Sample records for deci centi milli

  1. So How Do THey DeciDe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus Tom Fletcher,Future | Department of How Do THey DeciDe wHaT To

  2. Millie Dresselhaus: Department of Physics and Engineering, Massachuset...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Millie Dresselhaus: Department of Physics and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Nov 20, 2013 | 4:00 PM - 5:00 PM Millie Dresselhaus Professor, Department of...

  3. User Manual Milli-Q Reference System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    is intended for use with a Milli-Q® Reference Water Purification System. This User Manual is a guide for use before attempting installation, normal operation or maintenance of the Water Purification System. If this User Manual is not the correct one for your Water Purification System, then please contact Millipore

  4. Milli-Q Reference Water Purification System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    Milli-Q® Reference Water Purification System The reference for ultrapure water systems EMD water, the system produces ultrapure water adapted to your specific applications and exceeding the requirements of the most demanding norms. We've achieved all this with a new purification strategy. Water

  5. Millis, Massachusetts: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 -Energieprojekte GmbH JumpSprings, Vermont:isMillersport, Ohio:Millis,

  6. Search milli-charged particles at SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langeveld, W.G.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    Particles with electric charge q {triple_bond} Qe {le} 10{sup -3} e and masses in the range 1-1000 MeV/c{sup 2} are not excluded by present experiments or by astrophysical or cosmological arguments. A beam dump experiment uniquely suited to the detection of such {open_quotes}milli-charged{close_quotes} particles has been carried out at SLAC, utilizing the short-duration pulses of the SLC electron beam to establish a tight coincidence window for the signal. The detector, a large scintillation counter sensitive to very small energy depositions, provided much greater sensitivity than previous searches. Analysis of the data leads to the exclusion of a substantial portion of the charge-mass plane. In this report, a preliminary mass-dependent upper limit is presented for the charge of milli-charged particles, ranging from Q = 1.7 x 10{sup -5} at milli-charged particle mass 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2} to Q = 9.5 x 10{sup -4} at 100 MeV/c{sup 2}.

  7. Copyright A. J. Millis 2013 Columbia University Dynamical Mean Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millis, Andrew

    Copyright A. J. Millis 2013 Columbia University Dynamical Mean Field Theory Antoine Georges #12;Copyright A. J. Millis 2013 Columbia University on interactions I #12;Copyright A. J. Millis 2013 Columbia University Example Second order term Hubbard model 1 2

  8. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 52, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2005 1271 Measurement of Centi-Gray X-Ray Dose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, K.N.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 52, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2005 1271 Measurement of Centi-Gray X- bination of single sheet higher film sensitivity to low energy X-rays along with a layered film dosimetryGy if required. Index Terms--Absorption spectra, gafchromic XR type T, low dose, radiation dosimetry

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - accreting milli-second x-ray Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    milli-second x-ray Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: accreting milli-second x-ray Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 X-rays from classical T...

  10. Research Article Milli-free flow electrophoresis: I. Fast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krylov, Sergey

    , but has not yet been implemented due to an incompatibility of scale. Continuous purification, in FFE a term of milli-free flow electrophoresis (mFFE) to describe mid-scale FFE with flow rates intermediate reactors with product flow rates of $5 to 2000 mL/min, too small for macro-FFE but too large for m

  11. Copyright A. J. Millis 2013 Columbia University Electron-electron interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millis, Andrew

    Copyright A. J. Millis 2013 Columbia University Electron-electron interactions #12;Copyright A. J. Millis 2013 Columbia University Free fermions: reminder H = - i 2 i 2m + 1 2 i=j e2 |ri - rj| Bohr;Copyright A. J. Millis 2013 Columbia University d orbitals are small relative to spacing between transition

  12. rillEdge is a software system that provides real-time deci-sion support when drilling oil wells. Decisions are sup-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aamodt, Agnar

    are combined to provide best practices for how to handle the current situation. Verdande Technology hasD rillEdge is a software system that provides real-time deci- sion support when drilling oil wells on the surface and downhole when drilling. The real-time analysis identifies symptoms of problems, which

  13. A large-scale magnetic shield with 10^6 damping at milli-Hertz frequencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altarev, I; Beck, D H; Chupp, T; Fierlinger, K; Fierlinger, P; Kuchler, F; Lins, T; Marino, M G; Niessen, B; Petzoldt, G; Singh, J T; Schlpfer, U; Schnabel, A; Stoepler, R; Stuiber, S; Strum, M; Taubenheim, B; Voigt, J


    A magnetically shielded environment with a damping factor larger than one million at the milli-Hertz frequency regime and an extremely low field and gradient over an extended volume is presented. This extraordinary shielding perfomance is to our knowledge unprecedented and represents an improvement of the state of the art in damping the difficult regime of very low-frequency distortions by more than an order of magnitude. Thus, a new generation of high precision measurements in fundamental physics and metrology is enabled with this technology, particularly suitable to find traces of new physics far beyond the reach of accelerator based physics. The technical realization of the shield with its improvements in design is discussed.

  14. Waveguide integrated low noise NbTiN nanowire single-photon detectors with milli-Hz dark count rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carsten Schuck; Wolfram H. P. Pernice; Hong X. Tang


    Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors are an ideal match for integrated quantum photonic circuits due to their high detection efficiency for telecom wavelength photons. Quantum optical technology also requires single-photon detection with low dark count rate and high timing accuracy. Here we present very low noise superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors based on NbTiN thin films patterned directly on top of Si3N4 waveguides. We systematically investigate a large variety of detector designs and characterize their detection noise performance. Milli-Hz dark count rates are demonstrated over the entire operating range of the nanowire detectors which also feature low timing jitter. The ultra-low dark count rate, in combination with the high detection efficiency inherent to our traveling wave detector geometry, gives rise to a measured noise equivalent power at the 10^(-20) W/Hz^(1/2) level.


    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anjos, André

    informa?c?ao original. Apesar da compacta?c?ao da informa?c?ao, obt??em­se, ainda assim, uma elevada efici ON HIGH ENERGY CALORIMETRY Andr??e Rabello dos Anjos April/2001 Advisor: Jos??e Manoel de Seixas Department: Electrical Enginnering This work develops a fast neural classifier for high energy particle discrimination

  16. Milli-Biology Programmable Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishii, Hiroshi

    with engineered materials, in order to expand the range of length scales and properties beyond what is available gearing at low RPM, and power is required to maintain static position, requiring holding brakes. But this is exactly the regime needed for programmable materials; electropermanent motors are efficient at low RPM

  17. bectcom-milli |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Clean Coal Power Initiative Power Plant Improvement Initiative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program FutureGen Milliken Clean Coal...

  18. bectcom-milli |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste andAnniversary, partReview64,783ENCOAL® Mild Coal1 Industrial314

  19. ---Choice, Deci$ion, and Mea$urement A. A. J. Marley (Ed.).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nosofsky, Robert M.

    & Palmeri, in press). I then present some preliminary tests of the model's ability to fit highly structured. NOSOFSKY Indiana University ABSTRACT. Nosofsky and Palmeri (in press) proposed and tested an exemplar. In this chapter, after first reviewing the model, I present tests of its ability to fit categorization response


    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anjos, André

    ¸c~ao da informa¸c~ao, obt´em-se, ainda assim, uma elevada efici^encia de discrimina¸c~ao (97% para el for the degree of Master of Science (M.Sc.) FAST NEURAL DECISION SYSTEM BASED ON HIGH ENERGY CALORIMETRY Andr develops a fast neural classifier for high energy particle discrimination (electron/jet) at the second

  1. Future Roles of Milli-, Micro-, and Nano- Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris


    Integration of Renewable Resources: Operational Requirementsof Renewable and Distributed Energy Resources Theof Renewable and Distributed Energy Resources innovation is

  2. Copyright A. J. Millis 2013 Columbia University Transition Metal Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millis, Andrew

    __^['856'#"0+,A +3 `X[3 `X[3 +3+3[W +3 +3 +3 BT5C'aL^b 'cAX BT5C'aL^W 'cAX BT5C'aL^W 'cAX 'cK'd +3 +4 `W[5 `b[W[a[6 `b[W[5[e `b[4[a[e +3[W[a[e BT5C'aLf 'cAX BT5C'aL^_ 'cAX BT5C'aL^^ 'cAX BT5C'aL^X 'cAX - - BT5C'e6^ 'cAX BT5C'e6X 'cAX BT5C'aLX 'e6^ 'cAX BT5C'aLb 'e6^ 'cAX BT5C'aLW 'e6^ 'cAX BT5C'aLe 'cAX BT5

  3. Surgical Applications of Milli-Robots. Michael B. Cohny

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wendlandt, Jeff

    instruments create diculties for the surgeon. In this paper, we present a design for an improved polypectomy averages are shown as horizontal lines. For wrist: at=solid, relaxed=dashed, exed=dotted. For index- gical instruments which are inserted into the body through a pre-existing ori#12;c

  4. Millie Dresselhaus: Department of Physics and Engineering, Massachusetts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment SurfacesResource Program PreliminaryA3, 1999ofMikeAdministrationMiller wins

  5. Millis-Clicquot, Massachusetts: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 -Energieprojekte GmbH JumpSprings, Vermont:isMillersport,

  6. Milli-fluidic Reactor for Catalyst Research D. Yemane

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recovery challenge fundProject8 -3Eutectic CompositesMikeSpouseMiller wins

  7. Future Roles of Milli-, Micro-, and Nano- Grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Nordman, Bruce; Lai, Judy


    Although it has slowed considerably, consumption of electricity continues to grow in developed economies. Further, there are some unknowns which might accelerate this growth, such as electrification of vehicle fleets and geothermal heat pump space and water heating. Most analysts anticipate that distributed energy resources (DER) will provide a large share of the expanded generation capacity required to meet this seemingly inexorably increasing electricity demand. Further, given the urgency of tackling the climate change problem, most of the added assets must be carbonfree renewables or nuclear, end-use efficiency improvements, or highly efficient fossil-fired technologies. In developed economies worldwide, the current power delivery paradigm has been in place for more than a century, i.e. since the emergence of polyphase AC systems around the turn of the last century. A key feature of this structure is that, in principle, universal service is delivered at a consistent level of power quality and reliability (PQR) throughout large regions. This paper describes a future possible structure for the electricity generation and delivery system that leaves the existing high voltage meshed grid paradigm in place, but involves radical reorganization of parts of the distribution network and customer sites. Managing a much more diverse dispersed system poses major challenges to the current centralized grid paradigm, particularly since many of these assets are small to tiny by macrogrid standards and they may ultimately number in the millions. They are also not ones that centralized control can rely upon to function in traditionally dependable ways, e.g. renewable generation can be highly variable and changes in output of generators are not independent. Although most involved in the industry agree that a paradigm shift is both necessary and desirable to manage the new system, the nature of the future system remains quite unclear. In the possible structure described here, the traditional grid, or macrogrid, remains similar at the high voltage meshed level. Three new entities are added more locally: community grids or milligrids that operate a segment of the existing distribution system, microgrids which are akin to current customer sites but which have automonous control, and nanogrids, such as telecom or Ethernet networks that currently distribute power to many low-power devices. The latter exist currently in the local electrical systems but are not typically considered a part of the traditional electricity supply system. Because all these new entities exhibit some localized control, providing appropriate local heterogeneous PQR becomes a possibility. These new grid concepts enable a more"bottom-up" approach to electricity distribution, in contrast to the historic 'top-down' model. The future will almost certainly include a mix of the two, but the balance among them and the interface (if any) between them is unclear.

