National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for deci centi milli

  1. Um Sistema Computacional integrando Suporte `a Decis~ao na Area de Reproduc ~ao Humana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baranauskas, José Augusto

    desenvolvimento de um sistema computacional que a implementa. Tais elementos permitem informatizar os processos e¸ ~ao. Palavras-chaves: Reproduc¸ ~ao Assistida, Sistemas de Suporte `a Decis~ao, Aprendizado de M´aquina

  2. Search milli-charged particles at SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langeveld, W.G.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Particles with electric charge q {triple_bond} Qe {le} 10{sup -3} e and masses in the range 1-1000 MeV/c{sup 2} are not excluded by present experiments or by astrophysical or cosmological arguments. A beam dump experiment uniquely suited to the detection of such {open_quotes}milli-charged{close_quotes} particles has been carried out at SLAC, utilizing the short-duration pulses of the SLC electron beam to establish a tight coincidence window for the signal. The detector, a large scintillation counter sensitive to very small energy depositions, provided much greater sensitivity than previous searches. Analysis of the data leads to the exclusion of a substantial portion of the charge-mass plane. In this report, a preliminary mass-dependent upper limit is presented for the charge of milli-charged particles, ranging from Q = 1.7 x 10{sup -5} at milli-charged particle mass 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2} to Q = 9.5 x 10{sup -4} at 100 MeV/c{sup 2}.

  3. Research Article Milli-free flow electrophoresis: I. Fast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krylov, Sergey

    a term of milli-free flow electrophoresis (mFFE) to describe mid-scale FFE with flow rates intermediate and rotational speeds of the drills, the depth of the electrode channels, the dimensions of the entrance and exit. produced a mid-scale FFE device with dimensions intermediate to macro-FFE and mFFE [8]. The mid

  4. rillEdge is a software system that provides real-time deci-sion support when drilling oil wells. Decisions are sup-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aamodt, Agnar

    developed DrillEdge to reduce the cost and decrease the probability of fail- ures in oil well drilling-Time Decision Support System for High Cost Oil Well Drilling Operations Odd Erik Gundersen, Frode Sřrmo, AgnarD rillEdge is a software system that provides real-time deci- sion support when drilling oil wells

  5. Mildred (Millie) Dresselhaus and Her Impacts on Science and Women in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework uses concrete7 Assessment ofLana7, atScience Mildred (Millie)

  6. A large-scale magnetic shield with 10^6 damping at milli-Hertz frequencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altarev, I; Beck, D H; Chupp, T; Fierlinger, K; Fierlinger, P; Kuchler, F; Lins, T; Marino, M G; Niessen, B; Petzoldt, G; Singh, J T; Schläpfer, U; Schnabel, A; Stoepler, R; Stuiber, S; Strum, M; Taubenheim, B; Voigt, J

    2015-01-01

    A magnetically shielded environment with a damping factor larger than one million at the milli-Hertz frequency regime and an extremely low field and gradient over an extended volume is presented. This extraordinary shielding perfomance is to our knowledge unprecedented and represents an improvement of the state of the art in damping the difficult regime of very low-frequency distortions by more than an order of magnitude. Thus, a new generation of high precision measurements in fundamental physics and metrology is enabled with this technology, particularly suitable to find traces of new physics far beyond the reach of accelerator based physics. The technical realization of the shield with its improvements in design is discussed.

  7. So How Do THey DeciDe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species3performedValley | Department of Energy How

  8. bectcom-milli | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modifications at NYSEGs Milliken Station Units 1 and 2 (Oct 1993) B.L. Marker and E.G. Beckman, Joint ASMEIEEE Power Generation Conference, Kansas City, KS Estimates of Soil...

  9. Millis, Massachusetts: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPROLLC JumpEthanol LLCMillis, Massachusetts:

  10. bectcom-milli | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifiesValidationENCOAL® Mild Coal Gasification

  11. JOURNAL OF MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS J. Multi-Crit. Decis. Anal. 15: 4561 (2008)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Statnikov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    , 2005; Statnikov and Matusov, 1995), truck frame, multi- stage axial flow compressor for an aircraft stages. In the first stage, based on the tests one must identify the mathematical model of the object and computed data, the latter being determined on the basis of mathematical model. The number of adequacy

  12. Future Roles of Milli-, Micro-, and Nano- Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Integrating supergrids and microgrids Bologna, Italy, 13-15distribution system, microgrids which are akin to currentA possible definition for microgrids is: Microgrids are

  13. Millie Dresselhaus: Department of Physics and Engineering, Massachuset...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by others. Biography Professor Mildred Dresselhaus is a native of the Bronx, New York City, where she attended the New York City public schools through junior high school,...

  14. Future Roles of Milli-, Micro-, and Nano- Grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Nordman, Bruce; Lai, Judy

    2011-07-01

    Although it has slowed considerably, consumption of electricity continues to grow in developed economies. Further, there are some unknowns which might accelerate this growth, such as electrification of vehicle fleets and geothermal heat pump space and water heating. Most analysts anticipate that distributed energy resources (DER) will provide a large share of the expanded generation capacity required to meet this seemingly inexorably increasing electricity demand. Further, given the urgency of tackling the climate change problem, most of the added assets must be carbonfree renewables or nuclear, end-use efficiency improvements, or highly efficient fossil-fired technologies. In developed economies worldwide, the current power delivery paradigm has been in place for more than a century, i.e. since the emergence of polyphase AC systems around the turn of the last century. A key feature of this structure is that, in principle, universal service is delivered at a consistent level of power quality and reliability (PQR) throughout large regions. This paper describes a future possible structure for the electricity generation and delivery system that leaves the existing high voltage meshed grid paradigm in place, but involves radical reorganization of parts of the distribution network and customer sites. Managing a much more diverse dispersed system poses major challenges to the current centralized grid paradigm, particularly since many of these assets are small to tiny by macrogrid standards and they may ultimately number in the millions. They are also not ones that centralized control can rely upon to function in traditionally dependable ways, e.g. renewable generation can be highly variable and changes in output of generators are not independent. Although most involved in the industry agree that a paradigm shift is both necessary and desirable to manage the new system, the nature of the future system remains quite unclear. In the possible structure described here, the traditional grid, or macrogrid, remains similar at the high voltage meshed level. Three new entities are added more locally: community grids or milligrids that operate a segment of the existing distribution system, microgrids which are akin to current customer sites but which have automonous control, and nanogrids, such as telecom or Ethernet networks that currently distribute power to many low-power devices. The latter exist currently in the local electrical systems but are not typically considered a part of the traditional electricity supply system. Because all these new entities exhibit some localized control, providing appropriate local heterogeneous PQR becomes a possibility. These new grid concepts enable a more"bottom-up" approach to electricity distribution, in contrast to the historic 'top-down' model. The future will almost certainly include a mix of the two, but the balance among them and the interface (if any) between them is unclear.

  15. Future Roles of Milli-, Micro-, and Nano- Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2012-01-01

    on Integration of Renewable and Distributed Energy Resourceson Integration of Renewable and Distributed Energy Resourceson Integration of Renewable and Distributed Energy Resources

  16. Copyright A. J. Millis 2013 Columbia University Transition Metal Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millis, Andrew

    .353 5.6437 5.244 Lutetium 6.146 5.5769 6.689 5.5387 6.64 5.473 7.01 5.5250 7.264 Holmium Erbium Thulium

  17. Millis-Clicquot, Massachusetts: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPROLLC JumpEthanol LLCMillis,

  18. Millie Dresselhaus: Department of Physics and Engineering, Massachusetts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OFDetectionBenchmark Performance ofMilitaryMiller

  19. Milli-fluidic Reactor for Catalyst Research D. Yemane

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework uses concrete7 Assessment ofLana7,

  20. Design of Minimally Actuated Legged Milli-Robots Using Compliant Mechanisms and Folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoover, Aaron Murdock

    2010-01-01

    Their combination of kinematic mechanism design, compliantinsight gained from the kinematic mechanism design analysis,Design of parallel kinematic xy mechanisms,” in Proceedings

  1. Design of Minimally Actuated Legged Milli-Robots Using Compliant Mechanisms and Folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoover, Aaron Murdock

    2010-01-01

    gear reduction to obtain stride frequencies in a useful range, approximately 8-20Hz. Kinematic Transmission Design

  2. Design of Minimally Actuated Legged Milli-Robots Using Compliant Mechanisms and Folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoover, Aaron Murdock

    2010-01-01

    frequencies. . 61 4.21 Miniature boost converter pcOutput Current (mA) The boost converter was implemented on aT Spike - 1 The boost converter was used as the biasing

  3. Climate and Hydrologic Research: Interview with Chris Milly Climate and Hydrologic Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in hydroelectric plants to generate electricity. We transport our products through the rivers, over water. The fish and we generate synthetic stream flows of the Mississippi at Vicksburg and we can compare those

  4. Design of Minimally Actuated Legged Milli-Robots Using Compliant Mechanisms and Folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoover, Aaron Murdock

    2010-01-01

    consisting of soft-baked polyimide deposited silicon aC! of (#&! the 3&=! polyimide creates a thermal that /polymer film (typically polyimide) is then placed on top of

  5. Design of Minimally Actuated Legged Milli-Robots Using Compliant Mechanisms and Folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoover, Aaron Murdock

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pivots,” Journal of Mechanical Design, vol. 116, no. 1, pp.joints,” Journal of Mechanical Design, vol. 127, no. 4, pp.

  6. Design of Minimally Actuated Legged Milli-Robots Using Compliant Mechanisms and Folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoover, Aaron Murdock

    2010-01-01

    in Hexapods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75Prototyping the RoACH Hexapod . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lee, “A cockroach-inspired hexapod robot actuated by lipca,”

  7. Single Photon Level Study of Microwave Properties of Lithium Niobate at milli-Kelvin Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxim Goryachev; Nikita Kostylev; Michael E. Tobar

    2015-04-28

    Properties of doped and natural impurities in Lithium Niobate single crystals are studied using the Whispering Gallery Mode method at low temperatures as a function of magnetic field. The study reveals considerable coupling of microwave photon modes to the Fe$^{3+}$ spin ensemble in iron-doped and non-doped crystals. The $S=5/2$ structure of the Fe$^{3+}$ impurities demonstrate Zero Field Splittings of $11.21$ and $20.96$ GHz, significant asymmetry of the Zeeman lines and additional lines with anomalous $\\text{g}$-factors of $1.37$ and $3.95$. Also, interactions between different transitions of the Fe$^{3+}$ ion is observed. An additional ion impurity ensemble with a splitting of about $1.7$ GHz is shown to couple to the dominating Fe$^{3+}$ spins and the effect on $Q$-factors of microwave photon modes due to the Fe$^{3+}$ ion ensemble is also demonstrated. Measurements down to less than one photon level are made with a loss tangent of order $10^{-5}$ determined.

  8. Design of Minimally Actuated Legged Milli-Robots Using Compliant Mechanisms and Folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoover, Aaron Murdock

    2010-01-01

    from the kinematic mechanism design analysis, we propose andkinematic redundancy strategy for SCM mechanisms suggested by the analysis

  9. Associations of water and methanol masers at milli-arcsec angular resolution in two high-mass young stellar objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Goddi; L. Moscadelli; A. Sanna; R. Cesaroni; V. Minier

    2006-10-16

    Most previous high-angular (methanol masers. While high-angular resolution observations have clarified that water masers originate from shocks associated with protostellar jets, different environments have been proposed in several sources to explain the origin of methanol masers. Tha aim of the paper is to investigate the nature of the methanol maser birthplace in SFRs and the association between the water and methanol maser emission in the same young stellar object. We have conducted phase-reference Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of water and methanol masers toward two high-mass SFRs, Sh 2-255 IR and AFGL 5142. In Sh 2-255 IR water masers are aligned along a direction close to the orientation of the molecular outflow observed on angular scales of 1-10 arcsec, tracing possibly the disk-wind emerging from the disk atmosphere. In AFGL 5142 water masers trace expansion at the base of a protostellar jet, whilst methanol masers are more probably tracing infalling than outflowing gas. The results for AFGL 5142 suggest that water and methanol masers trace different kinematic structures in the circumstellar gas.

  10. Millie-Christine McKoy and the American Freak Show: Race, Gender, and Freedom in the Postbellum Era, 1851 - 1912

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gold, Sarah E

    2010-01-01

    primary sources, including contemporary circus pamphlets, medical journal studies, newspaper articles, and advertising broadsides, as well as the twins’ autobiography,

  11. Pgina 1 de 5 GEOEXRCITO: SISTEMA TCTICO-ESTRATGICO PARA O EXRCITO PORTUGUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Silva, Alberto Rodrigues

    , a meteorologia e sobre as nossas forças. Este tipo de informação geoespacial é crucial para as decisões aos

  12. Understanding Life Cycle Social Impacts in Manufacturing: A processed-based approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchins, Margot J.; Robinson, Stefanie L.; Dornfeld, David

    2013-01-01

    supply chains Social impacts Social responsibility Welding aproposed to characterize social impacts and risks associatedmetrics for measuring social impacts and identifying deci-

  13. Filter cleaning procedures All cleaning should take place in the clean lab wearing a lab coat, gloves, and safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    filter in one Petri dish 2. Add 50% trace metal grade hydrochloric acid (dilute with milli-Q water) 3. Soak the filter in 50% acid for 24 hours 4. rinse the filter with milli-Q water 10-20 times, leach the solution out 5. soak the filter in milli-q water for 24 hours 6. rinse the filter with milli-Q water 10

  14. The Artificial Intelligence (AI) program at the Univer-sity of Michigan comprises a multidisciplinary group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eustice, Ryan

    The Artificial Intelligence (AI) program at the Univer- sity of Michigan comprises in areas such as healthcare, electronic commerce, and finance. Artificial IntelligenceResearch Bob of intelligent systems. Current projects include research in rational deci- sion making, distributed systems

  15. Preliminary Safety Design RM

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Preliminary Safety Design Review Module March 2010 CD-0 O 0 OFFICE OF Pr C CD-1 F ENVIRO Standard R reliminar Rev Critical Decis CD-2 M ONMENTAL Review Plan ry Safety view Module...

