Sample records for danisco cellulosic ethanol

  1. DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale,South, New Jersey: EnergyDrewDrillingProject (2)Danisco

  2. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale SustainableHydrogen Batteries Nuclear By Lee Lynd, Dartmouth EthanolEthanol, ethyl alcohol, fermentation ethanol, or just “

  3. Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery Groundbreaking Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery Groundbreaking October...

  4. Research Advances Cellulosic Ethanol, NREL Leads the Way (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brochure highlights NREL's recent advances in cellulosic ethanol production. Research at NREL addresses both biochemical and thermochemical processes.

  5. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EthanolOf Cellulose And Production Of Ethanol I Charles R. WilkeCELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of U.S.

  6. What is (and is not) vital to advancing cellulosic ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    to many, the uniqueness of cellu- losic ethanol as a sustainable, liquid transportation fuel, which canWhat is (and is not) vital to advancing cellulosic ethanol Charles E. Wyman Chemical of Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92506, USA Ethanol made biologically from cellulosic

  7. NREL Proves Cellulosic Ethanol Can Be Cost Competitive (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol from non-food sources - known as "cellulosic ethanol" - is a near-perfect transportation fuel: it is clean, domestic, abundant, and renewable, and it can potentially replace 30% of the petroleum consumed in the United States, but its relatively high cost has limited its market. That changed in 2012, when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) demonstrated the technical advances needed to produce cellulosic ethanol at a minimum ethanol selling price of $2.15/gallon (in 2007 dollars). Through a multi-year research project involving private industry, NREL has proven that cellulosic ethanol can be cost competitive with other transportation fuels.

  8. What is the Viability of Cellulosic Ethanol as an Alternative to Fossil Fuels in today's Economy?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    mandates for cellulosic ethanol production, spurring an increase in bioethanol companies looking to profit

  9. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    key to unlocking low-cost cellulosic ethanol. 2(1):26-40.1995 19941216. Commercial ethanol production process.facility and commercial ethanol production process.

  10. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Charles R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    13 Javier Perez I II. ETHANOL FERMENTATION STUDIES A. B.Development Studies of Ethanol Production--------------- 19of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol." (June 1979) and (b)

  11. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Charles R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    60,700 ETHANOL RECOVERY Dist. Column CondenserF2 Steam Exchanger Ethanol Absorber 10 ft. diameter. 38Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," Progress Report, LBL-

  12. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BIOCONVERSION TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL BERKELEY PROGRAM--JulyXylose Fermentation to Ethanol (a) (b) Fusarium oxysporum (OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of

  13. Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production from cellulose by an engineered yeast consortium displaying a functional mini-cellulosome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Garima; Tsai, Shen-Long; Madan, Bhawna; DaSilva, Nancy A; Chen, Wilfred

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulase, clostridia, and ethanol. Microbiol Mol Biol RevNext- generation cellulosic ethanol technologies and theirProduction of cellulosic ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  14. Life cycle analysis of hybrid poplar trees for cellulosic ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jessica J

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this paper is to assess the energy and environmental benefits of cultivating hybrid poplars as a biomass crop for cellulosic ethanol. A "Life Cycle Assessment" (LCA) methodology is used to systematically ...

  15. Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuzens, J.E.

    1997-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

  16. ZeaChem Pilot Project: High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ZeaChem Pilot Project: High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol Process Using High-Impact Feedstock for Commercialization ZeaChem Pilot Project: High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol...

  17. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of22 Mohammad Riaz ETHANOL FERMENTATION STUDIES II I. A. B.Hydrolyzates to Ethanol J2 Ren-Der Yang

  18. EA-1694: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee to Highlands Ethanol, LLC, for the Cellulosic Ethanol Facility in Highlands County, Florida

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to issue a Federal loan guarantee to Highlands Ethanol, LLC, for a cellulosic ethanol facility in Highlands County, Florida. This EA is on hold.

  19. Method for producing ethanol and co-products from cellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to processes for production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention also relates to production of various co-products of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention further relates to improvements in one or more aspects of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass including, for example, improved methods for cleaning biomass feedstocks, improved acid impregnation, and improved steam treatment, or "steam explosion."

  20. Fair Oaks Dairy Farms Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Review Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Wold; Robert Divers

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    At Fair Oaks Dairy, dried manure solids (''DMS'') are currently used as a low value compost. United Power was engaged to evaluate the feasibility of processing these DMS into ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. The Fair Oaks Dairy group is transitioning their traditional ''manure to methane'' mesophilic anaerobic digester platform to an integrated bio-refinery centered upon thermophilic digestion. Presently, the Digested Manure Solids (DMS) are used as a low value soil amendment (compost). United Power evaluated the feasibility of processing DMS into higher value ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. DMS was analyzed and over 100 potential technology providers were reviewed and evaluated. DMS contains enough carbon to be suitable as a biomass feedstock for conversion into ethanol by gasification technology, or as part of a conversion process that would include combined heat and power. In the first process, 100% of the feedstock is converted into ethanol. In the second process, the feedstock is combusted to provide heat to generate electrical power supporting other processes. Of the 100 technology vendors evaluated, a short list of nine technology providers was developed. From this, two vendors were selected as finalists (one was an enzymatic platform and one was a gasification platform). Their selection was based upon the technical feasibility of their systems, engineering expertise, experience in commercial or pilot scale operations, the ability or willingness to integrate the system into the Fair Oaks Biorefinery, the know-how or experience in producing bio-ethanol, and a clear path to commercial development.

  1. Cellulosic Biomass Feedstocks and Logistics for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Kevin L. Kenney

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The economic competitiveness of cellulosic ethanol production is highly dependent on feedstock cost, which constitutes 35–50% of the total ethanol production cost, depending on various geographical factors and the types of systems used for harvesting, collecting, preprocessing, transporting, and handling the material. Consequently, as the deployment of cellulosic ethanol biorefi neries approaches, feedstock cost and availability are the driving factors that infl uence pioneer biorefi nery locations and will largely control the rate at which this industry grows. Initial scenarios were postulated to develop a pioneer dry feedstock supply system design case as a demonstration of the current state of technology. Based on this pioneer design, advanced scenarios were developed to determine key cost barriers, needed supply system improvements, and technology advancements to achieve government and private sector cost targets. Analysis of the pioneer supply system resulted in a delivered feedstock cost to the throat of the pretreatment reactor of $37.00 per dry tonne (2002 $). Pioneer supply systems will start by using current infrastructure and technologies and be individually designed for biorefi neries using specifi c feedstock types and varieties based on local geographic conditions. As the industry develops and cost barriers are addressed, the supply systems will incorporate advanced technologies that will eliminate downstream diversity and provide a uniform, tailored feedstock for multiple biorefi neries located in different regions.

  2. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    number = just monomers . Refinery for Cellulosic Biomass tofrom biomass through cellulosic refinery concept that could

  3. Cellulosic Ethanol Technology on Track to Being Competitive With Other Transportation Fuels (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have been driving down the cost of cellulosic ethanol and overcoming the technical challenges that surround it-major milestones toward the Department of Energy (DOE) goal of making cellulosic ethanol cost-competitive by 2012.

