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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Characterization of the Ground Thermal Response to Heating by a Deep Vertical Borehole Heat Exchanger.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents an experiment and an analysis that evaluates some of the long-standing assumptions in deep vertical borehole ground heat exchanger (GHX) theory. These… (more)

Olfman, Maeir Zalman

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Anode Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 6   Properties of polymeric mesh anodes used for construction applications...(a) Average current output

3

Anodic films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Surface layers are formed on many metals by anodic reaction. Such layers include the products of charge and discharge in many storage batteries, dielectric films used in electronic and optical circuits and display devices, layers responsible for passivity and corrosion protection, and films generated in metal shaping and finishing operations such as anodization, coloring, electropolishing, electrochemical machining and deburring. Anodic films are formed by solid-solid transformations or by dissolution-precipitation processes. Film properties and mechanisms of formation can be determined in situ by a number of optical techniques which have recently become available.

Muller, R.H.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Anode Baking/Anode Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 17, 2010... introducing a new state-of-the-art firing system, replacing the waste gas ... In this test, an anode core sample is exposed to CO2 at 960°C for 7 ...

5

Anodizing Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2   Typical products for which anodizing is used in final finishing...ft by 7 by 4 6063-T6 (d) Sulfuric acid (e) Seal, lacquer (f) Urban atmosphere Name plates Various sizes Various sizes 3003â??1114 (g) Sulfuric acid Dye, seal Atmospheric exposure Percolator shell 125 mm diam by 150 5 in. diam by 6 â?¦ Buff, chemical brighten Sulfuric acid Seal Coffee Seaplane-hull skin 2850...

6

Understanding Anode Overpotential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial carbon anodes are produced from coke blends, but the effect of coke type on anodic overpotential has not been well studied. In this work, lab-scale ...

7

Local amplification of deep mining induced vibrations - Part.2: Simulation of the ground motion in a coal basin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work investigates the impact of deep coal mining induced vibrations on surface constructions using numerical tools. An experimental study of the geological site amplification and of its influence on mining induced vibrations has already been published in a previous paper (Part 1: Experimental evidence for site effects in a coal basin). Measurements have shown the existence of an amplification area in the southern part of the basin where drilling data have shown the presence of particularly fractured and soft stratigraphic units. The present study, using the Boundary Element Method (BEM) in the frequency domain, first investigates canonical geological structures in order to get general results for various sites. The amplification level at the surface is given as a function of the shape of the basin and of the velocity contrast with the bedrock. Next, the particular coal basin previously studied experimentally (Driad-Lebeau et al., 2009) is modeled numerically by BEM. The amplification phenomena characteri...

Semblat, Jean-François; Driad-Lebeau, L; Bonnet, Guy; 10.1016/j.soildyn.2010.04.006

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

FLUORINE CELL ANODE ASSEMBLY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved anode assembly is deslgned for use in electrolytlc cells ln the productlon of hydrogen and fluorlne from a moIten electrolyte. The anode assembly comprises a copper post, a copper hanger supported by the post, a plurality of carbon anode members, and bolt means for clamplng half of the anode members to one slde of the hanger and for clamplng the other half of the anode members to the other slde of the hanger. The heads of the clamplng bolts are recessed withln the anode members and carbon plugs are inserted ln the recesses above the bolt heads to protect the boIts agalnst corroslon. A copper washer is provided under the head of each clamplng boIt such that the anode members can be tightly clamped to the hanger with a resultant low anode jolnt resistance. (AEC)

Cable, R.E.; Goode, W.B. Jr.; Henderson, W.K.; Montillon, G.H.

1962-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

9

Anode Baking Furnace Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The course is directed toward plant managers, anode area managers, process engineers, technical managers, and baking furnace ... ENERGY MANAGEMENT.

10

Towards Eliminating Anode Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Retrofit of a Combined Breaker Feeder with a Chisel Bath Contact Detection System to Reduce Anode Effect Frequency in a Potroom · Simulating Traffic in a ...

11

Anode Raw Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Anodes for aluminum production are composed of coal tar pitch (CTP) ... This paper reports a study on the structure and porosity of calcined ...

12

Anode Quality and Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 6, 2013 ... Relationships between Coke Properties and Anode Properties – Round Robin 19: Lorentz Petter Lossius1; Marvin Lubin2; Les Edwards2; ...

13

Definition: Anode | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Anode Anode Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Anode The positive electrode in an electrochemical cell, or battery.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition An anode is an electrode through which electric current flows into a polarized electrical device. The direction of electric current is, by convention, opposite to the direction of electron flow. In other words, the electrons flow from the anode into, for example, an electrical circuit. Mnemonic: ACID (Anode Current into Device). A widespread misconception is that anode polarity is always positive (+). This is often incorrectly inferred from the correct fact that in all electrochemical devices, negatively charged anions move towards the anode (hence their name) and positively charged cations move away from it. In fact anode polarity

14

Low cost MCFC anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper outlines a project, funded under a DOE SBIR grant, which tested a potentially lower cost method of manufacturing MCFC stack anodes and evaluated the feasibility of using the technology in the existing M-C Power Corp. manufacturing facility. The procedure involves adding activator salts to the anode tape casting slurry with the Ni and Cr or Al powders. Two different processes occur during heat treatment in a reducing environment: sintering of the base Ni structure, and alloying or cementation of the Cr or Al powders. To determine whether it was cost-effective to implement the cementation alloying manufacturing process, the M-C Power manufacturing cost model was used to determine the impact of different material costs and processing parameters on total anode cost. Cost analysis included equipment expenditures and facility modifications required by the cementation alloying process.

Erickson, D.S.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

15

Sulfur tolerant anode materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

Not Available

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Anodes for alkaline electrolysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Investigation on Aluminum-Based Amorphous Metallic Glass as New Anode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aluminum based amorphous metallic glass powders were produced and tested as the anode materials for the lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Ground Al??Ni₁?La₁? was found to have a ...

Meng, Shirley Y.

18

Nickel anode electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nickel anode electrode fabricated by oxidizing a nickel alloying material to produce a material whose exterior contains nickel oxide and whose interior contains nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material and by reducing and sintering the oxidized material to form a product having a nickel metal exterior and an interior containing nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material.

Singh, Prabhakar (Bethel, CT); Benedict, Mark (Monroe, CT)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Methanol fuel cell model: Anode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An isothermal, steady-state model of an anode in a direct methanol feed, polymer electrolyte fuel cell is presented. The anode is considered to be a porous electrode consisting of an electronically conducting catalyst structure that is thinly coated with an ion-selective polymer electrolyte. The pores are filled with a feed solution of 2 M methanol in water. Four species are transported in the anode: water, methanol, hydrogen ions, and carbon dioxide. All four species are allowed to transport in the x-direction through the depth of the electrode. Species movement in the pseudo y-direction is taken into account for water, methanol, and carbon dioxide by use of an effective mass-transfer coefficient. Butler-Volmer kinetics are observed for the methanol oxidation reaction. Predictions of the model have been fitted with kinetic parameters from experimental data, and a sensitivity analysis was performed to identify critical parameters affecting the anode`s performance. Kinetic limitations are a dominant factor in the performance of the system. At higher currents, the polymer electrolyte`s conductivity and the anode`s thickness were also found to be important parameters to the prediction of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell anode`s behavior in the methanol oxidation region 0.5--0.6 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode.

Baxter, S.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Battaglia, V.S.; White, R.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Thin film buried anode battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Liu, Ping (Denver, CO)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Anodization of process tubes  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the presence of corrosion products upon aluminum process tubes removed from wet portions of F Pile which led to the suspicion that the tubes might be corroding at an accelerated rate because of water entrapped in the channels between the tubes and the graphite blocks. Corrosion was especially noted on those tubes that were tightly stuck within the blocks. Analysis of the corrosion products showed that the major constituent was a hydrated aluminum oxide, containing iron oxide, calcium carbonate, and other substances in lower concentrations. This led to placement of an order for the anodizing of 200 process tubes.

Pitzer, E.C.

1952-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

22

Anode film formation and control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film functions to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film. 3 figs.

Koski, O.; Marschman, S.C.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Anode Effect Supression and Prediction - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apr 1, 2003 ... Anode Effect Supression and Prediction ... the overall effort to reduce the quantity of greenhouse gas emitted by the pots during anode effects.

24

Optimizing Anode Performance in DUBAL Reduction Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reduction in Gross Carbon consumption by 5% over the past 4 years was achieved through optimization of anode quality, modification of anode design and ...

25

Silicon-Graphene Anodes | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Anodes Technology available for licensing: Production process for low-cost, long-life, high-energy anodes with five times the specific energy slicon-grapheneelectrodes...

26

ADVANCED NUMERICAL APPROACH TO REDUCE THE ANODIC ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operation of an Open Type Anode Baking Furnace with a Temporary Crossover ... Wireless Communication for Secured Firing and Control Systems of Anode ...

27

High Performance Sealing for Anode Baking Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operation of an Open Type Anode Baking Furnace with a Temporary Crossover ... Wireless Communication for Secured Firing and Control Systems of Anode ...

28

Energy Efficiency Improvement in Anode Baking Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the high energy consumption facilities in a smelter is the Anode Baking ... Hydro Aluminium's Historical Evolution of Closed Type Anode Baking Furnace ...

29

Multi-anode ionization chamber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a high-energy detector having a cathode chamber, a support member, and anode segments. The cathode chamber extends along a longitudinal axis. The support member is fixed within the cathode chamber and extends from the first end of the cathode chamber to the second end of the cathode chamber. The anode segments are supported by the support member and are spaced along the longitudinal surface of the support member. The anode segments are configured to generate at least a first electrical signal in response to electrons impinging thereon.

Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Smith, Graham (Port Jefferson, NY); Mahler, George J. (Rocky Point, NY); Vanier, Peter E. (Setauket, NY)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

30

Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

AAO support observations for the Hubble Deep Field Sout  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present proposed ground-based support observations at the AAO for the forthcoming Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) campaign.

B. J. Boyle

1998-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

33

A remedial approach to stabilize a deep excavation in Singapore  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ground improvement methods are commonly adopted in deep excavation to minimize wall deflection, wall bending moment and strut force. In this thesis a different approach to the application of ground improvement techniques ...

Ferrari, Alessia Alexandra

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

CARBON TECHNOLOGY: III: Anode Production/Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ANODE PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT DURING HEAT TREATMENT: Mona Jacobsen, Department of Thermal Energy and Hydro Power, the Norwegian Institute ...

35

Hydriodic acid-anode-depolarized hydrogen generator  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen is recovered from aqueous hydriodic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid, in an electrolysis cell having an anode and cathode compartment separated by a hydrogen ion permeable membrane, by electrochemically liberating iodine in the anode compartment by anodization of iodide anions, and electrochemically generating hydrogen in the cathode compartment from hydrogen cations that migrate across the membrane.

Maskalick, N.J.

1984-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

36

Ellipsometry of anodic film growth  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An automated computer interpretation of ellisometer measurements of anodic film growth was developed. Continuous mass and charge balances were used to utilize more fully the time dependence of the ellipsometer data and the current and potential measurements. A multiple-film model was used to characterize the growth of films which proceeds via a dissolution--precipitation mechanism; the model also applies to film growth by adsorption and nucleation mechanisms. The characteristic parameters for film growth describe homogeneous and heterogeneous crystallization rates, film porosities and degree of hydration, and the supersaturation of ionic species in the electrolyte. Additional descriptions which may be chosen are patchwise film formation, nonstoichiometry of the anodic film, and statistical variations in the size and orientation of secondary crystals. Theories were developed to describe the optical effects of these processes. An automatic, self-compensating ellipsometer was used to study the growth in alkaline solution of anodic films on silver, cadmium, and zinc. Mass-transport conditions included stagnant electrolyte and forced convection in a flow channel. Multiple films were needed to characterize the optical properties of these films. Anodic films grew from an electrolyte supersatuated in the solution-phase dissolution product. The degree of supersaturation depended on transport conditions and had a major effect on the structure of the film. Anodic reaction rates were limited by the transport of charge carriers through a primary surface layer. The primary layers on silver, zinc, and cadmium all appeared to be nonstoichiometric, containing excess metal. Diffusion coefficients, transference numbers, and the free energy of adsorption of zinc oxide were derived from ellipsometer measurements. 97 figures, 13 tables, 198 references.

Smith, C.G.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Deep Lysimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A deep lysimeter including a hollow vessel having a chamber, a fill conduit extending into the chamber through apertures, a semi-permeable member mounted on the vessel and in fluid communication with the fill conduit, and a line connection for retrieving the lysimeter.

Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sisson, James B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Grounding intentionality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I argue that current attempts to ground intentionality face one of two challenges. Either the grounding feature of intentionality will be itself intentional or the grounding feature is disparate in nature from the representational capacity of an intentional mental state and therefore no connection between the two can be taken to exist. I examine two current accounts of intentionality and the features they utilize to ground it. I maintain that both views fall prey to one or both of the objections I raise. I conclude that any account of intentionality will need to meet both of these challenges in order to be counted successful.

Huizenga Steven R

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Solid Solution Lithium Alloy Cermet Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid Solution Lithium Alloy Cermet Anodes Thomas J.94720 USA Abstract Lithium-magnesium solid solution alloysHeating mixtures of lithium nitride and magnesium provides a

Richardson, Thomas J.; Chen, Guoying

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Nano Structural Anodes for Radiation Detectors  

Nano Structural Anodes for Radiation Detectors Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this intellectual property may

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Carbon Technology III: Anode Quality Control - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fully automatic method for image analysis of porosity in baked carbon anodes has been developed. The method is based on optical microscopy, and is ...

42

Hybrid Anode for Semiconductor Radiation Detectors - Energy ...  

The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the ...

43

Thermodynamic and phase relations of intermetallic anode ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The experimental data obtained are necessary for thermodynamic optimizations and direct estimations of the performance of respective anode materials in an ...

44

Anode Raw Materials and Green Carbon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 1, 2011 ... Property Profile of Lab- Scale Anodes Produced with 180°C Mettler Coal Tar Pitch: Winfried Boenigk1; Claudia Boltersdorf1; Falk Lindner1; ...

45

Surface modifications for carbon lithium intercalation anodes  

SciTech Connect

A prefabricated carbon anode containing predetermined amounts of passivating film components is assembled into a lithium-ion rechargeable battery. The modified carbon anode enhances the reduction of the irreversible capacity loss during the first discharge of a cathode-loaded cell. The passivating film components, such as Li.sub.2 O and Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, of a predetermined amount effective for optimal passivation of carbon, are incorporated into carbon anode materials to produce dry anodes that are essentially free of battery electrolyte prior to battery assembly.

Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Kinoshita, Kimio (Cupertino, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

60 TPH Single Line Green Anode Plant Commissionned at Qatalum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The first single line 60 t/h green anode plant ever was ... This green anode plant was designed to fulfil the anode requirements of the 585,000 ...

47

Remote control for anode-cathode adjustment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for remotely adjusting the anode-cathode gap in a pulse power machine has an electric motor located within a hollow cathode inside the vacuum chamber of the pulse power machine. Input information for controlling the motor for adjusting the anode-cathode gap is fed into the apparatus using optical waveguides. The motor, controlled by the input information, drives a worm gear that moves a cathode tip. When the motor drives in one rotational direction, the cathode is moved toward the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is diminished. When the motor drives in the other direction, the cathode is moved away from the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is increased. The motor is powered by batteries housed in the hollow cathode. The batteries may be rechargeable, and they may be recharged by a photovoltaic cell in combination with an optical waveguide that receives recharging energy from outside the hollow cathode. Alternatively, the anode-cathode gap can be remotely adjusted by a manually-turned handle connected to mechanical linkage which is connected to a jack assembly. The jack assembly converts rotational motion of the handle and mechanical linkage to linear motion of the cathode moving toward or away from the anode.

Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Remote control for anode-cathode adjustment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for remotely adjusting the anode-cathode gap in a pulse power machine has an electric motor located within a hollow cathode inside the vacuum chamber of the pulse power machine. Input information for controlling the motor for adjusting the anode-cathode gap is fed into the apparatus using optical waveguides. The motor, controlled by the input information, drives a worm gear that moves a cathode tip. When the motor drives in one rotational direction, the cathode is moved toward the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is diminished. When the motor drives in the other direction, the cathode is moved away from the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is increased. The motor is powered by batteries housed in the hollow cathode. The batteries may be rechargeable, and they may be recharged by a photovoltaic cell in combination with an optical waveguide that receives recharging energy from outside the hollow cathode. Alternatively, the anode-cathode gap can be remotely adjusted by a manually-turned handle connected to mechanical linkage which is connected to a jack assembly. The jack assembly converts rotational motion of the handle and mechanical linkage to linear motion of the cathode moving toward or away from the anode. 3 figs.

Roose, L.D.

1989-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

49

Ground Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Nature Bulletin No. 408-A February 27, 1971 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation GROUND WATER We take...

50

Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium ...  

A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic ...

51

Baked Anode Density Improvement through Optimization of Green ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, At Alba, green anodes were manufactured as per the dry aggregate ... Amelios™, A Performance Analysis Tool for Green Anode Plant.

52

Climate Change in the Cenozoic as Seen in Deep Sea Sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the present cold phase, starting with ice on Antarctica. theice shelf meltwater out deep water in grounding critical threshold line SURGING PHASE

Berger, Wolf

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Mesoporous Titanium Oxide Based Anodes for Batteries  

Presentation_namefor the U.S. Department of Energy Mesoporous TiO 2 Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Mesoporous TiO 2 ... Increased energy density ?Mesoporous TiO. 2 .

54

Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source Hollow-Anode Plasma  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

36240 36240 Plasma Sources Science and Technology 4 (1995) 571-575. Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source André Anders and Simone Anders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 ABSTRACT The hollow-anode discharge is a special form of glow discharge. It is shown that a drastically reduced anode area is responsible for a positive anode voltage drop of 30-40 V and an increased anode sheath thickness. This leads to an ignition of a relatively dense plasma in front of the anode hole. Langmuir probe measurements inside a specially designed hollow anode plasma source give an electron density and temperature of n e = 10 9 -10 11 cm -3 and T e = 1 - 3 eV, respectively (nitrogen, current 100 mA, flow rate 5-50 scc/min). Driven by a pressure gradient, the "anode" plasma is blown through the anode hole and forms a bright plasma jet streaming with supersonic velocity (Mach number 1.2). The plasma stream can be used, for instance, in plasma-assisted deposition of thin films

55

Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.  

SciTech Connect

A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR); Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA)

2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

56

Lithium intercalation in porous carbon anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon foams derived from the phase separation of polyacrylonitrile/solvent mixtures were investigated as lithium intercalation anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The carbon foams have a bulk density of 0.35--0.5 g/cm{sup 3}, low surface area (< 50 m{sup 2}/g), and an average cell size of 5--10 {mu}m. Polyacrylonitrile-based carbon foams doped with phosphoric acid had capacity as high as 450 mAh/g. Carbon capacity increased with increasing phosphoric acid concentration in the doping solution. The doped porous carbon anodes exhibited good cyclability and excellent coulombic efficiency.

Tran, T.D.; Pekala, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Chemistry and Materials Science Dept.; Mayer, S.T. [Polystor Corp., Livermore, CA (United States)

1994-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

57

An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no measurable anode weight loss during this time period. Quantitative chemical analysis of the anode surface showed that the lead content after testing remained at its initial level. No lead dissolution or transfer from the anode to the product occurred.A key benefit of the titanium-lead anode design is that cobalt additions to copper electrolyte should be eliminated. Cobalt is added to the electrolyte to help stabilize the lead oxide surface of conventional lead anodes. The presence of the titanium intimately mixed with the lead should eliminate the need for cobalt stabilization of the lead surface. The anode should last twice as long as the conventional lead anode. Energy savings should be achieved due to minimizing and stabilizing the anode-cathode distance in the electrowinning cells. The anode is easily substitutable into existing tankhouses without a rectifier change.The copper electrowinning test data indicate that the titanium-lead anode is a good candidate for further testing as a possible replacement for a conventional lead anode. A key consideration is the cost. Titanium costs have increased. One of the ways to get the anode cost down is manufacturing the anodes with fewer cylinders. Additional prototypes having different number of cylinders were constructed for a long-term commercial testing in a circuit without cobalt. The objective of the testing is to evaluate the need for cobalt, investigate the effect of decreasing the number of cylinders on the anode performance, and to optimize further the anode design in order to meet the operating requirements, minimize the voltage, maximize the life of the anode, and to balance this against a reasonable cost for the anode. It is anticipated that after testing of the additional prototypes, a whole cell commercial test will be conducted to complete evaluation of the titanium-lead anode costs/benefits.

Ferdman, Alla

2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

58

Solution for a modular die-level anodic bonder  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anodic bonding is a common way to package silicon with Pyrex. The anodic bonding process requires high temperature, voltage, and moderate pressure to occur. Often, there are also expectations of alignment of features for ...

Khan, Christopher Joseph, 1982-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Fuel cell system shutdown with anode pressure control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A venting methodology and pressure sensing and vent valving arrangement for monitoring anode bypass valve operating during the normal shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in vehicle propulsion systems. During a normal shutdown routine, the pressure differential between the anode inlet and anode outlet is monitored in real time in a period corresponding to the normal closing speed of the anode bypass valve and the pressure differential at the end of the closing cycle of the anode bypass valve is compared to the pressure differential at the beginning of the closing cycle. If the difference in pressure differential at the beginning and end of the anode bypass closing cycle indicates that the anode bypass valve has not properly closed, a system controller switches from a normal shutdown mode to a rapid shutdown mode in which the anode inlet is instantaneously vented by rapid vents.

Clingerman, Bruce J. (Palmyra, NY); Doan, Tien M. (Columbia, MD); Keskula, Donald H. (Webster, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Novel Design of Nanostructured Si Anode on Nanohair Array ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Nanostructured Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries and for Supercapacitors. Presentation Title, Novel Design of Nanostructured Si Anode on  ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Improving Baked Anode Density and Air Permeability Through ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Improving Baked Anode Density and Air Permeability Through Process Optimization and Coke Blending. Author(s), Bienvenu Ndjom, ...

62

Sohar Aluminium's Anode Baking Furnace Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas consumption of less 1.9 GJ/t for a baking level (Lc) of greater than 33 angstrom has ... Historical and Future Challenges with the Vibrated Bulk Density Test Methods for ... Prebaked Anode from Coal Extract (2) - Effects of the Properties of ...

63

Anode depolarizers in electrolytic hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory manages an extensive program in the areas of hydrogen and energy storage potentials. As part of an ongoing portfolio analysis of projects, the prospects for applications for anode depolarizers are presented. The system requirements are outlined, and economic criteria are developed. It is concluded that moderate incentives exist for successful development. Research and Development priorities are formulated.

Beller, M.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Virus-Enabled Silicon Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Virus-Enabled Silicon Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries Xilin Chen, Konstantinos Gerasopoulos emerged as one of the most promising next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries due to its with remarkable cycling stability. KEYWORDS: silicon anode · lithium-ion battery · Tobacco mosaic virus · physical

Ghodssi, Reza

65

Use of under Calcined Coke to Produce Baked Anodes for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies on Impact of Calcined Petroleum from Different Sources on Anode Quality · Study on Graphitization of Cathode Carbon Blocks for Aluminum Electrolysis.

66

ARTS - Anode & Rod Tracking System – A New Tool for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, ARTS is a combination of an anode and rod identification and tracking system, together with a customized database and analytical software.

67

Anodic oxidation of methanol using a new base electrocatalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anodic oxidation of methanol, the reaction employed on the anode of the direct methanol fuel cell, is conventionally carried out using noble electrocatalysts. The best of these has been found to be a codeposited mixture of platinum and ruthenium. The use of base materials as anode catalysts requires, in addition to electrocatalytic activity, a low corrosion rate in the cell electrolyte. The authors present here some preliminary results of measurements of the anodic oxidation of methanol using a newly synthesized base electrocatalyst: this catalyst is passivated by the highly aggressive electrolyte.

Burstein, G.T.; Barnett, C.J.; Kucernak, A.R.J.; Williams, K.R. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Ultrasound Removing Oxygen Gas Bubbles on Anode and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cell voltage varies as the bubbles formed on the anodes surface. ... A Study on Heat Transfer Coefficient Distribution in High Pressure Hydrogen Quenching.

69

Composite Silicon Carbon Nano-fiber Anode for High Energy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Composite Silicon Carbon Nano-fiber Anode for High .... of Super P Carbon Black and Silicon Carbide in Si-based Lithium Ion Batteries.

70

Investigation on Formation Mechanism of Non-Anode Effect Related ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NAE-PFC will emit when there is not enough alumina under some or other anode's ... PFC and CO2 Emissions from an Australian Aluminium Smelter Using  ...

71

Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Characterization of Anode Sealing ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and prepared in such a way that is representative of the industrial sealing process. ... Investigation on Air Reactivity and Electrolysis Consumption of Anode

72

High Performance Anode Material - Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

... low temperature, catalyst-free scalable process. The anode material consists of a vertically-aligned metal- core-shell nano-wire array.

73

Anode Dusting from a Potroom Perspective at Nordural And ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Retrofit of a Combined Breaker Feeder with a Chisel Bath Contact Detection System to Reduce Anode Effect Frequency in a Potroom · Simulating Traffic in a ...

74

Bubble Transport by Electro-Magnetophoretic Foces at Anode ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Retrofit of a Combined Breaker Feeder with a Chisel Bath Contact Detection System to Reduce Anode Effect Frequency in a Potroom · Simulating Traffic in a ...

75

Large Gas Bubbles under the Anodes of Aluminum Electrolysis Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Retrofit of a Combined Breaker Feeder with a Chisel Bath Contact Detection System to Reduce Anode Effect Frequency in a Potroom · Simulating Traffic in a ...

76

The Initiation, Propagation and Termination of Anode Effects in Hall ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Retrofit of a Combined Breaker Feeder with a Chisel Bath Contact Detection System to Reduce Anode Effect Frequency in a Potroom · Simulating Traffic in a ...

77

Method to Reduce Camber in Anode-Supported SOFCs - Energy ...  

A) Typical camber developed in 7 cm x 7 cm anode-supported SOFC. B) Details on matched TEC backing layer opposite electrolyte surface for camber ...

78

Cathode/Anode Selection and Full Cell Performance for Stationary ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Cathode/Anode Selection and Full Cell Performance for Stationary Li-ion Battery System. Author(s), Daiwon Choi, Donghai Wang, Vilayanur ...

79

Hydro Aluminium's Historical Evolution of Closed Type Anode ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The increasing demand for higher production and larger anodes during the last ... rebuilding of the furnaces are described, including maximum utilisation of the ...

80

Degradation of SOFC anodes and SOFC performance in coal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Materials in Clean Power Systems V: Clean Coal-, Hydrogen ... of SOFC anodes and SOFC performance in coal syngas containing phosphine.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

NANOTUBE COMPOSITE ANODE MATERIALS SUITABLE FOR LITHIUM ION ...  

The present invention provides a composite material suitable for use in an anode for a lithium ion battery, the composite material comprising a layer of a lithium ...

82

Passivation Behaviour of Copper Anodes with Various Chemical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... Anode passivation is one of the existing problems faced by copper refineries with the increase of current density and impurities content of the ...

83

Influence of Raw Materials on the Properties of Anodes & Their ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Then the course will outline different process steps and describe the influence of raw materials, such as petroleum coke, coal tar pitch, and anode butts on the ...

84

Anodization of Aluminum-Titanium Alloys for Solar Cell Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Anodization of Aluminum-Titanium Alloys for Solar Cell ... Migration of Nanotechnology from Laboratory to Market Place: Arci Experience.

85

Reliability Model for Different Configurations of Planar-SOFC Anode ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temperature field and contaminant concentration on planar-SOFC anode are interpreted from DREAM-SOFC, a multi-physics solver. Due to larger active ...

86

A Green Anode Plant Performance Analysis Tool Fully Embedded In ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, A Green Anode Plant Performance Analysis Tool Fully Embedded In The Plant Control System. Author(s), Xavier Genin, Pasquale Calo,

87

Oxide-based SOFC Anode Materials - Available Technologies ...  

Researchers at PNNL have developed a new class of nickel-free anode materials, consisting of a composite of doped cerium oxide and doped strontium ...

88

Ultrathin Alumina Coated Carbon Nanotubes as Anodes for High ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Ultrathin Alumina Coated Carbon Nanotubes as Anodes for High Capacity Li-Ion Battery. Author(s), Indranil Lahiri, Wonbong Choi. On-Site ...

89

Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries - Energy ...  

New Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Increase Energy Density Four-Fold Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS), managing contractor of the Savannah River Site (SRS ...

90

A Model for Predicting the Electrical Resistivity of Baked Anodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the desired properties of the anodes is low electrical resistivity. A proper understanding of the effect of different parameters on electrical resistivity can ...

91

Carbon Anode Modeling for Electric Energy Savings in  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Carbon Anode Modeling for Electric Energy Savings in the Aluminium Reduction Cell. Author(s), Dag Herman Andersen, Z. L. Zhang. On- Site ...

92

Evolution of Anode Grade Calcined Coke - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The term "anode grade coke" has been used as a broad definition to describe delayed coke with a sponge structure containing relatively low levels of trace ...

93

Anode Paste Plants: Innovative Solution for Optimum Emission ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low PAH concentration streams from the anode former area are treated using a coke dry-scrubber whereas the higher concentration streams from the paste ...

94

Determination of Coke Calcination Level and Anode Baking Level  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Determination of Coke Calcination Level and Anode Baking Level – Application and Reproducibility of Lc Based Methods. Author(s), Stein ...

95

Traceability of Raw Materials in Silos in an Anode Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Different coke and pitch mixtures are commonly used in anode manufacturing to meet various regulations and/or due to economics and availability. This makes it

96

Characterization of Dry Aggregates in Carbon Anodes by Image ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anodes are mainly composed of dry aggregates such as calcined petroleum coke and recycled materials with pitch as the binder. Granulometry of the dry ...

97

Transmission Line Grounding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2008, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) published a comprehensive grounding report. Published in two parts, the report covered the theoretical and practical aspects of transmission line grounding practices. To further improve the tools available for grounding analysis, an investigation into practical ways to calculate the fault current distribution and ground potential rise of the transmission line grounding system was conducted. Furthermore, a survey of utilities has documented industry pr...

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

98

Alternative Anode Reaction for Copper Electrowinning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a project funded by the Department of Energy, with additional funding from Bechtel National, to develop a copper electrowinning process with lower costs and lower emissions than the current process. This new process also includes more energy efficient production by using catalytic-surfaced anodes and a different electrochemical couple in the electrolyte, providing an alternative oxidation reaction that requires up to 50% less energy than is currently required to electrowin the same quantity of copper. This alternative anode reaction, which oxidizes ferric ions to ferrous, with subsequent reduction back to ferric using sulfur dioxide, was demonstrated to be technically and operationally feasible. However, pure sulfur dioxide was determined to be prohibitively expensive and use of a sulfur burner, producing 12% SO{sub 2}, was deemed a viable alternative. This alternate, sulfur-burning process requires a sulfur burner, waste heat boiler, quench tower, and reaction towers. The electrolyte containing absorbed SO{sub 2} passes through activated carbon to regenerate the ferrous ion. Because this reaction produces sulfuric acid, excess acid removal by ion exchange is necessary and produces a low concentration acid suitable for leaching oxide copper minerals. If sulfide minerals are to be leached or the acid unneeded on site, hydrogen was demonstrated to be a potential reductant. Preliminary economics indicate that the process would only be viable if significant credits could be realized for electrical power produced by the sulfur burner and for acid if used for leaching of oxidized copper minerals on site.