  8. Design of Minimally Actuated Legged Milli-Robots Using Compliant Mechanisms and Folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoover, Aaron Murdock


    selection of lightweight batteries at this scale is limited,Since the htweight batteries at this scale is limited, l be23]) and potentially even batteries into the robot structure

  9. Mildred (Millie) Dresselhaus and Her Impacts on Science and Women in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of the ReviewwillSpeedingandofEnergy,ofEnergy,

  10. Project TRACS: Empirically Investigating Transformation through Relatedness, Autonomy, and Competence Support Logic Model Rooted in Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    Project TRACS: Empirically Investigating Transformation through Relatedness, Autonomy appointments toolkit (R, A , C) Project TRACS PI/Director Co-Director & Manager Project Leads & Team MSU&T and hiring procedures -Modern sexism is reduced -Women faculty feel improved job satisfaction -Women intend

  11. MINT-MIS2007 / TSMMW2007 / MilliLab Workshop February 26-27, 2007, Seoul, Korea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Kyounghoon

    simulator (Silvaco). The insertion loss and isolation characteristics on the single pole single throw (SPST and Silvaco simulation result. 183 #12;(a) (b) Fig. 2. (a) Schematic cross-sectional view and (b) SEM image

  12. Profit Maximization of Cognitive Virtual Network Operator in A Dynamic Wireless Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    the transmission price (deci- sion variable) and market state (exogenous stochastics). · Realistic cognitive radio

  13. On User Behaviour Adaptation Under Interface Change Benjamin Rosman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohli, Pushmeet

    experiences in video games, etc. In typical sequential deci- sion making tasks, users execute sequences

  14. Nanoscale Biosensors for Environmental Monitoring and Biological Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jingjing


    by the Milli-Q water purification system from Millipore (by the Milli-Q water purification system from Millipore (

  15. Increased flexibility in the delivery of ultrapure water The Milli-Q Advantage system offers flexibility in the quality and delivery of various ultrapure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    organic pollutants and microbiology.As these laboratory environments change, a broader range of techniques= 30 mM, t20= 30 mM, t21= 10 mM, t30= 10 mM). ADVERTISING FEATURE NATURE METHODS | DECEMBER 2006 | v

  16. Linking Perceptions of School Belonging to Academic Motivation and Academic Achievement Amongst Student Athletes: A Comparative Study Between High-Revenue Student Athletes and Non-Revenue Student Athletes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Christine Marie


    60, 49-66. Ryan, R. , Stiller, J. , & Lynch, J. (1994).Powelson, 1991; Ryan, Stiller, & Lynch, 1994). Deci et al.

  17. Capillary Electrophoresis-based Methodology Development for Biomolecule Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ni


    a Milli?Q water purification system (Millipore, Billerica,from a Milli?Q water purification system (Millipore, MA)by the Milli Q water purification system (Billerica, MA).

  18. Lakes in General Circulation Models Primary Investigator: Brent Lofgren -NOAA GLERL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Investigators: Chris Milly, Isaac Held, Bruce Wyman - NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Overview The use

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - apache indian nation Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in its earliest deci- sions regarding the interpretation of Indian treaties (Cherokee Nation v... upon the dependence of Indians on the federal government. Furthermore,...


    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antunes, Pedro

    . Este modelo permite organizar o modo como os utilizadores interagem com a base de dados, explorando, analisando e seleccionando casos. A base de dados encontra-se presentemente com 75 casos de decisão em grupo artigo descreve um sistema de suporte à tomada de decisão em grupo. O sistema baseia- se numa base de

  1. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.


    a MiIli-Q water purification system (Millipore Corp. ).a Milli-Q water purification system ( Millipore Corp. ) was

  2. Genetic manipulation of the obligate chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beller, H.R.


    water (18-?M? resistance) obtained from a Milli-?Q Biocel system (Millipore, Bedford, MA) or similar purification system

  3. Bottle Washing LDPE bottles must be acid washed prior to use in trace element analyses. The process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    for 1 week. · Repeat batch rinse. · Using plastic forceps and Milli-Q squeeze bottle, individually rinse distilled HCl for 1 week. · Repeat batch rinse. · Using plastic forceps and Milli-Q squeeze bottle. · Using plastic forceps and Milli-Q squeeze bottle, individually rinse filters and lay them in the large

  4. Department of Physics Columbia University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millis, Andrew

    Department of Physics Columbia University Copyright A. J. Millis 2010 Correlated Electron Compounds: from real materials to model systems and back again A. J. Millis Columbia University Boulder 2010 #12;Department of Physics Columbia University Copyright A. J. Millis 2010 Stereotypical theoretical physicist

  5. Department of Physics Columbia University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millis, Andrew

    Department of Physics Columbia University Copyright A. J. Millis 2010 `Botany' of correlated fermion physics #12;Department of Physics Columbia University Copyright A. J. Millis 2010 Example: 3He;Department of Physics Columbia University Copyright A. J. Millis 2010 Normal liquid D. Greywall PRB 27 2747

  6. MSU Extension Publication Archive Archive copy of publication, do not use for current recommendations. Up-to-date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    pan, to hold the sample under the oil. (Provide a hole in screen for the thermometer if one is used.) 4. Optional- A thermometer reading to 200° centi- grade (292°F). Procedure A. Collect one to one and one-half cups of oil (and thermometer if used). Turn the dial to read "0." Leave

  7. Total Estimated Contract Cost: Performance Period Total Fee Paid

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Wastren-EnergX Mission Support LLC Contract Number: DE-CI0000004 Contract Type: Cost Plus Award Fee 128,879,762 Contract Period: December 2009 - July 2015 Fee Information...


    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    , cases and procedures in the office of the District Attorney of Alameda County, state finance, executive, with the Governor under pressure of deci- sion-making and their ensuing cabbages- and-kings conversations, that mark

  9. Security decision-making among interdependent organizations R. Ann Miura-Ko, Benjamin Yolken, John Mitchell, and Nicholas Bambos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, John C.

    the same passwords at several independent web sites, security deci- sions by one organization may have- ments of others. We apply this framework to investigate three examples: web site security with shared


    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    the Augmented MultiParty Corpus (AMI) corpus [10] and The Apprentice [11] (a subset of US reality TV show a remote control, the groups in the Apprentice dataset need to debate and help the boss deci

  11. Outside Review of the Doctoral Program of the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of Texas Technical University (TTU)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    observed no desire to remain static. There is also a deci- sion-making process in place to support with the internal and external reviewers present and again on February 6 among internal reviewers. The review team

  12. CMNE/CILAMCE 2007 Porto, 13 a 15 de Junho, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    histórico dos dados de entrada u(n); u(n-1); ... apresentados à RNN, isto é, existe uma função E tal que x dos dados de entrada [1]. Em [1], Jaeger investigou qual poderia ser o benefício se os estados da RNN controle determina a decisão ótima com base na previsão de futuras vazões afluentes, e esta decisão é

  13. Department of Physics Columbia University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millis, Andrew

    Department of Physics Columbia University Copyright A. J. Millis 2010 John Hubbard photo Thanks abcd Uabcdd ad bdcdd (d) ab ab()d a()db() ab Habd adb #12;Department of Physics Columbia University to self energy #12;Department of Physics Columbia University Copyright A. J. Millis 2010 Cant treat all

  14. Department of Physics Columbia University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millis, Andrew

    Department of Physics Columbia University Copyright A. J. Millis 2012 Dynamical Mean Field Theory: Basic ideas and cluster extensions A. J. Millis Department of Physics Columbia University Support: NSF DMR 10006282, DOE ER-046169 and ARO 056032PH #12;Department of Physics Columbia University Copyright A

  15. Fast and Easy Sample Dialysis When downstream quality matters,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    samples with convenience No need to use a syringe to load or remove samples. Simply load your sampleL Milli-Q water Conductivity standard curve using NaCl Protein recovery after 5 hours: 89% Volume

  16. MAIS E MENOS Q J Grande feito foi odo ciclista portu-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    fusão da Clássica com a Técnica de Lisboa. Perfeito foi Barack Obama a comentar a decisão judicial que Tour de França, igualando o recorde de Joaquim Agostinho. Outro feito é o de Cruz Serra, que se torna

  17. 48 CINCIA HOJE vol. 31 n 183 Bases biolgicas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metzger, Jean Paul Walter

    sustentabilidade ambiental. A decisão sobre essa questão, porém, também precisa levar em conta aspectos científicos- nômicos (expansão das ativida- des agrícolas), por um lado, e de sustentabilidade ambiental, por outro

  18. Estimating the Weight of Evidence in Forensic Speaker Verification Beat Pfister and Rene Beutler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    speech database is used to calibrate the valuation scale for an individual case. 1. Introduction. Since even the best SV systems are not able to make this deci- sion 100 % correctly, the trade properties (e.g. sex, age, mental and health state, language). In order to use SV in foren- sic casework, we

  19. Differentiability properties of Rank Linear Utilities G. Carlier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlier, Guillaume

    Differentiability properties of Rank Linear Utilities G. Carlier April 8, 2006 Abstract We study generalize the rank dependent expected utility and are called rank-linear utilities in deci- sion theory results generalize those obtained for the rank dependent expected utility in [1]. The author wishes


    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groppi, Christopher

    was chosen and thus noise on the BCD data lines causes only a temporary error. General Binary Coded Decimal Standard Identification Data is recorded as Binary Coded Decimal numbers. A standard frequency could location and the Binary-Coded Deci- mal Time Signals transmitted to the scopes. The second system

  1. Nordisk kernesikkerhedsforskning Norrnar kjarnryggisrannsknir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ................................................................................................................. 4 2 Deposition of radioactive global fallout in Norway from nuclear weapons tests....... 5 2......................................................................................................... 16 3 Accumulated 90 Sr deposition in the Faroe Islands from nuclear weapons tests ....... 19 3 is the underlying food- and dose-module in several computerised deci- sion-making systems. Key words Nuclear weapons

  2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Integration Studies Our researchers measure the impact of wind and solar power plant output and the additional to predict wind plant output remains low for short-term (hourly or daily) operation in wind power plants. We informed deci- sions when considering wind power output for power plants. Our research includes efforts

  3. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 42454258, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite dif- ferent, the radioactive contamination patterns over reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent deci- sion

  4. Modeling the Relations Between Flow Regime Components, Species Traits, and Spawning Success of Fishes in Warmwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwak, Thomas J.

    of warmwater stream fishes and may guide deci- sions related to stream regulation and management. Keywords impoundment and regulation can reduce peak and low discharge events in terms of both frequency and magnitude (Petts 1986). Peaking hydro- electric power generation often releases discrete surges of water from

  5. 732 journal of law, medicine & ethics Problem Formulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Kristen C.

    Governance and Environmental Risk Assessment for Technologies: A Methodology for Problem Analysis by a technology whose use has poten- tial environmental risks, some form of risk analysis is typically conducted considered a decision-sup- port tool, it is now sometimes used to legitimize a deci- sion to stakeholders

  6. Identification of a mutation in COL4A5 causative for X-linked Alport syndrome in the domestic dog and analysis of gene expression in the kidneys of affected and nonaffected siblings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Melissa Luanne


    matrix and basement membranes (Table 1). Types I-IV represent fibrous collagens while __________________ *Reprinted with permission from Lowe JK, Guyon R, Cox ML, Mitchell DC, Lonkar AL et al. (2003) Radiation hybrid mapping of the canine type I.../doggy.html and 20 Results The COL1A1 gene mapped to CFA9, 7.65 centiRay (cR) from GNGT2 and 27.8 cR from Ren126A15, as previously stated (Breen et al. 2001). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH...

  7. Potential vorticity in the thermocline of the Yucatan current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahrens, John


    -H-6 19 7. The acceleration potential and geostrophic velocity, on the specific volume anomaly surface of Z50 centiliters per ton, at section II as a function of distance along the section. The location of section II is given in Figure 12 23 8.... Isopleths of acceleration potential in dynamic centimeters on the surface where the specific volume anomaly is equal to 200 centiliters per ton 25 9, Isopleths of acceleration potential in dynamic centi- meters on the surface where the specific volume...


    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    e possibilitar a assimilação de dados de vazão coletados em tempo real, o modelo responde a um modelo e suas representações matématicas como o produto operacional que servirá de base para a tomada de decisão. Palavras-Chave ­ Previsão hidrológica, modelo hidrológico, assimilação de dados em tempo real

  9. Um quinto dos cursos tem taxa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Eco- nómico teve acesso - que está a servir de base para a decisão das novas vagas a abrir nas uni no primeiro trimestre deste ano. ? a partir destes dados, for- necidos pelo lEFP, que a tutela actualiza o os estudantes associem es- tes dados à qualidade das insti- tuições e frisa: "O que estes da- dos

  10. Selected components of an oil spill contingency plan model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Starnater, Carol Elizabeth


    of Responsibility Section 311 of the Clean Water Act or FWPCA gave the President the responsibility for issuing the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (The Plan). In turn, this task was delegated to the Council on Environmental... administratively oriented, i. e. management personnel are assigned spill-related tasks but the tools needed to carry out the response are not detailed in the plan. Other plans focus primarily an the response phase, neglecting pre-spill deci- sions. Oil spill...