  4. Study of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose for Production of Fuel Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Study of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose for Production of Fuel Ethanol by the Simultaneous to ethanol, a promising alternative fuel, can be carried out efficiently and economically using are presented in light of the impact of enzymatic hydrolysis on fuel ethanol production. Key words: enzymatic

  5. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and ferment all sugars Ethanol recovery Fuel ethanol Residuecellulosic ethanol that is competitive as a pure fuel •Fuels Ocean/ hydro Geothermal Transportation Electricity Hydrogen Batteries Nuclear By Lee Lynd, Dartmouth Ethanol

  6. A Probabilistic Inventory Analysis of Biomass for the State of Texas for Cellulosic Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleinser, Matthew A.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Agricultural and forestry wastes for the use of creating cellulosic ethanol were inventoried for each county in Texas. A simple forecast was created for each of the agricultural wastes and then a multivariate empirical distribution was used...

  7. Kinetic Modeling of Cellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Via Simultaneous Saccharification and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    ARTICLE Kinetic Modeling of Cellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Via Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation: Part II. Experimental Validation Using Waste Paper Sludge and Anticipation of CFD AnalysisScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/bit.22047 ABSTRACT: A kinetic model of cellulosic biomass

  8. Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling price of $1.33 for the 2012 goal case process as reported in the 2007 State of Technology Model (NREL 2008). Hence, pyrolysis oil does not appear to be an economically attractive product in this scenario. Further research regarding fast pyrolysis of raw lignin from a cellulosic plant as an end product is not recommended. Other processes, such as high-pressure liquefaction or wet gasification, and higher value products, such as gasoline and diesel from fast pyrolysis oil should be considered in future studies.

  9. Physical Energy Accounting in California: A Case Study of Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie; Fridley, David

    2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    California's target for greenhouse gas reduction in part relies on the development of viable low-carbon fuel alternatives to gasoline. It is often assumed that cellulosic ethanol--ethanol made from the structural parts of a plant and not from the food parts--will be one of these alternatives. This study examines the physical viability of a switchgrass-based cellulosic ethanol industry in California from the point of view of the physical requirements of land, water, energy and other material use. Starting from a scenario in which existing irrigated pastureland and fiber-crop land is converted to switchgrass production, the analysis determines the total acreage and water supply available and the resulting total biofuel feedstock output under different assumed yields. The number and location of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries that can be supported is also determined, assuming that the distance from field to biorefinery would be minimized. The biorefinery energy input requirement, available energy from the fraction of biomass not converted to ethanol, and energy output is calculated at various levels of ethanol yields, making different assumptions about process efficiencies. The analysis shows that there is insufficient biomass (after cellulose separation and fermentation into ethanol) to provide all the process energy needed to run the biorefinery; hence, the purchase of external energy such as natural gas is required to produce ethanol from switchgrass. The higher the yield of ethanol, the more external energy is needed, so that the net gains due to improved process efficiency may not be positive. On 2.7 million acres of land planted in switchgrass in this scenario, the switchgrass outputproduces enough ethanol to substitute for only 1.2 to 4.0percent of California's gasoline consumption in 2007.

  10. Process Design of Wastewater Treatment for the NREL Cellulosic Ethanol Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinwinder, T.; Gill, E.; Gerhardt, M.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a preliminary process design for treating the wastewater from NREL's cellulosic ethanol production process to quality levels required for recycle. In this report Brown and Caldwell report on three main tasks: 1) characterization of the effluent from NREL's ammonia-conditioned hydrolyzate fermentation process; 2) development of the wastewater treatment process design; and 3) development of a capital and operational cost estimate for the treatment concept option. This wastewater treatment design was incorporated into NREL's cellulosic ethanol process design update published in May 2011 (NREL/TP-5100-47764).

  11. A Probabilistic Inventory Analysis of Biomass for the State of Texas for Cellulosic Ethanol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleinser, Matthew A.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    to simulate the range of biomass available by county and district. The probability that a district could support a 25, 50, 75, or 100 million gallon cellulosic ethanol plant is estimated from the Monte Carlo simulation results. Biomass in Texas is concentrated...

  12. Understanding the Growth of the Cellulosic Ethanol Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandor, D.; Wallace, R.; Peterson, S.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies, outlines, and documents a set of plausible scenarios for producing significant quantities of lignocellulosic ethanol in 2017. These scenarios can provide guidance for setting government policy and targeting government investment to the areas with greatest potential impact.

  13. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    improve technology and reduce costs • In response to recentuses and to advance technologies to reduce costs Basis of MyEthanol • Operating costs are low • Technology is ready to

  14. Integration of Feedstock Assembly System and Cellulosic Ethanol Conversion Models to Analyze Bioenergy System Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jared M. Abodeely; Douglas S. McCorkle; Kenneth M. Bryden; David J. Muth; Daniel Wendt; Kevin Kenney

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research barriers continue to exist in all phases of the emerging cellulosic ethanol biorefining industry. These barriers include the identification and development of a sustainable and abundant biomass feedstock, the assembly of viable assembly systems formatting the feedstock and moving it from the field (e.g., the forest) to the biorefinery, and improving conversion technologies. Each of these phases of cellulosic ethanol production are fundamentally connected, but computational tools used to support and inform analysis within each phase remain largely disparate. This paper discusses the integration of a feedstock assembly system modeling toolkit and an Aspen Plus® conversion process model. Many important biomass feedstock characteristics, such as composition, moisture, particle size and distribution, ash content, etc. are impacted and most effectively managed within the assembly system, but generally come at an economic cost. This integration of the assembly system and the conversion process modeling tools will facilitate a seamless investigation of the assembly system conversion process interface. Through the integrated framework, the user can design the assembly system for a particular biorefinery by specifying location, feedstock, equipment, and unit operation specifications. The assembly system modeling toolkit then provides economic valuation, and detailed biomass feedstock composition and formatting information. This data is seamlessly and dynamically used to run the Aspen Plus® conversion process model. The model can then be used to investigate the design of systems for cellulosic ethanol production from field to final product.

  15. STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY DANISCO U.S. INC. (f/k...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in the United Kingdom that will be owned equally and will be granted licenses from each joint venture partner. Specifically, Danisco will license certain rights to use its waived...