  16. National Environmental Policy Act RM

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    National Environmental Policy Act Review Module March 2010 CD- N -0 OFFICE O National E C CD-1 OF ENVIRO Standa Environm Rev Critical Deci CD-2 M ONMENTA ard Review mental P view...

  17. The Role of Psychological Needs for Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness and Money-luxury in State Authenticity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renwick, Louisa Catherine

    2009-07-03

    This study aimed to determine the effects of psychological needs on states of authenticity. Self-determination theory proposes three basic psychological needs, for autonomy, competence and relatedness (Deci & Ryan, 1985). ...

  18. Influence of atmospheric nutrients on primary productivity in a coastal upwelling region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    wa- shed filter tower, and 100 mL MilliQ water was filteredwater based on successive fil- trations with the same filter [

  19. There are aspects of the last 18 months that have been difficult for everybody at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowther, Paul

    in Chile, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and th-based astronomy through its investment in ambitious global projects,includingtheAtacamaLargeMilli- metre Array

  20. Oxygen transfer in the implant environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goor, Jared Braden

    2007-01-01

    Chamber Liftoff Agent NC PTFE Chlorotrimethylsilane, acircles of microporous PTFE (MilliPore, 10µm exclusion)with a 12mm circular PTFE implant inside the chamber,

  1. Optimization of cell adhesion environments for a liver cell bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wongchaowart, Michael B

    2006-01-01

    The MilliF bioreactor offers great potential for the formation of i vivo-like liver tissue outside the body, making it a valuable tool for applications such as drug toxicity models and biosensors. Cell adhesion is an ...

  2. The design and feasibility of a 10 mN chemical space propulsion thruster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruccoleri, Alexander Robert

    2009-01-01

    This thesis discusses the design of a ten milli Newton chemical propulsion system for providing approximately 200 m/s delta velocity to a five kg satellite. The nozzle is the focus of the experimental work, which involves ...

  3. Thermal and Residual Excited-State Population in a 3D Transmon Qubit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, X.?Y.

    Remarkable advancements in coherence and control fidelity have been achieved in recent years with cryogenic solid-state qubits. Nonetheless, thermalizing such devices to their milliKelvin environments has remained a ...

  4. Structural and functional analysis of chemokine interactions with glycosaminoglycans and chemokine receptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salanga, Catherina L.

    2011-01-01

    Ex. Coeff: 8730 BUFFERS: Resuspension Buffer: (Store at 4°Cof Milli-Q H 2 O. The resuspension volume should be adjustedApproximately 15 µl of the resuspension was added to a 96-

  5. untitled

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    device, mean- while, demonstrated 1.3 mW electric from a tiny, 900K radioactive pellet, with an ultimate potential of >10 milli- wattscm 3 . These devices point to...

  6. A Study of Magnetic Shielding Performance of a Fermilab International Linear Collider Superconducting RF Cavity Cryomodule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    This note presents measurements that support the conclusion that it is feasible to achieve magnetic field values at the level of 5 milliGauss for a cryomodule in a realistic and representative ambient magnetic field environment.

  7. www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/314/5805/1585/DC1 Supporting Online Material for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winfree, Erik

    www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/314/5805/1585/DC1 Supporting Online Material for Enzyme solutions were prepared at a concentration of 50 µM in ultra pure water (purified by a Milli-Q system

  8. Master Thesis Projects Topics within Agroecology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bataillon, Thomas

    Master Thesis Projects Topics within Agroecology AgroEnvironmental Management & Agrobiology MSc 2015 #12;1 Preface This catalogue of master thesis projects available in 2015-2016 was prepared to help students in their deci- sions selecting a topic for their thesis project. A number of project

  9. Taylor Hicks' Soul Patrol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bedwell, David M.

    of Engineering are preparing a Formula One race car to be entered into the annual Formula SAE Project Lucas heard her students wanted to build a Formula One (F1) racing car to enter into an annual national competition, she says the deci- sion to go forward was an easy one. "Mechanical and material engineering

  10. www.biosciencemag.org February 2006 / Vol. 56 No. 2 BioScience 121 The history of environmental and resource manage-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    (Andrews 1999, Mangun and Henning 1999). Deci- sionmaking approaches tied to evaluations of environmental 1985, Treweek 1999). The ecosystem services approach addresses recent calls for the explicit). For example, Treweek (1999) notes that "while there are well-developed techniques for economic appraisal

  11. Perceptions are the basis for our understanding of the world. For

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of symbolic repre- sentation of the outside world; a self-made model of the world. What we perceive really depends essential- ly on unconscious cognitive deci- sions and conclusions. The brain usually makes especially bothered about the actual realities. We cannot force our way to the out- side through the nerves

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Situating adaptation: how governance challenges and perceptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yung, Laurie

    Adaptation is situated within multiple, inter- acting social, political, and economic forces. Adaptation socio- political context. Pathways emphasize that current deci- sions are both informed by past actions and shape the landscape of future options. This research examines how adaptation actors in Grand County

  13. Um Modelo de Gest~ao E ciente de Recursos Computacionais Marcos Castilho Renato Carmo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hexsel, Roberto A

    vez maior. A din^amica que rege a aquisi#24;c~ao de equipamentos e a contrata#24;c~ao de recursos tecnologia, e mais, as decis~oes que norteiam estas compras s~ao muitas vezes tomadas por grupos

  14. Spring, 1999 Prof. Rich Kozick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozick, Richard J.

    system. The solar heating system consists of a collector, a rock energy storage bin, a heated space- prised if you have to make some engineering decisions during the design process. Justify the deci- sions for you to think about. Have fun! Problem 1 You are asked to design the logic to control a solar heating

  15. International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and KnowledgeBased Systems c World Scientific Publishing Company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Publishing Company INTERVAL­VALUED DEGREES OF BELIEF: APPLICATIONS OF INTERVAL COMPUTATIONS TO EXPERT SYSTEMS doctors successfully cure diseases; expert geologists find oil; expert astronauts know how to dock the experts in the field, there are a few top experts whose deci­ sions turn out to be the most efficient

  16. International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems fc World Scientific Publishing Company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Publishing Company INTERVAL-VALUED DEGREES OF BELIEF: APPLICATIONS OF INTERVAL COMPUTATIONS TO EXPERT SYSTEMS successfully cure diseases; expert geologists find oil; expert astronauts know how to dock and land the Space in the field, there are a few top experts whose deci- sions turn out to be the most efficient. Since

  17. J. Hebcek et al. (Eds.): ISESS 2013, IFIP AICT 413, pp. 311320, 2013. IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the near future. Keywords: Smart Cities, urban safety, urban crime, data visualisation, deci- sion driven Future Internet concepts of "Smart cities" [5], [2]. For example, security in the smart cities alone, a key driver which will aid smart cities to be managed at localised levels in- volves

  18. Integrated Science and Computing Support for National Climate Service PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Thomas J. Wilbanks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of an information technology (IT)-based bridge between deci- sion support for a National Climate Service and state and technology (S&T), not only regarding climate data and projections but also regarding informatics, visuIntegrated Science and Computing Support for National Climate Service PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  19. Bonding and Structure of Ceramic-Ceramic Interfaces Kohei Shimamura,1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    interfacial design of high-temperature ceramic composites for broad applications such as power generation [3,4]) play a deci- sive role in determining material properties of ceramics. An archetypal ceramic-ceramic service temperatures in their applications such as turbines in power generators [9]. Though structural

  20. The Slovene Sound System Through Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Marc L.

    2006-01-01

    3 ). From a theoretical viewpoint, sound change is conceptualized along the lines of Henning Andersen’s model, in which deductively developed (phonetic) changes create ambiguities that are resolved by abductive deci- sions by speakers about... and Greenberg 1999; the reversal of lenited mediae, G 38 and Green- berg 2001). While structural factors (deductive change or drift, abductive change or phonemic reinterpretation) drive sound change in one direction, stylistic considera- tions for speakers...

  1. Regional Lead Agents and County Coordinators 2011 RESPONSIBILITY NAME COUNTY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    #12;Regional Lead Agents and County Coordinators 2011 RESPONSIBILITY NAME COUNTY REGION 1 Regional Lead Millie Davenport HGIC County Coordinator Matt Burns Pickens County Coordinator Marty Watt Anderson County Coordinator Morris Warner Oconee REGION 2 Regional Lead Danny Howard Greenville County Coordinator

  2. A Programmable 210 V Offset Rail-to-Rail GMC Filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    milli-Volts glitch at the input of a high- speed high-resolution comparator, for instance, may1 A Programmable 210 µV Offset Rail-to-Rail GM­C Filter H. Pooya Forghani-zadeh1 , Student Member. Programmability is also a feature of growing significance because high performance state-of-the-art systems must

  3. SUB-MICRO-GRAVITY CAPACITIVE SOI MICROACCELEROMETERS B. Vakili Amini, R. Abdolvand, and F. Ayazi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayazi, Farrokh

    high sensitivity (>15pF/g) is presented. The accelerometers are fabricated in thick (>100µm) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates using a 2-mask fully-dry-release process that provides large seismic mass (>10milli sensitivity to its mechanical noise floor, is improved by increasing the solid seismic mass through saving

  4. ISSCC 2006 / SESSION 16 / MEMS AND SENSORS / 16.1 16.1 A 4.5mW Closed-Loop Micro-Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayazi, Farrokh

    .01·cm) 120µm-thick silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate with extra seismic mass and small capacitive seismic mass on the backside of the sensor. In contrast to previously reported micro- accelerometers. Since the seismic mass is very large (10's of milli-gram) and the accelerom- eter is very compliant

  5. University of Vermont 2013 Annual Sprinkler Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Hall ___Redstone Hall ___Coolidge Hall ___Slade ___CPW ___Converse Hall ___Williams Hall ___RTT ___Davis Center (Wed 6am-2pm) ___Pomeroy Hall ___Waterman (Fri 6am-7am) ___Terrill Hall (Wed 10am-2pm (Wed 6am-9am) ___16 Colchester Ave ___Mansfield House ___Harris/Millis (Tue after 9am) ___Billings

  6. DOI: 10.1021/la901958t 8899Langmuir 2009, 25(16), 88998902 Published on Web 07/02/2009 pubs.acs.org/Langmuir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    - trast, the drag force on a solid sphere with the no-slip or fully immobile boundary condition is given hydrodynamicshearstresstangentialtothesurface.UnderStokes flow, the drag force on such a bubble of radius R with velocity U in a fluid buoyancy force show that the HR result applies in ultrapure water (Milli-Q water cleaned by sparging

  7. From: Office of Clinical Research Sent: Tuesday, January 24, 2012 10:35 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, S. Murray

    , March 13 ­ Last IRB Committee meeting prior to IRBWise shut-down · Friday, March 16 (5:00 pm) ­ IRBWise shut-down · Tuesday, March 20 ­ Committee meeting to consider new protocols only - Communication Millie Maleckar, submissions that have been started but not completed as of 2/28/12, and emergency

  8. Florida Saves Week 1 2010 Superior Accomplishment 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    Florida Saves Week 1 2010 Superior Accomplishment 1 Awards Fresh Florida Seafood for Lunch 2 2011 Table of Contents Florida Saves Week 1 2010 Superior Accomplishment 1 Awards Fresh Florida Seafood Florida Saves Week Dr. Millie Ferrer-Chancy, Interim Dean for Extension and Dr. Michael Gutter, Assistant

  9. Bottle Washing LDPE bottles must be acid washed prior to use in trace element analyses. The process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    . Polycarbonate/Teflon filters These can be washed in large batches (~100 filters) using the blue lidded plastic bins. Each of the baths should be made to 2 liters total volume. The volumes can be reused several for 1 week. · Repeat batch rinse. · Using plastic forceps and Milli-Q squeeze bottle, individually rinse

  10. 2O 2O2O 2OAn Executive's Guide to the Criteria for Performance Excellence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;BALDRIGE 2O 2O2O 2OAn Executive's Guide to the Criteria for Performance Excellence That Used the Criteria to Become U.S. Role Models #12;Baldrige Performance Excellence Program National, Millie Glick, Harry Hertz, Scott Kurtz, and Jeff Lucas. Book design and illustrations by Capitol

  11. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 23, 24092414 (2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Troch, Peter

    2009-01-01

    (Sustainability of semi-arid hydrology and riparian areas), University of Arizona, USA 5 Department of Geography hydroclimatic variables and land- scape features in a changing environment (Milly et al., 2008). Water balance models (Schaake, 1990; Dooge, 1992) usually consider the land- scape to be invariant

  12. Fish Slaughter, Killing, and Euthanasia: A Review of Major Published U.S. Guidance Documents and General

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    CIR1525 Fish Slaughter, Killing, and Euthanasia: A Review of Major Published U.S. Guidance of County Commissioners Cooperating. Millie Ferrer-Chancy, Interim Dean Introduction Fish are important. However, non-native fish illegally released into the environment pose a nuisance. In each case, death

  13. Managing Florida Ponds for Fishing 1 Charles E. Cichra2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    CIR802 Managing Florida Ponds for Fishing 1 Charles E. Cichra2 1. This document is CIR802, one. Millie Ferrer-Chancy, Interim Dean Florida has thousands of natural and man-made ponds which range in surface area from less than 1/10 acre to greater than ten acres. Man-made ponds include dug

  14. Dependence of cross sections for multi-electron loss by 6 mev/amu xe18+ ions on target atomic number 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Yong

    2004-09-30

    pressure is several milli-torr. Thus, it is important to assess the rate at which the charge state of an incident beam evolves while passing through the background gas. The first objective of this project is to study the dependence of cross sections...