  11. Quantification Of Margins And Uncertainties: A Bayesian Approach (full Paper)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallstrom, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties (QMU) is 'a formalism for dealing with the reliability of complex technical systems, and the confidence which can be placed in estimates of that reliability.' (Eardleyet al, 2005). In this paper, we show how QMU may be interpreted in the framework of Bayesian statistical inference, using a probabilistic network. The Bayesian approach clarifies the probabilistic underpinnings of the formalism, and shows how the formalism can be used for deciSion-making.

  12. An antigenic and serologic comparison of two virulent strains and an attenuated strain of Anaplasma marginale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carson, Charles Andrew


    :. ' fA. : . ' j . ":. 1St' s, , h19 . . i t a, ?LLmals ~ Thirty two rs'b'oits w re used in this . , tudy, An al?mlnum potassi?m sulfate (potsss-'um alum) precipitated antigon was pre- 34 p'red ', . om the serum of each of the int ct ir footed c...ution of potassium alum in distd:Lied wats!. The pH was adjusted . c 6. 5 !nith 5N NaQH and the mixture centi ifugec. The se. imcnt we!i washed t!3ce with 200 m3 of 1::LO, UOO merthiolats, saline, cnd the fi!!al prv! ipi ahe iaido '!p to a vo7!a...

  13. Electromagnetic Generators for Portable Power Applications Matthew Kurt Senesky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    or turbines paired with electrical generators. Producing such a system to run efficiently on the milli to power tools to electric vehicle drives to wind power generation -- that would benefit from highElectromagnetic Generators for Portable Power Applications by Matthew Kurt Senesky B.A. (Dartmouth

  14. Journal of Power Sources xxx (2005) xxxxxx POWER (power optimization for wireless energy requirements): A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sastry, Ann Marie


    , and lifetime in selection of appropriate battery electro- chemistries and configurations (i.e. parallel, series several power ranges (micro-, milli- and Watt); or (3) a power system designed to be housed within-charge of the batteries). Future work will be focused on continuously improving our present tool. 2005 Elsevier B.V. All

  15. AUGUST 2002 483S C H L O S S E R A N D M I L L Y 2002 American Meteorological Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Ocean­Land­Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, Maryland P. C. D. MILLY U. S. Geological Survey, NOAA ocean surface temperatures. Ensemble simulations are designed to assess the extent to which initial soil radiation at the continental surface coincide. The as- sociated predictability of 30-day-mean precipitation

  16. Lithium Isotope Sample Preparation University of Maryland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mcdonough, William F.

    in the chemistries are methanol and ethanol, both ~100%, stored under cabinet #4, in the area marked "organics." It is necessary for the 12 ml Li column chemistry to use Teflon- distilled methanol. The ethanol that is used with ethanol used for removing ink from surfaces is ordinarily kept near the Milli-Q system. cleaning

  17. ESSES 2003 2003, Carla Schlatter Ellis Energy Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Carla

    1 ESSES 2003© 2003, Carla Schlatter Ellis Energy Management at Upper Levels of System Design Carla Schlatter Ellis Systems & Architecture Milly Watt Project 2ESSES 2003© 2003, Carla Schlatter Ellis Energy Watt Project #12;2 3ESSES 2003© 2003, Carla Schlatter Ellis Energy should be a "first class" resource

  18. Phet. Spwe Sd.. Vol. 43. No. 12, pp. 1485--1516.1995 Copyright ic, 1995 Elsevier Science Ltd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atreya, Sushil

    their lifetimes. Both transport (diffusion. convection, escape, and winds) and physico-chemical effects in the milli- meter and submilIimeter range has made significant contributions to the study of chemical devoted to the exploration of the far-infrared and submillimeter range. Acompilation of guidelines

  19. Fish Slaughter, Killing, and Euthanasia: A Review of Major Published U.S. Guidance Documents and General

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    CIR1525 Fish Slaughter, Killing, and Euthanasia: A Review of Major Published U.S. Guidance of County Commissioners Cooperating. Millie Ferrer-Chancy, Interim Dean Introduction Fish are important. However, non-native fish illegally released into the environment pose a nuisance. In each case, death

  20. Supporting Information Interaction-Dependent PCR: Identification of Ligand-Target Pairs from Libraries of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, David R.

    Sigma-Aldrich, unless otherwise noted. Water was purified with a Milli-Q purification system. DNA; reverse-phase separation was performed on an Alliance 2695 (Waters) HPLC system using a UPLC BEH C18. Synthesis and Purification of Oligonucleotide Conjugates SI-5 D. IDPCR Methods i. Primer Extension and q

  1. amino acid sequence gastrin I 2 126 pGlu-Arg-(Pro)2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    - Thr-Leu-(Glu)2 -(Met)2 -Thr-Ala-Cys-Gln-Gly- Val-Gly On the Purification of Peptides with Size Amersham Biosciences AB, S-75182 Uppsala, Sweden CONDITIONS System: FPLC® System Detection: UV 214 nm (5 mm by washing with 2 column volumes of Milli-Q water followed by equilibration with mobile phase for 2 column

  2. SQUID DETECTION OF EPR IN DILUTE CMN* R.V.Chamberlin, L.A. Moberly and O.G. Symko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    SQUID DETECTION OF EPR IN DILUTE CMN* R.V.Chamberlin, L.A. Moberly and O.G. Symko Dept. of Physios magnetometers to the detection of EPR at milli- Kelvin temperatures. Data on a sample of dilute 1 % CMN is presented. This method of detection of EPR is particularly well suited for systems with long spin

  3. Agronomy Notes July 2011 Volume 35:7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    ................................................................Page 8 Effects of Drought on Sugarcane Production.............Page 9 Calendar and does not signify approval to the exclusion of similar products. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/Millie Ferrer-Chancy, Interim

  4. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology 15 (2004) S504S511 PII: S0957-4484(04)77586-8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the industrial revolution at the milli-inch length scale and in the semiconductor revolution at the micrometre components. However, at the beginning of the first industrial revolution in the middle of the 18th century. cost, industrial mass production for the final phase of the sec- ond industrial revolution

  5. Noncontact deep level photo-thermal spectroscopy: Technique and application to semi-insulating GaAs Wafers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    to high resistivity materials, since the Debye-Huckel length is too large several milli- meters for semi materials. In DLPTS, the thermal recovery of carriers after excita- tion is monitored by a subNoncontact deep level photo-thermal spectroscopy: Technique and application to semi-insulating Ga

  6. SHORT COMMUNICATION Ned A. Stephenson Alexis T. Bell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    spectroscopy has been developed to measure the concentration of hydro- gen peroxide from 10?3 to 10 M. Hydrogen, hydrometallurgy, and metal finishing [1]. A number of biological processes also produce and consume hydro- gen peroxide in the micro- to milli-molar range [13, 14]. Spectroscopic techniques involving chemilumi

  7. Kanan, Liu et al. Supplementary Information page 1 "Reaction Discovery Enabled by DNA-Templated Synthesis and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, David R.

    . For purification and characterization of small-molecule products arising from non-DNA- templated reactions.075% of expected masses. All H2O used in the manipulations below was obtained from a Milli-Q purification system with a Varian Pursuit C18 1.0 gram-scale preparative reverse-phase column. Proton magnetic resonance (1 H

  8. Revista Iguanazul, Number 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santopietro, Judith

    A L gura ahorr suficiente dinero y compr una pistola en el mercado negro de armas. Una noche al salir del trabajo, el guardia de la maquiladora no la acompa, as que deci- di esperar un taxi, el cual no llegaba; deses- perada camin; de repente... cortinas del escenario. VOZ: Este nuevo ente es in- clasificable pues rompe con la taxonoma empleada hasta hoy por los parapsiclogos. Inicia la proyeccin de la pelcula Nan (Gorostiza, 1943) en blanco y negro, y audio rayado. RO BLES (enrgico): En...

  9. Social Activities | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus Tom Fletcher,Future | Department of How Do THey DeciDe wHaT

  10. Frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raymond, Thomas D. (Edgewood, NM); Alford, William J. (Albuquerque, NM); Crawford, Mary H. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM)


    A frequency-doubled semiconductor vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) is disclosed for generating light at a wavelength in the range of 300-550 nanometers. The VECSEL includes a semiconductor multi-quantum-well active region that is electrically or optically pumped to generate lasing at a fundamental wavelength in the range of 600-1100 nanometers. An intracavity nonlinear frequency-doubling crystal then converts the fundamental lasing into a second-harmonic output beam. With optical pumping with 330 milliWatts from a semiconductor diode pump laser, about 5 milliWatts or more of blue light can be generated at 490 nm. The device has applications for high-density optical data storage and retrieval, laser printing, optical image projection, chemical-sensing, materials processing and optical metrology.

  11. To make 4 N HCl in 1 liter bottle from concentrated 1xQD Stock ml final solution 1000 1000 1000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mcdonough, William F.

    of Ethanol 94.5 37.8 56.7 18.9 ml Milli-Q 181.1 72.5 108.7 36.2 To use this recipe calculator, fill final 0.15 0.15 0.15 To make 30% ethanol in 0.5M HCl for 3rd column* Normality Conc. Stock 4 4 4 4

  12. Department of Pharmacology Shared Equipment Centrifugation & Accessories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -481) Autoclaves and Water Purification Systems 2 Stand alone Autoclaves (2-502) 1 MilliQ Water Purification System (2-502) 3 Ice Machines (2-502, 2-412 & 2-233) Imaging and Film-Developing Systems 1 Kodak X-Omat Film and Detection System (2-505) 1 Fisher Nanodrop Spectrophotometer (2-272) Microscopy and Imaging Systems 1 Leica

  13. How Bilayer Graphene Got a Bandgap

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Feng Wang


    Graphene is the two-dimensional crystalline form of carbon, whose extraordinary electron mobility and other unique features hold great promise for nanoscale electronics and photonics. But theres a catch: graphene has no bandgap. Now Feng Wang and his colleagues at Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley have engineered a bandgap in bilayer graphene that can be precisely controlled from 0 to 250 milli-electron volts, which is the energy of infrared radiation.

  14. How Bilayer Graphene Got a Bandgap

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wang, Feng


    Graphene is the two-dimensional crystalline form of carbon, whose extraordinary electron mobility and other unique features hold great promise for nanoscale electronics and photonics. But theres a catch: graphene has no bandgap. Now Feng Wang and his colleagues at Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley have engineered a bandgap in bilayer graphene that can be precisely controlled from 0 to 250 milli-electron volts, which is the energy of infrared radiation.

  15. Axion Dark Matter Detection using Atomic Transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Sikivie


    Dark matter axions may cause transitions between atomic states that differ in energy by an amount equal to the axion mass. Such energy differences are conveniently tuned using the Zeeman effect. It is proposed to search for dark matter axions by cooling a kilogram-sized sample to milliKelvin temperatures and count axion induced transitions using laser techniques. This appears an appropriate approach to axion dark matter detection in the $10^{-4}$ eV mass range.


    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    contraintes anisotropes, prouvent les bonnes qualités d'hydro- staticité de la pression. Un volume utile de 1 micro fours placés à l'intérieur de la cellule sous pression. On a réalisé ainsi la synthèse du diamant quelques milli-degré K avec des micro bombes et réaliser, par exemple, des expériences d

  17. Variation in the aerodynamic drag coefficient due to changes in the shape of an automobile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, John Gilbert


    VARIATION IN THE AERODXMMIC DRAG COEEEICIENT DUE TO CHANGES LN THE SHAPE OF AN AUTOMOBILE A Thesis by JOHN GILBERT MILLI%MS Su'bmitned to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements fo... Air Density C HAFTER I IliiTRODUCTION During the early years of the automobile, little or no effort was made to explore the problem of aerodynamic drag. This situation was the result oi' two factors. First, the passenger cars of shat time were...

  18. Isolation methods and electron microscopy of the Internal Cork Virus of sweet potatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickens, Edgar Eugene


    and then diluting to 100 milli- liters with distilled water to make the buffered solution that was used during grinding of the lesions. After grinding was completed the slurry was squeezed through cheese cloth to remove the gross material. The slurry passing... in each of' the three tubes was resuspended in one milliliter of solution containing 0. 5 grams of sodium bromide per milliliter (14). Each of the three, one milliliter suspensions was transferred to a centrifuge tube for the SW39 rotor designed f...