  16. Breaking the Biological barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A Joint Research Agenda

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Alton, Anita Jean [ORNL; Andrews, Shirley H [ORNL; Bownas, Jennifer Lynn [ORNL; Casey, Denise [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL; Mills, Marissa [ORNL; Nylander, Kim [ORNL; Wyrick, Judy M [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A robust fusion of the agricultural, industrial biotechnology, and energy industries can create a new strategic national capability for energy independence and climate protection. In his State of the Union Address (Bush 2006), President George W. Bush outlined the Advanced Energy Initiative, which seeks to reduce our national dependence on imported oil by accelerating the development of domestic, renewable alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuels. The president has set a national goal of developing cleaner, cheaper, and more reliable alternative energy sources to substantially replace oil imports in the coming years. Fuels derived from cellulosic biomass - the fibrous, woody, and generally inedible portions of plant matter - offer one such alternative to conventional energy sources that can dramatically impact national economic growth, national energy security, and environmental goals. Cellulosic biomass is an attractive energy feedstock because it is an abundant, domestic, renewable source that can be converted to liquid transportation fuels. These fuels can be used readily by current-generation vehicles and distributed through the existing transportation-fuel infrastructure. The Biomass to Biofuels Workshop, held December 7-9, 2005, was convened by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the Office of Science; and the Office of the Biomass Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The purpose was to define barriers and challenges to a rapid expansion of cellulosic-ethanol production and determine ways to speed solutions through concerted application of modern biology tools as part of a joint research agenda. Although the focus was ethanol, the science applies to additional fuels that include biodiesel and other bioproducts or coproducts having critical roles in any deployment scheme. The core barrier is cellulosic-biomass recalcitrance to processing to ethanol. Biomass is composed of nature's most ready energy source, sugars, but they are locked in a complex polymer composite exquisitely created to resist biological and chemical degradation. Key to energizing a new biofuel industry based on conversion of cellulose (and hemicelluloses) to ethanol is to understand plant cell-wall chemical and physical structures - how they are synthesized and can be deconstructed. With this knowledge, innovative energy crops - plants specifically designed for industrial processing to biofuel - can be developed concurrently with new biology-based treatment and conversion methods. Recent advances in science and technological capabilities, especially those from the nascent discipline of systems biology, promise to accelerate and enhance this development. Resulting technologies will create a fundamentally new process and biorefinery paradigm that will enable an efficient and economic industry for converting plant biomass to liquid fuels. These key barriers and suggested research strategies to address them are described in this report. As technologies mature for accomplishing this task, the technical strategy proceeds through three phases: In the research phase, within 5 years, an understanding of existing feedstocks must be gained to devise sustainable, effective, and economical methods for their harvest, deconstruction, and conversion to ethanol. Research is centered on enzymatic breakdown of cellulosic biomass to component 5- and 6-carbon sugars and lignin, using a combination of thermochemical and biological processes, followed by cofermentation of sugars to specified endproducts such as ethanol. Processes will be integrated and consolidated to reduce costs, improve efficacy, reduce generation of and sensitivity to inhibitors, and improve overall yields and viability in biorefinery environments. The technology deployment phase, within 10 years, will include creation of a new generation of energy crops with enhanced sustainability, yield, and composition, coupled with processes for simultaneous breakdown of biomass to sugars and cofermentation of sugars via new biological system

  17. A pilot plant scale reactor/separator for ethanol from cellulosics. ERIP/DOE quarterly report no. 3 and 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, M.C.; Moelhman, M.; Butters, R.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a continuous, low energy process for the conversion of cellulosics to ethanol. This process involves a pretreatment step followed by enzymatic release of sugars and the consecutive simultaneous saccharification/fermentation (SSF) of cellulose (glucans) followed by hemi-cellulose (pentosans) in a multi-stage continuous stirred reactor separator (CSRS). During quarters 3 and 4, we have completed a literature survey on cellulase production, activated one strain of Trichoderma reesei. We continued developing our proprietary Steep Delignification (SD) process for biomass pretreatment. Some problems with fermentations were traces to bad cellulase enzyme. Using commercial cellulase enzymes from Solvay & Genecor, SSF experiments with wheat straw showed 41 g/L ethanol and free xylose of 20 g/L after completion of the fermentation. From corn stover, we noted 36 g/L ethanol production from the cellulose fraction of the biomass, and 4 g/L free xylose at the completion of the SSF. We also began some work with paper mill sludge as a cellulose source, and in some preliminary experiments obtained 23 g/L ethanol during SSF of the sludge. During year 2, a 130 L process scale unit will be operated to demonstrate the process using straw or cornstalks. Co-sponsors of this project include the Indiana Biomass Grants Program, Bio-Process Innovation.

  18. Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derr, Dan

    2013-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

  19. Combined enzyme mediated fermentation of cellulose and xylose to ethanol by Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cellulase, [beta]-glucosidase, and xylose isomerase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lastick, S.M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Tucker, M.P.; Grohmann, K.

    1994-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing ethanol from mixed sugar streams from pretreated biomass comprising xylose and cellulose using enzymes to convert these substrates to fermentable sugars; selecting and isolating a yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe ATCC No. 2476, having the ability to ferment these sugars as they are being formed to produce ethanol; loading the substrates with the fermentation mix composed of yeast, enzymes and substrates; fermenting the loaded substrates and enzymes under anaerobic conditions at a pH range of between about 5.0 to about 6.0 and at a temperature range of between about 35 C to about 40 C until the fermentation is completed, the xylose being isomerized to xylulose, the cellulose being converted to glucose, and these sugars being concurrently converted to ethanol by yeast through means of the anaerobic fermentation; and recovering the ethanol. 2 figures.

  20. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biochemical Scenarios for Production of Cellulosic Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazi, F. K.; Fortman, J.; Anex, R.; Kothandaraman, G.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Dutta, A.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A techno-economic analysis on the production of cellulosic ethanol by fermentation was conducted to understand the viability of liquid biofuel production processes within the next 5-8 years. Initially, 35 technologies were reviewed, then a two-step down selection was performed to choose scenarios to be evaluated in a more detailed economic analysis. The lignocellulosic ethanol process was selected because it is well studied and portions of the process have been tested at pilot scales. Seven process variations were selected and examined in detail. Process designs were constrained to public data published in 2007 or earlier, without projecting for future process improvements. Economic analysis was performed for an 'nth plant' (mature technology) to obtain total investment and product value (PV). Sensitivity analysis was performed on PV to assess the impact of variations in process and economic parameters. Results show that the modeled dilute acid pretreatment process without any downstream process variation had the lowest PV of $3.40/gal of ethanol ($5.15/gallon of gasoline equivalent) in 2007 dollars. Sensitivity analysis shows that PV is most sensitive to feedstock and enzyme costs.

  1. PILOT PLANT STUDIES OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5 EthanolBazua, D.C. and C.R. Wilke, "Ethanol Effects on the Kineticsto the Production of Ethanol, LBL-5963. (Submitted to

  2. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1982 19801205. Ethanol and fuel product production.The first generation fuel ethanol is derived from starch andfor bioconversion to fuel ethanol because it not only

  3. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yongchao [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Liao, James C [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to significantly alter the mixture of fermentation products. The initial application of this system successfully engineered a strain with high ethanol productivity from complex biomass substrates.

  4. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    e.g. waste water treatment, solid waste combustion) weretreatments. Results and Discussions Cellulosic MSW Feedstocks Municipal solid waste (

  5. Novel Biomass Conversion Process Results in Commercial Joint Venture; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet describing DuPont/NREL cooperative research and development agreement that resulted in biomass-to-ethanol conversion process used as a basis for DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol, LLC and cellulosic ethanol demonstration plant.