Not Available

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Novel Anode Materials For Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Dissertation committee  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and fabrication of alternative anodes for direct methane oxidation in SOFC". Publisher: Twente University Press, P cells (SOFC). The principles and materials employed for SOFC are described. Emphasis is on the anode (PAFC), · the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), · the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Each type of fuel

Verweij, Henk

100

Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using inert anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The inert anodes used in the process preferably comprise a cermet material comprising ceramic oxide phase portions and metal phase portions.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using ceramic inert anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising ceramic inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The ceramic inert anodes used in the process may comprise oxides containing Fe and Ni, as well as other oxides, metals and/or dopants.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); DiMilia, Robert A. (Baton Rouge, LA); Dynys, Joseph M. (New Kensington, PA); Phelps, Frankie E. (Apollo, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Deep Vadose Zone  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Mission of the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative is to protect water resources across the DOE complex over the long-term by developing effective solutions to solve DOE’s most...

103

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Better Anode Design to Improve A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Friday, 23 March 2012 13:53 Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of current designs, and has maintained its greatly increased energy capacity after more than a year of testing and many hundreds of charge-discharge cycles. Cyclical Science Succeeds

104

Exploration for deep coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The most important factor in safe mining is the quality of the roof. The article explains how the Rosebud Mining Co. conducts drilling and exploration in 11 deep coal mine throughout Pennsylvania and Ohio. Rosebud uses two Atlas Copco CS10 core drilling rigs mounted on 4-wheel drive trucks. The article first appeared in Atlas Copco's in-house magazine, Deep Hole Driller. 3 photos.

NONE

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements.

J.M. Calle

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Microsoft PowerPoint - NanoAnode for Li-ion Batteries SRNL-L9100...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries at a glance patent pending increase energy density longer cyclic life replaces graphite anodes simple and lower cost...

107

Inert anodes and advanced smelting of aluminum  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a broad assessment of open literature and patents that exist in the area of inert anodes and their related cathode systems and cell designs, technologies that are relevant for the advanced smelting of aluminum. The report also discusses the opportunities, barriers, and issued associated with these technologies from a technical, environmental, and economic viewpoint. It discusses the outlook for the direct retrofit of advanced reduction technologies to existing aluminum smelters, and compares retrofits to ''brown field'' usage and ''green field'' adoption of the technologies. A number of observations and recommendations are offered for consideration concerning further research and development efforts that may be directed toward these advanced technologies. The opportunities are discussed in the context of incremental progress that is being made in conventional Hall-Heroult cell systems.

ASME Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Carbonaceous materials as lithium intercalation anodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Commercial and polymer-derived carbonaceous materials were examined as lithium intercalation anodes in propylene carbonate (pyrolysis graphites) electrolytes. The reversible capacity (180--355 mAh/g) and the irreversible capacity loss (15--200 % based on reversible capacity) depend on the type of binder, carbon type, morphology, and phosphorus doping concentration. A carbon-based binder was chosen for electrode fabrication, producing mechanically and chemically stable electrodes and reproducible results. Several types of graphites had capacity approaching LiC{sub 6}. Petroleum fuel green cokes doped with phosphorous gave more than a 20 % increase in capacity compared to undoped samples. Electrochemical characteristics are related to SEM, TEM, XRD and BET measurements.

Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Mayer, S.T. [Polystor, Livermore, CA (United States); Song, X.; Kinoshita, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Carbonaceous materials as lithium intercalation anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Commercial and polymer-derived carbonaceous materials were examined as lithium intercalation anodes in propylene carbonate (pyrolysis < 1350C, carbons) and ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate (graphites) electrolytes. The reversible capacity (180--355 mAh/g) and the irreversible capacity loss (15--200 % based on reversible capacity) depend on the type of binder, carbon type, morphology, and phosphorus doping concentration. A carbon-based binder was chosen for electrode fabrication, producing mechanically and chemically stable electrodes and reproducible results. Several types of graphites had capacity approaching LiC{sub 6}. Petroleum fuel green cokes doped with phosphorous gave more than a 20 % increase in capacity compared to undoped samples. Electrochemical characteristics are related to SEM, TEM, XRD and BET measurements.

Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Mayer, S.T. [Polystor, Livermore, CA (United States); Song, X.; Kinoshita, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Inert Anode Life in Low Temperature Reduction Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The production of aluminum metal by low temperature electrolysis utilizing metal non-consumable anodes and ceramic cathodes was extensively investigated. Tests were performed with traditional sodium fluoride--aluminum fluoride composition electrolytes, potassium fluoride-- aluminum fluoride electrolytes, and potassium fluoride--sodium fluoride--aluminum fluoride electrolytes. All of the Essential First-Tier Requirements of the joint DOE-Aluminum Industry Inert Anode Road Map were achieved and those items yet to be resolved for commercialization of this technology were identified. Methods for the fabrication and welding of metal alloy anodes were developed and tested. The potential savings of energy and energy costs were determined and potential environmental benefits verified.

Bradford, Donald R.

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

111

Challenges of deep drilling  

SciTech Connect

Deep drilling poses major problems when high temperatures, high pressures, and acid gases are encountered. A combination of these items usually requires extensive planning, exotic materials, long drilling times, and heavy expenditures. Only 2 wells have been drilled below 30,000 ft in the US, the deeper a 31,441-ft hole in 1974. The deepest well in the world is reported to be in the Soviet Union, recently drilled below 34,895 ft, with a target depth of 15,000 m (49,212 ft). A review of current deep drilling technology and its capabilities is given.

Chadwick, C.E.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Electrical grounding prong socket  

SciTech Connect

The invention is a socket for a grounding prong used in a three prong electrical plug and a receptacle for the three prong plug. The socket being sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having a ridge to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket.

Leong, Robert (Dublin, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Graphene/Si multilayer structure anodes for advanced half and ...  

paper composite as anodes for rechargeable LIBs with high ... Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract no. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

114

Inconel Inert Anode Current Collector for Solid Oxide Membrane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, An innovative inert anode current collector is successfully developed and ... During electrolysis at 1423 K, magnesium cations in the flux are reduced at a ... Inclusions from Molten Steel Using a High Frequency Magnetic Field.

115

Viscoplastic Modeling of the Green Anode Forming Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... viscoplastic constitutive law using the concept of natural configuration has been developed. ... Improving Fuel Gas Injection in Anode Baking Furnace ... USE OF COAL TAR PITCH COKE FOR PRODUCING PREBAKED ELECTRODES.

116

Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

shift" (8). HydroQuebec's SNG-12 anode graphite was chosenElectrode laminates with SNG-12 graphite as the activePrevious experiments with SNG-12 graphite in coin cells with

Ridgway, Paul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Porous anodic aluminum oxide scaffolds; formation mechanisms and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) can be created with pores that self-assemble into ordered configurations. Nanostructured metal oxides have proven to be very useful as scaffolds for growth of nanowires and nanotubes ...

Oh, Jihun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

BSA 08-14: A Multi-Anode Ionization Chamber  

BSA 08-14: A Multi-Anode Ionization Chamber. BNL Reference Number: BSA 08-14. Patent Status: U.S. Patent Number 7,858,949 was issued on December 28, 2010

119

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy....

120

Predaceous Ground Beetles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predaceous ground beetles can be a nuisance to homeowners, especially when they are numerous. This publication describes the beetles and discusses ways to prevent and treat them.

Sansone, Chris; Minzenmayer, Rick

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Substation grounding programs  

SciTech Connect

This document is a users manual and applications guide for the software package SGA. This package comprises four computer programs, namely SOMIP, SMECC, SGSYS, and TGRND. The first three programs are analysis models which are to be used in the design process of substation grounding systems. The fourth program, TGRND, is an analysis program for determining the transient response of a grounding system. This report, Volume 3, is a users manual and an installation and validation manual for the computer program SGSYS (Substation Grounding SYStem Analysis Program). This program analyzes the substation ground field given the total electric current injected into the ground field and the design of the grounding system. Standard outputs of the program are (1) total ground resistance, (2) step voltage, (3) touch voltage, (4) voltages on a grid of points, (5) voltage profile along straight lines, (6) transfer voltages, (7) ground potential rise, (8) body currents, (9) step voltage profile along straight lines, and (10) touch voltage profile along straight lines. This program can be utilized in an interactive or batch mode. In the interactive mode, the user defines the grounding system geometry, soil parameters, and output requests interactively, with the use of a user friendly conversational program. The users manual describes data requirements and data preparation procedures. An appendix provides forms which facilitate data collection procedures. The installation and validation manual describes the computer files which make up the program SGSYS and provides a test case for validation purposes.

Meliopoulos, A.P.S. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Electric Power Lab.)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Anode for a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell includes an anode containing lithium, an electrolyte containing lithium ions and a cathode containing a chalcogen material such as sulfur or a metallic sulfide. The anode includes a porous substrate formed of, for instance, a compacted mass of entangled metallic fibers providing interstitial crevices for receiving molten lithium metal. The surfaces of the interstitial crevices are provided with a coating of cobalt metal to enhance the retention of the molten lithium metal within the substrate.

Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Tani, Benjamin S. (Chicago, IL)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, Eugene (Coram, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, E.

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

125

History of Residential Grounding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the development of residential electrical service grounding practices in the United States. The report focuses on the history of the National Electrical Code (NEC), which prescribes standards for wiring practices in residences, including grounding of the building electrical service.

2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

126

Ways of grounding imagination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses and evaluates use of different participatory design methods in relation to addressing the challenge of grounding imagination. It presents reflections on the use of three participatory design methods, deployed in the WorkSpace project: ... Keywords: PD methods, analytical triangulation, bricolage, future laboratory, grounding imagination, in-situ prototyping experiments

Monika Büscher; Mette Agger Eriksen; Jannie Friis Kristensen; Preben Holst Mogensen

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Ground Motion Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2nd Advanced ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop 2nd Advanced ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop on Ground Motion in Future Accelerators November 6 - 9, 2000 SLAC Coordinators: Andrei Seryi & Tor Raubenheimer Proceedings Updated June 26, 2001 Agenda and Presentations Workshop photos Summaries Useful links Poster Goals Introduction to the problems Structure Registration Registered participants Committees Location, Accommodations and Travel Workshop on Ground Motion in Future Accelerators A workshop was held at SLAC that was devoted to ground motion and its effects on future accelerators. Ground motion and vibration can be a limiting effect in synchrotron light sources, hadron circular colliders, and electron/positron linear colliders. Over the last several years, there has been significant progress in the understanding of the ground motion and its effects, however, there are

128

METHOD OF LOCATING GROUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

ABS>This patent presents a method for locating a ground in a d-c circult having a number of parallel branches connected across a d-c source or generator. The complete method comprises the steps of locating the ground with reference to the mildpoint of the parallel branches by connecting a potentiometer across the terminals of the circuit and connecting the slider of the potentiometer to ground through a current indicating instrument, adjusting the slider to right or left of the mildpoint so as to cause the instrument to indicate zero, connecting the terminal of the network which is farthest from the ground as thus indicated by the potentiometer to ground through a condenser, impressing a ripple voltage on the circuit, and then measuring the ripple voltage at the midpoint of each parallel branch to find the branch in which is the lowest value of ripple voltage, and then measuring the distribution of the ripple voltage along this branch to determine the point at which the ripple voltage drops off to zero or substantially zero due to the existence of a ground. The invention has particular application where a circuit ground is present which will disappear if the normal circuit voltage is removed.

Macleish, K.G.

1958-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

129

Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source André Anders and Simone Anders  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source Working Principle of the Hollow-Anode Plasma Source André Anders and Simone Anders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Abstract The hollow-anode discharge is a special form of glow discharge. It is shown that a drastically reduced anode area is responsible for a positive anode voltage drop of 30-40 V and an increased anode sheath thickness. This leads to an ignition of a relatively dense plasma in front of the anode hole. Langmuir probe measurements inside a specially designed hollow anode plasma source give an electron density and temperature of n e = 10 9 - 10 11 cm -3 and T e = 1 - 3 eV, respectively (nitrogen, current 100 mA, flow rate 5-50 scc/min). Driven by a pressure gradient, the "anode" plasma is blown through

130

Plant-scale anodic dissolution of unirradiated IFR fuel pins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses anodic dissolution which is a major operation in the pyrometallurgical process for recycling spent metal fuels from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), an advanced reactor design developed at Argonne National Laboratory. This process involves electrorefining the heavy metals (uranium and plutonium) from chopped, steel-clad fuel segments. The heavy metals are electrotransported from anodic dissolution baskets to solid and liquid cathodes in a molten salt electrolyte (LiCl-KCI) at 500{degrees}C. Uranium is recovered on a solid cathode mandrel, while a uranium-plutonium mixture is recovered in a liquid cadmium cathode. The anode configuration consists of four baskets mounted on an anode shaft. These baskets provide parallel circuits in the electrolyte and salt flow through the chopped fuelbed as the baskets are rotated. The baskets for the engineering-scale tests were sized to contain up to 2.5 kg of heavy metal. Anodic dissolution of 10 kg batches of chopped, steel-clad simulated tuel (U-10% Zr and U-Zr-Fs alloy) was demonstrated.

Gay, E.C.; Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Substation Grounding Grids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an account of research performed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in 2011 on the subject of degradation of buried grounding grids in electric power substations. Substation ground grids are usually made of copper conductors, which are placed below grade and are joined together and to the above-grade structures with various types of connectors. While above-grade connections are visible and may be inspected, below-grade connections are not visible or readily accessible for insp...

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

132

EPRI Substation Grounding Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been conducting research in the area of substation grounding and fault current management for several decades. This research has resulted in a large number of reports and other products. To help users locate the results of EPRI’s research in substation grounding and fault current management, an annual update is prepared containing brief descriptions of the products.ObjectiveThe objective of this report is ...

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

133

Substation grounding programs  

SciTech Connect

This document is a users manual and applications guide for the software package SGA. This package comprises four computer programs, namely SOMIP, SMECC, SGSYS, and TGRND. The first three programs are analysis models which are to be used in the design process of substation grounding systems. The fourth program, TGRND, is an analysis program for determining the transient response of a grounding system. This report, Volume 2, is a users manual and an installation and validation manual for the computer program SMECC (Substation Maximum Earth Current Computation Program). This program analyzes the electric current distribution among grounded structures inside and outside a substation for different fault conditions. The fault conditions are automatically selected by the program, or they may be specified by the user, or both. The fault condition resulting in maximum substation earth current is identified and reported. Data requirements for this program are: ground impedance, transformer data, transmission line data, transmission line grounding impedances, etc. The program provides four types of standard outputs: (1) a report of voltages and current flow in the unfaulted system, (2) a brief report of the maximum ground potential rise (worst fault condition), (3) a summary report of all fault conditions which have been analyzed by the program, and (4) a detailed report of voltages and current flow for a selected set of fault conditions.

Meliopoulos, A.P.S. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Electric Power Lab.)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

135

Battery with modular air cathode and anode cage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom.

Niksa, Marilyn J. (Painesville, OH); Pohto, Gerald R. (Mentor, OH); Lakatos, Leslie K. (Mentor, OH); Wheeler, Douglas J. (Cleveland Heights, OH); Niksa, Andrew J. (Painesville, OH); Schue, Thomas J. (Huntsburg, OH)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Battery with modular air cathode and anode cage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom.

Niksa, Marilyn J. (Painesville, OH); Pohto, Gerald R. (Mentor, OH); Lakatos, Leslie K. (Mentor, OH); Wheeler, Douglas J. (Cleveland Heights, OH); Niksa, Andrew J. (Painesville, OH); Schue, Thomas J. (Huntsburg, OH); Turk, Thomas R. (Mentor, OH)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

The dependence of natural graphite anode performance on electrode density  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of electrode density for lithium intercalation and irreversible capacity loss on the natural graphite anode in lithium ion batteries was studied by electrochemical methods. Both the first-cycle reversible and irreversible capacities of the natural graphite anode decreased with an increase in the anode density though compression. The reduction in reversible capacity was attributed to a reduction in the chemical diffusion coefficient for lithium though partially agglomerated particles with a larger stress. For the natural graphite in this study the potentials for Li (de)insertion shifted between the first and second formation cycles and the extent of this shift was dependent on electrode density. The relation between this peak shift and the irreversible capacity loss are probably both due to the decrease in graphite surface area with compression.

Shim, Joongpyo; Striebel, Kathryn A.

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Pulsed neutron generator using shunt between anode and cathode  

SciTech Connect

A pulsed neutron generator for well logging is provided having a resistor connected between the anode and cathode. The resistor provides a direct current path whereby corona current can flow between the cathode and a corona point without the necessity for the ion source to conduct. In an alternative embodiment, the secondary coil of a pulsing transformer is connected in series with a resistor between the anode and cathode. In an alternative embodiment, a corona regulator in series with the collector-emitter of a transistor is connected between the cathode and anode of the neutron source and the base drive to the transistor is provided by a light-responsive solar cell activatable by an external lamp. Circuitry is provided for utilizing the various neutron sources.

Culver, R.B.

1976-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

139

Guide for Transmission Line Grounding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrical utilities have a duty to provide effective grounding for managing steady-state and fault currents, whether near a large generating station or at a remote distribution pole ground. For transmission lines, this imperative is usually met with investment in overhead ground wires and grounding electrodes. Effective grounding at each tower improves reliability8212by providing low path impedance to lightning strokes8212and contributes to safety. However, the fundamental physical parameters in ground ...

2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

140

Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

O. A. Marina; L. R. Pederson; R. Gemmen; K. Gerdes; H. Finklea; I. B. Celik

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Electrolytic production of metals using a resistant anode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolytic process is described comprising evolving oxygen on an anode in a molten salt, the anode comprising an alloy comprising a first metal and a second metal, both metals forming oxides, the oxide of the first metal being more resistant than the second metal to attack by the molten salt, the oxide of the second metal being more resistant than the first metal to the diffusion of oxygen. The electrode may also be formed of CuAlO[sub 2] and/or Cu[sub 2]O. 2 figs.

Tarcy, G.P.; Gavasto, T.M.; Ray, S.P.

1986-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

142

Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Gemmen, Randall; Gerdes, Kirk; Finklea, Harry; Celik, Ismail B.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Electrolytic production of metals using a resistant anode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolytic process comprising evolving oxygen on an anode in a molten salt, the anode comprising an alloy comprising a first metal and a second metal, both metals forming oxides, the oxide of the first metal being more resistant than the second metal to attack by the molten salt, the oxide of the second metal being more resistant than the first metal to the diffusion of oxygen. The electrode may also be formed of CuAlO.sub.2 and/or Cu.sub.2 O.

Tarcy, Gary P. (Plum Borough, PA); Gavasto, Thomas M. (New Kensington, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Plum Borough, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Novel Sulfur-Tolerant Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the unique advantages of SOFCs over other types of fuel cells is the potential for direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels (it may involve internal reforming). Unfortunately, most hydrocarbon fuels contain sulfur, which would dramatically degrade SOFC performance at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. Low concentration of sulfur (ppm or below) is difficult to remove efficiently and cost-effectively. Therefore, knowing the exact poisoning process for state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFCs with Ni-YSZ cermet anodes, understanding the detailed anode poisoning mechanism, and developing new sulfur-tolerant anodes are essential to the promotion of SOFCs that run on hydrocarbon fuels. The effect of cell operating conditions (including temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, cell voltage/current density, etc.) on sulfur poisoning and recovery of nickel-based anode in SOFCs was investigated. It was found that sulfur poisoning is more severe at lower temperature, higher H{sub 2}S concentration or lower cell current density (higher cell voltage). In-situ Raman spectroscopy identified the nickel sulfide formation process on the surface of a Ni-YSZ electrode and the corresponding morphology change as the sample was cooled in H{sub 2}S-containing fuel. Quantum chemical calculations predicted a new S-Ni phase diagram with a region of sulfur adsorption on Ni surfaces, corresponding to sulfur poisoning of Ni-YSZ anodes under typical SOFC operating conditions. Further, quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the adsorption energy and bond length for sulfur and hydrogen atoms on various metal surfaces. Surface modification of Ni-YSZ anode by thin Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating was utilized to enhance the sulfur tolerance. A multi-cell testing system was designed and constructed which is capable of simultaneously performing electrochemical tests of 12 button cells in fuels with four different concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Through systematical study of state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFC button cells, it is seen that the long-term sulfur poisoning behavior of those cells indicate that there might be a second-stage slower degradation due to sulfur poisoning, which would last for a thousand hour or even longer. However, when using G-18 sealant from PNNL, the 2nd stage poisoning was effectively prohibited.

Lei Yang; Meilin Liu

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

145

Controlling Activity and Stability of Ni-YSZ Catalysts for On-Anode Reforming  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purposes of the project are to develop an effective Ni-YSZ-based anode for on-anode reforming of methane and natural gas and develop methods to control endothermic steam reforming activity.

King, D.L.; Wang, Y.; Chin, Y-H.; Lin, Y.; Roh, H-S.; Rozmiarek, B.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

146

Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode  

SciTech Connect

An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures.

Hobson, David O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method  

SciTech Connect

A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Pure Oxygen Anodes™ for Low- or Zero-carbon Energy Efficient ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solid electrolyte, e.g. zirconia, between the salt and anode removes the molten salt stability constraint, and can act as a container for a liquid metal anode.

149

Effect of Sulfur and Hydrocarbon Fuels on Titanate/Ceria SOFC Anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the project is to develop low-cost, high-performance anodes that offer low polarization resistance as well as improved tolerance for nonidealities in anode environment such as redox cycles, sulfur and other poisons, and hydrocarbons.

Marina, O.A.; Pedersen, L.R.; Stevenson, J.W.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

150

New Green Anode Plant at EMAL – Start-Up and Operation in the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... EMAL Aluminium Smelter project located in the Khalifa Port & Industrial Zone at Al Taweelah, halfway ... Energy Saving Technologies for Anode Manufacturing ... New Method for Representative Measurement of Anode Electrical Resistance.

151

Substation grounding programs  

SciTech Connect

This document is a users manual and applications guide for the software package SGA. This package comprises four computer programs, namely SOMIP, SMECC, SGSYS, and TGRND. The first three programs are analysis models which are to be used in the design process of substation grounding systems. The fourth program, TGRND, is an analysis program for determining the transient response of a grounding system. This report, Volume 5, is an applications guide of the three computer programs. SOMIP, SMECC, and SGSYS, for the purpose of designing a safe substation grounding system. The applications guide utilizes four example substation grounding systems for the purpose of illustrating the application of the programs, SOMIP, SMECC, and SGSYS. The examples are based on data provided by four contributing utilities, namely, Houston Lighting and Power Company, Southern Company Services, Puget Sound Power and Light Company, and Arizona Public Service Company. For the purpose of illustrating specific capabilities of the computer programs, the data have been modified. As a result, the final designs of the four systems do not necessarily represent actual grounding system designs by these utilities. The example system 1 is a 138 kV/35 kV distribution substation. The example system 2 is a medium size 230 kV/115 kV transmission substation. The third example system is a generation substation while the last is a large 525 kV/345 kV/230 kV transmission substation. The four examples cover most of the practical problems that a user may encounter in the design of substation grounding systems.

Meliopoulos, A.P.S. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Electric Power Lab.)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation is a summary of a Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts.

Dinh, H.; Gennett, T.

2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

153

Silicon Anode Materials for All-Solid-State Lithium-ion Microbatteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Nanostructured Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries and for Supercapacitors. Presentation Title, Silicon Anode Materials for All-Solid-State ...

154

Method of deep drilling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: (1) Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. (2) Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. (3) Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

Colgate, Stirling A. (4616 Ridgeway, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Substation Ground Grid Impedance Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because safety impacts all segments of the electric power industry, the integrity and conformance to standards of substation grounding systems is of paramount importance. This report summarizes field demonstrations of commercially available meters for performance evaluation of large grounding systems, including the EPRI Ground Grid Evaluator (commercially known as the Smart Ground Multimeter or SGM).

2007-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

156

Microstructure Change of SOFC Anode Caused by Electrochemical Redox Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power Systems. All Rights Reserved. 2 Contents Manufacturing development dependencies SOFC elements Reserved. 6 SOFC Elements: Independent of Construction Need to create and join the electrochemical Rights Reserved. 7 SOFC Stack Elements Fuel cell ­ Electrolyte, cathode, anode Interconnects ­ Deliver

Tokyo, University of

157

Anode Materials for Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research is on materials for anodes and cathodes in electrochemical cells. The work is a mix of electrochemical measurements and analysis of the materials by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry. At present, our experimental work involves only materials for Li storage, but we have been writing papers from our previous work on hydrogen-storage materials.

Fultz, B.

2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

158

Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Title Comparison of Cycling Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Ridgway, Paul L., Honghe Zheng, A. F. Bello, Xiangyun Song, Shidi Xun, Jin Chong, and Vincent S. Battaglia Journal Journal of The Electrochemical Society Volume 159 Issue 5 Pagination A520 Date Published 2012 ISSN 00134651 Abstract Battery grade graphite products from major suppliers to the battery industry were evaluated in 2325 coin cells with lithium counter electrodes. First and ongoing cycle efficiency, total and reversible capacity, cycle life and discharge rate performance were measured to compare these anode materials. We then ranked the graphites using a formula which incorporates these performance measures to estimate the cost of the overall system, relative to the cost of a system using MCMB. This analysis indicates that replacing MCMB with CCP-G8 (Conoco Phillips) would add little to no cost, whereas each of the other graphites would lead to a more costly system. Therefore we chose CCP-G8 as the new baseline graphite for the BATT program.

159

Novel carbonaceous materials used as anodes in lithium ion cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to synthesize disordered carbons used as anodes in lithium ion batteries, where the porosity and surface area are controlled. Both parameters are critical since the irreversible capacity obtained in the first cycle seems to be associated with the surface area (an exfoliation mechanism occurs in which the exposed surface area continues to increase).

Sandi, G.; Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

FEM analysis of voltage drop in the anode connector induced by steel stub diameter reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Primary aluminium production is a high-energy consumption process, and improving the energy efficiency of smelters could be economically viable. An issue in the Hall-Heroult prebake anode technology is the voltage drop in the anode connector caused by ... Keywords: Aluminium reduction cell, Carbon anode, Energy efficiency, Finite element method, Stub hole, Thermo-electro-mechanical modelling

Hugues Fortin; Nedeltcho Kandev; Mario Fafard

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc. 6 figs.

Delnick, F.M.; Even, W.R. Jr.; Sylwester, A.P.; Wang, J.C.F.; Zifer, T.

1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

162

Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc.

Delnick, Frank M. (Albuquerque, NM); Even, Jr., William R. (Livermore, CA); Sylwester, Alan P. (Washington, DC); Wang, James C. F. (Livermore, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Layer-by-Layer Characterization of a Model Biofuel Cell Anode by (in Situ) Vibrational Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Layer-by-Layer Characterization of a Model Biofuel Cell Anode by (in Situ) Vibrational Spectroscopy during the construction of a model biofuel cell anode. The model anode was a layered structure formedDH to the CB layer confirmed successful enzyme immobilization. 1. Introduction Biofuel cells use microorganisms

Brolo, Alexandre G.

164

Reduced temperature aluminum production in an electrolytic cell having an inert anode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Aluminum is produced by electrolytic reduction of alumina in a cell having a cathode, an inert anode and a molten salt bath containing metal fluorides and alumina. The inert anode preferably contains copper, silver and oxides of iron and nickel. Reducing the molten salt bath temperature to about 900-950.degree. C. lowers corrosion on the inert anode constituents.

Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA); Kozarek, Robert L. (Apollo, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of current designs, and has maintained its greatly increased energy capacity after more than a year of testing and many hundreds of charge-discharge cycles. Cyclical Science Succeeds The anode achievement described in this highlight provides a rare scientific showcase, combining advanced tools of synthesis, characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to materials development. Gao Liu's original research team, part of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD), got the ball rolling by designing the original series of polyfluorene-based conducting polymers. Then, Wanli Yang of the ALS suggested soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine their key electronic properties. To better understand these results, and their relevance to the conductivity of the polymer, the growing team sought a theoretical explanation from Lin-Wang Wang of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division (MSD). By conducting calculations on the promising polymers at Berkeley Lab's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), the team gained insight into what was really happening in the PF with the carbonyl functional group, singling it out for further development.

166

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of current designs, and has maintained its greatly increased energy capacity after more than a year of testing and many hundreds of charge-discharge cycles. Cyclical Science Succeeds The anode achievement described in this highlight provides a rare scientific showcase, combining advanced tools of synthesis, characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to materials development. Gao Liu's original research team, part of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD), got the ball rolling by designing the original series of polyfluorene-based conducting polymers. Then, Wanli Yang of the ALS suggested soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine their key electronic properties. To better understand these results, and their relevance to the conductivity of the polymer, the growing team sought a theoretical explanation from Lin-Wang Wang of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division (MSD). By conducting calculations on the promising polymers at Berkeley Lab's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), the team gained insight into what was really happening in the PF with the carbonyl functional group, singling it out for further development.

167

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of current designs, and has maintained its greatly increased energy capacity after more than a year of testing and many hundreds of charge-discharge cycles. Cyclical Science Succeeds The anode achievement described in this highlight provides a rare scientific showcase, combining advanced tools of synthesis, characterization, and simulation in a novel approach to materials development. Gao Liu's original research team, part of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD), got the ball rolling by designing the original series of polyfluorene-based conducting polymers. Then, Wanli Yang of the ALS suggested soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine their key electronic properties. To better understand these results, and their relevance to the conductivity of the polymer, the growing team sought a theoretical explanation from Lin-Wang Wang of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division (MSD). By conducting calculations on the promising polymers at Berkeley Lab's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), the team gained insight into what was really happening in the PF with the carbonyl functional group, singling it out for further development.

168

Silicon Based Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Silicon is environmentally benign and ubiquitous. Because of its high specific capacity, it is considered one of the most promising candidates to replace the conventional graphite negative electrode used in today's Li ion batteries. Silicon has a theoretical specific capacity of nearly 4200 mAh/g (Li21Si5), which is 10 times larger than the specific capacity of graphite (LiC6, 372 mAh/g). However, the high capacity of silicon is associated with huge volume changes (more than 300 percent) when alloyed with lithium, which can cause severe cracking and pulverization of the electrode and lead to significant capacity loss. Significant scientific research has been conducted to circumvent the deterioration of silicon based anode materials during cycling. Various strategies, such as reduction of particle size, generation of active/inactive composites, fabrication of silicon based thin films, use of alternative binders, and the synthesis of 1-D silicon nanostructures have been implemented by a number of research groups. Fundamental mechanistic research has also been performed to better understand the electrochemical lithiation and delithiation process during cycling in terms of crystal structure, phase transitions, morphological changes, and reaction kinetics. Although efforts to date have not attained a commercially viable Si anode, further development is expected to produce anodes with three to five times the capacity of graphite. In this chapter, an overview of research on silicon based anodes used for lithium-ion battery applications will be presented. The overview covers electrochemical alloying of the silicon with lithium, mechanisms responsible for capacity fade, and methodologies adapted to overcome capacity degradation observed during cycling. The recent development of silicon nanowires and nanoparticles with significantly improved electrochemical performance will also be discussed relative to the mechanistic understanding. Finally, future directions on the development of silicon based anodes will be considered.

Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L.; Yang, Zhenguo; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu; Liu, Jun

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

Improved Smart Ground Multimeter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Smart Ground Multimeter (SGM) underwent three major redesigns since its original development in the early 1980s. This report describes the latest redesign and provides useful tips on the assessment of measured data quality and on resolving measurement problems in the field.

2006-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

170

Substation grounding programs  

SciTech Connect

The five volume report comprises the user manual, installation, and validation manual and an applications guide for the SGA (Substation Grounding Analysis) software package. SGA consists of four computer programs: (1) SOMIP, (2) SMECC, (3) SGSYS, and (4) TGRND. The first three programs provide a comprehensive analysis tool for the design of substation grounding systems to meet safety standards. The fourth program, TGRND, provides a state of the art analysis tool for computing transient ground potential rise and ground system impedance. This part of the report, Volume 1, is a users manual and an installation and validation manual for the computer program SOMIP (SOil Measurement Interpretation Program). This program computes the best estimate of the parameters of a two layer soil model from usual soil resistivity measurements. Four pin or three pin soil measurements can be accommodated. In addition, it provides error bounds on the soil parameters for a given confidence level. The users manual describes data requirements and data preparation procedures. The installation and validation manual describes the computer files which make up the program SOMIP and provides two test cases for validation purposes. 4 refs.