  19. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew [JLAB


    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  20. VLBA Multi-frequency Polarimetric imaging of Radio-loud Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayashi, Takayuki J; Nagai, Hiroshi


    We conducted the first multi-frequency polarimetric imaging of four broad absorption line (BAL) quasars using Very Long Baseline Array at milli-arcsecond resolutions to investigate the inclination of the non-thermal jet and test the hypothesis that radio sources in BAL quasars are still young. Among these four sources, J0928+446, J1018+0530, and J1405+4056 show one-sided structures in parsec scales, and polarized emission detected in the core. These characteristics are consistent with those of blazars. We set constraints on viewing angles to $wind.

  1. Dr.James J.Spivey

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocationDiurnal CycleDonald1Research: $12.5 Milli An error

  2. Draayer Elected as New SURA President | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocationDiurnal CycleDonald1Research: $12.5 Milli An

  3. Draft

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocationDiurnal CycleDonald1Research: $12.5 Milli

  4. Draft 2009 Resource Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocationDiurnal CycleDonald1Research: $12.5 MilliDraft

  5. Free electron gas primary thermometer: The bipolar junction transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mimila-Arroyo, J., E-mail: [Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional, Dpto. de Ing. Elctrica-SEES, Av. Instituto Politcnico Nacional No 2508, Mxico D.F. CP 07360 (Mexico)


    The temperature of a bipolar transistor is extracted probing its carrier energy distribution through its collector current, obtained under appropriate polarization conditions, following a rigorous mathematical method. The obtained temperature is independent of the transistor physical properties as current gain, structure (Homo-junction or hetero-junction), and geometrical parameters, resulting to be a primary thermometer. This proposition has been tested using off the shelf silicon transistors at thermal equilibrium with water at its triple point, the transistor temperature values obtained involve an uncertainty of a few milli-Kelvin. This proposition has been successfully tested in the temperature range of 77450?K.

  6. Supplement 20, Part 1, Authors: A To Z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podani, Jule M.; Hood, Martha W.; Tolson, Deborah A.; Kirby, Margie D.; Crawley, Lila R.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Shaw, Judith H.; Edwards, Shirley J.


    . Hong Kong Biol- ogical Circle. Hong Kong. [Cz.] II KEY TO SERIALABBREVIATIONS Mem. National Sc. Mus., Tokyo. ? Memoirs of the National Science Museum. Tokyo. [lA (Ql80. J3K6) ] Micro-organisms, Function, Form and Environment (Hawker and Linton...).? Micro-organisms. Function, Form and En- vironment. Edited by Lilian E. Hawker and Alan H. Lin- ton. (American Elsevier Publishing Co., Inc.). New York. [W3. (QR58.H3) ] Mikrobiologija, Beograd. See Acta Biol. Iugoslav., s. B, Mikrobio1. Milli T...

  7. Evidence for Granulation and Oscillations in Procyon from Photometry with the WIRE satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Bruntt; H. Kjeldsen; D. L. Buzasi; T. R. Bedding


    We report evidence for the granulation signal in the star Procyon A, based on two photometric time series from the star tracker on the WIRE satellite. The power spectra show evidence of excess power around 1 milliHz, consistent with the detection of p-modes reported from radial velocity measurements. We see a significant increase in the noise level below 3 milliHz, which we interpret as the granulation signal. We have made a large set of numerical simulations to constrain the amplitude and timescale of the granulation signal and the amplitude of the oscillations. We find that the timescale for granulation is T(gran) = 750(200) s, the granulation amplitude is 1.8(0.3) times solar, and the amplitude of the p-modes is 8(3) ppm. We found the distribution of peak heights in the observed power spectra to be consistent with that expected from p-mode oscillations. However, the quality of the data is not sufficient to measure the large separation or detect a comb-like structure, as seen in the p-modes of the Sun. Comparison with the recent negative result from the MOST satellite reveal that the MOST data must have an additional noise source that prevented the detection of oscillations.


    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng Qian; Wu Xiangping; Gu Junhua [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang Jingying; Xu Haiguang [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)


    The redshifted 21 cm signal of neutral hydrogen from the epoch of reionization (EoR) is extremely weak and its first detection is therefore expected to be statistical with first-generation low-frequency radio interferometers. In this Letter, we propose a method to extract the angular power spectrum of the EoR from the visibility correlation coefficients p{sub ij} (u, v), instead of the visibilities V{sub ij} (u, v) measured directly by radio interferometers in conventional algorithm. The visibility correlation coefficients are defined as p{sub ij}(u,v)=V{sub ij}(u,v)/{radical}(|V{sub ii}||V{sub jj}|) by introducing the autocorrelation terms V{sub ii} and V{sub jj} such that the angular power spectrum C{sub l} can be obtained through C{sub l} = T {sup 2}{sub 0}(|p{sub ij} (u, v)|{sup 2}), independently of the primary beams of antennas. This also partially removes the influence of receiver gains in the measurement of C{sub l} because the amplitudes of the gains cancel each other out in the statistical average operation of (|p{sub ij} (u, v)|{sup 2}). We use the average system temperature T{sub 0} as a calibrator of C{sub l}, which is dominated by the Milky Way and extragalactic sources in the frequency range that we are interested in, below 200 MHz. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of this novel method using the simulated sky maps as targets and the 21 CentiMeter Array (21CMA) as interferometer.

  9. Terahertz Radiation from a Pipe with Small Corrugations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Stupakov, G.; /SLAC


    We have studied through analytical and numerical methods the use of a relativistic electron bunch to drive a metallic beam pipe with small corrugations for the purpose of generating terahertz radiation. For the case of a pipe with dimensions that do not change along its length, we have shown that - with reasonable parameters - one can generate a narrow-band radiation pulse with frequency {approx}1 THz, and total energy of a few milli-Joules. The pulse length tends to be on the order of tens of picoseconds. We have also shown that, if the pipe radius is tapered along its length, the generated pulse will end up with a frequency chirp; if the pulse is then made to pass through a compressor, its final length can be reduced to a few picoseconds and its peak power increased to 1 GW. We have also shown that wall losses tend to be significant and need to be included in the structure design.

  10. Exciton-assisted optomechanics with suspended carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Wilson-Rae; C. Galland; W. Zwerger; A. Imamoglu


    We propose a framework for inducing strong optomechanical effects in a suspended carbon nanotube based on deformation potential exciton-phonon coupling. The excitons are confined using an inhomogeneous axial electric field which generates optically active quantum dots with a level spacing in the milli-electronvolt range and a characteristic size in the 10-nanometer range. A transverse field induces a tunable parametric coupling between the quantum dot and the flexural modes of the nanotube mediated by electron-phonon interactions. We derive the corresponding excitonic deformation potentials and show that this interaction enables efficient optical ground-state cooling of the fundamental mode and could allow us to realise the strong and ultra-strong coupling regimes of the Jaynes-Cummings and Rabi models.

  11. Single-particle states in transcurium nuclei.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, I.


    Identification of single-particle states in the heaviest known nuclei is important because their energies can be used to test the single-particle potential in these high-Z elements. These states can be identified by studying the decay schemes of very heavy odd-mass nuclides. For neutrons, the heaviest odd-mass nuclide available in milliCurie quantities is the 20-h {sup 255}Fm and for protons the heaviest nuclide available is the 20-d {sup 253}Es. These two isotopes were obtained from the Transplutonium Element Production Program at Oak Ridge and their spectra were measured with high-resolution germanium spectrometers. From the results of these measurements we have identified states in {sup 251}Cf and {sup 249}Bk up to 1 MeV excitation energy.

  12. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)


    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of todays CEBAF polarized source operating at ? 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  13. Microwave multimode memory with an Er$^{3+}$:Y$_2$SiO$_5$ spin ensemble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Probst; H. Rotzinger; A. V. Ustinov; P. A. Bushev


    Interfacing photonic and solid-state qubits within a hybrid quantum architecture offers a promising route towards large scale distributed quantum computing. In that respect, hybrid quantum systems combining circuit QED with ions doped into solids are an attractive platform. There, the ions serve as coherent memory elements and reversible conversion elements of microwave to optical qubits. Among many possible spin-doped solids, erbium ions offer the unique opportunity of a coherent conversion of microwave photons into the telecom C-band at $1.54\\,\\mu$m employed for long distance communication. In our work, we perform a time-resolved electron spin resonance study of an Er$^{3+}$:Y$_2$SiO$_5$ spin ensemble at milli-Kelvin temperatures and demonstrate multimode storage and retrieval of up to 16 coherent microwave pulses. The memory efficiency is measured to be 10$^{-4}$ at the coherence time of $T_2=5.6\\,\\mu$s.

  14. Landscape of superconducting membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederik Denef; Sean A. Hartnoll


    The AdS/CFT correspondence may connect the landscape of string vacua and the `atomic landscape' of condensed matter physics. We study the stability of a landscape of IR fixed points of N=2 large N gauge theories in 2+1 dimensions, dual to Sasaki-Einstein compactifications of M theory, towards a superconducting state. By exhibiting instabilities of charged black holes in these compactifications, we show that many of these theories have charged operators that condense when the theory is placed at a finite chemical potential. We compute a statistical distribution of critical superconducting temperatures for a subset of these theories. With a chemical potential of one milliVolt, we find critical temperatures ranging between 0.24 and 165 degrees Kelvin.

  15. Drop shaping by laser-pulse impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Alexander L; Visser, Claas Willem; Lhuissier, Henri; Sun, Chao; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Lohse, Detlef; Gelderblom, Hanneke


    We study the hydrodynamic response of a falling drop hit by a laser pulse. Combining high-speed with stroboscopic imaging we report that a millimeter-sized dyed water drop hit by a milli-Joule nanosecond laser-pulse deforms and propels forward at several meters per second, until it eventually fragments. We show that the drop motion results from the recoil momentum imparted at the drop surface by water vaporization. We measure the propulsion speed and the time-deformation law of the drop, complemented by boundary integral simulations. We explain the drop propulsion and shaping in terms of the laser pulse energy and drop surface tension. These findings are crucial for the generation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light in lithography machines.

  16. A study of the relationship between the effect on polarization of iron electrodes and the inhibitor efficiencies for some organic amines in acid solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Lawrence Raymond


    contact of the slide vire resistor vas connected to the Junction of the tvo upper resistance arms of the bridge. A double 13 F I GURE I THE DUAL CATHODE BRIDGE s, Rl R~ M. A. Sq V, aJ LEGEND Sl- KNIFE BLADE SWITCH M. A-MILLI AMMETER B- 6 VOLT.... 1 86. 9 96. 5 10 30 50 60 70 80 90 100 . 6 1, 0 1. 9 2 1 20 2 4 2. 6 2. 9 3. 1 6. 0 5. 0 6 5o 2 4, 6 4, 0 3 ~ 7 3. 6 3 5 3. 5 10 18. '7 28. 1 30 37. 7 4, 0 4"l 50 56. 3 60 65. 9 70 75. 3 80 84. 6 90 94 100 . 7 7...

  17. Optical frequency standards for gravitational wave detection using satellite Doppler velocimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vutha, Amar C


    Gravitational waves imprint apparent Doppler shifts on the frequency of photons propagating between an emitter and detector of light. This forms the basis of a method to detect gravitational waves using Doppler velocimetry between pairs of satellites. Such detectors, operating in the milli-hertz gravitational frequency band, could lead to the direct detection of gravitational waves. The crucial component in such a detector is the frequency standard on board the emitting and receiving satellites. We point out that recent developments in atomic frequency standards have led to devices that are approaching the sensitivity required to detect gravitational waves from astrophysically interesting sources. The sensitivity of satellites equipped with optical frequency standards for Doppler velocimetry is examined, and a design for a robust, space-capable optical frequency standard is presented.