  6. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    process streams. Handb. Bioethanol:395-415. 10. Ehrman T.solid waste used as bioethanol sources and its relatedof cellulosic biomass into bioethanol as an alternative

  7. Application in the Ethanol Fermentation of Immobilized Yeast Cells in Matrix of Alginate/Magnetic Nanoparticles, on Chitosan-Magnetite Microparticles and Cellulose-coated Magnetic Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivanova, Viara; Hristov, Jordan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were entrapped in matrix of alginate and magnetic nanoparticles and covalently immobilized on magnetite-containing chitosan and cellulose-coated magnetic nanoparticles. Cellulose-coated magnetic nanoparticles with covalently immobilized thermostable {\\alpha}-amylase and chitosan particles with immobilized glucoamylase were also prepared. The immobilized cells and enzymes were applied in column reactors - 1/for simultaneous corn starch saccharification with the immobilized glucoamylase and production of ethanol with the entrapped or covalently immobilized yeast cells, 2/ for separate ethanol fermentation of the starch hydrolysates with the fixed yeasts. Hydrolysis of corn starch with the immobilized {\\alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase, and separate hydrolysis with the immobilized {\\alpha}-amylase were also examined. In the first reactor the ethanol yield reached approx. 91% of the theoretical; the yield was approx. 86% in the second. The ethanol fermentation was affected by the typ...

  8. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bovine serum albumin, Aspen model Introduction Overcominganalysis were conducted using Aspen Plus software based onand simulation model using Aspen, the cost of fuel ethanol

  9. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1996 19950414. Municipal solid waste processing facility andconversion of municipal-solid-waste to ethanol. Biotechnol.Bioconversion of municipal solid waste to glucose for bio-

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - asymmetric cellulose acetate Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    producing cellulosic ethanol cost competitive with corn-based ethanol by 2012 Hydrogen Vehicles... Batteries Biomass 12;Cellulosic Ethanol Pretreatment Enzymatic Hydrolysis...

  11. MN Center for Renewable Energy: Cellulosic Ethanol, Optimization of Bio-fuels in Internal Combustion Engines, & Course Development for Technicians in These Areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Frey

    2009-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report for Grant #DE-FG02-06ER64241, MN Center for Renewable Energy, will address the shared institutional work done by Minnesota State University, Mankato and Minnesota West Community and Technical College during the time period of July 1, 2006 to December 30, 2008. There was a no-cost extension request approved for the purpose of finalizing some of the work. The grant objectives broadly stated were to 1) develop educational curriculum to train technicians in wind and ethanol renewable energy, 2) determine the value of cattails as a biomass crop for production of cellulosic ethanol, and 3) research in Optimization of Bio-Fuels in Internal Combustion Engines. The funding for the MN Center for Renewable Energy was spent on specific projects related to the work of the Center.

  12. Pacific Ethanol, Inc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    facility in an existing pulp mill to demonstrate the production of cellulosic ethanol from lignocellulosic (wood) extract. CEO or Equivalent: Edward Paslawski, Chairman...

  13. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Han, J.; Haq, Z; Tyner, .W.; Wu, M.; Elgowainy, A. (Energy Systems)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam{sup 3} in 1980 to over 40.1 hm{sup 3} in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  14. The Effects of Surfactant Pretreatment and Xylooligomers on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose and Pretreated Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qing, Qing

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    demand elasticities in the US ethanol fuel market. Energygreat opportunity for producing ethanol fuel. The new energyscenario for cellulosic ethanol fuel production, and speaks

  15. Ethanol Production Tax Credit (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Qualified ethanol producers are eligible for an income tax credit of $1 per gallon of corn- or cellulosic-based ethanol that meets ASTM standard D4806. The total credit amount available for all...

  16. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007) Cellulosic ethanol: biofuel researchers prepare toBiofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial welltechnologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work

  17. A case study of agricultural residue availability and cost for a cellulosic ethanol conversion facility in the Henan province of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Erin [ORNL; Wu, Yun [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary analysis of the availability and cost of corn stover and wheat straw for the area surrounding a demonstration biorefinery in the Henan Province of China was performed as a case study of potential cooperative analyses of bioenergy feedstocks between researchers and industry in the US and China. Though limited in scope, the purpose of this analysis is to provide insight into some of the issues and challenges of estimating feedstock availability in China and how this relates to analyses of feedstocks in the U.S. Completing this analysis also highlighted the importance of improving communication between U.S. researchers and Chinese collaborators. Understanding the units and terms used in the data provided by Tianguan proved to be a significant challenge. This was further complicated by language barriers between collaborators in the U.S. and China. The Tianguan demonstration biorefinery has a current capacity of 3k tons (1 million gallons) of cellulosic ethanol per year with plans to scale up to 10k tons (3.34 million gallons) per year. Using data provided by Tianguan staff in summer of 2011, the costs and availability of corn stover and wheat straw were estimated. Currently, there are sufficient volumes of wheat straw and corn stover that are considered 'waste' and would likely be available for bioenergy in the 20-km (12-mile) region surrounding the demonstration biorefinery at a low cost. However, as the industry grows, competition for feedstock will grow and prices are likely to rise as producers demand additional compensation to fully recover costs.

  18. Cellulosic ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpenadd: China Datang Corporation TrinaCedobrasethanol Jump to:

  19. RESEARCH Open Access Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wilfred

    RESEARCH Open Access Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production from cellulose steps to their practical usage for ethanol production. Ideally, a recombinant microorganism, possessing the capability to utilize cellulose for simultaneous growth and ethanol production, is of great interest. We have

  20. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, D.I.C.; Avgerinos, G.C.

    1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15 and about 70 C and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours. 6 figs.

  1. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Daniel I. C. (Belmont, MA); Avgerinos, George C. (Newton Center, MA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15.degree. and about 70.degree. C. and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours.

  2. Mascoma Announces Major Cellulosic Biofuel Technology Breakthrough

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the flexibility to run on numerous biomass feedstocks including wood chips, tall grasses, corn stover (residual biofuels from cellulosic biomass. The company's Consolidated Bioprocessing method converts non-food biomass feedstocks #12;into cellulosic ethanol through the use of a patented process that eliminates the need

  3. RAW MATERIALS EVALUATION AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES FOR CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL C. R. Wilke, R. D. Yang,of Cellulose Conversion on Ethanol Cost. References Wilke,of Hydrolyzate to Ethanol and Single Cell Protein,"

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of low substituted carboxymethyl cellulose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chanona Dominquez, Guadalupe

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by liquid chromatography. Some of the hydrolyzates were subjected to fermentation by Saccharomyces spp. , and ethanol yields were determined by gas chromatography. Subjecting acetate grade cellulose pulp to mild carboxymethyl derivatization conditions...ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF LOW SUBSTITUTED CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE A Thesis by GUADALUPE CHANONA DOMINGUEZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

  5. UNL Researchers Determine Costs of Producing Switchgrass for Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    UNL Researchers Determine Costs of Producing Switchgrass for Ethanol By Sandi Alswager Karstens, IANR News Service On-farm cost of producing switchgrass for cellulosic ethanol averages about $60 per ethanol from switchgrass because that industry is not really born yet." Researchers offered a speculative

  6. Ethanol Can Contribute to Energy and Environmental Goals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    the potential effects of increased biofuel use, we evaluated six representative analyses of fuel ethanol that large-scale use of ethanol for fuel will almost certainly require cellulosic technology. E nergy in the future because of two federal policies: a /0.51 tax credit per gallon of ethanol used as motor fuel