  15. Optimal Routing and Scheduling in Multihop Wireless Renewable Energy Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Saswati

    to solar panels. In addition to solar, energy harvested from the wind through the use of micro-turbines [3 harvested from renewable sources could range from the order of tens of watts as with solar panels, to milli constraints. For example, a solar panel (with several square feet of panel area) may be more appropriate

  16. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800011 Nano-and Micropatterning of Optically Transparent,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    begins with the purification of harvested Bombyx mori cocoons. Sericin, a water-soluble glycoprotein is then extracted from the solution over the course of three days, through a water-based dialysis process is rinsed thoroughly in Milli-Q water and allowed to dry overnight. The dry fibroin bundle is then dissolved

  17. Electromagnetic Generators for Portable Power Applications Matthew Kurt Senesky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    -- the electrochemical battery -- has failed to shrink at the same rate as circuits and sensors. While this growing or turbines paired with electrical generators. Producing such a system to run efficiently on the milli to power tools to electric vehicle drives to wind power generation -- that would benefit from high

  18. AIR-BREATHING LAMINAR FLOW BASED MICROFLUIDIC FUEL CELL Ranga S. Jayashree1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    AIR-BREATHING LAMINAR FLOW BASED MICROFLUIDIC FUEL CELL Ranga S. Jayashree1 , Lajos Gancs2 , Eric R of the laminar flow-based microfluidic fuel cell. A 5-mm thick graphite plate (anode, fuel cell grade graphite bipolar plate purchased from Fuel Cell Stores.com) was cleaned by sonication in large portions of Milli

  19. 2 2 S P R I N G 2 0 1 5 Steven Schiff, MD, Ph.D., is working with engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , typically 1.5 Tesla or higher (about 30,000 times the Earth's magnetic field). These devices require some will operate at a field strength in the milliTesla range, a thousand times weaker. Because a fair amount believes his MRI scanner can be built for $30,000 to $50,000 and run off a marine battery or diesel

  20. The use of milk progesterone assay as an aid to brood mare management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honey, Peter Geoffrey

    1980-01-01

    of th1s study strongly suggested that much of the infertil1ty 1n mares is due to fa1lure to breed mares in close synchrony with ovulat1on. Difficulty 1n interpretation of palpat1on findings and between mare var1ation in teas1ng results contr1buted... most to mares being bred at sub-optimal t1me. Analys1s of milk progesterone data disclosed these management problems. Two add1tional mares were mon1tored on days that breeding manage- ment decis1ons were made. Milk progesterone levels reflected...

  1. A review of "The Jesuits and the Thirty Years War" by Robert Bireley. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark Charles Fissel

    2004-01-01

    Bireley con- structs a narrative of the Jesuits? activities in church-state politics, diplomacy, and strategic decision-making in the period 1618-1648. He ventures into the four most important Catholic courts of Eu- rope: Vienna, Munich, Paris, and Madrid... into the sphere of advising on political and military deci- sions? At Vienna and Munich the stakes were high, for Bireley demonstrates that at those courts the Jesuit confessors did affect the prosecution of the war. Far from appearing as calculating...

  2. Frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raymond, Thomas D. (Edgewood, NM); Alford, William J. (Albuquerque, NM); Crawford, Mary H. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A frequency-doubled semiconductor vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) is disclosed for generating light at a wavelength in the range of 300-550 nanometers. The VECSEL includes a semiconductor multi-quantum-well active region that is electrically or optically pumped to generate lasing at a fundamental wavelength in the range of 600-1100 nanometers. An intracavity nonlinear frequency-doubling crystal then converts the fundamental lasing into a second-harmonic output beam. With optical pumping with 330 milliWatts from a semiconductor diode pump laser, about 5 milliWatts or more of blue light can be generated at 490 nm. The device has applications for high-density optical data storage and retrieval, laser printing, optical image projection, chemical-sensing, materials processing and optical metrology.

  3. Will Einstein Have the Last Word on Gravity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard F. Schutz; Joan Centrella; Curt Cutler; Scott A. Hughes

    2009-02-28

    This is a whitepaper submitted to the 2010 Astronomy Decadal Review process, addressing the potential tests of gravity theory that could be made by observations of gravitational waves in the milliHertz frequency band by the proposed ESA-NASA gravitational wave observatory LISA. A key issue is that observations in this band of binary systems consisting of black holes offer very clean tests with high signal-to-noise ratios. Gravitational waves would probe nonlinear gravity and could reveal small corrections, such as extra long-range fields that arise in unified theories, deviations of the metric around massive black holes from the Kerr solution, massive gravitons, chiral effects, and effects of extra dimensions. The availability of strong signals from massive black hole binaries as well as complex signals from extreme mass-ratio binaries is unique to the milliHertz waveband and makes LISA a particularly sensitive probe of the validity of general relativity.

  4. Phytoplankton biomass and community structure at frontal zones in the surface waters of the Northern Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salazar, Alicia

    2005-02-17

    phytoplankton biomass as well as identifying different algal classes in marine ecosystems (Letelier et al. 1993; Jeffrey et al. 1997; Mackey et al. 1998; Wright et al. 2000). Different groups of phytoplankton contain specific photopigments in different 9... combinations, making it possible to identify which algal groups are present in a water sample by identifying the concentrations of different diagnostic photopigments (Millie et al. 1993; Mackey et al. 1996, 1998; Wright et al. 1996; Pinckney et al. 1998...

  5. Difficulties in number experienced by children aged 7 to 11 in public care in England

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffiths, Rose

    2014-11-11

    collection 63 Data management and analysis 84 Ethical issues 89 Chapter 4: The Children, their Families and their Schools 93 Skye 99 Ronan 109 Kyle 118 Dylan 130 Millie 137... not understand something, because of previous failure in the classroom (Rowland, 2000). Similarly, their past experience of learning at home may mean they do not have a positive attitude towards educational activities, including homework. Even if their carer...

  6. How Bilayer Graphene Got a Bandgap

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Feng Wang

    2010-01-08

    Graphene is the two-dimensional crystalline form of carbon, whose extraordinary electron mobility and other unique features hold great promise for nanoscale electronics and photonics. But theres a catch: graphene has no bandgap. Now Feng Wang and his colleagues at Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley have engineered a bandgap in bilayer graphene that can be precisely controlled from 0 to 250 milli-electron volts, which is the energy of infrared radiation.

  7. How Bilayer Graphene Got a Bandgap

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wang, Feng

    2013-05-29

    Graphene is the two-dimensional crystalline form of carbon, whose extraordinary electron mobility and other unique features hold great promise for nanoscale electronics and photonics. But theres a catch: graphene has no bandgap. Now Feng Wang and his colleagues at Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley have engineered a bandgap in bilayer graphene that can be precisely controlled from 0 to 250 milli-electron volts, which is the energy of infrared radiation.

  8. PKS 1510-089: A Head-On View of a Relativistic Jet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel C. Homan; John F. C. Wardle; Chi C. Cheung; David H. Roberts; Joanne M. Attridge

    2002-08-02

    The gamma-ray blazar PKS 1510-089 has a highly superluminal milli-arcsecond jet at a position angle (PA) of -28 degrees and an arcsecond jet with an initial PA of 155 degrees. With a PA difference of 177 degrees between the arcsecond and milli-arcsecond jets, PKS 1510-089 is perhaps the most highly misaligned radio jet ever observed and serves as a graphic example of projection effects in a highly beamed relativistic jet. Here we present the results of observations designed to bridge the gap between the milli-arcsecond and arcsecond scales. We find that a previously detected ``counter-feature'' to the arcsecond jet is directly fed by the milli-arcsecond jet. This feature is located 0.3" from the core, corresponding to a de-projected distance of 30 kiloparsecs. The feature appears to be dominated by shocked emission and has an almost perfectly ordered magnetic field along its outside edge. We conclude that it is most likely a shocked bend, viewed end-on, where the jet crosses our line of sight to form the southern arcsecond jet. While the bend appears to be nearly 180 degrees when viewed in projection, we estimate the intrinsic bending angle to be between 12 and 24 degrees. The cause of the bend is uncertain; however, we favor a scenario where the jet is bent after it departs the galaxy, either by ram pressure due to winds in the intracluster medium or simply by the density gradient in the transition to the intergalactic medium.

  9. A study of physiological responses of lactating dairy cows to summer climatic factors under shaded and non-shaded conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Dewey Lynn

    1958-01-01

    &SZ S XD"D A LD?Oil-S'1AD. . D COliDITIOllS A Ti'esLs Deci~~I L, "!~1 . 1AKIIS Appx'o~"eel 89 i, o 8 'Ie 8. :6 ec'. "eA' t 0 al h E Hi Ic i INTRODUCTION REVIEM OF THE LITERATURE EXPErRZ JACAL PROCEDURE 3 24 Nultiple Regressiou Analysis... rigation, and storage of forages grown during the milder seasons. Unfo. tuna"ely, progress in the study of the adverse efi'acts of "hot" cliia'es ac'lng directly on the animals has not been as iWzitful. Sires mosi Gl the high pr oducing dairy breeds have...

  10. Biology and chemical control of the spotted alfalfa aphid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downing, Douglas Holland

    1959-01-01

    Iy fxILAS R. . 1009% E. , 4 4, %ecto ', Cika4ttwk ee ehe Caadaate:!eho'o1 og kyrioelt~al?amoI. Noehagaal Collemo ef ~ 4a yaieial telftUjooat:et::ihe geiyat~eo Coo ~ deja''-et , . Of IC Qglt "I P Jaaoaof, , LWA 8, 1 I, h' . I '~ h I I... ther 1 . wyetted a~a~a aphid inl the 5gyii4 stataw. 'otww . 4$twe mm)ow&4;. , :, :, -, ':: inj. . . H~ tgygico deci~ Faba%mFg. 1954d %% ayhid nay a , ' oni4y. i4antiCia4: aa. th? 'tyalloa jalousie aybid, ", ' Xn CaNfocoia , :" -: ' diu'ides Hays...

  11. Composite dark matter and direct-search experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quentin Wallemacq

    2015-12-18

    We reinterpret the results of the direct searches for dark matter in terms of composite dark matter, i.e. dark matter particles that form neutral bound states, generically called dark atoms, either with ordinary particles, or with other dark matter particles. Three different scenarios are investigated: the O-helium scenario, milli- interacting dark matter and dark anti-atoms. In each of them, dark matter interacts sufficiently strongly with terrestrial matter to be stopped in it before reaching underground detectors. As they drift towards the center of the earth by gravity, these thermal dark atoms are radiatively captured by the atoms of the active medium of underground detectors, which causes the emission of photons that produce the signals through their interactions with the electrons of the medium. This provides a way of reinterpreting the results in terms of electron recoils instead of nuclear recoils. The detailed study of the interactions of O-helium with ordinary matter shows that it is not an acceptable candidate for dark matter because of the absence of a repulsion mechanism preventing it from falling into the deep nuclear wells of nuclei. The two other models involve milli-charges and are able to reconcile the most contradictory experiments. We determine, for each model, the regions in the parameter space that reproduce the experiments with positive results in full consistency with the constraints of the experiments with negative results. We also pay attention to the experimental and observational constraints on milli-charges and discuss some typical signatures of the models that could be used to test them.

  12. Room temperature water Leidenfrost droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franck Celestini; Thomas Frisch; Yves Pomeau

    2013-08-05

    We experimentally investigate the Leidenfrost effect at pressures ranging from 1 to 0.05 atmospheric pressure. As a direct consequence of the Clausius-Clapeyron phase diagram of water, the droplet temperature can be at ambient temperature in a non-sophisticated lab environment. Furthermore, the lifetime of the Leidenfrost droplet is significantly increased in this low pressure environment. The temperature and pressure dependance of the evaporation rate are successfully tested against a recently proposed model. These results may pave a way to reach efficient Leidenfrost micro-fluidic and milli-fluidic applications.

  13. Jump Chaotic Behaviour of Ultra Low Loss Bulk Acoustic Wave Cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxim Goryachev; Warrick G. Farr; Serge Galliou; Michael E. Tobar

    2014-06-16

    We demonstrate a previously unobserved nonlinear phenomenon in an ultra-low loss quartz Bulk Acoustic Wave cavity ($Q>3\\times10^9$), which only occurs below 20 milli-Kelvin in temperature and under relatively weak pumping. The phenomenon reveals the emergence of several stable equilibria (at least two foci and two nodes) and jumps between these quasi states at random times. The degree of this randomness as well as separations between levels can be controlled by the frequency of the incident carrier signal. It is demonstrated that the nature of the effect lays beyond the standard Duffing model.

  14. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  15. LISA long-arm interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Ira Thorpe

    2009-11-16

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will observe gravitational radiation in the milliHertz band by measuring picometer-level fluctuations in the distance between drag-free proof masses over baselines of approximately five million kilometers. The measurement over each baseline will be divided into three parts: two short-arm measurements between the proof masses and a fiducial point on their respective spacecraft, and a long-arm measurement between fiducial points on separate spacecraft. This work focuses on the technical challenges associated with these long-arm measurements and the techniques that have been developed to overcome them.

  16. Milestone L1:CASL.P7.04 RSICC Release Testing Results Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework uses concrete7 Assessment ofLana7, atScience Mildred (Millie)

  17. Deep x-ray lithography for micromechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christenson, T.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guckel, H. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1995-08-01

    Extensions of the German LIGA process have brought about fabrication capability suitable for cost effective production of precision engineered components. The process attributes allow fabrication of mechanical components which are not capable of being made via conventional subtractive machining methods. Two process improvements have been responsible for this extended capability which involve the areas of thick photoresist application and planarization via precision lapping. Application of low-stress x-ray photoresist has been achieved using room temperature solvent bonding of a preformed photoresist sheet. Precision diamond lapping and polishing has provided a flexible process for the planarization of a wide variety of electroplated metals in the presence of photoresist. Exposure results from the 2.5 GeV National Synchrotron Light Source storage ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory have shown that structural heights of several millimeter and above are possible. The process capabilities are also well suited for microactuator fabrication. Linear and rotational magnetic microactuators have been constructed which use coil winding technology with LIGA fabricated coil forms. Actuator output forces of 1 milliNewton have been obtained with power dissipation on the order of milliWatts. A rotational microdynamometer system which is capable of measuring torque-speed data is also discussed.

