National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for decision electrical interconnection

  1. Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Administration Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Windy Point Wind Energy Project November 2006 B o n n e v i l l e P o w e r A d m i n i s t r a t i o...

  2. Electrical interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, John S.; Brandt, Randolph J.; Hebert, Peter; Al Taher, Omar

    2015-10-06

    An interconnect includes a first set of connector pads, a second set of connector pads, and a continuous central portion. A first plurality of legs extends at a first angle from the continuous central portion. Each leg of the first plurality of legs is connected to a connector pad of a first set of connector pads. A second plurality of legs extends at a second angle from the continuous central portion. Each leg of the second plurality of legs is connected to a connector pad of the second set of connector pads. Gaps are defined between legs. The gaps enable movement of the first set of connector pads relative to the second set of connector pads.

  3. Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Windy Point Wind Energy Project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for interconnection of 250 megawatts (MW) of power to be generated by the proposed Windy Point Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Windy Point Partners, LLC (WPP) propose to construct and operate the proposed Wind Project and has requested interconnection to the FCRTS. The Wind Project will be interconnected at BPA's Rock Creek Substation, which is under construction in Klickitat County, Washington. The Rock Creek Substation will provide transmission access for the Wind Project to BPA's Wautoma-John Day No.1 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line. BPA's decision to offer terms to interconnect the Wind Project is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan Record of Decision (BP ROD, August 15, 1995). This decision thus is tiered to the BP ROD.

  4. Perforation patterned electrical interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frey, Jonathan

    2014-01-28

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for increasing the usable surface area of electrical contacts within a device, such as a thin film solid state device, through the implementation of electrically conductive interconnects. Embodiments described herein include the use of a plurality of electrically conductive interconnects that penetrate through a top contact layer, through one or more multiple layers, and into a bottom contact layer. The plurality of conductive interconnects may form horizontal and vertical cross-sectional patterns. The use of lasers to form the plurality of electrically conductive interconnects from reflowed layer material further aids in the manufacturing process of a device.

  5. Reliability of Electrical Interconnects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devoto, D.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses the status of NREL's research on the reliability of electrical interconnects.

  6. Central American electrical interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    A technical cooperation grant of $2.25 million, designed to strengthen the capacity of Central American countries to operate their regional interconnected electrical system, was announced by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The grant, extended from the banks Fund for Special Operations, will help improve the capacity of the regions electric power companies to achieve economical, safe operation of the interconnected electric power systems. The funds will also be used to finance regional studies of the accords, procedures, regulations, and supervisory mechanisms for the system, as well as program development and data bases.

  7. Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the COB Energy Facility (DOE/EIS-0343)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2004-08-20

    The COB Energy Facility would be constructed on a site near the rural community of Bonanza, in Klamath County, Oregon. Generating components of the project would be constructed in either one or two phases, including four air-cooled combustion turbine generators fueled with natural gas, four heat recovery steam generators, and two steam turbines. Additional facilities include a new 7.2-mile-long 500-kV transmission line, a new 4.1-mile-long natural gas pipeline, a 2.8-mile-long water pipeline, a 20-acre wastewater evaporation pond or a 3,770-foot-long irrigation pipeline to deliver wastewater to a 31-acre pasture, a 4.7-acre stormwater infiltration basin, a 1.5-acre stormwater retention pond, and various tanks, buildings, exhaust stacks, parking, and storage areas. Natural gas to fuel the combustion turbines would be supplied by way of a new 4.1-mile-long, 20-inch-diameter pipeline from a Gas Transmission Northwest's Bonanza Compressor Station. The new pipeline would be constructed within private easements adjacent to or near Klamath County road rights-of-way. Although COB Energy Facility generators would use air-cooled condensers, the project would use an average of 72 gallons per minute for steam production and station service, up to a maximum of 210 gallons per minute. The source of this water would be one existing and two new wells near the project site, drawing from a deep aquifer consistent with a State of Oregon water right permit expected to be incorporated into the State energy facility site certificate. Process wastewater would either be used to irrigate pasture or held in a lined pond to evaporate. Sanitary water would be routed to an onsite septic tank then discharged to a leach field. No wastewater would be discharged to surface waters. The COB Energy Facility would interconnect to the FCRTS at Captain Jack Substation, 7.2 miles south of the project site. PERC would construct a new 500-kV transmission line from the project site to Captain Jack Substation. Part of the transmission line would cross public land managed by the Bureau of Land Management. BPA would install additional electrical equipment at Captain Jack Substation. At this time, PERC has not requested specific points of delivery.

  8. Process for electrically interconnecting electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb--Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb--Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  9. Committed regional electrical interconnection projects in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azzam, M.; Al-Said, A.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the well-known advantages of electrical interconnections and their consequent benefits, Jordan considers the interconnection of its electrical network with the neighboring electrical networks as one of its main corporate strategies. At present the electrical interconnection project of the networks of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, and Turkey is progressing. To achieve this interconnection project, two feasibility studies were conducted: interconnection of the Egyptian and Jordanian electrical power systems; interconnection of the electrical networks of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, and Turkey (EIJST interconnection). This presentation reviews these studies and their results.

  10. Electric network interconnection of Mashreq Arab Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    Power system interconnection is a well established practice for a variety of technical and economical reasons. Several interconnected networks exist worldwide for a number of factors. Some of these networks cross international boundaries. This presentation discusses the future developments of the power systems of Mashreq Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Mac power systems are operated by government or semigovernment bodies. Many of these countries have national or regional electric grids but are generally isolated from each other. With the exception of Saudi Arabia power systems, which employ 60 Hz, all other MAC utilities use 50 Hz frequency. Each country is served by one utility, except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi Consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The energy resources in MAC are varied. Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria have significant hydro resources.The gulf countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel, The variation in energy resources as well as the characteristics of the electric load make it essential to look into interconnections beyond the national boundaries. Most of the existing or planned interconnections involve few power systems. A study involving 12 countries and over 20 utilities with different characteristics represents a very large scale undertaking.

  11. Release Resistant Electrical Interconnections For Mems Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM)

    2005-02-22

    A release resistant electrical interconnection comprising a gold-based electrical conductor compression bonded directly to a highly-doped polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS, IMEMS, or MOEMS device, without using any intermediate layers of aluminum, titanium, solder, or conductive adhesive disposed in-between the conductor and polysilicon pad. After the initial compression bond has been formed, subsequent heat treatment of the joint above 363 C creates a liquid eutectic phase at the bondline comprising gold plus approximately 3 wt % silicon, which, upon re-solidification, significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial bond. This type of electrical interconnection is resistant to chemical attack from acids used for releasing MEMS elements (HF, HCL), thereby enabling the use of a "package-first, release-second" sequence for fabricating MEMS devices. Likewise, the bond strength of an Au--Ge compression bond may be increased by forming a transient liquid eutectic phase comprising Au-12 wt % Ge.

  12. Flip chip electrical interconnection by selective electroplating and bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    Flip chip electrical interconnection by selective electroplating and bonding L.-W. Pan, P. Yuen, L resistance of the electroplating bond is 12 W. This process has potential applications in replacing-step approach for high-density electrical in- terconnection by using flip chip selective electroplating

  13. 10 Year Transmission Plan for the Western Electricity Interconnection Released

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection. The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability awarded WECC a $14.5 million grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to expand on its transmission planning activities.

  14. Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection Willett Kemptona,1 , Felipe M regional estimate, Kempton et al. (2) calculated that two-thirds of the offshore wind power off the U in the U.S. Atlantic region is already underway. Fig. 1 shows as black squares offshore wind developments

  15. Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General;1 Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General Equilibrium Analysis Jennifer Morris* , Mort Webster* and John Reilly* Abstract The electric power sector, which

  16. Electrical isolation of component cells in monolithically interconnected modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A monolithically interconnected photovoltaic module having cells which are electrically connected which comprises a substrate, a plurality of cells formed over the substrate, each cell including a primary absorber layer having a light receiving surface and a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, and a cell isolation diode layer having a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, the diode layer intervening the substrate and the absorber layer wherein the absorber and diode interfacial regions of a same conductivity type orientation, the diode layer having a reverse-breakdown voltage sufficient to prevent inter-cell shunting, and each cell electrically isolated from adjacent cells with a vertical trench trough the pn-junction of the diode layer, interconnects disposed in the trenches contacting the absorber regions of adjacent cells which are doped an opposite conductivity type, and electrical contacts.

  17. Interconnect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenryInhibitingInteractive Jobs Interactive Jobs To run anInterconnect

  18. Gold-based electrical interconnections for microelectronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method of making an electrical interconnection from a microelectronic device to a package, comprising ball or wedge compression bonding a gold-based conductor directly to a silicon surface, such as a polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS or IMEMS device, without using layers of aluminum or titanium disposed in-between the conductor and the silicon surface. After compression bonding, optional heating of the bond above 363 C. allows formation of a liquid gold-silicon eutectic phase containing approximately 3% (by weight) silicon, which significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial compression bond. The same process can be used for improving the bond strength of Au--Ge bonds by forming a liquid Au-12Ge eutectic phase.

  19. Electrically interconnected assemblies of microscale device components by printing and molding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Electrically interconnected assemblies of microscale device components by printing and molding Mo process that occurs prior to or simultaneously with a soft lithographic molding step that defines relief of the process, in which transfer printing for device placement and molding for electrical interconnect occur

  20. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rocky Mountain Power (PacifiCorp) has developed an interconnection application for net metering. All other electric utilities in Wyoming -- investor-owned utilities and rural electric associations...

  1. Analysis of electric vehicle interconnection with commercial building microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    USA http://eetd.lbl.gov/EA/EMP/emp-pubs.html The work described in this paper was funded by the Office of Electricity

  2. Synthesis of electrical networks interconnecting PZT actuators to damp mechanical vibrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. dell'Isola; E. G. Henneke; M. Porfiri

    2010-08-30

    This paper proves that it is possible to damp mechanical vibrations of some beam frames by means of piezoelectric actuators interconnected via passive networks. We create a kind of electromechanical wave guide where the electrical velocity group equals the mechanical one thus enabling an electromechanical energy transfer. Numerical simulations are presented which prove the technical feasibility of proposed device

  3. Analysis of electric vehicle interconnection with commercial building microgrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Mendes, Goncalo; Marnay, Chris; Mé gel, Olivier; Lai, Judy

    2011-04-01

    The outline of this presentation is: (1) global concept of microgrid and electric vehicle (EV) modeling; (2) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); (3) presentation summary - how does the number of EVs connected to the building change with different optimization goals (cost versus CO{sub 2}); (3) ongoing EV modeling for California: the California commercial end-use survey (CEUS) database, objective: 138 different typical building - EV connections and benefits; (4) detailed analysis for healthcare facility: optimal EV connection at a healthcare facility in southern California; and (5) conclusions. Conclusions are: (1) EV Charging/discharging pattern mainly depends on the objective of the building (cost versus CO{sub 2}); (2) performed optimization runs show that stationary batteries are more attractive than mobile storage when putting more focus on CO{sub 2} emissions. Why? Stationary storage is available 24 hours a day for energy management - more effective; (3) stationary storage will be charged by PV, mobile only marginally; (4) results will depend on the considered region and tariff - final work will show the results for 138 different buildings in nine different climate zones and three major utility service territories.

  4. Monolithic interconnected module with a tunnel junction for enhanced electrical and optical performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, Christopher S. (Bethel Park, PA); Wilt, David M. (Bay Village, OH)

    2000-01-01

    An improved thermophotovoltaic (TPV) n/p/n device is provided. Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMS), semiconductor devices converting infrared radiation to electricity, have been developed with improved electrical and optical performance. The structure is an n-type emitter on a p-type base with an n-type lateral conduction layer. The incorporation of a tunnel junction and the reduction in the amount of p-type material used results in negligible parasitic absorption, decreased series resistance, increased voltage and increased active area. The novel use of a tunnel junction results in the potential for a TPV device with efficiency greater than 24%.

  5. Oxidation Resistant, Cr Retaining, Electrically Conductive Coatings on Metallic Alloys for SOFC Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vladimir Gorokhovsky

    2008-03-31

    This report describes significant results from an on-going, collaborative effort to enable the use of inexpensive metallic alloys as interconnects in planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) through the use of advanced coating technologies. Arcomac Surface Engineering, LLC, under the leadership of Dr. Vladimir Gorokhovsky, is investigating filtered-arc and filtered-arc plasma-assisted hybrid coating deposition technologies to promote oxidation resistance, eliminate Cr volatility, and stabilize the electrical conductivity of both standard and specialty steel alloys of interest for SOFC metallic interconnect (IC) applications. Arcomac has successfully developed technologies and processes to deposit coatings with excellent adhesion, which have demonstrated a substantial increase in high temperature oxidation resistance, stabilization of low Area Specific Resistance values and significantly decrease Cr volatility. An extensive matrix of deposition processes, coating compositions and architectures was evaluated. Technical performance of coated and uncoated sample coupons during exposures to SOFC interconnect-relevant conditions is discussed, and promising future directions are considered. Cost analyses have been prepared based on assessment of plasma processing parameters, which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed surface engineering process for SOFC metallic IC applications.

  6. Vibration control in plates by uniformly distributed PZT actuators interconnected via electric networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Vidoli; Francesco dell'Isola

    2010-07-09

    In this paper a novel device aimed at controlling the mechanical vibrations of plates by means of a set of electrically-interconnected piezoelectric actuators is described. The actuators are embedded uniformly in the plate wherein they connect every node of an electric network to ground, thus playing the two-fold role of capacitive element in the electric network and of couple suppliers. A mathematical model is introduced to describe the propagation of electro-mechanical waves in the device; its validity is restricted to the case of wave-forms with wave-length greater than the dimension of the piezoelectric actuators used. A self-resonance criterion is established which assures the possibility of electro-mechanical energy exchange. Finally the problem of vibration control in simply supported and clamped plates is addressed; the optimal net-impedance is determined. The results indicate that the proposed device can improve the performances of piezoelectric actuation

  7. Electrical and Optical On-Chip Interconnects in Scaled Microprocessors Guoqing Chen, Hui Chen, Mikhail Haurylau, Nicholas Nelson, David Albonesi, Philippe M. Fauchet, and Eby G. Friedman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Eby G.

    Electrical and Optical On-Chip Interconnects in Scaled Microprocessors Guoqing Chen, Hui Chen of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, 14627 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 14853 Abstract-- Interconnect has

  8. Decreasing Soft Costs for Solar Photovoltaics by Improving the Interconnection Process. A Case Study of Pacific Gas and Electric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    In this case study, we examine how PG&E achieved a faster, more efficient interconnection approval process despite rising application volumes. Our goal is to draw insights from PG&E's experience that can help to inform decision making at other utilities across the U.S. that may face similar trajectories for DG PV market growth.

  9. Decreasing Soft Costs for Solar Photovoltaics by Improving the Interconnection Process. A Case Study of Pacific Gas and Electric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    As of the end of 2014, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) had connected over 130,000 DG PV systems in its service territory, more than any other utility in the U.S. In this case study, we examine how PG&E achieved a faster, more efficient interconnection approval process despite rising application volumes.

  10. Energy and water in the Western and Texas interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2010-08-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Electricity has initiated a $60M program to assist the electric industry in interconnection-level analysis and planning. The objective of this effort is to facilitate the development or strengthening of capabilities in each of the three interconnections serving the lower 48 states of the United States, to prepare analyses of transmission requirements under a broad range of alternative futures and develop long-term interconnection-wide transmission expansion plans. The interconnections are the Western Interconnection, the Eastern Interconnection, and the Texas Interconnection. One element of this program address the support and development of an integrated energy-water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning (the Eastern Interconnection is not participating in this element). Specific objectives include: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between members of this proposal team and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and ERCOT. The goals of this project are: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between Western Electricity Coordinating Council, Electric Reliability Council of Texas, Western Governors Association, and Western States Water Council. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water transmission planning scenarios.

  11. The Role of Electricity Pricing Policy in Industrial Siting Decisions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tam, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    policy of electricity plays a significant role in the siting decisions of energy intensive industries, it is therefore imperative for the policy makers to understand the long term impact of their policies. This paper will examine the current pricing...

  12. Protective coating on stainless steel interconnect for SOFCs: Oxidation kinetics and electrical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xuan; Hou, Peggy Y.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2004-01-01

    PROTECTIVE COATING ON STAINLESS STEEL INTERCONNECT FORcoatings on commercial stainless steel alloys that allow forTABLES Table 1. Stainless steel composition in Weight%

  13. IEEE 1547 and 2030 Standards for Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection and Interoperability with the Electricity Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, T.

    2014-12-01

    Public-private partnerships have been a mainstay of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) approach to research and development. These partnerships also include technology development that enables grid modernization and distributed energy resources (DER) advancement, especially renewable energy systems integration with the grid. Through DOE/NREL and industry support of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards has helped shape the way utilities and other businesses have worked together to realize increasing amounts of DER interconnected with the distribution grid. And more recently, the IEEE 2030 series of standards is helping to further realize greater implementation of communications and information technologies that provide interoperability solutions for enhanced integration of DER and loads with the grid. For these standards development partnerships, for approximately $1 of federal funding, industry partnering has contributed $5. In this report, the status update is presented for the American National Standards IEEE 1547 and IEEE 2030 series of standards. A short synopsis of the history of the 1547 standards is first presented, then the current status and future direction of the ongoing standards development activities are discussed.

  14. Incorporating uncertainty into electric utility projections and decisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper focuses on how electric utility companies can respond in their decision making to uncertain variables. Here we take a mean- variance type of approach. The mean'' value is an expected cost, on a discounted value basis. We assume that management has risk preferences incorporating a tradeoff between the mean and variance in the utility's net income. Decisions that utilities are faced with can be classified into two types: ex ante and ex post. The ex ante decisions need to be made prior to the uncertainty being revealed and the ex post decision can be postponed until after the uncertainty is revealed. Intuitively, we can say that the ex ante decisions provide a hedge against the uncertainties and the ex post decisions allow the negative outcomes of uncertain variables to be partially mitigated, dampening the losses. An example of an ex post decision is how the system is operated i.e., unit dispatch, and in some cases switching among types of fuels, say with different sulfur contents. For example, if gas prices go up, natural gas combined cycle units are likely to be dispatched at lower capacity factors. If SO{sub 2} emission allowance prices go up, a utility may seek to switch into a lower sulfur coal. Here we assume that regulated electric utilities do have some incentive to lower revenue requirements and hence an incentive to lower the electric rates needed for the utility to break even, thereby earning a fair return on invested capital. This paper presents the general approach first, including applications to capacity expansion and system dispatch. Then a case study is presented focusing on the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments including SO{sub 2} emissions abatement and banking of allowances under uncertainty. It is concluded that the emission banking decisions should not be made in isolation but rather all the uncertainties in demand, fuel prices, technology performance etc., should be included in the uncertainty analysis affecting emission banking.

  15. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in the Texas Interconnection Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State Agency...

  16. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Eastern...

  17. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability ondimensionless electricity storage loss factor for the EVceusweb/. Electricity Storage Association, Morgan Hill, CA,

  18. Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K.

    2012-02-09

    Electricity generation relies heavily on water resources and their availability. To examine the interdependence of energy and water in the electricity context, the impacts of a severe drought to assess the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the western and Texas interconnections has been examined. The historical drought patterns in the western United States were analyzed, and the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the region was evaluated. The results of this effort will be used to develop scenarios for medium- and long-term transmission modeling and planning efforts by the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The study was performed in response to a request developed by the Western Governors Association in conjunction with the transmission modeling teams at the participating interconnections. It is part of a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored, national laboratory-led research effort to develop tools related to the interdependency of energy and water as part of a larger interconnection-wide transmission planning project funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This study accomplished three main objectives. It provided a thorough literature review of recent studies of drought and the potential implications for electricity generation. It analyzed historical drought patterns in the western United States and used the results to develop three design drought scenarios. Finally, it quantified the risk to electricity generation for each of eight basins for each of the three drought scenarios and considered the implications for transmission planning. Literature on drought impacts on electricity generation describes a number of examples where hydroelectric generation capacity has been limited because of drought but only a few examples of impact on thermoelectric generation. In all documented cases, shortfalls of generation were met by purchasing power from the market, albeit at higher prices. However, sufficient excess generation and transmission must be available for this strategy to work. Although power purchase was the most commonly discussed drought mitigation strategy, a total of 12 response strategies were identified in the literature, falling into four main categories: electricity supply, electricity demand response, alternative water supplies, and water demand response. Three hydrological drought scenarios were developed based on a literature review and historical data analysis. The literature review helped to identify key drought parameters and data on drought frequency and severity. Historical hydrological drought data were analyzed for the western United States to identify potential drought correlations and estimate drought parameters. The first scenario was a West-wide drought occurring in 1977; it represented a severe drought in five of the eight basins in the study area. A second drought scenario was artificially defined by selecting the conditions from the 10th-percentile drought year for each individual basin; this drought was defined in this way to allow more consistent analysis of risk to electricity generation in each basin. The final scenario was based upon the current low-flow hydro modeling scenario defined by WECC, which uses conditions from the year 2001. These scenarios were then used to quantify the risk to electricity generation in each basin. The risk calculations represent a first-order estimate of the maximum amount of electricity generation that might be lost from both hydroelectric and thermoelectric sources under a worst-case scenario. Even with the conservative methodology used, the majority of basins showed a limited amount of risk under most scenarios. The level of risk in these basins is likely to be amenable to mitigation by known strategies, combined with existing reserve generation and transmission capacity. However, the risks to the Pacific Northwest and Texas Basins require further study. The Pacific Northwest is vulnerable because of its heavy reliance on hydroelectri

  19. Production Cost Modeling of Cogenerators in an Interconnected Electric Supply System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ragsdale, K.

    1989-01-01

    of various electric supply system configurations necessary to appropriately model the present and future cogeneration activity in the service areas of the electric utilities that compose the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT)....

  20. Interconnection Panel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—discusses the interconnection panel, including an overview of the generation interconnection process (GIP), and interconnection agreements and their terms.

  1. Smart buildings with electric vehicle interconnection as buffer for local renewables?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    N ATIONAL L ABORATORY Smart buildings with electric vehicleopportunity employer. Smart buildings with electric vehicleand integrated in smart buildings Is it that simple or does

  2. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    distributed generation energy management system electricenergy resources, distributed generation, electric vehicle,

  3. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric VehiclePlanning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicleenergy costs at the smart grid or commercial building due to

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures:  Operational Analysis of the Western Interconnection at Very High Renewable Penetrations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The goal of this work was to perform a detailed, sub-hourly analysis of very high penetration scenarios for a single interconnection (the Western Interconnection). The scenarios analyzed for this study included a variety of generation infrastructure buildouts and power system operational assumptions, with three different portfolios of renewable generators. The High scenario had approximately 82% renewable generation after curtailment, which included 41% of its generation coming from variable generation (VG) sources like wind and solar photovoltaics (PV). The remaining renewable generation came from hydropower, geothermal, and concentrating solar power (CSP). The Higher Baseload scenario adds CSP and geothermal to the High scenario to make 88% renewable generation. This study also included a Higher VG scenario with added wind and solar PV generation to get to 86% renewable generation. Both Higher scenarios added the same amount of possible generation, but the Higher VG scenario showed more curtailment from the incremental generation, leading to lower penetration levels after curtailment. The primary conclusion of this study is that sub-hourly operation of the grid is possible with renewable generation levels between 80% and 90%. Dynamic studies will need to be done to understand any impacts on reliability during contingencies and transient events.

  5. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

    1995-11-14

    Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

  6. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  7. Beta Test Plan for Advanced Inverters Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoke, A.; Chakraborty, S.; Basso, T.; Coddington, M.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a preliminary (beta) test plan for grid interconnection systems of advanced inverter-based DERs. It follows the format and methodology/approach established by IEEE Std 1547.1, while incorporating: 1. Upgraded tests for responses to abnormal voltage and frequency, and also including ride-through. 2. A newly developed test for voltage regulation, including dynamic response testing. 3. Modified tests for unintentional islanding, open phase, and harmonics to include testing with the advanced voltage and frequency response functions enabled. Two advanced inverters, one single-phase and one three-phase, were tested under the beta test plan. These tests confirmed the importance of including tests for inverter dynamic response, which varies widely from one inverter to the next.

  8. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    stationary batteries, thermal storage, and combined heat andFor both electric and thermal storage, a charging andelectrical storage, TS – thermal storage, AC - absorption

  9. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    is limited by battery size - Heat storage is limited bybattery discharging efficiency, dimensionless electricity storagefor other non-storage technologies, $ EV battery degradation

  10. Smart buildings with electric vehicle interconnection as buffer for local renewables?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    as buffer for local renewables? Michael Stadler, Gonçaloas buffer for local renewables? *) Michael Stadler Gonçaloowners to integrate renewables and electric vehicles?

  11. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    buildings [GW] stationary storage [GWh] combined heat and power (CHP) andenergy source or CHP system at the building could be used toon CHP, they feed electricity back to the building.

  12. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    sources and EVs on the power grid and electricity prices.storage capabilities to the power grid by utilizing plug-inprices due to additional power grid loads from EVs. Since

  13. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    PV), solar thermal, stationary batteries, thermal storage,thermal storage, AC - absorption cooling, ST-solar thermal,solar thermal collector (kW) PV (kW) stationary electric storage (

  14. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    West Virginia's interconnection standards include two levels of review. The qualifications and application fees for each level are as follows:...

  15. Learn More About Interconnections | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and West to the foot of the Rockies (excluding most of Texas). All of the electric utilities in the Eastern Interconnection are electrically tied together during normal...