Meliopoulos, A.P.S. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical Engineering)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

2013 AAOCS Deep Frying Course  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This workshop is designed to bring together various topics pertaining to deep-frying principles and frying oils. It is a must-attend for anyone interested in deep-frying and frying oils from personnel dealing with frying oils, lipid technologists, m

172

Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation (DSGRE-AE) is to evaluate the postulated hypothesis that a hydrogen GRE may occur in Hanford tanks containing waste sludges at levels greater than previously experienced. There is a need to understand gas retention and release hazards in sludge beds which are 200 -300 inches deep. These sludge beds are deeper than historical Hanford sludge waste beds, and are created when waste is retrieved from older single-shell tanks (SST) and transferred to newer double-shell tanks (DST).Retrieval of waste from SSTs reduces the risk to the environment from leakage or potential leakage of waste into the ground from these tanks. However, the possibility of an energetic event (flammable gas accident) in the retrieval receiver DST is worse than slow leakage. Lines of inquiry, therefore, are (1) can sludge waste be stored safely in deep beds; (2) can gas release events (GRE) be prevented by periodically degassing the sludge (e.g., mixer pump); or (3) does the retrieval strategy need to be altered to limit sludge bed height by retrieving into additional DSTs? The scope of this effort is to provide expert advice on whether or not to move forward with the generation of deep beds of sludge through retrieval of C-Farm tanks. Evaluation of possible mitigation methods (e.g., using mixer pumps to release gas, retrieving into an additional DST) are being evaluated by a second team and are not discussed in this report. While available data and engineering judgment indicate that increased gas retention (retained gas fraction) in DST sludge at depths resulting from the completion of SST 241-C Tank Farm retrievals is not expected and, even if gas releases were to occur, they would be small and local, a positive USQ was declared (Occurrence Report EM-RP--WRPS-TANKFARM-2012-0014, "Potential Exists for a Large Spontaneous Gas Release Event in Deep Settled Waste Sludge"). The purpose of this technical report is to (1) present and discuss current understandings of gas retention and release mechanisms for deep sludge in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex waste storage tanks; and (2) to identify viable methods/criteria for demonstrating safety relative to deep sludge gas release events (DSGRE) in the near term to support the Hanford C-Farm retrieval mission. A secondary purpose is to identify viable methods/criteria for demonstrating safety relative to DSGREs in the longer term to support the mission to retrieve waste from the Hanford Tank Farms and deliver it to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The potential DSGRE issue resulted in the declaration of a positive Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ). C-Farm retrievals are currently proceeding under a Justification for Continued Operation (JCO) that only allows tanks 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106 sludge levels of 192 inches and 195 inches, respectively. C-Farm retrievals need deeper sludge levels (approximately 310 inches in 241-AN-101 and approximately 250 inches in 241-AN-106). This effort is to provide analytical data and justification to continue retrievals in a safe and efficient manner.

Sams, Terry L.

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Corrosion of cermet anodes during low temperature electrolysis of alumina. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Successful development of inert anodes to replace carbon anodes in Hall cells has the potential benefits of lower energy consumption,lower operating costs, and reduced CO{sub 2} and CO emissions. Using inert anodes at reduced current density and reduced operating temperature (800 C) has potential for decreasing the corrosion rate of inert anodes. It may also permit the use of new materials for containment and insulation. This report describes the fabrication characteristics and the corrosion performance of 5324-17% Cu Cermet anodes in 100 hour tests. Although some good results were achieved, the corrosion rate at low temperature (800 C) is varied and not significantly lower than typical results at high temperature ({approximately} 960 C). This report also describes several attempts at 200 hour tests, with one anode achieving 177 hours of continuous operation and another achieving a total of 235 hours but requiring three separate tests of the same anode. The longest run did show a lower wear rate in the last test; but a high resistance layer developed on the anode surface and forced an unacceptably low current density. It is recommended that intermediate temperatures be explored as a more optimal environment for inert anodes. Other electrolyte chemistries and anode compositions (especially high conductivity anodes) should be considered to alleviate problems associated with lower temperature operation.

Kozarek, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.

1997-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

174

Ground State Entanglement Energetics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the ground state of simple quantum systems coupled to an environment. In general the system is entangled with its environment. As a consequence, even at zero temperature, the energy of the system is not sharp: a projective measurement can find the system in an excited state. We show that energy fluctuation measurements at zero temperature provide entanglement information. For two-state systems which exhibit a persistent current in the ground state, energy fluctuations and persistent current fluctuations are closely related. The harmonic oscillator serves to illustrate energy fluctuations in a system with an infinite number of states. In addition to the energy distribution we discuss the energy-energy time-correlation function in the zero-temperature limit.

M. Buttiker; A. N. Jordan

2005-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

175

CEUS Ground Motion Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three utilities are currently pursuing early site permits (ESPs) for possible siting of new nuclear power plant facilities in the central and eastern United States (CEUS). The geological, seismological, and engineering characteristics of a site and its environs must be investigated in sufficient scope and detail. These investigations are needed to adequately evaluate a proposed site and to provide sufficient information for estimating the site's safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) ground motion. Nuclear Regul...

2003-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

176

Ground Squirrels and Gophers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Squirrels and Gophers Squirrels and Gophers Nature Bulletin No. 224-A April 2, 1966 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation GROUND SQUIRRELS AND GOPHERS On sunny summer days, a dusty-colored animal with yellowish and brown stripes, about the size of a small rat, often may be noticed creeping through the grass of prairies, pastures, golf courses or lawns. Watch him. He pauses every few feet to sit up, look and listen for a moment. Nervous and timid, he crouches low at every distant sound or passing shadow. Startle him and he scurries away, and then may suddenly halt and freeze, bolt upright, as stiff and straight as a stake driven in the ground. If approached, he gives a loud shrill trilling whistle and, with a flip of his tail, pops out of sight. Watch that spot closely and, in less than a minute, a snaky head appears. Be quiet. He has many enemies above ground and he also has a lot of curiosity. Presently he sits up upon his haunches again.

177

OPERATION OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ANODES WITH PRACTICAL HYDROCARBON FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work was carried out to achieve a better understanding of how SOFC anodes work with real fuels. The motivation was to improve the fuel flexibility of SOFC anodes, thereby allowing simplification and cost reduction of SOFC power plants. The work was based on prior results indicating that Ni-YSZ anode-supported SOFCs can be operated directly on methane and natural gas, while SOFCs with novel anode compositions can work with higher hydrocarbons. While these results were promising, more work was clearly needed to establish the feasibility of these direct-hydrocarbon SOFCs. Basic information on hydrocarbon-anode reactions should be broadly useful because reformate fuel gas can contain residual hydrocarbons, especially methane. In the Phase I project, we have studied the reaction mechanisms of various hydrocarbons--including methane, natural gas, and higher hydrocarbons--on two kinds of Ni-containing anodes: conventional Ni-YSZ anodes and a novel ceramic-based anode composition that avoid problems with coking. The effect of sulfur impurities was also studied. The program was aimed both at achieving an understanding of the interactions between real fuels and SOFC anodes, and providing enough information to establish the feasibility of operating SOFC stacks directly on hydrocarbon fuels. A combination of techniques was used to provide insight into the hydrocarbon reactions at these anodes during SOFC operation. Differentially-pumped mass spectrometry was be used for product-gas analysis both with and without cell operation. Impedance spectroscopy was used in order to understand electrochemical rate-limiting steps. Open-circuit voltages measurements under a range of conditions was used to help determine anode electrochemical reactions. Life tests over a wide range of conditions were used to establish the conditions for stable operation of anode-supported SOFC stacks directly on methane. Redox cycling was carried out on ceramic-based anodes. Tests on sulfur tolerance of Ni-YSZ anodes were carried out.

Scott A. Barnett; Jiang Liu; Yuanbo Lin

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

178

"Plasma Thruster with Magnetically Insulated Anode: Inventor Yevgeny  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plasma Thruster with Magnetically Insulated Anode: Inventor Yevgeny Plasma Thruster with Magnetically Insulated Anode: Inventor Yevgeny Raitses This invention relates to a new plasma thruster for space applications. The key innovations of this thruster allow it to effectively ionize different propellants, including gases, liquids and solids, at different flow rates, and to operate with wallout losses. Due to these characteristics and the design simplicity, this thruster can be miniaturized to operate at low power levels, including, but not limited to a few watts input power, and regimes relevant to Cubesat applications. The new thruster uses plasma with magnetized electrons and non-magnetized ions and consists of at least two stages, ionization and acceleration, which are physically separated by the geometry, magnetic field topology and

179

Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation at fuel cell anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In some embodiments a ternary electrocatalyst is provided. The electrocatalyst can be used in an anode for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst may include a noble metal particle having a surface decorated with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh. The noble metal particles may include platinum, palladium, ruthenium, iridium, gold, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst includes SnO.sub.2 particles having a surface decorated with clusters of a noble metal and Rh. Some ternary electrocatalysts include noble metal particles with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh at their surfaces. In some embodiments the electrocatalyst particle cores are nanoparticles. Some embodiments of the invention provide a fuel cell including an anode incorporating the ternary electrocatalyst. In some aspects a method of using ternary electrocatalysts of Pt, Rh, and SnO.sub.2 to oxidize an alcohol in a fuel cell is described.

Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Kowal, Andrzej (Cracow, PL)

2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

180

A study of the failure mechanism of chlorine anodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin coating RuO{sub 2}{minus}TiO{sub 2} electrodes, which mimic the DSA anodes, have been prepared and tested for their activity toward the chlorine evolution reaction and subjected to life time testing. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry has been used concurrently with electrochemical measurements to analyze changes in the ruthenium content of the coating. The decrease in electrode activity is found to be closely related to a decrease in Ru content, and the measured profiles indicate that the loss takes place across the thin coating. Failure is observed for electrodes with a Ru content below a critical concentration, but there is no evidence for the build up of a pure TiO{sub 2} layer. AFM imaging of an anode after failure sustained the hypothesis of loss of material.

Vallet, C.E.; Zuhr, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tilak, B.V.; Chen, C.P. [Occidental Chemical Corp., Grand Island, NY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

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181

Alternative anodic reactions in water splitting. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An anodic depolarization path to hydrogen production through water electrolysis has been examined, using lignite, grass and household wastes. Iron was removed from lignite by extensive washing. The degree of dissolution of lignite in 5 M H/sub 2/So/sub 4/ at 100/sup 0/C is ca. 0.1 wt %. Washed lignite dissolves less than unwashed material. Cyclic voltammograms showed peaks arising from dissolved organics. Increase of temperature produced more peaks. In alkaline solution, peaks disappeared. Oxidation currents were three times greater if the lignite particles were in contact with the electrode compared with their absence from solution. Platinum anodes oxidized lignite better than PbO/sub 2/. Redox systems, added to the electrolyte, helped compound formation. Grass and household wastes gave similar results but lower oxidation currents. Compounds present in solution prior to electrolysis dissolve off the internal surfaces of lignite particles. Increased oxidation currents, caused when lignite particles came in contact with the anode, arose, not because of enhanced electrochemical reactions, but from enhanced lignite dissolution following erosion. The organic compounds eventually form CO/sub 2/; the presence of heavy oils lasts for 10 hr. Current densities up to 750 mA cm/sup -2/ at ca. 1 V should be obtainable. The hydrocarbons are formed via a Kolbe mechanism from carboxylic acids. Speculative economic considerations show that the final cost of hydrogen produced, using lignite as an anode depolarizer, is considerably cheaper than that from natural gas: $0.40 per GJ, or less, compared to $5 per GJ.

Murphy, O.J.; Bockris, J. O'M.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Title Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Ridgway, Paul L., Honghe Zheng, Xiangyun Song, Gao Liu, Philip N. Ross, and Vincent S. Battaglia Journal Electrochemical Society Volume 19 Start Page 51 Issue 25 Pagination 51-57 Abstract Vinylene Carbonate (VC) was added to the electrolyte in graphite-lithium half-cells. We report its effect on the coulombic efficiency (as capacity shift) of graphite electrodes under various formation cycling conditions. Cyclic voltammetry on glassy carbon showed that VC passivates the electrode against electrolyte reduction. The dQ/dV plots of the first lithiation of the graphite suggest that VC alters the SEI layer, and that by varying the cell formation rate, the initial ratio of ethylene carbonate to VC in the SEI layer can be controlled. VC was found to decrease first cycle efficiency and reversible capacity (in ongoing cycling) when used to excess. However, experiments with VC additive used with various formation rates did not show any decrease in capacity shift.

183

Crystalline structure transformation of carbon anodes during gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The crystalline structure transformation of five carbon anodes during gasification in air and carbon dioxide was studied using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD analysis and HRTEM observations confirmed that anodes have a highly ordered graphitic structure. The examination of partially gasified samples indicated that crystalline structure transformation occurred in two stages during gasification. The first stage involved the consumption of disorganized carbon matter in the initial 15% conversion. Oxygen was found to be more reactive toward disorganized carbon at this stage of the gasification process compared to carbon dioxide. Following this stage, as more carbon was consumed, especially with the removal of smaller crystallites, it was found that the crystalline structure became more ordered with increasing conversion levels. This is due to the merging of neighboring crystallites, required to maintain the minimum energy configuration. In addition, the interaction between the pitch and the coke components was found to be strongly linked to the initial coke structure. 'Stress graphitization' occurred at the pitch-coke interface, which helps to enhance the structural development of the anodes. 26 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Kien N. Tran; Adam J. Berkovich; Alan Tomsett; Suresh K. Bhatia [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Division of Chemical Engineering

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

Position-sensitive proportional counter with low-resistance metal-wire anode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A position-sensitive proportional counter circuit is provided which allows the use of a conventional (low-resistance, metal-wire anode) proportional counter for spatial resolution of an ionizing event along the anode of the counter. A pair of specially designed active-capacitance preamplifiers are used to terminate the anode ends wherein the anode is treated as an RC line. The preamplifiers act as stabilized active capacitance loads and each is composed of a series-feedback, low-noise amplifier, a unity-gain, shunt-feedback amplifier whose output is connected through a feedback capacitor to the series-feedback amplifier input. The stabilized capacitance loading of the anode allows distributed RC-line position encoding and subsequent time difference decoding by sensing the difference in rise times of pulses at the anode ends where the difference is primarily in response to the distributed capacitance along the anode. This allows the use of lower resistance wire anodes for spatial radiation detection which simplifies the counter construction and handling of the anodes, and stabilizes the anode resistivity at high count rates (>10.sup.6 counts/sec).

Kopp, Manfred K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

FORT UNION DEEP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback was a four-fold increase over the prestimulation rate with production essentially returning to prestimulation rates after 30 days. The physical stimulation was conducted over a 14-day period. Problems with the stimulation injection resulted in a coal bed fire that was quickly quenched when production was resumed. The poststimulation, stabilized production was three to four times the prestimulation rate. The methane content was approximately 45% after one day and increased to 65% at the end of 30 days. The gas production rate was still two and one-half times the prestimulation rate at the end of the 30-day test period. The field results were a good match to the numerical simulator predictions. The physical stimulation did increase the production, but did not produce a commercial rate.

Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

FORT UNION DEEP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback was a four-fold increase over the prestimulation rate with production essentially returning to prestimulation rates after 30 days. The physical stimulation was conducted over a 14-day period. Problems with the stimulation injection resulted in a coal bed fire that was quickly quenched when production was resumed. The poststimulation, stabilized production was three to four times the prestimulation rate. The methane content was approximately 45% after one day and increased to 65% at the end of 30 days. The gas production rate was still two and one-half times the prestimulation rate at the end of the 30-day test period. The field results were a good match to the numerical simulator predictions. The physical stimulation did increase the production, but did not produce a commercial rate.

Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Deep Astrometric Standards (DAS) and Galactic Structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The advent of next-generation imaging telescopes such as LSST and Pan-STARRS has revitalized the need for deep and precise reference frames. The proposed weak-lensing observations with these facilities put the highest demands on image quality over wide angles on the sky. It is particularly difficult to achieve a sub-arcsecond PSF on stacked images, where precise astrometry plays a key role. Current astrometric standards are insufficient to achieve the science goals of these facilities. We thus propose the establishing of a few selected deep (V=25) astrometric standards (DAS). These will enable a reliable geometric calibration of solid-state mosaic detectors in the focal plane of large ground-based telescopes and make a substantial contribution to our understanding of stellar populations in the Milky Way. In this paper we motivate the need for such standards and discuss the strategy of their selection and acquisition and reduction techniques. The feasibility of DAS is demonstrated by a pilot study around the open cluster NGC 188, using the KPNO 4m CCD Mosaic camera, and by Subaru Suprime-Cam observations. The goal of reaching an accuracy of 5-10 mas in positions and obtaining absolute proper motions good to 2 mas/yr over a several square-degree area is challenging, but reachable with the NOAO 4m telescopes and CCD mosaic imagers or a similar set-up. Our proposed DAS aims to establish four fields near the Galactic plane, at widely separated coordinates. In addition to their utilitarian purpose for DAS, the data we will obtain in these fields will enable fundamental Galactic science in their own right. The positions, proper motions, and VI photometry of faint stars will address outstanding questions of Galactic disk formation and evolution, stellar buildup and mass assembly via merger events.

I. Platais; R. F. G. Wyse; N. Zacharias

2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

188

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell - CellTech Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell-CellTech Power Background Direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer a theoretical efficiency advantage over traditional SOFCs operating on gasified carbon (syngas). CellTech Power LLC (CellTech) has been developing a liquid tin anode (LTA) SOFC that can directly convert carbonaceous fuels including coal into electricity without gasification. One of the most significant impediments

189

Process and apparatus for recovery of fissionable materials from spent reactor fuel by anodic dissolution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical process and apparatus for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent metal clad fuel pins is disclosed. The process uses secondary reactions between U.sup.+4 cations and elemental uranium at the anode to increase reaction rates and improve anodic efficiency compared to prior art processes. In another embodiment of the process, secondary reactions between Cd.sup.+2 cations and elemental uranium to form uranium cations and elemental cadmium also assists in oxidizing the uranium at the anode.

Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Orland Park, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Wolson, Raymond D. (Lockport, IL); Gay, Eddie C. (Park Forest, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Ground potential rise monitor  

SciTech Connect

A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising positioning a first electrode and a second electrode at a distance from each other into the earth. The voltage of the first electrode and second electrode is attenuated by an attenuation factor creating an attenuated voltage. The true RMS voltage of the attenuated voltage is determined creating an attenuated true RMS voltage. The attenuated true RMS voltage is then multiplied by the attenuation factor creating a calculated true RMS voltage. If the calculated true RMS voltage is greater than a first predetermined voltage threshold, a first alarm is enabled at a local location. If user input is received at a remote location acknowledging the first alarm, a first alarm acknowledgment signal is transmitted. The first alarm acknowledgment signal is then received at which time the first alarm is disabled.

Allen, Zachery W. (Mandan, ND); Zevenbergen, Gary A. (Arvada, CO)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

191

Si-Graphene Anodes (ANL-10-018 and ANL-11-034)  

AV AILABLE FOR LICENSING Production process for low-cost, long-life, high-energy anodes with five times the specific energy. The Invention An advanced ...

192

Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Under Various Cycling Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CA 94720 Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphitesevaluated (in coin cells with lithium counter electrodes) asanode materials for lithium-ion cells intended for use in

Ridgway, Paul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Fullerene Film as a Coating Material for Silicon Thick Film Anodes ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Fullerene Film as a Coating Material for Silicon Thick Film Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries. Author(s), Arenst Andreas Arie. On-Site Speaker

194

BSA 99-05: Anodes to Oxidize Alcohol in Fuel Cells  

BSA 99-05: Anodes to Oxidize Alcohol in Fuel Cells. BNL Reference Number: BSA 99-05. Summary. ... Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in ...

195

Reduction of Anode Effect Duration in 400kA Prebake Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Retrofit of a Combined Breaker Feeder with a Chisel Bath Contact Detection System to Reduce Anode Effect Frequency in a Potroom · Simulating Traffic in a ...

196

High Energy Density Anode Materials Based on SiO-SnCo/FeC for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, High energy density anode material SiO-SnCoC is synthesized by mechanical alloying method and tested for lithium battery applications.

197

Cyclability Study of Si/TiN/C Composite Anode with High Rate ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Cyclability Study of Si/TiN/C Composite Anode with High Rate Capability for Lithium-Ion Batteries. Author(s), Jiguo Tu, Shuqiang Jiao, ...

198

Study of the Behaviour of LSCM Anode Composites in a Segmented ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Energy Conversion/Fuel Cells. Presentation Title, Study of the Behaviour of LSCM Anode Composites in a Segmented Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell.

199

Aligned TiO2 Nanotubes as Long Durability Anodes for Lithium-Ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aligned TiO2 Nanotubes as Long Durability Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries · Aniline Coated Carbon Cryogel with Improved Cyclic Stability for Supercapacitor  ...

200

A MORE EFFICIENT ANODE MICROSTRUCTURE FOR SOFCs BASED ON PROTON CONDUCTORS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While the desired microstructure of the state-of-the-art Ni-YSZ anode for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based on YSZ is well known, the anode microstructure for a SOFC based on a proton conductor is yet to be optimized. In this study, we examined the effect of anode porosity on the performance of a SOFC based on BaZr{sub 0.1}Ce{sub 0.7}Y{sub 0.1}Yb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3??} (BZCYYb), a mixed ion (proton and oxygen anion) conductor with high ionic conductivity at intermediate temperatures. Three cells with Ni-BZCYYb cermet anodes of different porosities (37%, 42%, and 50%) and identical electrolytes and cathode components were fabricated and tested. Under typical fuel cell operating conditions, the cell with anode of the lowest porosity (37%), prepared without pore former, achieved the highest performance, demonstrating a peak power density of 1.2 W/cm{sup 2} at 750 °C. This is radically different from the results of Ni-YSZ anodes for YSZ based cells, where high anode porosity (?55%) is necessary to achieve high performance. The observed increase in performance (or electrocatalytic activity for anode reactions) is attributed primarily to the unique microstructure of the anode fabricated without the use of pore forming precursors.

Rainwater, Ben H; Liu, Mingfei; Liu, Meilin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Adsorption of Propane on the Magnesium Oxide (100) Surface and Synthesis of Anodized Aluminum Oxide.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work is divided into two parts: the adsorption of propane on the magnesium oxide (100) surface and the synthesis of anodized aluminum oxide. The… (more)

Felty, Michael John

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Titanium Oxides Thin Film Anodes for All-Solid-State Lithium Ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metallic lithium is not a suitable anode material for all-solid-state thin film batteries ... Application of Biomass Waste Materials in the Nano Mineral Synthesis.

203

Pitch Production Using Solvent Extraction of Coal: Suitability as Carbon Anode Precursor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Albertan coal has been used to produce extracts as precursor for production of anode coke. Coal extractability was studied using digestion with Tetralin in a… (more)

Mohammad Ali Pour, Mehdi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Réactivité de l'anode et désulfuration : effet du niveau de calcination du coke.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Les propriétés du coke et la performance des anodes sont affectées par le niveau de calcination du coke. Une densité de coke (VBD) élevée implique… (more)

Bergeron-Lagacé, Charles-Luc

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

PEMFC reconfigured anodes for enhancing CO tolerance with air bleed.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Practical PEM fuel cells based on perfluorinated ionomer membranes (eg Nafion), most probably will use reformed fuel as primary source for the anode feed. The reformate, besides hydrogen, may contain trace amounts of carbon monoxide (CO. from a few to hundreds ppm), whose presence is detrimental to the cell performance. Energy conversion at fuel cells depends on highly dispersed carbon-supported Pt, where the hydrogen electro-oxidatisn takes place. However, CO strongly adsorbs on the Pt surface leading to a decreasing of the Pt active Surface area and consequently to losses in electrical current that are unacceptable for a practical device.

Uribe, F. J. (Francisco J.); Zawodzinski, T. A. (Thomas A.), Jr.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

FREE STANDING NANOSTRUCTURED ANODES FOR LI-ION RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The free standing nanorodes of aluminum and cobalt oxides were grown on electrode and tested as the anodes directly in the half-cell. The average diameter and length of the nanorods are 80 nm and 200 nm respectively. The aligned nanorods demonstrated high initial capacity from 1200-1400 mAh/g at rate of 0.5C. The gradually decrease of initial capacity was observed. The preliminary characterization shows that the changes of the crystalline structure and morphology during cycling may be responsible for the capacity decay.

Au, M.

2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

208

Anode Materials for Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the annual progress report for the Grant DE-FG03-00ER15035. This research is on materials for anodes and cathodes in electrochemical cells. The work is a mix of electrochemical measurements and analysis of the materials by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry. Our materials studies on electrode materials divide into electronic studies of the valence at and around Li atoms, and the crystal structures of these materials. We are addressing the basic questions of how these change with Li concentration, and what long-term changes take place during charge/discharge cycling of the materials.

B. Fultz

2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

209

Ni/YSZ Anode Interactions with Impurities in Coal Gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Performance of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with nickel/zirconia anodes on synthetic coal gas in the presence of low levels of phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, hydrogen chloride, and antimony impurities were evaluated. The presence of phosphorus and arsenic led to the slow and irreversible SOFC degradation due to the formation of secondary phases with nickel, particularly close to the gas inlet. Phosphorus and antimony surface adsorption layers were identified as well. Hydrogen chloride and sulfur interactions with the nickel were limited to the surface adsorption only, whereas selenium exposure also led to the formation of nickel selenide for highly polarized cells.

Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Coffey, Greg W.

2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

210

Carbons for battery anodes prepared using inorganic templates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Unique carbons with demonstrated utility as anodes for lithium secondary batteries have been prepared by heating hydrocarbons within an inorganic template. Disordered carbons with novel and desirable molecular porosity were synthesized by the pyrolysis of pyrene at 700 C within a pillared clay. The clay was removed by treatment with acid, leaving behind carbons with 15 to 50 {angstrom} holes. These holey carbons, when converted into electrodes, allow rapid diffusion of the lithium into and out of a carbon. Favorable results have been obtained in several tests, for example, a reversible capacity of 825 mAh/g has been achieved, about four times greater than commercial batteries using convention pyrolytic carbon.

Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.; Sandi, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Ground Water Management Regulations (Louisiana) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ground Water Management Regulations (Louisiana) Ground Water Management Regulations (Louisiana) Eligibility Agricultural Construction Developer Fuel Distributor Industrial...

212

Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. An assessment of historical deep gas well drilling activity and forecast of future trends was completed during the first six months of the project; this segment of the project was covered in Technical Project Report No. 1. The second progress report covers the next six months of the project during which efforts were primarily split between summarizing rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep reservoirs and contacting operators about case studies of deep gas well stimulation.

None

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

213

STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEEP WELL COMPLETIONS  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a project to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. Phase 1 was recently completed and consisted of assessing deep gas well drilling activity (1995-2007) and an industry survey on deep gas well stimulation practices by region. Of the 29,000 oil, gas and dry holes drilled in 2002, about 300 were drilled in the deep well; 25% were dry, 50% were high temperature/high pressure completions and 25% were simply deep completions. South Texas has about 30% of these wells, Oklahoma 20%, Gulf of Mexico Shelf 15% and the Gulf Coast about 15%. The Rockies represent only 2% of deep drilling. Of the 60 operators who drill deep and HTHP wells, the top 20 drill almost 80% of the wells. Six operators drill half the U.S. deep wells. Deep drilling peaked at 425 wells in 1998 and fell to 250 in 1999. Drilling is expected to rise through 2004 after which drilling should cycle down as overall drilling declines.

Stephen Wolhart

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Aerogel and xerogel composites for use as carbon anodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for forming a reinforced rigid anode monolith and fuel and product of such method. The method includes providing a solution of organic aerogel or xerogel precursors including at least one of a phenolic resin, phenol (hydroxybenzene), resorcinol(1,3-dihydroxybenzene), or catechol(1,2-dihydroxybenzene); at least one aldehyde compound selected from the group consisting of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and furfuraldehyde; and an alkali carbonate or phosphoric acid catalyst; adding internal reinforcement materials comprising carbon to said precursor solution to form a precursor mixture; gelling said precursor mixture to form a composite gel; drying said composite gel; and pyrolyzing said composite gel to form a wettable aerogel/carbon composite or a wettable xerogel/carbon composite, wherein said composites comprise chars and said internal reinforcement materials, and wherein said composite is suitable for use as an anode with the chars being fuel capable of being combusted in a molten salt electrochemical fuel cell in the range from 500 C to 800 C to produce electrical energy. Additional methods and systems/compositions are also provided.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

215

Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Efficiencies greater than 50 percent (higher heating value) have been projected for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems fueled with gasified coal, even with carbon sequestration. Multiple minor and trace components are present in coal that could affect fuel cell performance, however, which vary widely depending on coal origin and type. Minor and trace components have been classified into three groups: elements with low volatility that are likely to remain in the ash, elements that will partition between solid and gas phases, and highly volatile elements that are unlikely to condense. Those in the second group are of most concern. In the following, an overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic coal gas. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Gemmen, Randall; Gerdes, Kirk; Finklea, Harry; Celik, Ismail B.

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

216

Modeling and Performance of Anode-Supported SOFC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A "one-dimensional", steady-state model of an SOFC stack was needed to support the design of balance-of-plant components for a 5 kW mobile SOFC system. This "stack module" was required to predict appropriate stack voltage responses to changes in fuel composition, fuel flow rate, stack temperature and current demand, with response characteristics that were adjustable to changes in stack component materials and dimensions as well as to electrode porosity. The spreadsheet-based stack module was derived from the work by Kim, Virkar et al (see J. Electrochem. Soc. 146(1) 69-78 (1999)), with modifications suggested by Riess and Schoonman, p291 in CRC Handbook of Electrochemistry (1997) CRC Press. The usual overpotential terms account for ohmic resistance of the cell components, losses due to charge transfer at the electrodes, and losses due to diffusion of reactants into and products out of the porous electrodes. Response of the module is compared to published cell and stack data. After fitting adjustable parameters to match particular cell performance characteristics, the module responds reasonably well to changes in temperature and fuel concentration. The module is used to analyze the performance of anode-supported cells that were fabricated at PNNL (see abstract submitted by Stevenson, Meinhardt, Simner, Habeger and Canfield, "Fabrication and Testing of Anode-Supported SOFC").

Chick, Lawrence A.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Simner, Steven P.; Jaffe, John E.; Williford, Rick E.

2001-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

217

Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies conducted a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project was to review U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. This report documents results from this project.

Stephen Wolhart

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

218

Loop Current and Deep Eddies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In contrast to the Loop Current and rings, much less is known about deep eddies (deeper than 1000 m) of the Gulf of Mexico. In this paper, results from a high-resolution numerical model of the Gulf are analyzed to explain their origin and how ...