  7. Chain elongation with reactor microbiomes: upgrading dilute ethanol to medium-chain carboxylates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angenent, Lars T.

    in 2011 and mandated another $60 billion liters of ethanol or ethanol-equivalent fuel by 2020 from distillation for corn and cellulosic ethanol.2,3 To circumvent fossil- fuel consumption for distillation-caproic acid. This chemical has twice the value of ethanol per carbon atom and is not only a fuel precursor

  8. Solvent-Driven Preferential Association of Lignin with Regions of Crystalline Cellulose in Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindner, Benjamin [ORNL] [ORNL; Petridis, Loukas [ORNL] [ORNL; Schulz, Roland [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The precipitation of lignin onto cellulose after pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is an obstacle to economically viable cellulosic ethanol production. Here, 750 ns nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are reported of a system of lignin and cellulose in aqueous solution. Lignin is found to strongly associate with itself and the cellulose. However, noncrystalline regions of cellulose are observed to have a lower tendency to associate with lignin than crystalline regions, and this is found to arise from stronger hydration of the noncrystalline chains. The results suggest that the recalcitrance of crystalline cellulose to hydrolysis arises not only from the inaccessibility of inner fibers but also due to the promotion of lignin adhesion.

  9. Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to digest switchgrass biomass and synthesize its sugars into gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. | Image courtesy of Berkeley Lab. Advanced Biofuels: How Scientists are...

  10. Four Cellulosic Ethanol Breakthroughs | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: FinalOffers3.pdf0-45.pdf0 Budget Fossil Energy FY 2010 Budget FossilThirdFosteringFour

  11. Project LIBERTY Biorefinery Starts Cellulosic Ethanol Production |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - TProcuring Solar forProject DevelopsDepartment of

  12. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Cellulosic Ethanol | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartmentWind Siting ArticlesAugustBETO Monthly

  13. Project LIBERTY Biorefinery Starts Cellulosic Ethanol Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 < prev next >PresentationsNow LEADER Web Conference 1

  14. Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas »ofMarketing |Prepare for| Department ofof Energy

  15. Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferApril 1, 1999InspectionsAnnualTheEnergia y Clima de las Americas ||of

  16. aqueous ethanol termodinamicheskie: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with 2-carbon distillation for corn and cellulosic ethanol.2,3 To circumvent fossil- fuel consumption for distillation Angenent, Lars T. 166 An Analysis of the Effects of...

  17. acute ethanol intoxication: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with 2-carbon distillation for corn and cellulosic ethanol.2,3 To circumvent fossil- fuel consumption for distillation Angenent, Lars T. 182 An Analysis of the Effects of...

  18. Ethanol annual report FY 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Texeira, R.H.; Goodman, B.J. (eds.)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the research progress and accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Ethanol from Biomass Program, field managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute, during FY 1990. The report includes an overview of the entire program and summaries of individual research projects. These projects are grouped into the following subject areas: technoeconomic analysis; pretreatment; cellulose conversion; xylose fermentation; and lignin conversion. Individual papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  19. Microbiology and physiology of anaerobic fermentations of cellulose. Progress report, September 1, 1979-May 15, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peck, H.D. Jr.; Ljungdahl, L.G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reseach progress is reported for the period September, 1979 to May, 1980. Studies on the mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms fermenting cellulose to various products (ethanol, acetate, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/, and methane) are summarized. (ACR)

  20. EA-1705: Construction and Operation of a Proposed Cellulosic Biorefinery, Mascoma Corporation, Kinross Charter Township, Michigan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The frontier Project consists of the design, construction and operation of a biorefinery producing ethanol and other co-products from cellulosic materials utilizing a proprietary pretreatment and fermentation process.

  1. ORIGINAL PAPER Reactor scale up for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    ORIGINAL PAPER Reactor scale up for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol Xiongjun scale-up approach for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to com- modity products of large scale bioreactors based on bench scale experimentation. Keywords CFD Á SSF Á Scale up Á Solids

  2. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  3. Regenerating cellulose from ionic liquids for an accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Hua [Savannah State University; Jones, Cecil L [Savannah State University; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Xia, Shuqian [Tianjin University, Tianjin, China; Olubajo, Olarongbe [Savannah State University; Person, Vernecia [Savannah State University

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic materials into fuel ethanol has become a research priority in producing affordable and renewable energy. The pretreatment of lignocelluloses is known to be key to the fast enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Recently, certain ionic liquids (ILs)were found capable of dissolving more than 10 wt% cellulose. Preliminary investigations [Dadi, A.P., Varanasi, S., Schall, C.A., 2006. Enhancement of cellulose saccharification kinetics using an ionic liquid pretreatment step. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 95, 904 910; Liu, L., Chen, H., 2006. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose materials treated with ionic liquid [BMIM]Cl. Chin. Sci. Bull. 51, 2432 2436; Dadi, A.P., Schall, C.A., Varanasi, S., 2007. Mitigation of cellulose recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis by ionic liquid pretreatment. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 137 140, 407 421] suggest that celluloses regenerated from IL solutions are subject to faster saccharification than untreated substrates. These encouraging results offer the possibility of using ILs as alternative and nonvolatile solvents for cellulose pretreatment. However, these studies are limited to two chloride-based ILs: (a) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), which is a corrosive, toxic and extremely hygroscopic solid (m.p. 70 C), and (b) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl), which is viscous and has a reactive side-chain. Therefore, more in-depth research involving other ILs is much needed to explore this promising pretreatment route. For this reason, we studied a number of chloride- and acetate-based ILs for cellulose regeneration, including several ILs newly developed in our laboratory. This will enable us to select inexpensive, efficient and environmentally benign solvents for processing cellulosic biomass. Our data confirm that all regenerated celluloses are less crystalline (58 75% lower) and more accessible to cellulase (>2 times) than untreated substrates. As a result, regenerated Avicel cellulose, filter paper and cottonwere hydrolyzed 2 10 times faster than the respective untreated celluloses. A complete hydrolysis of Avicel cellulose could be achieved in 6 h given the Trichoderma reesei cellulase/substrate ratio (w/w) of 3:20 at 50 C. In addition,we observed that cellulase is more thermally stable (up to 60 C) in the presence of regenerated cellulose. Furthermore, our systematic studies suggest that the presence of various ILs during the hydrolysis induced different degrees of cellulase inactivation. Therefore, a thorough removal of IL residues after cellulose regeneration is highly recommended, and a systematic investigation on this subject is much needed.

  4. The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yao; Stipanovic, Arthur J [SUNY-ESF; Winter, William T. [SUNY-ESF; Wilson, David B.; Kim, Young-Jun

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Consistent with the US-DOE and USDA "Roadmap" objective of producing ethanol and chemicals from cellulosic feedstocks more efficiently, a three year research project entitled "The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases" was initiated in early 2003 under DOE sponsorship (Project Number DE-FG02-02ER15356). A three year continuation was awarded in June 2005 for the period September 15, 2005 through September 14, 2008. The original goal of this project was to determine the effect of cellulose crystal structure, including allomorphic crystalline form (Cellulose I, II, III, IV and sub-allomorphs), relative degree of crystallinity and crystallite size, on the activity of different types of genetically engineered cellulase enzymes to provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose digestion by "pure" enzymes rather than complex mixtures. We expected that such information would ultimately help enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymatic conversion processes thereby creating a more cost-effective commercial process yielding sugars for fermentation into ethanol and other chemical products. Perhaps the most significant finding of the initial project phase was that conversion of native bacterial cellulose (Cellulose I; BC-I) to the Cellulose II (BC-II) crystal form by aqueous NaOH "pretreatment" provided an increase in cellulase conversion rate approaching 2-4 fold depending on enzyme concentration and temperature, even when initial % crystallinity values were similar for both allomorphs.