  16. Implications of Model Configurations on Capacity Planning Decisions: Scenario Case Studies of the Western Interconnection and Colorado Region using the Resource Planning Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this report, we analyze the impacts of model configuration and detail in capacity expansion models, computational tools used by utility planners looking to find the least cost option for planning the system and by researchers or policy makers attempting to understand the effects of various policy implementations. The present analysis focuses on the importance of model configurations—particularly those related to capacity credit, dispatch modeling, and transmission modeling—to the construction of scenario futures. Our analysis is primarily directed toward advanced tools used for utility planning and is focused on those impacts that are most relevant to decisions with respect to future renewable capacity deployment. To serve this purpose, we develop and employ the NREL Resource Planning Model to conduct a case study analysis that explores 12 separate capacity expansion scenarios of the Western Interconnection through 2030.

  17. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state's utilities independently developed interconnection agreements for distributed generation (DG) prior to the ACC's ongoing proceeding to establish statewide standards. The Salt River...

  18. Reliability of Electrical Interconnects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  19. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fees for interconnection requests increase with each Level. A Level 1 request must submit $50 fee; a Level 2 request must submit a fee of $50 plus $1/kW of generator capacity; a Level 3 request m...

  20. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kansas adopted the Net Metering and Easy Connection Act in May 2009 (see K.S.A. 66-1263 through 66-1271), establishing interconnection guidelines and net metering for customer-owned generators.

  1. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abraham Ellis, Roger Hill Sandia National Laboratories Tom Key, Kristen Nicole, Jeff Smith Electric Power Research Institute Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System...

  2. Engineering. Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aziz, Adnan

    Networks Digital System Design 9 of 19 ' & $ % Systems Analysis of a Multicomputer Node See Figure 1. Controlled by the partitioning and topology of the system Interconnection Networks Digital System Design 11' & $ % Digital System Design Adnan Aziz The University of Texas Reference: #15; Digital Systems

  3. Flexible interconnects for fuel cell stacks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenz, David J.; Chung, Brandon W.; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2004-11-09

    An interconnect that facilitates electrical connection and mechanical support with minimal mechanical stress for fuel cell stacks. The interconnects are flexible and provide mechanically robust fuel cell stacks with higher stack performance at lower cost. The flexible interconnects replace the prior rigid rib interconnects with flexible "fingers" or contact pads which will accommodate the imperfect flatness of the ceramic fuel cells. Also, the mechanical stress of stacked fuel cells will be smaller due to the flexibility of the fingers. The interconnects can be one-sided or double-sided.

  4. Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations October...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Processes Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations October 2011 - Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Processes Panel...

  5. Wind-Energy based Path Planning For Electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Markov Decision Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Ryan N.

    Wind-Energy based Path Planning For Electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Markov Decision wind-energy is one possible way to ex- tend flight duration for Unmanned Arial Vehicles. Wind-energy sources of wind energy available to exploit for this problem [5]: 1) Vertical air motion, such as thermal

  6. Interconnected semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmer, Derrick P. (White Bear Lake, MN); Paulson, Kenneth R. (North St. Paul, MN); Gilbert, James R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1990-10-23

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  7. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the adopted rules the distributed energy system must be installed and maintained in accordance with the requirements of the National Electrical Code and with all local laws. The customer-ge...

  8. Recent Development of SOFC Metallic Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu JW, Liu XB

    2010-04-01

    Interest in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) stems from their higher e±ciencies and lower levels of emitted pollu- tants, compared to traditional power production methods. Interconnects are a critical part in SOFC stacks, which connect cells in series electrically, and also separate air or oxygen at the cathode side from fuel at the anode side. Therefore, the requirements of interconnects are the most demanding, i:e:, to maintain high elec- trical conductivity, good stability in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and close coe±cient of thermal expansion (CTE) match and good compatibility with other SOFC ceramic components. The paper reviewed the interconnect materials, and coatings for metallic interconnect materials.

  9. Decision-Making for High Renewable Electricity Futures in the United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This short Report Review highlights aspects of policy, regulation, finance, markets and operations that can help enable high penetration renewable energy electricity generation futures. It uses analytical results from the NREL Renewable Electricity Futures (REF) Study as a basis for discussion. As technical issues have been shown not to be key impediments for this pathway at the hourly level for the bulk system, we focus on other aspects of public and private decision-making. We conclude by describing how the REF might inform future research and development by the scientific community.

  10. Durability of Metallic Interconnects and Protective Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2009-12-15

    To build up a useful voltage, a number of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrically connected into series in a stack via interconnects, which are placed between adjacent cells. In addition to functioning as a bi-polar electrical connector, the interconnect also acts as a separator plate that separates the fuel at the anode side of one cell from the air at the cathode side on an adjacent cell. During SOFC operation at the high temperatures, the interconnects are thus simultaneously exposed to the oxidizing air at one side and a reducing fuel that can be either hydrogen or hydrocarbon at the other. Besides, they are in contact with adjacent components, such as electrodes or electrical contacts, seals, etc. With steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures into the low or intermediate range 600-850oC, oxidation resistant alloys are often used to construct interconnects. However, the metallic interconnects may degrade via interactions at their interfaces with surrounding environments or adjacent components, potentially affecting the stability and performance of interconnects and the SOFC stacks. Thus protection layers are applied to metallic interconnects that also intend to mitigate or prevent chromium migration into cells and the cell poisoning. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of materials for metallic interconnects, their degradation and coating protection.

  11. Interconnection networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faber, V.; Moore, J.W.

    1988-06-20

    A network of interconnected processors is formed from a vertex symmetric graph selected from graphs GAMMA/sub d/(k) with degree d, diameter k, and (d + 1)exclamation/ (d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k and GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) with degree d /minus/ 1, diameter k + 1, and (d + 1)exclamation/(d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k greater than or equal to 4. Each processor has an address formed by one of the permutations from a predetermined sequence of letters chosen a selected number of letters at a time, and an extended address formed by appending to the address the remaining ones of the predetermined sequence of letters. A plurality of transmission channels is provided from each of the processors, where each processor has one less channel than the selected number of letters forming the sequence. Where a network GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) is provided, no processor has a channel connected to form an edge in a direction delta/sub 1/. Each of the channels has an identification number selected from the sequence of letters and connected from a first processor having a first extended address to a second processor having a second address formed from a second extended address defined by moving to the front of the first extended address the letter found in the position within the first extended address defined by the channel identification number. The second address is then formed by selecting the first elements of the second extended address corresponding to the selected number used to form the address permutations. 9 figs.

  12. Design space exploration of photonic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Chen, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    As processors scale deep into the multi-core and many-core regimes, bandwidth and energy-efficiency of the on-die interconnect network have become paramount design issues. Recognizing potential limits of electrical ...

  13. Updating Technical Screens for PV Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Ellis, A.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Key, T.; Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hill, R.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-08-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the dominant type of distributed generation (DG) technology interconnected to electric distribution systems in the United States, and deployment of PV systems continues to increase rapidly. Considering the rapid growth and widespread deployment of PV systems in United States electric distribution grids, it is important that interconnection procedures be as streamlined as possible to avoid unnecessary interconnection studies, costs, and delays. Because many PV interconnection applications involve high penetration scenarios, the process needs to allow for a sufficiently rigorous technical evaluation to identify and address possible system impacts. Existing interconnection procedures are designed to balance the need for efficiency and technical rigor for all DG. However, there is an implicit expectation that those procedures will be updated over time in order to remain relevant with respect to evolving standards, technology, and practical experience. Modifications to interconnection screens and procedures must focus on maintaining or improving safety and reliability, as well as accurately allocating costs and improving expediency of the interconnection process. This paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offers potential short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen.

  14. Risk perception & strategic decision making :general insights, a framework, and specific application to electricity generation using nuclear energy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, Jeffrey D.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this report is to promote increased understanding of decision making processes and hopefully to enable improved decision making regarding high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological systems. This report brings together insights regarding risk perception and decision making across domains ranging from nuclear power technology safety, cognitive psychology, economics, science education, public policy, and neural science (to name a few). It forms them into a unique, coherent, concise framework, and list of strategies to aid in decision making. It is suggested that all decision makers, whether ordinary citizens, academics, or political leaders, ought to cultivate their abilities to separate the wheat from the chaff in these types of decision making instances. The wheat includes proper data sources and helpful human decision making heuristics; these should be sought. The chaff includes ''unhelpful biases'' that hinder proper interpretation of available data and lead people unwittingly toward inappropriate decision making ''strategies''; obviously, these should be avoided. It is further proposed that successfully accomplishing the wheat vs. chaff separation is very difficult, yet tenable. This report hopes to expose and facilitate navigation away from decision-making traps which often ensnare the unwary. Furthermore, it is emphasized that one's personal decision making biases can be examined, and tools can be provided allowing better means to generate, evaluate, and select among decision options. Many examples in this report are tailored to the energy domain (esp. nuclear power for electricity generation). The decision making framework and approach presented here are applicable to any high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological system.

  15. Distributed Solar Interconnection Challenges and Best Practices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The continued growth of the distributed solar market in the United States has spurred electric utilities, regulators, and stakeholders to consider improvements to distributed generation (DG) interconnection processes. More than 475,000 solar energy systems were interconnected in the U.S. by the end of 2013, but 1 million are expected by the end of 2017. Based on the SunShot Initiative's current trajectory, permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII) soft costs are expected to drop from a current cost of $0.17/watt to $0.14/watt by 2020. While the actual cost metrics for utility PII are undetermined, they are real. A survey and interviews conducted by Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA) in 2014 have uncovered utility initiatives to lower the administrative costs of DG interconnection, making the process of connecting to the grid simpler and more transparent for customers.

  16. Intrachip clock signal distribution via si-based optical interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahn, Donghwan

    2007-01-01

    The Optical clocking has emerged as an innovative alternative approach to the electrical clocking, in order to overcome the difficulties associated with electrical interconnects in the synchronization of high-performance ...

  17. Double interconnection fuel cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; Zymboly, G.E.

    1993-12-28

    A fuel cell array is made, containing number of tubular, elongated fuel cells which are placed next to each other in rows (A, B, C, D), where each cell contains inner electrodes and outer electrodes, with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where the electrolyte and outer electrode are discontinuous, having two portions, and providing at least two opposed discontinuities which contain at least two oppositely opposed interconnections contacting the inner electrode, each cell having only three metallic felt electrical connectors which contact surrounding cells, where each row is electrically connected to the other. 5 figures.

  18. Double interconnection fuel cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Murrysville, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A fuel cell array (10) is made, containing number of tubular, elongated fuel cells (12) which are placed next to each other in rows (A, B, C, D), where each cell contains inner electrodes (14) and outer electrodes (18 and 18'), with solid electrolyte (16 and 16') between the electrodes, where the electrolyte and outer electrode are discontinuous, having two portions, and providing at least two opposed discontinuities which contain at least two oppositely opposed interconnections (20 and 20') contacting the inner electrode (14), each cell (12) having only three metallic felt electrical connectors (22) which contact surrounding cells, where each row is electrically connected to the other.

  19. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning...

  20. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  1. Integrated Energy-Water Planning in the Western and Texas Interconnections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent Tidwell; John Gasper; Robert Goldstein; Jordan Macknick; Gerald Sehlke; Michael Webber; Mark Wigmosta

    2013-07-01

    While long-term regional electricity transmission planning has traditionally focused on cost, infrastructure utilization, and reliability, issues concerning the availability of water represent an emerging issue. Thermoelectric expansion must be considered in the context of competing demands from other water use sectors balanced with fresh and non-fresh water supplies subject to climate variability. An integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) is being developed that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water availability and cost for long-range transmission planning. The project brings together electric transmission planners (Western Electricity Coordinating Council and Electric Reliability Council of Texas) with western water planners (Western Governors’ Association and the Western States Water Council). This paper lays out the basic framework for this integrated Energy-Water DSS.

  2. Micro-fluidic interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Los Ranchos, NM); Hetherington, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-28

    An apparatus for simultaneously aligning and interconnecting microfluidic ports is presented. Such interconnections are required to utilize microfluidic devices fabricated in Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) technologies, that have multiple fluidic access ports (e.g. 100 micron diameter) within a small footprint, (e.g. 3 mm.times.6 mm). Fanout of the small ports of a microfluidic device to a larger diameter (e.g. 500 microns) facilitates packaging and interconnection of the microfluidic device to printed wiring boards, electronics packages, fluidic manifolds etc.

  3. Passive microfluidic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonnalagadda, Aparna S

    2005-01-01

    Equipment and procedures were developed to test two passive microfluidic interconnect rings held together by the friction forces on the contact surfaces. The second design forms fluid seals by means of thin flared rings ...

  4. Quantum Photonic Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianwei Wang; Damien Bonneau; Matteo Villa; Joshua W. Silverstone; Raffaele Santagati; Shigehito Miki; Taro Yamashita; Mikio Fujiwara; Masahide Sasaki; Hirotaka Terai; Michael G. Tanner; Chandra M. Natarajan; Robert H. Hadfield; Jeremy L. O'Brien; Mark G. Thompson

    2015-09-26

    Integrated photonics has enabled much progress towards quantum technologies. Many applications, including quantum communication, sensing, and distributed and cloud quantum computing, will require coherent photonic interconnection between separate chip-based sub-systems. Large-scale quantum computing systems and architectures may ultimately require quantum interconnects to enable scaling beyond the limits of a single wafer and towards "multi-chip" systems. However, coherently interconnecting separate chips is challenging due to the fragility of these quantum states and the demanding challenges of transmitting photons in at least two media within a single coherent system. Distribution and manipulation of qubit entanglement between multiple devices is one of the most stringent requirements of the interconnected system. Here, we report a quantum photonic interconnect demonstrating high-fidelity entanglement distribution and manipulation between two separate chips, implemented using state-of-the-art silicon photonics. Path-entangled states are generated and manipulated on-chip, and distributed between the chips by interconverting between path-encoding and polarisation-encoding. We use integrated state analysers to confirm a Bell-type violation of $S$=2.638+-0.039 between two chips. With improvements in loss, this quantum interconnect will provide new levels of flexible systems and architectures for quantum technologies.

  5. Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms is not used to supply baseload electric power today. Interconnecting wind farms through the transmission grid farms are interconnected in an array, wind speed correlation among sites decreases and so does

  6. Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop: Part III -- Grid Interconnection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    B.; Shirazi, M.; Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B. 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION ELECTRICITY; GRID; ICS; INTERCONNECTION;...

  7. WECC releases its first-ever transmission plan for the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection.

  8. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning A description of the...

  9. Capillary interconnect device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renzi, Ronald F

    2013-11-19

    An interconnecting device for connecting a plurality of first fluid-bearing conduits to a corresponding plurality of second fluid-bearing conduits thereby providing fluid communication between the first fluid-bearing conduits and the second fluid-bearing conduits. The device includes a manifold and one or two ferrule plates that are held by compressive axial forces.

  10. Reversible concentric ring microfluidic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    A reversible, Chip-to-Chip microfluidic interconnect was designed for use in high temperature, high pressure applications such as chemical microreactor systems. The interconnect uses two sets of concentric, interlocking ...

  11. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2003-11-04

    The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electromechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  12. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2004-09-28

    An electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  13. Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General Equilibrium Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, J.

    The electric power sector, which accounts for approximately 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, will be a critical component of any policy the U.S. government pursues to confront climate change. In the context of uncertainty ...

  14. Technology investment decisions under uncertainty : a new modeling framework for the electric power sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santen, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Effectively balancing existing technology adoption and new technology development is critical for successfully managing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the fossil-dominated electric power generation sector. The long ...

  15. Electricity generation and emissions reduction decisions under uncertainty : a general equilibrium analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Jennifer F. (Jennifer Faye)

    2013-01-01

    The electric power sector, which accounts for approximately 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, will be a critical component of any policy the U.S. government pursues to confront climate change. In the context of uncertainty ...

  16. Sandia Energy - Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnect...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnects Home Climate & Earth Systems WaterEnergy Nexus Decision Models for Integrating EnergyWater Energy and Water in the Western...

  17. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2015-08-11

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  18. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2015-09-29

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  19. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2015-03-10

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  20. Multi-Disciplinary Decision Making and Optimization for Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoultout, Mohamed L. [University of Texas at Austin; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL; Chen, Dongmei [University of Texas at Austin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the trade-offs among the subsystems of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), e.g., the engine, motor, and the battery, and discuss the related im- plications for fuel consumption and battery capacity and lifetime. Addressing this problem can provide insights on how to prioritize these objectives based on consumers needs and preferences.

  1. Carbon Nanomaterials: The Ideal Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Nanomaterials: The Ideal Interconnect Technology for Next- Generation ICs Hong Li, Chuan Xu-generation ICs. In this research, carbon nanomaterials, with their many attractive properties, are emerging-a`-vis optical and RF interconnects, and we illustrate why carbon nanomaterials constitute the ideal intercon

  2. North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnections |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics AndBeryllium Disease | Department of0DOEDepartment ofNon-ProliferationConsiderations from

  3. North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnections |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOEDepartmentNew Jersey isDepartmentGasFacilityEnergy

  4. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Western Interconnection under the Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The fundamental purpose of the awards...

  5. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean (Saint-Luc, CA); Comte, Christophe (Montreal, CA); Daigle, Dominik (St-Hyacinthe, CA); Hagen, Ronald A. (Stillwater, MN); Knudson, Orlin B. (Vadnais Heights, MN); Morin, Andre (Longueuil, CA); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Ross, Guy (Beloeil, CA); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); St-Germain, Philippe (Outremont, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. In one embodiment, a sheet of conductive material is processed by employing a known milling, stamping, or chemical etching technique to include a connection pattern which provides for flexible and selective interconnecting of individual electrochemical cells within the housing, which may be a hermetically sealed housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  6. Hermetic aluminum radio frequency interconnection and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilgo, Riley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Kovacic, Larry (Albuquerque, NM); Brow, Richard K. (Rolla, MO)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a light-weight, hermetic coaxial radio-frequency (RF) interconnection having an electrically conductive outer housing made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, a central electrical conductor made of ferrous or non-ferrous material, and a cylinder of dielectric material comprising a low-melting-temperature, high-thermal-expansion aluminophosphate glass composition for hermetically sealing between the aluminum-alloy outer housing and the ferrous or non-ferrous center conductor. The entire RF interconnection assembly is made permanently hermetic by thermally fusing the center conductor, glass, and housing concurrently by bringing the glass to the melt point by way of exposure to an atmospheric temperature sufficient to melt the glass, less than 540.degree. C., but that does not melt the center conductor or the outer aluminum or aluminum alloy housing. The composition of the glass used is controlled to provide a suitable low dielectric constant so that an appropriate electrical characteristic impedance, for example 50 ohms, can be achieved for an electrical interconnection that performs well at high radio frequencies and also provides an interconnection maintaining a relatively small physical size.

  7. Hi-LION: Hierarchical Large-Scale Interconnection Optical Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    Hi-LION: Hierarchical Large-Scale Interconnection Optical Network With AWGRs [Invited] Zheng Cao, Roberto Proietti, and S. J. B. Yoo Abstract--This paper proposes Hi-LION, a hierarchical large wavelength routing property of AWGRs together with electrical switching inside the processors, Hi-LION can

  8. Renewable Systems Interconnection: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Margolis, R.; Kuswa, G.; Torres, J.; Bower, W.; Key, T.; Ton, D.

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy launched the Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) study in 2007 to address the challenges to high penetrations of distributed renewable energy technologies. The RSI study consists of 14 additional reports.

  9. Cost-Effectivenessof PhotovoltaicGenerationIn A Transmission-Constrained Load Area of An InterconnectedSystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    Abstract: Electric power systems of today are experiencing a difficulty of constrained transmission lines, present electric system networks are experiencing the difficulty of constrained transmission lines: Photovoltaic Generation, Power System Economics, Dispersed Generation, Transmission-Constrained Interconnected

  10. Interconnection Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIAL TECHNICAL8-02DepartmentInterconnection Resources Interconnection

  11. Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

  12. Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

  13. On-chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions Mikhail Haurylau, Hui Chen, Jidong Zhang, Guoqing Chen, Nicholas A. Nelson,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Eby G.

    On-chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions Mikhail Haurylau, Hui Chen work we use the In- ternational Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) predictions for the EI. ELECTRICAL INTERCONNECTS ROADMAP In order to estimate EI performance, an RLC interconnect with optimized

  14. Naturalistic Decision Making For Power System Operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin; Robinson, Marck; Ey, Pamela

    2009-06-23

    Abstract: Motivation -- As indicated by the Blackout of 2003, the North American interconnected electric system is vulnerable to cascading outages and widespread blackouts. Investigations of large scale outages often attribute the causes to the three T’s: Trees, Training and Tools. A systematic approach has been developed to document and understand the mental processes that an expert power system operator uses when making critical decisions. The approach has been developed and refined as part of a capability demonstration of a high-fidelity real-time power system simulator under normal and emergency conditions. To examine naturalistic decision making (NDM) processes, transcripts of operator-to-operator conversations are analyzed to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. Findings/Design -- The results of the study indicate that we can map the Situation Awareness Level of the operators at each point in the scenario. We can also identify clearly what mental models and mental simulations are being performed at different points in the scenario. As a result of this research we expect that we can identify improved training methods and improved analytical and visualization tools for power system operators. Originality/Value -- The research applies for the first time, the concepts of Recognition Primed Decision Making, Situation Awareness Levels and Cognitive Task Analysis to training of electric power system operators. Take away message -- The NDM approach provides an ideal framework for systematic training management and mitigation to accelerate learning in team-based training scenarios with high-fidelity power grid simulators.

  15. Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicles driving schedules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardoso, Goncalo

    2014-01-01

    of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection,”Economy of 2012 Electric Vehicles. ” [Online]. Available:Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure

  16. Development of Ceramic Interconnect Materials for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Kyung J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Marina, Olga A.

    2010-08-05

    Currently, acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite is the state-of-the-art ceramic interconnect material for high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to its fairly good electronic conductivity and chemical stability in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres, and thermal compatibility with other cell components. The major challenge for acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite for SOFC interconnect applications is its inferior sintering behavior in air, which has been attributed to the development of a thin layer of Cr2O3 at the interparticle necks during the initial stages of sintering. In addition, lanthanum chromite is reactive with YSZ electrolyte at high temperatures, forming a highly resistive lanthanum zirconate phase (La2Zr2O7), which further complicates co-firing processes. Acceptor-doped yttrium chromite is considered to be one of the promising alternatives to acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite because it is more stable with respect to the formation of hydroxides in SOFC operating conditions, and the formation of impurity phases can be effectively avoided at co-firing temperatures. In addition, calcium-doped yttrium chromite exhibits higher mechanical strength than lanthanum chromite-based materials. The major drawback of yttrium chromite is considered to be its lower electrical conductivity than lanthanum chromite. The properties of yttrium chromites could possibly be improved and optimized by partial substitution of chromium with various transition metals. During FY10, PNNL investigated the effect of various transition metal doping on chemical stability, sintering and thermal expansion behavior, microstructure, electronic and ionic conductivity, and chemical compatibility with other cell components to develop the optimized ceramic interconnect material.

  17. ELECTR-5939; No of Pages 6 Please cite this article in press as: A. Sopinka, Variable Energy Resources: VERy Interesting Implications for the Western Interconnect, Electr. J. (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2013.04.015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The North American bulk power system is comprised of four interconnected regions: the Western Interconnect region comprises 37 balancing authorities located across Alberta and British Columbia, known hereafter.D. at the University of Victoria. Her dissertation work focused on the economic and environmental effects of wind

  18. Reliability of copper interconnects in integrated circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Zung-Sun

    2007-01-01

    As dimensions shrink and current densities increase, the reliability of metal interconnects becomes a serious concern. In copper interconnects, the dominant diffusion path is along the interface between the copper and the ...

  19. Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Thompson, R.A.

    1995-01-31

    A novel photovoltaic module and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells formed on a substrate and laterally separated by interconnection regions. Each cell includes a bottom electrode, a photoactive layer and a top electrode layer. Adjacent cells are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line. The buffer line is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode against severing during downstream layer cutting processes. 11 figs.

  20. Design and analysis of high performance multistage interconnection networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhogavilli, Suresh K

    1993-01-01

    Major Subject: Electrical Engineering ABSTRACT Design and Analysis of High Performance Multistage Interconnection Networks. (December 1993) Suresh K. Bhogavilli, B. Tech. , J. N. T. University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Hosame Abu-Amara Small... the next stage buffers are not full. Thus r, = A and this value doesn't change with network size. But this model results in cycle loss, When a packet from the full buffer moves forward, a cycle is lost since it will not allow the packets...

  1. On the State of the Art of Metal Interconnects for SOFC Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski@netl.doe.gov

    2011-02-27

    One of the recent developments for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) is oxide component materials capable of operating at lower temperatures such as 700-800C. This lower temperature range has provided for the consideration of metallic interconnects which have several advantages over ceramic interconnects: low cost, ease in manufacturing, and high conductivity. Most metals and alloys will oxidize under both the anode and cathode conditions within an SOFC, thus a chief requirement is that the base metal oxide scale must be electrically conductive since this constitutes the majority of the electrical resistance in a metallic interconnect. Common high temperature alloys form scales that contain chrome, silicon and aluminum oxides among others. Under SOFC operating conditions chrome oxide is a semi-conductor while silicon and aluminum oxides are insulators. In this talk we will review the evolution in candidate alloys and surface modifications which constitute an engineered solution for SOFC interconnect applications.