  18. Sun-as-a-Star Spectrum Variations 1974-2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Livingston; L. Wallace; O. R. White; M. S. Giampapa


    We have observed selected Fraunhofer lines, both integrated over the Full Disk and for a small circular region near the center of the solar disk, on 1,215 days for the past 30 years. Full Disk results: Ca II K 393 nm nicely tracks the 11 year magnetic cycle based on sunspot number with a peak amplitude in central intensity of ~37%. The wavelength of the mid-line core absorption feature, called K3, referenced to nearby photospheric Fe, displays an activity cycle variation with an amplitude of 3 milli-Angstroms. Other chromospheric lines track Ca II K intensity with lower relative amplitudes. Low photosphere: Temperature sensitive CI 5380 nm appears constant in intensity to 0.2%. High photosphere: The cores of strong Fe I lines, Na D1 and D2, and the Mg I b lines, present a puzzling signal perhaps indicating a role for the 22 y Hale cycle. Solar minimum around 1985 was clearly seen, but the following minimum in 1996 was missing. This anomalous behavior is not seen in comparison atmospheric O2. Center Disk results: Both Ca II K and C I 538 nm intensities are constant, indicating that the basal quiet atmosphere is unaffected by cycle magnetism within our observational error. A lower limit to the Ca II K central intensity atmosphere is 0.040. The wavelength of Ca II K3 varies with the cycle by 6 milli-Angstroms, a factor of 2X over the full disk value. This may indicate the predominance of radial motions at Center Disk. This is not an effect of motions in plages since they are absent at Center Disk. This 11 y variation in the center of chromospheric lines could complicate the radial velocity detection of planets around solar-type stars. An appendix provides instructions for URL access to both the raw and reduced data.

  19. Method for bonding thin film thermocouples to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreider, Kenneth G. (Potomac, MD)


    A method is provided for adhering a thin film metal thermocouple to a ceramic substrate used in an environment up to 700 degrees Centigrade, such as at a cylinder of an internal combustion engine. The method includes the steps of: depositing a thin layer of a reactive metal on a clean ceramic substrate; and depositing thin layers of platinum and a platinum-10% rhodium alloy forming the respective legs of the thermocouple on the reactive metal layer. The reactive metal layer serves as a bond coat between the thin noble metal thermocouple layers and the ceramic substrate. The thin layers of noble metal are in the range of 1-4 micrometers thick. Preferably, the ceramic substrate is selected from the group consisting of alumina and partially stabilized zirconia. Preferably, the thin layer of reactive metal is in the range of 0.015-0.030 micrometers (15-30 nanometers) thick. The preferred reactive metal is chromium. Other reactive metals may be titanium or zirconium. The thin layer of reactive metal may be deposited by sputtering in ultra high purity argon in a vacuum of approximately 2 milliTorr (0.3 Pascals).

  20. Occultation Evidence for a Satellite of the Trojan Asteroid (911) Agamemnon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timerson, Bradley; Conard, Steven; Dunham, David W; Herald, David; Tolea, Alin; Marchis, Franck


    On 2012 January 19, observers in the northeastern United States of America observed an occultation of 8.0-mag HIP 41337 star by the Jupiter-Trojan (911) Agamemnon, including one video recorded with a 36cm telescope that shows a deep brief secondary occultation that is likely due to a satellite, of about 5 km (most likely 3 to 10 km) across, at 278 km $\\pm$ 5 km (0.0931 arcsec) from the asteroid's center as projected in the plane of the sky. A satellite this small and this close to the asteroid could not be resolved in the available VLT adaptive optics observations of Agamemnon recorded in 2003. The outline of Agamemnon is fit well by an ellipse with dimensions 190.6 $\\pm$ 0.9 km by 143.8 $\\pm$ 1.5 km. The angular diameter of HIP 41337 was found to be 0.5 $\\pm$ 0.1 milli-arcsec. After (624) Hektor, this could be the second Jupiter Trojan asteroid known to possess a small satellite.

  1. X-ray optics developments at the APS for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, D.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source


    High brilliance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources simultaneously provide both a need and an opportunity for the development of new x-ray optical components. The high power and power densities of the x-ray beams produced by insertion devices have forced researchers to consider novel, and what may seem like exotic, approaches to the mitigation of thermal distortions that can dilute the beam brilliance delivered to the experiment or next optical component. Once the power has been filtered by such high heat load optical elements, specialized components can be employed that take advantage of the high degree of brilliance. This presentation reviews the performance of optical components that have been designed, fabricated, and tested at the Advanced Photon Source, starting with high heat load components and followed by examples of several specialized devices such as a milli-eV resolution (in-line) monochromator, a high energy x-ray phase retarder, and a phase zone plate with submicron focusing capability.

  2. Stellar Parameters for HD 69830, a Nearby Star with Three Neptune Mass Planets and an Asteroid Belt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanner, Angelle; von Braun, Kaspar; Kane, Stephen; Brewer, John M; Farrington, Chris; van Belle, Gerard T; Beichman, Charles A; Fischer, Debra; Brummelaar, Theo A ten; McAlister, Harold A; Schaefer, Gail


    We used the CHARA Array to directly measure the angular diameter of HD 69830, home to three Neptune mass planets and an asteroid belt. Our measurement of 0.674+/-0.014 milli-arcseconds for the limb-darkened angular diameter of this star leads to a physical radius of R$_*$ = 0.9058$\\pm$0.0190 R\\sun and luminosity of L* = 0.622+/-0.014 Lsun when combined with a fit to the spectral energy distribution of the star. Placing these observed values on an Hertzsprung-Russel (HR) diagram along with stellar evolution isochrones produces an age of 10.6+/-4 Gyr and mass of 0.863$\\pm$0.043 M\\sun. We use archival optical echelle spectra of HD 69830 along with an iterative spectral fitting technique to measure the iron abundance ([Fe/H]=-0.04+/-0.03), effective temperature (5385+/-44 K) and surface gravity (log g = 4.49+/-0.06). We use these new values for the temperature and luminosity to calculate a more precise age of 7.5+/-Gyr. Applying the values of stellar luminosity and radius to recent models on the optimistic locati...

  3. V405 Peg (RBS 1955): A Nearby, Low-Luminosity Cataclysmic Binary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorstensen, J R; Schwope, A D; Staude, A; Vogel, J; Krumpe, M; Kohnert, J; Gomez-Moran, A Nebot


    (Abridged). The cataclysmic binary V405 Peg, originally discovered as ROSAT Bright Source (RBS) 1955 (= 1RXS J230949.6+213523), shows a strong contribution from a late-type secondary star in its optical spectrum, which led Schwope et al. to suggest it to be among the nearest cataclysmic binaries. We present extensive optical observations of V405 Peg. Time-series spectroscopy shows the orbital period, Porb, to be 0.1776469(7) d (= 4.2635 hr), or 5.629 cycle/d. We classify the secondary as M3 - M4.5. Astrometry with the MDM 2.4m telescope gives a parallax 7.2 +- 1.1 milli-arcsec, and a relative proper motion of 58 mas/yr. Our best estimate of the distance yields d = 149 (+26, -20) pc. The secondary stars's radial velocity has K2 = 92 +- 3 km/s, indicating a fairly low orbital inclination if the masses are typical. Extensive I-band time-series observations in the show the system varying between a minimum brightness level of I = 14.14 and states of enhanced activity about 0.2 mag brighter. While the low-state sho...

  4. The Radio to Infrared Emission of Very High Redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts: Probing Early Star Formation through Molecular and Atomic Absorption Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Susumu Inoue; Kazuyuki Omukai; Benedetta Ciardi


    We evaluate the broadband afterglow emission of very high redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using standard relativistic blastwave models with both forward and reverse shock components. For a broad range of parameters, a generic property for GRBs at redshifts $z \\sim$ 5--30 is that the emission peaks in the millimeter to far-infrared bands with milli-Jansky flux levels, first at a few hours after the burst due to the reverse shock, and then again for several days afterwards with somewhat lower flux due to the forward shock. The radio, submillimeter and infrared continuum emission should be readily detectable out to $z \\ga 30$ by the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), Extended Very Large Array (EVLA), Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and other facilities. For relatively bright bursts, spectroscopic measurements of molecular and atomic absorption lines due to ambient protostellar gas may be possible. Utilizing models of primordial protostellar clouds, we show that under certain conditions, appreciable absorption may be caused by HD rotational transitions even in metal-free environments. After sufficient metal enrichment, absorption from CO rotational transitions and [OI] fine-structure transitions can also become strong. With appropriate observing strategies in combination with optical telescopes, ALMA and/or SKA may be able to detect such lines, offering a unique probe of physical conditions in individual Pop III and early Pop II star forming regions. We also remark on potential near-infrared absorption features due to electronic transitions of H$_2$.

  5. LIPSS Free-Electron Laser Searches for Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afanaciev, Andrei; Beard, Kevin; Biallas, George; Boyce, James R; Minarni, M; Ramdon, R; Robinson, Taylor; Shinn, Michelle D


    A variety of Dark Matter particle candidates have been hypothesized by physics Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) in the very light (10{sup -6} - 10{sup -3} eV) range. In the past decade several international groups have conducted laboratory experiments designed to either produce such particles or extend the boundaries in parameter space. The LIght Pseudo-scalar and Scalar Search (LIPSS) Collaboration, using the 'Light Shining through a Wall' (LSW) technique, passes the high average power photon beam from Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser through a magnetic field upstream from a mirror and optical beam dump. Light Neutral Bosons (LNBs), generated by coupling of photons with the magnetic field, pass through the mirror ('the Wall') into an identical magnetic field where they revert to detectable photons by the same coupling process. While no evidence of LNBs was evident, new scalar coupling boundaries were established. New constraints were also determined for hypothetical para-photons and for millicharged fermions. We will describe our experimental setup and results for LNBs, para-photons, and milli-charged fermions. Plans for chameleon particle searches are underway.

  6. OGLE-IV: Fourth Phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Udalski, A; Szyma?ski, G


    We present both the technical overview and main science drivers of the fourth phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (hereafter OGLE-IV). OGLE-IV is currently one of the largest sky variability surveys worldwide, targeting the densest stellar regions of the sky. The survey covers over 3000 square degrees in the sky and monitors regularly over a billion sources. The main targets include the inner Galactic Bulge and the Magellanic System. Their photometry spans the range of $12milli-magnitude accuracy at the bright end. The cadence of observations varies from 19-60 minutes in the inner Galactic bulge to 1-3 days in the remaining Galactic bulge fields, Magellanic System and the Galactic disk. OGLE-IV provides the astronomical com...

  7. Enriched Zn$^{100}$MoO$_4$ scintillating bolometers to search for $0 ? 2?$ decay of $^{100}$Mo with the LUMINEU experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Barabash; D. M. Chernyak; F. A. Danevich; A. Giuliani; I. M. Ivanov; E. P. Makarov; M. Mancuso; S. Marnieros; S. G. Nasonov; C. Nones; E. Olivieri; G. Pessina; D. V. Poda; V. N. Shlegel; M. Tenconi; V. I. Tretyak; Ya. V. Vasiliev; M. Velazquez; V. N. Zhdankov


    The LUMINEU project aims at performing a demonstrator underground experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of the isotope $^{100}$Mo embedded in zinc molybdate (ZnMoO$_4$) scintillating bolometers. In this context, a zinc molybdate crystal boule enriched in $^{100}$Mo to 99.5\\% with a mass of 171 g was grown for the first time by the low-thermal-gradient Czochralski technique. The production cycle provided a high yield (the crystal boule mass was 84\\% of initial charge) and an acceptable level -- around 4\\% -- of irrecoverable losses of the costy enriched material. Two crystals of 59 g and 63 g, obtained from the enriched boule, were tested aboveground at milli-Kelvin temperature as scintillating bolometers. They showed a high detection performance, equivalent to that of previously developed natural ZnMoO$_4$ detectors. These results pave the way to future sensitive searches based on the LUMINEU technology, capable to approach and explore the inverted hierarchy region of the neutrino mass pattern.

  8. Germanium: From Its Discovery to SiGe Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haller, E.E.


    Germanium, element No.32, was discovered in 1886 by Clemens Winkler. Its first broad application was in the form of point contact Schottky diodes for radar reception during WWII. The addition of a closely spaced second contact led to the first all-solid-state electronic amplifier device, the transistor. The relatively low bandgap, the lack of a stable oxide and large surface state densities relegated germanium to the number 2 position behind silicon. The discovery of the lithium drift process, which made possible the formation of p-i-n diodes with fully depletable i-regions several centimeters thick, led germanium to new prominence as the premier gamma-ray detector. The development of ultra-pure germanium yielded highly stable detectors which have remained unsurpassed in their performance. New acceptors and donors were discovered and the electrically active role of hydrogen was clearly established several years before similar findings in silicon. Lightly doped germanium has found applications as far infrared detectors and heavily Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) germanium is used in thermistor devices operating at a few milliKelvin. Recently germanium has been rediscovered by the silicon device community because of its superior electron and hole mobility and its ability to induce strains when alloyed with silicon. Germanium is again a mainstream electronic material.