L-Y. Oey

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

EPA Final Ground Water Rule  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of Nuclear Safety and Environment Office of Nuclear Safety and Environment Nuclear Safety and Environment Information Brief HS-20-IB-2007-02 (March 2007) EPA Final Ground Water Rule Safe Drinking Water Act: National Primary Drinking Water Regulations Ground Water Rule - 40 CFR Parts 9, 141 and 142 Final Rule: 71 FR 65574 Effective Date: January 8, 2007 1 RULE SYNOPSIS On November 8, 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a final Ground Water Rule (GWR) to promote increased protection against microbial pathogens that may be present in public water systems (PWSs) that use ground water sources for their supply (these systems are known as ground water systems). This Rule establishes a risk-targeted approach

220

In situ reduction and evaluation of anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cracking (reaction VII) CH4 + H2O CO + 3H2 steam reforming (reaction VIII) CH4 + CO2 2CO + 2H2 dry.05.118 #12;Abstract Single chamber anode-supported fuel cells are investigated under several methane analyses of anode reduction are performed at 700°C. Carbon deposition is observed under diluted methane

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Electrochemical Evaluation of Thin-Film Li-Si Anodes Prepared by Plasma Spraying  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin-film electrodes of a plasma-sprayed Li-Si alloy were evaluated for use as anodes in high-temperature thermally activated (thermal) batteries. These anodes were prepared using 44% Li/56% Si (w/w) material as feed material in a special plasma-spray apparatus under helium or hydrogen, to protect this air- and moisture-sensitive material during deposition. Anodes were tested in single cells using conventional pressed-powder separators and lithiated pyrite cathodes at temperatures of 400 to 550 C at several different current densities. A limited number of 5-cell battery tests were also conducted. The data for the plasma-sprayed anodes was compared to that for conventional pressed-powder anodes. The performance of the plasma-sprayed anodes was inferior to that of conventional pressed-powder anodes, in that the cell emfs were lower (due to the lack of formation of the desired alloy phases) and the small porosity of these materials severely limited their rate capability. Consequently, plasma-sprayed Li-Si anodes would not be practical for use in thermal batteries.

GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; SCHARRER,GREGORY L.

1999-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

222

Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures. 2 figs.

Hobson, D.O.

1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

223

The effect of compression on natural graphite anode performance and matrix conductivity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Anodes for lithium-ion cells were constructed from three types of natural graphite, two coated spherical and one flaky. Anode samples were compressed from 0 to 300 kg/cm2 and studied in half-cells to study the relations between anode density, SEI formation and anode cyclability. The C/25 formation of the SEI layer was found to depend on the nature of the graphite and the anode density. Compression of the uncoated graphite lead to an increased conductivity, but only slight improvements in the efficiency of the formation process. Compression of the anodes made from the amorphous-carbon-coated graphites greatly improved both the reversible capacity and first-cycle efficiency. In addition, the fraction of the irreversible charge associated with the surface of the graphite increased with compression, from both an increase in the electrolyte contact as well as compression of the amorphous layer. The cyclability of all of the anodes tended to improve with compression. This suggests that it is the improvement in the conductivity of the anode plays more of a role in the improvement in the cyclability than the formation process.

Striebel, K.A.; Sierra, A.; Shim, J.; Wang, C.-W.; Sastry, A.M.

2004-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

224

Diagnostic Setup for Characterization of Near-Anode Processes in Hall Thrusters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A diagnostic setup for characterization of the near-anode processes in Hall thrusters was designed and assembled. Experimental results with a single floating probe show that radial probe insertion does not cause perturbations to the discharge and therefore can be used for near-anode measurements.

L. Dorf; Y. Raitses; N. J. Fisch

2003-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

225

Assembly of Colloidal Nanoparticles into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates by Dip-Coating Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the assembly behavior of colloidal nanoparticles into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates is investigated. Approximately 20-nm-diameter iron oxide (Fe2O3) particles stabilized by oleic acid and 5-nm-diameter CdSe ... Keywords: Anodic aluminum oxide, colloid nanoparticle, dip coating, self-assembly

Il Seo; Chang-Woo Kwon; Hyun Ho Lee; Yong-Sang Kim; Ki-Bum Kim; Tae-Sik Yoon

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Carbon Supported Polyaniline as Anode Catalyst: Pathway to Platinum-Free Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effectiveness of carbon supported polyaniline as anode catalyst in a fuel cell (FC) with direct formic acid electrooxidation is experimentally demonstrated. A prototype FC with such a platinum-free composite anode exhibited a maximum room-temperature specific power of about 5 mW/cm2

Zabrodskii, A G; Malyshkin, V G; Sapurina, I Y

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

New Carlsbad Field Office Manager Hits the Ground Running | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carlsbad Field Office Manager Hits the Ground Running Carlsbad Field Office Manager Hits the Ground Running New Carlsbad Field Office Manager Hits the Ground Running March 16, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Carlsbad Field Office Manager Joe Franco, right, exchanges greetings with Mark Long, Jr., a Washington TRU Solutions LLC employee, at a WIPP all-hands meeting in February. “WIPP is America’s only and the world’s best,” Franco said of the deep geologic repository for nuclear waste. Carlsbad Field Office Manager Joe Franco, right, exchanges greetings with Mark Long, Jr., a Washington TRU Solutions LLC employee, at a WIPP all-hands meeting in February. "WIPP is America's only and the world's best," Franco said of the deep geologic repository for nuclear waste. CARLSBAD, N.M. - If you want to catch up with Carlsbad Field Office

228

Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

229

OXIDATION OF DRY HYDROCARBONS AT HIGH-POWER DENSITY ANODES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work builds upon discoveries by the University of Pennsylvania and others pertaining to the oxidation of dry hydrocarbon fuels in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The work reported here was restricted primarily to dry methane and confirms that YSZ-based cells, having ceria in the anode as a catalyst and copper in the anode as a current collector, can operate on dry methane for extended periods. Thirty-three lab-scale cells of various designs were fabricated and operated under a variety of conditions. The longest-lived cell gave stable performance on dry methane at 800 C for over 305 hours. Only slight carbon deposition was noted at the completion of the test. A corresponding nickel/YSZ-based anode would have lasted for less than an hour under these test conditions (which included open circuit potential measurements) before carbon fouling essentially destroyed the cell. The best performing cell achieved 112 mW/cm{sub 2} on dry methane at 800 C. Several problems were encountered with carbon fouling and declining open circuit voltages in many of the test cells after switching from operation on hydrogen to dry methane. Although not rigorously confirmed by experimentation, the results suggested that air infiltration through less than perfect perimeter seals or pinholes in the electrolytes, or both gave rise to conditions that caused the carbon fouling and OCV decline. Small amounts of air reacting with methane in a partial oxidation reaction could produce carbon monoxide that, in turn, would deposit the carbon. If this mechanism is confirmed, it implies that near perfect hardware is required for extended operation. Some evidence was also found for the formation of electrical shorts, probably from carbon deposits bridging the electrolyte. Work with odorized methane and with methane containing 100-ppm hydrogen sulfide confirmed that copper is stable at 800 C in dry hydrocarbon fuels in the presence of sulfur. In a number of cases, but not exclusively, the performance life on dry methane with sulfur compounds was much longer than with dry methane alone. The effect of sulfur compounds in these cases appeared to correlate with inhibition of carbon deposition. Mixed results were obtained for the effect of the sulfur compounds on power density. Progress also was made in understanding the mechanisms involved in direct utilization of dry natural gas. Evidence was developed for three possible mechanisms for dry methane utilization in addition to the usually cited mechanism--direct oxidation of methane by oxygen anions. Further work is required at a fundamental level before the knowledge gained here can be translated into higher levels of performance.

K.Krist; O. Spaldon-Stewart; R. Remick

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL- AND PETROLEUM-DERIVED BINDER PITCHES AND THE INTERACTION OF PITCH/COKE MIXTURES IN PRE-BAKED CARBON ANODES.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Carbon anodes are manufactured from calcined petroleum coke (i.e. sponge coke) and recycled anode butts as fillers, and coal tar pitch (SCTP) as the binder.… (more)

Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dinh (PI) Dinh (PI) Thomas Gennett National Renewable Energy Laboratory October 1, 2009 Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objectives Develop cost-effective, reliable, durable fuel cells for portable power applications (e.g., cell phones, computers, etc.) that meet all DOE targets. Note that the energy density (Wh/L), volumetric (W/L), and specific power (W/kg) all depend on knowing the weight and volume of the entire DMFC system as well as the volume and concentration of fuel, which are system specific (power application and manufacturer dependent). In our model study the surface power density levels on HOPG will allow for indirect evaluation of our system to DOE's energy density

232

Anode reactive bleed and injector shift control strategy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for correcting a large fuel cell voltage spread for a split sub-stack fuel cell system. The system includes a hydrogen source that provides hydrogen to each split sub-stack and bleed valves for bleeding the anode side of the sub-stacks. The system also includes a voltage measuring device for measuring the voltage of each cell in the split sub-stacks. The system provides two levels for correcting a large stack voltage spread problem. The first level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack well before a normal reactive bleed would occur, and the second level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack and opening the bleed valve of the other sub-stack when the cell voltage spread is close to stack failure.

Cai, Jun [Rochester, NY; Chowdhury, Akbar [Pittsford, NY; Lerner, Seth E [Honeoye Falls, NY; Marley, William S [Rush, NY; Savage, David R [Rochester, NY; Leary, James K [Rochester, NY

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

233

Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

234

Anodic dissolution characteristics and electrochemical migration lifetimes of Sn solder in NaCl and Na2SO4 solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ water drop tests and anodic polarization tests of pure Sn solder were carried out in deaerated 0.001% NaCl and Na"2SO"4 solutions to determine the correlation between anodic dissolution characteristics and the electrochemical migration lifetime. ... Keywords: Anodic dissolution, Electrochemical migration, Life time, Na2SO4, NaCl, Sn solder

Ja-Young Jung; Shin-Bok Lee; Young-Chang Joo; Ho-Young Lee; Young-Bae Park

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Alternative Materials for Ground Electrodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power utility companies struggle with issues resulting from copper theftespecially on transmission line support structures accessible to the public and fitted with copper grounding conductors. It is increasingly important to identify alternative materials that can be used to provide a durable grounding system yet not be targeted for theft. In response, EPRI is investigating the use of alternative materials for electrode designsexamining life expectancy, corrosion, material compatibility and current handl...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

236

EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITY ON STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF Ni-YSZ ANODE OF SOFCs  

SciTech Connect

Electricity production through the integration of coal gasification with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) may potentially be an efficient technique for clean energy generation. However, multiple minor and trace components are naturally present in coals. These impurities in coal gas not only degrade the electrochemical performance of Ni-YSZ anode used in SOFCs, but also severely endanger the structural integrity of the Ni-YSZ anode. In this paper, effect of the trace impurity of the coal syngases on the mechanical degradation of Ni-YSZ anode was studied by using an integrated experimental/modeling approach. Phosphorus is taken as an example of impurity. Anode-support button cell was used to experimentally explore the migration of phosphorous impurity in the Ni-YSZ anode of SOFCs. X-ray mapping was used to show elemental distributions and new phase formation. The subsequent finite element stress analyses were conducted using the actual microstructure of the anode to illustrate the degradation mechanism. It was found that volume expansion induced by the Ni phase change produces high stress level such that local failure of the Ni-YSZ anode is possible under the operating conditions

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simple, approximate analysis of the effect of differing cathode and anode areas on the measurement of cell performance on anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells, wherein the cathode area is smaller than the anode area, is presented. It is shown that the effect of cathode area on cathode polarization, on electrolyte contribution, and on anode resistance, as normalized on the basis of the cathode area, is negligible. There is a small but measurable effect on anode polarization, which results from concentration polarization. Effectively, it is the result of a greater amount of fuel transported to the anode/electrolyte interface in cases wherein the anode area is larger than the cathode area. Experiments were performed on cells made with differing cathode areas and geometries. Cathodic and anodic overpotentials measured using reference electrodes, and the measured ohmic area specific resistances by current interruption, were in good agreement with expectations based on the analysis presented. At 800 C, the maximum power density measured with a cathode area of {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2} was {approx}1.65 W/cm{sup 2} compared to {approx}1.45 W/cm{sup 2} for cathode area of {approx}2 cm{sup 2}, for anode thickness of {approx}1.3 mm, with hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. At 750 C, the measured maximum power densities were {approx}1.3 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2}, and {approx}1.25 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}2 cm{sup 2}.

Anil V. Virkar

2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

238

Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Observation of isolated nanopores formed by patterned anodic oxidation of aluminum thin films  

SciTech Connect

We report the formation of confined nanometer-scale regions of porous anodic alumina from thin aluminum films. Confinement is achieved by masking a thin Al film with a sputtered SiO{sub 2} layer, patterned by nanoimprint lithography of a polystyrene transfer layer. Anodization in 0.3 molar oxalic acid creates vertically aligned pores that were imaged with a combination of focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy. Triplets, pairs, and single pores were observed following the anodization of isolated mask features approximately 100 nm in diameter.

Huang Qiyu; Lye, W.-K.; Reed, Michael L. [School of Microelectronics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Non-consumable anode and lining for aluminum electrolytic reduction cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxidation resistant, non-consumable anode, for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum, has a composition comprising copper, nickel and iron. The anode is part of an electrolytic reduction cell comprising a vessel having an interior lined with metal which has the same composition as the anode. The electrolyte is preferably composed of a eutectic of AlF.sub.3 and either (a) NaF or (b) primarily NaF with some of the NaF replaced by an equivalent molar amount of KF or KF and LiF.

Beck, Theodore R. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Process and apparatus for recovery of fissionable materials from spent reactor fuel by anodic dissolution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical process and apparatus for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent metal clad fuel pins is disclosed. The process uses secondary reactions between U{sup +4} cations and elemental uranium at the anode to increase reaction rates and improve anodic efficiency compared to prior art processes. In another embodiment of the process, secondary reactions between Cd{sup +2} cations and elemental uranium to form uranium cations and elemental cadmium also assists in oxidizing the uranium at the anode. 5 figs.

Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.; Wolson, R.D.; Gay, E.C.

1989-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

243

Inert anode containing base metal and noble metal useful for the electrolytic production of aluminum  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inert anode for production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a base metal selected from Cu and Ag, and at least one noble metal selected from Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and Os. The inert anode may optionally be formed of sintered particles having interior portions containing more base metal than noble metal and exterior portions containing more noble metal than base metal. In a preferred embodiment, the base metal comprises Cu, and the noble metal comprises Ag, Pd or a combination thereof.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Ground Motion Studies at NuMI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground motion can cause significant deterioration in the luminosity of a linear collider. Vibration of numerous focusing magnets causes continuous misalignments, which makes the beam emittance grow. For this reason, understanding the seismic vibration of all potential LC sites is essential and related efforts in many sites are ongoing. In this document we summarize the results from the studies specific to Fermilab grounds as requested by the LC project leader at FNAL, Shekhar Mishra in FY04-FY06. The Northwestern group focused on how the ground motion effects vary with depth. Knowledge of depth dependence of the seismic activity is needed in order to decide how deep the LC tunnel should be at sites like Fermilab. The measurements were made in the NuMI tunnel, see Figure 1. We take advantage of the fact that from the beginning to the end of the tunnel there is a height difference of about 350 ft and that there are about five different types of dolomite layers. The support received allowed to pay for three months of salary of Michal Szleper. During this period he worked a 100% of his time in this project. That include one week of preparation: 2.5 months of data taking and data analysis during the full period of the project in order to guarantee that we were recording high quality data. We extended our previous work and made more systematic measurements, which included detailed studies on stability of the vibration amplitudes at different depths over long periods of time. As a consequence, a better control and more efficient averaging out of the daytime variation effects were possible, and a better study of other time dependences before the actual depth dependence was obtained. Those initial measurements were made at the surface and are summarized in Figure 2. All measurements are made with equipment that we already had (two broadband seismometers KS200 from GEOTECH and DL-24 portable data recorder). The offline data analysis took advantage of the full Fourier spectra information and the noise was properly subtracted. The basic formalism is summarized if Figure 3. The second objective was to make a measurement deeper under ground (Target hall, Absorber hall and Minos hall - 150 ft to 350 ft), which previous studies did not cover. All results are summarized in Figure 3 and 4. The measurements were covering a frequency range between 0.1 to 50 Hz. The data was taken continuously for at least a period of two weeks in each of the locations. We concluded that the dependence on depth is weak, if any, for frequencies above 1 Hz and not visible at all at lower frequencies. Most of the attenuation (factor of about 2-3) and damping of ground motion that is due to cultural activity at the surface is not detectable once we are below 150 ft underground. Therefore, accelerator currently under consideration can be build at the depth and there is no need to go deeper underground is built at Fermi National Laboratory.

Mayda M. Velasco; Michal Szleper

2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

245

Colorado Ground Water Commission | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Commission Jump to: navigation, search Name Colorado Ground Water Commission Place Colorado Website http:water.state.co.usgroun References Colorado Ground Water Commission...

246

ANODE, CATHODE AND THIN FILM STUDIES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOFC'S  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this research the microstructure {leftrightarrow} property relations in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) are being studied to better understand the mechanisms involved in cell performance. The overall aim is to fabricate SOFC's with controlled, stable, high performance microstructure. Most cathode studies were completed in the last DOE contract; studies during this year focused more on the influence of nonstoichiometry on the electrical performance. Studies indicate that nonstoichiometric La{sub x}Sr{sub 0.20}MnO{sub 3}(x = 0.70, 0.75, and 0.79) cathode compositions exhibit the best properties. A series of studies using these compositions fired on at temperatures of 1100, 1200, 1300 and 1400 C were performed. In all instances, 1200 C was the optimum, with the x = 0.70 composition being the best. It has an overpotential of only 0.04V at 1 A/cm{sup 2}. SEM analyses indicated no second phases or interdiffusion is detectable. Studies on optimization of anode compositions yielded the optimum volume fraction of Ni (45vol%), the best sintering temperature/time (1400 C/2 h), and the best starting materials (glycine-nitrate derived NiO and normal YSZ). In essence these results simply reflect the optimum microstructure. As such, they are being used to guide the development of optimized anodes for lower temperature operation based on Cu/CeO{sub 2} cermets. Marked success has been achieved on the placement of thin YSZ electrolytes on porous Ni/YSZ electrodes. The process being used is a transfer technique in which dense YSZ films are initially fabricated on NaCl or polymeric substrates, followed by partial dissolution of the substrate and placement of the film on the porous substrate. This technique has allowed us to produce structures with film thicknesses ranging from 70 to 3000 nm, and grain sizes ranging from 2 to 300 nm. Cells based on electrolytes this thick should operate in the 400--700 C range.

Dr. Wayne Huebner; Dr. Harlan U. Anderson

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Transient analysis of grounding systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the problem of computing the ground potential rise of grounding systems during transients. Finite element analysis is employed to model the constituent parts of a grounding system. Short lengths of earth embedded electrodes are characterized as transmission lines with distributed inductance, capacitance and leakage resistance to earth. Leakage resistance to earth is accurately computed with the method of moments. The other parameters of the finite element, namely inductance and capacitance, are computed from the resistance utilizing Maxwell's equations. This modeling enables the computation of the transient response of substation grounding systems to fast or slow waves striking the substation. The result is obtained in terms of a convolution of the step response of the system and the striking wave. In this way the impedance of substation systems to 60 cycles is accurately computed. Results demonstrate the dependence of the 60 cycle impedance on system parameters. The methodology allows to interface this model of a substation ground mat with the Electromagnetic Transient Analysis Program thus, allowing explicit representation of earth effects in electromagmatic transients computations.

Meliopoulos, A.P.; Moharam, M.G.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

NERSC's Deep Sky Project Provides a Portal into Data Universe - NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deep Sky Project Deep Sky Project Provides a Portal into Data Universe Deep Sky Project Provides a Portal into Data Universe March 30, 2009 STARLIGHT: This image of the Coma cluster was made by combining over 500 images collected between 2001 and 2007. Every night approximately 3,000 astronomical files flow to the National Energy Research Scientific Computing (NERSC) Center from automated sky scanning systems all over the world for archiving. After a decade of collecting, the center currently holds over 8 million images, making this one of the largest troves of ground-based celestial images available. Now, a multidisciplinary team of astronomers, computer scientists, and engineers from NERSC are collaborating to develop a user-friendly database system and interface to instantly serve up high-resolution cosmic reference

249

Quick egress from deep underground  

SciTech Connect

A method of storage of missiles deep underground in a protected environment capable of withstanding nuclear blasts while allowing access for maintenance and rapid egress when necessary-- even after exposure to severe environments due to an explosion at or near the surface of the earth. To accomplish this, the objects to be stored are contained in a closed container of positive buoyancy in quicksand. A shaft is excavated in the earth and filled with sand. The water content of the sand backfill is controlled and maintained at that percentage of saturation which will provide the best compromise between rapidity and ease of container egress on one hand and resistance to hostile surface environments on the other. Means for the introduction of additional water at the bottom of the sand-filled shaft are provided. When the sand column is fluidized by the injection of water at the bottom thereof, quicksand is formed in the shaft and the container can be drawn to the bottom by a tether line. When water injection is stopped, the sand returns to its normal solid condition and provides a protective layer for the buried container while restraining it in its deep buried position. The sand, in its normal tightly packed solid condition also acts to preserve the egress path to the surface by preventing the entry of dislodged earth material in the attack environment. To access the container for maintenance or for use of the contents, the shaft is again fluidized allowing the container to float to the surface.

Funston, N.E.

1976-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

250

Argonne CNM News: Batteries Get a Quick Charge with New Anode Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Batteries Get a Quick Charge with New Anode Technology Batteries Get a Quick Charge with New Anode Technology Tijana Rajh Argonne nanoscientist Tijana Rajh holds a strip of material created from titanium dioxide nanotubes. A team of researchers led by Tijana Rajh (Group Leader, Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials NanoBio Interfaces Group), and Christopher Johnson (Argonne's Chemical Sciences & Engineering Division), working under a CNM user science project, discovered that nanotubes composed of titanium dioxide can switch their phase as a battery is cycled, gradually boosting their operational capacity. New batteries produced with this material can be recharged up to half of their original capacity in less than 30 seconds. By switching out conventional graphite anodes with titanium nanotube anodes, a surprising phenomenon occurs. As the battery cycles through

251

Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium** Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA Lithium cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate

Cui, Yi

252

Method for Plutonium-Gallium Separation by Anodic Dissolution of a Solid Plutonium-Gallium Alloy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Purified plutonium and gallium are efficiently recovered from a solid plutonium-gallium (Pu-Ga) alloy by using an electrorefining process. The solid Pu-Ga alloy is the cell anode, preferably placed in a moving basket within the electrolyte. As the surface of the Pu-Ga anode is depleted in plutonium by the electrotransport of the plutonium to a cathode, the temperature of the electrolyte is sufficient to liquify the surface, preferably at about 500 C, resulting in a liquid anode layer substantially comprised of gallium. The gallium drips from the liquified surface and is collected below the anode within the electrochemical cell. The transported plutonium is collected on the cathode surface and is recovered.

Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

253

Amorphous Metallic Glass as New High Power and Energy Density Anodes For Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated the use of aluminum based amorphous metallic glass as the anode in lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Amorphous metallic glasses have no long-range ordered microstructure; the atoms are less closely ...

Meng, Shirley Y.

254

Catalytic activity of ZrO2 nanotube arrays prepared by anodization method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ZrO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization method in aqueous electrolyte containing (NH4)2SO4 and NH4F. The morphology and structure of nanotube arrays were characterized through scanning ...

Xixin Wang; Jianling Zhao; Xiaorui Hou; Qi He; Chengchun Tang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Flow-Assisted Zinc Anode Batteries for...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6&91&>09-+&@C:40(:&O7B0& %.PQRR340(+;"""GS8P(+:S:75& FLOW-ASSISTED ZINC ANODE BATTERIES FOR GRID-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE Prof. Sanjoy Banerjee, banerjee@che.ccny.cuny.e...

256

Reactions of the Carbon Anode in Alternative Battery and Fuel Cell Configurations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model is formulated by combining carbonate dissociation with pre-existing anode mechanisms involving heterogeneous reaction kinetics. The proposed model accounts for both the observed preponderance of CO{sub 2} evolution and dependence of rate on carbon anode microstructure. Implications of the model for the design of carbon batteries and fuel cells are discussed, and the laboratory cells used in earlier research are described. High coulombic efficiencies for the net reaction C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2} require severely limiting the thickness of paste anodes in powder-fed fuel cells while the unreacting surfaces of solid prismatic anodes must be isolated from the CO{sub 2} product atmosphere to prevent Boudouard corrosion, according to C + CO{sub 2} = 2CO.

Cooper, J F; Krueger, R

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Full Control of Pitch Burn during Baking: It's Impact on Anode Quality ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... costs, negatively impact on operational safety and a higher fuel consumption. ... Historical and Future Challenges with the Vibrated Bulk Density Test Methods for ... Prebaked Anode from Coal Extract (2) - Effects of the Properties of ...

258

Stability of Iridium Anode in Molten Oxide Electrolysis for Ironmaking: Influence of Slag Basicity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is a carbon-neutral, electrochemical technique to decompose metal oxide directly into liquid metal and oxygen gas upon use of an inert anode. What sets MOE apart from other technologies is ...

Kim, Hojong

259

Design and construction of rigs for studying surface condensation and creating anodized metal oxide surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis details the design and construction of a rig for studying surface condensation and a rig for creating anodized metal oxides (AMOs). The condensation rig characterizes condensation for different surfaces; this ...

Sun, Wei-Yang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Geek-Up[08.20.10] -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Other Agencies You are here Home Geek-Up08.20.10 -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and Researching the Gut Microbiome Geek-Up08.20.10 -- Turning Trash Bags...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Molten Salt Multi-anode Reactive Alloy Coating(MARC) of Ta-W ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, Ta-W coated samples (Ta-7.31W, Ta-4.12W and Ta-1.92W) were prepared by multi-anode reactive alloy coating (MARC) process in molten salt ...

262

Surface-Modified Copper Current Collector for Lithium Ion Battery Anode  

A team of Berkeley Lab researchers led by Gao Liu has developed an innovative approach to improve the adhesion of anode laminate to copper current collectors in lithium ion batteries. This nanotechnology directly addresses delamination of graphite ...

263

A study of certain trace metals in sea water using anodic stripping voltammetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anodic stripping voltammetry utilizing a thin film mercury composite graphite electrode has been evaluated and applied for the direct analysis of the metals, Zn,J Cu, Pb, and Cd in sea water. The electrode was observed to ...

Fitzgerald, William Francis, 1926-

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Inert anode containing oxides of nickel, iron and zinc useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO: 0.2 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.8 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.3 ZnO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Inert anode containing oxides of nickel iron and cobalt useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO: 0.15 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.85 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.45 CoO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

For cermet inert anode containing oxide and metal phases useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cermet inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a ceramic phase including an oxide of Ni, Fe and M, where M is at least one metal selected from Zn, Co, Al, Li, Cu, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, Hf and rare earths, preferably Zn and/or Co. Preferred ceramic compositions comprise Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO and ZnO or CoO. The cermet inert anode also comprises a metal phase such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. A preferred metal phase comprises Cu and Ag. The cermet inert anodes may be used in electrolytic reduction cells for the production of commercial purity aluminum as well as other metals.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Modeling of the anode side of a direct methanol fuel cell with analytical solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, analytical solutions were derived (for any methanol oxidation reaction order) for the profiles of methanol concentration and proton current density by assuming diffusion mass transport mechanism, Tafel kinetics, and fast proton transport in the anodic catalyst layer of a direct methanol fuel cell. An expression for the Thiele modulus that allows to express the anodic overpotential as a function of the cell current, and kinetic and mass transfer parameters was obtained. For high cell current densities, it was found that the Thiele modulus ($\\phi^2$) varies quadratically with cell current density; yielding a simple correlation between anodic overpotential and cell current density. Analytical solutions were derived for the profiles of both local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer and local anodic current density in the catalyst layer. Under the assumptions of the model presented here, in general, the local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer cannot be expressed as an explicit fun...

Mosquera, Martín A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Ground Magnetics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ground Magnetics Ground Magnetics Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Ground Magnetics Details Activities (15) Areas (12) Regions (0) NEPA(1) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Geophysical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Magnetic Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Magnetic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Presence of magnetic minerals such as magnetite. Stratigraphic/Structural: Mapping of basement structures, horst blocks, fault systems, fracture zones, dykes and intrusions. Hydrological: The circulation of hydrothermal fluid may impact the magnetic susceptibility of rocks. Thermal: Rocks lose their magnetic properties at the Curie temperature (580° C for magnetite) [1] and, upon cooling, remagnetize in the present magnetic field orientation. The Curie point depth in the subsurface may be determined in a magnetic survey to provide information about hydrothermal activity in a region.

269

Designer carbons as potential anodes for lithium secondary batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbons are the material of choice for lithium secondary battery anodes. Our objective is to use designed synthesis to produce a carbon with a predictable structure. The approach is to pyrolyze aromatic hydrocarbons within a pillared clay. Results from laser desorption mass spectrometry, scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and small angle neutron scattering suggest that we have prepared disordered, porous sheets of carbon, free of heteroatoms. One of the first demonstrations of template-directed carbon formation was reported by Tomita and co-workers, where polyacrylonitrile was carbonized at 700{degrees}C yielding thin films with relatively low surface areas. More recently, Schwarz has prepared composites using polyfurfuryl alcohol and pillared clays. In the study reported here, aromatic hydrocarbons and polymers which do not contain heteroatoms are being investigated. The alumina pillars in the clay should act as acid sites to promote condensation similar to the Scholl reaction. In addition, these precursors should readily undergo thermal polymerization, such as is observed in the carbonization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.; Thiyagarajan, P. [and others

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Challenges of deep drilling. Part 2  

SciTech Connect

This installment delineates current deep drilling technology limitations and discusses needed advances for the future. Problem areas are identified as material and seal problems in wellhead equipment, new fluid carriers for well stimulation, quality control/inspection/testing for equipment and performance flaws, arctic environment conditions, and experienced personnel. The main factors of operating environment that challenge advanced deep drilling are identified as temperature extremes, pressure extremes, acid gases, and deep-water presence.

Chadwick, C.E.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Cathode Contact Materials for Anode-Supported Cell Development - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cathode Contact Materials for Anode- Cathode Contact Materials for Anode- Supported Cell Development- Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is to advance energy options to fuel our economy, strengthen our security, and improve our environment. With the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA), NETL is leading the research, development, and demonstration of solid oxide

272

P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indium-tin oxide anodes capped with certain oxides of metals enhance while other oxides degrade the hole-injection and quantum efficiencies of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The oxides of tin, zinc, praseodymium, yttrium, gallium, terbium and titanium have been investigated. The power efficiency of an OLED with a 1nm thick praseodymium oxide cap is improved by 2.5 times over that of a conventional OLED without an oxide capped anode.

For Organic Light-Emitting; Chengfeng Qiu; Haiying Chen; Zhilang Xie; Man Wong; Hoi Sing Kwok

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Ground Truth: A Positive Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Flash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe the circumstances and effects of a cloud-to-ground lightning flash that lowered positive charge and struck a residential home near Albany, New York. The characteristics of the flash were detected and recorded by a wide-band magnetic ...

Vincent P. Idone; Richard E. Orville; Ronald W. Henderson

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Ground states in complex bodies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A unified framework for analyzing the existence of ground states in wide classes of elastic complex bodies is presented here. The approach makes use of classical semicontinuity results, Sobolev mappinngs and Cartesian currents. Weak diffeomorphisms are used to represent macroscopic deformations. Sobolev maps and Cartesian currents describe the inner substructure of the material elements. Balance equations for irregular minimizers are derived. A contribution to the debate about the role of the balance of configurational actions follows. After describing a list of possible applications of the general results collected here, a concrete discussion of the existence of ground states in thermodynamically stable quasicrystals is presented at the end.

Paolo Maria Mariano; Giuseppe Modica

2008-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

275

LINE-ABOVE-GROUND ATTENUATOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The line-above-ground attenuator provides a continuously variable microwave attenuator for a coaxial line that is capable of high attenuation and low insertion loss. The device consists of a short section of the line-above- ground plane type transmission lime, a pair of identical rectangular slabs of lossy material like polytron, whose longitudinal axes are parallel to and indentically spaced away from either side of the line, and a geared mechanism to adjust amd maintain this spaced relationship. This device permits optimum fineness and accuracy of attenuator control which heretofore has been difficult to achieve.