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming, catalyzed interconnect for use therewith, and methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Di-Jia; Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2010-06-08

    A catalyzed interconnect for an SOFC electrically connects an anode and an anodic current collector and comprises a metallic substrate, which provides space between the anode and anodic current collector for fuel gas flow over at least a portion of the anode, and a catalytic coating on the metallic substrate comprising a catalyst for catalyzing hydrocarbon fuel in the fuel gas to hydrogen rich reformate. An SOFC including the catalyzed anodic inter-connect, a method for operating an SOFC, and a method for making a catalyzed anodic interconnect are also disclosed.

  3. Industrial Powerhouse Optimization in the Deregulated Electricity Marketplace 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, P. D.; Bailey, W. F.

    2003-01-01

    of electricity deregulation and implemented real-time optimization of the electricity make-buy decision....

  4. Interconnection economics of small power systems -- A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloethe, W.G.; Thakar, H.C. [Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); Kim, L.C. [Sarawak Electricity Supply Corp., Kuching (Malaysia); Samin, S. [PT PLN Persero, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-11-01

    The advantages of interconnecting large electric power systems has been almost universally accepted in those parts of North America that are not geographically isolated. However, interconnecting power systems can result in significant economic advantages, even in those parts of the world where power systems are small and widely separated. This paper examines two small, isolated power systems on the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. The Malaysian State of Srawak lies on the north coast of Borneo. With an area of 123,156 square km (47,555 square mi.) and population of 1.7 million, it is the largest, but most sparsely populated, state in the Federation of Malaysia. Its neighbor to the south is the Indonesian Province of West Kalimantan. A study examining the feasibility of interconnecting these two power systems was undertaken in 1994 as a part of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) initiative to interconnect the power systems in the region. The ASEAN region is characterized by rapidly growing economies and rapid load growth.

  5. Interconnect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenryInhibitingInteractive Jobs Interactive Jobs To run an

  6. ELECTRIC

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    you nay give us will be greatly uppreckted. VPry truly your23, 9. IX. Sin0j3, Mtinager lclectronics and Nuclear Physics Dept. omh , WESTINGHOUSE-THE NAT KING IN ELECTRICITY...

  7. Cascade solar cell having conductive interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borden, Peter G. (Menlo Park, CA); Saxena, Ram R. (Saratoga, CA)

    1982-10-26

    Direct ohmic contact between the cells in an epitaxially grown cascade solar cell is obtained by means of conductive interconnects formed through grooves etched intermittently in the upper cell. The base of the upper cell is directly connected by the conductive interconnects to the emitter of the bottom cell. The conductive interconnects preferably terminate on a ledge formed in the base of the upper cell.

  8. Electromigration of Electroplated Gold Interconnects Steve Kilgore, *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroder, Dieter K.

    Electromigration of Electroplated Gold Interconnects Steve Kilgore, * Craig Gaw, * Haldane Henry Tempe, AZ 85287, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Electromigration tests were performed on passivated electroplated Au

  9. Metal Nitride Diffusion Barriers for Copper Interconnects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Araujo, Roy A.

    2010-01-14

    Advancements in the semiconductor industry require new materials with improved performance. With the introduction of copper as the interconnect material for integrated circuits, efficient diffusion barriers are required ...

  10. Decision-making in Electricity Generation Based on Global Warming Potential and Life-cycle Assessment for Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvath, Arpad

    2005-01-01

    by hydroelectric power plants in California is 11.17% [CECCalifornia in 2003. Because the location of coal and natural gas power plantsCalifornia is diversified: 22.35% of the energy is imported, and 9.84% of the electricity is produced in coal fired power plants

  11. The Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, Sari; Porter, Kevin; Rogers, Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15–20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  12. Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  13. Tevatron low-beta quadrupole triplet interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleck, A.R.; Carson, J.A.; Koepke, K.; Sorenson, D.

    1992-04-01

    Installation of cold iron quadrupole magnets in the Low Beta (Superconducting High-Luminosity) upgrade at Fermilab required a newly designed magnet interconnect. The interconnect design and construction experience is presented. Considered are the connections carrying cryogenic fluids, beam vacuum, insulating vacuum, superconducting bus leads, their insulation and mechanical support. Details of the assembly and assembly experience are presented. 2 refs.

  14. Regulating Electricity Transmission in the European Union -How Many

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Regulating Electricity Transmission in the European Union - How Many Agencies? chapter 4 in A-77 Claude Crampes (TSE) Lucile Rives (CRE) National electric grids in Europe have been interconnected since, the more national electric systems need to be interconnected to provide one another mutual assistance

  15. Comments of Lawrence J. Reilly Chairman, Vermont Electric Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    an interconnected electric transmission grid capable of sharing access to clean hydro power. VELCO currently manages a system that includes: 738 miles of transmission...

  16. EIS-0485: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    5: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, Nebraska EIS-0485: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, Nebraska SUMMARY DOE's Western...

  17. Method for fabricating an interconnected array of semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmer, Derrick P. (White Bear Lake, MN); Paulson, Kenneth R. (North St. Paul, MN); Gilbert, James R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1989-10-10

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  18. EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave County, Arizona EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave County, Arizona The EA was...

  19. The regulation of internet interconnection : assessing network market power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maida, Elisabeth M. (Elisabeth Marigo)

    2013-01-01

    Interconnection agreements in the telecommunications industry have always been constrained by regulation. Internet interconnection has not received the same level of scrutiny. Recent debates regarding proposed mergers, ...

  20. Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX); Chamberlin, Rhodes R. (El Paso, TX); Thompson, Roger A. (Littleton, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A novel photovoltaic module (10) and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module (10) includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells (12) formed on a substrate (14) and laterally separated by interconnection regions (15). Each cell (12) includes a bottom electrode (16), a photoactive layer (18) and a top electrode layer (20). Adjacent cells (12) are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line (22). The buffer line (22) is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode (16) against severing during downstream layer cutting processes.

  1. Western Interconnection Energy Imbalance Market Status and Prospects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how a new wholesale electricity market for energy imbalance ancillary services could be implemented and operated. Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) EIM results in substantial reduction in reserves requirements and ramping demand; (3) Reduced participation reduces benefits for all but reduces the benefits to non-participants the most; (4) Full participation leads to maximum benefit across the Western Interconnection, up to 42% of total reserve requirement; and (5) Regional EIM implementations have smaller but substantial benefits.

  2. Thin-film chip-to-substrate interconnect and methods for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Integrated circuit chips are electrically connected to a silica wafer interconnection substrate. Thin film wiring is fabricated down bevelled edges of the chips. A subtractive wire fabrication method uses a series of masks and etching steps to form wires in a metal layer. An additive method direct laser writes or deposits very thin metal lines which can then be plated up to form wires. A quasi-additive or subtractive/additive method forms a pattern of trenches to expose a metal surface which can nucleate subsequent electrolytic deposition of wires. Low inductance interconnections on a 25 micron pitch (1600 wires on a 1 cm square chip) can be produced. The thin film hybrid interconnect eliminates solder joints or welds, and minimizes the levels of metallization. Advantages include good electrical properties, very high wiring density, excellent backside contact, compactness, and high thermal and mechanical reliability.

  3. ELECTRIC

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and Myers CoMadison -T: Designation ofSEPE.ELECTRIC

  4. Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinetta, L.C.; Hannon, M.H.

    1995-10-01

    Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products.

  5. Promises and problems with metallic interconnects for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Peggy Y.; Huang, Keqin; Bakker, Wate T.

    1999-01-01

    METALLIC INTERCONNECTS FOR REDUCED TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUELto fuel cell stacks with multiple metallic interconnects.

  6. Reliability of Wireless On-Chip Interconnects Based on Carbon Nanotube Antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pande, Partha Pratim

    Reliability of Wireless On-Chip Interconnects Based on Carbon Nanotube Antennas A. Nojeh1 , P Engineering University of British Columbia 2332 Main Mall Vancouver, BC, Canada 2 School of Electrical of the research effort in the emerging area of nanoelectronics has revolved around creating novel devices

  7. LCL Filter Design and Performance Analysis for Grid Interconnected Systems , M.Godoy Simes*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simőes, Marcelo Godoy

    ** Petroleum Institute, Electrical Engineering Department, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Abstract--The use of power--filter; harmonics; inverter; power quality; pulse width-modulated (PWM) inverters; I. INTRODUCTION Voltage sourceLCL Filter Design and Performance Analysis for Grid Interconnected Systems A. Reznik* , M

  8. Characterization of Fe–Cr alloy metallic interconnects coated with LSMO using the aerosol deposition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jian-Jia [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Fu, Yen-Pei, E-mail: ypfu@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jian-Yih [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yung-Neng [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shyong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Jin-Cherng [Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, Xinzhuang, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMO) as the protective layer for metallic interconnects was successfully prepared by aerosol deposition method (AD). • The microstructure, electrical resistance and composition for LSMO-coated Fe–Cr alloys undergoing high temperature, long-hour oxidation were investigated. • The denser protective layer prepared by AD might effectively prohibit the growth of oxidized scale after long time running at 800 °C in air. - Abstract: A Fe–Cr alloy, used for metallic interconnects, was coated with a protective layer of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMO) using the aerosol deposition method (AD). The effects of the LSMO protective layer, which was coated on the Fe–Cr interconnects using AD, on the area specific resistance (ASR) during high temperature oxidation and the Cr evaporation behaviors were systematically investigated in this paper. The microstructures, morphologies, and compositions of the oxidized scales that appeared on the LSMO-coated Fe–Cr alloy after annealing at 800 °C for 750 h in air were examined using SEM equipped with EDS. The EPMA mapping of the LSMO-coated Fe–Cr interconnects undergoing long term, high-temperature oxidation was used to explain the formation layers of the oxidized scale, which consists of (Mn,Cr){sub 3}O{sub 4} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Moreover, the experimental results revealed that the AD process is a potential method for preparing denser protective layers with highly desirable electrical properties for metallic interconnects.

  9. Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandra, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Recovering from attacks in an interconnected system is difficult, because an adversary that gains access to one part of the system may propagate to many others, and tracking down and recovering from such an attack requires ...

  10. Carbon nanotube synthesis for integrated circuit interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nessim, Gilbert Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Based on their properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been identified as ideal replacements for copper interconnects in integrated circuits given their higher current density, inertness, and higher resistance to ...

  11. Carbon nanotube interconnects for IC chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anwar Ali, Hashina Parveen

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been investigated as candidate materials to replace or augment the existing copper-based technologies as interconnects for Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. Being ballistic conductors, CNTs are ...

  12. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Anderson; M. Coddington; K. Burman; S. Hayter; B. Kroposki; and A. Watson

    2009-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to ���¢��������networks���¢������� in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and less expensive distributed PV system interconnections. To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report. In Section 1���¢��������PV Deployment Analysis for New York City���¢��������we analyze the technical potential for rooftop PV systems in the city. This analysis evaluates potential PV power production in ten Con Edison networks of various locations and building densities (ranging from high density apartments to lower density single family homes). Next, we compare the potential power production to network loads to determine where and when PV generation is most likely to exceed network load and disrupt network protection schemes. The results of this analysis may assist Con Edison in evaluating future PV interconnection applications and in planning future network protection system upgrades. This analysis may also assist other utilities interconnecting PV systems to networks by defining a method for assessing the technical potential of PV in the network and its impact on network loads. Section 2���¢��������A Briefing for Policy Makers on Connecting PV to a Network Grid���¢��������presents an overview intended for nontechnical stakeholders. This section describes the issues associated with interconnecting PV systems to networks, along with possible solutions. Section 3���¢��������Technical Review of Concerns and Solutions to PV Interconnection in New Y

  13. Stability of chromite interconnections in dual environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Stevenson, J.W.; Raney, P.; Pederson, L.R.

    1994-11-01

    One of the most critical technical concerns in high-temperature SOFCs is the physical, chemical, and electrical stability of the interconnect (typically a doped lanthanum chromite) in the dual (oxidizing and reducing atmosphere) SOFC environment. The reducing or fuel side may experience oxygen partial pressures (P(O{sub 2})) from 10{sup {minus}18} to 10{sup {minus}6} atmospheres, while the oxidizing side may have P(O{sub 2}) from 10{sup {minus}6} to greater than 1 atm. These conditions limit the possible candidate materials to lanthanum or yttrium chromites. In the past decade, much work has centered on development of air-sinterable chromites and understanding their physical properties; little work, however, has focused on the stability of these chromites in dual environments. Chromite powders were synthesized using the glycine-nitrate process. The powders were calcined at 1,000 C for 1 hour and then uniaxially pressed into bars (46mm x 16mm x 3mm) at 55 MPa and isostatically pressed at 138 MPa. Samples were sintered in air. The dependence of the physical properties of sintered lanthanum chromites upon ambient P(O{sub 2}) and temperature (using dilatometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and oxygen permeation measurements) were studied. La{sub 1{minus}x}A{sub x}CrO{sub 3} and Y{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x}CrO{sub 3}, where A is Ca or Sr and x was varied from 0.1 to 0.4 were evaluated in this study. The P(O{sub 2}) was varied using a buffered CO{sub 2}/Ar-4%H{sub 2} gas system, enabling expansion measurements to be made over a partial pressure range from 10{sup {minus}5} to 10{sup {minus}18} atmosphere at 800, 900, and 1,000 C.

  14. Wind/PV Generation for Frequency Regulation and Oscillation Damping in the Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yong; Gracia, Jose R; Hadley, Stanton W; Liu, Yilu

    2013-12-01

    This report presents the control of renewable energy sources, including the variable-speed wind generators and solar photovoltaic (PV) generators, for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI). In this report, based on the user-defined wind/PV generator electrical control model and the 16,000-bus Eastern Interconnection dynamic model, the additional controllers for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are developed and incorporated and the potential contributions of renewable energy sources to the EI system frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are evaluated.

  15. Method of forming a leak proof plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuo, Lewis J. H. (Monroeville, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA)

    1995-01-01

    A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by: (A) providing an electrode structure; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, an interconnection layer having the general formula La.sub.1-x M.sub.x Cr.sub.1-y N.sub.y O.sub.3, where M is a dopant selected from the group of Ca, Sr, Ba, and mixtures thereof, and where N is a dopant selected from the group of Mg, Co, Ni, Al, and mixtures thereof, and where x and y are each independently about 0.075-0.25, by thermally spraying, preferably plasma arc spraying, a flux added interconnection spray powder, preferably agglomerated, the flux added powder comprising flux particles, preferably including dopant, preferably (CaO).sub.12. (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3).sub.7 flux particles including Ca and Al dopant, and LaCrO.sub.3 interconnection particles, preferably undoped LaCrO.sub.3, to form a dense and substantially gas-tight interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure by a single plasma spraying step; and, (C) heat treating the interconnection layer at from about 1200.degree. to 1350.degree. C. to further densify and heal the micro-cracks and macro-cracks of the thermally sprayed interconnection layer. The result is a substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure. The electrode structure can be an air electrode, and a solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and further a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell for generation of electrical power.

  16. Method of forming a leak proof plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuo, L.J.H.; Vora, S.D.

    1995-02-21

    A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by: (A) providing an electrode structure; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, an interconnection layer having the general formula La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Cr{sub 1{minus}y}N{sub y}O{sub 3}, where M is a dopant selected from the group of Ca, Sr, Ba, and mixtures thereof, and where N is a dopant selected from the group of Mg, Co, Ni, Al, and mixtures thereof, and where x and y are each independently about 0.075--0.25, by thermally spraying, preferably plasma arc spraying, a flux added interconnection spray powder, preferably agglomerated, the flux added powder comprising flux particles, preferably including dopant, preferably (CaO){sub 12}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 7} flux particles including Ca and Al dopant, and LaCrO{sub 3} interconnection particles, preferably undoped LaCrO{sub 3}, to form a dense and substantially gas-tight interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure by a single plasma spraying step; and (C) heat treating the interconnection layer at from about 1,200 to 1,350 C to further densify and heal the micro-cracks and macro-cracks of the thermally sprayed interconnection layer. The result is a substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure. The electrode structure can be an air electrode, and a solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and further a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell for generation of electrical power. 4 figs.

  17. InterconnectFabric InterconnectFabric SingleBuilding Multi-Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    Interconnects in Datacenter Networks Opportunities and Challenges for WDM Hong Liu, Cedric F. Lam, and Chris We review the growing need for optical interconnect bandwidth in datacenter networks growth inside datacenter networks. INTRODUCTION The rapid growth of Internet and cloud computing

  18. Development of Ni1-xCoxO as the cathode/interconnect contact for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Zigui; Xia, Guanguang; Templeton, Joshua D.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Nie, Zimin; Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-06-01

    A new type of material, Ni1-xCoxO, was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode/interconnect contact applications. The phase structure, coefficient of thermal expansion, sintering behavior, electrical property, and mechanical bonding strength of these materials were evaluated against the requirements of the SOFC cathode/interconnect contact. A dense cathode/interconnect contact layer was developed through reaction sintering from Ni and Co metal powders. An area specific resistance (ASR) as low as 5.5 mohm.cm2 was observed after 1000 h exposure in air at 800 °C for the LSM/Ni0.33Co0.67O/AISI441 assembly. Average mechanical strengths of 6.8 and 5.0 MPa were obtained for the cathode/contact/cathode and interconnect/contact/interconnect structures, respectively. The significantly low ASR was probably due to the dense structure and therefore improved electrical conductivity of the Ni0.33Co0.67O contact and the good bonding of the interfaces between the contact and the cathode, and between the contact and the interconnect.

  19. Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant - SpecialLocal< BackThermal Electric

  20. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) GrantSavings Category Geothermal Electric

  1. Automotion of domain walls for spintronic interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2014-06-07

    We simulate “automotion,” the transport of a magnetic domain wall under the influence of demagnetization and magnetic anisotropy, in nanoscale spintronic interconnects. In contrast to spin transfer driven magnetic domain wall motion, the proposed interconnects operate without longitudinal charge current transfer, with only a transient current pulse at domain wall creation and have favorable scaling down to the 20?nm dimension. Cases of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization are considered. Analytical dependence of the velocity of domain walls on the angle of magnetization are compared with full micromagnetic simulations. Deceleration, attenuation and disappearance, and reflection of domain walls are demonstrated through simulation. Dependences of the magnetization angle on the current pulse parameters are studied. The energy and delay analysis suggests that automotion is an attractive option for spintronic logic interconnects.

  2. Regulation and investment under uncertainty: An application to power grid interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saphores, Jean-Daniel M; Gravel, E; Bernard, J T

    2004-01-01

    An Application to Power Grid Interconnection. Jean-Danielto the Ontario power grid. This interconnection will allowfor our application to a power grid interconnection. Second,

  3. North American Electric Reliability Council Outage Announcement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    p.m. EDT, major losses of electric load occurred in the northeastern United States and Canada in the Eastern Interconnection. Although the exact cause is not known at present, the...

  4. Secretary Chu Announces Efforts to Strengthen U.S. Electric Transmissi...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    promote collaborative long-term analysis and planning for the Eastern, Western and Texas electricity interconnections, which will help states, utilities, grid operators, and...

  5. Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David A. B.

    Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects David A. B. Miller* Ginzton Laboratory@ee.stanford.edu Abstract: We analyze energy consumption in optical modulators operated in depletion and intended for low, even conceivably being more energy-efficient than an ideal loss-less modulator. ©2012 Optical Society

  6. Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabatini, David M.

    Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services Ramesh Chandra, Taesoo Kim, and tracking down and recovering from such an attack re- quires significant manual effort. Web services for such web services. Aire addresses several challenges, such as propagating repair across services when some

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Reliability of Electrical Interconnects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  8. Analysis of electric vehicle interconnection with commercial building microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    with commercial building microgrids Michael Stadler, Gonçalocommercial building microgrids *) Michael Stadler GonçaloSVOW), http://der.lbl.gov/microgrids-lbnl/current-project-

  9. Analysis of electric vehicle interconnection with commercial building microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    residences (homes) for EV charging: $0.138/kWh EnvironmentalStorage conclusions EV Charging / discharging pattern mainlythe healthcare facility EV battery charging efficiency EV

  10. Analysis of electric vehicle interconnection with commercial building microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2011-01-01

    is limited by battery size -heat storage is limited bybattery > EV • some EVs charged in the afternoon Environmental Energy Technologies Division Storage

  11. Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCTCriticalEnergySiliconDepartment(PARTI). |2

  12. Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCTCriticalEnergySiliconDepartment(PARTI). |21

  13. National Electric Transmission Congestion Study 2006 Eastern Interconnection Analysis

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -Department ofDepartment of Energy San Diego

  14. National Electric Transmission Study 2006 Western Interconnection Analysis

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -Department ofDepartment of Energy San DiegoEXECUTIVEWestern

  15. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  16. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  17. Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures October 30, 2014 - 5:15pm Addthis As a major win...

  18. Equalized on-chip interconnect : modeling, analysis, and design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Byungsub, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    This thesis work explores the use of equalization techniques to improve throughput and reduce power consumption of on-chip interconnect. A theoretical model for an equalized on-chip interconnect is first suggested to provide ...

  19. Interconnect Delay and Area Estimation for Multiple-Pin Nets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, David Z.

    ,000,000 second = 3 years ! #12;Needs for Efficient Interconnect Estimation Models nn EfficiencyEfficiency nn

  20. Incorporating Demand Response into Western Interconnection Transmission Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satchwell, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Aggregator Programs. Demand Response Measurement andIncorporating Demand Response into Western Interconnection13 Demand Response Dispatch

  1. Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications Magnus Hindsberger Kgs. Lyngby 2003 IMM-PHD-2003-112 Interconnected hydro-thermalsystems #12;Technical University of Denmark 45882673 reception@imm.dtu.dk www.imm.dtu.dk IMM-PHD-2003-112 ISSN 0909-3192 #12;Interconnected hydro

  2. On-chip interconnection architecture optimization using a multicommodity flow approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Yuanfang

    2007-01-01

    Routing Architecture Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . .Timing Analysis in On-Chip Interconnection ArchitectureLarge Scale On-Chip Interconnection Architecture Opti-

  3. Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, G.

    2013-03-01

    In the Western Interconnection, there is significant interest in improving approaches to wide-area coordinated operations of the bulk electric power system, in part because of the increasing penetration of variable generation. One proposed solution is an energy imbalance market. This study focused on that approach alone, with the goal of identifying the potential benefits of an energy imbalance market in the year 2020.

  4. Phase 1 - Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James M. Rakowski

    2006-09-30

    This project is focused on evaluating the suitability of materials and complex multi-materials systems for use as solid oxide fuel cell interconnects. ATI Allegheny Ludlum has generated promising results for interconnect materials which incorporate modified surfaces. Methods for producing these surfaces include cladding, which permits the use of novel materials, and modifications via unique thermomechanical processing, which allows for the modification of materials chemistry. The University of Pittsburgh is assisting in this effort by providing use of their in-place facilities for dual atmosphere testing and ASR measurements, along with substantial work to characterize post-exposure specimens. Carnegie Mellon is testing interconnects for chromia scale spallation resistance using macro-scale and nano-scale indentation tests. Chromia spallation can increase electrical resistance to unacceptable levels and interconnect systems must be developed that will not experience spallation within 40,000 hours at operating temperatures. Spallation is one of three interconnect failure mechanisms, the others being excessive growth of the chromia scale (increasing electrical resistance) and scale evaporation (which can poison the cathode). The goal of indentation fracture testing at Carnegie Mellon is to accelerate the evaluation of new interconnect systems (by inducing spalls at after short exposure times) and to use fracture mechanics to understand mechanisms leading to premature interconnect failure by spallation. Tests include bare alloys from ATI and coated systems from DOE Laboratories and industrial partners, using ATI alloy substrates. West Virginia University is working towards developing a cost-effective material for use as a contact material in the cathode chamber of the SOFC. Currently materials such as platinum are well suited for this purpose, but are cost-prohibitive. For the solid-oxide fuel cell to become a commercial reality it is imperative that lower cost components be developed. Based on the results obtained to date, it appears that sterling silver could be an inexpensive, dependable candidate for use as a contacting material in the cathode chamber of the solid-oxide fuel cell. Although data regarding pure silver samples show a lower rate of thickness reduction, the much lower cost of sterling silver makes it an attractive alternative for use in SOFC operation.

  5. Feasibility studies of a power interconnection system for Central American countries: SIEPAC project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, T.; Enamorado, J.C. (Univ. Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica); Vela, A. (Empresa Nacional de Electricidad, Madrid (Spain))

    1994-06-01

    The electrical systems of the Central American countries are linked by 230 kV ac weak border interconnections forming two separated subsystems. The first one includes Guatemala and El Salvador, and the other one comprises the systems of Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. As a consequence, unrestricted energy exchanges among all countries are not possible. This article describes the SIEPAC project which consists of a 1,678 km long 500 kV ac power transmission line that would link the six electrical systems of the region through seven power substations (one for each country and two in Panama), installed close to the highest demand national centers and six control centers of energy (one for each country) to allow coordinated operation of the interconnection.This project also considers a set of complementary assets (230 ac power transmission lines into some countries and the border transmission line between El Salvador and Honduras, and various other equipment). The power transmission line will greatly reinforce the actual border interconnections, which have a reduced capacity of exchange and technical problems associated with the stability of a weak longitudinal system. On the other hand, economic savings for the region would be achieved, coming from a higher coordination level in the operation and planning of their systems.

  6. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Livermore, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA); Riddle, Robert A. (Tracy, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

  7. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.; Malba, V.; Riddle, R.A.

