone based on usage requirements. The exterior zone needs to be heated in winter and cooled in summer, while the inner zone needs to be cooled both in winter and summer. Taking a practical project as example, this paper analyzes the energy consumption of a VAV air conditioning system that is shared by inner zone and exterior zone. The paper also points out the serious problem of useless energy consumption for this kind of system.

Wenji, G.; Ling, C.; Dongdong, L.; Mei, S.; Li, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Hanohano:A Deep Ocean Antineutrino Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the science potential of a deep ocean antineutrino observatory being developed at Hawaii and elsewhere. The observatory design allows for relocation from one site to another. Positioning the observaory some 60 km distant from a nuclear reactor complex enables preecision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters, leading to a determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and theta_13. At a mid-Pacific location, the observatory measures the flux of uranium and thorium decay series antineutrinos from earth's mantle and performs a sensitive search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in earth's core. A subequent deployment at another mid-ocean location would test lateral homogeneity of uranium and thorium in earth's mantle. These measurements have significance for earth energy studies.

Batygov, M; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Pakvasa, S; Varner, G

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Hanohano:A Deep Ocean Antineutrino Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the science potential of a deep ocean antineutrino observatory being developed at Hawaii and elsewhere. The observatory design allows for relocation from one site to another. Positioning the observaory some 60 km distant from a nuclear reactor complex enables preecision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters, leading to a determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and theta_13. At a mid-Pacific location, the observatory measures the flux of uranium and thorium decay series antineutrinos from earth's mantle and performs a sensitive search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in earth's core. A subequent deployment at another mid-ocean location would test lateral homogeneity of uranium and thorium in earth's mantle. These measurements have significance for earth energy studies.

M. Batygov; S. T. Dye; J. G. Learned; S. Matsuno; S. Pakvasa; G. Varner

2008-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

424

Redshift clustering in the Hubble Deep Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present initial results from a redshift survey carried out with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph on the 10~m W. M. Keck Telescope in the Hubble Deep Field. In the redshift distribution of the 140 extragalactic objects in this sample we find 6 strong peaks, with velocity dispersions of ${\\sim}400${\\kms}. The areal density of objects within a particular peak, while it may be non-uniform, does not show evidence for strong central concentration. These peaks have characteristics (velocity dispersions, density enhancements, spacing, and spatial extent) similar to those seen in a comparable redshift survey in a different high galactic latitude field (Cohen et al 1996), confirming that the structures are generic. They are probably the high redshift counterparts of huge galaxy structures (``walls'') observed locally.

Judith G. Cohen; Lennox L. Cowie; David W. Hogg; Antoinette Songaila; Roger Blandford; Esther M. Hu; Patrick Shopbell

1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

425

Climate Zone Number 3 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Number 3 Number 3 Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard. Climate Zone Number 3 is defined as Warm - Humid(3A) with IP Units 4500 < CDD50ºF ≤ 6300 and SI Units 2500 < CDD10ºC < 3500 Dry(3B) with IP Units 4500 < CDD50ºF ≤ 6300 and SI Units 2500 < CDD10ºC < 3500 Warm - Marine(3C) with IP Units CDD50ºF ≤ 4500 AND HDD65ºF ≤ 3600 and SI Units CDD10ºC ≤ 2500 AND HDD18ºC ≤ 2000 . The following places are categorized as class 3 climate zones: Abbeville County, South Carolina Adair County, Oklahoma Adams County, Mississippi Aiken County, South Carolina Alameda County, California Alcorn County, Mississippi Alfalfa County, Oklahoma Allendale County, South Carolina Amite County, Mississippi Anderson County, South Carolina