  18. The 21-cm Signal from the Cosmological Epoch of Recombination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fialkov, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    The redshifted 21-cm emission by neutral hydrogen offers a unique tool for mapping structure formation in the early universe in three dimensions. Here we provide the first detailed calculation of the 21-cm emission signal during and after the epoch of hydrogen recombination in the redshift range of z ~ 500-1,100, corresponding to observed wavelengths of 100-230 meters. The 21-cm line deviates from thermal equilibrium with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) due to the excess Ly-alpha radiation from hydrogen and helium recombinations. The resulting 21-cm signal reaches a brightness temperature of a milli-Kelvin, orders of magnitude larger than previously estimated. Its detection by a future lunar or space-based observatory could improve dramatically the statistical constraints on the cosmological initial conditions compared to existing two-dimensional maps of the CMB anisotropies.

  19. Observation of the Fundamental Nyquist Noise Limit in an Ultra-High $Q$-Factor Cryogenic Bulk Acoustic Wave Cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxim Goryachev; Eugene N. Ivanov; Frank van Kann; Serge Galliou; Michael E. Tobar

    2014-10-16

    Thermal Nyquist noise fluctuations of high-$Q$ Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) cavities have been observed at cryogenic temperatures with a DC Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) amplifier. High $Q$ modes with bandwidths of few tens of milliHz produce thermal fluctuations with a Signal-To-Noise ratio of up to 23dB. The estimated effective temperature from the Nyquist noise is in good agreement with the physical temperature of the device, confirming the validity of the equivalent circuit model and the non-existence of any excess resonator self-noise. The measurements also confirm that the quality factor remains extremely high ($Q>10^8$ at low order overtones) for very weak (thermal) system motion at low temperatures, when compared to values measured with relatively strong external excitation. This result represents an enabling step towards operating such a high-Q acoustic device at the standard quantum limit.

  20. Optical frequency standards for gravitational wave detection using satellite Doppler velocimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vutha, Amar C

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational waves imprint apparent Doppler shifts on the frequency of photons propagating between an emitter and detector of light. This forms the basis of a method to detect gravitational waves using Doppler velocimetry between pairs of satellites. Such detectors, operating in the milli-hertz gravitational frequency band, could lead to the direct detection of gravitational waves. The crucial component in such a detector is the frequency standard on board the emitting and receiving satellites. We point out that recent developments in atomic frequency standards have led to devices that are approaching the sensitivity required to detect gravitational waves from astrophysically interesting sources. The sensitivity of satellites equipped with optical frequency standards for Doppler velocimetry is examined, and a design for a robust, space-capable optical frequency standard is presented.

  1. Optical frequency standards for gravitational wave detection using satellite Doppler velocimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amar C. Vutha

    2015-06-24

    Gravitational waves imprint apparent Doppler shifts on the frequency of photons propagating between an emitter and detector of light. This forms the basis of a method to detect gravitational waves using Doppler velocimetry between pairs of satellites. Such detectors, operating in the milli-hertz gravitational frequency band, could lead to the direct detection of gravitational waves. The crucial component in such a detector is the frequency standard on board the emitting and receiving satellites. We point out that recent developments in atomic frequency standards have led to devices that are approaching the sensitivity required to detect gravitational waves from astrophysically interesting sources. The sensitivity of satellites equipped with optical frequency standards for Doppler velocimetry is examined, and a design for a robust, space-capable optical frequency standard is presented.

  2. Air Entrainment in Dynamic Wetting: Knudsen Effects and the Influence of Ambient Air Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprittles, James E

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments on coating flows and liquid drop impact both demonstrate that wetting failures caused by air entrainment can be suppressed by reducing the ambient gas pressure. Here, it is shown that non-equilibrium effects in the gas can account for this behaviour, with ambient pressure reductions increasing the gas' mean free path and hence the Knudsen number $Kn$. These effects first manifest themselves through Maxwell slip at the gas' boundaries so that for sufficiently small $Kn$ they can be incorporated into a continuum model for dynamic wetting flows. The resulting mathematical model contains flow structures on the nano-, micro- and milli-metre scales and is implemented into a computational platform developed specifically for such multiscale phenomena. The coating flow geometry is used to show that for a fixed gas-liquid-solid system (a) the increased Maxwell slip at reduced pressures can substantially delay air entrainment, i.e. increase the `maximum speed of wetting', (b) unbounded maximum speeds ...

  3. The concept of a stare-mode astrometric space mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Zacharias; B. Dorland

    2006-08-14

    The concept of a stare-mode astrometric space mission is introduced. The traditionally accepted mode of operation for a mapping astrometric space mission is that of a continuously scanning satellite, like the successful Hipparcos and planned Gaia missions. With the advent of astrometry missions mapping out stars to 20th magnitude, the stare-mode becomes competitive. A stare-mode of operation has several advantages over a scanning missions if absolute parallax and throughput issues can be successfully addressed. Requirements for a stare-mode operation are outlined. The mission precision for a stare-mode astrometric mission is derived as a function of instrumental parameters with examples given. The stare-mode concept has been accepted as baseline for the NASA roadmap study of the Origins Billions Star Survey (OBSS) mission and the Milli-arcsecond Pathfinder Survey (MAPS) micro-satellite proposed project.

  4. Modular cryogenic interconnects for multi-qubit devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colless, J. I.; Reilly, D. J.

    2014-11-15

    We have developed a modular interconnect platform for the control and readout of multiple solid-state qubits at cryogenic temperatures. The setup provides 74 filtered dc-bias connections, 32 control and readout connections with ?3 dB frequency above 5 GHz, and 4 microwave feed lines that allow low loss (less than 3 dB) transmission 10 GHz. The incorporation of a radio-frequency interposer enables the platform to be separated into two printed circuit boards, decoupling the simple board that is bonded to the qubit chip from the multilayer board that incorporates expensive connectors and components. This modular approach lifts the burden of duplicating complex interconnect circuits for every prototype device. We report the performance of this platform at milli-Kelvin temperatures, including signal transmission and crosstalk measurements.

  5. Sub-Kelvin magnetic and electrical measurements in a diamond anvil cell with in-situ tunability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Palmer, Alexander; Silevitch, Daniel; Feng, Yejun; Wang, Yishu; Jaramillo, R.; Banerjee, Arnab; Ren, Yang; Rosenbaum, Thomas F.

    2015-09-04

    We discuss techniques for performing continuous measurements across a wide range of pressure-field-temperature phase space, combining the milli-Kelvin temperatures of a helium dilution refrigerator with that of the giga-Pascal pressures of a diamond anvil cell and the Tesla magnetic fields of a superconducting magnet. With a view towards minimizing remnant magnetic fields and background magnetic susceptibility, we then characterize high-strength superalloy materials for the pressure cell assembly, which allows high fidelity measurements of low-field phenomena such as superconductivity below 100 mK at pressures above 10 GPa. In situ tunability and measurement of the pressure permit experiments over a wide rangemore »of pressure, while at the same time making possible precise steps across abrupt phase transitions such as that from insulator to metal.« less

  6. The First Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abazajian, Kevork N; Agüeros, Marcel A; Allam, Sahar S; Anderson, Scott F; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A; Baldry, Ivan K; Bastian, Steven; Berlind, Andreas A; Bernardi, Mariangela; Blanton, Michael R; Blythe, Norman; Bochanski, John J; Boroski, William N; Brewington, Howard; Briggs, John W; Brinkmann, J; Brunner, Robert J; Budavari, Tamas; Carey, Larry N; Carr, Michael A; Castander, F J; Chiu, Kuenley; Collinge, Matthew J; Connolly, A J; Covey, Kevin R; Csabai, Istvan; Dodelson, Scott; Doi, Mamoru; Dong, Feng; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Evans, Michael L; Fan, Xiaohui; Feldman, Paul D; Finkbeiner, Douglas P; Friedman, Scott D; Frieman, Joshua A; Fukugita, Masataka; Gal, Roy R; Gillespie, Bruce; Glazebrook, Karl; Gonzalez, Carlos F; Gray, Jim; Grebel, Eva K; Grodnicki, Lauren; Gunn, James E; Gurbani, Vijay K; Hall, Patrick B; Hao, Lei; Harbeck, Daniel; Harris, Frederick H; Harris, Hugh C; Harvanek, Michael J; Hawley, Suzanne L; Heckman, Timothy M; Helmboldt, J F; Hendry, John S; Hennessy, Gregory S; Hindsley, Robert B; Hogg, David W; Holmgren, Donald; Holtzman, Jon A; Homer, Lee; Hui, Lam; Ichikawa, Shin-ichi; Ichikawa, Takashi; Inkmann, John P; Ivezic, Z; Jester, Sebastian; Johnston, David E; Jordan, Beatrice; Jordan, Wendell P; Jorgensen, Anders M; Juric, Mario; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Kent, Stephen M; Kleinman, S J; Knapp, G R; Kniazev, Alexei Yu; Kron, Richard G; Krzesinski, Jurek; Kunszt, Peter Z; Kuropatkin, Nickolai; Lamb, Donald Q; Lampeitl, Hubert; Laubscher, Bryan E; Lee, Brian C; Leger, R French; Li No Lan; Lidz, Adam; Lin, Huan; Loh Yeong Shang; Long, Daniel C; Loveday, Jon; Lupton, Robert H; Malik, Tanu; Margon, Bruce; McGehee, Peregrine M; McKay, Timothy A; Meiksin, Avery; Miknaitis, Gajus A; Moorthy, Bhasker K; Munn, Jeffrey A; Murphy, Tara; Nakajima, Reiko; Narayanan, Vijay K; Nash, Thomas; Neilsen, Erich; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Newman, Peter R; Nichol, Robert C; Nicinski, Tom; Nieto-Santisteban, Maria; Nitta, Atsuko; Odenkirchen, Michael; Okamura, Sadanori; Ostriker, Jeremiah P; Owen, Russell; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Peoples, John; Pier, Jeffrey R; Pindor, Bartosz; Pope, Adrian C; Quinn, Thomas R; Rafikov, R R; Raymond, Sean N; Richards, Gordon T; Richmond, Michael W; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rockosi, Constance M; Schaye, Joop; Schlegel, David J; Schneider, D P; Schroeder, Joshua; Scranton, Ryan; Sekiguchi, Maki; Seljak, Uros; Sergey, Gary; Sesar, Branimir; Sheldon, E S; Shimasaku, Kazu; Siegmund, Walter A; Silvestri, Nicole M; Sinisgalli, Allan J; Sirko, Edwin; Smith, Allyn J; Smolcic, Vernesa; Snedden, Stephanie A; Stebbins, Albert; Steinhardt, Charles; Stinson, Gregory M; Stoughton, Chris; Strateva, Iskra V; Strauss, Michael A; SubbaRao, Mark; Szalay, Alexander S; Istvan Szapudi; Szkody, Paula; Tasca, Lidia; Tegmark, Max; Thakar, Aniruddha R; Tremonti, Christy A; Tucker, Douglas L; Uomoto, Alan; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Vandenberg, Jan; Vogeley, Michael S; Voges, Wolfgang; Vogt, Nicole P; Walkowicz, Lucianne M; Weinberg, David H; West, Andrew A; White, Simon D M; Wilhite, Brian C; Willman, Beth; Xu Yong Hong; Yanny, Brian; Yarger, Jean; Yasuda, Naoki; Yip, Ching-Wa; Yocum, D R; York, Donald G; Zakamska, Nadia L; Zheng, Wei; Zibetti, Stefano; Zucker, Daniel B

    2003-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has validated and made publicly available its First Data Release. This consists of 2099 square degrees of five-band (u, g, r, i, z) imaging data, 186,240 spectra of galaxies, quasars, stars and calibrating blank sky patches selected over 1360 square degrees of this area, and tables of measured parameters from these data. The imaging data go to a depth of r ~ 22.6 and are photometrically and astrometrically calibrated to 2% rms and 100 milli-arcsec rms per coordinate, respectively. The spectra cover the range 3800--9200 A, with a resolution of 1800--2100. Further characteristics of the data are described, as are the data products themselves.

  7. Terahertz Radiation from a Pipe with Small Corrugations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2012-01-26

    We have studied through analytical and numerical methods the use of a relativistic electron bunch to drive a metallic beam pipe with small corrugations for the purpose of generating terahertz radiation. For the case of a pipe with dimensions that do not change along its length, we have shown that - with reasonable parameters - one can generate a narrow-band radiation pulse with frequency {approx}1 THz, and total energy of a few milli-Joules. The pulse length tends to be on the order of tens of picoseconds. We have also shown that, if the pipe radius is tapered along its length, the generated pulse will end up with a frequency chirp; if the pulse is then made to pass through a compressor, its final length can be reduced to a few picoseconds and its peak power increased to 1 GW. We have also shown that wall losses tend to be significant and need to be included in the structure design.

  8. Scientific Results from High-precision Astrometry at the Palomar Testbed Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew W. Muterspaugh; Benjamin F. Lane; Maciej Konacki; B. F. Burke; M. M. Colavita; S. R. Kulkarni; M. Shao

    2006-05-31

    A new observing mode for the Palomar Testbed Interferometer was developed in2002-2003 which enables differential astrometry at the level of 20 micro-arcseconds for binary systems with separations of several hundred milli-arcseconds (mas). This phase-referenced mode is the basis of the Palomar High-precision Astrometric Search for Exoplanet Systems (PHASES), a search for giant planets orbiting either the primary or secondary star in fifty binary systems. We present the first science results from the PHASES search. The properties of the stars comprising binary systems are determined to high precision. The mutual inclinations of several hierarchical triple star systems have been determined. We will present upper limits constraining the the existence of giant planets in a few of the target systems.