    1997-08-05

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules is disclosed. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder. 10 figs.

  8. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-02-01

    This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

  9. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markham, Penn N; Liu, Yilu; Young II, Marcus Aaron

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  10. Hybrid Silicon Photonics for Optical Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    Promising Technology for the hybrid silicon laser in 2007.Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescentA. Yariv, “Electrically pumped hybrid evanescent Si/InGaAsP

  11. Title 16 USC 824a Interconnection and Coordination of Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Title 16 USC 824a Interconnection and Coordination of Facilities, Emergencies, Transmission to Foreign Countries Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  12. New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the first National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS). The NOWEGIS investigated the key economic and technological factors that will influence the...

  13. CHP: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices, 2006 The adoption of combined heat and power (CHP) systems by American industries has made substantial strides in the last...

  14. Microgrid V2G Charging Station Interconnection Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation by Mike Simpson of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) describes NREL's microgrid vehicle-to-grid charging station interconnection testing.

  15. Review of Direct Metal Bonding for Microelectronic Interconnections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, G.G.

    Microelectronic interconnections require advanced joining techniques. Direct metal bonding methods, which include thercomsonic and thermocompression bonding, offer remarkable advantages over soldering and adhesives joining. ...

  16. Interconnection arrangement of routers of processor boards in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    physical interconnect structure includes routers in service or compute processor boards distributed in an array of cabinets connected in series on each board and to respective...

  17. Topic A Awardee: Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    policy makers Consumer and environmental interests Transmission Planning Authorities Market participants generating, transmitting or consuming electricity within the Eastern...

  18. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Greg; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  19. Molecular Electronics: From Devices and Interconnect to Circuits and Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Seth Copen

    of these emerging nanotechnologies is the assumption that some form of self-assembly will be required to fabricateMolecular Electronics: From Devices and Interconnect to Circuits and Architecture MIRCEA R. STAN and architecture. Based on proposed nanoscale interconnect and device structures, we explore the design space

  20. Motivating Future Interconnects: A Differential Measurement Analysis of PCI Latency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hand, Steven

    Motivating Future Interconnects: A Differential Measurement Analysis of PCI Latency David J. Miller illustrate how an evolution in the common PCI interconnect architecture has worsened latency by a factor, mi- crobenchmark, measurement, PCI Express 1. INTRODUCTION Demand for performance is constantly

  1. Improved Crosstalk Modeling with Applications to Noise Constrained Interconnect Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, David Z.

    Improved Crosstalk Modeling with Applications to Noise Constrained Interconnect Optimization This paper presents a highly accurate yet efficient crosstalk noise model, the 2-˘ model, and applies to be noise immune, ac- curate yet efficient noise models are needed to guide interconnect optimizations

  2. Generalized Lyapunov Function for Stability Analysis of Interconnected Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Generalized Lyapunov Function for Stability Analysis of Interconnected Power Systems M. A. Mahmud of Lyapunov function is necessary to analyze the stability of a system. This paper presents an idea for formulating generalized Lyapunov function for the stability analysis of interconnected power systems. Lyapunov

  3. Updating Small Generator Interconnection Procedures for New Market Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Fox, K.; Stanfield, S.; Varnado, L.; Culley, T.; Sheehan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Federal and state regulators are faced with the challenge of keeping interconnection procedures updated against a backdrop of evolving technology, new codes and standards, and considerably transformed market conditions. This report is intended to educate policymakers and stakeholders on beneficial reforms that will keep interconnection processes efficient and cost-effective while maintaining a safe and reliable power system.

  4. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurlbut, David

    2012-04-23

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. It is intended for geothermal experts in either the private or public sector who are less familiar with how the electricity system operates beyond the geothermal plant. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this "big picture" three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology’s market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  5. Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    - are identifying transmission requirements under a broad range of alternative electricity futures (including intensive application of demand-side technologies), and...

  6. Reactive power interconnection requirements for PV and wind plants : recommendations to NERC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, Jason; Walling, Reigh; Peter, William; Von Engeln, Edi; Seymour, Eric; Nelson, Robert; Casey, Leo; Ellis, Abraham; Barker, Chris.

    2012-02-01

    Voltage on the North American bulk system is normally regulated by synchronous generators, which typically are provided with voltage schedules by transmission system operators. In the past, variable generation plants were considered very small relative to conventional generating units, and were characteristically either induction generator (wind) or line-commutated inverters (photovoltaic) that have no inherent voltage regulation capability. However, the growing level of penetration of non-traditional renewable generation - especially wind and solar - has led to the need for renewable generation to contribute more significantly to power system voltage control and reactive power capacity. Modern wind-turbine generators, and increasingly PV inverters as well, have considerable dynamic reactive power capability, which can be further enhanced with other reactive support equipment at the plant level to meet interconnection requirements. This report contains a set of recommendations to the North-America Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) as part of Task 1-3 (interconnection requirements) of the Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) work plan. The report discusses reactive capability of different generator technologies, reviews existing reactive power standards, and provides specific recommendations to improve existing interconnection standards.

  7. Evaluation of a Surface Treatment on the Performance of Stainless Steels for SOFC Interconnect Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alman, D.E.; Holcomb, Adler, T.A.; G.R.; Wilson, R.D.; Jablonski, P.D.

    2007-04-01

    Pack cementation-like Cerium based surface treatments have been found to be effective in enhancing the oxidation resistance of ferritic steels (Crofer 22APU) for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The application of either a CeN- or CeO2 based surface treatment results in a decrease in weight gain by a factor of three after 4000 hours exposure to air+3%H2O at 800oC. Similar oxide scales formed on treated and untreated surfaces, with a continuous Cr-Mn outer oxide layer and a continuous inner Cr2O3 layer formed on the surface. However, the thickness of the scales, and the amount of internal oxidation were significantly reduced with the treatment, leading to the decrease in oxidation rate. This presentation will detail the influence of the treatment on the electrical properties of the interconnect. Half-cell experiments (LSM cathode sandwiched between two steel interconnects) and full SOFC button cell experiments were run with treated and untreated interconnects. Preliminary results indicate the Ce treatment can improve SOFC performance.

  8. Method and closing pores in a thermally sprayed doped lanthanum chromite interconnection layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01

    A dense, substantially gas-tight electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an air electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles doped with an element or elements selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by thermal spraying doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles, either by plasma arc spraying or flame spraying; (C) depositing a mixture of CaO and Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 on the surface of the thermally sprayed layer; and (D) heating the doped LaCrO.sub.3 layer coated with CaO and Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 surface deposit at from about 1000.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C. to substantially close the pores, at least at a surface, of the thermally sprayed doped LaCrO.sub.3 layer. The result is a dense, substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the nonselected portion of the air electrode. A fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell, for example for generation of electrical power.

  9. Review of the Recent Frequency Performance of the Eastern, Western and ERCOT Interconnections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H

    2010-12-20

    The reliable operation of an electric power system depends on careful management of the balance between generation and load to ensure that system frequency is maintained within narrow bounds around a scheduled value. Yet, maintaining frequency at the scheduled value is challenging because the load served is continuously changing, and occasionally, events such as the sudden loss of a large generation plant or large amount of load, cause frequency to deviate abruptly. This report reviews the recent history of frequency performance for all three U.S. interconnections: Eastern, Western, and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The review is based on data collected by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC). The review focuses on frequency response, which measures the performance of the interconnections immediately following sudden, large imbalances between load and generation. Trends in frequency response are presented and preliminary efforts are made to relate frequency response to other aspects of frequency performance and to examine aspects of the methods used to calculate frequency response.

  10. Method and closing pores in a thermally sprayed doped lanthanum chromite interconnection layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.

    1995-02-14

    A dense, substantially gas-tight electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an air electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO{sub 3} particles doped with an element or elements selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by thermal spraying doped LaCrO{sub 3} particles, either by plasma arc spraying or flame spraying; (C) depositing a mixture of CaO and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the surface of the thermally sprayed layer; and (D) heating the doped LaCrO{sub 3} layer coated with CaO and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface deposit at from about 1,000 C to 1,200 C to substantially close the pores, at least at a surface, of the thermally sprayed doped LaCrO{sub 3} layer. The result is a dense, substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the nonselected portion of the air electrode. A fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell, for example for generation of electrical power. 5 figs.

  11. Optimization of the BEOL Interconnect Stack for Advanced Semiconductor Technology Nodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Pooja Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    2.2 Wire Optimization at System Level . . . . . . . . .3 Experiments for Interconnect Dimension Optimization3.1.1 Optimization of Interconnect Dimensions 3.1.2

  12. SETS, March 2006Institute of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hellebrand, Sybille

    SETS, March 2006Institute of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology Alg. & Tools" in Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering (Master program or main study period for Diploma) · 30 min of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology Overview ATPG Fault-models & BIST for interconnections Test

  13. EIS-0342: Wanapa Energy Center Interconnection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This EIS analyzes DOE's decision to suppport the installation of highly efficient combustion turbines (CTs) generators at the Wanapa Energy Center. Each CT would exhaust through a heat recovery steam generator that can be fired by auxiliary duct burners. The HRSGs would produce steam to be used onsite in condensing steam turbines.

  14. Western Baldwin County, AL Grid Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas DeBell

    2011-09-30

    The Objective of this Project was to provide an additional supply of electricity to the affected portions of Baldwin County, AL through the purchase, installation, and operation of certain substation equipment.

  15. Algorithmic Decision Theory and the Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    surmount concomitant challenges: -Interoperating/distributed decision makers and decision-making devices. of Energy to the SIAM Science Policy Committee, October 2009. ·Others benefit from a presentation by Massoud ·Today's electric power systems have grown up incrementally and haphazardly ­ they were not designed from

  16. Office of Legacy Management Decision Tree for Solar Photovoltaic Projects - 13317

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmer, John; Butherus, Michael; Barr, Deborah L.

    2013-07-01

    To support consideration of renewable energy power development as a land reuse option, the DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) established a partnership to conduct an assessment of wind and solar renewable energy resources on LM lands. From a solar capacity perspective, the larger sites in the western United States present opportunities for constructing solar photovoltaic (PV) projects. A detailed analysis and preliminary plan was developed for three large sites in New Mexico, assessing the costs, the conceptual layout of a PV system, and the electric utility interconnection process. As a result of the study, a 1,214-hectare (3,000-acre) site near Grants, New Mexico, was chosen for further study. The state incentives, utility connection process, and transmission line capacity were key factors in assessing the feasibility of the project. LM's Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site was also chosen for consideration because the uranium mill tailings disposal cell is on a hillside facing south, transmission lines cross the property, and the community was very supportive of the project. LM worked with the regulators to demonstrate that the disposal cell's long-term performance would not be impacted by the installation of a PV solar system. A number of LM-unique issues were resolved in making the site available for a private party to lease a portion of the site for a solar PV project. A lease was awarded in September 2012. Using a solar decision tree that was developed and launched by the EPA and NREL, LM has modified and expanded the decision tree structure to address the unique aspects and challenges faced by LM on its multiple sites. The LM solar decision tree covers factors such as land ownership, usable acreage, financial viability of the project, stakeholder involvement, and transmission line capacity. As additional sites are transferred to LM in the future, the decision tree will assist in determining whether a solar PV project is feasible on the new sites. (authors)

  17. Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures, 2003" ,"All Buildings* Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  18. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, K.; Coddington, M.; Burman, K.; Hayter, S.; Kroposki, B.; Watson, A.

    2009-12-01

    This study describes technical assistance provided by NREL to help New York City and Con Edison improve the interconnection of distributed PV systems on a secondary network distribution system.

  19. Nanoantenna couplers for metal-insulator-metal waveguide interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onbasli, Mehmet Cengiz

    State-of-the-art copper interconnects suffer from increasing spatial power dissipation due to chip downscaling and RC delays reducing operation bandwidth. Wide bandwidth, minimized Ohmic loss, deep sub-wavelength confinement ...

  20. Energy and Reliability in Future NOC Interconnected CMPS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyungjun

    2013-08-01

    In this dissertation, I explore energy and reliability in future NoC (Network-on-Chip) interconnected CMPs (chip multiprocessors) as they have become a first-order constraint in future CMP design. In the first part, we ...

  1. Passive Reduced Order Modeling of Multiport Interconnects via Semidefinite Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmood, Zohaib

    In this paper we present a passive reduced order modeling algorithm for linear multiport interconnect structures. The proposed technique uses rational fitting via semidefinite programming to identify a passive transfer ...

  2. Interconnecting PV on NYC's Secondary Network Distribution System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report.

  3. Photovoltaic Systems Interconnected onto Secondary Network Distribution Systems – Success Stories

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report examines six case studies of photovoltaic (PV) systems integrated into secondary network systems. The six PV systems were chosen for evaluation because they are interconnected to secondary network systems located in four major Solar America Cities.

  4. Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic Systems STEVENS III,JOHN...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    STEVENS III,JOHN W.; BONN,RUSSELL H.; GINN,JERRY W.; GONZALEZ,SIGIFREDO; KERN,GREG 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS;...

  5. Fast high-order variation-aware IC interconnect analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ye, Xiaoji

    2009-05-15

    verification. However, handling a multitude of inter-die/intra-die variations and assessing their impacts on circuit performance can dramatically complicate the timing analysis. In this thesis, three practical interconnect delay and slew analysis methods...

  6. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies in the United States Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meibom, P.; Larsen, H. V.; Barth, R.; Brand, H.; Tuohy, A.; Ela, E.

    2011-08-01

    This project sought to evaluate the impacts of high wind penetrations on the U.S. Eastern Interconnection and analyze how different unit commitment strategies may affect these impacts.

  7. Load frequency control of interconnected power systems with system constraints 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choudhury, Md Ershadul H

    1993-01-01

    So far, researches in load frequency controls ( LFC) are involved in analysis of dynamic responses under normal conditions of the - interconnected power systems. In This research considers some system constraints (for example, one area fails...

  8. Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from New FERC Interconnection Procedures October 30, 2014 - 5:15pm Addthis As a major win for solar and testament to the impact of DOE SunShot funded research at the national...

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Through-Substrate Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesus A.

    We developed a through-substrate copper-damascene interconnect technology in silicon with minimal impedance. Via impedance was extracted using parameter measurements at 50 GHz that were matched to simple circuit models. ...

  10. Evaluation of phase change materials for reconfigurable interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khoo, Chee Ying

    2010-01-01

    The possible use of programmable integrated circuit interconnect vias using an indirectly heated phase change material is evaluated. Process development and materials investigations are examined. Devices capable of multiple ...

  11. Developing Generic Dynamic Models for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kou, Gefei; Hadley, Stanton W; Markham, Penn N; Liu, Yilu

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) has built three major power flow cases for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection (EI) based on various levels of energy/environmental policy conditions, technology advances, and load growth. Using the power flow cases, this report documents the process of developing the generic 2030 dynamic models using typical dynamic parameters. The constructed model was validated indirectly using the synchronized phasor measurements by removing the wind generation temporarily.

  12. Upgrade of the LHC magnet interconnections thermal shielding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musso, Andrea; Barlow, Graeme; Bastard, Alain; Charrondiere, Maryline; Deferne, Guy; Dib, Gaëlle; Duret, Max; Guinchard, Michael; Prin, Hervé; Craen, Arnaud Vande; Villiger, Gilles [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, Meyrin 1211, Geneva 23, CH (Switzerland); Chrul, Anna [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul.Radzikowskiego 152, 31-324 Krakow (Poland); Damianoglou, Dimitrios [NTUA National Technical University of Athens, Heeron Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou (Greece); Strychalski, Micha? [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, Wroclaw, 50-370 (Poland); Wright, Loren [Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YW (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-29

    The about 1700 interconnections (ICs) between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets include thermal shielding at 50-75 K, providing continuity to the thermal shielding of the magnet cryostats to reduce the overall radiation heat loads to the 1.9 K helium bath of the magnets. The IC shield, made of aluminum, is conduction-cooled via a welded bridge to the thermal shield of the adjacent magnets which is actively cooled. TIG welding of these bridges made in the LHC tunnel at installation of the magnets induced a considerable risk of fire hazard due to the proximity of the multi-layer insulation of the magnet shields. A fire incident occurred in one of the machine sectors during machine installation, but fortunately with limited consequences thanks to prompt intervention of the operators. LHC is now undergoing a 2 years technical stop during which all magnet's ICs will have to be opened to consolidate the magnet electrical connections. The IC thermal shields will therefore have to be removed and re-installed after the work is completed. In order to eliminate the risk of fire hazard when re-welding, it has been decided to review the design of the IC shields, by replacing the welded bridges with a mechanical clamping which also preserves its thermal function. An additional advantage of this new solution is the ease in dismantling for maintenance, and eliminating weld-grinding operations at removal needing radioprotection measures because of material activation after long-term operation of the LHC. This paper describes the new design of the IC shields and in particular the theoretical and experimental validation of its thermal performance. Furthermore a status report of the on-going upgrade work in the LHC is given.

  13. Exploration of Pipelined FPGA Interconnect Structures Akshay Sharma Katherine Compton Carl Ebeling Scott Hauck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    1 Exploration of Pipelined FPGA Interconnect Structures Akshay Sharma Katherine Compton Carl the interconnect structure of pipelined FPGAs. Specifically, we explore the effects of interconnect register, and the flexibility of the interconnect structure on the performance of a pipelined FPGA. Our experiments with the Ra

  14. Method of forming a plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spengler, Charles J. (Murrysville, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA); Kuo, Lewis (Monroeville, PA); Richards, Von L. (Anyola, IN)

    1995-01-01

    A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles doped with an element selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by plasma spraying doped LaCrO.sub.3 powder, preferably compensated with chromium as Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 and/or dopant element, preferably by plasma arc spraying; and, (C) heating the doped and compensated LaCrO.sub.3 layer to about 1100.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. to provide a dense, substantially gas-tight, substantially hydration-free, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell.

  15. Method of forming a plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spengler, C.J.; Folser, G.R.; Vora, S.D.; Kuo, L.; Richards, V.L.

    1995-06-20

    A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO{sub 3} particles doped with an element selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by plasma spraying doped LaCrO{sub 3} powder, preferably compensated with chromium as Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and/or dopant element, preferably by plasma arc spraying; and, (C) heating the doped and compensated LaCrO{sub 3} layer to about 1100 C to 1300 C to provide a dense, substantially gas-tight, substantially hydration-free, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell. 6 figs.

  16. Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicles driving schedules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Center for Energy and Innovative Technologies; NEC Laboratories America Inc.; Cardoso, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Bozchalui, Mohammed C.; Sharma, Ratnesh; Marnay, Chris; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana; Ferrao, Paulo

    2013-10-27

    The large scale penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) will introduce technical challenges to the distribution grid, but also carries the potential for vehicle-to-grid services. Namely, if available in large enough numbers, EVs can be used as a distributed energy resource (DER) and their presence can influence optimal DER investment and scheduling decisions in microgrids. In this work, a novel EV fleet aggregator model is introduced in a stochastic formulation of DER-CAM [1], an optimization tool used to address DER investment and scheduling problems. This is used to assess the impact of EV interconnections on optimal DER solutions considering uncertainty in EV driving schedules. Optimization results indicate that EVs can have a significant impact on DER investments, particularly if considering short payback periods. Furthermore, results suggest that uncertainty in driving schedules carries little significance to total energy costs, which is corroborated by results obtained using the stochastic formulation of the problem.

  17. Better Buildings Alliance Solar Decision Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Businesses considering implementing solar PV may encounter widespread geographic differences regarding utility incentive structures (buy-down incentives, performance based incentives, feed-in tariffs, etc.), utility policies (net metering, interconnection requirements), regulatory structures, and permitting requirements. They might also have uncertainty about how to assess the different ownership structures (PPA, lease, own, etc.). The Solar Decision Guide can help companies navigate this complex environment to determine if investing in solar makes financial sense and to identify the regions that offer the most promising returns on solar investment.

  18. Decision Models for Bulk Energy Transportation Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    natural gas pipeline capacity from gulf to NE? Production: How would major investment in a specific/trading restrictions? What would be impacts on fuel and electricity markets? How do high natural gas prices drive1 Decision Models for Bulk Energy Transportation Networks Electrical Engineering Professor Jim Mc

  19. Tailoring Fe-Base Alloys for Intermediate Temperature SOFC Interconnect Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.H. Zhu; M.P. Brady; H.U. Anderson

    2007-12-31

    This report summarized the research efforts and major conclusions for our SECA Phase I and II project focused on Cr-free or low Cr Fe-Ni based alloy development for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect application. Electrical conductivity measurement on bulk (Fe,Ni){sub 3}O{sub 4} coupons indicated that this spinel phase possessed a higher electrical conductivity than Cr{sub 1.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} spinel and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which was consistent with the low area specific resistance (ASR) of the oxide scale formed on these Fe-Ni based alloys. For Cr-free Fe-Ni binary alloys, although the increase in Ni content in the alloys improved the oxidation resistance, and the Fe-Ni binary alloys exhibited adequate CTE and oxide scale ASR, their oxidation resistance needs to be further improved. Systematic alloy design efforts have led to the identification of one low-Cr (6wt.%) Fe-Ni-Co based alloy which formed a protective, electrically-conductive Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} inner layer underneath a Cr-free, highly conductive spinel outer layer. This low-Cr, Fe-Ni-Co alloy has demonstrated a good CTE match with other cell components; high oxidation resistance comparable to that of Crofer; low oxide scale ASR with the formation of electrically-insulating phases in the oxide scale; no scale spallation during thermal cycling; adequate compatibility with cathode materials; and comparable mechanical properties with Crofer. The existence of the Cr-free (Fe,Co,Ni){sub 3}O{sub 4} outer layer effectively reduced the Cr evaporation and in transpiration testing resulted in a 6-fold decrease in Cr evaporation as compared to a state-of-the-art ferritic interconnect alloy. In-cell testing using an anode supported cell with a configuration of Alloy/Pt/LSM/YSZ/Ni+YSZ indicates that the formation of the Cr-free spinel layer via thermal oxidation was effective in blocking the Cr migration and thus improving the cell performance stability. Electroplating of the Fe-Ni-Co alloys as precursor to synthesize a protective spinel layer on commercial ferritic steels has been initiated to facilitate the utilization of the Cr-free spinel as a surface seal to block Cr evaporation. It is suggested that low-cost Fe-Ni-Co alloy coating on commercial ferritic steels might be the best approach to completely eliminate the Cr poisoning problem in SOFC stacks, while maintaining the relatively low overall cost of the interconnect component.

  20. Design of wide-area electric transmission networks under uncertainty : methods for dimensionality reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donohoo-Vallett, Pearl Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The growth of location-constrained renewable generators and the integration of electricity markets in the United States and Europe are forcing transmission planners to consider the design of interconnection-wide systems. ...

  1. Spintronic switches for ultra low energy global interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharad, Mrigank Roy, Kaushik

    2014-05-07

    We present ultra-low energy interconnect design using nano-scale spin-torque (ST) switches for global data-links. Emerging spin-torque phenomena can lead to ultra-low-voltage, high-speed current-mode magnetic-switches. ST-switches can simultaneously provide large trans-impedance gain by employing magnetic tunnel junctions, to convert current-mode signals into large-swing voltage levels. Such device-characteristics can be used in the design of energy-efficient current-mode global interconnects.

  2. Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

    2001-01-01

    High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

  3. Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

    2000-01-01

    High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

  4. Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures for All Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number of...

  5. Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    C9. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  6. Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    DIV. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures by Census Division, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number...

  7. Fundamental Studies of the Durability of Materials for Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick S. Pettit; Gerald H. Meier

    2006-06-30

    Ferritic stainless steels are a leading candidate material for use as an SOFC interconnect, but have the problem of forming volatile chromia species that lead to cathode poisoning. This project has focused both on optimization of ferritic alloys for SOFC applications and evaluating the possibility of using alternative materials. The initial efforts involved studying the oxidation behavior of a variety of chromia-forming ferritic stainless steels in the temperature range 700-900 C in atmospheres relevant to solid oxide fuel cell operation. The alloys exhibited a wide variety of oxidation behavior based on composition. A method for reducing the vaporization is to add alloying elements that lead to the formation of a thermally grown oxide layer over the protective chromia. Several commercial steels form manganese chromate on the surface. This same approach, combined with observations of TiO{sub 2} overlayer formation on the chromia forming, Ni-based superalloy IN 738, has resulted in the development of a series of Fe-22 Cr-X Ti alloys (X=0-4 wt%). Oxidation testing has indicated that this approach results in significant reduction in chromia evaporation. Unfortunately, the Ti also results in accelerated chromia scale growth. Fundamental thermo-mechanical aspects of the durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect alloys have also been investigated. A key failure mechanism for interconnects is the spallation of the chromia scale that forms on the alloy, as it is exposed to fuel cell environments. Indentation testing methods to measure the critical energy release rate (Gc) associated with the spallation of chromia scale/alloy systems have been evaluated. This approach has been used to evaluate the thermomechanical stability of chromia films as a function of oxidation exposure. The oxidation of pure nickel in SOFC environments was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the NiO scaling kinetics and a four-point probe was used to measure the area-specific resistance (ASR) to estimate the electrical degradation of the interconnect. In addition to the baseline study of pure nickel, steps were taken to decrease the ASR through alloying and surface modifications. Finally, high conductivity composite systems, consisting of nickel and silver, were studied. These systems utilize high conductivity silver pathways through nickel while maintaining the mechanical stability that a nickel matrix provides.