Wilds, R.B.; Ames, J.R.

1957-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

276

Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. An assessment of historical deep gas well drilling activity and forecast of future trends was completed during the first six months of the project; this segment of the project was covered in Technical Progress Report No. 1. During the next six months, efforts were primarily split between summarizing rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep reservoirs and contacting operators about case studies of deep gas well stimulation as documented in Technical Progress Report No. 2. This report details work done with Anadarko and ChevronTexaco in the Table Rock Field in Wyoming.

None

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

277

Science Accelerator : Main View : Deep Federated Search  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Us | OSTI HOME ADVANCED SEARCH ALERTS ABOUT RESOURCE DESCRIPTIONS Powered by Deep Web Technologies Science Accelerator QR Code | RSS | RSS Archive | Share | Widget Help |...

278

Practice and Analysis on Deep Dephosphorization and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Practice and Analysis on Deep Dephosphorization and Desulfurization Pretreatment of Hot Metal by Soda Ash. Author(s), Bing Dai, Jianliang ...

279

Brightness enhancement of plasma ion source by utilizing anode spot for nano applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anode spots are known as additional discharges on positively biased electrode immersed in plasmas. The anode spot plasma ion source (ASPIS) has been investigated as a high brightness ion source for nano applications such as focused ion beam (FIB) and nano medium energy ion scattering (nano-MEIS). The generation of anode spot is found to enhance brightness of ion beam since the anode spot increases plasma density near the extraction aperture. Brightness of the ASPIS has been estimated from measurement of emittance for total ion beam extracted through sub-mm aperture. The ASPIS is installed to the FIB system. Currents and diameters of the focused beams with/without anode spot are measured and compared. As the anode spot is turned on, the enhancement of beam current is observed at fixed diameter of the focused ion beam. Consequently, the brightness of the focused ion beam is enhanced as well. For argon ion beam, the maximum normalized brightness of 12 300 A/m{sup 2} SrV is acquired. The ASPIS is applied to nano-MEIS as well. The ASPIS is found to increase the beam current density and the power efficiency of the ion source for nano-MEIS. From the present study, it is shown that the ASPIS can enhance the performance of devices for nano applications.

Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon-Jae [Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeonggi 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Man-Jin [Research Institute of Nano Manufacturing System, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae Won [Nanobio Fusion Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

WEDGE-AND-STRIP ANODES FOR CENTROID-FINDING POSITION-SENSITIVE PHOTOM AND PARTICLE DETECTORS  

SciTech Connect

We discuss new anode geometries, employing position-dependent charge partitioning, which can be used with microchannel plates, planar proportional counters, and mesh dynode electron multipliers to obtain a two-dimensional position signal from each detected photon or particle. Only three or four anode electrodes and signal paths are required, yet images comprised of a number of detected events have little geometric distortion and the resolution is not limited by thermal noise inherent in resistive sheet anodes. We present an analysis of the geometrical image nonlinearity in the relationship between event centroid location and the charge partition ratios. Fabrication and testing of two wedge-and-strip anode systems are discussed. Images obtained with EUV radiation and microchannel plates that verify the predicted performance of this readout system are shown. We emphasize that the spatial resolution of the wedge-and-strip anode is in no way limited by the coarseness of the anode conductor pattern. The resolution is of the order of 0.4% of the image field size, and could be further improved by adopting low noise signal circuitry. Tradeoffs encountered in the design of practical x-ray, EUV, and charge particle image systems are discussed.

Martin, C.; Jelinsky, P.; Lampto, M.; Malina, R.F.; Anger, H.O.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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281

Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/Zirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface Ni/Sb and Ni/Sb alloys were found to efficiently minimize the negative effects of sulfur on the performance of Ni/zirconia anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Prior to operating on fuel gas containing low concentrations of H2S, the nickel/zirconia anodes were briefly exposed to antimony or tin vapor, which only slightly affected the SOFC performance. During the subsequent exposures to 1 and 5 ppm H2S, increases in anodic polarization losses were minimal compared to those observed for the standard nickel/zirconia anodes. Post-test XPS analyses showed that Sb and Sn tended to segregate to the surface of Ni particles, and further confirmed a significant reduction of adsorbed sulfur on the Ni surface in Ni/Sn and Ni/Sb samples compared to the Ni. The effect may be the result of weaker sulfur adsorption on bimetallic surfaces, adsorption site competition between sulfur and Sb or Sn on Ni, or other factors. The use of dilute binary alloys of Ni-Sb or Ni-Sn in the place of Ni, or brief exposure to Sb or Sn vapor, may be effective means to counteract the effects of sulfur poisoning in SOFC anodes and Ni catalysts. Other advantages, including suppression of coking or tailoring the anode composition for the internal reforming, are also expected.

Marina, Olga A.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Pederson, Larry R.

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

282

DARPA Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DARPA Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR) Project (Concluded). Summary: The National Institute of Standards ...

2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

283

Establishment of Deep Ocean Circulation Driven by Deep-Water Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A linear, two-layer baroclinic model of deep circulation driven by deep water production is formulated. In distinction to the Stommel-Arons model where a uniform middepth upwelling is prescribed, the present model determines upwelling internally ...

Mitsuhiro Kawase

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Age of Unstable Landforms in the Yucca Mountain Region and Implications for Past Ground Motions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain has been proposed for the disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) as well as other nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste from defense and nuclear weapons programs. The proposed repository site lies within the Basin and Range province, a region subject to seismic activity. As seismic hazard is considered an important risk driver for the repository, the determination of bounding ground motion magnitudes and frequencies described in this report i...

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

285

Electrocatalysis of anodic and cathodic oxygen-transfer reactions  

SciTech Connect

The electrocatalysis of oxygen-transfer reactions is discussed in two parts. In Part I, the reduction of iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is examined as an example of cathodic oxygen transfer. On oxide-covered Pt electrodes (PtO), a large cathodic current is observed in the presence of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to coincide with the reduction of PtO. The total cathodic charge exceeds the amount required for reduction of PtO and IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to produce an adsorbed product. An electrocatalytic link between reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and reduction of PtO is indicated. In addition, on oxide-free Pt electrodes, the reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} is determined to be sensitive to surface treatment. The electrocatalytic oxidation of CN{sup {minus}} is presented as an example of anodic oxygen transfer in Part II. The voltametric response of CN{sup {minus}} is virtually nonexistent at PbO{sub 2} electrodes. The response is significantly improved by doping PbO{sub 2} with Cu. Cyanide is also oxidized effectively at CuO-film electrodes. Copper is concluded to serve as an adsorption site for CN{sup {minus}}. It is proposed that an oxygen tunneling mechanism comparable to electron tunneling does not occur at the electrode-solution interface. The adsorption of CN{sup {minus}} is therefore considered to be a necessary prerequisite for oxygen transfer. 201 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

Wels, B.R.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

286

Leonard and Swap on 'Deep Smarts'  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An interview with Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap: The first issue that any organization has to face is the identification of the deep smarts. Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap are co-authors of the new book 'Deep Smarts: How to Cultivate and Transfer ...

Ubiquity staff

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Trace metal characterization and speciation in geothermal effluent by multiple scanning anodic stripping voltammetry and atomic absorption analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent studies have shown geothermal power plants to have a significant environmental impact on the ground water of the area. The heavy metals arsenic and mercury are special problems, as both are concentrated by flora and fauna exposed to the effluent waters. Because the toxicity of these and other metallic pollutants present in geothermal effluent depends on the chemical form, or speciation, of the particular metal, any serious study of the environmental impact of a geothermal development should include studies of trace metal speciation, in addition to trace metal concentration. This proposal details a method for determining metal speciation in dilute waters. The method is based on ion-exchange and backed by atomic absorption spectrometry and multiple scanning anodic stripping voltammetry. Special laboratory studies will be performed on mercury, arsenic and selenium speciation in synthetic geothermal water. The method will be applied to three known geothermal areas in Washington and Oregon, with emphasis on the speciation of mercury, arsenic and selenium in these waters. The computer controlled electrochemical instrumentation was built and tested. Using this instrumentation, a new experimental procedure was developed to determine the chemical form (speciation) of metal ions in very dilute solutions (ng/ml). This method was tested on model systems including Pb, Cd, and As with C1/sup -/, CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ and glycine ligands. Finally, the speciation of lead in a geothermal water was examined and the PbC1/sup +/ complex was observed and quantified.

Kowalski, B.R.

1979-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

288

Integrated Strategy to Address Hanford’s Deep Vadose Zone Remediation Challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A vast majority of Hanford’s remaining in-ground contaminants reside in the vadose zone of the Central Plateau, where reprocessing operations occurred. The vadose zone is comprised of about 75 meters of water-unsaturated sediments above groundwater. These contaminants have, and continue to release into groundwater that discharges to the Columbia River. If left untreated, these contaminants could remain a threat for centuries. Much of this contamination resides deep in the vadose zone, below the effective depth of tradition surface remedy influence. In 2008, the Department of Energy initiated deep vadose zone treatability testing to seek remedies for technetium-99 and uranium contamination. These tests include the application of desiccation for technetium-99 and reactive gas technologies for uranium. To complement these efforts, the Department of Energy has initiated a “defense-in-depth” approach to address the unique challenges for characterization and remediation of the deep vadose zone. This defense-in-depth approach will implement multiple approaches to understand and control contaminant flux from the deep vadose zone to the groundwater. Among these approaches is an increased investment in science and technology solutions to resolve deep vadose zone challenges including characterization, prediction, remediation, and monitoring.

Triplett, Mark B.; Freshley, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Charboneau, Briant L.; Morse, John G.; Lober, Robert W.; Chronister, Glen B.

2010-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

289

Variation of anode grid surface morphology and its effect on operation of a triode virtual cathode oscillator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After repeatedly operation of a triode virtual cathode oscillator, the surface morphology of anode grid is studied by a scanning electron microscope. It is found that there are many quasi-periodic sawteeth formed on the anode grid, which are about 300-500 {mu}m in height, {approx}200 {mu}m in width, and 150-200 {mu}m in period. The formation of this sawteeth implies that there is possible Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability on the anode grid during the irradiation by high-current relativistic electron beam. These sawteeth enhance the electric field on anode grid, leading to more feasible of anode plasma generation, and more rapidly expansion of that plasma. As a result, the electron transmissivity of anode grid is decreased, the output microwave power of the virtual cathode oscillator is lowered and its operational performance is degraded.

Xu Qifu; Cai Dan; Zhang Qiang; Zhao Xuelong; Zhao Qi; Cheng Guoxin; Liu Lie [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

CX-005369: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Replacement of Big Hill Deep Anode Ground Bed Site for Cavern 103CX(s) Applied: B1.3Date: 02/22/2011Location(s): TexasOffice(s): Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office

291

Ground Magnetics (Nannini, 1986) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ground Magnetics (Nannini, 1986) Ground Magnetics (Nannini, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Magnetics (Nannini, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration Technique Ground Magnetics Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Detection and quantitative assessment of such intrusive events can be facilitated by magnetic surveys (ground or aerial magnetic field measurements). These surveys are based on the magnetic susceptibility contrast between magmatic rocks at depth and the sedimentary formations above. References Raffaello Nannini (1986) Some Aspects Of Exploration In Non-Volcanic Areas Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Ground_Magnetics_(Nannini,_1986)&oldid=388291

292

A cathodically protected electrical substation ground grid  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a discussion on the design of a cathodically protected electrical substation grounding system in which a steel ground grid and steel ground rods were used in place of the commonly used copper ground grid and copperweld ground rods. Several electrical constraints are presented which discuss common electrical utility requirements, safety considerations and economic factors. The grounding system materials which were chosen are discussed along with the means of cathodic protection. Finally, the design, construction and testing considerations are presented as an aid to others who wish to design a similar system.

Nelson, J.P.; Holm, W.K.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Distribution Grounding of Underground Facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes Phase I of a two-phase project to assess industry practices and standards for grounding and bonding of medium-voltage underground residential distribution (URD) and underground commercial distribution (UCD) circuits and worker safety in worksites with these systems.The report includes an overview of the issues and concerns associated with underground distribution systems safety and, in particular, worker safety in worksites. It identifies the industry and utility ...

2013-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

294

Effect of entropy of lithium intercalation in cathodes and anodes on Li-ion battery thermal management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The entropy changes (?S) in various cathode and anode materials, as well as complete Li-ion batteries, were measured using an electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system (ETMS). LiCoO2 has a much larger entropy change than electrodes based on LiNixCoyMnzO2 and LiFePO4, while lithium titanate based anode has lower entropy change compared to graphite anodes. Reversible heat generation rate was found to be a significant portion of the total heat generation rate. The appropriate combinations of cathode and anode were investigated to minimize reversible heat.

Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Xu, Wu; Towne, Silas A.; Williford, Ralph E.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Energy Production from Coal Syngas Containing H2S via Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Utilizing Lanthanum Strontium Vanadate Anodes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Lanthanum strontium vanadate (LSV), a perovskite ceramic electrocatalyst suitable for use as a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode, has shown significant activity toward the… (more)

Cooper, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells  

SciTech Connect

During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be done. The anode composition needs further improvements to attain commercial purity targets. At the present corrosion rate, the vertical plate anodes will wear too rapidly leading to a rapidly increasing anode-cathode gap and thermal instabilities in the cell. Cathode wetting as a function of both cathode plate composition and bath composition needs to be better understood to ensure that complete drainage of the molten aluminum off the plates occurs. Metal buildup appears to lead to back reaction and low current efficiencies.

R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

2001-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

297

Coring in deep hardrock formations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy is involved in a variety of scientific and engineering feasibility studies requiring extensive drilling in hard crystalline rock. In many cases well depths extend from 6000 to 20,000 feet in high-temperature, granitic formations. Examples of such projects are the Hot Dry Rock well system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico and the planned exploratory magma well near Mammoth Lakes, California. In addition to these programs, there is also continuing interest in supporting programs to reduce drilling costs associated with the production of geothermal energy from underground sources such as the Geysers area near San Francisco, California. The overall progression in these efforts is to drill deeper holes in higher temperature, harder formations. In conjunction with this trend is a desire to improve the capability to recover geological information. Spot coring and continuous coring are important elements in this effort. It is the purpose of this report to examine the current methods used to obtain core from deep wells and to suggest projects which will improve existing capabilities. 28 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Drumheller, D.S.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Determination of the cathode and anode voltage drops in high power low-pressure amalgam lamps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the first time, cathode and anode drops of powerful low-pressure amalgam lamps were measured. The lamp discharge current is 3.2 A, discharge current frequency is 43 kHz, linear electric power is 2.4 W/cm. The method of determination of a cathode drop is based on the change of a lamp operating voltage at variation of the electrode filament current at constant discharge current. The total (cathode plus anode) drop of voltage was measured by other, independent ways. The maximum cathode fall is 10.8 V; the anode fall corresponding to the maximal cathode fall is 2.4 V. It is shown that in powerful low pressure amalgam lamps the anode fall makes a considerable contribution (in certain cases, the basic one) to heating of electrodes. Therefore, the anode fall cannot be neglected, at design an electrode and ballast of amalgam lamps with operating discharge current frequency of tens of kHz.

Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, A. I., E-mail: vasiliev@npo.lit.ru; Kostyuchenko, S. V.; Sokolov, D. V.; Startsev, A. Yu. [Joint Stock Company NPO LIT (Russian Federation); Kudryavtsev, N. N. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University) (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

299

Formation of Self-Organized Anode Patterns in Arc Discharge Simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pattern formation and self-organization are phenomena commonly observed experimentally in diverse types of plasma systems, including atmospheric-pressure electric arc discharges. However, numerical simulations reproducing anode pattern formation in arc discharges have proven exceedingly elusive. Time-dependent three-dimensional thermodynamic nonequilibrium simulations reveal the spontaneous formation of self-organized patterns of anode attachment spots in the free-burning arc, a canonical thermal plasma flow established by a constant DC current between an axi-symmetric electrodes configuration in the absence of external forcing. The number of spots, their size, and distribution within the pattern depend on the applied total current and on the resolution of the spatial discretization, whereas the main properties of the plasma flow, such as maximum temperatures, velocity, and voltage drop, depend only on the former. The sensibility of the solution to the spatial discretization stresses the computational requirements for comprehensive arc discharge simulations. The obtained anode patterns qualitatively agree with experimental observations and confirm that the spots originate at the fringes of the arc - anode attachment. The results imply that heavy-species - electron energy equilibration, in addition to thermal instability, has a dominant role in the formation of anode spots in arc discharges.

Juan Pablo Trelles

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

Warm or Steaming Ground | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Warm or Steaming Ground Warm or Steaming Ground Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Warm or Steaming Ground Dictionary.png Warm or Steaming Ground: An area where geothermal heat is conducted to the earth's surface, warming the ground and sometimes causing steam to form when water is present. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Modern Geothermal Features Typical list of modern geothermal features Hot Springs Fumaroles Warm or Steaming Ground Mudpots, Mud Pools, or Mud Volcanoes Geysers Blind Geothermal System Steam rising from the ground at Eldvorp, a 10 km row of craters, in Southwestern Iceland. http://www.visiticeland.com/SearchResults/Attraction/eldvorp Warm or steaming ground is often an indicator of a geothermal system beneath the surface. In some cases a geothermal system may not show any

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Ground Plane Identification Using LIDAR in Forested  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To operate autonomously in forested environments, unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) must be able to identify the load-bearing surface of the terrain (i.e. the ground). This paper presents a novel two-stage approach for ...

McDaniel, Matt W.

302

NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS  

SciTech Connect

From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations using laboratory pyrolysis methods have provided much information on the origins of deep gas. Technologic problems are one of the greatest challenges to deep drilling. Problems associated with overcoming hostile drilling environments (e.g. high temperatures and pressures, and acid gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) for successful well completion, present the greatest obstacles to drilling, evaluating, and developing deep gas fields. Even though the overall success ratio for deep wells is about 50 percent, a lack of geological and geophysical information such as reservoir quality, trap development, and gas composition continues to be a major barrier to deep gas exploration. Results of recent finding-cost studies by depth interval for the onshore U.S. indicate that, on average, deep wells cost nearly 10 times more to drill than shallow wells, but well costs and gas recoveries vary widely among different gas plays in different basins. Based on an analysis of natural gas assessments, many topical areas hold significant promise for future exploration and development. One such area involves re-evaluating and assessing hypothetical unconventional basin-center gas plays. Poorly-understood basin-center gas plays could contain significant deep undiscovered technically-recoverable gas resources.

Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

2002-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

303

Directional Reactive Power Ground Plane Transmission  

Directional Reactive Power Ground Plane Transmission Technology Summary ... The invention can transmit electrical power through the surface of the ...

304

US ARMY GROUND VEHICLE CREW COMPARTMENT ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... test fixture was constructed from an excess ground vehicle hull ... instrumentation measured acid gas exposure levels: ion selective electrodes (grab ...

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

305

Sizing of Overhead Ground Wires for Lightning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Overhead ground wires, or shield wires, are placed on transmission lines as air terminals for lightning strikes to shield the phase conductors from direct strikes. Although of short duration, lightning strikes to ground wires may result in significant damage. Utilities are increasingly using optical fiber ground wires (OPGWs), and severe damage to the OPGWs could result in failure of the communication link. There is renewed interest in the dimensioning and testing of ground wires for improved ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

306

Geek-Up[08.20.10] -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and Researching  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8.20.10] -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and 8.20.10] -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and Researching the Gut Microbiome Geek-Up[08.20.10] -- Turning Trash Bags into Battery Anodes and Researching the Gut Microbiome August 20, 2010 - 5:18pm Addthis Elizabeth Meckes Elizabeth Meckes Director of User Experience & Digital Technologies, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? An Argonne Scholar has figured out a way to convert grocery bags into carbon nanotubes that can be used as components for lithium-ion batteries. We have about three pounds of bacteria living in our gut -- most of which is helpful for our immune system development and metabolism. Scientists at Ames Laboratory are making batteries that are "greener" and more cost-efficient by using rare earth elements -- neodymium

307

Method for providing uranium articles with a corrosion resistant anodized coating  

SciTech Connect

Uranium articles are provided with anodized oxide coatings in an aqueous solution of an electrolyte selected from the group consisting of potassium phosphate, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, and a mixture of potassium tetraborate and boric acid. The uranium articles are anodized at a temperature greater than about 75.degree. C. with a current flow of less than about 0.036 A/cm.sup.2 of surface area while the pH of the solution is maintained in a range of about 2 to 11.5. The pH values of the aqueous solution and the low current density utilized during the electrolysis prevent excessive dissolution of the uranium and porosity in the film or watering. The relatively high temperature of the electrolyte bath inhibits hydration and the attendant deleterious pitting so as to enhance corrosion resistance of the anodized coating.

Waldrop, Forrest B. (Powell, TN); Washington, Charles A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Effect of operating parameters and anode gas impurities upon polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

PEM fuel cells are actively under development for transportation and other applications. Integration of a PEM fuel cell stack with a methanol reformer requires an understanding of single cell performance under a range of operating conditions using anode gas contaminated with impurities. The effect of temperature, pressure, and anode gas impurities on single cell PEM performance was investigated with platinum black electrodes. Single cell performance remained unchanged as temperature was varied between 80 and 100 at 3 atm pressure. High water partial pressures at 120C produced a mass transfer limiting current. While operation at 120C did not reverse CO{sub 2} poisoning, anode air addition proved effective. Air injection also decreased CO poisoning at injected concentrations up to 200 ppm CO. Higher single cell tolerance was observed for CH{sub 3}OH than CO. Up to 1 mole % CH{sub 3}OH in the gas phase reduced the current density by less than 10%.

Weisbrod, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Concentrated ion beam emitted from an enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator and mechanism  

SciTech Connect

An enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator with an outlet diameter of 150 mm is experimentally demonstrated to produce a concentrated ion beam, especially at a high discharge voltage, with a high current utilization efficiency of up to {approx}0.9. Numerical investigation based on the three-dimensional particle-in-cell method is performed to study the ion dynamics and elucidate the origin of the ion beam characteristics. The simulation results reveal that the equipotential lines play an important role in the surface near the anode emitting the ions. The ion emitting surface is determined by the magnetic field lines near the anode and the magnetic mirror contributes to the concentrated beam significantly. The high current utilization efficiency results from the appropriate obliquity of the magnetic mirror.

Geng, S. F.; Wang, C. X. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Tang, D. L.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

310

Breathing oscillations in enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator  

SciTech Connect

Breathing oscillations in the discharge of an enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator are investigated by three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. Different from the traditional breathing mode in a circular Hall plasma accelerator, the bulk plasma oscillation here is trigged by the potential barrier generated by the concentrated ion beam and substantial enough to compete with the anode voltage. The electric field near the anode is suppressed by the potential barrier thereby decreasing the electron density by {approx}36%. The discharge is restored to the normal level after the concentrated beam explodes and then it completes one cycle of electro-driven breathing oscillation. The breathing mode identified by the PIC simulation has a frequency range of {approx}156 kHz-{approx}250 kHz and does not vary monotonically with the discharge voltage.

Geng, S. F.; Wang, C. X. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China) [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tang, D. L.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Fu, R. K. Y. [Plasma Technology Limited, Festival Walk Tower, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)] [Plasma Technology Limited, Festival Walk Tower, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)] [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

311

Formation of Si-based nano-island array on porous anodic alumina  

SciTech Connect

Si-based nano-island arrays were fabricated on porous anodic alumina by two methods. In the first method, a thick silicon film was first deposited onto the surface with highly ordered bowl array prepared by anodizing an Al foil, followed by the formation of a polycrystalline silicon nano-island array on the surface close to the bowl array after dissolving aluminum. In the second method, porous anodization was performed on an Al thin film on Si and a SiO{sub 2} nano-island array was subsequently formed electrochemically. Time-resolved atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence were used to investigate the growth process as well as the mechanism of the growth process. Our proposed mechanism as well as assumptions made to formulate the model were found to be in agreement with the experimental results.

Mei, Y.F. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: yf.mei@plink.cityu.edu.hk; Huang, G.S. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li, Z.M. [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Siu, G.G. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Fu, Ricky K.Y. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yang, Y.M. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, X.L. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tang, Z.K. [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2004-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

312

Ground Gravity Survey At Lightning Dock Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Ground Gravity Survey At Lightning Dock Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Lightning Dock Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Lightning Dock Area Exploration Technique Ground Gravity Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes As a foundation for successful siting and drilling a deep test well, additional geophysical work has been completed including gravity, resistivity, and airborne magnetic surveys. Several new seismic profiles

313

Pattern Of Shallow Ground Water Flow At Mount Princeton Hot Springs,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pattern Of Shallow Ground Water Flow At Mount Princeton Hot Springs, Pattern Of Shallow Ground Water Flow At Mount Princeton Hot Springs, Colorado, Using Geoelectrical Methods Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Pattern Of Shallow Ground Water Flow At Mount Princeton Hot Springs, Colorado, Using Geoelectrical Methods Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: In geothermal fields, open faults and fractures often act as high permeability pathways bringing hydrothermal fluids to the surface from deep reservoirs. The Mount Princeton area, in south-central Colorado, is an area that has an active geothermal system related to faulting and is therefore a suitable natural laboratory to test geophysical methods. The Sawatch range-front normal fault bordering the half-graben of the Upper Arkansas

314

Modeling reducibility on ground terms using constraints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling reducibility on ground terms using constraints Isabelle GNAEDIGa , H´el`ene KIRCHNERb a on ground terms using (dis)equational constraints. We show in particular that innermost (ir)reducibility can on the ground term algebra that any rewriting chain starting from any term termi- nates, provided that terms

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

315

Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

316

Why sequence novel haloarchaea from Deep Lake?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

novel haloarchaea from Deep Lake? novel haloarchaea from Deep Lake? Antarctica's Deep Lake was isolated from the ocean by glaciers long ago, creating a salt water lake with a unique ecosystem for studying the evolution of marine microorganisms in harsh extremes. Among these microorganisms are haloarchaea, members of the halophile community which need high salt concentrations in order to grow. Haloarchaea are a distinct evolutionary branch of the Archaea, and are considered extremophiles. The haloarchaea from Deep Lake are naturally adapted to cold, nutrient-limited and high saline level conditions that would kill almost any other life. The enzymes in these naturally adapted microorganisms can provide insight into bioprospecting and bioengineering cold active and salt-adapted enzymes. Understanding how haloarchaea

317

On Deep Quasi-geostrophic Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep quasi-geostrophic theory applies to large-scale flow whose vertical depth scale is comparable to the potential temperature scale height. The appropriate expression for the potential vorticity equation is derived from the general formulation ...

Peter R. Bannon

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Deep-Flow Variability at Drake Passage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A rotary empirical orthogonal function analysis of the currents measured in central Drake Passage during DRAKE 79 shows that the deep (2500 m) flow has the same spatial and temporal structure as the flow at 500 m, suggesting that current ...

John M. Klinck; Eileen E. Hofmann

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Deep Space Mission Radiation Shielding Optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space missions. In the present report, we ...

Tripathi R. K.; Wilson J. W.; Cucinotta F. A.; Nealy J. E.; Clowdsley M. S.; Kim M-H. Y.

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Preconditioning Deep Convection with Cumulus Congestus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent studies have pushed forward the idea that congestus clouds, through their moistening of the atmosphere, could promote deep convection. On the other hand, older studies have tended to relate convective initiation to the large-scale forcing. ...

Cathy Hohenegger; Bjorn Stevens

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Technological review of deep ocean manned submersibles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

James Cameron's dive to the Challenger Deep in the Deepsea Challenger in March of 2012 marked the first time man had returned to the Mariana Trench since the Bathyscaphe Trieste's 1960 dive. Currently little is known about ...

Vaskov, Alex Kikeri

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Energetics of Deep-Decoupling Oscillations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of single-hemisphere ocean models, when forced with steady mixed boundary conditions, have produced self-sustaining oscillations with century to millennial scale periods. Here the energetics of these deep-decoupling oscillations are ...

Michael Winton

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Applied Field Research Initiative Deep Vadose Zone  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Applied Field Research Initiative Applied Field Research Initiative Deep Vadose Zone Located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ AFRI) was established to protect water resources by addressing the challenge of preventing contamination in the deep vadose zone from reaching groundwater. Led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Initiative is a collaborative effort that leverages Department of Energy (DOE) investments in basic science and applied research and the work of site contractors to address the complex deep vadose zone contamination challenges. Challenge Many vadose zone environments within the DOE complex consist of complex stratified layers of unconsolidated and water-unsaturated sediments that are, in many places, con-

324

Performance of Lithium Ion Cell Anode Graphites Under Various Cycling Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Graphites MCMB-2810 and OMAC-15 (made by Osaka Gas Inc.), and SNG12 (Hydro Quebec, Inc.) were evaluated (in coin cells with lithium counter electrodes) as anode materials for lithium-ion cells intended for use in hybrid electric vehicles. Though the reversible capacity obtained for SNG was slightly higher than that of OMAC or MCMB, its 1st cycle efficiency was lower. Voltage vs capacity plots of cycling data show that the discharge and charge limits shift to higher capacity values due to continuation of anode side reactions. Varying the cycle charge and discharge limits was found to have no significant effect on fractional capacity shift per cycle.

Ridgway, Paul; Zheng, Honghe; Liu, Gao; Song, Xiangun; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Charest, Patrick; Zaghib, Karim; Battaglia, Vincent

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

325

Fabrication of copper-based anodes via atmosphoric plasma spraying techniques  

SciTech Connect

A fuel electrode anode (18) for a solid oxide fuel cell is made by presenting a solid oxide fuel cell having an electrolyte surface (15), mixing copper powder with solid oxide electrolyte in a mixing step (24, 44) to provide a spray feedstock (30,50) which is fed into a plasma jet (32, 52) of a plasma torch to melt the spray feed stock and propel it onto an electrolyte surface (34, 54) where the spray feed stock flattens into lamellae layer upon solidification, where the layer (38, 59) is an anode coating with greater than 35 vol. % based on solids volume.

Lu, Chun (Monroeville, PA)

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

326

Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study of the anodic oxidation of vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC) was conducted with post-mortem analysis of reaction products by ATR-FTIR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The half-wave potential (E1/2) for oxidation of VEC is ca. 3.6 V producing a resistive film on the electrode surface. GPC analysis of the film on a gold electrode produced by anodization of a commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte containing 2 percent VEC at 4.1 V showed the presence of a high molecular weight polymer. IR analysis indicated polycarbonate with alkyl carbonate rings linked by aliphatic methylene and methyl branches.

Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

327

Sulfur tolerant anode materials. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1988  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

Not Available

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

DEEP VADOSE ZONE TREATABILITY TEST PLAN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

{sm_bullet} Treatability test plan published in 2008 {sm_bullet} Outlines technology treatability activities for evaluating application of in situ technologies and surface barriers to deep vadose zone contamination (technetium and uranium) {sm_bullet} Key elements - Desiccation testing - Testing of gas-delivered reactants for in situ treatment of uranium - Evaluating surface barrier application to deep vadose zone - Evaluating in situ grouting and soil flushing

GB CHRONISTER; MJ TRUEX

2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

329

Dense Membranes for Anode Supported all Perovskite IT-SOFCs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Innovative wet chemical synthetic techniques were employed to obtain highly ionic conducting dense perovskites, mixed conducting porous perovskites, and electronically conducting perovskite membranes to be as electrolyte, cathode, anode, and interconnect for assembling all perovskite IT-SOFC system. Processing conditions were optimized to obtain well sintered LSM, LSF, LSCF, LNF, and LCF for SOFC cell and stacks working at 600-800 C. Series of nanocrystalline bulk and thin films of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.83}Mg{sub 0.17}O{sub 2.815}, LaSr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3}, LaSr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}, La{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.3}O{sub 3}, LaCr{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.3}O{sub 3} were prepared at very low temperatures and characterized using XRD, SEM, HRTEM, XPS, EXAFS, and EIS techniques. The influence of preparation techniques on the microstructure, grain-size and consequently on the electrical transport properties were investigated. Processing conditions, sintering temperature (1200-1500 C) and time severely affected the grain size (< 0.1 {micro}m to 10 {micro}m) and the resistance in all grain-boundary (3 k{Omega} to175 k{Omega}). Through investigations of A and B site doping in perovskite materials, we have reduced cathode-electrolyte interfacial resistance, will be very effective for the SOFCs operating {approx} 750 C. Epitaxial films of LiFeNiO{sub 3}, for SOFCs cathode were deposited on LaAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, and YSZ single crystals by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method, and characterized using advanced spectroelectrochemical techniques. The film orientations depend on the substrate planes. Surface morphology of the films also depends on the substrate orientations. These films showed different electrode properties depending on the orientations. The porous characteristic of the electrode materials are achieved by the combination of combustion and microwave sintering using SiC as susceptor (1200-1400 C). Concurrently, the other oxygen ionic/protonic conducting oxides (perovskites, pyrochlores, and apatites) were also prepared, characterized and understood the role in the development of reduced temperature SOFCs. In this HBCU/MI -research and educational project, we have emphasized the need to expand research opportunities for talented undergraduate and graduate African American students and junior faculty in the field of power sources based on nanoscience. We have paired the selected three undergraduate and two graduate students with full time research staff (PDF), for experimental measurements and discussions via preparing students to present the work in regional, national and international conferences. These students on an average made one presentation per year out side the SUBR campus. The effort in this project yielded 7 publications in refereed journals and about 15 in conference proceedings including NETL annual review meetings. Further, we have initiated a collaborative research and educational outreach project entitled 'Center for Hydrogen Energy and Advanced Power [CHEAP]' with University of West Indies-St. Augustine, Trinidad & Tobago (T &T).

Rambabu Bobba

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

Parasitic corrosion resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O.sub.2 cells  

SciTech Connect

A consumable metal anode which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

Joy, Richard W. (Santa Clara, CA); Smith, David F. (Boulder Creek, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Parasitic corrosion-resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O/sub 2/ cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A consumable metal anode is described which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

Joy, R.W.; Smith, D.F.

1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

332

Aluminum bulk micromachining through an anodic oxide mask by electrochemical etching in an acetic acid/perchloric acid solution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A well-defined microstructure with microchannels and a microchamber was fabricated on an aluminum plate by four steps of a new aluminum bulk micromachining process: anodizing, laser irradiation, electrochemical etching, and ultrasonication. An aluminum ... Keywords: Aluminum, Anodizing, Bulk micromachining, Electrochemical etching, Laser irradiation

Tatsuya Kikuchi, Yuhta Wachi, Masatoshi Sakairi, Ryosuke O. Suzuki

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Ground Loop Design  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Loop Design Ground Loop Design logo Ground Loop Design is a versatile ground source heat pump system design program that helps the trained geothermal HVAC designerengineer...

334

Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

Neudecker, Bernd J. (Knoxville, TN); Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Phase transformations and microstructural design of lithiated metal anodes for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There has been great recent interest in lithium storage at the anode of Li-ion rechargeable battery by alloying with metals such as Al, Sn, and Sb, or metalloids such as Si, as an alternative to the intercalation of graphite. ...

Limthongkul, Pimpa, 1975-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Nano-structured anode material for high-power battery system in electric vehicles.  

SciTech Connect

A new MSNP-LTO anode is developed to enable a high-power battery system that provides three times more power than any existing battery system. It shows excellent cycle life and low-temperature performance, and exhibits unmatched safety characteristics.

Amine, K.; Belharouak, I.; Chen, Z.; Taison, T.; Yumoto, H.; Ota, N.; Myung, S.-T.; Sun, Y.-K. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Enerdel Lithium Power Systems); (Iwate Univ.); (Hanyang Univ.)

2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

337

A Comparison of Molten Sn and Bi for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Molten Sn and Bi were examined at 973 and 1073 K for use as anodes in solid oxide fuel cells with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes. Cells were operated under “battery” conditions, with dry He flow in the anode compartment, to characterize the electrochemical oxidation of the metals at the YSZ interface. For both metals, the open-circuit voltages (OCVs) were close to that expected based on their oxidation thermodynamics, ~0.93 V for Sn and ~0.48 V for Bi. With Sn, the cell performance degraded rapidly after the transfer of approximately 0.5-1.5 Ccm{sup 2} of charge due to the formation of a SnO{sub 2} layer at the YSZ interface. At 973 K, the anode impedance at OCV for freshly reduced Sn was approximately 3 {ohm}cm{sup 2} but this increased to well over 250 {ohm}cm{sup 2} after the transfer of of charge. Following the transfer of 8.2 Ccm{sup 2} at 1073 K, the formation of a 10{micro}m thick SnO{sub 2} layer was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. With Bi, the OCV anode impedance at 973 K was less than 0.25 {ohm}cm{sup 2} and remained constant until essentially all of the Bi had been oxidized to BiO{sub 2}. Some implications of these results for direct carbon fuel cells are discussed.

Jayakumar, A.; Lee, Sang Bok; Hornés, A.; Vohs, J. M.; Gorte, R. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Arrays of Sealed Silicon Nanotubes As Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,12 nanowires13-17 (NW), bundled Si nanotubes,18 and thin films19 as candidate anode materials in lithium ion morphology change. In particular, the axial void spaces of the Si NTs provide additional free surfaces physics, to account for experimental observations and to derive optimized dimen- sions in the tubes

Rogers, John A.

339

Primary cell of high energy density in which the anode active material is an alkali metal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A primary cell of high specific energy in which the anode active material is an alkali metal and the cathode active material is sulphur oxychloride which simultaneously acts as an electrolyte solvent, said electrolyte further containing a dissolved salt and a co-solvent. The co-solvent is chosen from among phosphoryl chloride and benzoyl chloride; the dissolved salt is lithium tetrachloroaluminate.

Gabano, J.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Solution-Grown Silicon Nanowires for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that lower- ing the price of batteries is a major goal, the cost of the processing and fabricationSolution-Grown Silicon Nanowires for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes Candace K. Chan, Reken N. Patel interest in using nanomaterials for advanced lithium-ion battery electrodes, par- ticularly for increasing

Cui, Yi

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Uncertainty Studies of Real Anode Surface Area in Computational Analysis for Molten Salt Electrorefining  

SciTech Connect

This study examines how much cell potential changes with five differently assumed real anode surface area cases. Determining real anode surface area is a significant issue to be resolved for precisely modeling molten salt electrorefining. Based on a three-dimensional electrorefining model, calculated cell potentials compare with an experimental cell potential variation over 80 hours of operation of the Mark-IV electrorefiner with driver fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. We succeeded to achieve a good agreement with an overall trend of the experimental data with appropriate selection of a mode for real anode surface area, but there are still local inconsistencies between theoretical calculation and experimental observation. In addition, the results were validated and compared with two-dimensional results to identify possible uncertainty factors that had to be further considered in a computational electrorefining analysis. These uncertainty factors include material properties, heterogeneous material distribution, surface roughness, and current efficiency. Zirconium's abundance and complex behavior have more impact on uncertainty towards the latter period of electrorefining at given batch of fuel. The benchmark results found that anode materials would be dissolved from both axial and radial directions at least for low burn-up metallic fuels after active liquid sodium bonding was dissolved.

Sungyeol Choi; Jaeyeong Park; Robert O. Hoover; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael F. Simpson; Kwang-Rag Kim; Il Soon Hwang

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

LSCF Synthesis and Syngas Reactivity over LSCF-modified Ni/YSZ Anode.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Simulated coal syngas reactivity over Ni/YSZ and LSCF (La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8)-modified Ni/YSZ anode of SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) was investigated in this study. The contribution of… (more)

Mirzababaei, Jelvehnaz

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Ground Loops for Heat Pumps and Refrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ground loops are used for water source heat pumps. Refrigeration can be put on a ground loop. Water-cooled condensing units are more efficient than air-cooled, and they can be put indoors. Indoor location makes piping for desuperheater hot water easy. Since refrigeration equipment runs more than heat pumps, energy savings can be large for ground-coupled refrigeration. The paper presents a design procedure for ground loops for heat pumps, hot water, ice machines, and water-cooled refrigeration. It gives an overview of the commercial ground-coupled systems in Louisiana that have both refrigeration and heat pumps. Systems vary from small offices to a three-story office building with 187 tons. A chain of hamburger outlets uses total ground-coupling in all of its stores. A grocery store has ground-coupling for heat pumps and refrigeration. Desuperheaters provide 80 percent of the hot water for a coin laundry in the same building. A comparison of energy costs in a bank with a ground-coupled heat pump system to a similar bank with air-conditioning and gas for heat revealed a 31 percent reduction in utility costs for the ground-coupled building. Two buildings of the Mississippi Power and Light Co. have ground-coupled heat pumps in one, and high efficiency air source heat pumps in the other. Energy savings in nine months was 60,000 kWh (25 percent), and electric peak demand was reduced 42 kW (35 percent).

Braud, H. J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Eulerian Measurements of the North Atlantic Deep Water Deep Western Boundary Current at 18°S  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An 18-month time series of moored current meter observations near 18°S in the Atlantic is used to study the deep western boundary current (DWBC) of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). This flow is taken to extend from about the shelf break seaward ...

Georges L. Weatherly; Yoo Yin Kim; Evgeny A. Kontar

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Harnessing the Deep Web: Present and Future  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past few years, we have built a system that has exposed large volumes of Deep-Web content to Google.com users. The content that our system exposes contributes to more than 1000 search queries per-second and spans over 50 languages and hundreds of domains. The Deep Web has long been acknowledged to be a major source of structured data on the web, and hence accessing Deep-Web content has long been a problem of interest in the data management community. In this paper, we report on where we believe the Deep Web provides value and where it does not. We contrast two very different approaches to exposing Deep-Web content -- the surfacing approach that we used, and the virtual integration approach that has often been pursued in the data management literature. We emphasize where the values of each of the two approaches lie and caution against potential pitfalls. We outline important areas of future research and, in particular, emphasize the value that can be derived from analyzing large collections of potenti...

Madhavan, Jayant; Antova, Lyublena; Halevy, Alon

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Deep drilling technology for hot crystalline rock  

SciTech Connect

The development of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal systems at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico site has required the drilling of four deep boreholes into hot, Precambrian granitic and metamorphic rocks. Thermal gradient holes, four observation wells 200 m (600 ft) deep, and an exploration core hole 800 m (2400 ft) deep guided the siting of the four deep boreholes. Results derived from the exploration core hole, GT-1 (Granite Test No. 1), were especially important in providing core from the granitic rock, and establishing the conductive thermal gradient and heat flow for the granitic basement rocks. Essential stratigraphic data and lost drilling-fluid zones were identified for the volcanic and sedimentary rocks above the contact with the crystalline basement. Using this information drilling strategies and well designs were then devised for the planning of the deeper wells. The four deep wells were drilled in pairs, the shallowest were planned and drilled to depths of 3 km in 1975 at a bottom-hole temperature of nearly 200/sup 0/C. These boreholes were followed by a pair of wells, completed in 1981, the deepest of which penetrated the Precambrian basement to a vertical depth of 4.39 km at a temperature of 320/sup 0/C.

Rowley, J.C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Dissolution of Plutonium Scrub Alloy and Anode Heel Materials in H-Canyon  

SciTech Connect

H-Canyon has a ''gap'' in dissolver operations during the last three months of FY03. One group of material to be processed during the gap is pre-existing scrub alloy material. There are 14 cans of material containing approximately 3.8 kilograms of plutonium. Of the 14 cans, it was anticipated that four cans contain salts, two cans contain anode heel materials, and eight cans contain scrub alloy buttons. H-Canyon desires to process the materials using a flowsheet similar to the SS and C (sand, slag and crucible) dissolution flowsheet used in F-Canyon. The materials will be loaded into carbon steel cans and then placed into aluminum metal charging bundles. Samples were sent to Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for characterization and flowsheet testing -- four MSE salts, two anode heels, and seven scrub alloy buttons. SRTC dissolved and characterized each of the samples. Two of them, originally thought to be MSE salts, were found to be graphite mold materials and were unsuitable for processing in H-Canyon. Characterization studies confirmed that the identification of the remaining items as MSE salts, scrub alloy buttons, and anode heel materials was correct. The MSE salts and anode heels solids are comprised primarily of plutonium, potassium, sodium and chloride. Both the MSE salts and anode heels left behind small amounts of residual solids. The scrub alloy buttons are comprised primarily of plutonium and aluminum. The solids dissolve readily with light, effervescent gas generation at the material surface and only trace amounts of NOx generation. Of the seven button samples, four dissolved completely. Two button samples contained small amounts of tantalum that did not dissolve. The last of the seven scrub alloy samples left a trace amount of residual plutonium solids. It is anticipated that the presence of undissolved fissile material is a function of where the sample was located relative to the button surface.

PIERCE, RA

2004-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

348

Condition Assessment of Substation Ground Grids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the first stage of research to develop a simple and inexpensive method and device to assess the integrity of substation grounding grids. The problem has been studied before but there is not, to our knowledge, a reliable and inexpensive method or device to make a reliable diagnosis. While the EPRI-developed Ground Grid Evaluator (commercially knows as the Smart Ground Multimeter or SGM) can be used to provide valuable information, the equipment is considered to be expensive and requi...

2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

349

Condition Assessment of Substation Ground Grids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the second stage of a research project to develop a simple and inexpensive method and device to assess the integrity of substation grounding grids. The problem has been studied before but a reliable and inexpensive method or device to make a reliable diagnosis of grid condition is still lacking. While the EPRI-developed Ground Grid Evaluator (commercially known as the Smart Ground Multimeter) can be used to provide valuable information, the equipment is expensive and requires extens...

2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

350

Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

Ferguson, K.L.

1994-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

351

Ground Electromagnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Ground Electromagnetic Techniques (Redirected from Ground Electromagnetic Methods) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Geophysical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Electrical Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Electromagnetic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock composition, mineral and clay content Stratigraphic/Structural: Detection of permeable pathways, fracture zones, faults Hydrological: Resistivity influenced by porosity, grain size distribution, permeability, fluid saturation, fluid type and phase state of the pore water Thermal: Resistivity influenced by temperature

352

Recent ground motion studies at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Understanding slow and fast ground motion is important for the successful operation and design for present and future colliders. Since 2000 there have been several studies of ground motion at Fermilab. Several different types of HLS (hydro static level sensors) have been used to study slow ground motion (less than 1 hertz) seismometers have been used for fast (greater than 1 hertz) motions. Data have been taken at the surface and at locations 100 meters below the surface. Data of recent slow ground motion measurements with HLSs, many years of alignment data and results of the ATL-analysis are presented and discussed.

Shiltsev, V.; Volk, J.; /Fermilab; Singatulin, S.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Grounds Maintenance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates an award-winning grounds maintenance program that comprises a comprehensive landscape and irrigation management program. The...

354

US ARMY GROUND VEHICLE HALON REPLACEMENT ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... test fixture has been constructed from a derelict ground vehicle hull ... exposure levels: ion selective electrodes (grab hag sampling), sorbent tubes ...

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

355

Enclosed ground-flare incinerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved ground flare is provided comprising a stack, two or more burner assemblies, and a servicing port so that some of the burner assemblies can be serviced while others remain in operation. The burner assemblies comprise a burner conduit and nozzles which are individually fitted to the stack's burner chamber and are each removably supported in the chamber. Each burner conduit is sealed to and sandwiched between a waste gas inlet port and a matching a closure port on the other side of the stack. The closure port can be opened for physically releasing the burner conduit and supplying sufficient axial movement room for extracting the conduit from the socket, thereby releasing the conduit for hand removal through a servicing port. Preferably, the lower end of the stack is formed of one or more axially displaced lower tubular shells which are concentrically spaced for forming annular inlets for admitting combustion air. An upper tubular exhaust stack, similarly formed, admits additional combustion air for increasing the efficiency of combustion, increasing the flow of exhausted for improved atmospheric dispersion and for cooling the upper stack.

Wiseman, Thomas R. (Calgary, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Deep Laboratory Supporting Vital National Security Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, work began on the nearly 200,000-square-foot Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) complex that will house by the accelerated cleanup of the Hanford Site's 300 Area. This federally financed replacement facility is jointly - Office of Nonproliferation Research and Engineering DeeP Laboratory DesigN features April 2009 PNNL

357

Deep Space Formation Flying Spacecraft Path Planning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Efficient algorithms for collision-free energy sub-optimal path planning for formations of spacecraft flying in deep space are presented. The idea is to introduce a set of way-points through which the spacecraft are required to pass, combined with ... Keywords: formation flying spacecraft, path planning for multiple mobile robot systems, trajectory generation

Cornel Sultan; Sanjeev Seereram; Raman K. Mehra

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Gravity Currents in a Deep Anelastic Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents analytic results for steady gravity currents in a channel using the deep anelastic equations. Results are cast in terms of a nondimensional parameter H/H0 that relates the channel depth H to a scale depth H0 (the depth at ...

George H. Bryan; Richard Rotunno

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Underwater Vehicles for Deep Ocean Exploration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Underwater Vehicles for Deep Ocean Exploration Louis L. Whitcomb Ph.D. Associate Professor Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C. March 8, 2003 Outline · Introduction to Underwater Robotics · Johns Hopkins University Research Vehicle: JHU ROV · Research in Underwater Vehicle Navigation: ­ DVLNAV Navigation Program

Whitcomb, Louis L.

360

A Simple Method for Measuring Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The glass-pipe technology used for RAFOS floats is applied to the monitoring of convection in deep mixed layers. The velocity of a vertical current is estimated from the relationship between the drag force exerted on a float by the vertical ...

Edward J. Kearns; H. Thomas Rossby

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Design Ground Snow Loads for Ohio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The weight of snow with a mean recurrence interval of 50 years, called the design ground snow load, is used by engineers and planners to estimate the weight of snow that roofs must be designed to support National maps of ground snow load have ...

Thomas W. Schmidlin; Dennis J. Edgell; Molly A. Delaney

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Parameterizing a Groundness Analysis of Logic Programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a parametric groundness analysis whose input and output are parameterized by a set of groundness parameters. The result of the analysis can be instantiated for different uses of the program. It can also be used to derive sufficient conditions ...

Lunjin Lu

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Sharing and groundness dependencies in logic programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate Jacobs and Langen's Sharing domain, introduced for the analysis of variable sharing in logic programs, and show that it is isomorphic to Marriott and Søndergaard's Pos domain, introduced for the analysis of groundness dependencies. ... Keywords: Boolean functions, abstract interpretation, dataflow analysis, global analysis, groundness analysis, program analysis, sharing analysis

Michael Codish; Harald Søndergaard; Peter J. Stuckey

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Current Status of Deep Geological Repository Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This talk provided an overview of the current status of deep-geological-repository development worldwide. Its principal observation is that a broad consensus exists internationally that deep-geological disposal is the only long-term solution for disposition of highly radioactive nuclear waste. Also, it is now clear that the institutional and political aspects are as important as the technical aspects in achieving overall progress. Different nations have taken different approaches to overall management of their highly radioactive wastes. Some have begun active programs to develop a deep repository for permanent disposal: the most active such programs are in the United States, Sweden, and Finland. Other countries (including France and Russia) are still deciding on whether to proceed quickly to develop such a repository, while still others (including the UK, China, Japan) have affirmatively decided to delay repository development for a long time, typically for a generation of two. In recent years, a major conclusion has been reached around the world that there is very high confidence that deep repositories can be built, operated, and closed safely and can meet whatever safety requirements are imposed by the regulatory agencies. This confidence, which has emerged in the last few years, is based on extensive work around the world in understanding how repositories behave, including both the engineering aspects and the natural-setting aspects, and how they interact together. The construction of repositories is now understood to be technically feasible, and no major barriers have been identified that would stand in the way of a successful project. Another major conclusion around the world is that the overall cost of a deep repository is not as high as some had predicted or feared. While the actual cost will not be known in detail until the costs are incurred, the general consensus is that the total life-cycle cost will not exceed a few percent of the value of the electricity generated by the power reactors that have produced the waste. Of course, the current international situation is that no nation is currently willing to take any radioactive waste from another nation for deep disposal. This means that every nation will ultimately need to develop its own deep repository. This makes no sense, however--many nations have only a modest amount of waste, or do not have appropriate geological settings for a repository, or both. Ultimately, the need for one or more multi-national or international repositories will emerge, although so far this has not happened.

Budnitz, R J

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

365

Ground Source Heat Pumps Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) use the earth's  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ground Source Heat Pumps Fact Sheet Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) use the earth's constant. Waste heat can be used to heat hot water. System Types There are two types of ground source heat pumps, closed loop and open loop systems. Closed loop heat pumps use the earth as the heat source and heat sink

Paulsson, Johan

366

Little Climates -- Weather Just Above The Ground  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Weather Just Above The Ground Weather Just Above The Ground Nature Bulletin No. 481-A February 17, 1973 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W, Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation LITTLE CLIMATES -- Weather Just Above the Ground In a previous bulletin we talked about little climates, underground, resulting from weather conditions in the soil. Just above the ground there is another "little climate" equally important. We frequently see evidences of it without realizing how and why they were produced. Just above the earth, there lies a narrow layer of changeable weather that is affected at both surfaces by its mighty neighbors: the land below and the restless air in the atmosphere above it. Under the spell of gravity, it clings to the ground in spite of all but the swiftest winds. In this layer there are special weather conditions overlooked by nearly everyone.

367

Ground Source Heat Pumps | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ground Source Heat Pumps Ground Source Heat Pumps (Redirected from Geothermal Heat Pumps) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Ground Source Heat Pumps Geothermal Technologies There are many types of Geothermal Technologies that take advantage of the earth's heat: Hydrothermal Systems Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Sedimentary Geothermal Systems Co-Produced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Direct Use Ground Source Heat Pumps GSHP Links Related documents and websites An Information Survival Kit for the Prospective Geothemral Heat Pump Owner List of Heat Pumps Incentives List of Ground Source Heat Pumps Incentives Policy Makers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling Various ways to configure a geothermal heat pump system. (Source: The Geo-Heat Center's Survival Kit for the Prospective Geothemral Heat Pump

368

Ground Source Heat Pumps | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ground Source Heat Pumps Ground Source Heat Pumps Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Ground Source Heat Pumps Geothermal Technologies There are many types of Geothermal Technologies that take advantage of the earth's heat: Hydrothermal Systems Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Sedimentary Geothermal Systems Co-Produced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Direct Use Ground Source Heat Pumps GSHP Links Related documents and websites An Information Survival Kit for the Prospective Geothemral Heat Pump Owner List of Heat Pumps Incentives List of Ground Source Heat Pumps Incentives Policy Makers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling Various ways to configure a geothermal heat pump system. (Source: The Geo-Heat Center's Survival Kit for the Prospective Geothemral Heat Pump

369

Microsoft Word - Poster Abstract_2010_NETL_ liquid metal anode.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

coal solid oxide fuel cells with liquid tin anodes coal solid oxide fuel cells with liquid tin anodes U.S. Dept of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507 Harry Abernathy, Kirk Gerdes, Randy Gemmen Phone: (304)285-4342, Kirk.Gerdes@NETL.DOE.GOV Fuel cells are one of the most efficient methods for converting the chemical energy in coal directly to electrical energy, minimizing the amount of carbon dioxide and other pollutants produced per kilowatt of electricity even before scrubbing and carbon sequestration. To use coal as a fuel source, even the most tolerant solid ceramic fuel cell systems require prior gasification of the coal into syngas, which significantly adds to total system cost. By replacing the ceramic fuel electrode of a traditional high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a liquid metal

370

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work done during the entire project period, between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2003, which includes a six-month no-cost extension. During the project, eight research papers have, either been, published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. In addition, several presentations have been made in technical meetings and workshops. The project also has provided support for four graduate students working towards advanced degrees. The principal technical objective of the project was to analyze the role of electrode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cell performance. Prior theoretical work conducted in our laboratory demonstrated that the particle size of composite electrodes has a profound effect on cell performance; the finer the particle size, the lower the activation polarization, the better the performance. The composite cathodes examined consisted of electronically conducting perovskites such as Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) or Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC), which is also a mixed conductor, as the electrocatalyst, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or rare earth oxide doped CeO{sub 2} as the ionic conductor. The composite anodes examined were mixtures of Ni and YSZ. A procedure was developed for the synthesis of nanosize YSZ by molecular decomposition, in which unwanted species were removed by leaching, leaving behind nanosize YSZ. Anode-supported cells were made using the as-synthesized powders, or using commercially acquired powders. The electrolyte was usually a thin ({approx}10 microns), dense layer of YSZ, supported on a thick ({approx}1 mm), porous Ni + YSZ anode. The cathode was a porous mixture of electrocatalyst and an ionic conductor. Most of the cell testing was done at 800 C with hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities as high as 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} were demonstrated. Polarization behavior of the cells was theoretically analyzed. A limited amount of cell testing was done using liquid hydrocarbon fuels where reforming was achieved internally. Significant polarization losses also occur at the anode, especially at high fuel utilizations. An analysis of polarization losses requires that various contributions are isolated, and their dependence on pertinent parameters is quantitatively described. An investigation of fuel composition on gas transport through porous anodes was investigated and the role of fuel diluents was explored. This work showed that the molecular weight of the diluent has a significant effect on anode concentration polarization. This further showed that the presence of some molecular hydrogen is necessary to minimize polarization losses. Theoretical analysis has shown that the electrode microstructure has a profound effect on cell performance. In a series of experiments, cathode microstructural parameters were varied, without altering other parameters. Cathode microstructural parameters, especially three phase boundary (TPB) length, were estimated using techniques in quantitative stereology. Cell performance was quantitatively correlated with the relevant microstructural parameters, and charge transfer resistivity was explicitly evaluated. This is the first time that a fundamental parameter, which governs the activation polarization, has been quantitatively determined. An important parameter, which governs the cathodic activation polarization, and thus cell performance, is the ionic conductivity of the composite cathode. The traditional composite cathode is a mixture of LSM and YSZ. It is well known that Sr and Mg-doped LaGaO{sub 3} (LSGM), exhibits higher oxygen ion conductivity compared to YSZ. Cells were fabricated with composite cathodes comprising a mixture of LSM and LSGM. Studies demonstrated that LSGM-based composite cathodes exhibit excellent behavior. Studies have shown that Ni + YSZ is an excellent anode. In fact, in most cells, the principal polarization losses, at least at low fuel utilizations, are associated with the cathode. Theoretical analysis conducted in our group has also shown that anode-supported cells exhibi

Professor Anil V. Virkar

2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

371

NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDES FOR ANODES OF LI-ION RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The aligned nanorods of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and nanoporous hollow spheres (NHS) of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated as the anodes for Li-ion rechargeable batteries. The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods demonstrated 1433 mAh/g reversible capacity. The NHS of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} delivered 400 mAh/g and 250 mAh/g capacities respectively in multiple galvonastatic discharge-charge cycles. It was found that high capacity of NHS of metal oxides is sustainable attributed to their unique structure that maintains material integrity during cycling. The nanostructured metal oxides exhibit great potential as the new anode materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries with high energy density, low cost and inherent safety.

Au, M.

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

372

Cu2Sb thin films as anode for Na-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect

Cu2Sb thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering are evaluated as an anode material for Na-ion batteries. The starting material is composed of nanocrystallites with the desired tetragonal P4/nmm structure. The study of the reaction mechanism reveals the formation of an amorphous/nanocrystalline phase of composition close to Na3Sb as the final reaction product. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) material is mostly composed of carbonates (Na2CO3, NaCO3R). The Cu2Sb anode possesses moderate capacity retention with a reversible storage capacity (250 mAh/g) close to the theoretical value (323 mAh/g), an average reaction potential of around 0.55 V vs. Na/Na+, and a high rate performance (10 C-rate).

Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Allcorn, Eric [University of Texas, Austin; Manthiram, Arumugam [University of Texas, Austin; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Li4Ti5O12 as an anode material for Li ion batteries in situ XRD and XPS studies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This thesis examines parts of the kinetics and performance in Li-battery cells using lithium titanate anodes and lithium manganese oxide cathodes. Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12)… (more)

Nordh, Tim

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Copper-tin anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries : an example of the matrix effect in an intermetallic system.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lithium batteries are typically constructed from a lithium cobalt oxide cathode and a carbon anode. We have investigated intermetallic anode materials based on tin, which can provide a high capacity at a slightly higher voltage (400 mV) than metallic lithium and thus reduce the safety concerns associated with the carbon anode. In particular, we have investigated the copper-tin system at around the composition Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and have determined the effect on cycling and capacity of electrodes with various ratios of copper to tin. Anode compositions that are slightly copper rich (Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 4}) were found to exhibit greater utilization of the tin than those with the stoichiometric bronze ratio (Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}) or those having a slight excess of tin (Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 6}). The differences in electrochemical behavior are explained in terms of an inert matrix model.

Kepler, K. D.

1998-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

375

Ni coarsening in the three-phase solid oxide fuel cell anode - a phase-field simulation study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ni coarsening in Ni-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid oxide fuel cell anodes is considered a major reason for anode degradation. We present a predictive, quantative modeling framework based on the phase-field approach to systematically examine coarsening kinetics in such anodes. The initial structures for simulations are experimentally acquired functional layers of anodes. Sample size effects and error analysis of contact angles are examined. Three phase boundary (TPB) lengths and Ni surface areas are quantatively identified on the basis of the active, dead-end, and isolated phase clusters throughout coarsening. Tortuosity evolution of the pores is also investigated. We find that phase clusters with larger characteristic length evolve slower than those with smaller length scales. As a result, coarsening has small positive effects on transport, and impacts less on the active Ni surface area than the total counter part. TPBs, however, are found to be sensitive to local morphological features and are only i...

Chen, Hsun-Yi; Cronin, J Scott; Wilson, James R; Barnett, Scott A; Thornton, Katsuyo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Hollow Core-Shell Structured Porous Si-C Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Battery Anodes  

SciTech Connect

Hollow core-shell structured porous Si-C nanocomposites with void space up to tens of nanometers are designed to accommodate the volume expansion during lithiation for high-performance Li-ion battery anodes. An initial capacity of {approx}760 mAh/g after formation cycles (based on the entire electrode weight) with {approx}86% capacity retention over 100 cycles is achieved at a current density of 1 A/g. Good rate performance is also demonstrated.

Li, Xiaolin; Meduri, Praveen; Chen, Xilin; Qi, Wen N.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Xu, Wu; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Wei; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

377

Synthesis, Characterization and Testing of Novel Anode and Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this program we have synthesized and characterized several novel cathode and anode materials for application in Li-ion batteries. Novel synthesis routes like chemical doping, electroless deposition and sol-gel method have been used and techniques like impedance, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling have been used to characterize these materials. Mathematical models have also been developed to fit the experimental result, thus helping in understanding the mechanisms of these materials.

White, Ralph E.; Popov, Branko N.

2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

378

Carbon-coated silicon nanowire array films for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon-coated silicon nanowire array films prepared by metal catalytic etching of silicon wafers and pyrolyzing of carbon aerogel were used for lithium-ion battery anodes. The films exhibited an excellent first discharge capacity of 3344 ? mAh ? g ? 1 with a Coulombic efficiency of 84% at a rate of 150 ? mA ? g ? 1 between 2 and 0.02 V and a significantly enhanced cycling performance

Rui Huang; Xing Fan; Wanci Shen; Jing Zhu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge films for high capacity Li ion battery anodes  

SciTech Connect

Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge electrodes fabricated directly on Ni current collector substrates were found to exhibit excellent specific capacities during electrochemical cycling in half-cell configuration with Li metal for a wide range of cycling rates. Structural characterization revealed that the nanostructured electrodes lose porosity during cycling but maintain excellent electrical contact with the metallic current collector substrate. These results suggest that nanostructured Ge electrodes have great promise for use as high performance Li ion battery anodes.