426

Climate Zone Number 5 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

5 5 Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard. Climate Zone Number 5 is defined as Cool- Humid(5A) with IP Units 5400 < HDD65ºF ≤ 7200 and SI Units 3000 < HDD18ºC ≤ 4000 Dry(5B) with IP Units 5400 < HDD65ºF ≤ 7200 and SI Units 3000 < HDD18ºC ≤ 4000 Marine(5C) with IP Units 5400 < HDD65ºF ≤ 7200 and SI Units 3000 < HDD18ºC ≤ 4000 . The following places are categorized as class 5 climate zones: Ada County, Idaho Adair County, Iowa Adair County, Missouri Adams County, Colorado Adams County, Illinois Adams County, Indiana Adams County, Iowa Adams County, Nebraska Adams County, Pennsylvania Adams County, Washington Albany County, New York Allegan County, Michigan Alleghany County, North Carolina

427

Deep Astrometric Standards (DAS) and Galactic Structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The advent of next-generation imaging telescopes such as LSST and Pan-STARRS has revitalized the need for deep and precise reference frames. The proposed weak-lensing observations with these facilities put the highest demands on image quality over wide angles on the sky. It is particularly difficult to achieve a sub-arcsecond PSF on stacked images, where precise astrometry plays a key role. Current astrometric standards are insufficient to achieve the science goals of these facilities. We thus propose the establishing of a few selected deep (V=25) astrometric standards (DAS). These will enable a reliable geometric calibration of solid-state mosaic detectors in the focal plane of large ground-based telescopes and make a substantial contribution to our understanding of stellar populations in the Milky Way. In this paper we motivate the need for such standards and discuss the strategy of their selection and acquisition and reduction techniques. The feasibility of DAS is demonstrated by a pilot study around the open cluster NGC 188, using the KPNO 4m CCD Mosaic camera, and by Subaru Suprime-Cam observations. The goal of reaching an accuracy of 5-10 mas in positions and obtaining absolute proper motions good to 2 mas/yr over a several square-degree area is challenging, but reachable with the NOAO 4m telescopes and CCD mosaic imagers or a similar set-up. Our proposed DAS aims to establish four fields near the Galactic plane, at widely separated coordinates. In addition to their utilitarian purpose for DAS, the data we will obtain in these fields will enable fundamental Galactic science in their own right. The positions, proper motions, and VI photometry of faint stars will address outstanding questions of Galactic disk formation and evolution, stellar buildup and mass assembly via merger events.

I. Platais; R. F. G. Wyse; N. Zacharias

2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

428

Beckham County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone Subtype Climate Zone Subtype A Start Date 2006-01-01 Source: ASHRAE 169 Standards http:www.ashrae.org Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleBeckham...

429

Adams County, Mississippi ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone Subtype Climate Zone Subtype A Start Date 2006-01-01 Source: ASHRAE 169 Standards http:www.ashrae.org Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAdamsC...

430

Adams County, Washington ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone Subtype Climate Zone Subtype B Start Date 2006-01-01 Source: ASHRAE 169 Standards http:www.ashrae.org Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAdamsC...

431

Appomattox County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone Subtype Climate Zone Subtype A Start Date 2006-01-01 Source: ASHRAE 169 Standards http:www.ashrae.org Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAppomat...

432

Amite County, Mississippi ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone Subtype Climate Zone Subtype A Start Date 2006-01-01 Source: ASHRAE 169 Standards http:www.ashrae.org Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAmiteC...

433

Amador County, California ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone Subtype Climate Zone Subtype B Start Date 2006-01-01 Source: ASHRAE 169 Standards http:www.ashrae.org Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAmador...

434

Allegany County, Maryland ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone Subtype Climate Zone Subtype A Start Date 2006-01-01 Source: ASHRAE 169 Standards http:www.ashrae.org Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAllegan...

435

Alleghany County, Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone Subtype Climate Zone Subtype A Start Date 2006-01-01 Source: ASHRAE 169 Standards http:www.ashrae.org Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAllegha...

436

Arkansas County, Arkansas ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone Subtype Climate Zone Subtype A Start Date 2006-01-01 Source: ASHRAE 169 Standards http:www.ashrae.org Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleArkansa...

437

Antelope County, Nebraska ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone Subtype Climate Zone Subtype A Start Date 2006-01-01 Source: ASHRAE 169 Standards http:www.ashrae.org Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAntelop...