  8. Bargaining-based Energy Trading Market for Interconnected Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    Bargaining-based Energy Trading Market for Interconnected Microgrids Hao Wang, Jianwei Huang trading among mul- tiple connected microgrids, and analyzes the impacts of such trading on the microgrids' costs. In our model, microgrids with excessive power generations can trade with other microgrids

  9. GRAIL : Graphical Representation of Activity, Interconnection and Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stepney, Susan

    GRAIL : Graphical Representation of Activity, Interconnection and Loading Susan Stepney GEC One of the tools being developed as part of ParSiFal is GRAIL. It represents an occam program flow of control, not communication channels): Susan Stepney. "GRAIL: Graphical Representation

  10. On-chip Interconnection Network for Accelerator-Rich Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

    -purpose cores. Driven by the need for energy efficiency, the in- dustry has proposed incorporating accelerators to interact with the memory system. For this reason, an open question is: How should the accelerators, coresOn-chip Interconnection Network for Accelerator-Rich Architectures Jason Cong Michael Gill Yuchen

  11. Silicon Micro-Needles with Flexible Interconnections , Y. Hanein1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of Zoology, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 Abstract - A flexible polyimide to carry elements such as amplifiers, battery or memory. The interconnecting scheme uses two polyimide base and the micro-electrodes, while the polyimide layers provide flexible insulation. The current

  12. Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    . The production planning level typically operates on the timescale of days. Although the higher levelsTechniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd \\Lambda Fantoft Prosess Teknostallen; 1 INTRODUCTION For many real­life multivariable control problems, traditional single­loop control

  13. Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    . The production planning level typically operates on the timescale of days. Although the higher levelsTechniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd Fantoft Prosess Teknostallen N-7030-life multivariable control problems, traditional single-loop control theory is clearly incomplete. This occurs when

  14. A Model for Interlevel Coupling Noise in Multilevel Interconnect ' Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    A Model for Interlevel Coupling Noise in Multilevel Interconnect ' Structures Martin Saint- case noise is simulated using an RC transmission line model that includes the timing of the attackers noise model is sometimes very desirable, in particular for the design of clock distribution networks

  15. EA-1989: Cliffrose Solar Energy Interconnection Project, Mohave County, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Western Area Power Administration (Western) is preparing an EA that will assess the potential environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Cliffrose Solar Energy Project in Mohave County, Arizona, to Western’s transmission system at the existing Griffith Substation. Additional information is available at http://www.wapa.gov/dsw/environment/CliffroseSolarEnergyProject.html.

  16. SHIELDING AREA OPTIMIZATION UNDER THE SOLUTION OF INTERCONNECT CROSSTALK1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei

    SHIELDING AREA OPTIMIZATION UNDER THE SOLUTION OF INTERCONNECT CROSSTALK1 1 This paper is supported integrity. Simultaneous shield insertion and net ordering (SINO) has been shown to be effective to reduce both capacitive and inductive coupling. Although shield insertion could reduce crosstalk efficiently

  17. An Optical Interconnection Architecture for Large Packet Switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Italy ABSTRACT The design of switching architectures for today's telecommunication networks needsICTON 2007 An Optical Interconnection Architecture for Large Packet Switches A. Bianco, E. Carta, D to consider the limits imposed by electronic technology; in particular, it must take into account power

  18. S-700A MOSSBAUER DRIVE INTERCONNECTION DIAGRAM FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Browder, Tom

    S-700A MOSSBAUER DRIVE INTERCONNECTION DIAGRAM FOR C.A.OPERATION WITH COMPUTER CUMPUEK WITH K A OK OPERATION D V -LIY I SCALER RESET DATA The S-700A drive and K-4 motor can also be used in Constant Velocity the constant velocity motion. The duty cycle is about 85%, and there is provision for the gating of data so

  19. innovati nInterconnection Standards Guide Integration of Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineers (IEEE). The goal: to create consensus standards with participation from industry, utilitiesinnovati nInterconnection Standards Guide Integration of Distributed Energy Resources Across for more than a decade. IEEE 1547: Consensus Standard Paves the Way NREL researchers have always believed

  20. Decision Summaries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information Center Decision Summaries Decision Summaries June 19, 2015 Summary of Decisions - June 15, 2015 - June 19, 2015 Decisions were issued on: - Personnel Security (10...

  1. A 2-Slot Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM) Interconnect Network for Gigascale Integration (GSI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Ajay

    critical-path interconnect on that tier. For a given range of interconnect lengths, this idleness can of the low average activity factor, and can be utilized by sending two binary transitions on a single wire

  2. Through-substrate interconnects for 3-D integration and RF systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Joyce H. (Joyce Hsia-Sing), 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Interconnects on silicon chips are fabricated on the top surface with an ever-increasing number of metal layers necessary to just meet performance needs. While devices have scaled according to Moore's law, interconnects ...

  3. Performance evaluation of configurable arrays with mesh interconnections and wormhole routing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnamoorthy, Deviusha

    1997-01-01

    Large scale multiprocessors are built on a particular interconnection network with a fixed number of processors. The interconnections are based on topologies like mesh, hypercube, etc. If the logical domain of a problem does not map to the physical...

  4. Tubular solid oxide fuel cells with porous metal supports and ceramic interconnections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Kevin (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2012-05-08

    An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell structure capable of operating at from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. having a very thin porous hollow elongated metallic support tube having a thickness from 0.10 mm to 1.0 mm, preferably 0.10 mm to 0.35 mm, a porosity of from 25 vol. % to 50 vol. % and a tensile strength from 700 GPa to 900 GPa, which metallic tube supports a reduced thickness air electrode having a thickness from 0.010 mm to 0.2 mm, a solid oxide electrolyte, a cermet fuel electrode, a ceramic interconnection and an electrically conductive cell to cell contact layer.

  5. A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greacen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    wp-content/uploads/2010/01/IREC-Interconnection-Procedures-investor-owned utility IREC: Interstate Renewable EnergyRenewable Energy Council (IREC) Model Interconnection

  6. Nanophotonic Optical Interconnection Network Architecture for On-Chip and Off-Chip Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    for an integrated low-power, high-bandwidth optical interconnection network based on microring resonator technology for the next generation of high-performance architectures. The need for an interconnect solution providing lowNanophotonic Optical Interconnection Network Architecture for On-Chip and Off-Chip Communications

  7. Integration of a waveguide self-electrooptic effect device and a vertically coupled interconnect waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

    2008-02-26

    A self-electrooptic effect device ("SEED") is integrated with waveguide interconnects through the use of vertical directional couplers. Light initially propagating in the interconnect waveguide is vertically coupled to the active waveguide layer of the SEED and, if the SEED is in the transparent state, the light is coupled back to the interconnect waveguide.

  8. Low Power Multilevel Interconnect Networks Using Wave-Pipelined Multiplexed (WPM) Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Ajay

    Low Power Multilevel Interconnect Networks Using Wave-Pipelined Multiplexed (WPM) Routing Ajay 30332, USA {joshi, vinita, jeff}@ece.gatech.edu Abstract A low power multilevel interconnect architecture that uses wave-pipelined multiplexed (WPM) interconnect routing is proposed in this paper. WPM

  9. E cient Layout of a Passive, Single-Hop, Fiber-Optic Interconnection (among N stations)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E cient Layout of a Passive, Single-Hop, Fiber-Optic Interconnection (among N stations-hop, ber-optic interconnection among n stations, each with two trans- mitters and one receiver, and a round, but the layout of this interconnection poses a challenge both in terms of wiring complex- ity and power budget

  10. EIS-0183: Record of Decision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|Department of5 Peer ReviewUse ofElectrical Interconnection of

  11. EIS-0183: Revised Record of Decision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|Department of5 Peer ReviewUse ofElectrical Interconnection

  12. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies for the US Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Meibom, P.; Barth, R.; Tuohy, A.; Milligan, M.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing penetrations of wind power on the eastern interconnection of the United States, much research has been discussed on how the increased uncertainty may change how the system is operated. In particular, unit commitment programs which decide what units need to be started up in order to meet the changing demand at least cost may need to have modifications in order to reduce costs and improve reliability on a power system with increasing uncertain variables. This paper outlines a study undertaken for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection in which different advanced unit commitment strategies were simulated for three different years to evaluate the benefits that may occur from using these strategies as an operational tool.

  13. Modular cryogenic interconnects for multi-qubit devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colless, J. I.; Reilly, D. J.

    2014-11-15

    We have developed a modular interconnect platform for the control and readout of multiple solid-state qubits at cryogenic temperatures. The setup provides 74 filtered dc-bias connections, 32 control and readout connections with ?3 dB frequency above 5 GHz, and 4 microwave feed lines that allow low loss (less than 3 dB) transmission 10 GHz. The incorporation of a radio-frequency interposer enables the platform to be separated into two printed circuit boards, decoupling the simple board that is bonded to the qubit chip from the multilayer board that incorporates expensive connectors and components. This modular approach lifts the burden of duplicating complex interconnect circuits for every prototype device. We report the performance of this platform at milli-Kelvin temperatures, including signal transmission and crosstalk measurements.

  14. Using Synchrophasors for Frequency Response Analysis in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosterev, Dmitry; Davies, Donald; Etingov, Pavel V.; Silverstein, Alison; Eto, Joseph H.

    2014-10-19

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of NERC BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. WECC JSIS, NASPI, BPA, CERTS and PNNL collaborate on the common goals to deliver to the industry applications for frequency response analysis at interconnection, Balancing Authority and individual power plant levels. This paper describes a Frequency Response Analysis Tool that has been used for establishing a frequency response baseline for the Western Interconnection. This paper describes how synchrophasor data is used in for determination of generator characteristics – frequency responsive, under load control or baseloaded. This paper also discusses and provides an example of how the frequency response distribution can impact power pick-up on major transmission paths.

  15. Spontaneous synchronization driven by energy transport in interconnected networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincenzo Nicosia; Per Sebastian Skardal; Vito Latora; Alex Arenas

    2015-02-26

    Understanding dynamical processes on networks is an important area of research in complex systems, with far reaching implications and applications in many real-world cases. Here we introduce and study a model of intertwined dynamics on interconnected networks, inspired by the human brain, which consists of bidirectionally coupled synchronization and energy transport processes. Remarkably, the proposed model allows the emergence of spontaneous switch-like synchronization transitions driven by the energy transport dynamics, which qualitatively mirror the transitions observed in human brain dynamics between resting-state and cognitive activity. We provide a steady-state analytical explanation for the observed behavior and show that the switch-like transition is robust over a wide range of model parameters and network topologies. Finally, we suggest that the complexity inherent in other interconnected dynamical processes might be responsible for various other emergent behaviors observed in natural systems.

  16. Characteristics of Interconnected Delta-Hydride Precipitates in Zr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.J. Carroll; M.R. Tonks; T.M. Lillo; B.S. Fromm; DC Haggard; T.C. Morris; W.D. Swank; T.L. Trowbridge; M.C. Carroll

    2014-09-01

    Characterization of extended delta-ZrH1.66 structures in unalloyed zirconium by electron backscatter diffraction analysis confirms that they consist of many interconnected precipitates of multiple, but distinctly related, orientations. The expected orientation relationship of (0001)a-Zr//(111)delta-ZrH1.66 is confirmed between the hydride and one of the surrounding a-Zr matrix grains. The delta-ZrH1.66 precipitates do not extend in a discrete crystalline orientation, but are regularly divided by 60° type {111} twins in which adjacent delta-ZrH1.66 grains share a {111} plane. The observed matching of the close-packed FCC planes of impinging or twinned hydrides within an interconnected structure enables the minimization of the overall interfacial energy through successive nucleation and growth events and twinning.

  17. SOFC Interconnect and Compressive Seal Development at PNNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y S.; Yang, Z Gary; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Xia, Gordon

    2005-11-01

    The development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology represents an opportunity to achieve significant improvements in energy conversion efficiency and reduction of undesirable emissions. However, many technical challenges still need to be overcome before the utilization of the advantages of SOFC can take place. These challenges include the need for improved interconnects and seals for planar SOFC stacks. In this paper, we briefly summarize recent progress at PNNL in these two research areas.

  18. Chromium Vaporization Reduction by Nickel Coatings For SOEC Interconnect Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael V. Glazoff; Sergey N. Rashkeev; J. Stephen Herring

    2014-09-01

    The vaporization of Cr-rich volatile species from interconnect materials is a major source of degradation that limits the lifetime of planar solid oxide devices systems with metallic interconnects, including Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells, or SOECs. Some metallic coatings (Ni, Co, and Cu) significantly reduce the Cr release from interconnects and slow down the oxide scale growth on the steel substrate. To shed additional light upon the mechanisms of such protection and find a suitable coating material for ferritic stainless steel materials, we used a combination of first-principles calculations, thermodynamics, and diffusion modeling to investigate which factors determine the quality of the Ni metallic coating at stainless steel interconnector. We found that the Cr migration in Ni coating is determined by a delicate combination of the nickel oxidation, Cr diffusion, and phase transformation processes. Although the formation of Cr2O3 oxide is more exothermic than that of NiO, the kinetic rate of the chromia formation in the coating layer and its surface is significantly reduced by the low mobility of Cr in nickel oxide and in NiCr2O4 spinel. These results are in a good agreement with diffusion modeling for Cr diffusion through Ni coating layer on the ferritic 441 steel substrate.

  19. Contents ISS and Lyapunov functions Input-to-state stability and interconnections Lyapunov functions Simplicial fixed point algor Lyapunov Functions for Interconnected Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hafstein, Sigurđur Freyr

    Contents ISS and Lyapunov functions Input-to-state stability and interconnections Lyapunov functions Simplicial fixed point algor Lyapunov Functions for Interconnected Systems Fabian Wirth Institute of Mathematics, University of W¨urzburg Workshop on Algorithms for Dynamical Systems and Lyapunov Functions

  20. Electromigration in metal interconnects is the most pernicious failure mechanism in semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs). Early electromigration investigations were primarily focused on aluminum interconnects for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electromigration in metal interconnects is the most pernicious failure mechanism in semiconductor interconnects for silicon-based ICs. An alternative metallization compatible with gallium arsenide (Ga at higher current densities and elevated temperatures. Gold-based metallization was implemented on Ga

  1. Grid Interconnection and Performance Testing Procedures for Vehicle-To-Grid (V2G) Power Electronics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, W.; Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Hoke, A.; Martin, G.; Markel, T.

    2012-03-01

    Bidirectional power electronics can add vehicle-to-grid (V2G) capability in a plug-in vehicle, which then allows the vehicle to operate as a distributed resource (DR). The uniqueness of the battery-based V2G power electronics requires a test procedure that will not only maintain IEEE interconnection standards, but can also evaluate the electrical performance of the vehicle working as a DR. The objective of this paper is to discuss a recently published NREL technical report that provides interim test procedures for V2G vehicles for their integration into the electrical distribution systems and for their performance in terms of continuous output power, efficiency, and losses. Additionally, some other test procedures are discussed that are applicable to a V2G vehicle that desires to provide power reserve functions. A few sample test results are provided based on testing of prototype V2G vehicles at NREL.

  2. Decision Models for Bulk Energy Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Decision Models for Bulk Energy Transportation Networks James D. McCalley August 23, 2005 #12, and Electric Transportation Systems (1) What energy flow patterns would yield significantly improved energy (ISU - Randy Larabee) · City of Ames (Ames - Merlin Hove) · MidAmerican Energy (Des Moines - Alan O

  3. Aging and decision making 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Sophie

    2010-06-30

    The study sought to clarify the effects of aging in regard to decision making abilities. Decision making is dependent upon the Frontal Cortex structures; the Orbitofrontal Cortex and the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex. These structures are thought...

  4. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  5. Electron scattering mechanisms in Cu-Mn films for interconnect applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misják, F.; Nagy, K. H.; Radnóczi, G.; Lobotka, P.

    2014-08-28

    Electrical properties and corresponding structural features of Cu-Mn alloy films with potential application as barrier and interconnect layers were studied. Cu-Mn films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature on SiO{sub 2} substrates. Electrical resistivity measurements were made as a function of film composition and temperature. The specific resistivity varies linearly with the Mn content showing a maximum of 205???cm at 80 at. % Mn. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of all alloy films is low, showing non-metallic conductivity for most compositions. Also a minimum TCR has been observed in the 40–80 at. % Mn range which was attributed to a magnetic transformation around 200–300?K. Electrical resistivity measurements are correlated with the film structure revealed by transmission electron microscopy to clarify the phase regions throughout the composition range. In the 20–40 at. % and 70–80 at. % Mn ranges, two-phase structures were identified, where Cu- or Mn-rich solid solution grains were surrounded by a thin amorphous covering layer. Based on the revealed phase regions and morphologies electron scattering mechanisms in the system were evaluated by combining the Matthiessen's rule and the Mayadas-Schatzkes theory. Grain boundary reflectivity coefficients (r?=?0.6–0.8) were calculated from fitting the model to the measurements. The proposed model indicates that, in a binary system, the special arrangement of the two phases results in new scattering mechanisms. The results are of value in optimizing the various parameters needed to produce a suitable barrier layer.

  6. Generation Interconnection Policies and Wind Power: A Discussion of Issues, Problems, and Potential Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Mudd, C.; DeCesaro, J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the adoption and implementation of FERC Order 2003 and the reasons for the sharp rise in generation interconnection filings in recent years.

  7. Comparing Germany's and California's Interconnection Processes for PV Systems (White Paper)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tweedie, A.; Doris, E.

    2011-07-01

    Establishing interconnection to the grid is a recognized barrier to the deployment of distributed energy generation. This report compares interconnection processes for photovoltaic projects in California and Germany. This report summarizes the steps of the interconnection process for developers and utilities, the average length of time utilities take to process applications, and paperwork required of project developers. Based on a review of the available literature, this report finds that while the interconnection procedures and timelines are similar in California and Germany, differences in the legal and regulatory frameworks are substantial.

  8. Cluster formation in arrays of interconnected chaotic circuits #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galias, Zbigniew

    /ek ## Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Mining and Metallurgy, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30--059 Krak

  9. Cluster formation in arrays of interconnected chaotic circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galias, Zbigniew

    of Electrical Engineering, University of Mining and Metallurgy, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30­059 Krak´ow, POLAND e

  10. DOE/EPRI Electricity Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, Georgianne; Huff, Georgianne; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Kaun, Benjamin C; Kaun, Benjamin C; Rastler, Dan M.; Rastler, Dan M.; Chen, Stella Bingqing; Chen, Stella Bingqing; Cotter, Andrew L.; Cotter, Andrew L.; Bradshaw, Dale T.; Bradshaw, Dale T.; Gauntlett, William D.; Gauntlett, William D.; Currier, Aileen B.; Currier, Aileen B.

    2015-02-01

    Th e Electricity Storage Handbook (Handbook) is a how - to guide for utility and rural cooperative engineers, planners , and decision makers to plan and implement energy storage projects . The H andbook also serves as an information resource for investors and venture capitalists , providing the latest develo pments in technologies and tools to guide their evaluation s of energy storage opportunities . It includes a comprehensive database of the cost of current storage systems in a wide variety of electric utility and customer services, along with interconnection schematics . A list of significant past and present energy storage projects is provided for a practical perspective . Th is Handbook, jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute in collaboration with the National Rural Electric Cooperative Associ ation , is published in electronic form at www.sandia.gov/ess . This Handbook is best viewed online. iii Rev. 1, September 2014 DOE/EPRI Electricity Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA Revision Log Comments, inquiries, corrections, and suggestions can be submitted via the website www.sandia.gov/ess/ , beginning August 1 , 2013. REVISION LOG Rev . Number Date Purpose of Revision Document Number Name or Org. Rev. 0 July 2013 Update and revise the 2003 EPRI - DOE Handbook of Energy Storage for Transmission and Distribution Applications to provide how - to information for various stakeholders. SAND2013 - 5131 DOE (SNL), EPRI, NRECA Rev. 1 Sept. 2014 Chapter 2: * Added information highlighting thermal storage solution. Chapter 3: * Added subchapter highlighting tools available to use to evaluate a Storage solution from a model ing and simulation standpoint. * Added new Subsections 3.3.1 through 3.3.6 . Chapter 4: * With respect to the "AC battery" system: o Added a reference to the patent #4,894,764. o Added a picture of an AC battery . * Added information about KIUC and the RFI and RFP. Appendix A: * Added information regarding ES models and tools. Appendix B: * Expanded on three energy and power cost components. o Calculation of the sum of the energy and power components. o How these costs are highly system dependent and do not scale linear ly. * Expanded on d eri vation of the Total Plant Cost (TPC) and referenced costs that are components of the TPC. * Added explanation of equipment costs . Appendix F: * Added introductory text. Appendix G: * Added reference to AC battery patent . * Removed Hawaii battery projects information. SAND201 5 - XXXX iv Rev. 1, September 201

  11. Klondike III/Biglow Canyon Wind Integration Project; Record of Decision, October 25, 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    2006-10-25

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to implement the Proposed Action identified in the Klondike III/Biglow Canyon Wind Integration Project Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) (DOE/EIS-0374, September 2006). Under the Proposed Action, BPA will offer PPM Energy, Inc. (PPM) contract terms for interconnection of the proposed Klondike III Wind Project, located in Sherman County, Oregon, with the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). BPA will also offer Portland General Electric (PGE)1 contract terms for interconnection of its proposed Biglow Canyon Wind Farm, also located in Sherman County, Oregon, with the FCRTS, as proposed in the FEIS. To interconnect these wind projects, BPA will build and operate a 12-mile long, 230-kilovolt (kV) double-circuit transmission line between the wind projects and BPA's new 230-kV John Day Substation in Sherman County, Oregon. BPA will also expand its existing 500-kV John Day Substation.

  12. Smart buildings with electric vehicle interconnection as buffer for local renewables?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    a building optimize its energy usage without knowing itsa building optimize its energy usage without knowing itshardly optimize its energy usage and models for estimating

  13. Electrically-pumped compact hybrid silicon microring lasers for optical interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    Efficient Vertical Outgassing Channels for Low-Temperaturewill sit. Vertical outgassing channels are formed in the

  14. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    GWh] combined heat and power (CHP) and other distributenand combined heat and power (CHP) systems with and withoutrenewable energy source or CHP system at the building could

  15. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    storage [GWh] combined heat and power (CHP) and otheron Microgrid Combined Heat and Power Adoption,” Journal ofcarbon emissions, combined heat and power, commercial

  16. High performance low cost interconnections for flip chip attachment with electrically conductive adhesive. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This final report is a compilation of final reports from each of the groups participating in the program. The main three groups involved in this effort are the Thomas J. Watson Research Center of IBM Corporation in Yorktown Heights, New York, Assembly Process Design of IBM Corporation in Endicott, New York, and SMT Laboratory of Universal Instruments Corporation in Binghamton, New York. The group at the research center focused on the conductive adhesive materials development and characterization. The group in process development focused on processing of the Polymer-Metal-Solvent Paste (PMSP) to form conductive adhesive bumps, formation of the Polymer-Metal Composite (PMC) on semiconductor devices and study of the bonding process to circuitized organic carriers, and the long term durability and reliability of joints formed using the process. The group at Universal Instruments focused on development of an equipment set and bonding parameters for the equipment to produce bond assembly tooling. Reports of each of these individual groups are presented here reviewing their technical efforts and achievements.

  17. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    storage, and combined heat and power (CHP) systems with and without absorption chillers. A microgrid

  18. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    types of internal combustion engines (ICE) and fuel cells (FC) available – with and without heat exchangers (

  19. Smart buildings with electric vehicle interconnection as buffer for local renewables?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    SVOW), http://der.lbl.gov/microgrids-lbnl/current-project-to commercial building microgrids,“ 2nd European Conference2009, Special Issue on Microgrids and Energy Management,

  20. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    and Marnay, C. (2007). “Microgrids, An Overview of Ongoingand Operation of Microgrids in Commercial Buildings,” IEEEwith commercial smartgrids/microgrids, which may include

  1. Smart buildings with electric vehicle interconnection as buffer for local renewables?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Goncalo; DeForest, Nicholas; Donadee, Jon; Gomez, Tomaz; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Megel, Olivier; Mendes, Goncalo; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2011-05-01

    Some conclusions from this presentation are: (1) EV Charging/discharging pattern mainly depends on the objective of the building (cost versus CO{sub 2}); (2) performed optimization runs show that stationary batteries are more attractive than mobile storage when putting more focus on CO{sub 2} emissions because stationary storage is available 24 hours a day for energy management - it's more effective; (3) stationary storage will be charged by PV, mobile only marginally; and (4) results will depend on the considered region and tariff. Final research work will show the results for 138 different buildings in nine different climate zones and three major utility service territories.