  5. The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stipanovic, Arthur J [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Consistent with the US-DOE and USDA “Roadmap” objective of producing ethanol and chemicals from cellulosic feedstocks more efficiently, a three year research project entitled “The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases” was initiated in early 2003 under DOE sponsorship (Project Number DE-FG02-02ER15356). A three year continuation was awarded in June 2005 for the period September 15, 2005 through September 14, 2008. The original goal of this project was to determine the effect of cellulose crystal structure, including allomorphic crystalline form (Cellulose I, II, III, IV and sub-allomorphs), relative degree of crystallinity and crystallite size, on the activity of different types of genetically engineered cellulase enzymes to provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose digestion by “pure” enzymes rather than complex mixtures. We expected that such information would ultimately help enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymatic conversion processes thereby creating a more cost-effective commercial process yielding sugars for fermentation into ethanol and other chemical products. Perhaps the most significant finding of the initial project phase was that conversion of native bacterial cellulose (Cellulose I; BC-I) to the Cellulose II (BC-II) crystal form by aqueous NaOH “pretreatment” provided an increase in cellulase conversion rate approaching 2-4 fold depending on enzyme concentration and temperature, even when initial % crystallinity values were similar for both allomorphs.

  6. Technical Support to SBIR Phase II Project: Improved Conversion of Cellulose Waste to Ethanol Using a Dual Bioreactor System: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-310

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, M.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over-dependence on fossil fuel has spurred research on alternative energy. Inedible plant materials such as grass and corn stover represent abundant renewable natural resources that can be transformed into biofuel. Problems in enzymatic conversion of biomass to sugars include the use of incomplete synergistic enzymes, end-product inhibition, and adsorption and loss of enzymes necessitating their use in large quantities. Technova Corporation will develop a defined consortium of natural microorganisms that will efficiently break down biomass to energy-rich soluble sugars, and convert them to cleaner-burning ethanol fuel. The project will also develop a novel biocatalytic hybrid reactor system dedicated to this bioprocess, which embodies recent advances in nanotechnology. NREL will participate to develop a continuous fermentation process.

  7. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy (Davis, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  8. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.; Doi, R.

    1998-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  9. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified. 1 fig.

  10. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.

  11. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis or cellulosic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.

  12. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis or cellulosic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified. 1 fig.

  13. What Do We Know About Ethanol and Alkylates as Pollutants?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, D W; Marchetti, A A; Buscheck, T; Layton, D W

    2001-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Gov. Davis issued Executive Order D-5-99 in March 1999 calling for removal of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from gasoline no later than December 31, 2002. The Executive Order required the California Air Board, State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) to prepare an analysis of potential impacts and health risks that may be associated with the use of ethanol as a fuel oxygenate. The SWRCB contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to lead a team of researchers, including scientists from Clarkson University, University of Iowa, and University of California, Davis, in evaluating the potential ground and surface water impacts that may occur if ethanol is used to replace MTBE. These findings are reported in the document entitled Health and Environmental Assessment of the Use of Ethanol as a Fuel Oxygenate. This document has been peer reviewed and presented to the California Environmental Policy Council and may be viewed at: http://www-erd.llnl.gov/ethanol/. Ethanol used for fuels is made primarily from grains, but any feed stock containing sugar, starch, or cellulose can be fermented to ethanol. Ethanol contains 34.7% oxygen by weight. It is less dense than water, but infinitely soluble in water. Ethanol vapors are denser than air. One and a half gallons of ethanol have the same energy as one gallon of gasoline. Pure fuel ethanol, and gasoline with ethanol, conducts electricity, while gasoline without ethanol is an insulator. Corrosion and compatibility of materials is an issue with the storage of pure ethanol and gasoline with high percentages of ethanol, but these issues are less important if gasoline with less than 10% ethanol is used.

  14. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  15. MICROBIAL FERMENTATION OF ABUNDANT BIOPOLYMERS: CELLULOSE AND CHITIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leschine, Susan

    2009-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Our research has dealt with seven major areas of investigation: i) characterization of cellulolytic members of microbial consortia, with special attention recently given to Clostridium phytofermentans, a bacterium that decomposes cellulose and produces uncommonly large amounts of ethanol, ii) investigations of the chitinase system of Cellulomonas uda; including the purification and characterization of ChiA, the major component of this enzyme system, iii) molecular cloning, sequence and structural analysis of the gene that encodes ChiA in C. uda, iv) biofilm formation by C. uda on nutritive surfaces, v) investigations of the effects of humic substances on cellulose degradation by anaerobic cellulolytic microbes, vi) studies of nitrogen metabolism in cellulolytic anaerobes, and vii) understanding the molecular architecture of the multicomplex cellulase-xylanase system of Clostridium papyrosolvens. Also, progress toward completing the research of more recent projects is briefly summarized. Major accomplishments include: 1. Characterization of Clostridium phytofermentans, a cellulose-fermenting, ethanol-producing bacterium from forest soil. The characterization of a new cellulolytic species isolated from a cellulose-decomposing microbial consortium from forest soil was completed. This bacterium is remarkable for the high concentrations of ethanol produced during cellulose fermentation, typically more than twice the concentration produced by other species of cellulolytic clostridia. 2. Examination of the use of chitin as a source of carbon and nitrogen by cellulolytic microbes. We discovered that many cellulolytic anaerobes and facultative aerobes are able to use chitin as a source of both carbon and nitrogen. This major discovery expands our understanding of the biology of cellulose-fermenting bacteria and may lead to new applications for these microbes. 3. Comparative studies of the cellulase and chitinase systems of Cellulomonas uda. Results of these studies indicate that the chitinase and cellulase systems of this bacterium are distinct in terms of the proteins involved and the regulation of their production. 4. Characterization of the chitinase system of C. uda. A 70,000-Mr endochitinase, designated ChiA, was purified from C. uda culture supernatant fluids and characterized. 5. Analysis of chiA, which codes for the major enzymatic component of the chitinase system of C. uda. The gene encoding the endochitinase ChiA in C. uda was cloned, its complete nucleotide sequence was determined and its implications were investigated. 6. Formation of biofilms by C. uda on cellulose and chitin. Microscopic observations indicated that, under conditions of nitrogen limitation, C. uda cells grew as a biofilm attached tightly to the surface of cellulose or chitin. 7. Development of tools for a genetic approach to studies of cellulose fermentation by cellulolytic clostridia. We have explored the potential of various techniques, and obtained evidence indicating that Tn916 mutagenesis may be particularly effective in this regard. As part of this research, we identified the presence of a plasmid in one strain, which was cloned, sequenced, and analyzed for its utility in the development of vectors for genetic studies. 8. Effects of humic substances on cellulose degradation by anaerobic cellulolytic microbes. We determined that humic substances play an important role in the anaerobic cellulose decomposition and in the physiology of cellulose-fermenting soil bacteria. 9. Nitrogenases of cellulolytic clostridia. We described a nitrogenase gene from a cellulolytic clostridium and presented evidence, based on sequence analyses and conserved gene order, for lateral gene transfer between this bacterium and a methanogenic archaeon. 10. Characterization of Clostridium hungatei, a new N2-fixing cellulolytic species isolated from a methanogenic consortium from soil. 11. Understanding the molecular architecture of the multicomplex cellulase-xylanase system of Clostridium papyrosolvens. We discovered that C. papyrosolvens produces a multiprotein, multicom