  9. Dissolution of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite synthesized at different conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavropoulos, Elena; Rossi, Alexandre M.; Rocha, Nilce C.C. da; Soares, Gloria A.; Moreira, Josino C.; Moure, Gustavo T

    2003-03-15

    The dissolution characteristics of several calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites (HA) have been investigated. Eleven samples were produced by varying synthesis parameters like temperature, pH, digestion time, reagent concentration and velocity of addition. Powder characterization was conducted using X-ray diffraction. Sample crystallinity was variable and samples examined by transmission electron microscopy showed acicular or plate-like morphology. After sample dissolution in Milli-Q water for 168 h, the calcium and phosphate contents in solution were measured by induced coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (OES). The dissolution behavior of calcium-deficient HA was highly dependent on the sample calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) molar ratio of the original HA. Dissolution in water was enhanced with decreasing HA sample molar ratio. However, the dissolution process equilibrium was not achieved at the end of 168 h (7 days)

  10. Observation of the fundamental Nyquist noise limit in an ultra-high Q-factor cryogenic bulk acoustic wave cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goryachev, Maxim Ivanov, Eugene N.; Tobar, Michael E.; Kann, Frank van; Galliou, Serge

    2014-10-13

    Thermal Nyquist noise fluctuations of high-Q bulk acoustic wave cavities have been observed at cryogenic temperatures with a DC superconducting quantum interference device amplifier. High Q modes with bandwidths of few tens of milliHz produce thermal fluctuations with a signal-to-noise ratio of up to 23?dB. The estimated effective temperature from the Nyquist noise is in good agreement with the physical temperature of the device, confirming the validity of the equivalent circuit model and the non-existence of any excess resonator self-noise. The measurements also confirm that the quality factor remains extremely high (Q?>?10{sup 8} at low order overtones) for very weak (thermal) system motion at low temperatures, when compared to values measured with relatively strong external excitation. This result represents an enabling step towards operating such a high-Q acoustic device at the standard quantum limit.

  11. Resolving the ionized wind of the post-Red Supergiant IRC +10 420 with VLTI/AMBER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. J. de Wit; R. D. Oudmaijer; M. A. T. Groenewegen; M. G. Hoare; F. Malbet; ;

    2007-11-30

    The paper investigates the milli-arcsecond scale structure of the present-day mass-loss of the post-Red Supergiant IRC+10420. We use three telescopes of the VLT Interferometer in combination with the AMBER near-infrared beam combiner to measure spectrally dispersed correlated fluxes in the K-band around the Br gamma transition. The resulting visibilities are compared to the predicted visibilities of emission structures with various simple models in order to infer the size of the observed emission region. The Br gamma line is resolved by VLTI+AMBER on all three baselines, with the maximum projected baseline extending 69 meter and a P.A. ranging between 10 and 30 degrees. A differential phase between line and continuum is detected on the longest baseline. The Br gamma emission region is found to have a diameter of 3.3 milli-arcseconds (FWHM), when compared to a Gaussian intensity distribution. A uniform disk and a ring-like intensity distribution do not fit the line visibilities. Comparing the AMBER equivalent width of Br gamma with measurements from various epochs, we find that the stellar photosphere contributes about 60% of the total continuum light at 2.2 micron. The remaining 40% continuum emission is found on scales larger than the 66mas AMBER field of view. Using simple arguments, and assuming optically thick line emission, we find that the line emitting region is elongated. We briefly discuss the possibilities whether such a structure is due to a bi-polar flow or a circumstellar disk. (Abridged).

  12. Sun-as-a-Star Spectrum Variations 1974-2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Livingston; L. Wallace; O. R. White; M. S. Giampapa

    2006-12-19

    We have observed selected Fraunhofer lines, both integrated over the Full Disk and for a small circular region near the center of the solar disk, on 1,215 days for the past 30 years. Full Disk results: Ca II K 393 nm nicely tracks the 11 year magnetic cycle based on sunspot number with a peak amplitude in central intensity of ~37%. The wavelength of the mid-line core absorption feature, called K3, referenced to nearby photospheric Fe, displays an activity cycle variation with an amplitude of 3 milli-Angstroms. Other chromospheric lines track Ca II K intensity with lower relative amplitudes. Low photosphere: Temperature sensitive CI 5380 nm appears constant in intensity to 0.2%. High photosphere: The cores of strong Fe I lines, Na D1 and D2, and the Mg I b lines, present a puzzling signal perhaps indicating a role for the 22 y Hale cycle. Solar minimum around 1985 was clearly seen, but the following minimum in 1996 was missing. This anomalous behavior is not seen in comparison atmospheric O2. Center Disk results: Both Ca II K and C I 538 nm intensities are constant, indicating that the basal quiet atmosphere is unaffected by cycle magnetism within our observational error. A lower limit to the Ca II K central intensity atmosphere is 0.040. The wavelength of Ca II K3 varies with the cycle by 6 milli-Angstroms, a factor of 2X over the full disk value. This may indicate the predominance of radial motions at Center Disk. This is not an effect of motions in plages since they are absent at Center Disk. This 11 y variation in the center of chromospheric lines could complicate the radial velocity detection of planets around solar-type stars. An appendix provides instructions for URL access to both the raw and reduced data.

  13. An Update On Waste Control Specialists' 2004 License Application For Safe Disposal Of Class A, B, and C Low-Level Radioactive Waste In Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltzer, R.; Eriksson, L. [Waste Control Specialists LLC, Three Lincoln Centre, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2008-07-01

    On December 10, 2007, Waste Control Specialists LLC (WCS) received notification that the Executive Director of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) had prepared an interim draft license and made a preliminary decision that it met all statutory and regulatory requirements for safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the WCS' site in Texas. Pursuant to this interim draft license, WCS will be authorized to dispose Class A, B, and C LLW in two enhanced near-surface landfills at WCS' 5.4-square-kilometer (1,338-acre) treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) site in Andrews County, Texas (Fig. 1). One landfill will be dedicated to LLW generated within the member/party states of the Texas Compact (Texas and Vermont), while the other will be dedicated to LLW generated by the federal government. The calculated annual peak dose to the maximally exposed member of the general public, i.e., an adjacent resident, from any of the proposed LLW-disposal landfills occurs approximately 36,400 years after closure and is 0.034 milli-sievert (mSv) (3.4 milli-rem (mrem)), which is less than 14 percent of the applicable regulatory limit of 25 mSv (25 mrem). The draft license will be published in February 2008, which will be followed by 12 months of public hearings, and three months for preparation of the final license. Based on this schedule, the final license is due in May 2009. When opened, the WCS site will achieve a national milestone; it will be the first new Compact LLW-disposal site in the USA to open under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, as amended in 1985. (authors)

  14. DECIGO/BBO as a probe to constrain alternative theories of gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent Yagi; Takahiro Tanaka

    2010-07-21

    We calculate how strongly one can constrain the alternative theories of gravity with deci-Hz gravitational wave interferometers such as DECIGO and BBO. Here we discuss Brans-Dicke theory and massive graviton theories as typical examples. We consider the inspiral of compact binaries composed of a neutron star (NS) and an intermediate mass black hole (IMBH) for Brans-Dicke (BD) theory and those composed of a super massive black hole (SMBH) and a black hole (SMBH) for massive graviton theories. Using the restricted 2PN waveforms including spin effects and taking the spin precession into account, we perform the Monte Carlo simulations of $10^4$ binaries to estimate the determination accuracy of binary parameters including the Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega_{\\mathrm{BD}}$ and the graviton Compton length $\\lambda_g$. Assuming a $(1.4, 10)M_{\\odot}$ NS/BH binary of SNR=$\\sqrt{200}$, the constraint on $\\omega_{\\mathrm{BD}}$ is obtained as $\\omega_{\\mathrm{BD}}>2.32\\times 10^6$, which is 300 times stronger than the estimated constraint from LISA observation. Furthermore, we find that, due to the expected large merger rate of NS/BH binaries of $O(10^4)$ yr$^{-1}$, a statistical analysis yields $\\omega_{\\mathrm{BD}}>3.77\\times10^8$, which is 4 orders of magnitude stronger than the current strongest bound obtained from the solar system experiment. For massive graviton theories, assuming a $(10^6, 10^5)M_{\\odot}$ BH/BH binary at 3Gpc, one can put a constraint $\\lambda_g>3.35\\times10^{20}$cm, on average. This is three orders of magnitude stronger than the one obtained from the solar system experiment. From these results, it is understood that DECIGO/BBO is a very powerful tool for constraining alternative theories of gravity, too.

  15. Cross-correlation measurement of quantum shot noise using homemade transimpedance amplifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashisaka, Masayuki Ota, Tomoaki; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Fujisawa, Toshimasa; Muraki, Koji

    2014-05-15

    We report a cross-correlation measurement system, based on a new approach, which can be used to measure shot noise in a mesoscopic conductor at milliKelvin temperatures. In contrast to other measurement systems in which high-speed low-noise voltage amplifiers are commonly used, our system employs homemade transimpedance amplifiers (TAs). The low input impedance of the TAs significantly reduces the crosstalk caused by unavoidable parasitic capacitance between wires. The TAs are designed to have a flat gain over a frequency band from 2 kHz to 1 MHz. Low-noise performance is attained by installing the TAs at a 4 K stage of a dilution refrigerator. Our system thus fulfills the technical requirements for cross-correlation measurements: low noise floor, high frequency band, and negligible crosstalk between two signal lines. Using our system, shot noise generated at a quantum point contact embedded in a quantum Hall system is measured. The good agreement between the obtained shot-noise data and theoretical predictions demonstrates the accuracy of the measurements.

  16. Silicon Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Glick, S. H.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2006-10-03

    Dielectric, adhesion-promoting, moisture barriers comprised of silicon oxynitride thin film materials (SiOxNy with various material stoichiometric compositions x,y) were applied to: 1) bare and pre-coated soda-lime silicate glass (coated with transparent conductive oxide SnO2:F and/or aluminum), and polymer substrates (polyethylene terephthalate, PET, or polyethylene napthalate, PEN); plus 2) pre- deposited photovoltaic (PV) cells and mini-modules consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film PV technologies. We used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process with dilute silane, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide/oxygen gas mixtures in a low-power (< or = 10 milliW per cm2) RF discharge at ~ 0.2 Torr pressure, and low substrate temperatures < or = 100(degrees)C, over deposition areas ~ 1000 cm2. Barrier properties of the resulting PV cells and coated-glass packaging structures were studied with subsequent stressing in damp-heat exposure at 85(degrees)C/85% RH. Preliminary results on PV cells and coated glass indicate the palpable benefits of the barriers in mitigating moisture intrusion and degradation of the underlying structures using SiOxNy coatings with thicknesses in the range of 100-200 nm.

  17. The Stellar Imager (SI) Vision Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenneth G. Carpenter; Carolus J. Schrijver; Margarita Karovska; SI Vision Mission Team

    2006-06-16

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a UV-Optical, Space-Based Interferometer designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and of the Universe in general and asteroseismic imaging of stellar interiors. SI is identified as a "Flagship and Landmark Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Sun Solar System Connection (SSSC) Roadmap and as a candidate for a "Pathways to Life Observatory" in the Exploration of the Universe Division (EUD) Roadmap (May, 2005). SI will revolutionize our view of many dynamic astrophysical processes: its resolution will transform point sources into extended sources, and snapshots into evolving views. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. SI's prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in the Universe. The results of the SI "Vision Mission" Study are presented in this paper. Additional information on the SI mission concept and related technology development can be found at URL: http://hires.gsfc.nasa.gov/si/.

  18. The First Source Counts at 18 microns from the AKARI NEP Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearson, Chris; Oyabu, S; Matsuhara, H; Wada, T; Goto, T; Takagi, T; Lee, H M; Im, M; Ohyama, Y; Kim, S J; Murata, K

    2014-01-01

    We present the first galaxy counts at 18 microns using the Japanese AKARI satellite's survey at the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP), produced from the images from the NEP-Deep and NEP-Wide surveys covering 0.6 and 5.8 square degrees respectively. We describe a procedure using a point source filtering algorithm to remove background structure and a minimum variance method for our source extraction and photometry that delivers the optimum signal to noise for our extracted sources, confirming this by comparison with standard photometry methods. The final source counts are complete and reliable over three orders of magnitude in flux density, resulting in sensitivities (80 percent completeness) of 0.15mJy and 0.3mJy for the NEP-Deep and NEP-Wide surveys respectively, a factor of 1.3 deeper than previous catalogues constructed from this field. The differential source counts exhibit a characteristic upturn from Euclidean expectations at around a milliJansky and a corresponding evolutionary bump between 0.2-0.4 mJy consiste...

  19. Decaying vector dark matter as an explanation for the 3.5 keV line from galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farzan, Yasaman; Akbarieh, Amin Rezaei E-mail: am_rezaei@physics.sharif.ir

    2014-11-01

    We present a Vector Dark Matter (VDM) model that explains the 3.5 keV line recently observed in the XMM-Newton observatory data from galaxy clusters. In this model, dark matter is composed of two vector bosons, V and V', which couple to the photon through an effective generalized Chern-Simons coupling, g{sub V}. V' is slightly heavier than V with a mass splitting m{sub V'} – m{sub V} ? 3.5 keV. The decay of V' to V and a photon gives rise to the 3.5 keV line. The production of V and V' takes place in the early universe within the freeze-in framework through the effective g{sub V} coupling when m{sub V'} < T < ?, ? being the cut-off above which the effective g{sub V} coupling is not valid. We introduce a high energy model that gives rise to the g{sub V} coupling at low energies. To do this, V and V' are promoted to gauge bosons of spontaneously broken new U(1){sub V} and U(1){sub V'} gauge symmetries, respectively. The high energy sector includes milli-charged chiral fermions that lead to the g{sub V} coupling at low energy via triangle diagrams.