  2. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    could be used to offset EV charging at home. In this paper,to very different EV charging tariffs at the residential9). The higher residential EV charging rates in San Diego,

  3. Smart buildings with electric vehicle interconnection as buffer for local renewables?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Division Conclusions EV Charging / discharging patternresidences (homes) for EV charging: $0.138/kWh Environmental8am – 5pm 7pm – 7am EV battery charging efficiency EV

  4. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    maximum possible PV and solar thermal adoption as well asradiation will impact the adoption of PV and solar thermalconstraint for PV, solar thermal, and EV adoption, and how

  5. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    for the available PV, solar thermal, and EV parking lots atphotovoltaic (PV), solar thermal, stationary batteries,maximum possible PV and solar thermal adoption as well as

  6. Smart buildings with electric vehicle interconnection as buffer for local renewables?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    hourly loads and energy management system (EMS) data.the building energy management system (EMS) can manage (

  7. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    number of cars energy management system (EMS) would like toThe building energy management system (EMS) can use thisthe building energy management system, since it determines

  8. Smart buildings with electric vehicle interconnection as buffer for local renewables?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Energy Technologies Division Equipment also combined heat and power (CHP), PV, solar thermal,solar thermal conventional collectors, HS: Heat storage, BC: Base case, and DN: “Do nothing” case More information at: der.lbl.gov Environmental Energy

  9. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    point are PV, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillerelectricity) solar thermal collector (kW) PV (kW) stationaryelectricity) solar thermal collector (kW) PV (kW) stationary

  10. Power Reduction of CMP Communication Networks via RF-Interconnects M-C. Frank Chang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

    Power Reduction of CMP Communication Networks via RF-Interconnects M-C. Frank Chang , Jason Cong multiprocessors scale to a greater number of processing cores, on-chip interconnection networks will ex- perience dramatic increases in both bandwidth demand and power dissipation. Fortunately, promising gains can be re

  11. Plasticity contributions to interface adhesion in thin-film interconnect structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vainchtein, Anna

    Plasticity contributions to interface adhesion in thin-film interconnect structures Michael Lanea of plasticity in thin copper layers on the interface fracture resistance in thin-film interconnect structures yield properties together with a plastic flow model for the metal layers were used to predict

  12. FIBER-OPTIC BUS-ORIENTED SINGLE-HOP INTERCONNECTIONS AMONG MULTI-TRANSCEIVER STATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,ooffer substantial advantages in power budget and the maximum number of stations that can be interconnected withoutFIBER-OPTIC BUS-ORIENTED SINGLE-HOP INTERCONNECTIONS AMONG MULTI-TRANSCEIVER STATIONS Yitzhak Birk among a set of stations, each equipped with multiple, say c, transmitters and receivers. It employs cz

  13. Interconnect-aware High-level Synthesis for Low Power Lin Zhong and Niraj K. Jha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    optimizes interconnects for power. We take physical design information into account for this pur- pose], the switching activity on CDFG edges is profiled. It is used with the floorplanner to optimize the powerInterconnect-aware High-level Synthesis for Low Power Lin Zhong and Niraj K. Jha Dept

  14. PV Interconnection Risk Analysis through Distribution System Impact Signatures and Feeder Zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PV Interconnection Risk Analysis through Distribution System Impact Signatures and Feeder Zones Grid Integration Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM, USA Abstract-- High penetrations of PV reliability problems. In order to improve the interconnection study process, the use of feeder zones and PV

  15. Record of Decision Available

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has recently published its Record of Decision announcing and explaining DOE’s chosen project alternative and describing any commitments for mitigating potential environmental impacts. The NEPA...

  16. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurlbut, D.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this 'big picture' three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology's market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  17. Catalytic bipolar interconnection plate for use in a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, P.A.

    1996-03-05

    A bipolar interconnection plate is described for use between adjacent fuel cell units in a stacked fuel cell assembly. Each plate is manufactured from an intermetallic composition, examples of which include NiAl or Ni{sub 3}Al which can catalyze steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Distributed within the intermetallic structure of the plate is a ceramic filler composition. The plate includes a first side with gas flow channels therein and a second side with fuel flow channels therein. A protective coating is applied to the first side, with exemplary coatings including strontium-doped or calcium-doped lanthanum chromite. To produce the plate, Ni and Al powders are combined with the filler composition, compressed at a pressure of about 10,000--30,000 psi, and heated to about 600--1000 C. The coating is then applied to the first side of the completed plate using liquid injection plasma deposition or other deposition techniques. 6 figs.

  18. U.S. Virgin Islands Establishes Interconnection Standards to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ensure that the procedure it ultimately adopted would encourage and promote renewable energy development without compromising the safety and reliability of the electricity...

  19. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 1.0: Networked Monitoring and Control of Small Interconnected Wind Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janet.twomey@wichita.edu

    2010-04-30

    EXECUTIVE SUMARRY This report presents accomplishments, results, and future work for one task of five in the Wichita State University Sustainable Energy Solutions Project: To develop a scale model laboratory distribution system for research into questions that arise from networked control and monitoring of low-wind energy systems connected to the AC distribution system. The lab models developed under this task are located in the Electric Power Quality Lab in the Engineering Research Building on the Wichita State University campus. The lab system consists of four parts: 1. A doubly-fed induction generator 2. A wind turbine emulator 3. A solar photovoltaic emulator, with battery energy storage 4. Distribution transformers, lines, and other components, and wireless and wired communications and control These lab elements will be interconnected and will function together to form a complete testbed for distributed resource monitoring and control strategies and smart grid applications testing. Development of the lab system will continue beyond this project.

  20. Implementing Motor Decision Plans 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, R. N.

    2001-01-01

    The first step to reducing energy costs and increasing reliability in motors is to establish a motor plan. A motor plan allows decisions to be made in advance of motor failure, and increases the options available. By contrast, most motor decisions...

  1. A State-Level Comparison of Processes and Timelines for Distributed Photovoltaic Interconnection in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, K.; Davidson, C.; Margolis, R.; Nobler, E.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents results from an analysis of distributed photovoltaic (PV) interconnection and deployment processes in the United States.

  2. Electricity Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS) Visualization in the future because they have virtually no resistance to electric current, offering the possibility of new electric power equipment with more energy efficiency and higher capacity than today's systems

  3. EIS-0183: Record of Decision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|Department of5 Peer ReviewUse ofElectrical Interconnection of the Windy

  4. EIS-0183: Record of Decision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|Department of5 Peer ReviewUse ofElectrical Interconnection of the

  5. EIS-0183: Record of Decision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|Department of5 Peer ReviewUse ofElectrical Interconnection of theLong-Term

  6. EIS-0183: Record of Decision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|Department of5 Peer ReviewUse ofElectrical Interconnection ofTemporary

  7. EIS-0183: Revised Record of Decision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|Department of5 Peer ReviewUse ofElectrical InterconnectionOffer of

  8. EIS-0183: Supplement to Record of Decision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|Department of5 Peer ReviewUse ofElectrical InterconnectionOfferService to

  9. EIS-0183: Supplement to Record of Decision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|Department of5 Peer ReviewUse ofElectrical InterconnectionOfferService

  10. Combination nickel foam expanded nickel screen electrical connection supports for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert; Prevish, Thomas; Bronson, Angela; George, Raymond A.

    2007-01-02

    A solid oxide fuel assembly is made, wherein rows (14, 25) of fuel cells (17, 19, 21, 27, 29, 31), each having an outer interconnection (20) and an outer electrode (32), are disposed next to each other with corrugated, electrically conducting expanded metal mesh member (22) between each row of cells, the corrugated mesh (22) having top crown portions and bottom portions, where the top crown portion (40) have a top bonded open cell nickel foam (51) which contacts outer interconnections (20) of the fuel cells, said mesh and nickel foam electrically connecting each row of fuel cells, and where there are no more metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

  11. An Electrically Switchable Metal-Organic Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Martin, Paul F.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bowden, Mark E.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Dang, Liem X.; Xu, Wu; Chen, Xilin; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-08-19

    Crystalline metal organic framework (MOF) materials containing interconnected porosity can be chemically modified to promote stimulus-driven (light, magnetic or electric fields) structural transformations that can be used in a number of devices. Innovative research strategies are now focused on understanding the role of chemical bond manipulation to reversibly alter the free volume in such structures of critical importance for electro-catalysis, molecular electronics, energy storage technologies, sensor devices and smart membranes. In this letter, we study the mechanism for which an electrically switchable MOF composed of Cu(TCNQ) (TCNQ 5 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) transitions from a high-resistance state to a conducting state in a reversible fashion by an applied potential. The actual mechanism for this reversible electrical switching is still not understood even though a number of reports are available describing the application of electric-field-induced switching of Cu(TCNQ) in device fabrication.

  12. An Electrically Switchable Metal-Organic Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, CA; Martin, PC; Schaef, T; Bowden, ME; Thallapally, PK; Dang, L; Xu, W; Chen, XL; McGrail, BP

    2014-08-19

    Crystalline metal organic framework (MOF) materials containing interconnected porosity can be chemically modified to promote stimulus-driven (light, magnetic or electric fields) structural transformations that can be used in a number of devices. Innovative research strategies are now focused on understanding the role of chemical bond manipulation to reversibly alter the free volume in such structures of critical importance for electro-catalysis, molecular electronics, energy storage technologies, sensor devices and smart membranes. In this letter, we study the mechanism for which an electrically switchable MOF composed of Cu(TCNQ) (TCNQ = 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) transitions from a high-resistance state to a conducting state in a reversible fashion by an applied potential. The actual mechanism for this reversible electrical switching is still not understood even though a number of reports are available describing the application of electric-field-induced switching of Cu(TCNQ) in device fabrication.

  13. EIS-0183: Shepherds Flat Wind Project in Gilliam and Morrow counties...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Documents Available for Download October 19, 2010 EIS-0183: Revised Record of Decision Offer of Conditional Commitment for a Loan Guarantee for, and Electrical Interconnection of,...

  14. Richmond Electric Vehicle Initiative Electric Vehicle Readiness...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Richmond Electric Vehicle Initiative Electric Vehicle Readiness Plan Richmond Electric Vehicle Initiative Electric Vehicle Readiness Plan The REVi plan addresses the electric...

  15. CCHP System with Interconnecting Cooling and Heating Network 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, L.; Geng, K.; Zheng, Z.; Jiang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The consistency between building heating load, cooling load and power load are analyzed in this paper. The problem of energy waste and low equipment usage in a traditional CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with generated electricity...

  16. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R; Ma, Ookie

    2013-11-01

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  17. Essays in decision making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Tom Y., 1976-

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores the impact of individual decision making on the functioning of firms and markets. The first chapter examines how deviations from strict rationality by individuals impact the market for consumer goods. ...

  18. UNDERSTANDING HOME RENOVATION DECISIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    UNDERSTANDING HOME RENOVATION DECISIONS - A Research Project - Background to Our Research Energy to renovate their homes. We're interested in energy efficiency, but in all other efficient renova/ons can lower energy bills, improve comfort by reducing dra

  19. Electrical + Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    Electrical + Computer Engineering Electrical + Computer Engineering 2013 PROFILE PEOPLE Faculty Students Electrical Engineering - 330 Computer Engineering - 224 Graduate Students EE and EE:Systems MSE - 301 EE and EE:Systems PhD - 296 Degrees Awarded Electrical Engineering BSE - 123 Computer Engineering

  20. EIS-0437: Interconnection of the Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project, Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to interconnect the Heartland Wind, LLC, proposed Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project in Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota, to DOE’s Western Area Power Administration transmission system.

  1. Reuse Distance Based Circuit Replacement in Silicon Photonic Interconnection Networks for HPC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    -scale distance, can help to further scale data-movement capabilities in high performance computing (HPC demands within high performance computing (HPC) systems. Silicon photonic (SiP) interconnects [1-3], which

  2. Modeling and Analysis of Large-Scale On-Chip Interconnects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Zhuo

    2010-07-14

    dimensional process-voltage-temperature (PVT) variations demand much more modeling and analysis efforts than ever before, while the analysis of large scale on-chip interconnects that requires solving tens of millions of unknowns imposes great challenges...

  3. High-performance parallel processors based on star-coupled wavelength division multiplexing optical interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); DeGroot, Anthony J. (Castro Valley, CA); Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO)

    2002-01-01

    As the performance of individual elements within parallel processing systems increases, increased communication capability between distributed processor and memory elements is required. There is great interest in using fiber optics to improve interconnect communication beyond that attainable using electronic technology. Several groups have considered WDM, star-coupled optical interconnects. The invention uses a fiber optic transceiver to provide low latency, high bandwidth channels for such interconnects using a robust multimode fiber technology. Instruction-level simulation is used to quantify the bandwidth, latency, and concurrency required for such interconnects to scale to 256 nodes, each operating at 1 GFLOPS performance. Performance scales have been shown to .apprxeq.100 GFLOPS for scientific application kernels using a small number of wavelengths (8 to 32), only one wavelength received per node, and achievable optoelectronic bandwidth and latency.

  4. EIS-0485: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, Nebraska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Western Area Power Administration prepared an EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Grande Prairie Wind Farm, in Holt County, near O’Neill, Nebraska, to Western’s power transmission system.

  5. EIS-0438: Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Albany County, Wyoming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    After the applicant withdrew its request to interconnect the proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project with Western Area Power Administration’s transmission system, Western cancelled preparation of an EIS to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposal.

  6. NMAC 17.9.569 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NMAC 17.9.569 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a Rated Capacity Greater than 10 MW Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  7. NMAC 17.9.568 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NMAC 17.9.568 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a Rated Capacity up to and including 10 MW Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal...

  8. Reliable low latency I/O in torus-based interconnection networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azeez, Babatunde

    2007-04-25

    In today's high performance computing environment I/O remains the main bottleneck in achieving the optimal performance expected of the ever improving processor and memory technologies. Interconnection networks therefore ...

  9. Optically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient Networking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    Optically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient will either be prohibitively costly, overly complex, or result in unsustainable energy requirements. Network of communication-intensive applications. Recent network architectures based on optical circuit switching leverage

  10. Fully Integrated Graphene and Carbon Nanotube Interconnects for Gigahertz High-Speed Cmos Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xiangyu

    Carbon-based nanomaterials such as metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and graphene have been considered as some of the most promising candidates for future interconnect technology ...

  11. Innovative Distributed Power Grid Interconnection and Control Systems: Final Report, December 11, 2000 - August 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePodesta, K.; Birlingmair, D.; West, R.

    2006-03-01

    The contract goal was to further advance distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible with existing systems. This was achieved by developing innovative grid interconnection and control systems.

  12. Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, Charles C. (Naperville, IL); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed therebetween, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material.

  13. Design of a decentralized detection filter for a class of interconnected LTI systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shankar, Shamanth

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, we consider the problem of designing a decentralized detection filter for a class of homogeneous interconnected systems. In this class of systems, all subsystems have an identical structure. A fault in a subsystem propagates via...

  14. ACTIVE SUBSTRATES FOR OPTOELECTRONIC INTERCONNECT Donald Chiarulli, Steven Levitan, Jason Bakos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakos, Jason D.

    silicon on sapphire technology and the adaptation of laser drilling techniques to create vias through different from a conventional BGA chip carrier. It is an active device, not a passive interconnect

  15. Determining Interconnections in Chemical Reaction Networks Antonis Papachristodoulou and Ben Recht

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recht, Ben

    Determining Interconnections in Chemical Reaction Networks Antonis Papachristodoulou and Ben Recht Abstract-- We present a methodology for robust determina- tion of chemical reaction network' dynamics. We illustrate our methodology on a hypothetical chemical reaction network under various

  16. A continuous distribution method for reliability evaluation of interconnected power systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chintaluri, Gouri Mohana

    1993-01-01

    the interconnection effects. Several studies are reported using IEEE-RTS and EPRI System E. The indices of LOLE, EUE and LOLF are obtained and are compared with those of the recursive method for accuracy and efficiency....

  17. Demonstration of monolithically integrated graphene interconnects for low-power CMOS applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyeong-Jae

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, interconnects have become an increasingly difficult design challenge as their relative performance has not improved at the same pace with transistor scaling. The specifications for complex features, clock ...

  18. Companion Gaming: Improving the Quality of Gaming Experiences through Interconnected Gameplay 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Jacob

    2013-08-30

    In recent years, video game publishers and developers such as Ubisoft, Bioware, Microsoft, Capcom, Wideload Games, and NeatherRealm have all attempted to increase brand engagement by means of increased interconnectivity between games of the same...

  19. Determination of Interfacial Adhesion Strength between Oxide Scale and Substrate for Metallic SOFC Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning N.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-01-21

    The interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of metallic interconnects in SOFC operating environments. It is necessary, therefore, to establish a methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the metallic interconnect substrate, and furthermore to design and optimize the interconnect material as well as the coating materials to meet the design life of an SOFC system. In this paper, we present an integrated experimental/analytical methodology for quantifying the interfacial adhesion strength between oxide scale and a ferritic stainless steel interconnect. Stair-stepping indentation tests are used in conjunction with subsequent finite element analyses to predict the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate.

  20. Exploration of alloy 441 chemistry for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul D. Jablonski; Christopher J. Cowen; John S. Sears

    2010-02-01

    Alloy 441 stainless steel (UNS S 44100) is being considered for application as an SOFC interconnect material. There are several advantages to the selection of this alloy over other iron-based or nickel-based alloys: first and foremost alloy 441ss is a production alloy which is both low in cost and readily available. Second, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) more closely matches the CTE of the adjoining ceramic components of the fuel cell. Third, this alloy forms the Laves phase at typical SOFC operating temperatures of 600–800 °C. It is thought that the Laves phase preferentially consumes the Si present in the alloy microstructure. As a result it has been postulated that the long-term area specific resistance (ASR) performance degradation often seen with other ferritic stainless steels, which is associated with the formation of electrically resistive Si-rich oxide subscales, may be avoidable with alloy 441ss. In this paper we explore the physical metallurgy of alloy 441, combining computational thermodynamics with experimental verification, and discuss the results with regards to Laves phase formation under SOFC operating conditions. We show that the incorporation of the Laves phase into the microstructure cannot in itself remove sufficient Si from the ferritic matrix in order to completely avoid the formation of Si-rich oxide subscales. However, the thickness, morphology, and continuity of the Si-rich subscale that forms in this alloy is modified in comparison to non-Laves forming ferritic stainless steel alloys and therefore may not be as detrimental to long-term SOFC performance.

  1. Exploration of alloy 441 chemistry for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski PD, Cowen CJ, Sears JS

    2010-02-01

    Alloy 441 stainless steel (UNS S 44100) is being considered for application as an SOFC interconnect material. There are several advantages to the selection of this alloy over other iron-based or nickel-based alloys: first and foremost alloy 441ss is a production alloy which is both low in cost and readily available. Second, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) more closely matches the CTE of the adjoining ceramic components of the fuel cell. Third, this alloy forms the Laves phase at typical SOFC operating temperatures of 600–800 ?C. It is thought that the Laves phase preferentially consumes the Si present in the alloy microstructure. As a result it has been postulated that the long-term area specific resistance (ASR) performance degradation often seen with other ferritic stainless steels, which is associated with the formation of electrically resistive Si-rich oxide subscales, may be avoidable with alloy 441ss. In this paper we explore the physical metallurgy of alloy 441, combining computational thermodynamics with experimental verification, and discuss the results with regards to Laves phase formation under SOFC operating conditions. We show that the incorporation of the Laves phase into the microstructure cannot in itself remove sufficient Si from the ferritic matrix in order to completely avoid the formation of Si-rich oxide subscales. However, the thickness, morphology, and continuity of the Si-rich subscale that forms in this alloy is modified in comparison to non-Laves forming ferritic stainless steel alloys and therefore may not be as detrimental to long-term SOFC performance

  2. Artificial Intelligence Decision and Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polani, Daniel

    Artificial Intelligence Decision and Information Daniel Polani Artificial Intelligence ­ p.1/26 Decisions: The Fundamental Task Motivation: everything in Artificial Intelligence is basical about taking Intellige Decision: What Door to Open? Artificial Intelligence ­ p.3/26 Bottom Line Clear: decision about

  3. Long-term oxidation behavior of spinel-coated ferritic stainless steel for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guanguang; Nie, Zimin; Templeton, Joshua D.

    2013-06-01

    Long-term tests (>8,000 hours) indicate that AISI 441 ferritic stainless steel coated with a Mn-Co spinel protection layer is a promising candidate material system for IT-SOFC interconnect applications. While uncoated AISI 441 showed a substantial increase in area-specific electrical resistance (ASR), spinel-coated AISI 441 exhibited much lower ASR values (11-13 mOhm-cm2). Formation of an insulating silica sublayer beneath the native chromia-based scale was not observed, and the spinel coatings reduced the oxide scale growth rate and blocked outward diffusion of Cr from the alloy substrate. The structure of the scale formed under the spinel coatings during the long term tests differed from that typically observed on ferritic stainless steels after short term oxidation tests. While short term tests typically indicate a dual layer scale structure consisting of a chromia layer covered by a layer of Mn-Cr spinel, the scale grown during the long term tests consisted of a chromia matrix with discrete regions of Mn-Cr spinel distributed throughout the matrix. The presence of Ti in the chromia scale matrix and/or the presence of regions of Mn-Cr spinel within the scale may have increased the scale electrical conductivity, which would explain the fact that the observed ASR in the tests was lower than would be expected if the scale consisted of pure chromia.

  4. Chapter 4. Participating in Markets for Electrical Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ernst, Damien

    the basic principles of electricity markets. Now: we discuss the decisions that generators, consumers: (I) What is the power that should be generated by the unit to maximize profit if electricity canChapter 4. Participating in Markets for Electrical Energy 1 #12;Previously: we have discussed

  5. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-14

    This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  6. ECE 617: Economic Control of Interconnected Power Systems Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haimovich, Alexander

    ; economic dispatch, penalty factors, optimal power flow, short-term electricity markets and locational economic dispatch problem 4. Thermal unit economic dispatch and methods of solution 5. Optimization with constraints 6. Optimization methods such as linear programming, dynamic programming, nonlinear optimization

  7. STABILITY ANALYSIS OF INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS COUPLED WITH MARKET DYNAMICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Computer Engineering 2Department of Electrical Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison Federal through numeric tests using various mar- ket update models, with detailed generator. The work by Mota and Alvarado [4] gives the basic modeling for full, two-way dynamic coupling between

  8. Model documentation: Electricity Market Module, Electricity Capacity Planning submodule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-07

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The NEMS produces integrated forecasts for energy markets in the United States by achieving a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand. Currently, for each year during the period from 1990 through 2010, the NEMS describes energy supply, conversion, consumption, and pricing. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The supply of electricity is a conversion activity since electricity is produced from other energy sources (e.g., fossil, nuclear, and renewable). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. The EMM consists of four main submodules: Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP), Electricity Fuel Dispatching (EFD), Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP), and Load and Demand-Side Management (LDSM). The ECP evaluates changes in the mix of generating capacity that are necessary to meet future demands for electricity and comply with environmental regulations. The EFD represents dispatching (i.e., operating) decisions and determines how to allocate available capacity to meet the current demand for electricity. Using investment expenditures from the ECP and operating costs from the EFD, the EFP calculates the price of electricity, accounting for state-level regulations involving the allocation of costs. The LDSM translates annual demands for electricity into distributions that describe hourly, seasonal, and time-of-day variations. These distributions are used by the EFD and the ECP to determine the quantity and types of generating capacity that are required to insure reliable and economical supplies of electricity. The EMM also represents nonutility suppliers and interregional and international transmission and trade. These activities are included in the EFD and the ECP.

  9. Risk Assessment and Management for Interconnected and Interactive Critical Flood Defense Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamedifar, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    from failure of electric transmission assets in the Shermancases. Three major electric transmission lines greater then

  10. Tubular screen electrical connection support for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlins, Gregory W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Jaszcar, Michael P. (Murrysville, PA)

    2002-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel assembly is made of fuel cells (16, 16', 18, 24, 24', 26), each having an outer interconnection layer (36) and an outer electrode (28), which are disposed next to each other with rolled, porous, hollow, electrically conducting metal mesh conductors (20, 20') between the fuel cells, connecting the fuel cells at least in series along columns (15, 15') and where there are no metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

  11. Industrial Potential for Substitution of Electricity for Oil and Natural Gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, S. D.; Gardner, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    outlook for electric utilities. By and large, energy substitution decisions will be based on their economic and technical feasibility. In view of projections of the long-term price escalations of oil and natural gas, the economic of choosing electricity...

  12. Mechanical and electrical evaluation of parylene-C encapsulated carbon nanotube networks on a flexible substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dokmeci, Mehmet

    Mechanical and electrical evaluation of parylene-C encapsulated carbon nanotube networks, interconnects, and sensors. In this letter, we demonstrate the fabrication of single-walled carbon nanotube SWNT.1063/1.2976633 Carbon nanotube CNT networks are excellent candi- dates for flexible electronic devices and sensors due

  13. FUTURE POWER GRID INITIATIVE Decision Support for Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FUTURE POWER GRID INITIATIVE Decision Support for Future Power Grid Organizations OBJECTIVE Northwest National Laboratory (509) 371-6607 angela.dalton@pnnl.gov ABOUT FPGI The Future Power Grid a more secure, efficient and reliable future grid. Building on the Electricity Infrastructure Operations

  14. Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed by electromigration and studied by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Kai; Advanced Light Source; UCLA

    2008-01-01

    Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed bygrain orientation [7], study plastic deformation [12-15] andThis aspect of EM-induced plastic deformation in grains

  15. Enabling effective product launch decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akamphon, Sappinandana

    2008-01-01

    The present work looks into the question of optimizing the performance of product launch decisions-in particular, the decisions of product development duration and manufacturing ramp-up. It presents an innovative model for ...

  16. SPIDERS Bi-Directional Charging Station Interconnection Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.

    2013-09-01

    The Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) program is a multi-year Department of Defense-Department of Energy (DOE) collaborative effort that will demonstrate integration of renewables into island-able microgrids using on-site generation control, demand response, and energy storage with robust security features at multiple installations. Fort Carson, Colorado, will be the initial development and demonstration site for use of plug-in electric vehicles as energy storage (also known as vehicle-to-grid or V2G).