438

Acadia Parish, Louisiana ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Zone Subtype Climate Zone Subtype A Start Date 2006-01-01 Source: ASHRAE 169 Standards http:www.ashrae.org Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAcadia...

439

Virginia Enterprise Zone Job Creation Grant (Virginia) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enterprise Zone Job Creation Grant (Virginia) Enterprise Zone Job Creation Grant (Virginia) Virginia Enterprise Zone Job Creation Grant (Virginia) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Maximum Rebate $500 per position Program Info State Virginia Program Type Enterprise Zone Grant Program Provider Virginia Department of Housing and Community Development The Virginia Enterprise Zone Job Creation Grant provides cash grants to businesses located in Enterprise zones that create permanent new jobs over a four-job threshold. State incentives are available to businesses and zone investors who create jobs and invest in real property within the boundaries of enterprise zones. The positions must pay at least 175 percent of the

440

The Ohio Enterprise Zone program (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Zone program (Ohio) Zone program (Ohio) The Ohio Enterprise Zone program (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Fuel Distributor Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Ohio Program Type Enterprise Zone Property Tax Incentive Provider Ohio Development Services Agency The Ohio Enterprise Zone program is an economic development tool administered by municipal and county governments that provides real and personal property tax exemptions to businesses making investments in Ohio. In order to use the Enterprise Zone program, communities petition to the Ohio Department of Development for certification of a geographical zone with a contiguous boundary. Once a zone is certified, communities may enter

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep vadose zone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Incentive zoning and environmental quality in Boston's Fenway neighborhood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A density bonus, also called incentive zoning, is a conditional liberalization of zoning regulations, allowing a real estate development to exceed as-of-right density limits in exchange for the in-kind provision or purchase ...

DeFlorio, Joshua (Joshua C.)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

A Narrow Clear Zone Over Florida and the Atlantic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A narrow cloud-free zone of large longitudinal extent was observed in visible and infrared satellite imagery on 21 September 1978. An attempt to explain the zone in terms of subsidence induced by a transverse frontal circulation is presented.

Andrew J. Negri; K. Robert Morris

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

444

Buffer Zones Around Protected Areas: A Brief Literature Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1998). Environmental and social impact report the Bahamasclearly focused on the social impacts of buffer zones and

Martino, Diego

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Pritchett, 2004) Exploration...

446

Characterization of failure modes in deep UV and deep green LEDs utilizing advanced semiconductor localization techniques.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the results of a two-year early career LDRD that focused on defect localization in deep green and deep ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We describe the laser-based techniques (TIVA/LIVA) used to localize the defects and interpret data acquired. We also describe a defect screening method based on a quick electrical measurement to determine whether defects should be present in the LEDs. We then describe the stress conditions that caused the devices to fail and how the TIVA/LIVA techniques were used to monitor the defect signals as the devices degraded and failed. We also describe the correlation between the initial defects and final degraded or failed state of the devices. Finally we show characterization results of the devices in the failed conditions and present preliminary theories as to why the devices failed for both the InGaN (green) and AlGaN (UV) LEDs.

Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Miller, Mary A.; Cole, Edward Isaac, Jr.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Form-based zoning : what place is this code?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Form-based zoning is a relatively recent innovation in zoning reform. Many cities in the U.S. have adopted form-based codes in lieu of or as a supplement to conventional zoning and many more are in the process of studying ...

Mehta, Shilpa, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Zoning for Distributed Wind Power - Breaking Down Barriers: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Zoning regulations for the use of small wind turbines vary from state to state and from one local jurisdiction to the next. This paper examines the zoning experiences of small wind turbine owners, options for local actions, and examples of state and federal limited preemption of local zoning authority as a means of promoting the implementation of new technologies.

Green, J.; Sagrillo, M.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

On the Strong Seasonal Currents in the Deep Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a set of models, including one with a resolution of , several aspects of the simulated seasonal currents in the deep ocean are considered. It is shown that over vast areas of the deep interior, particularly in the Indian Ocean, annual-...