  20. Waveguide slot-excited long racetrack electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for roll-to-roll (scanning) processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, H.-J. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    We present a SLot-excited ANtenna (SLAN) long racetrack ECR plasma source that is utilized for roll-to-roll plasma processing such as thin film encapsulation of large-area OLED (organic light emitting diode) panel or modification of fabric surfaces. This source is designed to be long, and to operate under high density uniform plasma with sub-milli-torr pressures. The above features are accomplished by a slot-excited long racetrack resonator with a toroidal geometry of magnetic field ECR configuration, and reinforced microwave electric distributions along the central region of plasma chamber. Also, a new feature has been added to the source. This is to employ a tail plunger, which allows the microwave electric field and the uniformity of the plasma profile to be easily adjustable. We have successfully generated Ar plasmas operating with the microwave power of 0.5–3 kW in the pressure range of 0.2–10 mTorr. The plasma is uniform (<10%) in the direction of the straight track and has a Gaussian profile in the roll-to-roll (scanning) direction. In addition, it is shown that the tail plunger could adjust the plasma profile in order to obtain plasma uniformity. Furthermore, based on the results, we suggest a newly designed up-scaled racetrack-SLAN source.

  1. 3D Model Atmospheres for Extremely Low-Mass White Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tremblay, P -E; Kilic, M; Ludwig, H -G; Steffen, M; Freytag, B; Hermes, J J

    2015-01-01

    We present an extended grid of mean three-dimensional (3D) spectra for low-mass, pure-hydrogen atmosphere DA white dwarfs (WDs). We use CO5BOLD radiation-hydrodynamics 3D simulations covering Teff = 6000-11,500 K and logg = 5-6.5 (cgs units) to derive analytical functions to convert spectroscopically determined 1D temperatures and surface gravities to 3D atmospheric parameters. Along with the previously published 3D models, the 1D to 3D corrections are now available for essentially all known convective DA WDs (i.e., logg = 5-9). For low-mass WDs, the correction in temperature is relatively small (a few per cent at the most), but the surface gravities measured from the 3D models are lower by as much as 0.35 dex. We revisit the spectroscopic analysis of the extremely low-mass (ELM) WDs, and demonstrate that the 3D models largely resolve the discrepancies seen in the radius and mass measurements for relatively cool ELM WDs in eclipsing double WD and WD + milli-second pulsar binary systems. We also use the 3D cor...

  2. Germanium: From Its Discovery to SiGe Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haller, E.E.

    2006-06-14

    Germanium, element No.32, was discovered in 1886 by Clemens Winkler. Its first broad application was in the form of point contact Schottky diodes for radar reception during WWII. The addition of a closely spaced second contact led to the first all-solid-state electronic amplifier device, the transistor. The relatively low bandgap, the lack of a stable oxide and large surface state densities relegated germanium to the number 2 position behind silicon. The discovery of the lithium drift process, which made possible the formation of p-i-n diodes with fully depletable i-regions several centimeters thick, led germanium to new prominence as the premier gamma-ray detector. The development of ultra-pure germanium yielded highly stable detectors which have remained unsurpassed in their performance. New acceptors and donors were discovered and the electrically active role of hydrogen was clearly established several years before similar findings in silicon. Lightly doped germanium has found applications as far infrared detectors and heavily Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) germanium is used in thermistor devices operating at a few milliKelvin. Recently germanium has been rediscovered by the silicon device community because of its superior electron and hole mobility and its ability to induce strains when alloyed with silicon. Germanium is again a mainstream electronic material.

  3. Investigation of transient, two-dimensional coupled heat and moisture flow in soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, L.S.W.

    1986-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite difference numerical model has been developed to study coupled heat and moisture flow in the soil surrounding an earth-sheltered construction. The model is based on a mechanistic approach formulated by Milly and developed from the work of Philip and deVries. Using soil temperatures and matric potentials as the dependent variables, the model is capable of simulating unsaturated/saturated flow conditions in heterogeneous soil domains. The model is a fully implicit, integrated finite difference approach based on the Patankar Spalding method. The numerical modeling of the governing heat and moisture equations was validated against a number of analytical and quasi-analytical solutions. An axisymmetric, two-dimensional experiment was then defined to which the numerical model could be compared. The experimental apparatus was composed of a cylinder filled with a dredged Mississippi River sand. A series of one and two dimensional heat and moisture flow experiments were run, using boundary conditions consistent with those that occur in the soil surrounding a building. Soil properties used in the model were either calculated from theoretical models or measured experimentally. Agreement between the model and experiments were good, with an error of 10-15% obtained for the two-dimensional coupled heat and moisture flow experiment.

  4. Non-Abelian dark matter and dark radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel A. Buen-Abad; Gustavo Marques-Tavares; Martin Schmaltz

    2015-07-16

    We propose a new class of dark matter models with unusual phenomenology. What is ordinary about our models is that dark matter particles are WIMPs, they are weakly coupled to the Standard Model and have weak scale masses. What is unusual is that they come in multiplets of a new "dark" non-Abelian gauge group with milli-weak coupling. The massless dark gluons of this dark gauge group contribute to the energy density of the universe as a form of weakly self-interacting dark radiation. In this paper we explore the consequences of having i.) dark matter in multiplets ii.) self-interacting dark radiation and iii.) dark matter which is weakly coupled to dark radiation. We find that i.) dark matter cross sections are modified by multiplicity factors which have significant consequences for collider searches and indirect detection, ii.) dark gluons have thermal abundances which affect the CMB as dark radiation. Unlike additional massless neutrino species the dark gluons are interacting and have vanishing viscosity and iii.) the coupling of dark radiation to dark matter represents a new mechanism for damping the large scale structure power spectrum. A combination of additional radiation and slightly damped structure is interesting because it can remove tensions between global $\\Lambda$CDM fits from the CMB and direct measurements of the Hubble expansion rate ($H_0$) and large scale structure ($\\sigma_8$).

  5. Non-Abelian dark matter and dark radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buen-Abad, Manuel A; Schmaltz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new class of dark matter models with unusual phenomenology. What is ordinary about our models is that dark matter particles are WIMPs, they are weakly coupled to the Standard Model and have weak scale masses. What is unusual is that they come in multiplets of a new "dark" non-Abelian gauge group with milli-weak coupling. The massless dark gluons of this dark gauge group contribute to the energy density of the universe as a form of weakly self-interacting dark radiation. In this paper we explore the consequences of having i.) dark matter in multiplets ii.) self-interacting dark radiation and iii.) dark matter which is weakly coupled to dark radiation. We find that i.) dark matter cross sections are modified by multiplicity factors which have significant consequences for collider searches and indirect detection, ii.) dark gluons have thermal abundances which affect the CMB as dark radiation. Unlike additional massless neutrino species the dark gluons are interacting and have vanishing viscosity and...

  6. Converting acoustic energy into useful other energy forms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Putterman, Seth J. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Barber, Bradley Paul (Northridge, CA); Hiller, Robert Anthony (Los Angeles, CA); Lofstedt, Ritva Maire Johanna (Los Angeles, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Sonoluminescence is an off-equilibrium phenomenon in which the energy of a resonant sound wave in a liquid is highly concentrated so as to generate flashes of light. The conversion of sound to light represents an energy amplification of eleven orders of magnitude. The flashes which occur once per cycle of the audible or ultrasonic sound fields can be comprised of over one million photons and last for less 100 picoseconds. The emission displays a clocklike synchronicity; the jitter in time between consecutive flashes is less than fifty picoseconds. The emission is blue to the eye and has a broadband spectrum increasing from 700 nanometers to 200 nanometers. The peak power is about 100 milliWatts. The initial stage of the energy focusing is effected by the nonlinear oscillations of a gas bubble trapped in the liquid. For sufficiently high drive pressures an imploding shock wave is launched into the gas by the collapsing bubble. The reflection of the shock from its focal point results in high temperatures and pressures. The sonoluminescence light emission can be sustained by sensing a characteristic of the emission and feeding back changes into the driving mechanism. The liquid is in a sealed container and the seeding of the gas bubble is effected by locally heating the liquid after sealing the container. Different energy forms than light can be obtained from the converted acoustic energy. When the gas contains deuterium and tritium there is the feasibility of the other energy form being fusion, namely including the generation of neutrons.

  7. Cross-calibration of the X-ray Instruments onboard the Chandra, INTEGRAL, RXTE, Suzaku, Swift, and XMM-Newton Observatories using G21.5-0.9

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Plucinsky, Paul P; Beardmore, Andrew P; Ishida, Manabu; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Posson-Brown, Jennifer L L; Read, Andrew M; Saxton, Richard D; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai V

    2010-01-01

    Context. The Crab nebula has been used as a celestial calibration source of the X-ray flux and spectral shape for many years by X-ray astronomy missions. However, the object is often too bright for current and future missions equipped with instruments with improved sensitivity. Aims. We use G21.5-0.9 as a viable, fainter substitute to the Crab, which is another pulsar-wind nebula with a time-constant powerlaw spectrum with a flux of a few milli Crab in the X-ray band. Using this source, we conduct a cross-calibration study of the instruments onboard currently active observatories: Chandra ACIS, Suzaku XIS, Swift XRT, XMM-Newton EPIC (MOS and pn) for the soft-band, and INTEGRAL IBIS-ISGRI, RXTE PCA, and Suzaku HXD-PIN for the hard band. Methods. We extract spectra from all the instruments and fit them under the same astrophysical assumptions. We compare the spectral parameters of the G21.5-0.9 model: power-law photon index, H-equivalent column density of the interstellar photoelectric absorption, flux in the s...

  8. Method for bonding thin film thermocouples to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreider, Kenneth G. (Potomac, MD)

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for adhering a thin film metal thermocouple to a ceramic substrate used in an environment up to 700 degrees Centigrade, such as at a cylinder of an internal combustion engine. The method includes the steps of: depositing a thin layer of a reactive metal on a clean ceramic substrate; and depositing thin layers of platinum and a platinum-10% rhodium alloy forming the respective legs of the thermocouple on the reactive metal layer. The reactive metal layer serves as a bond coat between the thin noble metal thermocouple layers and the ceramic substrate. The thin layers of noble metal are in the range of 1-4 micrometers thick. Preferably, the ceramic substrate is selected from the group consisting of alumina and partially stabilized zirconia. Preferably, the thin layer of reactive metal is in the range of 0.015-0.030 micrometers (15-30 nanometers) thick. The preferred reactive metal is chromium. Other reactive metals may be titanium or zirconium. The thin layer of reactive metal may be deposited by sputtering in ultra high purity argon in a vacuum of approximately 2 milliTorr (0.3 Pascals).

  9. DISCOVERY OF SUB- TO SUPERLUMINAL MOTIONS IN THE M87 JET: AN IMPLICATION OF ACCELERATION FROM SUB-RELATIVISTIC TO RELATIVISTIC SPEEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asada, Keiichi; Nakamura, Masanori; Inoue, Makoto; Doi, Akihiro; Nagai, Hiroshi E-mail: nakamura@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw

    2014-01-20

    The velocity field of the M87 jet from milli-arcsecond (mas) to arcsecond scales is extensively investigated together with new radio images taken from European VLBI Network (EVN) observations. We detected proper motions of components located at between 160 mas from the core and the HST-1 complex for the first time. Newly derived velocity fields exhibit a systematic increase from sub- to superluminal speeds in the upstream of HST-1. If we assume that the observed velocities reflect the bulk flow, here we suggest that the M87 jet may be gradually accelerated through a distance of 10{sup 6} times the Schwarzschild radius of the supermassive black hole. The acceleration zone is co-spatial with the jet parabolic region, which is interpreted as the collimation zone of the jet. The acceleration and collimation take place simultaneously, which we suggest is characteristic of magnetohydrodynamic flows. The distribution of the velocity field has a peak at HST-1, which is considered as the site of over-collimation, and shows a deceleration downstream of HST-1 where the jet is conical. Our interpretation of the velocity map in the M87 jet provides a hypothesis for active galactic nuclei which suggests that the acceleration and collimation zone of relativistic jets extends over the whole scale within the sphere of influence of the supermassive black hole.

  10. Science up to 100 tesla

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, L.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab.

    1995-05-01

    100 Tesla is the highest attainable field that can be held for milli-sec in a non-destructive magnet. The strongest steels turn soft under stresses of 4GPa, which is the magnetic pressure of 100 T. Until there is a breakthrough in materials, magnets having all the low temperature and high pressure trimmings will be limited to about 100 T. Within the field range 1-100 T far more resources are now devoted to producing the highest possible continuous fields (40+5 T) than to producing longer pulsed fields above 50 T. This illustrates that the utility of the field can be more important than the strength of the field to researchers in condensed matter. Discoveries are typically made in new territory, but this can be new combinations of pressure, temperature, and magnetic field, or new probes and new materials. If any activity has kept up with the proliferation of new experiments and new facilities in high magnetic field research it is the listing of experiments that could and should be done in high fields. Part of the reason for the vitality of high field research is that high fields provide a generic environment. Compared to particle accelerators and plasma machines a high field laboratory is a setting for generic science, like synchrotron light sources or neutron scattering centers. Although the latter two installations probes states, while a magnetic field creates a state. Because it is unrealistic to try to list all the science opportunities at high fields, the author list sources for lists in the public domain and gives a few examples.