  17. FERC Order No. 792 - Interconnection Request | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdisto Electric Coop,Erosion FlumeEventFAOFB EcoSolutionsRequest Jump to:

  18. Decision support for disaster management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rolland, Erik; Patterson, Raymond A.; Ward, Keith; Dodin, Bajis

    2010-01-01

    of the disaster management organizations. Therefore, thishybrid meta-heuristics. Keywords Disaster management . Meta-heuristics . Project management . Scheduling . Decision

  19. Arsenic in Bangladesh Decision analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelman, Andrew

    Arsenic in Bangladesh Decision analysis Regression models Take-home points Arsenic and old models 2007 Andrew Gelman Arsenic and old models #12;Arsenic in Bangladesh Decision analysis Regression models Take-home points Contents Aresenic in Bangladesh Decision analysis Regression models Andrew Gelman

  20. Risk Assessment and Management for Interconnected and Interactive Critical Flood Defense Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamedifar, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    to be at great risk; an electricity transmission grid key tointer-regional electricity transmission lines; two deepwaterto be at great risk; an electricity transmission grid key to

  1. Cost and quality of fuels for electric plants 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants (C&Q) presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  2. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-02-09

    This handbook is designed to answer a consumer's basic questions, as well as point them to additional information they need, to make the best decision about whether an electric-drive vehicle is right for them.

  3. Sandia Energy - Electric Power Generation and Water Use Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Power Generation and Water Use Data Home Climate & Earth Systems WaterEnergy Nexus Decision Models for Integrating EnergyWater Energy and Water in the Western and Texas...

  4. Electric Vehicles

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ozpineci, Burak

    2014-07-23

    Burak Ozpineci sees a future where electric vehicles charge while we drive them down the road, thanks in part to research under way at ORNL.

  5. Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozpineci, Burak

    2014-05-02

    Burak Ozpineci sees a future where electric vehicles charge while we drive them down the road, thanks in part to research under way at ORNL.

  6. Development of Readout Interconnections for the Si-W Calorimeter of SiD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, M.; Fields, R.G.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Moskaleva, A.; Neher, C.; Pasner, J.; Tripathi, M.; /UC, Davis; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.E.; Strom, D.; /Oregon U.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Nelson, T.; /SLAC; Schier, S.; Schumm, B.; /UC, Santa Cruz

    2012-09-14

    The SiD collaboration is developing a Si-W sampling electromagnetic calorimeter, with anticipated application for the International Linear Collider. Assembling the modules for such a detector will involve special bonding technologies for the interconnections, especially for attaching a silicon detector wafer to a flex cable readout bus. We review the interconnect technologies involved, including oxidation removal processes, pad surface preparation, solder ball selection and placement, and bond quality assurance. Our results show that solder ball bonding is a promising technique for the Si-W ECAL, and unresolved issues are being addressed.

  7. Method of bonding an interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, U.B.; Isenberg, A.O.; Folser, G.R.

    1992-01-14

    An electrochemical cell containing an air electrode, contacting electrolyte and electronically conductive interconnection layer, and a fuel electrode, has the interconnection layer attached by: (A) applying a thin, closely packed, discrete layer of LaCrO[sub 3] particles, doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, Mg and their mixtures on a portion of the air electrode, and then (B) electrochemical vapor depositing a dense skeletal structure between and around the doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles. 2 figs.

  8. Electric machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi (Niskayuna, NY); Reddy, Patel Bhageerath (Madison, WI)

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  9. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ADVANCED PACKAGING, VOL. 33, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2010 37 Novel 3-D Coaxial Interconnect System for Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaMeres, Brock J.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ADVANCED PACKAGING, VOL. 33, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2010 37 Novel 3-D Coaxial Interconnect System for Use in System-in-Package Applications Brock J. LaMeres, Senior Member, IEEE of a novel die-to-die interconnect system for deployment in system-in-package (SiP) applications

  10. Improved Crosstalk Modeling for Noise Constrained Interconnect Optimization Jason Cong, David Zhigang Pan and Prasanna V. Srinivas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, David Z.

    Improved Crosstalk Modeling for Noise Constrained Interconnect Optimization Jason Cong, David This paper presents a much improved, highly accurate yet effi- cient crosstalk noise model, the 2-˘ model, and applies it to noise- constrained interconnect optimizations. Compared with previous crosstalk noise models

  11. Long-Distance Interconnection as Solar Resource Intermittency Solution: Optimizing the Use of Energy Storage and the Geographic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Energy Storage and the Geographic Dispersion + Interconnection of Solar Generating Facilities. Marc J. R energy targets. Variability of the solar resource occurs across many different temporal scales: from energy storage and Long-distance interconnection coupled with geographic dispersion of solar generating

  12. Electric power monthly, February 1999 with data for November 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-02-01

    The Electric Power Monthly presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Statistics are provided for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt-hour of electricity sold.

  13. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  14. An Asynchronous Interconnect Architecture for Device Security Enhancement Simon Hollis, Simon W. Moore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Simon

    interconnect over distances as short as 1mm. 1 Introduction The International Technology Roadmap for Semicon- connect, based loosely on the asynchronous GasP architec- ture. It has a number of advantages over throughput and latency figures from simulation on a 0.18µm technology and show that it is viable for use

  15. Flexible-Bandwidth Power-Aware Optical Interconnects with Source Synchronous Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    @ucdavis.edu, sbyoo@ucdavis.edu Abstract: This paper investigates energy savings in data centers with flexible-bandwidth power- aware source-synchronous optical interconnects. Network simulations show 5× energy savings. Link-PA source synchronous link and investigate the energy saving for a fat-tree network. Finally we report

  16. CPS-IP: Cyber Physical Systems Interconnection Protocol Department of Computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Tian

    heterogeneity of CPS systems at three different levels: function interoperability, policy regulation of the devices used in cyber physical system have very limited memory, computing capability and energy, whichCPS-IP: Cyber Physical Systems Interconnection Protocol Shan Lin Department of Computer Science

  17. Changing photovoltaic array interconnections to reduce mismatch losses: a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Changing photovoltaic array interconnections to reduce mismatch losses: a case study D. Picault*, B.grenoble-inp.fr ; seddik.bacha@ g2elab.grenoble-inp.fr Abstract- Partial shading of photovoltaic (PV) modules can affect schemes are presented. I. INTRODUCTION The global photovoltaic market has tremendously increased this past

  18. Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, C.C.; Nelson, P.A.; Dees, D.W.

    1994-07-19

    A solid oxide fuel cell is described having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed there between, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material. 9 figs.

  19. Mitigating FPGA Interconnect Soft Errors by In-Place LUT Inversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei

    , power and perfor- mance. Recent logic re-synthesis techniques, such as ROSE [2], IPR [3], IPD [4] and R2Mitigating FPGA Interconnect Soft Errors by In-Place LUT Inversion Naifeng Jing1 , Ju-Yueh Lee2 the Soft Error Rate (SER) at chip level, and reveal a locality and NP-Hardness of the IPV problem. We

  20. Mitigating FPGA Interconnect Soft Errors by In-Place LUT Inversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei

    but with high overhead in area, power and performance. Recent logic re-synthesis techniques, such as ROSE [2Mitigating FPGA Interconnect Soft Errors by In-Place LUT Inversion Naifeng Jing1 , Ju-Yueh Lee2 the Soft Error Rate (SER) at chip level, and reveal a locality and NP-Hardness of the IPV problem. We

  1. Pricing Games among Interconnected Microgrids Gaurav S. Kasbekar and Saswati Sarkar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Saswati

    1 Pricing Games among Interconnected Microgrids Gaurav S. Kasbekar and Saswati Sarkar Abstract--We consider a scenario with multiple independent microgrids close to each other in a region that are connected to each other and to the central grid (macrogrid). In each time slot, a given microgrid may produce more

  2. Impact of Wind Turbine Penetration on the Dynamic Performance of Interconnected Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    to their limits using flexible AC transmission system devices (FACTS), and also due to the increased penetration, Australia and India, a large number of wind farms are currently interconnected into transmission networks far away from load centres and connected into relatively weak transmission networks [3]. The presence

  3. EA-1884: Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy Project, Town of Wray, Yuma County, CO

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Western Area Power Administration is preparing this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Wray Wind Energy Project, for approximately 90 megawatts of wind generation, to Western’s existing Wray Substation in Yuma County, Colorado.

  4. Risk analysis via heterogeneous models of SCADA interconnecting Power Grids and Telco Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tronci, Enrico

    Risk analysis via heterogeneous models of SCADA interconnecting Power Grids and Telco Networks A and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems has led to an improvement of Power Grid operations and functionalities power grid services are increasingly depending upon the adequate functionality of SCADA system which

  5. An energy vision: the transformation towards sustainability --interconnected challenges and solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    An energy vision: the transformation towards sustainability -- interconnected challenges of the energy system is of critical importance for achieving major societal objec- tives, such as sustainable system are needed. In this paper, we discuss the multiple challenges and possible sustain- able energy

  6. Performance of Utility Interconnected Photovoltaic Inverters Operating Beyond Typical Modes of Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    distributed energy resource (DER) systems now represents a significant part of the renewable generation mix to grow this may not be the case. In California, the largest US PV renewable market, the FY12 installed year, the interconnection standards are allowing distributed energy resource equipment to provide

  7. Modeling and Simulation Environment for Photonic Interconnection Networks in High Performance Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    at the scale of high performance computer clusters and warehouse scale data centers, system level simulations and results for rack scale photonic interconnection networks for high performance computing. Keywords: optical to the newsworthy power consumption [3], latency [4] and bandwidth challenges [5] of high performance computing (HPC

  8. Control of Interconnected Mechanical Systems Asif Sabanovi*, Nadira Sabanovi*, Kouhei Ohnishi**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    Control of Interconnected Mechanical Systems Asif Sabanovi*, Nadira Sabanovi*, Kouhei Ohnishi: In this paper control systems design approach, based on siding mode methods, that allows maintain some robots or control of haptic systems - is presented. It is shown that all basic motion control problems

  9. Mechanism Design and Approximation Our world is an interconnected collection of economic and computational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiat, Amos

    1 Mechanism Design and Approximation Our world is an interconnected collection of economic in transportation networks, and market and auc- tion design can lead to mechanisms for allocating and exchanging. #12;2 Mechanism Design and Approximation of individual strategies is complex and the space of possible

  10. Estimating Reliability and Throughput of Source-synchronous Wave-pipelined Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemieux, Guy

    Destination Clk gen Data Forwarded clock (generated at source) (c) SSWP: Source synchronous, wave pipelinedEstimating Reliability and Throughput of Source-synchronous Wave-pipelined Interconnect Paul Teehan to distinguish between static and dynamic sources of tim- ing uncertainty, because source-synchronous wave

  11. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Meibom, P.; Barth, R.; Tuohy, A.

    2010-10-01

    This paper outlines a study undertaken for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection in which different advanced unit commitment strategies were simulated for three different years to evaluate the benefits that may occur from using these strategies as an operational tool.

  12. Approximation and Mechanism Our world is an interconnected collection of economic and computational systems wherein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiat, Amos

    Chapter 1 Approximation and Mechanism Design Our world is an interconnected collection of economic to mechanisms for exchanging goods or services that are good in terms of revenue or social benefit. The two on a combined computational and economic theory for the study and design of mechanisms. A central theme

  13. Discrete-time Lyapunov based small-gain theorem for parameterized interconnected ISS systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesic, Dragan

    Discrete-time Lyapunov based small-gain theorem for parameterized interconnected ISS systems Dina via the Lyapunov method. In particular, an ISS Lyapunov function for the overall system is constructed from the ISS Lyapunov functions of the two subsystems. We consider parameterized families of discrete

  14. Through-Wafer Interconnects for High Degree of Freedom MEMS Deformable Mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bifano, Thomas

    Through-Wafer Interconnects for High Degree of Freedom MEMS Deformable Mirrors Alioune Diouf 1 Spinelli Place, Cambridge, MA 02138 Abstract The development of an assembly and packaging process for MEMS University MEMS DMs are surface-micromachined polysilicon double-cantilever actuator architecture

  15. A THz transverse electromagnetic mode two-dimensional interconnect layer incorporating quasi-optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of transmitting subpicosecond pulses in the transverse electromagnetic TEM mode over arbitrarily long paths near the cutoff fre- quency. Such pulse broadening does not occur for the trans- verse electromagneticA THz transverse electromagnetic mode two-dimensional interconnect layer incorporating quasi

  16. Communication Requirements and Interconnect Optimization forHigh-End Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamil, Shoaib; Oliker, Leonid; Pinar, Ali; Shalf, John

    2007-11-12

    The path towards realizing peta-scale computing isincreasingly dependent on building supercomputers with unprecedentednumbers of processors. To prevent the interconnect from dominating theoverall cost of these ultra-scale systems, there is a critical need forhigh-performance network solutions whose costs scale linearly with systemsize. This work makes several unique contributions towards attaining thatgoal. First, we conduct one of the broadest studies to date of high-endapplication communication requirements, whose computational methodsinclude: finite-difference, lattice-bolzmann, particle in cell, sparselinear algebra, particle mesh ewald, and FFT-based solvers. Toefficiently collect this data, we use the IPM (Integrated PerformanceMonitoring) profiling layer to gather detailed messaging statistics withminimal impact to code performance. Using the derived communicationcharacterizations, we next present fit-trees interconnects, a novelapproach for designing network infrastructure at a fraction of thecomponent cost of traditional fat-tree solutions. Finally, we propose theHybrid Flexibly Assignable Switch Topology (HFAST) infrastructure, whichuses both passive (circuit) and active (packet) commodity switchcomponents to dynamically reconfigure interconnects to suit thetopological requirements of scientific applications. Overall ourexploration leads to a promising directions for practically addressingthe interconnect requirements of future peta-scale systems.

  17. Evaluation of Production Cost Savings from Consolidation of Balancing Authorities in the US Western Interconnection under High Wind and Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Tony B.; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2014-12-24

    This paper introduces a comprehensive analysis to quantify the potential savings in production cost due to consolidation of 32 US western interconnection Balancing Authorities (BAs). Three simulation scenarios are developed: current Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) BAs structure, full copper-sheet consolidation, and full consolidation with transmission congestion considered. The study uses WECC Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee (TEPPC) model that was developed for the year 2020. The model assumes 8% wind and 3% solar energy penetration as percentage of total WECC demand in 2020. Sensitivity analyses are carried out to assess the impact of transmission hurdle rates between WECC BAs on potential benefits. The study shows savings that ranges from $400 Million (2.4% of total one year production cost) to $600 Million (3.2%) per year in thermal units production cost due to consolidation can be achieved. The copper sheet consolidation scenario shows an extra savings of $240 Million (1.4%) per year.

  18. Electrical connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dilliner, Jennifer L.; Baker, Thomas M.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2006-11-21

    An electrical connector includes a female component having one or more receptacles, a first test receptacle, and a second test receptacle. The electrical connector also includes a male component having one or more terminals configured to engage the one or more receptacles, a first test pin configured to engage the first test receptacle, and a second test pin configured to engage the second test receptacle. The first test receptacle is electrically connected to the second test receptacle, and at least one of the first test pin and the second test pin is shorter in length than the one or more terminals.

  19. Electric System Decision Making in Other Regions: A Preliminary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Congress:Impacts of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Proposal for Standard Market Design Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern...

  20. Electric System Decision Making in Other Regions: A Preliminary Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofApril 25,EVtheEnergyPrepared for Western

  1. Methods and apparatus for optical switching using electrically movable optical fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-03-13

    Methods and apparatuses for electrically controlled optical switches are presented. An electrically controlled optical switch includes a fixture formed using a laminated dielectric material, a first optical fiber having a fixed segment supported by the fixture and a movable segment extending into a cavity, a second optical fiber having a fixed segment supported by the fixture and an extended segment where an optical interconnect may be established between the first optical fiber and the second optical fiber, and a first electrical actuator functionally coupled to the fixture and the first fiber which alters a position of the moveable segment, based upon a control signal, for changing a state of the optical interconnect between one of two states.

  2. SEM technique for imaging and measuring electronic transport in nanocomposites based on electric field induced contrast

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Geohegan, David B. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Guillorn, Michael (Brooktondale, NY) [Brooktondale, NY

    2009-02-17

    Methods and apparatus are described for SEM imaging and measuring electronic transport in nanocomposites based on electric field induced contrast. A method includes mounting a sample onto a sample holder, the sample including a sample material; wire bonding leads from the sample holder onto the sample; placing the sample holder in a vacuum chamber of a scanning electron microscope; connecting leads from the sample holder to a power source located outside the vacuum chamber; controlling secondary electron emission from the sample by applying a predetermined voltage to the sample through the leads; and generating an image of the secondary electron emission from the sample. An apparatus includes a sample holder for a scanning electron microscope having an electrical interconnect and leads on top of the sample holder electrically connected to the electrical interconnect; a power source and a controller connected to the electrical interconnect for applying voltage to the sample holder to control the secondary electron emission from a sample mounted on the sample holder; and a computer coupled to a secondary electron detector to generate images of the secondary electron emission from the sample.

  3. electrical, engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    school of electrical, computer and energy engineering Annual Report 2012-2013 Breaking the final systems engineering Marco Santello, School Director enrollment 930 undergraduate 771 graduate 159 DEGREE PROGRAM biomedical engineering (Harrington Bioengineering program) school of computing, informatics

  4. Electrical, Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering 2009-2010 Annual Report #12;Organizational Structure for Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering Schools (Director) Lead These Engineering Undergraduate Degree Programs Coordinate Across Engineering for These Grand Challenge Areas... Biological & Health

  5. Engineering Electrical &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Computer Engineering Electrical & Electronic Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Natural Resources Engineering Forest Engineering Chemical & Process Engineering ELECTIVE 2 Required Engineering Intermediate Year 2011 Eight Required Courses Chart: 120 points College

  6. Engineering Electrical &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Computer Engineering Electrical & Electronic Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Natural Resources Engineering Forest Engineering Chemical & Process Engineering ELECTIVE 2 Required Engineering Intermediate Year 2012 Eight Required Courses Chart: 120 points College

  7. Electric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Jr., John S. (Pleasanton, CA); Wilson, James R. (Livermore, CA); McDonald, Jr., Charles A. (Danville, CA)

    1983-01-01

    1. In an electrical energy generator, the combination comprising a first elongated annular electrical current conductor having at least one bare surface extending longitudinally and facing radially inwards therein, a second elongated annular electrical current conductor disposed coaxially within said first conductor and having an outer bare surface area extending longitudinally and facing said bare surface of said first conductor, the contiguous coaxial areas of said first and second conductors defining an inductive element, means for applying an electrical current to at least one of said conductors for generating a magnetic field encompassing said inductive element, and explosive charge means disposed concentrically with respect to said conductors including at least the area of said inductive element, said explosive charge means including means disposed to initiate an explosive wave front in said explosive advancing longitudinally along said inductive element, said wave front being effective to progressively deform at least one of said conductors to bring said bare surfaces thereof into electrically conductive contact to progressively reduce the inductance of the inductive element defined by said conductors and transferring explosive energy to said magnetic field effective to generate an electrical potential between undeformed portions of said conductors ahead of said explosive wave front.

  8. DYNAMIC RISK MANAGEMENT IN ELECTRICITY PORTFOLIO OPTIMIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Römisch, Werner

    DYNAMIC RISK MANAGEMENT IN ELECTRICITY PORTFOLIO OPTIMIZATION VIA POLYHEDRAL RISK FUNCTIONALS the dynamic decision structure appropriately. In energy risk management, which is typically carried out ex, for integrating risk management into a stochastic optimization framework, risk has to be quantified in a definite

  9. Latent effects decision analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, J. Arlin (Albuquerque, NM); Werner, Paul W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-08-24

    Latent effects on a system are broken down into components ranging from those far removed in time from the system under study (latent) to those which closely effect changes in the system. Each component is provided with weighted inputs either by a user or from outputs of other components. A non-linear mathematical process known as `soft aggregation` is performed on the inputs to each component to provide information relating to the component. This information is combined in decreasing order of latency to the system to provide a quantifiable measure of an attribute of a system (e.g., safety) or to test hypotheses (e.g., for forensic deduction or decisions about various system design options).

  10. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  11. Electric power monthly: April 1996, with data for January 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 64 tabs.

  12. FEATURE ARTICLES Group Decision Making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FEATURE ARTICLES Group Decision Making in Honey Bee Swarms When 10,000 bees go house hunting, how a neighboring colony. A striking example of decision mak- ing by an animal group is the choice of a nesting site paper on house hunting by honey bees. Lindauer was then a postdtx:toral stu- dent at the University

  13. Make-buy decisions in the face of radical innovations.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perrons, Robert Kirby

    2004-10-26

    Connect DEC Digital Equipment Corporation DVD Digital Video Disc EM Expectation Maximization GDP Gross Domestic Product GE General Electric GM General Motors IBM International Business Machines IP Intellectual Property... ______________________________________________________________________________ Make-Buy Decisions in the Face of Radical Innovations 5 Balloon Tire Bicycle,” the “Aero Cycle,” and the built-in “Cycle Lock” brought about a quantum leap in the industry. Instead of outsourcing the production of the parts for his bicycles as had been...

  14. In situ study on low-k interconnect time-dependent-dielectric-breakdown mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boon Yeap, Kong, E-mail: KongBoon.Yeap@globalfoundries.com [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Fab8, 400 Stonebreak Rd. Extension, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Gall, Martin; Liao, Zhongquan; Sander, Christoph; Muehle, Uwe; Zschech, Ehrenfried [Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Justison, Patrick [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Fab8, 400 Stonebreak Rd. Extension, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Aubel, Oliver; Hauschildt, Meike; Beyer, Armand; Vogel, Norman [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Dresden Module One LLC and Co. KG, Wilschdorfer Landstr. 101, D-01109 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-03-28

    An in situ transmission-electron-microscopy methodology is developed to observe time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) in an advanced Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stack. A test structure, namely a “tip-to-tip” structure, was designed to localize the TDDB degradation in small dielectrics regions. A constant voltage is applied at 25?°C to the “tip-to-tip” structure, while structural changes are observed at nanoscale. Cu nanoparticle formation, agglomeration, and migration processes are observed after dielectric breakdown. The Cu nanoparticles are positively charged, since they move in opposite direction to the electron flow. Measurements of ionic current, using the Triangular-Voltage-Stress method, suggest that Cu migration is not possible before dielectric breakdown, unless the Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stacks are heated to 200?°C and above.

  15. Interconnection arrangement of routers of processor boards in array of cabinets supporting secure physical partition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomkins, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Camp, William J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-07-17

    A multiple processor computing apparatus includes a physical interconnect structure that is flexibly configurable to support selective segregation of classified and unclassified users. The physical interconnect structure includes routers in service or compute processor boards distributed in an array of cabinets connected in series on each board and to respective routers in neighboring row cabinet boards with the routers in series connection coupled to routers in series connection in respective neighboring column cabinet boards. The array can include disconnect cabinets or respective routers in all boards in each cabinet connected in a toroid. The computing apparatus can include an emulator which permits applications from the same job to be launched on processors that use different operating systems.

  16. Bipolar plating of metal contacts onto oxide interconnection for solid oxide electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, A.O.

    1987-03-10

    Disclosed is a method of forming an adherent metal deposit on a conducting layer of a tube sealed at one end. The tube is immersed with the sealed end down into an aqueous solution containing ions of the metal to be deposited. An ionically conducting aqueous fluid is placed inside the tube and a direct current is passed from a cathode inside the tube to an anode outside the tube. Also disclosed is a multi-layered solid oxide fuel cell tube which consists of an inner porous ceramic support tube, a porous air electrode covering the support tube, a non-porous electrolyte covering a portion of the air electrode, a non-porous conducting interconnection covering the remaining portion of the electrode, and a metal deposit on the interconnection. 1 fig.

  17. Bipolar plating of metal contacts onto oxide interconnection for solid oxide electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of forming an adherent metal deposit on a conducting layer of a tube sealed at one end. The tube is immersed with the sealed end down into an aqueous solution containing ions of the metal to be deposited. An ionically conducting aqueous fluid is placed inside the tube and a direct current is passed from a cathode inside the tube to an anode outside the tube. Also disclosed is a multi-layered solid oxide fuel cell tube which consists of an inner porous ceramic support tube, a porous air electrode covering the support tube, a non-porous electrolyte covering a portion of the air electrode, a non-porous conducting interconnection covering the remaining portion of the electrode, and a metal deposit on the interconnection.

  18. National Electric Transmission Congestion Study

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DOE U.S. Department of Energy DSIRE Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency EIA Energy Information Administration EISPC Eastern Interconnection States Planning...

  19. Effect of Large Disturbances on the Local Behavior of Nonlinear Physically Interconnected Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirche, Sandra

    ]: International Energy Agency, "Empowering variable renewables ­ Options for flexible electricity systems Motivation ­ Sensitivity in electric power systems: Subcritical instability & Ill-conditionedness - [2

  20. An analytical model for a class of processor-memory interconnection networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conterno, R.; Melen, R.

    1987-11-01

    The performance of a delta interconnection network for multiprocessors is evaluated in a circuit switching environment. An error is pointed out in previous literature and an exact analytical model is given for regeneration systems, where a connection request is considered lost if not immediately granted. An approximated numerical method is suggested for the correction of the analytical results, which gave outputs in very good agreement with the simulation of real systems where requests are maintained.

  1. Viscosity Solutions of Systems of PDEs with Interconnected Obstacles and Switching Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamadene, S. Morlais, M. A.

    2013-04-15

    This paper deals with existence and uniqueness of a solution in viscosity sense, for a system of m variational partial differential inequalities with inter-connected obstacles. A particular case is the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann system of the Markovian stochastic optimal m-states switching problem. The switching cost functions depend on (t,x). The main tool is the notion of systems of reflected backward stochastic differential equations with oblique reflection.