  9. Converting acoustic energy into useful other energy forms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Putterman, Seth J. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Barber, Bradley Paul (Northridge, CA); Hiller, Robert Anthony (Los Angeles, CA); Lofstedt, Ritva Maire Johanna (Los Angeles, CA)


    Sonoluminescence is an off-equilibrium phenomenon in which the energy of a resonant sound wave in a liquid is highly concentrated so as to generate flashes of light. The conversion of sound to light represents an energy amplification of eleven orders of magnitude. The flashes which occur once per cycle of the audible or ultrasonic sound fields can be comprised of over one million photons and last for less 100 picoseconds. The emission displays a clocklike synchronicity; the jitter in time between consecutive flashes is less than fifty picoseconds. The emission is blue to the eye and has a broadband spectrum increasing from 700 nanometers to 200 nanometers. The peak power is about 100 milliWatts. The initial stage of the energy focusing is effected by the nonlinear oscillations of a gas bubble trapped in the liquid. For sufficiently high drive pressures an imploding shock wave is launched into the gas by the collapsing bubble. The reflection of the shock from its focal point results in high temperatures and pressures. The sonoluminescence light emission can be sustained by sensing a characteristic of the emission and feeding back changes into the driving mechanism. The liquid is in a sealed container and the seeding of the gas bubble is effected by locally heating the liquid after sealing the container. Different energy forms than light can be obtained from the converted acoustic energy. When the gas contains deuterium and tritium there is the feasibility of the other energy form being fusion, namely including the generation of neutrons.

  10. Waveguide slot-excited long racetrack electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for roll-to-roll (scanning) processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, H.-J. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    We present a SLot-excited ANtenna (SLAN) long racetrack ECR plasma source that is utilized for roll-to-roll plasma processing such as thin film encapsulation of large-area OLED (organic light emitting diode) panel or modification of fabric surfaces. This source is designed to be long, and to operate under high density uniform plasma with sub-milli-torr pressures. The above features are accomplished by a slot-excited long racetrack resonator with a toroidal geometry of magnetic field ECR configuration, and reinforced microwave electric distributions along the central region of plasma chamber. Also, a new feature has been added to the source. This is to employ a tail plunger, which allows the microwave electric field and the uniformity of the plasma profile to be easily adjustable. We have successfully generated Ar plasmas operating with the microwave power of 0.53 kW in the pressure range of 0.210 mTorr. The plasma is uniform (<10%) in the direction of the straight track and has a Gaussian profile in the roll-to-roll (scanning) direction. In addition, it is shown that the tail plunger could adjust the plasma profile in order to obtain plasma uniformity. Furthermore, based on the results, we suggest a newly designed up-scaled racetrack-SLAN source.

  11. RXTE observations of single pulses of PSR B0531+21 I: Flux variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Vivekanand


    This article is the first in the series that analyze about 1.87 million periods of PSR B0531+21 (Crab pulsar), observed by the PCA detector aboard the RXTE x-ray observatory. The Crab pulsar's x-ray light curve shows little variation over time scales ranging from days to a period (33.46 milli seconds). The standard deviation of its x-ray flux variation is $\\approx$ 0.7% of its mean value, which is negligible compared to its radio flux variations. The phase resolved power spectrum of pulse to pulse x-ray flux variation shows no spectral feature; an upper limit to the peak of any possible broad spectral feature is 0.06% of the mean power. The x-ray fluxes in the two components of its integrated profile are unrelated to each other; their linear correlation coefficient is 0.0004$\\pm$0.0010. ``Giant pulses'' that are routinely seen at radio wavelengths are absent here. This work sets very strong constraints on the connection (if any) between the flux variations at radio and x-ray energies, for example due to variation in the degree of coherence of the basic emitters. Its phase resolved x-ray flux variation shows a weak correlation with the integrated profile. If confirmed, this might be an important clue to understanding the x-ray emission mechanism of Crab pulsar.

  12. Time-scales of Radio Emission in PSR J0437-4715 at 327 MHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Vivekanand


    Time-scales of radio emission are studied in PSR J0437-4715 at 327 MHz using almost half a million periods of high quality data from Ooty Radio Telescope. The radio emission in this milli second pulsar occurs on a short (s) time-scale of approximately 0.026 +- 0.001 periods, and on a (l) time-scale that is much longer than the widths of the components of the integrated profile (approximately 0.05 periods). The width of the s emission increases with its increasing relative contribution to the total radio emission. This may provide constraints for the details of discharge of vacuum gaps above pulsar polar caps. The s emission occasionally takes place in the form of intense spikes, which are confined to the main component of the integrated profile for 90 per cent of the time. The positions of spikes within a component of the integrated profile have no simple relation to the shape of that component. This may have impact on the interpretation of the integrated profile components in terms of independent regions of emission on the polar cap.

  13. Dust and Molecules at High Redshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Combes


    In the last years, progress has been very rapid in the domain of molecules at high redshift, and we know in better detail now the molecular and dust content in several systems beyond z=1 and up to z = 5. The first discovery in 1992 by Brown and van den Bout of CO lines at z=2.28 in a gravitationally lensed starburst galaxy, strongly stimulated searches of other systems, but these were harder than foreseen, and less than 10 other systems have been discovered in CO emission. Redshifts range between 2 and 5, the largest being BR1202-0725 at z=4.69. Most of these systems, if not all, are gravitationally amplified objects. Some have been discovered first through their dust emission, relatively easy to detect because of the negative K-correction effect. The detection of all these systems could give an answer about the debated question of the star-formation rate as a function of redshift. The maximum of star-formation rate, found around z=2 from optical studies, could shift to higher z if the most remote objects are hidden by dust. Absorption in front of quasars can also probe cold gas at high redshift, taking advantage of very high spatial (milli arcsec) and spectral (30m/s) resolutions. From the diffuse components, one can measure the cosmic black body temperature as a function of redshift. All these preliminary studies will be carried out at large scales with future millimeter instruments, and some perspectives are given.

  14. Characterization of the liquid sodium spray generated by a pipework hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torsello, G.; Parozzi, F.; Nericcio, L. [RSE - Nuclear and Industrial Plant Safety Team, Power Generation System Dept., via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milano (Italy); Araneo, L.; Cozzi, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Dept., via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano (Italy); Carcassi, M.; Mattei, N. [Universita di Pisa-Facolta d'Ingegneria DIMNP-Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Dep., Largo L. Lazzarino 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy)


    Due to its advantageous thermodynamic characteristics at high temperature (550 deg. C), liquid sodium is the main candidate to be the cooling fluid for Generation TV nuclear reactors SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors). Now, sodium reacts very violently, both with the water and the oxygen of the air. Only few data were known about the liquid sodium behaviour when spread in the environment through micro defects. These are often present in a cooling circuit in welded or sealed joints and more rarely in the pipes. Micro defects, on the other hand, can be also generated in a cooling circuit because of the vibrations always present in a circuit into which a fluid runs. A new set-up, named LISOF, was built for testing high temperature liquid sodium when passing through micro defects and generating sprays or jets. Sprays and jets were generated by means of nozzles embedding sub milli-metric holes the diameter of which was: 0.2 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.5 mm. Tests were performed by pressurizing liquid sodium (550 deg. C) at: 3, 6 and 9 barg. Normal and high speed cinematography were used for the direct observation of the liquid sodium sprays while Phase Doppler Interferometry was used for the measurement of the droplets characteristics and velocity. Tests concerning the behaviour of the high temperature liquid sodium firing in air or in contact with the cement cover applied to a scaled down core catcher simulacrum were also performed. The paper presents the built set-up and the collected results. (authors)

  15. Home composting as an alternative treatment option for organic household waste in Denmark: An environmental assessment using life cycle assessment-modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersen, J.K.; Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T.H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Scheutz, C., E-mail: [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)


    An environmental assessment of the management of organic household waste (OHW) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the waste-life cycle assessment (LCA) model EASEWASTE. The focus was on home composting of OHW in Denmark and six different home composting units (with different input and different mixing frequencies) were modelled. In addition, incineration and landfilling was modelled as alternatives to home composting. The most important processes contributing to the environmental impact of home composting were identified as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (load) and the avoided emissions in relation to the substitution of fertiliser and peat when compost was used in hobby gardening (saving). The replacement of fertiliser and peat was also identified as one of the most sensible parameters, which could potentially have a significant environmental benefit. Many of the impact categories (especially human toxicity via water (HTw) and soil (HTs)) were affected by the heavy metal contents of the incoming OHW. The concentrations of heavy metals in the compost were below the threshold values for compost used on land and were thus not considered to constitute a problem. The GHG emissions were, on the other hand, dependent on the management of the composting units. The frequently mixed composting units had the highest GHG emissions. The environmental profiles of the home composting scenarios were in the order of -2 to 16 milli person equivalents (mPE) Mg{sup -1} wet waste (ww) for the non-toxic categories and -0.9 to 28 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the toxic categories. Home composting performed better than or as good as incineration and landfilling in several of the potential impact categories. One exception was the global warming (GW) category, in which incineration performed better due to the substitution of heat and electricity based on fossil fuels.

  16. Simulation of Enhanced-Explosive Devices in Chambers and Tunnels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, J B; Kuhl, A L; Beckner, V E


    Introduction: Shock-dispersed fuel (SDF) explosives use a small chemical charge to disperse a combustible fuel that burns in the post-detonation environment. The energy released in the combustion process has the potential for generating higher pressures and temperatures than conventional explosives. However, the development of these types of novel explosive systems requires a detailed understanding of all of the modes of energy release. Objective: The objective of this project is develop a simulation capability for predicting explosion and combustion phase of SDF charges and apply that capability to quantifying the behavior of these types of explosives. Methodology: We approximate the dynamics of an SDF charge using high Reynolds number, fast chemistry model that effectively captures the thermodynamic behavior of SDF charges and accurately models the key modes of energy release. The overall computational model is combined with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) , implemented in a parallel adaptive framework suited to the massively parallel computer systems. Results: We have developed a multiphase version of the model and used it to simulate an SDF charge in which the dispersed fuel is aluminum flakes. Flow visualizations show that the combustion field is turbulent for the chamber and tunnel cases studied. During the 3 milli-seconds of simulation, over 90% of the Al fuel was consumed for the chamber case, while about 40% was consumed in the tunnel case in agreement with Al-SDF experiments. Significance to DoD: DoD has a requirement to develop enhanced energetic materials to support future military systems. The SDF charges described here utilize the combustion mechanism to increase energy per gram of fuel by a factor of 7 to 10 over conventional (detonating) charges, and increase the temperature of the explosion cloud to 2,000-4,000 K (depending on the SDF fuel). Accurate numerical simulation of such SDF explosions allows one to understand the energy release mechanism, and thereby design full-scale systems with greatly improved explosive efficiency.

  17. High resolution radio observations of the colliding-wind binary WR140

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Dougherty; A. J. Beasley; M. J. Claussen; B. A. Zauderer; N. J. Bolingbroke


    Milli-arcsecond resolution Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations of the archetype WR+O star colliding-wind binary (CWB) system WR140 are presented for 23 epochs between orbital phases 0.74 and 0.97. At 8.4 GHz, the emission in the wind-collision region (WCR) is clearly resolved as a bow-shaped arc that rotates as the orbit progresses. We interpret this rotation as due to the O star moving from SE to approximately E of the WR star, which leads to solutions for the orbit inclination of 122+/-5 deg, the longitude of the ascending node of 353+/-3 deg, and an orbit semi-major axis of 9.0+/-0.5 mas. The distance to WR140 is determined to be 1.85+/-0.16 kpc, which requires the O star to be a supergiant. The inclination implies the mass of the WR and O star to be 20+/-4 and 54+/-10 solar masses respectively. We determine a wind-momentum ratio of 0.22, with an expected half-opening angle for the WCR of 63 deg, consistent with 65+/-10 deg derived from the VLBA observations. Total flux measurements from Very Large Array (VLA) observations show the radio emission from WR140 is very closely the same from one orbit to the next, pointing strongly toward emission, absorption and cooling mechanism(s) that are controlled largely by the orbital motion. The synchrotron spectra evolve dramatically through the orbital phases observed, exhibiting both optically thin and optically thick emission. We discuss a number of absorption and cooling mechanisms that may determine the evolution of the synchrotron spectrum with orbital phase.