  16. Utilization of agricultural wastes for production of ethanol. Progress report, October 1979-May 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, B.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project proposes to develop methods to utilize agricultural wastes, especially cottonseed hulls and peanut shells to produce ethanol. Initial steps will involve development of methods to break down cellulose to a usable form of substrates for chemical or biological digestion. The process of ethanol production will consist of (a) preparatory step to separate fibrous (cellulose) and non-fibrous (non-cellulosic compounds). The non-cellulosic residues which may include grains, fats or other substrates for alcoholic fermentation. The fibrous residues will be first pre-treated to digest cellulose with acid, alkali, and sulfur dioxide gas or other solvents. (b) The altered cellulose will be digested by suitable micro-organisms and cellulose enzymes before alcoholic fermentation. The digester and fermentative unit will be specially designed to develop a prototype for pilot plant for a continuous process. The first phase of the project will be devoted toward screening of a suitable method for cellulose modification, separation of fibrous and non-fibrous residues, the micro-organism and enzyme preparations. Work is in progress on: the effects of various microorganisms on the degree of saccharification; the effects of higher concentrations of acids, alkali, and EDTA on efficiency of microbial degradation; and the effects of chemicals on enzymatic digestion.

  17. Hydrogen production from cellulose in a two-stage process combining fermentation and electrohydrogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    primarily of: acetic, lactic, succinic, and formic acids and ethanol. An additional 800 Ć 290 mL H2/gHydrogen production from cellulose in a two-stage process combining fermentation Electrolysis cell Fermentation Lignocellulose a b s t r a c t A two-stage dark-fermentation

  18. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Jung Fu (Lakewood, CO)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process in cludes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

  19. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus Paecilomyces sp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, J.F.

    1985-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. An Environmental and Policy Evaluation of Cellulosic Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurtado, Lisa Diane

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    As the global demand for energy rises, there are significant efforts to find alternative energy sources. In the United States (US), these efforts are primarily motivated by a desire to increase energy security and reduce the potential impacts...

  1. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production and Demand: Actual and Forecasts thru 2030 Petroleum andproduction and demand are nearly balanced for all but one energy source: petroleum –

  2. Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    innovative technologies that will help diversify our energy portfolio, reduce carbon pollution and lead to tomorrow's energy breakthroughs." As the President's Climate Action Plan...

  3. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resources – Agricultural wastes • Sugar cane bagasse • Cornwaste disposal Low impact biomass crops Can improve air quality • Economic Abundant, inexpensive, domestic feedstock Low cost potential without subsidies Agricultural and

  4. Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Laboratory b13foustop-1.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Bio-based Jet Fuel Cross-cutting Technologies for Advanced Biofuels Process Design and Economics for...

  5. An Environmental and Policy Evaluation of Cellulosic Ethanol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurtado, Lisa Diane

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    .......................................................................................................................... 126 viii LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. Yield of Various Biomass Feedstock .............................................................. 6 Figure 2. Life Cycle Assessment Framework (modified from ISO 14040...-contaminated groundwater and wastewater could be used to increase the productivity of feedstocks. Using highly productive biomass also reduces the depletion of natural resources. Some examples of the productivity or yield of certain feedstocks are given in Figure 1...

  6. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    wastes • Sugar cane bagasse • Corn stover and fiber • FutureSugarcane Sugarcane Bagasse Louisiana Rice Hulls Pile Energy

  7. advances cellulosic ethanol: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Energy Websites Summary: the flexibility to run on numerous biomass feedstocks including wood chips, tall grasses, corn stover (residual biofuels from...

  8. Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIA, AEO2009, High Oil Price Case 116 2.06 EIA, AEO2009, Reference Case 95 1.76 EIA, AEO2009, Low Oil Price Case 51 1.04 State of Technology Background Cost Targets Developed...

  9. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June 2006

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximatelyBoostingandDOEBreaking Up DOE/SC-0095

  10. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June 2006 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximatelyBoostingandDOEBreaking Up

  11. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June 2006 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximatelyBoostingandDOEBreaking UpDepartment of

  12. Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy Chinaof EnergyImpactOnSTATEMENT8.pdf MoreRevised Guidelines for

  13. Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdf Flash2010-60.pdf2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel CellsanCommercial-Scale

  14. Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015ParentsMiddle School (6-8)Need for a Second RepositoryLNGBiorefinery

  15. Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy at Waste-to-Energy usingofRetrofitting Doors onNovemberHistoricalReviewof

  16. Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »Usage »DownloadSolar »MiddleHighHighEnergyorofNeed for aand IAEA

  17. Pilot Integrated Cellulosic Biorefinery Operations to Fuel Ethanol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of Energy Photovoltaics at DOE's2 DOEUraniumPilot

  18. Belize-OAS Cellulosic Ethanol Market Assessment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,Belcher Homes Jump to: navigation, search

  19. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June 2006 |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. Department ofJune 2,The Big Green BusNews andMayBradys EGSElizabeth

  20. The Current State of Technology for Cellulosic Ethanol | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic| DepartmentDepartment

  1. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June 2006 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform isEnergyMeeting |Resources »

  2. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to alkaline hydrolysis may be beneficial in removing hemicellulose and lignin from the feedstock. In addition, alkaline hydrolysis has been shown to remove a significant portion of the hemicellulose and lignin. The resulting cellulose can be exposed to a finishing step with wet alkaline oxidation to remove the remaining lignin. The final product is a highly pure cellulose fraction containing less than 1% of the native lignin with an overall yield in excess of 85% of the native cellulose. This report summarizes the results from the first year's effort to move the technology to commercialization.

  3. Increase in ethanol yield via elimination of lactate production in an ethanol-tolerant mutant of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Ranjita [ORNL] [ORNL; Prabhu, Sandeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth] [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Guss, Adam M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-scale production of lignocellulosic biofuel is a potential solution to sustainably meet global energy needs. One-step consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a potentially advantageous approach for the production of biofuels, but requires an organism capable of hydrolyzing biomass to sugars and fermenting the sugars to ethanol at commercially viable titers and yields. Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe, can ferment cellulosic biomass to ethanol and organic acids, but low yield, low titer, and ethanol sensitivity remain barriers to industrial production. Here, we deleted the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene in ethanol tolerant strain of C. thermocellum adhE*(EA) in order to allow use of previously developed gene deletion tools, then deleted lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) to redirect carbon flux towards ethanol. Upon deletion of ldh, the adhE*(EA) ldh strain produced 30% more ethanol than wild type on minimal medium. The adhE*(EA) ldh strain retained tolerance to 5% v/v ethanol, resulting in an ethanol tolerant platform strain of C. thermocellum for future metabolic engineering efforts.