  11. Converting an AEG Cyclotron to H{sup -} Acceleration and Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, Fred; Carroll, Lewis; Rathmann, Tom; Huenges, Ernst; Bechtold, Matthias Mentler Volker [Carroll and Ramsey Associates, Berkeley, CA Department of Physics, Technical University of Munich, Garching, Germany Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Florham Park, NJ (Germany)

    2009-03-10

    Clinical Trials are under way to evaluate agents labeled with the nuclide {sup 225}Ac and its decay product {sup 213}Bi, in targeted alpha-immuno-therapy. {sup 225}Ac can be produced on a medium-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reaction {sup 226}Ra(p,n){sup 225}Ac. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, a vintage AEG cyclotron, Model E33, with an internal target, had been employed in a pilot production program at the Technical University of Munich (TUM). To enhance production capability and further support the clinical studies, the TUM facility has recently been refurbished and upgraded, adding a new external beam-line, automated target irradiation and transport systems, new laboratories, hot cells, etc.. An improved high-power rotating target has been built and installed. The AEG cyclotron itself has also been modified and upgraded to accelerate and extract H{sup -} ions. We have designed, built, and tested a new axial Penning-type ion source which is optimized for the production of H{sup -} ions. The ion source has continued to evolve through experiment and experience. Steady improvements in materials and mechanics have led to enhanced source stability, life-time, and H{sup -} production. We have also designed and built a precision H{sup -} charge-exchange beam-extraction system which is equipped with a vacuum lock. To fit within the tight mechanical constraint imposed by the narrow magnet gap, the system incorporates a novel chain-drive foil holder and foil-changer mechanism. The reconfigured cyclotron system has now been in operation for more than 1 year. Three long-duration target irradiations have been conducted. The most recent bombardment ran 160 continuous hours at a beam on target of {approx}80 microamperes for a total yield of {approx}70 milli-curies of {sup 225}Ac.

  12. Characterization of the liquid sodium spray generated by a pipework hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torsello, G.; Parozzi, F.; Nericcio, L.; Araneo, L.; Cozzi, F.; Carcassi, M.; Mattei, N.

    2012-07-01

    Due to its advantageous thermodynamic characteristics at high temperature (550 deg. C), liquid sodium is the main candidate to be the cooling fluid for Generation TV nuclear reactors SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors). Now, sodium reacts very violently, both with the water and the oxygen of the air. Only few data were known about the liquid sodium behaviour when spread in the environment through micro defects. These are often present in a cooling circuit in welded or sealed joints and more rarely in the pipes. Micro defects, on the other hand, can be also generated in a cooling circuit because of the vibrations always present in a circuit into which a fluid runs. A new set-up, named LISOF, was built for testing high temperature liquid sodium when passing through micro defects and generating sprays or jets. Sprays and jets were generated by means of nozzles embedding sub milli-metric holes the diameter of which was: 0.2 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.5 mm. Tests were performed by pressurizing liquid sodium (550 deg. C) at: 3, 6 and 9 barg. Normal and high speed cinematography were used for the direct observation of the liquid sodium sprays while Phase Doppler Interferometry was used for the measurement of the droplets characteristics and velocity. Tests concerning the behaviour of the high temperature liquid sodium firing in air or in contact with the cement cover applied to a scaled down core catcher simulacrum were also performed. The paper presents the built set-up and the collected results. (authors)

  13. Organo-sulfur molecules enable iron-based battery electrodes to meet the challenges of large-scale electrical energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, B; Malkhandi, S; Manohar, AK; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2014-07-03

    Rechargeable iron-air and nickel-iron batteries are attractive as sustainable and inexpensive solutions for large-scale electrical energy storage because of the global abundance and eco-friendliness of iron, and the robustness of iron-based batteries to extended cycling. Despite these advantages, the commercial use of iron-based batteries has been limited by their low charging efficiency. This limitation arises from the iron electrodes evolving hydrogen extensively during charging. The total suppression of hydrogen evolution has been a significant challenge. We have found that organo-sulfur compounds with various structural motifs (linear and cyclic thiols, dithiols, thioethers and aromatic thiols) when added in milli-molar concentration to the aqueous alkaline electrolyte, reduce the hydrogen evolution rate by 90%. These organo-sulfur compounds form strongly adsorbed layers on the iron electrode and block the electrochemical process of hydrogen evolution. The charge-transfer resistance and double-layer capacitance of the iron/electrolyte interface confirm that the extent of suppression of hydrogen evolution depends on the degree of surface coverage and the molecular structure of the organo-sulfur compound. An unanticipated electrochemical effect of the adsorption of organo-sulfur molecules is "de-passivation" that allows the iron electrode to be discharged at high current values. The strongly adsorbed organo-sulfur compounds were also found to resist electro-oxidation even at the positive electrode potentials at which oxygen evolution can occur. Through testing on practical rechargeable battery electrodes we have verified the substantial improvements to the efficiency during charging and the increased capability to discharge at high rates. We expect these performance advances to enable the design of efficient, inexpensive and eco-friendly iron-based batteries for large-scale electrical energy storage.

  14. Rayleigh-Taylor stability of a strong vertical magnetic field at the Galactic center confined by a disk threaded with horizontal magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin D. G. Chandran

    2002-02-13

    Observations of narrow radio-emitting filaments near the Galactic center have been interpreted in previous studies as evidence of a pervasive vertical (i.e. perpendicular to the Galactic plane) milliGauss magnetic field in the central 150 pc of the Galaxy. A simple cylindrically symmetric model for the equilibrium in this central region is proposed in which horizontal (i.e. parallel to the Galactic plane) magnetic fields embedded in an annular band of partially ionized molecular material of radius 150 pc are wrapped around vertical magnetic fields threading low-density hot plasma. The central vertical magnetic field, which has a pressure that significantly exceeds the thermal pressure of the medium, is confined by the weight of the molecular material. The stability of this equilibrium is studied indirectly by analyzing a uniformly rotating cylinder of infinite extent along the z axis in cylindrical coordinates (r,theta,z), with low-density plasma and an axial magnetic field at rfield at r> 150 pc, and a gravitational acceleration g* proportional to r directed in the negative-r-hat direction. The density profile and gravity tend to destabilize the plasma, but the plasma tends to be stabilized by rotation and magnetic tension--since the interface between the high and low-density plasmas can not be perturbed without bending either the horizontal or vertical field. It is shown analytically that when beta= 8(pi)p/B^2 is small and the dense plasma is supported against gravity primarily by rotation, the necessary and sufficient condition for stability to k_z=0 modes is |g| < (2|Omega| a), where g = g* - Omega^2 r is the effective gravity, Omega is the uniform angular velocity, and "a" is the sound speed in the dense plasma.

  15. Measurement of the $?$-asymmetry parameter of $^{67}$Cu in search for tensor type currents in the weak interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Soti; F. Wauters; M. Breitenfeldt; P. Finlay; P. Herzog; A. Knecht; U. Köster; I. S. Kraev; T. Porobic; P. N. Prashanth; I. S. Towner; C. Tramm; D. Zákoucký; N. Severijns

    2014-09-05

    Precision measurements at low energy search for physics beyond the Standard Model in a way complementary to searches for new particles at colliders. In the weak sector the most general $\\beta$ decay Hamiltonian contains, besides vector and axial-vector terms, also scalar, tensor and pseudoscalar terms. Current limits on the scalar and tensor coupling constants from neutron and nuclear $\\beta$ decay are on the level of several percent. The goal of this paper is extracting new information on tensor coupling constants by measuring the $\\beta$-asymmetry parameter in the pure Gamow-Teller decay of $^{67}$Cu, thereby testing the V-A structure of the weak interaction. An iron sample foil into which the radioactive nuclei were implanted was cooled down to milliKelvin temperatures in a $^3$He-$^4$He dilution refrigerator. An external magnetic field of 0.1 T, in combination with the internal hyperfine magnetic field, oriented the nuclei. The anisotropic $\\beta$ radiation was observed with planar high purity germanium detectors operating at a temperature of about 10\\,K. An on-line measurement of the $\\beta$ asymmetry of $^{68}$Cu was performed as well for normalization purposes. Systematic effects were investigated using Geant4 simulations. The experimental value, $\\tilde{A}$ = 0.587(14), is in agreement with the Standard Model value of 0.5991(2) and is interpreted in terms of physics beyond the Standard Model. The limits obtained on possible tensor type charged currents in the weak interaction hamiltonian are -0.045 $< (C_T+C'_T)/C_A <$ 0.159 (90\\% C.L.). The obtained limits are comparable to limits from other correlation measurements in nuclear $\\beta$ decay and contribute to further constraining tensor coupling constants.

  16. Distributed Sensor Coordination for Advanced Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumer, Kagan

    2013-07-31

    The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reli- able operation of advanced energy systems. With recent advances in sensor development, it is now possible to push some level of decision making directly to computationally sophisticated sensors, rather than wait for data to arrive to a massive centralized location before a decision is made. This type of approach relies on networked sensors (called “agents” from here on) to actively collect and process data, and provide key control deci- sions to significantly improve both the quality/relevance of the collected data and the as- sociating decision making. The technological bottlenecks for such sensor networks stem from a lack of mathematics and algorithms to manage the systems, rather than difficulties associated with building and deploying them. Indeed, traditional sensor coordination strategies do not provide adequate solutions for this problem. Passive data collection methods (e.g., large sensor webs) can scale to large systems, but are generally not suited to highly dynamic environments, such as ad- vanced energy systems, where crucial decisions may need to be reached quickly and lo- cally. Approaches based on local decisions on the other hand cannot guarantee that each agent performing its task (maximize an agent objective) will lead to good network wide solution (maximize a network objective) without invoking cumbersome coordination rou- tines. There is currently a lack of algorithms that will enable self-organization and blend the efficiency of local decision making with the system level guarantees of global decision making, particularly when the systems operate in dynamic and stochastic environments. In this work we addressed this critical gap and provided a comprehensive solution to the problem of sensor coordination to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. The differentiating aspect of the proposed work is in shift- ing the focus towards “what to observe” rather than “how to observe” in large sensor networks, allowing the agents to actively determine both the structure of the network and the relevance of the information they are seeking to collect. In addition to providing an implicit coordination mechanism, this approach allows the system to be reconfigured in response to changing needs (e.g., sudden external events requiring new responses) or changing sensor network characteristics (e.g., sudden changes to plant condition). Outcome Summary: All milestones associated with this project have been completed. In particular, private sensor objective functions were developed which are aligned with the global objective function, sensor effectiveness has been improved by using “sensor teams,” system efficiency has been improved by 30% using difference evaluation func- tions, we have demonstrated system reconfigurability for 20% changes in system con- ditions, we have demonstrated extreme scalability of our proposed algorithm, we have demonstrated that sensor networks can overcome disruptions of up to 20% in network conditions, and have demonstrated system reconfigurability to 20% changes in system conditions in hardware-based simulations. This final report summarizes how each of these milestones was achieved, and gives insight into future research possibilities past the work which has been completed. The following publications support these milestones [6, 8, 9, 10, 16, 18, 19].

  17. Long-Term Assessment of Critical Radionuclides and Associated Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site - 13038

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jannik, G.T.; Baker, R.A.; Lee, P.L. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Eddy, T.P.; Blount, G.C. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Whitney, G.R. [US Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [US Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses and risks to the public. At SRS dose and risk assessments indicate tritium oxide in air and surface water, and Cs-137 in fish and deer have been, and continue to be, the critical radionuclides and pathways. In this assessment, statistical analyses of the long-term trends of tritium oxide in atmospheric and surface water releases and Cs-137 concentrations in fish and deer are provided. Correlations also are provided with 1) operational changes and improvements, 2) geopolitical events (Cold War cessation), and 3) recent environmental remediation projects and decommissioning of excess facilities. For example, environmental remediation of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility have resulted in a measurable impact on the tritium oxide flux to the onsite Fourmile Branch stream. Airborne releases of tritium oxide have been greatly affected by operational improvements and the end of the Cold War in 1991. However, the effects of SRS environmental remediation activities and ongoing tritium operations on tritium concentrations in the environment are measurable and documented in this assessment. Controlled hunts of deer and feral hogs are conducted at SRS for approximately six weeks each year. Before any harvested animal is released to a hunter, SRS personnel perform a field analysis for Cs-137 concentrations to ensure the Hunter's dose does not exceed the SRS administrative game limit of 0.22 milli-sievert (22 mrem). However, most of the Cs-137 found in SRS onsite deer is not from site operations but is from nuclear weapons testing fallout from the 1950's and early 1960's. This legacy source term is trended in the SRS deer, and an assessment of the 'effective' half-life of Cs-137 in deer (including the physical decay half-life and the environmental dispersion half-life) is provided. The 'creek mouth' fisherman is the next most critical pathway at SRS. On an annual basis, three species of fish (panfish, catfish, and bass) are sampled from the mouths of the five SRS streams. Three composites of up to five fish of each species are analyzed from each sampling location. Long-term trending of the Cs-137 concentrations in fish and the subsequent doses from consumption of SRS fish is provided. (authors)

  18. Corrosion-resistant Foamed Cements for Carbon Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Gill, S.; Pyatina, T., Muraca, A.; Keese, R.; Khan, A.; Bour, D.

    2012-12-01

    The cementitious material consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate designed as an alternative thermal-shock resistant cement for the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) wells was treated with cocamidopropyl dimethylamine oxide-based compound as foaming agent (FA) to prepare numerous air bubble-dispersed low density cement slurries of and #61603;1.3 g/cm3. Then, the foamed slurry was modified with acrylic emulsion (AE) as corrosion inhibitor. We detailed the positive effects of the acrylic polymer (AP) in this emulsion on the five different properties of the foamed cement: 1) The hydrothermal stability of the AP in 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cements; 2) the hydrolysis-hydration reactions of the slurry at 85 and #61616;C; 3) the composition of crystalline phases assembled and the microstructure developed in autoclaved cements; 4) the mechanical behaviors of the autoclaved cements; and, 5) the corrosion mitigation of carbon steel (CS) by the polymer. For the first property, the hydrothermal-catalyzed acid-base interactions between the AP and cement resulted in Ca-or Na-complexed carboxylate derivatives, which led to the improvement of thermal stability of the AP. This interaction also stimulated the cement hydration reactions, enhancing the total heat evolved during cement’s curing. Addition of AP did not alter any of the crystalline phase compositions responsible for the strength of the cement. Furthermore, the AP-modified cement developed the porous microstructure with numerous defect-free cavities of disconnected voids. These effects together contributed to the improvement of compressive-strength and –toughness of the cured cement. AP modification of the cement also offered an improved protection of CS against brine-caused corrosion. There were three major factors governing the corrosion protection: 1) Reducing the extents of infiltration and transportation of corrosive electrolytes through the cement layer deposited on the underlying CS surfaces; 2) inhibiting the cathodic reactions at the corrosion site of CS; 3) extending the coverage of cement over CS surfaces; and, 4) improving the adherence of the cement to CS surfaces. Thus, the CS’s corrosion rate of 176 milli inch/per year (mpy) for 1 wt% FA-foamed cement without AP was considerably reduced to 69 mpy by adding only 2 wt% AP. Addition of AP at 10 wt% further reduced this rate to less than 10 mpy.