Oleg A. Saenko

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Focused Crawling of the Deep Web Using Service Class Descriptions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamic Web data sources--sometimes known collectively as the Deep Web--increase the utility of the Web by providing intuitive access to data repositories anywhere that Web access is available. Deep Web services provide access to real-time information, like entertainment event listings, or present a Web interface to large databases or other data repositories. Recent studies suggest that the size and growth rate of the dynamic Web greatly exceed that of the static Web, yet dynamic content is often ignored by existing search engine indexers owing to the technical challenges that arise when attempting to search the Deep Web. To address these challenges, we present DynaBot, a service-centric crawler for discovering and clustering Deep Web sources offering dynamic content. DynaBot has three unique characteristics. First, DynaBot utilizes a service class model of the Web implemented through the construction of service class descriptions (SCDs). Second, DynaBot employs a modular, self-tuning system architecture for focused crawling of the DeepWeb using service class descriptions. Third, DynaBot incorporates methods and algorithms for efficient probing of the Deep Web and for discovering and clustering Deep Web sources and services through SCD-based service matching analysis. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the service class discovery, probing, and matching algorithms and suggest techniques for efficiently managing service discovery in the face of the immense scale of the Deep Web.

Rocco, D; Liu, L; Critchlow, T

2004-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

451

FULL ARTICLE Bond-selective imaging of deep tissue  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FULL ARTICLE Bond-selective imaging of deep tissue through the optical window between 1600 and 1850 nm Pu Wang**; 1 , Han-Wei Wang**; 1 , Michael Sturek2 , and Ji-Xin Cheng*; 1; 3 1 Weldon School nm for bond-selective deep tis- sue imaging through harmonic vibrational excitation and acoustic

Cheng, Ji-Xin

452

Recent Sediments of the Monterey Deep-Sea Fan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

T Or THE MONTEREV DEEP SEA FAN PLAlE Conpl1.d and ren1our.dO F THE MONTEREY DEEP- SEA FAN by P a t Wilde Berkeley,of segmented alluvial fans in w e s t e r n F r e s n o

Wilde, Pat

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Velocity and Stress in the Deep-Ocean Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to predict the response of deep ocean sediments to the near-bottom currents, accurate estimates of the near-bottom velocity and the boundary shear stress are necessary. Because of the unsteady nature of deep ocean currents, dynamic ...

S. R. McLean; J. Yean

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Exact Solutions to Kawase's Linear Model of Deep Ocean Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exact solutions are found for Kawase's linear, two-layer model of mass-driven deep-ocean circulation. It is demonstrated that for strong damping, even though the deep western boundary current (DWBC) bifurcates at the equator as found in Kawase's ...

Dailin Wang; Dennis W. Moore; Lewis M. Rothstein

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Occult pulmonary embolism: a common occurrence in deep venous thrombosis  

SciTech Connect

Ventilation-perfusion scans were used in a prospective study to determine the prevalence of occult pulmonary embolus in proven deep venous thrombosis. Fifty-eight patients without symptoms of pulmonary embolism, but with venographically proven deep venous thrombosis, were subjected to chest radiographs, /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated-albumin perfusion scans, and /sup 133/Xe ventilation scans. Of the 49 patients with deep venous thrombosis proximal to the calf veins, 17 (35%) had high-probability scans. Of all 58 patients, only 12 (21%) had normal scans. When the study population was compared with a group of 430 patients described in reports of pulmonary perfusion in asymptomatic persons, a significantly higher percentage of high-probability scans was found in the study population with deep venous thrombosis. Baseline ventilation-perfusion lung scanning is valuable for patients with proven above-knee deep venous thrombosis.

Dorfman, G.S.; Cronan, J.J.; Tupper, T.B.; Messersmith, R.N.; Denny, D.F.; Lee, C.H.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Baraga County, Michigan ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Baraga County, Michigan ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Baraga County, Michigan ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

457