Rudawski, N. G.; Darby, B. L.; Yates, B. R.; Jones, K. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6400 (United States); Elliman, R. G. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); Volinsky, A. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa Florida 33620 (United States)

2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

380

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with Ni + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode, YSZ-samaria-doped ceria (SDC) bi-layer electrolyte and Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC) + SDC cathode were fabricated. Fuel used consisted of H{sub 2} diluted with He, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O or CO{sub 2}, mixtures of H{sub 2} and CO, and mixtures of CO and CO{sub 2}. Cell performance was measured at 800 C with above-mentioned fuel gas mixtures and air as oxidant. For a given concentration of the diluent, the cell performance was higher with He as the diluent than with N{sub 2} as the diluent. Mass transport through porous Ni-YSZ anode for H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, CO-CO{sub 2} binary systems and H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-diluent gas ternary systems was analyzed using multicomponent gas diffusion theory. At high concentrations of the diluent, the maximum achievable current density was limited by the anodic concentration polarization. From this measured limiting current density, the corresponding effective gas diffusivity was estimated. Highest effective diffusivity was estimated for fuel gas mixtures containing H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-He mixtures ({approx}0.34 cm{sup 2}/s), and the lowest for CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures ({approx}0.07 cm{sup 2}/s). The lowest performance was observed with CO-CO{sub 2} mixture as a fuel, which in part was attributed to the lowest effective diffusivity of the fuels tested.

Anil V. Virkar

2001-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Ground Gravity Survey At Lake City Hot Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al.,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lake City Hot Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al., Lake City Hot Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Lake City Hot Springs Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Exploration Activity Details Location Lake City Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Ground Gravity Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The Lake City site, which is located in far northeastern California, consists of a previously identified geothermal site that has been explored with both geophysics and drilling (Hedel, 1981), but has not been characterized adequately to allow accurate siting or drilling of production wells. Some deep wells, several seismic lines, limited gravity surveys, and geochemical and geological studies have suggested that the geothermal

382

Ground Gravity Survey At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Exploration Activity Details Location Salt Wells Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Ground Gravity Survey Activity Date 2008 - 2008 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Vulcan increased exploration efforts in the summer and fall of 2008, during which time the company drilled two temperature gradient holes (86-15 O on Pad 1 and 17-16 O on Pad 3); conducted seismic, gravity and magnetotelluric surveys; and drilled deep exploration wells at Pads 6 and 8 and binary wells at Pads 1, 2, 4, and 7. Notes Data from these wells is proprietary, and so were unavailable for inclusion

383

Effect of Natural Gas Fuel Addition on the Oxidation of Fuel Cell Anode Gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The anode exhaust gas from a fuel cell commonly has a fuel energy density between 15 and 25% that of the fuel supply, due to the incomplete oxidation of the input fuel. This exhaust gas is subsequently oxidized (catalytically or non-catalytically), and the resultant thermal energy is often used elsewhere in the fuel cell process. Alternatively, additional fuel can be added to this stream to enhance the oxidation of the stream, for improved thermal control of the power plant, or to adjust the temperature of the exhaust gas as may be required in other specialty co-generation applications. Regardless of the application, the cost of a fuel cell system can be reduced if the exhaust gas oxidation can be accomplished through direct gas phase oxidation, rather than the usual catalytic oxidation approach. Before gas phase oxidation can be relied upon however, combustor design requirements need to be understood. The work reported here examines the issue of fuel addition, primarily as related to molten-carbonate fuel cell technology. It is shown experimentally that without proper combustor design, the addition of natural gas can readily quench the anode gas oxidation. The Chemkin software routines were used to resolve the mechanisms controlling the chemical quenching. It is found that addition of natural gas to the anode exhaust increases the amount of CH3 radicals, which reduces the concentration of H and O radicals and results in decreased rates of overall fuel oxidation.

Randall S. Gemmen; Edward H. Robey, Jr.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Composite solid oxide fuel cell anode based on ceria and strontium titanate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An anode and method of making the same wherein the anode consists of two separate phases, one consisting of a doped strontium titanate phase and one consisting of a doped cerium oxide phase. The strontium titanate phase consists of Sr.sub.1-xM.sub.xTiO.sub.3-.delta., where M is either yttrium (Y), scandium (Sc), or lanthanum (La), where "x" may vary typically from about 0.01 to about 0.5, and where .delta. is indicative of some degree of oxygen non-stoichiometry. A small quantity of cerium may also substitute for titanium in the strontium titanate lattice. The cerium oxide consists of N.sub.yCe.sub.1-yO.sub.2-.delta., where N is either niobium (Nb), vanadium (V), antimony (Sb) or tantalum (Ta) and where "y" may vary typically from about 0.001 to about 0.1 and wherein the ratio of Ti in said first phase to the sum of Ce and N in the second phase is between about 0.2 to about 0.75. Small quantities of strontium, yttrium, and/or lanthanum may additionally substitute into the cerium oxide lattice. The combination of these two phases results in better performance than either phase used separately as an anode for solid oxide fuel cell or other electrochemical device.

Marina, Olga A. (Richland, WA); Pederson, Larry R. (Richland, WA)

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

385

Basic properties of a liquidt in anode solid oxide fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An unconventional high temperature fuel cell system, the liquidt in anode solid oxide fuel cell(LTA-SOFC), is discussed. A thermodynamic analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell with a liquid metal anode is developed. Pertinent thermo chemical and thermo physical properties of liquid tin in particular are detailed. An experimental setup for analysis of LTA-SOFC anode kinetics is described, and data for a planar cell under hydrogen indicated an effective oxygen diffusion coefficient of 5.3×10?5 cm2 s?1 at 800 ?C and 8.9×10?5 cm2 s?1 at 900 ?C. This value is similar to previously reported literature values for liquid tin. The oxygen conductivity through the tin, calculated from measured diffusion coefficients and theoretical oxygen solubility limits, is found to be on the same order of thatofyttria-stabilizedzirconia(YSZ), a traditional SOFC electrolyte material. As such,the ohmicloss due to oxygen transport through the tin layer must be considered in practical system cell design since the tin layer will usually be at least as thick as the electrolyte.

Harry Abernathy; RandallGemmen; KirkGerdes; Mark Koslowske; ThomasTao

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

386

NETL: Releases & Briefs - Deep Ocean in the Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deep Ocean in the Lab Deep Ocean in the Lab Researchers at DOEs National Energy Technology Laboratory have designed and constructed a high-pressure water tunnel that simulates...

387

The geomechanics of CO2 storage in deep sedimentary formations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unminable coalformations, including oil and gas reservoirs and deep salineGCS consist mainly of oil and gas reservoirs and deep saline

Rutqvist, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

PHOTOMULTIPLIER CHARACTERISTICS CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEEP UNDERWATER MUON AND NEUTRINO DETECTION SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Presented at the Deep Underwater Huon and Neutrino DetectionCONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEEP UNDERWATER HUON AND NEUTRINOPresented at the Deep Underwater Huon and Neutrino Detection

Leskovar, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Deep NLD Plasma Etching of Fused Silica and Borosilicate Glass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 92697 Email: mahamed@uci.edu Abstract-- In this paper, we report development of deep plasma etching

Tang, William C

390

Definition: Ground Electromagnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Ground electromagnetic techniques measure electromagnetic fields in order to determine subsurface electrical resistivity with the earth surface as the observation point.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition The electromagnetic force is one of the four fundamental interactions in nature, the other three being the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and gravitation. This force is described by electromagnetic fields, and has innumerable physical instances including the interaction of electrically charged particles and the interaction of uncharged magnetic force fields with electrical conductors. The word

391

Ground Electromagnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Geophysical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Electrical Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Electromagnetic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock composition, mineral and clay content Stratigraphic/Structural: Detection of permeable pathways, fracture zones, faults Hydrological: Resistivity influenced by porosity, grain size distribution, permeability, fluid saturation, fluid type and phase state of the pore water Thermal: Resistivity influenced by temperature Dictionary.png

392

Deep Frying: Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical ApplicationsChapter 20 Sensory Evaluation of Frying Fat and Deep-Fried Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep Frying: Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical Applications Chapter 20 Sensory Evaluation of Frying Fat and Deep-Fried Products Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Bioch

393

Deep Frying: Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical ApplicationsChapter 4 Volatile Odor and Flavor Components Formed in Deep Frying  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep Frying: Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical Applications Chapter 4 Volatile Odor and Flavor Components Formed in Deep Frying Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Bioch

394

SOAJ Search : Main View : Deep Federated Search  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

SOAJ Search SOAJ Search Search Powered By Deep Web Technologies New Search Preferences Powered by Deep Web Technologies HOME ABOUT ADVANCED SEARCH CONTACT US HELP Science Open Access Journals (SOAJ) Science Open Access Journals Main View This view is used for searching all possible sources. Additional Information Keyword: Title: Additional Information Author: Fields to Match: All Any Field(s) Additional Information Date Range: Beginning Date Range Pick Year 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 toEnding Date Range Pick Year 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 DWT Logo Search Clear All Help Simple Search Select All

395

Grounded Renewable Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Grounded Renewable Energy Grounded Renewable Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name Grounded Renewable Energy Place Carbondale, Colorado Zip 81623 Sector Renewable Energy, Solar Product Grounded Renewable Energy designs turn-key solar systems for homes and businesses in Colorado. Coordinates 41.573959°, -75.501361° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.573959,"lon":-75.501361,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

396

Earthquake ground motion modeling on parallel computers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe the design and discuss the performance of a parallel elastic wave propagation simulator that is being used to model and study earthquake-induced ground motion in large sedimentary basins. The components of the system include mesh generators, ...

Hesheng Bao; Jacobo Bielak; Omar Ghattas; Loukas F. Kallivokas; David R. O'Hallaron; Jonathan R. Shewchuk; Jifeng Xu

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis  

SciTech Connect

This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

Saito, G.H.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Embodied object schemas for grounding language use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents the Object Schema Model (OSM) for grounded language interaction. Dynamic representations of objects are used as the central point of coordination between actions, sensations, planning, and language ...

Hsiao, Kai-yuh, 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Grounding linguistic analysis in control applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis addresses the problem of grounding linguistic analysis in control applications, such as automated maintenance of computers and game playing. We assume access to natural language documents that describe the ...

Branavan, Satchuthananthavale Rasiah Kuhan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Ground Clutter Canceling with a Regression Filter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper explores ground clutter filtering with a class of cancelers that use regression. Regression filters perform this task in a simple manner, resulting in similar or better performance than the fifth-order elliptic filter implemented in ...

Sebastián M. Torres; Dusan S. Zrnic

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Commonality of ground systems in launch operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NASA is examining the utility of requiring a certain degree of commonality in both flight and ground systems in the Constellation Program. While the benefits of commonality seem obvious in terms of minimizing upfront ...

Quinn, Shawn M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Grounding and Lightning Protection of Capacitor Controllers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the third report in EPRI's capacitor reliability study. It deals with capacitor controller grounding and lightning protection. Prior reports dealt with nuisance fuse operations, operating and construction practices, and use of distribution line capacitors for transmission voltage support. Simulations were performed to investigate various controller mounting locations and grounding configurations and their impact on the magnitude of surges reaching the controller. Once these aspects of capacitor c...

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

403

Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar Phase II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI project "Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar Phase II," also called the "GPiR Project," started in August 1998 at Schlumberger-Doll Research, a division of Schlumberger Technology Corporation. Its goal was to determine if modern ground-penetrating radar (GPR) could make three-dimensional (3D) images of buried utility lines accurate and detailed enough to help utility companies better manage their underground infrastructure. Work began with a comparison of commercial and prototype GPR systems in the lab...

2001-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

404

Kenya-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Kenya-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Kenya-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Name Kenya-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Agency/Company /Organization Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International Partner European Union (EU), the Netherlands Sector Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Economic Development, Grid Assessment and Integration, Industry, People and Policy Topics Adaptation, Background analysis, Finance, Implementation, Low emission development planning, Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment Website http://www.gvepinternational.o Program Start 2008 Program End 2013 Country Kenya Eastern Africa References Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP)[1]

405

Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Enterprises Project (DEEP) Enterprises Project (DEEP) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Name Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Agency/Company /Organization Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International Partner European Union (EU), the Netherlands Sector Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Economic Development, Grid Assessment and Integration, Industry, People and Policy Topics Adaptation, Background analysis, Finance, Implementation, Low emission development planning, Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment Website http://www.gvepinternational.o Program Start 2008 Program End 2013 Country Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda Eastern Africa, Eastern Africa, Eastern Africa References Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP)[1]

406

Tanzania-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tanzania-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Tanzania-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Tanzania-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Name Tanzania-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Agency/Company /Organization Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International Partner European Union (EU), the Netherlands Sector Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Economic Development, Grid Assessment and Integration, Industry, People and Policy Topics Adaptation, Background analysis, Finance, Implementation, Low emission development planning, Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment Website http://www.gvepinternational.o Program Start 2008 Program End 2013 Country Tanzania Eastern Africa References Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP)[1]

407

Uganda-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Uganda-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Uganda-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Uganda-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Name Uganda-Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) Agency/Company /Organization Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International Partner European Union (EU), the Netherlands Sector Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Economic Development, Grid Assessment and Integration, Industry, People and Policy Topics Adaptation, Background analysis, Finance, Implementation, Low emission development planning, Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment Website http://www.gvepinternational.o Program Start 2008 Program End 2013 Country Uganda Eastern Africa References Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP)[1]

408

Ground water protection management program plan  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the establishment of a ground water protection management program to ensure compliance with DOE requirements and applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office was prepared this Ground Water Protection Management Program Plan (ground water protection plan) whose scope and detail reflect the program`s significance and address the seven activities required in DOE Order 5400.1, Chapter III, for special program planning. This ground water protection plan highlights the methods designed to preserve, protect, and monitor ground water resources at UMTRA Project processing and disposal sites. The plan includes an overview of the remedial action status at the 24 designated processing sites and identifies technical guidance documents and site-specific documents for the UMTRA Project ground water protection management program. In addition, the plan addresses the general information required to develop a water resources protection strategy at the permanent disposal sites. Finally, the plan describes ongoing activities that are in various stages of development at UMTRA Project sites.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Grounding Analysis in Heterogeneous Soil Models: Application to Underground Substations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Grounding Analysis in Heterogeneous Soil Models: Application to Underground Substations Ignasi in forthcoming publications. Keywords-grounding analysis; earthing analysis, underground substations; I to a river (at substations next to hydroelectric dams), or the grounding system of a buried electrical

Colominas, Ignasi

410

Top-emission Si-based phosphor organic light emitting diode with Au doped ultrathin n-Si film anode and bottom Al mirror  

SciTech Connect

We report a highly efficient top-emission Si-based phosphor organic light emitting diode (PhOLED) with an ultrathin polycrystalline n-Si:Au film anode and a bottom Al mirror. This anode is formed by magnetron sputtering followed by Ni induced crystallization and then Au diffusion. By optimizing the thickness of the n-Si:Au film anode, the Au diffusion temperature, and the other parameters of the PhOLED, the highest current and power efficiencies of the n-Si:Au film anode PhOLED reached 85{+-}9 cd/A and 80{+-}8 lm/W, respectively, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 21{+-}2% and a power conversion efficiency of 15{+-}2%, respectively, which are about 60% and 110% higher than those of the indium tin oxide anode counterpart and 70% and 50% higher than those of the bulk n{sup +}-Si:Au anode counterpart, respectively.

Li, Y. Z.; Xu, W. J.; Ran, G. Z. [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Qin, G. G. [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Key Lab of Semiconductor Materials, CAS, Beijing 100083 (China)

2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

411

Doped Yttrium Chromite-Ceria Composite as a Redox-Stable and Sulfur-Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Ca- and Co-doped yttrium chromite (YCCC) - samaria-doped ceria (SDC) composite was studied in relation to a potential use as a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material. Tests performed using the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte-supported cells revealed that the electrocatalytic activity of the YCCC-SDC anode towards hydrogen oxidation at 800 C was comparable to that of the Ni-YSZ anode. In addition, the YCCC-SDC anode exhibited superior sulfur tolerant characteristics showing less than 10% increase in a polarization resistance, fully reversible, upon exposure to 20 ppm H2S at 800 C. No performance degradation was observed during multiple reduction-oxidation (redox) cycles when the anode was intentionally exposed to the air environment followed by the reduction in hydrogen. The redox tolerance of the YCCC-SDC anode was attributed to the dimensional and chemical stability of the YCCC exhibiting minimal isothermal chemical expansion upon redox cycling.

Yoon, Kyung J.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

412

Ground-coupled heat pump systems: a pumping analysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems use the ground as a heat source or sink that absorbs heat from or rejects heat to the soil, respectively;… (more)

Mays, Cristin Jean

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Montana Ground Water Assessment Act (Montana) | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ground Water Assessment Act (Montana) Montana Ground Water Assessment Act (Montana) Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State...

414

Ground Gravity Survey At Marysville Mt Area (Blackwell) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ground Gravity Survey At Marysville Mt Area (Blackwell) Exploration Activity Details Location Marysville Mt Area Exploration Technique Ground Gravity Survey Activity Date...

415

Designated Ground Water Basin Map | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Designated Ground Water Basin Map Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Reference Material: Designated Ground Water Basin Map Details Activities (0) Areas...

416

Deputy Secretary Poneman Attends Ground Breaking at Tennessee...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Home Deputy Secretary Poneman Attends Ground Breaking at Tennessee Advanced Vehicle Battery Plant Deputy Secretary Poneman Attends Ground Breaking at Tennessee Advanced Vehicle...

417

Department of Veterans Affairs, FONSI - Ground mounted solar...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ground mounted solar photovoltaic power at San Joaquin National Cemetery Department of Veterans Affairs, FONSI - Ground mounted solar photovoltaic power at San Joaquin National...

418

Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program:Ground Source...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program:Ground Source Heat Pumps Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program:Ground Source Heat Pumps A detailled description of the...

419

EA-1406: Ground Water Compliance at the New Rifle, Colorado,...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6: Ground Water Compliance at the New Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site, Rifle, Colorado EA-1406: Ground Water Compliance at the New Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site, Rifle,...

420

Ground Gravity Survey At Mcgee Mountain Area (DOE GTP) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ground Gravity Survey At Mcgee Mountain Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Mcgee Mountain...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Water Quality Surface and Ground | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Quality Surface and Ground Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWaterQualitySurfaceandGround&oldid612197...

422

GROUND PLANE INSULATION FAILURE IN THE FIRST TPC SUPERCONDUCTING COIL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is WIUUTEO GROUND PLANE INSULATION FAILURE IN THE FIRST TPCOn August 27, 1980, an insulation failure occurred dt-ringby a failure uf ground plane insulation. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The

Green, M.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Vertical Distribution of Contamination in Ground Water at the...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vertical Distribution of Contamination in Ground Water at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site Vertical Distribution of Contamination in Ground Water at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site...

424

Alba field - middle Eocene deep-water channel in U. K. North Sea  

SciTech Connect

The Alba field is located in the Witch Ground graben between the Fladen Ground spur to the north and the Renee Ridge to the south, entirely in UKCS Block 16/26. In 1985, oil was discovered in the middle Eocene sands of the Horda formation at a depth of 6100 ft subsea. Twelve additional wells, including sidetracks, have been drilled appraise the discovery. This drilling indicates the Alba field is a stratigraphic trap covering an area of 3600 ac. The Alba sands represent a brief interruption in the hemipelagic sedimentation that dominated this part of the Witch Ground graben during the middle Eocene. Sediment was supplied intermittently from a shelf area to the northwest into a deep-water environment. Well correlations, seismic facies analysis, and core analysis indicate that these sands were deposited as part of a constructional channel/levee complex within a mud-rich, shelf-sourced submarine fan system. The cap and the updip and lateral seals to the reservoir are shale. The Alba reservoir is predominantly a homogeneous, fine-grained, unconsolidated sand. The average reservoir porosity is 33% and the average permeability is 2.8 darcys. Oil in place is estimated to be 1.1 billion bbl of 20/degrees/ API crude.

Winter, S.R.; Bretthauer, H.H.; Mattingly, G.A.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Improved anode catalysts for coal gas-fueled phosphoric acid fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of adapting phosphoric acid fuel cells to operate on coal gas fuels containing significant levels of contaminants such as CO, H{sub 2}S and COS has been investigated. The overall goal was the development of low-cost, carbon-supported anode fuel cell catalysts that can efficiently operate with a fossil fuel-derived hydrogen gas feed contaminated with carbon monoxide and other impurities. This development would reduce the cost of gas cleanup necessary in a coal gas-fueled PAFC power plant, thereby reducing the final power cost of the electricity produced. The problem to date has been that the contaminant gases typically adsorb on catalytic sites and reduce the activity for hydrogen oxidation. An advanced approach investigated was to modify these alloy catalyst systems to operate efficiently on coal gas containing higher levels of contaminants by increasing the alloy catalyst impurity tolerance and ability to extract energy from the CO present through (1) generation of additional hydrogen by promoting the CO/H{sub 2} water shift reaction or (2) direct oxidation of CO to CO{sub 2} with the same result. For operation on anode gases containing high levels of CO, a Pt-Ti-Zn and Pt-Ti-Ni anode catalyst showed better performance over a Pt baseline or G87A-17-2 catalyst. The ultimate aim of this effort was to allow PAFC-based power plants to operate on coal gas fuels containing increased contaminant concentrations, thereby decreasing the need for and cost of rigorous coal gas cleanup procedures. 4 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

Kackley, N.D.; McCatty, S.A.; Kosek, J.A.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Surface treated natural graphite as anode material for high-power Li-ion battery applications.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High power application of Li-ion battery in hybrid electrical vehicles requires low cost and safe cell materials. Among the various carbon anode materials used in lithium ion batteries, natural graphite shows the most promise with advantages in performance and cost. However, natural graphite is not compatible with propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolytes, which have a lower melting point and improved safety characteristics. The problem with it is that the molecules of propylene carbonate intercalate with Li+ into graphite, and that frequently leads to the exfoliation of the graphite matrix.

Liu, J.; Vissers, D. R.; Amine, K.; Barsukov, I. V.; Henry, F.; Doniger, J.; Chemical Engineering; Superior Graphite Co.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Real Space Mapping of Li-Ion Transport in Amorphous Si Anodes with Nanometer Resolution  

SciTech Connect

The electrical bias driven Li-ion motion in silicon anode materials in thin film battery heterostructures is investigated using electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM), which is a newly developed scanning probe microscopy based characterization method. ESM utilizes the intrinsic link between bias-controlled Li-ion concentration and molar volume of electrode materials, providing the capability for studies on the sub-20 nm scale, and allows the relationship between Li-ion flow and microstructure to be established. The evolution of Li-ion transport during the battery charging is directly observed.

Balke, Nina [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kim, Yoongu [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Adamczyk, Leslie A [ORNL; Tselev, Alexander [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Photoactivation of the processes of formation of nanostructures by local anodic oxidation of a titanium film  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental results on the conditions of activation of probe nanolithography of a thin titanium film by means of local anodic oxidation are reported. It is established that ultraviolet stimulation reduces the geometric dimensions of nanometric oxide structures. The stimulation is accompanied by an increase in the amplitude and duration of the threshold voltage pulse, correspondingly, from 6 to 7 V and from 50 to 100 ms at the relative humidity 50%. The experimental data on the effect of the cantilever coating material and substrate temperature on the geometric dimensions of nanometric oxide structures are reported.

Ageev, O. A.; Alyab'eva, N. I.; Konoplev, B. G., E-mail: kbg@tsure.ru; Polyakov, V. V.; Smirnov, V. A. [Southern Federal University, Taganrog Institute of Technology (Russian Federation)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

"Buried-Anode" Technology Leads to Advanced Lithium Batteries (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A technology developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has sparked a start-up company that has attracted funding from the Advanced Projects Research Agency-Energy (ARPA-E). Planar Energy, Inc. has licensed NREL's "buried-anode" technology and put it to work in solid-state lithium batteries. The company claims its large-format batteries can achieve triple the performance of today's lithium-ion batteries at half the cost, and if so, they could provide a significant boost to the emerging market for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles.

Not Available

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period. The Development Plan (DP) for this analysis is given in CRWMS M&O (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor) (1999a). The candidate materials for ground support are steel (carbon steel, ductile cast iron, galvanized steel, and stainless steel, etc.) and cement. Steel will mainly be used for steel sets, lagging, channels, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement usage is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. The candidate materials for the invert structure are steel and crushed rock ballast. The materials shall be evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment under a specific thermal loading condition based on the proposed License Application Design Selection (LADS) design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground control materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning behavior of candidate ground control materials during the preclosure period. The major criteria to be considered for steel are mechanical and thermal properties, and durability, of which corrosion is the most important concern. (3) Evaluate the available results and develop recommendations for material(s) to be used.

D. Tang

2000-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

431

Deep Read: A Reading Comprehension System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes initial work on Deep Read, an automated reading comprehension system that accepts arbitrary text input (a story) and answers questions about it. We have acquired a corpus of 60 development and 60 test stories of 3 rd to 6 th grade material; each story is followed by short-answer questions (an answer key was also provided). We used these to construct and evaluate a baseline system that uses pattern matching (bag-of-words) techniques augmented with additional automated linguistic processing (stemming, name identification, semantic class identification, and pronoun resolution). This simple system retrieves the sentence containing the answer 30--40% of the time.

Lynette Hirschman Marc; Marc Light; Eric Breck; John D. Burger

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Deep Read: A reading comprehension system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes initial work on Deep Read, an automated reading comprehension system that accepts arbitrary text input (a story) and answers questions about it. We have acquired a corpus of 60 development and 60 test stories of 3 rd to 6 th grade material; each story is followed by short-answer questions (an answer key was also provided). We used these to construct and evaluate a baseline system that uses pattern matching (bag-of-words) techniques augmented with additional automated linguistic processing (stemming, name identification, semantic class identification, and pronoun resolution). This simple system retrieves the sentence containing the answer 30–40 % of the time. 1

Lynette Hirschman; Marc Light; Eric Breck; John D. Burger

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Coiled tubing facilitates deep underbalanced workover  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recent workover shows the technical capability and cost effectiveness of coiled tubing for cleaning out scale in a 22,611-ft, low pressure, high-temperature gas well. The well, operated by Chevron USA Production Co., is in the Fort Stockton Gas Unit 5-1 Gomez (Ellenburger) field, in West Texas. The development of reliable 100,000-psi minimal yield strength coiled tubing was a major factor that allowed this work to succeed. The methods demonstrated by this workover are becoming a standard for deep well cleanouts in the Gomez (Ellenburger) field. The paper describes coiled tubing advantages, well history, and implementation.

Adams, L.S. [Chevron USA Production Co., Midland, TX (United States); Overstreet, C.C. [CUDD Pressure Control Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

434

Deep inelastic scattering and diffraction at HERA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent results on deep inelastic scattering and diffraction at HERA obtained by the H1 and ZEUS experiments are presented. The proton structure function F 2 has been measured with the 1994 data in a new kinematic region of Q 2?2 GeV2 and x?4.5×10?5. The rise in F 2 with decreasing x persists. Results on the determination of the gluon momentum density of the proton are also presented. The diffractive structure function has been measured using large rapidity gap events. The results are interpreted in terms of the pomeron structure.

Johnny S. T. Ng; on behalf of the H1 and ZEUS collaborations

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Anodic Treatments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...pickled after being sand blasted. (d) Water from steam condensate or water treated by ion exchange should

436

Anode Baking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 28, 2011 ... Gas consumption of less 1.9 GJ/t for a baking level (Lc) of greater than 33 angstrom has been maintained. Operation has been demonstrated ...

437

Appendix B Ground Water Management Policy  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Ground Water Management Policy Ground Water Management Policy for the Monticello Mill Tailings Site and Adjacent Areas This page intentionally left blank Docun~ent Number Q0029500 Appendix B State of Utah DEPARTblENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES DIVISION OF WATER RIGHTS Ground-Water Management Policy for the Mot~ticello Mill Tailings Site and Adjacent Areas The Monticello Mill Tailings Site is on the southeast portion of the tovm of Monticello in Sectton 36, T33S, K23E and Section 31, i33S. R24E, SLB&M. The mill site was used from 1942 to 1960 in the processing of uranium and vanadium. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently cleaning up the site. The site is in the small canyon that forms the drainage for South Creek. The general direction of water flow, of both surface streams and the shallow

438

Definition: Ground Gravity Survey | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Ground Gravity Survey Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Ground Gravity Survey The ground gravitational method is the study of the distribution of mass in the subsurface with the observation point at the earth's surface.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A gravity anomaly is the difference between the observed acceleration of a planet's gravity and a value predicted from a model. A location with a positive anomaly exhibits more gravity than predicted, while a negative anomaly exhibits a lower value than predicted. References ↑ http://www.amazon.com/Geophysical-Field-Theory-Three-Volume-Gravitational/dp/0124020410 Ret Like Like You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like.

439

GroundedPower Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GroundedPower Inc GroundedPower Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name GroundedPower Inc Place Gloucester, Massachusetts Zip 1930 Product Massachusetts-based company developing home and building energy management systems via IP-based software. Coordinates 37.413962°, -76.526305° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.413962,"lon":-76.526305,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

440

Ground Gravity Survey | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ground Gravity Survey Ground Gravity Survey Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Ground Gravity Survey Details Activities (48) Areas (34) Regions (2) NEPA(2) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Geophysical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Gravity Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Gravity Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Distribution of density in the subsurface enables inference of rock type. Stratigraphic/Structural: Delineation of steeply dipping formations, geological discontinuities and faults, intrusions and large-scale deposition of silicates due to hydrothermal activity. Hydrological: Density of sedimentary rocks are strongly influenced by fluid contained within pore space. Dry bulk density refers to the rock with no moisture, while the wet bulk density accounts for water saturation; fluid content may alter density by up to 30%.(Sharma, 1997)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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441

Water budget for SRP burial ground area  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide migration from the SRP burial ground for solid low-level waste has been studied extensively. Most of the buried radionuclides are fixed on the soil and show negligible movement. The major exception is tritium, which when leached from the waste by percolating rainfall, forms tritiated water and moves with the groundwater. The presence of tritium has been useful in tracing groundwater flow paths to outcrop. A subsurface tritium plume moving from the southwest corner of the burial ground toward an outcrop near Four Mile Creek has been defined. Groundwater movement is so slow that much of the tritium decays before reaching the outcrop. The burial ground tritium plume defined to date is virtually all in the uppermost sediment layer, the Barnwell Formation. The purpose of the study reported in this memorandum was to investigate the hypothesis that deeper flow paths, capable of carrying substantial amounts of tritium, may exist in the vicinity of the burial ground. As a first step in seeking deeper flow paths, a water budget was constructed for the burial ground site. The water budget, a materials balance used by hydrologists, is expressed in annual area inches of rainfall. Components of the water budget for the burial ground area were analyzed to determine whether significant flow paths may exist below the tan clay. Mean annual precipitation was estimated as 47 inches, with evapotranspiration, run-off, and groundwater recharge estimated as 30, 2, and 15 inches, respectively. These estimates, when combined with groundwater discharge data, suggest that 5 inches of the groundwater recharge flow above the tan clay and that 10 inches flow below the tan clay. Therefore, two-thirds of the groundwater recharge appears to follow flow paths that are deeper than those previously found. 13 references, 10 figures, 5 tables.

Hubbard, J.E.; Emslie, R.H.