  19. Stellar Orbits Around the Galactic Center Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Ghez; S. Salim; S. D. Hornstein; A. Tanner; J. R. Lu; M. Morris; E. E. Becklin; G. Duchene

    2004-11-02

    We present new proper motion measurements and simultaneous orbital solutions for three newly identified (S0-16, S0-19, and S0-20) and four previously known (S0-1, S0-2, S0-4, and S0-5) stars at the Galactic Center. This analysis pinpoints the Galaxy's central dark mass to within +-1 milli-arcsec and, for the first time from orbital dynamics, limits its proper motion to 1.5+-0.5 mas/y, which is consistent with our derivation of the position of Sgr A* in the infrared reference frame (+-10 mas). The estimated central dark mass from orbital motions is 3.7 (+-0.2) x 10^6 (Ro/8kpc)^3 Mo; this is a more direct measure of mass than those obtained from velocity dispersion measurements, which are as much as a factor of two smaller. The smallest closest approach is achieved by S0-16, which confines the mass to within a radius of a mere 45 AU and increases the inferred dark mass density by four orders of magnitude compared to earlier analyses based on velocity and acceleration vectors, making the Milky Way the strongest existing case by far for a supermassive black hole at the center of any normal type galaxy. The stellar orbital properties suggest that the distributions of eccentricities and angular momentum vector and apoapse directions are consistent with those of an isotropic system. Therefore many of the mechanisms proposed for the formation of young stars in the vicinity of a supermassive black hole, such as formation from a pre-existing disk, are unlikely solutions for the Sgr A* cluster stars. Unfortunately, all existing alternative theories are also somewhat problematic. Understanding the apparent youth of stars in the Sgr A* cluster, as well as the more distant He I emission line stars, has now become one of the major outstanding issues in the study of the Galactic Center.

  20. A Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 191 Evaluation of Buried Transuranic Waste at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. J. Shott, V. Yucel, L. Desotell

    2008-04-01

    In 1986, 21 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste was inadvertently buried in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is considered five options for management of the buried TRU waste. One option is to leave the waste in-place if the disposal can meet the requirements of Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 'Environmental Radiation Protection Standard for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes'. This paper describes analyses that assess the likelihood that TRU waste in shallow land burial can meet the 40 CFR 191 standards for a geologic repository. The simulated probability of the cumulative release exceeding 1 and 10 times the 40 CFR 191.13 containment requirements is estimated to be 0.009 and less than 0.0001, respectively. The cumulative release is most sensitive to the number of groundwater withdrawal wells drilled through the disposal trench. The mean total effective dose equivalent for a member of the public is estimated to reach a maximum of 0.014 milliSievert (mSv) at 10,000 years, or approximately 10 percent of the 0.15 mSv 40 CFR 191.15 individual protection requirement. The dose is predominantly from inhalation of short-lived Rn-222 progeny in air produced by low-level waste disposed in the same trench. The transuranic radionuclide released in greatest amounts, Pu-239, contributes only 0.4 percent of the dose. The member of public dose is most sensitive to the U-234 inventory and the radon emanation coefficient. Reasonable assurance of compliance with the Subpart C groundwater protection standard is provided by site characterization data and hydrologic processes modeling which support a conclusion of no groundwater pathway within 10,000 years. Limited quantities of transuranic waste in a shallow land burial trench at the NTS can meet the requirements of 40 CFR 191.

  1. A few nascent methods for measuring mechanical properties of the biological cell.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, Gayle Echo; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Corvalan, Carlos (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Corwin, Alex David; Campanella, Osvaldo H. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Nivens, David (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Werely, Steven (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Sumali, Anton Hartono; Koch, Steven John

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes a survey of several new methods for obtaining mechanical and rheological properties of single biological cells, in particular: (1) The use of laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) to measure the natural vibrations of certain cells. (2) The development of a novel micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) for obtaining high-resolution force-displacement curves. (3) The use of the atomic force microscope (AFM) for cell imaging. (4) The adaptation of a novel squeezing-flow technique to micro-scale measurement. The LDV technique was used to investigate the recent finding reported by others that the membranes of certain biological cells vibrate naturally, and that the vibration can be detected clearly with recent instrumentation. The LDV has been reported to detect motions of certain biological cells indirectly through the motion of a probe. In this project, trials on Saccharomyces cerevisiae tested and rejected the hypothesis that the LDV could measure vibrations of the cell membranes directly. The MEMS investigated in the second technique is a polysilicon surface-micromachined force sensor that is able to measure forces to a few pN in both air and water. The simple device consists of compliant springs with force constants as low as 0.3 milliN/m and Moire patterns for nanometer-scale optical displacement measurement. Fields from an electromagnet created forces on magnetic micro beads glued to the force sensors. These forces were measured and agreed well with finite element prediction. It was demonstrated that the force sensor was fully functional when immersed in aqueous buffer. These results show the force sensors can be useful for calibrating magnetic forces on magnetic beads and also for direct measurement of biophysical forces on-chip. The use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) for profiling the geometry of red blood cells was the third technique investigated here. An important finding was that the method commonly used for attaching the cells to a substrate actually modified the mechanical properties of the cell membrane. Thus, the use of the method for measuring the mechanical properties of the cell may not be completely appropriate without significant modifications. The latest of the studies discussed in this report is intended to overcome the drawback of the AFM as a means of measuring mechanical and rheological properties. The squeezing-flow AFM technique utilizes two parallel plates, one stationary and the other attached to an AFM probe. Instead of using static force-displacement curves, the technique takes advantage of frequency response functions from force to velocity. The technique appears to be quite promising for obtaining dynamic properties. More research is required to develop this technique.

  2. A Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 191 Evaluation of Buried Transuranic Waste at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shott, G.J.; Yucel, V.; Desotell, L. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Pyles, G.; Carilli, J. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In 1986, 21 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste was inadvertently buried in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is considered five options for management of the buried TRU waste. One option is to leave the waste in-place if the disposal can meet the requirements of Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 'Environmental Radiation Protection Standard for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes'. This paper describes analyses that assess the likelihood that TRU waste in shallow land burial can meet the 40 CFR 191 standards for a geologic repository. The simulated probability of the cumulative release exceeding 1 and 10 times the 40 CFR 191.13 containment requirements is estimated to be 0.009 and less than 0.0001, respectively. The cumulative release is most sensitive to the number of groundwater withdrawal wells drilled through the disposal trench. The mean total effective dose equivalent for a member of the public is estimated to reach a maximum of 0.014 milli-Sievert (mSv) at 10,000 years, or approximately 10 percent of the 0.15 mSv 40 CFR 191.15 individual protection requirement. The dose is predominantly from inhalation of short-lived Rn-222 progeny in air produced by low-level waste disposed in the same trench. The transuranic radionuclide released in greatest amounts, Pu-239, contributes only 0.4 percent of the dose. The member of public dose is most sensitive to the U-234 inventory and the radon emanation coefficient. Reasonable assurance of compliance with the Subpart C groundwater protection standard is provided by site characterization data and hydrologic processes modeling which support a conclusion of no groundwater pathway within 10,000 years. Limited quantities of transuranic waste in a shallow land burial trench at the NTS can meet the requirements of 40 CFR 191. (authors)

  3. Understanding Contaminant Transport Pathways at Rocky Flats - A Basis for the Remediation Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paton, Ian

    2008-01-15

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is a Department of Energy facility located approximately 16 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado. Processing and fabrication of nuclear weapons components occurred at Rocky Flats from 1952 through 1989. Operations at the Site included the use of several radionuclides, including plutonium-239/240 (Pu), americium-241 (Am), and various uranium (U) isotopes, as well as several types of chlorinated solvents. The historic operations resulted in legacy contamination, including contaminated facilities, process waste lines, buried wastes and surface soil contamination. Decontamination and removal of buildings at the site was completed in late 2005, culminating more than ten years of active environmental remediation work. The Corrective Action Decision/Record of Decision was subsequently approved in 2006, signifying regulatory approval and closure of the site. The use of RFETS as a National Wildlife Refuge is scheduled to be in full operation by 2012. To develop a plan for remediating different types of radionuclide contaminants present in the RFETS environment required understanding the different environmental transport pathways for the various actinides. Developing this understanding was the primary objective of the Actinide Migration Evaluation (AME) project. Findings from the AME studies were used in the development of RFETS remediation strategies. The AME project focused on issues of actinide behavior and mobility in surface water, groundwater, air, soil and biota at RFETS. For the purposes of the AME studies, actinide elements addressed included Pu, Am, and U. The AME program, funded by DOE, brought together personnel with a broad range of relevant expertise in technical investigations. The AME advisory panel identified research investigations and approaches that could be used to solve issues related to actinide migration at the Site. An initial step of the AME was to develop a conceptual model to provide a qualitative description of the relationships among potential actinide sources and transport pathways at RFETS. One conceptual model was developed specifically for plutonium and americium, because of their similar geochemical and transport properties. A separate model was developed for uranium because of its different properties and mobility in the environment. These conceptual models were guidelines for quantitative analyses described in the RFETS Pathway Analysis Report, which used existing data from the literature as well as site-specific analyses, including field, laboratory and modeling studies to provide quantitative estimates of actinide migration in the RFETS environment. For pathways where more than one method was used to estimate offsite loads for a specific pathway, the method yielding the highest estimated off-site was used for comparison purposes. For all actinides studied, for pre-remediation conditions, air and surface water were identified to be the dominant transport mechanisms. The estimated annual airborne plutonium-239/240 load transported off site exceeded the surface water load by roughly a factor of 40. However, despite being the largest transport pathway, airborne radionuclide concentrations at the monitoring location with the highest measurements during the period studied were less than two percent of the allowable 10 milli-rem standard governing DOE facilities. Estimated actinide loads for other pathways were much less. Shallow groundwater was approximately two orders of magnitude lower, or 1/100 of the load conveyed in surface water. The estimated biological pathway load for plutonium was approximately five orders of magnitude less, or 1/100,000, of the load estimated for surface-water. The pathway analysis results were taken into consideration during subsequent remediation activities that occurred at the site. For example, when the 903 Pad area was remediated to address elevated concentrations of Pu and Am in the surface soil, portable tent structures were constructed to prevent wind and water erosion from occurring while remediation activitie

  4. Real-time Molecular Study of Bystander Effects of Low dose Low LET radiation Using Living Cell Imaging and Nanoparticale Optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natarajan, Mohan; Xu, Nancy R; Mohan, Sumathy

    2013-06-03

    In this study two novel approaches are proposed to investigate precisely the low dose low LET radiation damage and its effect on bystander cells in real time. First, a flow shear model system, which would provide us a near in vivo situation where endothelial cells in the presence of extra cellular matrix experiencing continuous flow shear stress, will be used. Endothelial cells on matri-gel (simulated extra cellular matrix) will be subjected to physiological flow shear (that occurs in normal blood vessels). Second, a unique tool (Single nano particle/single live cell/single molecule microscopy and spectroscopy; Figure A) will be used to track the molecular trafficking by single live cell imaging. Single molecule chemical microscopy allows one to single out and study rare events that otherwise might be lost in assembled average measurement, and monitor many target single molecules simultaneously in real-time. Multi color single novel metal nanoparticle probes allow one to prepare multicolor probes (Figure B) to monitor many single components (events) simultaneously and perform multi-complex analysis in real-time. These nano-particles resist to photo bleaching and hence serve as probes for unlimited timeframe of analysis. Single live cell microscopy allows one to image many single cells simultaneously in real-time. With the combination of these unique tools, we will be able to study under near-physiological conditions the cellular and sub-cellular responses (even subtle changes at one molecule level) to low and very low doses of low LET radiation in real time (milli-second or nano-second) at sub-10 nanometer spatial resolution. This would allow us to precisely identify, at least in part, the molecular mediators that are responsible of radiation damage in the irradiated cells and the mediators that are responsible for initiating the signaling in the neighboring cells. Endothelial cells subjected to flow shear (2 dynes/cm2 or 16 dynes/cm2) and exposed to 0.1, 1 and 10 cGy on coverslips will be examined for (a) low LET radiation-induced alterations of cellular function and its physiological relevance in real time; and (b) radiation damage triggered bystander effect on the neighboring unirradiated cells. First, to determine the low LET radiation induced alteration of cellular function we will examine: (i) the real time transformation of single membrane transporters in single living cells; (ii) the pump efficiency of membrane efflux pump of live cells in real time at the molecular level; (iii) the kinetics of single-ligand receptor interaction on single live cell surface (Figure C); and (iv) alteration in chromosome replication in living cell. Second, to study the radiation triggered bystander responses, we will examine one of the key signaling pathway i.e. TNF- alpha/NF-kappa B mediated signaling. TNF-alpha specific nano particle sensors (green) will be developed to detect the releasing dynamics, transport mechanisms and ligand-receptor binding on live cell surface in real time. A second sensor (blue) will be developed to simultaneously monitor the track of NF-kB inside the cell. The proposed nano-particle optics approach would complement our DOE funded study on biochemical mechanisms of TNF-alpha- NF-kappa B-mediated bystander effect.