  18. Distributed Sensor Coordination for Advanced Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumer, Kagan


    The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reli- able operation of advanced energy systems. With recent advances in sensor development, it is now possible to push some level of decision making directly to computationally sophisticated sensors, rather than wait for data to arrive to a massive centralized location before a decision is made. This type of approach relies on networked sensors (called agents from here on) to actively collect and process data, and provide key control deci- sions to significantly improve both the quality/relevance of the collected data and the as- sociating decision making. The technological bottlenecks for such sensor networks stem from a lack of mathematics and algorithms to manage the systems, rather than difficulties associated with building and deploying them. Indeed, traditional sensor coordination strategies do not provide adequate solutions for this problem. Passive data collection methods (e.g., large sensor webs) can scale to large systems, but are generally not suited to highly dynamic environments, such as ad- vanced energy systems, where crucial decisions may need to be reached quickly and lo- cally. Approaches based on local decisions on the other hand cannot guarantee that each agent performing its task (maximize an agent objective) will lead to good network wide solution (maximize a network objective) without invoking cumbersome coordination rou- tines. There is currently a lack of algorithms that will enable self-organization and blend the efficiency of local decision making with the system level guarantees of global decision making, particularly when the systems operate in dynamic and stochastic environments. In this work we addressed this critical gap and provided a comprehensive solution to the problem of sensor coordination to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. The differentiating aspect of the proposed work is in shift- ing the focus towards what to observe rather than how to observe in large sensor networks, allowing the agents to actively determine both the structure of the network and the relevance of the information they are seeking to collect. In addition to providing an implicit coordination mechanism, this approach allows the system to be reconfigured in response to changing needs (e.g., sudden external events requiring new responses) or changing sensor network characteristics (e.g., sudden changes to plant condition). Outcome Summary: All milestones associated with this project have been completed. In particular, private sensor objective functions were developed which are aligned with the global objective function, sensor effectiveness has been improved by using sensor teams, system efficiency has been improved by 30% using difference evaluation func- tions, we have demonstrated system reconfigurability for 20% changes in system con- ditions, we have demonstrated extreme scalability of our proposed algorithm, we have demonstrated that sensor networks can overcome disruptions of up to 20% in network conditions, and have demonstrated system reconfigurability to 20% changes in system conditions in hardware-based simulations. This final report summarizes how each of these milestones was achieved, and gives insight into future research possibilities past the work which has been completed. The following publications support these milestones [6, 8, 9, 10, 16, 18, 19].

  19. Stratus cloud structure from MM-radar transects and satellite images: scaling properties and artifact detection with semi-discrete wavelet analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Petrov, N. P. (Nikola P.); Clothiaux, E. E. (Eugene E.); Marshak, A. (Alexander)


    Spatial and/or temporal variabilities of clouds is of paramount importance for at least two in tensely researched sub-problems in global and regional climate modeling: (1) cloud-radiation interaction where correlations can trigger 3D radiative transfer effects; and (2) dynamical cloud modeling where the goal is to realistically reproduce the said correlations. We propose wavelets as a simple yet powerful way of quantifying cloud variability. More precisely, we use 'semi-discrete' wavelet transforms which, at least in the present statistical applications, have advantages over both its continuous and discrete counterparts found in the bulk of the wavelet literature. With the particular choice of normalization we adopt, the scale-dependence of the variance of the wavelet coefficients (i.e,, the wavelet energy spectrum) is always a better discriminator of transition from 'stationary' to 'nonstationary' behavior than conventional methods based on auto-correlation analysis, second-order structure function (a.k.a. the semi-variogram), or Fourier analysis. Indeed, the classic statistics go at best from monotonically scale- or wavenumber-dependent to flat at such a transition; by contrast, the wavelet spectrum changes the sign of its derivative with respect to scale. We apply 1D and 2D semi-discrete wavelet transforms to remote sensing data on cloud structure from two sources: (1) an upward-looking milli-meter cloud radar (MMCR) at DOE's climate observation site in Oklahoma deployed as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Progrm; and (2) DOE's Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI), a high-resolution space-borne instrument in sunsynchronous orbit that is described in sufficient detail for our present purposes by Weber et al. (1999). For each type of data, we have at least one theoretical prediction - with empirical validation already in existence - for a power-law relation for wavelet statistics with respect to scale. This is what is expected in physical (i.e., finite scaling range) fractal phenomena. In particular, we find long-range correlations in cloud structure coming from the important nonstationary regime. More surprisingly, we also uncover artifacts the data that are traceable either to instrumental noise (in the satellite data) or to smoothing assumptions (in the MMCR data processing). Finally, we discuss the potentially damaging ramifications the smoothing artifact can have on both cloud-radiation and cloud-modeling studies using MMCR data.

  20. Corrosion-resistant Foamed Cements for Carbon Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Gill, S.; Pyatina, T., Muraca, A.; Keese, R.; Khan, A.; Bour, D.


    The cementitious material consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate designed as an alternative thermal-shock resistant cement for the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) wells was treated with cocamidopropyl dimethylamine oxide-based compound as foaming agent (FA) to prepare numerous air bubble-dispersed low density cement slurries of and #61603;1.3 g/cm3. Then, the foamed slurry was modified with acrylic emulsion (AE) as corrosion inhibitor. We detailed the positive effects of the acrylic polymer (AP) in this emulsion on the five different properties of the foamed cement: 1) The hydrothermal stability of the AP in 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cements; 2) the hydrolysis-hydration reactions of the slurry at 85 and #61616;C; 3) the composition of crystalline phases assembled and the microstructure developed in autoclaved cements; 4) the mechanical behaviors of the autoclaved cements; and, 5) the corrosion mitigation of carbon steel (CS) by the polymer. For the first property, the hydrothermal-catalyzed acid-base interactions between the AP and cement resulted in Ca-or Na-complexed carboxylate derivatives, which led to the improvement of thermal stability of the AP. This interaction also stimulated the cement hydration reactions, enhancing the total heat evolved during cements curing. Addition of AP did not alter any of the crystalline phase compositions responsible for the strength of the cement. Furthermore, the AP-modified cement developed the porous microstructure with numerous defect-free cavities of disconnected voids. These effects together contributed to the improvement of compressive-strength and toughness of the cured cement. AP modification of the cement also offered an improved protection of CS against brine-caused corrosion. There were three major factors governing the corrosion protection: 1) Reducing the extents of infiltration and transportation of corrosive electrolytes through the cement layer deposited on the underlying CS surfaces; 2) inhibiting the cathodic reactions at the corrosion site of CS; 3) extending the coverage of cement over CS surfaces; and, 4) improving the adherence of the cement to CS surfaces. Thus, the CSs corrosion rate of 176 milli inch/per year (mpy) for 1 wt% FA-foamed cement without AP was considerably reduced to 69 mpy by adding only 2 wt% AP. Addition of AP at 10 wt% further reduced this rate to less than 10 mpy.

  1. Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R. Kruzic


    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility (Figure 1) was used in the early to mid-1960s for testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission products and fuel particles. The TCA facility, known as Corrective Action Unit 115, was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) from December 2004 to July 2005 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The SAFER process allows environmental remediation and facility closure activities (i.e., decommissioning) to occur simultaneously, provided technical decisions are made by an experienced decision maker within the site conceptual site model. Facility closure involved a seven-step decommissioning strategy. First, preliminary investigation activities were performed, including review of process knowledge documentation, targeted facility radiological and hazardous material surveys, concrete core drilling and analysis, shield wall radiological characterization, and discrete sampling, which proved to be very useful and cost-effective in subsequent decommissioning planning and execution and worker safety. Second, site setup and mobilization of equipment and personnel were completed. Third, early removal of hazardous materials, including asbestos, lead, cadmium, and oil, was performed ensuring worker safety during more invasive demolition activities. Process piping was to be verified void of contents. Electrical systems were de-energized and other systems were rendered free of residual energy. Fourth, areas of high radiological contamination were decontaminated using multiple methods. Contamination levels varied across the facility. Fixed beta/gamma contamination levels ranged up to 2 million disintegrations per minute (dpm)/100 centimeters squared (cm2) beta/gamma. Removable beta/gamma contamination levels seldom exceeded 1,000 dpm/100 cm2, but, in railroad trenches on the reactor pad containing soil on the concrete pad in front of the shield wall, the beta dose rates ranged up to 120 milli-roentgens per hour from radioactivity entrained in the soil. General area dose rates were less than 100 micro-roentgens per hour. Prior to demolition of the reactor shield wall, removable and fixed contaminated surfaces were decontaminated to the best extent possible, using traditional decontamination methods. Fifth, large sections of the remaining structures were demolished by mechanical and open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). Mechanical demolition methods included the use of conventional demolition equipment for removal of three main buildings, an exhaust stack, and a mobile shed. The 5-foot (ft), 5-inch (in.) thick, neutron-activated reinforced concrete shield was demolished by CED, which had never been performed at the NTS.

  2. Long-Term Assessment of Critical Radionuclides and Associated Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site - 13038

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jannik, G.T.; Baker, R.A.; Lee, P.L. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Eddy, T.P.; Blount, G.C. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Whitney, G.R. [US Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [US Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)


    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses and risks to the public. At SRS dose and risk assessments indicate tritium oxide in air and surface water, and Cs-137 in fish and deer have been, and continue to be, the critical radionuclides and pathways. In this assessment, statistical analyses of the long-term trends of tritium oxide in atmospheric and surface water releases and Cs-137 concentrations in fish and deer are provided. Correlations also are provided with 1) operational changes and improvements, 2) geopolitical events (Cold War cessation), and 3) recent environmental remediation projects and decommissioning of excess facilities. For example, environmental remediation of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility have resulted in a measurable impact on the tritium oxide flux to the onsite Fourmile Branch stream. Airborne releases of tritium oxide have been greatly affected by operational improvements and the end of the Cold War in 1991. However, the effects of SRS environmental remediation activities and ongoing tritium operations on tritium concentrations in the environment are measurable and documented in this assessment. Controlled hunts of deer and feral hogs are conducted at SRS for approximately six weeks each year. Before any harvested animal is released to a hunter, SRS personnel perform a field analysis for Cs-137 concentrations to ensure the Hunter's dose does not exceed the SRS administrative game limit of 0.22 milli-sievert (22 mrem). However, most of the Cs-137 found in SRS onsite deer is not from site operations but is from nuclear weapons testing fallout from the 1950's and early 1960's. This legacy source term is trended in the SRS deer, and an assessment of the 'effective' half-life of Cs-137 in deer (including the physical decay half-life and the environmental dispersion half-life) is provided. The 'creek mouth' fisherman is the next most critical pathway at SRS. On an annual basis, three species of fish (panfish, catfish, and bass) are sampled from the mouths of the five SRS streams. Three composites of up to five fish of each species are analyzed from each sampling location. Long-term trending of the Cs-137 concentrations in fish and the subsequent doses from consumption of SRS fish is provided. (authors)

  3. A Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 191 Evaluation of Buried Transuranic Waste at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. J. Shott, V. Yucel, L. Desotell


    In 1986, 21 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste was inadvertently buried in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is considered five options for management of the buried TRU waste. One option is to leave the waste in-place if the disposal can meet the requirements of Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 'Environmental Radiation Protection Standard for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes'. This paper describes analyses that assess the likelihood that TRU waste in shallow land burial can meet the 40 CFR 191 standards for a geologic repository. The simulated probability of the cumulative release exceeding 1 and 10 times the 40 CFR 191.13 containment requirements is estimated to be 0.009 and less than 0.0001, respectively. The cumulative release is most sensitive to the number of groundwater withdrawal wells drilled through the disposal trench. The mean total effective dose equivalent for a member of the public is estimated to reach a maximum of 0.014 milliSievert (mSv) at 10,000 years, or approximately 10 percent of the 0.15 mSv 40 CFR 191.15 individual protection requirement. The dose is predominantly from inhalation of short-lived Rn-222 progeny in air produced by low-level waste disposed in the same trench. The transuranic radionuclide released in greatest amounts, Pu-239, contributes only 0.4 percent of the dose. The member of public dose is most sensitive to the U-234 inventory and the radon emanation coefficient. Reasonable assurance of compliance with the Subpart C groundwater protection standard is provided by site characterization data and hydrologic processes modeling which support a conclusion of no groundwater pathway within 10,000 years. Limited quantities of transuranic waste in a shallow land burial trench at the NTS can meet the requirements of 40 CFR 191.