1984-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

442

National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance. Evaluation of strategies is structured around the critical control functions of water, airflow, vapor flow, and thermal control. The aim of the research project is to develop guidance that could serve as a foundation for wider adoption of high performance, 'deep' retrofit work. The project will identify risk factors endemic to advanced retrofit in the context of the general building type, configuration and vintage encountered in the National Grid DER Pilot. Results for the test homes are based on observation and performance testing of recently completed projects. Additional observation would be needed to fully gauge long-term energy performance, durability, and occupant comfort.

Neuhauser, K.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements and Radiosonde Comparisons During the WVIOP2000 Field Experiment D. Cimini University of L'Aquila L'Aquil, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Y. Han Science System Applications National Aeronautics Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland S. Keihm Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California Introduction During September to October 2000, a water vapor intensive operational period (WVIOP) was conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and

444

A three-dimensional Macroporous Cu/SnO2 composite anode sheet prepared via a novel method  

SciTech Connect

Macroporous Cu/SnO2 composite anode sheets were prepared by a novel method which is based on slurry blending, tape casting, sintering, and reducing of metal oxides. Such composite Cu/SnO2 anode sheets have no conducting carbons and binders, and show improved discharge capacity and cycle life than the SnO2 electrode from conventional tape-casting method on Cu foil. This methodology produces limited wastes and is also adaptable to many other materials. It is easy for industrial scale production. With the optimization of particle size of the metal oxide, pore size, pore volume and other factors, this kind of macroporous Cu/SnO2 composite anode sheets could give significantly improved capacity and cycle life.

Xu, Wu; Canfield, Nathan L.; Wang, Deyu; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Zhang, Jiguang

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Generic Deep Geologic Disposal Safety Case | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Deep Geologic Disposal Safety Case Deep Geologic Disposal Safety Case Generic Deep Geologic Disposal Safety Case The Generic Deep Geologic Disposal Safety Case presents generic information that is of use in understanding potential deep geologic disposal options in the U.S. for used nuclear fuel (UNF) from reactors and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Potential disposal options include mined disposal in a variety of geologic media (e.g., salt, shale, granite), and deep borehole disposal in basement rock. The Generic Safety Case is intended to be a source of information to provide answers to questions that may arise as the U.S. works to develop strategies to dispose of current and future inventories of UNF and HLW. DOE is examining combinations of generic geologic media and facility designs that could potentially support

446

NETL: News Release - New Tools for Deep Gas...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

May 29, 2003 May 29, 2003 New Tools for Deep Gas... DOE Adds Three New Projects to "Deep Trek" Program - Photo - Drill Rig MORGANTOWN, WV - The need to probe ever deeper to locate and produce the natural gas Americans will need in the future has led the Department of Energy to add three new research projects to its "Deep Trek" program. "Deep Trek" is a program being carried out by the Energy Department's Office of Fossil Energy to develop "smart" drilling systems tough enough to withstand the extreme conditions of deep reservoirs, yet economical enough to make the natural gas they encounter affordable to produce. Today, more than 70 percent of gas produced in the continental United States comes from wells 5,000 feet deep or shallower. But as America's

447

Deep Borehole Disposal Research: Demonstration Site Selection Guidelines,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Deep Borehole Disposal Research: Demonstration Site Selection Deep Borehole Disposal Research: Demonstration Site Selection Guidelines, Borehole Seals Design, and RD&D Needs Deep Borehole Disposal Research: Demonstration Site Selection Guidelines, Borehole Seals Design, and RD&D Needs The U.S. Department of Energy has been investigating deep borehole disposal as one alternative for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive waste forms, along with research and development for mined repositories in salt, granite, and clay, as part of the used fuel disposition (UFD) campaign. The deep borehole disposal concept consists of drilling a borehole on the order of 5,000 m deep, emplacing waste canisters in the lower part of the borehole, and sealing the upper part of the borehole with bentonite and concrete seals. A reference design of the

448

Research, Development, and Demonstration Roadmap for Deep Borehole Disposal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Research, Development, and Demonstration Roadmap for Deep Borehole Research, Development, and Demonstration Roadmap for Deep Borehole Disposal Research, Development, and Demonstration Roadmap for Deep Borehole Disposal This roadmap is intended to advance deep borehole disposal (DBD) from its current conceptual status to potential future deployment as a disposal system for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW). The objectives of the DBD RD&D roadmap include providing the technical basis for fielding a DBD demonstration project, defining the scientific research activities associated with site characterization and postclosure safety, as well as defining the engineering demonstration activities associated with deep borehole drilling, completion, and surrogate waste canister emplacement. Research, Development, and Demonstration Roadmap for Deep Borehole Disposal

449

``Lithium-free'' thin-film battery with in situ plated Li anode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Li-free thin-film battery with the cell configuration Li diffusion blocking overlayer/Cu/solid lithium electrolyte (Lipon)/LiCoO{sub 2} is activated by in situ plating of metallic Li at the Cu anode current collector during the initial charge. Electrochemical cycling between 4.2 and 3.0 V is demonstrated over 1,000 cycles at 1 mA/cm{sup 2} or over 500 cycles at 5 mA/cm{sup 2}. As corroborated by scanning electron microscopy during electrochemical cycling, the overlayer is imperative for a high cycle stability; otherwise the plated Li rapidly develops a detrimental morphology, and the battery loses most of its capacity within a few cycles. The Li-free thin-film battery retains the high potential of a Li cell while permitting its fabrication in air without the complications of a metallic Li anode. Thus, the Li-free thin-film battery survives solder reflow conditions, simulated by a rapid heating to 250 C for 10 min in air followed by quenching to room temperature, without any signs of degradation.

Neudecker, B.J.; Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Improving Microstructure of Silicon/Carbon Nanofiber Composites as A Li Battery Anode  

SciTech Connect

We report the interfacial study of a silicon/carbon nanofiber (Si/CNF) nanocomposite material as a potentially high performance anode for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The carbon nanofiber is hollow, with a graphitic interior and turbostratic exterior. Amorphous silicon layers were uniformly coated via chemical vapor deposition on both the exterior and interior surfaces of the CNF. The resulting Si/CNF composites were tested as anodes for Li ion batteries and exhibited capacities near 800 mAh g{sup -1} for 100 cycles. After cycling, we found that more Si had fallen off from the outer wall than from the inner wall of CNF. Theoretical calculations confirmed that this is due to a higher interfacial strength at the Si/C-edge interface at the inner wall than that of the Si/C-basal interface at the outer wall. Based upon the experimental analysis and theoretical calculation, we have proposed several interfacial engineering approaches to improve the performance of the electrodes by optimizing the microstructure of this nanocomposite.

Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Burton, David J. [Applied Sciences, Inc.; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Nazri, Maryam [Applied Sciences, Inc.; Nazri, G. Abbas [General Motors Corporation-R& D; Palmer, Andrew C. [Applied Sciences, Inc.; Lake, Patrick D. [Applied Sciences, Inc.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

ON THE ANODIC POLARIZATION BEHAVIOR OF CARBON STEEL IN HANFORD NUCLEAR WASTES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of the important chemical constituents in the Hanford nuclear waste simulant on the anodic behavior of carbon steel was studied. Specifically, the effect of pH, nitrite concentration, nitrite/nitrate concentration ratios, total organic carbon and the chloride concentration on the open circuit potential, pitting potential and repassivation potential was evaluated. It was found that pH adjusting, although capable of returning the tank chemistry back to specification, did not significantly reduce the corrosivity of the stimulant compared to the present condition. Nitrite was found to be a potent inhibitor for carbon steel. A critical concentration of approximately 1.2M appeared to be beneficial to increase the difference of repassivation potential and open circuit potential considerably and thus prevent pitting corrosion from occurring. No further benefit was gained when increasing nitrite concentration to a higher level. The organic compounds were found to be weak inhibitors in the absence of nitrite and the change of chloride from 0.05M to 0.2M did not alter the anodic behavior dramatically.

BOOMER, K.D.

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

452

Effects of Entropy Changes in Anode and Cathode on Thermo Behavior of Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The entropies (?S) in various cathode and anode materials, as well as complete lithium ion bat-teries, were investigated by Electrochemical Thermodynamic Measurement System (ETMS). A thermodynamic model based on the fundamental properties of individual electrodes is used to obtain the transient and equilibrium temperature distribution of lithium ion batteries. The results from theoretical simulations are compared with the results obtained in experimental measure-ments. It is found that detailed shape of the entropy curves strongly depends on the manufac-turer of the materials even for the same nominal compositions. LiCoO2 has a much larger en-tropy change than those of LiNixCoyMnzO2. This means that LiNixCoyMnzO2 is much more thermodynamically stable than LiCoO2. The temperatures around the positive terminal of a prismatic battery are consistently higher than those at the negative terminal. When all other simulation parameters are the same, the effects of using battery-averaged entropy in the simulation tends to overestimate the predicted temperatures than using individual entropies for anode and cathode.

Williford, Ralph E.; Vishwanathan, Vilanyur V.; Zhang, Jiguang

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Subsurface Characterization at Ground Failure Sites in Adapazari, Turkey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ground failure. Lastly, ?ve CPTs and three borings were com- pleted at the Adapazari Electrical Substation,

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)  

SciTech Connect

Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

455

Corrosion Resistant Metallic Materials for Ultra-deep Well Drilling ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... corrosion fatigue, etc., can be a primary cause of catastrophic degradation of tubular components during ultra-deep drilling of oil and natural gas shale.

456

New Insights Into Deep Convective Core Vertical Velocities Using...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Insights Into Deep Convective Core Vertical Velocities Using ARM UHF Wind Profilers For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govscience...

457

Deep Geothermal Well and Power Plant Project Final Environmental...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) Deep Geothermal Well and Power Plant Project Final Environmental Assessment September 2008 Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy 1617 Cole...

458

Characterizing Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Natural Gas Hydrates in the Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: Applications for Safe Exploration and Production Activities Semi-Annual Report" Report Type: Semi-Annual No:...

459

Economic Analysis of a Representative Deep-Water Gas Production ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends 181 Appendix C Economic Analysis of a Representative Deep-Water Gas Production Project

460

Deep Energy Retrofits-Eleven California Case Studies Brennan...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deep Energy Retrofits-Eleven California Case Studies Brennan Less, Jeremy Fisher and Iain Walker Environmental Energy Technologies Division October 2012 LBNL-6166E Disclaimer This...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Why Sequence Bacteria in Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria in Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents? The project focuses on using single-cell genomics to sequence nearly a dozen genomes of uncultivated bacteria that are found in...

462

Behind the pine curtain: community theatres of Deep East Texas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??"Behind the Pine Curtain" is a common term that has come to identify the region known as Deep East Texas. The purpose in writing this… (more)

Vaughn, Patrick Clay

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Effect of anode film resistance on the charge/discharge capacity of a lithium-ion battery  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lithium-ion batteries are prone to failure, because both their capacity and rate capability decrease with cycling. Side reactions, which decrease the cell's cyclable lithium content, can be responsible for capacity fade. An increase in cyclable lithium content is also possible, but is limited by the initial overall lithium content. Formation of a solid electrolyte interphase film on the carbonaceous anode not only consumes cyclable lithium, but also increases the anode resistance, thus reducing the rate capability of the cell, as demonstrated via computer simulation of a lithium-ion cell. Simulations also suggest that the use of cutoff potentials may not effectively prevent undesired irreversible side reactions on overcharge or overdischarge.

Christensen, J.; Newman, J.

2003-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

464

Second coordinate readout in drift chambers by timing of the electromagnetic wave propagating along the anode wire  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of using an anode wire and surrounding electrodes in drift chambers as a transmission line for second coordinate readout has been studied. The method is based on propagation of the electromagnetic wave along the anode wire is determined by measurement, in an optimized electronic readout system, of the time difference between the arrivals of the signal to the ends of the wire. The resolution obtained on long wires (approx. 2 meters) is about 2 cm FWHM for minimum ionizing particles at a gas gain of approx. = 10/sup 5/.

Boie, R.A.; Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.; Xi, D.M.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

An update on the SRP burial ground area water balance and hydrology  

SciTech Connect

A water budget for the burial ground area prepared by Hubbard and Emslie concluded that about 15 inches, almost one-third of the average annual precipitation, normally infiltrates the land surface and recharges the groundwater. Also, evapotranspiration was estimated to average 30 inches annually, and runoff from the land surface was estimated as 1 to 3 inches. More information has become available recently from lysimeter studies, climatic stations, groundwater studies, and stream discharge measurements. These additional data generally support the conclusions above with some modifications. The type of vegetation cover on the land surface affects the site hydrology and water budget components of evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge. The lysimeter studies indicate that about 12 inches more water is lost annually to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration with deep-rooted pine trees present than in areas where bare soil or shallow-rooted grass cover occur. Therefore, recharge in the burial ground area may differ from that with similar soils in forested areas of the Savannah River Plant. Study of the hydrologic properties of soils in the burial ground area indicates that infiltration rates for the soils generally are relatively high, exceeding one inch per hour. Runoff as overland flow tends to occur only with intense rainfall events of 1 inch or more. The soil-water characteristic curves are representative of relatively coarse-textured soils.

Wells, D.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Site; Cook, J.W.

1986-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

466

Issues in Ground-Truthing Graphic Documents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We examine the nature of ground-truth: whether it is always well-defined fora given task, oron ly relative and approximate. In the conventional scenario, reference data is produced by recording the interpretation of each test document using a chosen ...

Daniel P. Lopresti; George Nagy

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Ground water work breakdown structure dictionary  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the activities that are necessary to assess in ground water remediation as specified in the UMTRA Project. These activities include the following: site characterization; remedial action compliance and design documentation; environment, health, and safety program; technology assessment; property access and acquisition activities; site remedial actions; long term surveillance and licensing; and technical and management support.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil  

SciTech Connect

Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

1991-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

469

Ground Vibration Measurements at LHC Point 4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground vibration was measured at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Point 4 during the winter shutdown in February 2012. This report contains the results, including power and coherence spectra. We plan to collect and analyze vibration data from representative collider halls to inform specifications for future linear colliders, such as ILC and CLIC. We are especially interested in vibration correlations between final focus lens locations.

Bertsche, Kirk; /SLAC; Gaddi, Andrea; /CERN

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

470

Grounding geographic categories in the meaningful environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ontologies are a common approach to improve semantic interoperability by explicitly specifying the vocabulary used by a particular information community. Complex expressions are defined in terms of primitive ones. This shifts the problem of semantic ... Keywords: meaningful environment, semantic datum, semantic heterogeneity, symbol grounding problem

Simon Scheider; Krzysztof Janowicz; Werner Kuhn

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Estimation of Global Ground Heat Flux  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the use of a previously published algorithm for estimating ground heat flux (GHF) at the global scale. The method is based on an analytical solution of the diffusion equation for heat transfer in a soil layer and has been ...

William B. Bennett; Jingfeng Wang; Rafael L. Bras

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Impedance of surface footings on layered ground  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Traditionally only the static bearing capacity and stiffness of the ground is considered in the design of wind turbine foundations. However, modern wind turbines are flexible structures with resonance frequencies as low as 0.2Hz. Unfortunately, environmental ... Keywords: Boundary elements, Domain-transformation method, Dynamic stiffness, Footing, Foundation, Layered soil, Wind turbine

L. Andersen; J. Clausen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Longevity of Emplacement Drift Ground Support Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the factors affecting the longevity of emplacement drift ground support materials and to develop a basis for the selection of materials for ground support that will function throughout the preclosure period of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. REV 01 ICN 01 of this analysis is developed in accordance with AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models, Revision 2, ICN 4, and prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M&O 2001a). The objective of this analysis is to update the previous analysis (CRWMS M&O 2000a) to account for related changes in the Ground Control System Description Document (CRWMS M&O 2000b), the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document, which is included in the Requirements and Criteria for Implementing a Repository Design that can be Operated Over a Range of Thermal Modes (BSC 2001), input information, and in environmental conditions, and to provide updated information on candidate ground support materials. Candidate materials for ground support are carbon steel and cement grout. Steel is mainly used for steel sets, lagging, channel, rock bolts, and wire mesh. Cement grout is only considered in the case of grouted rock bolts. Candidate materials for the emplacement drift invert are carbon steel and granular natural material. Materials are evaluated for the repository emplacement drift environment based on the updated thermal loading condition and waste package design. The analysis consists of the following tasks: (1) Identify factors affecting the longevity of ground support materials for use in emplacement drifts. (2) Review existing documents concerning the behavior of candidate ground support materials during the preclosure period. (3) Evaluate impacts of temperature and radiation effects on mechanical and thermal properties of steel. Assess corrosion potential of steel at emplacement drift environment. (4) Evaluate factors affecting longevity of cement grouts for fully grouted rock bolt system. Provide updated information on cement grout mix design for fully grouted rock bolt system. (5) Evaluate longevity of materials for the emplacement drift invert.

D.H.Tang

2001-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

474

Electrodeposition of Ni5Sb2 nanowires array and its application as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single crystal Ni"5Sb"2 nanowires array is synthesized by direct-current electrodeposition technique. The initial specific discharge and charge capacity of the as-produced Ni"5Sb"2 nanowires array electrode as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries ... Keywords: Anode, Array structure, Charge/discharge capacity, Lithium-ion batteries, Nanowires

You-Wen Yang; Tian-Ying Li; Fei Liu; Wen-Bin Zhu; Xue-Liang Li; Yu-Cheng Wu; Ming-Guang Kong

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Hanohano:A Deep Ocean Antineutrino Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the science potential of a deep ocean antineutrino observatory being developed at Hawaii and elsewhere. The observatory design allows for relocation from one site to another. Positioning the observaory some 60 km distant from a nuclear reactor complex enables preecision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters, leading to a determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and theta_13. At a mid-Pacific location, the observatory measures the flux of uranium and thorium decay series antineutrinos from earth's mantle and performs a sensitive search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in earth's core. A subequent deployment at another mid-ocean location would test lateral homogeneity of uranium and thorium in earth's mantle. These measurements have significance for earth energy studies.

Batygov, M; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Pakvasa, S; Varner, G

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Hanohano:A Deep Ocean Antineutrino Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the science potential of a deep ocean antineutrino observatory being developed at Hawaii and elsewhere. The observatory design allows for relocation from one site to another. Positioning the observaory some 60 km distant from a nuclear reactor complex enables preecision measurement of neutrino mixing parameters, leading to a determination of neutrino mass hierarchy and theta_13. At a mid-Pacific location, the observatory measures the flux of uranium and thorium decay series antineutrinos from earth's mantle and performs a sensitive search for a hypothetical natural fission reactor in earth's core. A subequent deployment at another mid-ocean location would test lateral homogeneity of uranium and thorium in earth's mantle. These measurements have significance for earth energy studies.

M. Batygov; S. T. Dye; J. G. Learned; S. Matsuno; S. Pakvasa; G. Varner

2008-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

477

Redshift clustering in the Hubble Deep Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present initial results from a redshift survey carried out with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph on the 10~m W. M. Keck Telescope in the Hubble Deep Field. In the redshift distribution of the 140 extragalactic objects in this sample we find 6 strong peaks, with velocity dispersions of ${\\sim}400${\\kms}. The areal density of objects within a particular peak, while it may be non-uniform, does not show evidence for strong central concentration. These peaks have characteristics (velocity dispersions, density enhancements, spacing, and spatial extent) similar to those seen in a comparable redshift survey in a different high galactic latitude field (Cohen et al 1996), confirming that the structures are generic. They are probably the high redshift counterparts of huge galaxy structures (``walls'') observed locally.

Judith G. Cohen; Lennox L. Cowie; David W. Hogg; Antoinette Songaila; Roger Blandford; Esther M. Hu; Patrick Shopbell

1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

478

Analysis of cloud-to-ground lightning in Hurricane Andrew  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In August of 1992, Andrew joined a long list of tropical storms that have caused considerable damage and loss of life as they made landfall near a populated area. However, Andrew was unique in the sense that no previous landfalling tropical storm in the United States has provided such an excellent opportunity to study the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning associated with this type of storm. While numerous thunderstorm systems, particularly the severe storms of the Great Plains, have been studied for lightning characteristics, the ability to conduct similar studies on hurricanes has been limited due to the small number which have occurred since the relatively new National Lightning Detection Network has been operational. 17,036 CG strikes over a 77 hour period were attributed to either the eyewall region or the primary spiral rainbands of Andrew. The overall distribution by polarity of the lightning was found to be 2.1% positive and 97.9% negative. As the storm was dissipating over land in Mississippi all lightning observed near the pressure center was positive. Throughout the lifetime of the storm, the negative first stroke peak current decreased while the positive first stroke peak current increased. The mean multiplicity of the negative flashes was 2.6, while the positive lightning had a mean value of 1.2. High-multiplicity flashes (negative CG flashes with 10 strokes or greater) tended to occur in four distinct groups and in time intervals of 19 to 23 hours apart in an area corresponding to the right-forward quadrant to right flank of the storm structure. Comparison of radar data to the lightning data shows that the deep convective regions of the outer rainbands were the areas with the most lightning. A lack of significant lightning observed in the eyewall region is consistent with previous research suggesting microphysical processes in this part of the storm are not favorable for charge separation.

George, William Randel

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Microsoft PowerPoint - NanoAnode for Li-ion Batteries SRNL-L9100-2009-00153p1.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries at a glance  patent pending  increase energy density  longer cyclic life  replaces graphite anodes  simple and lower cost manufacturing Current carbon-based anodes are fabricated through a series of processes of mixing carbon, binder and conductive additives in organic solution, pasting the slurry on current collector and baking to remove solvent. It involves intensive labor, fire safety and environment emission control resulting in high cost. Background Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS), managing contractor of the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy, has developed new anodes for lithium-ion batteries that are reported to increase the energy density four-fold. It is

480

Characterization of failure modes in deep UV and deep green LEDs utilizing advanced semiconductor localization techniques.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the results of a two-year early career LDRD that focused on defect localization in deep green and deep ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We describe the laser-based techniques (TIVA/LIVA) used to localize the defects and interpret data acquired. We also describe a defect screening method based on a quick electrical measurement to determine whether defects should be present in the LEDs. We then describe the stress conditions that caused the devices to fail and how the TIVA/LIVA techniques were used to monitor the defect signals as the devices degraded and failed. We also describe the correlation between the initial defects and final degraded or failed state of the devices. Finally we show characterization results of the devices in the failed conditions and present preliminary theories as to why the devices failed for both the InGaN (green) and AlGaN (UV) LEDs.

Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Miller, Mary A.; Cole, Edward Isaac, Jr.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deep anode ground" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Estimation of Near-Ground Propagation Conditions Using Radar Ground Echo Coverage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vertical gradient of refractivity (dN/dh) determines the path of the radar beam; namely, the larger the negative values of the refractivity gradient, the more the beam bends toward the ground. The variability of the propagation conditions ...

Shinju Park; Frédéric Fabry

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

On the Strong Seasonal Currents in the Deep Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a set of models, including one with a resolution of ¼°, several aspects of the simulated seasonal currents in the deep ocean are considered. It is shown that over vast areas of the deep interior, particularly in the Indian Ocean, annual-...

Oleg A. Saenko

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Focused Crawling of the Deep Web Using Service Class Descriptions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamic Web data sources--sometimes known collectively as the Deep Web--increase the utility of the Web by providing intuitive access to data repositories anywhere that Web access is available. Deep Web services provide access to real-time information, like entertainment event listings, or present a Web interface to large databases or other data repositories. Recent studies suggest that the size and growth rate of the dynamic Web greatly exceed that of the static Web, yet dynamic content is often ignored by existing search engine indexers owing to the technical challenges that arise when attempting to search the Deep Web. To address these challenges, we present DynaBot, a service-centric crawler for discovering and clustering Deep Web sources offering dynamic content. DynaBot has three unique characteristics. First, DynaBot utilizes a service class model of the Web implemented through the construction of service class descriptions (SCDs). Second, DynaBot employs a modular, self-tuning system architecture for focused crawling of the DeepWeb using service class descriptions. Third, DynaBot incorporates methods and algorithms for efficient probing of the Deep Web and for discovering and clustering Deep Web sources and services through SCD-based service matching analysis. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the service class discovery, probing, and matching algorithms and suggest techniques for efficiently managing service discovery in the face of the immense scale of the Deep Web.

Rocco, D; Liu, L; Critchlow, T

2004-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

484

FULL ARTICLE Bond-selective imaging of deep tissue  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FULL ARTICLE Bond-selective imaging of deep tissue through the optical window between 1600 and 1850 nm Pu Wang**; 1 , Han-Wei Wang**; 1 , Michael Sturek2 , and Ji-Xin Cheng*; 1; 3 1 Weldon School nm for bond-selective deep tis- sue imaging through harmonic vibrational excitation and acoustic

Cheng, Ji-Xin

485

Recent Sediments of the Monterey Deep-Sea Fan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

T Or THE MONTEREV DEEP SEA FAN PLAlE Conpl1.d and ren1our.dO F THE MONTEREY DEEP- SEA FAN by P a t Wilde Berkeley,of segmented alluvial fans in w e s t e r n F r e s n o

Wilde, Pat

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Velocity and Stress in the Deep-Ocean Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to predict the response of deep ocean sediments to the near-bottom currents, accurate estimates of the near-bottom velocity and the boundary shear stress are necessary. Because of the unsteady nature of deep ocean currents, dynamic ...

S. R. McLean; J. Yean

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Exact Solutions to Kawase's Linear Model of Deep Ocean Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exact solutions are found for Kawase's linear, two-layer model of mass-driven deep-ocean circulation. It is demonstrated that for strong damping, even though the deep western boundary current (DWBC) bifurcates at the equator as found in Kawase's ...

Dailin Wang; Dennis W. Moore; Lewis M. Rothstein

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Factors Affecting Limiting Current in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells or Debunking the Myth of Anode Diffusion Polarization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Limiting current densities for solid oxide fuel cells were measured using both button cells and a flow-through cell. The cell anodes were supplied mixtures of humidified hydrogen and various inert gasses. It was demonstrated that the true limiting current in flow-through cells is reached when either: the hydrogen is nearly or completely depleted at the anode-electrolyte interface near the outlet; or when the concentration of steam at that interface becomes high enough to interfere with adsorption or transport of the remaining hydrogen near the triple-phase boundaries. Choice of inert gas had no effect on limiting currents in the flow-through tests, indicating that diffusion within the porous anode had no significant effect on cell performance at high currents. In the button cells, the apparent limiting currents were significantly changed by the choice of inert gas, indicating that they were determined by diffusion through the bulk gas within the support tube. It was concluded that the apparent limiting currents measured in button cells are influenced more by parameters of the experimental setup, such as the proximity of the fuel tube outlet, than by the physical properties of the anode.

Chick, Lawrence A.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Simner, Steven P.; Kirby, Brent W.; Powell, Michael R.; Canfield, Nathan L.

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

490

Electrochemical, Structural and Surface Characterization of Nickel/Zirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes in Coal Gas Containing Antimony  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interaction of antimony with the nickel-zirconia solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode has been investigated. Tests with both anode-supported and electrolyte-supported button cells were performed at 700 and 800oC in synthetic coal gas containing 10 ppb to 9 ppm antimony. Minor performance loss was observed immediately after Sb introduction to coal gas resulting in ca. 5 % power output drop. While no further degradation was observed during the following several hundred hours of testing, cells abruptly and irreversibly failed after 800-1500 hours depending on Sb concentration and test temperature. Antimony was found to interact strongly with nickel and result in extensive alteration phase formation, consistent with expectations based on thermodynamic properties. Nickel antimonide phases, NiSb and Ni5Sb2, were partially coalesced into large grains and eventually affected electronic percolation through the anode support. Initial degradation was attributed to diffusion of antimony to the active anode/electrolyte interface to form an adsorption layer.

Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Edwards, Danny J.

2011-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

491

The Effects of a Hydrogen Environment on the Lifetime of Small-Diameter Drift Chamber Anode Wires  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Possible deterioration of anode sense wires used in a hydrogen-filled neutron detector is investigated. Wires were loaded with free weights and put into a wire detector environment. Stainless Steel, Tungsten, and Platinum wires did not break after exposure to charge equivalent to many wire lifetimes. Furthermore, exposure to hydrogen gas caused no noticeable surface degradation or change in wire yield strength.

King, J; Smith, T; Kunkle, J; Castelaz, J; Thomson, S; Burstein, Z; Bernstein, A; Rosenberg, L; Hefner, M

2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

492

Combined Theoretical and Experimental Investigation and Design of H2S Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a high temperature fuel cell and it normally operates in the range of 850 to 1000 C. Coal syngas has been considered for use in SOFC systems to produce electric power, due to its high temperature and high hydrogen and carbon monoxide content. However, coal syngas also has contaminants like carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Among these contaminants, H{sub 2}S is detrimental to electrode material in SOFC. Commonly used anode material in SOFC system is nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ). The presence of H{sub 2}S in the hydrogen stream will damage the Ni anode and hinder the performance of SOFC. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of anode (Ni-YSZ) deterioration by H{sub 2}S. The study used computation methods such as quantum chemistry calculations and molecular dynamics to predict the model for anode destruction by H{sub 2}S. This was done using binding energies to predict the thermodynamics and Raman spectroscopy to predict molecular vibrations and surface interactions. On the experimental side, a test stand has been built with the ability to analyze button cells at high temperature under syngas conditions.

Gerardine G. Botte; Damilola Daramola; Madhivanan Muthuvel

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

493

Occult pulmonary embolism: a common occurrence in deep venous thrombosis  

SciTech Connect

Ventilation-perfusion scans were used in a prospective study to determine the prevalence of occult pulmonary embolus in proven deep venous thrombosis. Fifty-eight patients without symptoms of pulmonary embolism, but with venographically proven deep venous thrombosis, were subjected to chest radiographs, /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated-albumin perfusion scans, and /sup 133/Xe ventilation scans. Of the 49 patients with deep venous thrombosis proximal to the calf veins, 17 (35%) had high-probability scans. Of all 58 patients, only 12 (21%) had normal scans. When the study population was compared with a group of 430 patients described in reports of pulmonary perfusion in asymptomatic persons, a significantly higher percentage of high-probability scans was found in the study population with deep venous thrombosis. Baseline ventilation-perfusion lung scanning is valuable for patients with proven above-knee deep venous thrombosis.

Dorfman, G.S.; Cronan, J.J.; Tupper, T.B.; Messersmith, R.N.; Denny, D.F.; Lee, C.H.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Anodic oxygen-transfer electrocatalysis at iron-doped lead dioxide electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The research illustrated in this thesis was performed under the guidance of Professor Dennis C. Johnson beginning in March 1987. Chapter 2 concentrates on the development and electrocatalytic properties of iron-doped {beta}-PbO{sub 2} films on noble-metal substrates. Chapter 3 focuses attention on the preparation and characterization of iron-doped {beta}-PbO{sub 2} films on titanium substrates (Fe-PbO{sub 2}/Ti). Chapter 4 discusses anodic evolution of ozone at Fe-PbO{sub 2}/Ti electrodes. Chapter 5 describes electrochemical incineration of p-benzoquinone (BQ) at Fe-PbO{sub 2}/Ti electrodes. In addition, the Appendix includes another published paper which is a detailed study of {alpha}-PbO{sub 2} films deposited on various types of stainless steel substrates.

Feng, Jianren

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Corrosion-resistant iridium-platinum anode material for high polarization application in corrosive acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to highly corrosion resistant components for use in an electrochemical cell. Specifically, these components are resistant to corrosion under very extreme conditions such as exposure to aqua regia in the presence of a constant current density of 100mA/m{sup 2}. The components are comprised of an iridium-platinum alloy that comprises less than 30% iridium. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the iridium-platinum alloy comprises 15-20% iridium. In another preferred embodiment of the present invention, the iridium-platinum alloy is deposited on the surface of an electrochemical cell component by magnetron sputtering. The present invention also relates to a method for conducting an electrochemical reaction in the presence of highly corrosive acids under a high degree of polarization wherein the electrochemical cell comprises a compo