  2. State-Level Comparison of Processes and Timelines for Distributed Photovoltaic Interconnection in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, K.; Davidson, C.; Margolis, R.; Nobler, E.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents results from an analysis of distributed photovoltaic (PV) interconnection and deployment processes in the United States. Using data from more than 30,000 residential (up to 10 kilowatts) and small commercial (10-50 kilowatts) PV systems, installed from 2012 to 2014, we assess the range in project completion timelines nationally (across 87 utilities in 16 states) and in five states with active solar markets (Arizona, California, New Jersey, New York, and Colorado).

  3. U.S. Army Fort Carson Interconnection Agreement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsStateof Energy| Department ofAttacks ||Interconnection

  4. Effect of interconnect creep on long-term performance of SOFC of one cell stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-02-01

    Creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature is near or exceeds half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under development in the SECA program are around 1073oK. High temperature ferritic alloys are potential candidates as interconnect (IC) materials and spacers due to their low cost and CTE compatibility with other SOFC components. Since the melting temperature of most stainless steel is around 1800oK, possible creep deformation of IC under the typical cell operating temperature should not be neglected. In this paper, the effects of interconnect creep behavior on stack geometry change and stress redistribution of different cell components are predicted and summarized. The goal of the study is to investigate the performance of the fuel cell stack by obtaining the fuel and air channel geometry changes due to creep of the ferritic stainless steel interconnect, therefore indicating possible SOFC performance change under long term operations. IC creep models were incorporated into SOFC-MP and Mentat FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the deformed configuration of the SOFC stack under the long term steady state operating temperature. It is found that creep behavior of the ferritic stainless steel IC contributes to narrowing of both the fuel and the air flow channels. In addition, stress re-distribution of the cell components suggests the need for a compliant sealing material that also relaxes at operating temperature.

  5. Databases and Inter-Connectivity in Ground-Based Astronomy T. von Hippel and C. M. Mountain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Databases and Inter-Connectivity in Ground-Based Astronomy T. von Hippel and C. M. Mountain Gemini-CONNECTIVITY IN GROUND-BASED ASTRONOMY T. von Hippel, C. M. Mountain* Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A'ohoku Place, Hilo

  6. High-speed graphene interconnects monolithically integrated with CMOS ring oscillators operating at 1.3GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xiangyu

    We have successfully experimentally integrated graphene interconnects with commercial 0.25 Âżm technology CMOS ring oscillator circuit using conventional fabrication techniques, and demonstrated high speed on-chip graphene ...

  7. Fatal Void Size Comparisons in Via-Below and Via-Above Cu Dual-Damascene Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Z.-S.

    The median-times-to-failure (t??’s) for straight dual-damascene via-terminated copper interconnect structures, tested under the same conditions, depend on whether the vias connect down to underlaying leads ...

  8. MIDAS : minor incident decision analysis software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horng, Tze-Chieh, 1964-

    2004-01-01

    MIDAS is the minor incident decision analysis software that acts as an advisory tool for plant decision makers and operators to analyze the available decision alternatives for resolving minor incidents. The minor incidents ...

  9. Interactions between learning and decision making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tulabandhula, Theja

    2014-01-01

    We quantify the effects of learning and decision making on each other in three parts. In the first part, we look at how knowledge about decision making can influence learning. Let the decision cost be the amount spent by ...

  10. Contributions to risk-informed decision making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Michael A. (Michael Alfred)

    2010-01-01

    Risk-informed decision-making (RIDM) is a formal process that assists stakeholders make decisions in the face of uncertainty. At MIT, a tool known as the Analytic Deliberative Decision Making Process (ADP) has been under ...

  11. Pricing of Fluctuations in Electricity Markets John N. Tsitsiklis and Yunjian Xu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsitsiklis, John

    in Electricity Markets 2 to the deployment of peaking plants with higher ramping rates but higher marginal costPricing of Fluctuations in Electricity Markets John N. Tsitsiklis and Yunjian Xu Laboratory or Information and Decision Systems, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02139, {jnt@mit.edu, yunjian@mit.edu} In an electric

  12. Financial statistics of selected publicly owned electric utilities 1989. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-02-06

    The Financial Statistics of Selected Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes relating to publicly owned electric utility issues. 21 tabs.

  13. Power Sales to Electric Utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1989-02-01

    The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of 77 MW, 3 solid waste-to-energy facilities with 55 MW of electrical output, 4 cogeneration projects with 34.5 MW of generating capability, and 4 wastewater treatment facility digester gas-to-energy projects with 5 MW of electrical production have come on-line (or are in the final stages of construction) since the passage of PURPA. These numbers represent only a small portion of Washington's untapped and underutilized cogeneration and renewable resource generating potentials. [DJE-2005

  14. Expanded nickel screen electrical connection supports for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Pittsburgh, PA); Antol, Ronald F. (North Huntingdon, PA); Zafred, Paolo R. (Murrysville, PA)

    2002-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel assembly is made, wherein rows (14, 24) of fuel cells (16, 18, 20, 26, 28, 30), each having an outer interconnection (36) and an outer electrode (32), are disposed next to each other with corrugated, electrically conducting expanded metal mesh (22) between each row of cells, the corrugated mesh (22) having top crown portions (40) and bottom shoulder portions (42), where the top crown portion (40) contacts outer interconnections (36) of the fuel cells (16, 18, 20) in a first row (14), and the bottom shoulder portions (42) contacts outer electrodes (32) of the fuel cells in a second row (24), said mesh electrically connecting each row of fuel cells, and where there are no metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

  15. Financial Implications of Engineering Decisions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aslan, Veysel

    2012-10-19

    planning and engineering decisions have detrimental effects on communities as they attempt to recover and rebuild. While there is an inherent difficulty in the quantification of the cost of human life, interruption in business operations, and damage...

  16. Single-photon decision maker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naruse, Makoto; Drezet, Aurelien; Huant, Serge; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Kim, Song-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Decision making is critical in our daily lives and for society in general and is finding evermore practical applications in information and communication technologies. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. Using a nitrogen-vacancy in a nanodiamond as a single-photon source, we demonstrate the decision-making capability by solving the multi-armed bandit problem. This capability is directly and immediately associated with single-photon detection in the proposed architecture, leading to adequate and adaptive autonomous decision making. This study makes it possible to create systems that benefit from the quantum nature of light to perform practical and vital intelligent functions.

  17. High Temperatures & Electricity Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

  18. Capacity Markets for Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creti, Anna; Fabra, Natalia

    2004-01-01

    England and Wales Electricity Market”, Power Working PaperFelder (1996), “Should Electricity Markets Have a Capacityand Competitive Electricity Markets”, mimeo, IDEI, available

  19. Capacity Markets for Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creti, Anna; Fabra, Natalia

    2004-01-01

    and design of electricity capacity markets. Our work has twoMarkets for Electricity capacity markets, and so, when thesemain features of electricity capacity markets. We have used

  20. Retail Electricity Competition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Reliability and Competitive Electricity Markets” mimeo, MITCSEM WP 130 Retail Electricity Competition * Paul Joskow andwww.ucei.org Retail Electricity Competition ? Paul Joskow †

  1. Designing Electricity Auctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabra, Natalia; von der Fehr, Nils-Henrik; Harbord, David

    2004-01-01

    market performance in electricity auctions, it appears thatMcSorely (2001) “Regulating Electricity Markets: Experiencethe United Kingdom,” The Electricity Journal, December, 81-

  2. Electrical Safety

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofApril 25,EVtheEnergyPreparedElectricalNOT

  3. Microfluidic interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A miniature connector for introducing microliter quantities of solutions into microfabricated fluidic devices. The fluidic connector, for example, joins standard high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) tubing to 1 mm diameter holes in silicon or glass, enabling ml-sized volumes of sample solutions to be merged with .mu.l-sized devices. The connector has many features, including ease of connect and disconnect; a small footprint which enables numerous connectors to be located in a small area; low dead volume; helium leak-tight; and tubing does not twist during connection. Thus the connector enables easy and effective change of microfluidic devices and introduction of different solutions in the devices.

  4. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rule 569 applies to all qualifying facilities (QFs) under the federal Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act, which generally includes all renewable energy systems and combined heat and power (CH...

  5. Hopper Interconnect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to nodes at the other edge to form a 3-D torus. The custom chips that route communication over the network are known as "Gemini" and the entire network is often referred to...

  6. Microfluidic interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A miniature connector for introducing microliter quantities of solutions into microfabricated fluidic devices, and which incorporates a molded ring or seal set into a ferrule cartridge, with or without a compression screw. The fluidic connector, for example, joins standard high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) tubing to 1 mm diameter holes in silicon or glass, enabling ml-sized volumes of sample solutions to be merged with .mu.l-sized devices. The connector has many features, including ease of connect and disconnect; a small footprint which enables numerous connectors to be located in a small area; low dead volume; helium leak-tight; and tubing does not twist during connection. Thus the connector enables easy and effective change of microfluidic devices and introduction of different solutions in the devices.

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable Electricity Futures Study Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies for Sustainable Energy, LLC. #12;Renewable Electricity Futures Study Edited By Hand, M.M. National Renewable;Suggested Citations Renewable Electricity Futures Study (Entire Report) National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  8. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EECS Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EECS Department The Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS) Department at WSU offers undergraduate degrees in electrical engineering, computer engineering and computer science. The EECS Department offers master of science degrees in computer science, electrical engineering

  9. Electrical receptacle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leong, R.

    1993-06-22

    The invention is a receptacle for a three prong electrical plug which has either a tubular or U-shaped grounding prong. The inventive receptacle has a grounding prong socket which is sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having two ridges to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket. The two ridges are made to prevent the socket from expanding when either the U-shaped grounding prong or the tubular grounding prong is inserted.

  10. Call for Papers Special Issue on Integrated Decision Support Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winckler, Marco Antonio Alba

    ); integration of decisions across both forward supply chains and reverse logistics; integration of decisions

  11. Value of Improved Wind Power Forecasting in the Western Interconnection (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B.

    2013-12-01

    Wind power forecasting is a necessary and important technology for incorporating wind power into the unit commitment and dispatch process. It is expected to become increasingly important with higher renewable energy penetration rates and progress toward the smart grid. There is consensus that wind power forecasting can help utility operations with increasing wind power penetration; however, there is far from a consensus about the economic value of improved forecasts. This work explores the value of improved wind power forecasting in the Western Interconnection of the United States.

  12. IEEE Smart Grid Series of Standards IEEE 2030 (Interoperability) and IEEE 1547 (Interconnection) Status: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2012-04-01

    The IEEE American National Standards smart grid publications and standards development projects IEEE 2030, which addresses smart grid interoperability, and IEEE 1547TM, which addresses distributed resources interconnection with the grid, have made substantial progress since 2009. The IEEE 2030TM and 1547 standards series focus on systems-level aspects and cover many of the technical integration issues involved in a mature smart grid. The status and highlights of these two IEEE series of standards, which are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21), are provided in this paper.

  13. Decision support for integrated water-energy planning.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Castillo, Cesar; Hart, William Eugene; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2009-10-01

    Currently, electrical power generation uses about 140 billion gallons of water per day accounting for over 39% of all freshwater withdrawals thus competing with irrigated agriculture as the leading user of water. Coupled to this water use is the required pumping, conveyance, treatment, storage and distribution of the water which requires on average 3% of all electric power generated. While water and energy use are tightly coupled, planning and management of these fundamental resources are rarely treated in an integrated fashion. Toward this need, a decision support framework has been developed that targets the shared needs of energy and water producers, resource managers, regulators, and decision makers at the federal, state and local levels. The framework integrates analysis and optimization capabilities to identify trade-offs, and 'best' alternatives among a broad list of energy/water options and objectives. The decision support framework is formulated in a modular architecture, facilitating tailored analyses over different geographical regions and scales (e.g., national, state, county, watershed, NERC region). An interactive interface allows direct control of the model and access to real-time results displayed as charts, graphs and maps. Ultimately, this open and interactive modeling framework provides a tool for evaluating competing policy and technical options relevant to the energy-water nexus.

  14. Electric power monthly: March 1996, with data for December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. 69 tabs.

  15. Financial statistics of major US publicly owned electric utilities 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The 1993 edition of the Financial Statistics of Major U.S. Publicly Owned Electric Utilities publication presents five years (1989 to 1993) of summary financial data and current year detailed financial data on the major publicly owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decision making purposes related to publicly owned electric utility issues. Generator and nongenerator summaries are presented in this publication. The primary source of publicly owned financial data is the Form EIA-412, the Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities, filed on a fiscal basis.

  16. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-23

    The study identifies the industrial decision makers, investigated the information they needed to know, how they can best be reached, and the motivating factors for purchasing energy-efficient electric motors. A survey was conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors. The survey measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy-efficient motors, decision-making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The survey data were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. A description of study findings, conclusions, and recommendations is presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in 3 appendices. Appendices D and E contain descriptions of the methods used. (MCW)

  17. Naval ship propulsion and electric power systems selection for optimal fuel consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarris, Emmanouil

    2011-01-01

    Although propulsion and electric power systems selection is an important part of naval ship design, respective decisions often have to be made without detailed ship knowledge (resistance, propulsors, etc.). Propulsion and ...

  18. EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN, T.

    2004-10-01

    Effective contaminated land management requires a number of decisions addressing a suite of technical, economic, and social concerns. These concerns include human health risks, ecological risks, economic costs, technical feasibility of proposed remedial actions, and the value society places on clean-up and re-use of formerly contaminated lands. Decision making, in the face of uncertainty and multiple and often conflicting objectives, is a vital and challenging role in environmental management that affects a significant economic activity. Although each environmental remediation problem is unique and requires a site-specific analysis, many of the key decisions are similar in structure. This has led many to attempt to develop standard approaches. As part of the standardization process, attempts have been made to codify specialist expertise into decision support tools. This activity is intended to facilitate reproducible and transparent decision making. The process of codifying procedures has also been found to be a useful activity for establishing and rationalizing management processes. This study will have two primary objectives. The first is to develop taxonomy for Decision Support Tools (DST) to provide a framework for understanding the different tools and what they are designed to address in the context of environmental remediation problems. The taxonomy will have a series of subject areas for the DST. From these subjects, a few key areas will be selected for further study and software in these areas will be identified. The second objective, will be to review the existing DST in the selected areas and develop a screening matrix for each software product.

  19. Making Compressed Air System Decisions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porri, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-96-04-32.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 5121 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-96-04-32.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 MAKING COMPRESSED AIR... SYSTEM DECISIONS Richard E. Porri Product Manager ABSTRACT This paper presents a decision making process that will pennit the design, installation and operation ofa high efficiency and reliable compressed air system. The design of a compressed air...

  20. Initial Decision and Risk Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, David W.

    2012-02-29

    Decision and Risk Analysis capabilities will be developed for industry consideration and possible adoption within Year 1. These tools will provide a methodology for merging qualitative ranking of technology maturity and acknowledged risk contributors with quantitative metrics that drive investment decision processes. Methods and tools will be initially introduced as applications to the A650.1 case study, but modular spreadsheets and analysis routines will be offered to industry collaborators as soon as possible to stimulate user feedback and co-development opportunities.

  1. A wet chemistry approach to sub-micron, removable flip chip interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowen, Adam M.; Barker, Joy M.; Gillen, J. Rusty; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Arrington, Christian L.; Yelton, William Graham

    2008-08-01

    Higher performance is the main driver in the integrated circuit (IC) market, but along with added function comes the cost of increased input/output connections and larger die sizes. Space saving approaches aimed at solving these challenges includes two technologies; 3D stacking (3D-ICs) and flip chip assemblies. Emerging ICs require sub-micron scale interconnects which include vias for 3D-ICs and bump bonds for flip chips. Photolithographic techniques are commonly used to prepare templates followed by metal vapor deposition to create flip chip bump bonds. Both the lithography step and the metal properties required for bump bonding contribute to limiting this approach to a minimum bump size of -10 ?m. Here, we present a wet chemistry approach to fabricating uniform bump bonds of tunable size and height down to the nanoscale. Nanosphere lithography (NSL), a soft lithographic technique, is used to create a bump bond template or mask for nanoscale bumps. Electrochemical deposition is also used through photoresist templates to create uniform bump bonds across large area wafers or dies. This template approach affords bumps with tunable diameters from 100s of nanometers to microns (allowing for tunable interconnect pitch and via diameters) while the use of constant current electroplating gives uniform bump height over large areas (>1 cm{sup 2}).

  2. Electrodeposition of Mn-Co Alloys on Stainless Steels for SOFC Interconnect Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J. (West Virginia University); Jiang, Y. (West Virginia University); Johnson, C.; Gong, M. (West Virginia University); Liu, X. (West Virginia University)

    2007-09-01

    Chromium-containing ferritic stainless steels are the most popular materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect applications because of its oxidation resistance and easy fabrication process. However, excessive scale growth and chromium evaporation will degrade the cell performance. Highly conductive coatings that resist oxide scale growth and chromium evaporation may prevent both of these problems. Mn1.5Co1.5O4 spinel is one of the most promising coatings for interconnect application because of its high conducitivy, good chromium retention capability, as well as good CTE match. Electroplating of alloys or thin film multilayers followed by controlled oxidation to the desired spinel phase offers an additional deposition option. In the present study binary Mn/Co alloys was fabricated by electrodeposition, and polarization curves were used to characterize the cathodic reactions on substrate surface. By controlling the current density precisely, coatings with Mn/Co around 1:1 has been successfully deposited in Mn/Co =10 solutions, SEM and EDX was used to characterize the surface morphology and composition.

  3. Formation and Film Characteristics of Dual Damascene Interconnects by Bottom-up Electroless Cu Plating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shingubara, S. [Kansai University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Suita 3-3-35, Osaka (Japan); Wang, Z. [Shaanxi Normal University, School of Chemistry and Materials Science (China)

    2006-02-07

    Bottom-up filling of Cu in a dual damascene interconnection structure was achieved through electroless plating alone. The addition of inhibitor molecules to the electroless Cu plating solution was investigated, and showed that sulfopropyl sulfonate (SPS) was highly effective in promoting bottom-up filling. Bottom-up filling was enhanced by shrinkage of the hole diameter, suggesting that the diffusion flux of SPS molecules to the bottom of the holes was suppressed. Thus, Cu deposition rate near the hole bottom was larger than that outside the hole, leading to bottom-up filling. The salient feature of electroless plating technology is the lack of overgrowth or bump formation after hole filling, which is a serious problem in electroplating technology. Problems such as increased resistance due to inclusion of SPS molecules and pattern size dependence affected applicability of this method. A two-step electroless plating using different concentrations of inhibitor molecules was effective for filling a dual damascene structure without voiding, and may provide a practical solution for ULSI interconnections.

  4. Technology Decisions Under Architectural Uncertainty: Informing Investment Decisions Through Tradespace Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Technology Decisions Under Architectural Uncertainty: Informing Investment Decisions Through this architectural uncertainty, it is difficult to define the value proposition of technology investments. This paper proposes a method for evaluating technology across a tradespace defined by architectural decisions. Main

  5. Design and evaluation of an arbitration-free passive optical crossbar for on-chip interconnection networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    and drop port electric ?eld transmission functions, assumingto deduce the electric ?eld transmission functions for thebuilding block. The electric ?eld transmission through the

  6. Use of wind power forecasting in operational decisions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botterud, A.; Zhi, Z.; Wang, J.; Bessa, R.J.; Keko, H.; Mendes, J.; Sumaili, J.; Miranda, V.

    2011-11-29

    The rapid expansion of wind power gives rise to a number of challenges for power system operators and electricity market participants. The key operational challenge is to efficiently handle the uncertainty and variability of wind power when balancing supply and demand in ths system. In this report, we analyze how wind power forecasting can serve as an efficient tool toward this end. We discuss the current status of wind power forecasting in U.S. electricity markets and develop several methodologies and modeling tools for the use of wind power forecasting in operational decisions, from the perspectives of the system operator as well as the wind power producer. In particular, we focus on the use of probabilistic forecasts in operational decisions. Driven by increasing prices for fossil fuels and concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, wind power, as a renewable and clean source of energy, is rapidly being introduced into the existing electricity supply portfolio in many parts of the world. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has analyzed a scenario in which wind power meets 20% of the U.S. electricity demand by 2030, which means that the U.S. wind power capacity would have to reach more than 300 gigawatts (GW). The European Union is pursuing a target of 20/20/20, which aims to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20%, increase the amount of renewable energy to 20% of the energy supply, and improve energy efficiency by 20% by 2020 as compared to 1990. Meanwhile, China is the leading country in terms of installed wind capacity, and had 45 GW of installed wind power capacity out of about 200 GW on a global level at the end of 2010. The rapid increase in the penetration of wind power into power systems introduces more variability and uncertainty in the electricity generation portfolio, and these factors are the key challenges when it comes to integrating wind power into the electric power grid. Wind power forecasting (WPF) is an important tool to help efficiently address this challenge, and significant efforts have been invested in developing more accurate wind power forecasts. In this report, we document our work on the use of wind power forecasting in operational decisions.

  7. Using MotorMaster to Track Motor Inventory and Analyze Purchasing Decisions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, M.; Meffort, W.

    2007-01-01

    MotorMaster 4.0 can be a useful software package for electric motor management decisions in industrial facilities. To be successful, the MotorMaster database must be populated with detailed motor nameplate information. Georgia Tech worked with a...

  8. Funding for Large-Scale Sustainable Energy Projects Combining Expert Opinions to Support Decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Funding for Large-Scale Sustainable Energy Projects Combining Expert Opinions to Support Decisions technologies: solar, carbon capture, nuclear, biofuels, and electricity from biomass. The challenge a probability distribution over outcomes dependent on R&D funding amounts. This probability distribution

  9. Risk Aware Robust Decision Making in Power Systems with Renewable Resources 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thatte, Anupam Ajit

    2014-10-29

    for the combination of a wind farm and an energy storage device participating in a deregulated electricity market. The selection of the uncertainty set for the robust optimization problem, based on the decision maker’s risk preference, is also discussed. From...

  10. Analysis of the Repair vs. Replace Decision for Small AC Motors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chamberlain, P. F.

    1984-01-01

    the suppliers side, General Electric and Baldor, as well as from the users side, Owens-Corning Fiberglass. Speaking from the user's standpoint, Mr. Nester addressed many of the technical and economic considerations which go into the decision whether to buy a...

  11. A solar module fabrication process for HALE solar electric UAVs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, P.G.; Aceves, R.C.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.; Sinton, R.A.; Glenn, G.S.

    1994-12-12

    We describe a fabrication process used to manufacture high power-to-weight-ratio flexible solar array modules for use on high-altitude-long-endurance (HALE) solar-electric unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). These modules have achieved power-to-weight ratios of 315 and 396 W/kg for 150{mu}m-thick monofacial and 110{mu}m-thick bifacial silicon solar cells, respectively. These calculations reflect average module efficiencies of 15.3% (150{mu}m) and 14.7% (110{mu}m) obtained from electrical tests performed by Spectrolab, Inc. under AMO global conditions at 25{degrees}C, and include weight contributions from all module components (solar cells, lamination material, bypass diodes, interconnect wires, and adhesive tape used to attach the modules to the wing). The fabrication, testing, and performance of 32 m{sup 2} of these modules will be described.

  12. Electric Utility Strategic Planning at the PUCT: An Overview 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zarnikau, J.

    1987-01-01

    the utilities' planning decisions. Electric rates were increasing at an alarming rate due to rising fuel prices, utility construc tion programs, and (some claimed) lax regulation. Despite a rapidly expanding economy and popula tion,load forecasters at many... of the state's larger utilities were consistently over estimating future peak demand by very wide margins, resulting in inefficient planning *The author is currently the Manager of Economic Analysis and the Assistant Director of the Electric Division...

  13. University of Strathclyde Dpt of Electric Electrical Engineering...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Strathclyde Dpt of Electric Electrical Engineering Institute for Energy and Enviro Jump to: navigation, search Name: University of Strathclyde, Dpt of Electric & Electrical...

  14. Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft using Solid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells This study, completed by...

  15. Estimating the Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity Markets - EAC 2011 Estimating the Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity Markets - EAC 2011 The purpose of this...

  16. EIS-0200: Record of Decision (August 1998) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|Department of5 Peer ReviewUse ofElectricalNotice ofStatement |Decision

  17. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF IC AND SYSTEMS, VOL. X, NO. X, MONTH 200X 1 Interconnect-aware Low Power High-level Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    into account physical design information and coupling capacitance to estimate interconnect power consumption overhead. The power reductions are obtained solely through switched capacitance reduction (no voltage interconnect power consumption into considera- tion [2], [33]. In [33], the switching activity on CDFG edges

  18. Investigating online decision-making styles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Young A

    2009-05-15

    As one of the factors influencing consumers purchase behavior, decision-making styles are crucial for understanding consumer shopping behavior and for developing successful marketing strategies. Decision-making styles have ...

  19. Politically rational foreign policy decision-making 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent, Charles Todd

    2006-10-30

    This dissertation is an analysis of how presidents make foreign policy decisions. Rather than explaining foreign policy decisions by focusing on individuals or institutions, I stress the role of political pressures and ...

  20. |Research Focus Statistical decision theory and evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maloney, Laurence T.

    |Research Focus Statistical decision theory and evolution Laurence T. Maloney Department recent articles by Geisler and Diehl use Bayesian statistical decision theory to model the co, an advantage that ultimately translates into `reproductive success'. The balance between predator and prey