  4. A few nascent methods for measuring mechanical properties of the biological cell.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, Gayle Echo; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Corvalan, Carlos (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Corwin, Alex David; Campanella, Osvaldo H. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Nivens, David (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Werely, Steven (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Sumali, Anton Hartono; Koch, Steven John


    This report summarizes a survey of several new methods for obtaining mechanical and rheological properties of single biological cells, in particular: (1) The use of laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) to measure the natural vibrations of certain cells. (2) The development of a novel micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) for obtaining high-resolution force-displacement curves. (3) The use of the atomic force microscope (AFM) for cell imaging. (4) The adaptation of a novel squeezing-flow technique to micro-scale measurement. The LDV technique was used to investigate the recent finding reported by others that the membranes of certain biological cells vibrate naturally, and that the vibration can be detected clearly with recent instrumentation. The LDV has been reported to detect motions of certain biological cells indirectly through the motion of a probe. In this project, trials on Saccharomyces cerevisiae tested and rejected the hypothesis that the LDV could measure vibrations of the cell membranes directly. The MEMS investigated in the second technique is a polysilicon surface-micromachined force sensor that is able to measure forces to a few pN in both air and water. The simple device consists of compliant springs with force constants as low as 0.3 milliN/m and Moire patterns for nanometer-scale optical displacement measurement. Fields from an electromagnet created forces on magnetic micro beads glued to the force sensors. These forces were measured and agreed well with finite element prediction. It was demonstrated that the force sensor was fully functional when immersed in aqueous buffer. These results show the force sensors can be useful for calibrating magnetic forces on magnetic beads and also for direct measurement of biophysical forces on-chip. The use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) for profiling the geometry of red blood cells was the third technique investigated here. An important finding was that the method commonly used for attaching the cells to a substrate actually modified the mechanical properties of the cell membrane. Thus, the use of the method for measuring the mechanical properties of the cell may not be completely appropriate without significant modifications. The latest of the studies discussed in this report is intended to overcome the drawback of the AFM as a means of measuring mechanical and rheological properties. The squeezing-flow AFM technique utilizes two parallel plates, one stationary and the other attached to an AFM probe. Instead of using static force-displacement curves, the technique takes advantage of frequency response functions from force to velocity. The technique appears to be quite promising for obtaining dynamic properties. More research is required to develop this technique.

  5. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, Ady


    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high charge state phosphorus and antimony could have resulted in a lower power consumption of 30 kW/implanter) for the following reasons (which were discovered after R&D completion): record output of high charge state phosphorous would have thermally damage wafers; record high charge state of antimony requires tool (ion implanting machine in ion implantation jargon) modification, which did not make economic sense due to the small number of users. Nevertheless, BNL has benefited from advances in high-charge state ion generation, due to high charge state ions need for RHIC preinjection. High fraction boron ion was delivered to PVI client Axcelis for retrofit and implantation testing; the source could have reduced beam preinjector power consumption by a factor of 3.5. But, since the source generated some lithium (though in miniscule amounts); last minute decision was made not to employ the source in implanters. R&D of novel transport and gasless plasmaless deceleration, as well as decaborane molecular ion source to mitigate space charge problems in low energy shallow ion implantation was also conducted though results were not yet ready for commercialization. Future work should be focused on gasless plasmaless transport and deceleration as well as on molecular ions due to their significance to low energy, shallow implantation; which is the last frontier of ion implantation. To summarize the significant accomplishments: 1. Record steady state output currents of high charge state phosphorous, P, ions in particle milli-Ampere: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA). 2. Record steady state output currents of high charge state antimony, Sb, ions in particle milli-Ampere: Sb{sup 3+} (16.2 pmA), Sb{sup 4+} (7.6 pmA), Sb{sup 5+} (3.3 pmA), and Sb{sup 6+} (2.2 pmA). 3. 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art) from a Calutron-Bemas ion source. These accomplishments have the potential of benefiting the semiconductor manufacturing industry by lowering power consumption by as much as 30 kW per ion implanter. Major problem w

  6. Raman Investigation of The Uranium Compounds U3O8, UF4, UH3 and UO3 under Pressure at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipp, M J; Jenei, Z; Park-Klepeis, J; Evans, W J


    Our current state-of-the-art X-ray diffraction experiments are primarily sensitive to the position of the uranium atom. While the uranium - low-Z element bond (such as U-H or U-F) changes under pressure and temperature the X-ray diffraction investigations do not reveal information about the bonding or the stoichiometry. Questions that can be answered by Raman spectroscopy are (i) whether the bonding strength changes under pressure, as observed by either blue- or red-shifted peaks of the Raman active bands in the spectrum and (ii) whether the low-Z element will eventually be liberated and leave the host lattice, i.e. do the fluorine, oxygen, or hydrogen atoms form dimers after breaking the bond to the uranium atom. Therefore Raman spectra were also collected in the range where those decomposition products would appear. Raman is particularly well suited to these types of investigations due to its sensitivity to trace amounts of materials. One challenge for Raman investigations of the uranium compounds is that they are opaque to visible light. They absorb the incoming radiation and quickly heat up to the point of decomposition. This has been dealt with in the past by keeping the incoming laser power to very low levels on the tens of milliWatt range consequently affecting signal to noise. Recent modern investigations also used very small laser spot sizes (micrometer range) but ran again into the problem of heating and chemical sensitivity to the environment. In the studies presented here (in contrast to all other studies that were performed at ambient conditions only) we employ micro-Raman spectroscopy of samples situated in a diamond anvil cell. This increases the trustworthiness of the obtained data in several key-aspects: (a) We surrounded the samples in the DAC with neon as a pressure transmitting medium, a noble gas that is absolutely chemically inert. (b) Through the medium the sample is thermally heat sunk to the diamond anvils, diamond of course possessing the very best heat conductivity of any material. Therefore local heating and decomposition are avoided, a big challenge with other approaches casting doubts on their results. (c) This in turn benefits the signal/noise ratio tremendously since the Raman features of uranium-compounds are very small. The placement of the samples in DACs allows for higher laser powers to impinge on the sample spot while keeping the spot-size larger than in previous studies and keep the samples from heating up. Raman spectroscopy is a very sensitive non-invasive technique and we will show that it is even possible to distinguish the materials by their origin / manufacturer as we have studied samples from Cameco (Canada) and IBI-Labs (US-Florida) and can compare with ambient literature data for samples from Strem (US-MA) and Areva (Pierrelatte, France).

  7. Real-time Molecular Study of Bystander Effects of Low dose Low LET radiation Using Living Cell Imaging and Nanoparticale Optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natarajan, Mohan [UT Health Science Center at San Antonio; Xu, Nancy R [Old Dominion University; Mohan, Sumathy [UT Health Science Center at San Antonio


    In this study two novel approaches are proposed to investigate precisely the low dose low LET radiation damage and its effect on bystander cells in real time. First, a flow shear model system, which would provide us a near in vivo situation where endothelial cells in the presence of extra cellular matrix experiencing continuous flow shear stress, will be used. Endothelial cells on matri-gel (simulated extra cellular matrix) will be subjected to physiological flow shear (that occurs in normal blood vessels). Second, a unique tool (Single nano particle/single live cell/single molecule microscopy and spectroscopy; Figure A) will be used to track the molecular trafficking by single live cell imaging. Single molecule chemical microscopy allows one to single out and study rare events that otherwise might be lost in assembled average measurement, and monitor many target single molecules simultaneously in real-time. Multi color single novel metal nanoparticle probes allow one to prepare multicolor probes (Figure B) to monitor many single components (events) simultaneously and perform multi-complex analysis in real-time. These nano-particles resist to photo bleaching and hence serve as probes for unlimited timeframe of analysis. Single live cell microscopy allows one to image many single cells simultaneously in real-time. With the combination of these unique tools, we will be able to study under near-physiological conditions the cellular and sub-cellular responses (even subtle changes at one molecule level) to low and very low doses of low LET radiation in real time (milli-second or nano-second) at sub-10 nanometer spatial resolution. This would allow us to precisely identify, at least in part, the molecular mediators that are responsible of radiation damage in the irradiated cells and the mediators that are responsible for initiating the signaling in the neighboring cells. Endothelial cells subjected to flow shear (2 dynes/cm2 or 16 dynes/cm2) and exposed to 0.1, 1 and 10 cGy on coverslips will be examined for (a) low LET radiation-induced alterations of cellular function and its physiological relevance in real time; and (b) radiation damage triggered bystander effect on the neighboring unirradiated cells. First, to determine the low LET radiation induced alteration of cellular function we will examine: (i) the real time transformation of single membrane transporters in single living cells; (ii) the pump efficiency of membrane efflux pump of live cells in real time at the molecular level; (iii) the kinetics of single-ligand receptor interaction on single live cell surface (Figure C); and (iv) alteration in chromosome replication in living cell. Second, to study the radiation triggered bystander responses, we will examine one of the key signaling pathway i.e. TNF- alpha/NF-kappa B mediated signaling. TNF-alpha specific nano particle sensors (green) will be developed to detect the releasing dynamics, transport mechanisms and ligand-receptor binding on live cell surface in real time. A second sensor (blue) will be developed to simultaneously monitor the track of NF-kB inside the cell. The proposed nano-particle optics approach would complement our DOE funded study on biochemical mechanisms of TNF-alpha- NF-kappa B-mediated bystander effect.

  8. It Just Keeps Getting Better-Tru Waste Inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lott, S.; Crawford, B.; McInroy, W.; Van Soest, G.; McTaggart, J.; Guerin, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory-Carlsbad Operations, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Patterson, R. [U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad, Field Office, Carlsbad, NM (United States)


    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) opened on March 26, 1999, becoming the nation's first deep geologic repository for the permanent disposal of defense-generated transuranic (TRU) waste. In May 1998, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified WIPP and re-certified WIPP in March 2006. The knowledge of TRU waste inventory is fundamental to packaging, transportation, disposal strategies, resource allocation, and is also imperative when working in a regulatory framework. TRU waste inventory data are used to define the waste that will fill the WIPP repository in terms of volume, radionuclides, waste material parameters, other chemical components, and to model the impact of the waste on the performance of the WIPP over a 10,000-year evolution. The data that pertain to TRU waste is defined in the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA), as '..waste containing more that 100 nanocuries of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste, with half-lives greater than 20 years..' Defining TRU waste further, the wastes are classified as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH) TRU waste, depending on the dose rate at the surface of the waste container. CH TRU wastes are packaged with an external surface dose rate not greater than 200 milli-rem (mrem) per hour, while RH TRU wastes are packaged with an external surface dose rate of 200 mrem per hour or greater. The Los Alamos National Laboratory-Carlsbad Operations (LANL-CO) Inventory Team has developed a powerful new database, the Comprehensive Inventory Database (CID), to maintain the TRU waste inventory information. The CID is intended to replace the Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Database (TWBID), Revision 2.1, as the central inventory information repository for tracking all existing and potential (TRU) waste generated across the Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste complex. It is also the source for information submitted for the Annual TRU Waste Inventory Reports some of which will be used in future Compliance Re-certification Applications (CRAs) for the WIPP. Currently, the DOE is preparing for the second re-certification, CRA-2009. The CID contains comprehensive TRU waste inventory that is consistent, relevant, and easily accessible to support DOE needs, not only the CRAs and performance assessments, but also waste management planning activities and other regulatory needs (e.g., National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analyses). The comprehensive inventory contains information obtained via inventory updates and approved acceptable knowledge (AK) characterization information to ensure inventory data integrity is maintained and the inventory is current. The TRU waste inventory is maintained in the CID under configuration management as defined in the LANL-CO Quality Assurance Program. The CID was developed using Microsoft{sup TM} Access Data Project{sup TM} (ADP) technology with a Microsoft SQL Server{sup TM} back end. The CID is user friendly, contains more fields, provides for easy upload of data, and has the capability to generate fully qualified data reports. To go along with the new database, the LANL-CO Inventory Team has developed an improved data collection/screening process and has excellent communications with the TRU waste site personnel. WIPP has now received over 6,000 shipments, emplaced over 50,000 cubic meters of CH waste, and successfully completed one re-certification. With a new robust qualified database, the CID, to maintain the inventory information, the TRU waste inventory information is continuously improving in quality, accuracy, and usability (better). (authors)