  4. Cellulose Pyrolysis A Literature, Review.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of the cellulose chains, and in fact the observed rapid decline in the resonance absorption intensity at temperatures in excess of 600C was attributed to aromatization...

  5. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

  6. Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

  7. Accelerated Cellulose Depolymerization Catalyzed by Paired Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cellulose to sugars is a critical step and has been a major barrier for improved economics in the utilization of cellulosic biomass. We report a novel catalytic system...

  8. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  9. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  10. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  11. Evaluation of nanoparticle-immobilized cellulase for improved ethanol yield in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupoi, Jason; Smith, Emily

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol yields were 2.1 (P = 0.06) to 2.3 (P = 0.01) times higher in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) reactions of microcrystalline cellulose when cellulase was physisorbed on silica nanoparticles compared to enzyme in solution. In SSF reactions, cellulose is hydrolyzed to glucose by cellulase while yeast simultaneously ferments glucose to ethanol. The 35 C temperature and the presence of ethanol in SSF reactions are not optimal conditions for cellulase. Immobilization onto solid supports can stabilize the enzyme and promote activity at non-optimum reaction conditions. Mock SSF reactions that did not contain yeast were used to measure saccharification products and identify the mechanism for the improved ethanol yield using immobilized cellulase. Cellulase adsorbed to 40 nm silica nanoparticles produced 1.6 times (P = 0.01) more glucose than cellulase in solution in 96 h at pH 4.8 and 35 C. There was no significant accumulation (<250 {mu}g) of soluble cellooligomers in either the solution or immobilized enzyme reactions. This suggests that the mechanism for the immobilized enzyme's improved glucose yield compared to solution enzyme is the increased conversion of insoluble cellulose hydrolysis products to soluble cellooligomers at 35 C and in the presence of ethanol. The results show that silica-immobilized cellulase can be used to produce increased ethanol yields in the conversion of lignocellulosic materials by SSF.

  12. Mutant selection and phenotypic and genetic characterization of ethanol-tolerant strains of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Shao, Xiongjun [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Raman, Babu [Dow Chemical Company, The; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Zhu, Mingjun [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, PR China

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clostridium thermocellum is a model microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals via consolidated bioprocessing. One of the challenges for industrial application of this organism is its low ethanol tolerance, typically 1 2% (w/v) in wild-type strains. In this study, we report the development and characterization of mutant C. thermocellum strains that can grow in the presence of high ethanol concentrations. Starting from a single colony, wild-type C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 was sub-cultured and adapted for growth in up to 50 g/L ethanol using either cellobiose or crystalline cellulose as the growth substrate. Both the adapted strains retained their ability to grow on either substrate and displayed a higher growth rate and biomass yield than the wild-type strain in the absence of ethanol. With added ethanol in the media, the mutant strains displayed an inverse correlation between ethanol concentration and growth rate or biomass yield. Genome sequencing revealed six common mutations in the two ethanol-tolerant strains including an alcohol dehydrogenase gene and genes involved in arginine/pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. The potential role of these mutations in ethanol tolerance phenotype is discussed.

  13. Mutant selection and phenotypic and genetic characterization of ethanol-tolerant strains of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Xiongjun [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Raman, Babu [ORNL; Zhu, Mingjun [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, PR China; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clostridium thermocellum is a model microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals via consolidated bioprocessing. One of the challenges for industrial application of this organism is its low ethanol tolerance, typically 1-2% (w/v) in wild-type strains. In this study, we report the development and characterization of mutant C. thermocellum strains that can grow in the presence of high ethanol concentrations. Starting from a single colony, wild-type C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 was sub-cultured and adapted for growth in up to 50 g/L ethanol using either cellobiose or crystalline cellulose as the growth substrate. Both the adapted strains retained their ability to grow on either substrate and displayed a higher growth rate and biomass yield than the wild-type strain in the absence of ethanol. With added ethanol in the media, the mutant strains displayed an inverse correlation between ethanol concentration and growth rate or biomass yield. Genome sequencing revealed six common mutations in the two ethanol-tolerant strains including an alcohol dehydrogenase gene and genes involved in arginine/pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. The potential role of these mutations in ethanol tolerance phenotype is discussed.

  14. NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol Fermentation via Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, L.; Schell, D.; Davis, R.; Tan, E.; Elander, R.; Bratis, A.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office, the annual State of Technology (SOT) assessment is an essential activity for quantifying the benefits of biochemical platform research. This assessment has historically allowed the impact of research progress achieved through targeted Bioenergy Technologies Office funding to be quantified in terms of economic improvements within the context of a fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production process. As such, progress toward the ultimate 2012 goal of demonstrating cost-competitive cellulosic ethanol technology can be tracked. With an assumed feedstock cost for corn stover of $58.50/ton this target has historically been set at $1.41/gal ethanol for conversion costs only (exclusive of feedstock) and $2.15/gal total production cost (inclusive of feedstock) or minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). This year, fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production data generated by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers in their Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) successfully demonstrated performance commensurate with both the FY 2012 SOT MESP target of $2.15/gal (2007$, $58.50/ton feedstock cost) and the conversion target of $1.41/gal through core research and process improvements in pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation.

  15. Chapter 18: Understanding the Developing Cellulosic Biofuels Industry through Dynamic Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newes, E.; Inman, D.; Bush, B.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss a system dynamics model called the Biomass Scenario Model (BSM), which is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the burgeoning cellulosic biofuels industry in the United States. The model has also recently been expanded to include advanced conversion technologies and biofuels (i.e., conversion pathways that yield biomass-based gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, and butanol), but we focus on cellulosic ethanol conversion pathways here. The BSM uses a system dynamics modeling approach (Bush et al., 2008) built on the STELLA software platform.

  16. Development of efficient, integrated cellulosic biorefineries : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teh, Kwee-Yan; Hecht, Ethan S.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Buffleben, George M.; Dibble, Dean C.; Lutz, Andrew E.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic ethanol, generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources such as grasses and trees, is a promising alternative to conventional starch- and sugar-based ethanol production in terms of potential production quantities, CO{sub 2} impact, and economic competitiveness. In addition, cellulosic ethanol can be generated (at least in principle) without competing with food production. However, approximately 1/3 of the lignocellulosic biomass material (including all of the lignin) cannot be converted to ethanol through biochemical means and must be extracted at some point in the biochemical process. In this project we gathered basic information on the prospects for utilizing this lignin residue material in thermochemical conversion processes to improve the overall energy efficiency or liquid fuel production capacity of cellulosic biorefineries. Two existing pretreatment approaches, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) and the Arkenol (strong sulfuric acid) process, were implemented at Sandia and used to generated suitable quantities of residue material from corn stover and eucalyptus feedstocks for subsequent thermochemical research. A third, novel technique, using ionic liquids (IL) was investigated by Sandia researchers at the Joint Bioenergy Institute (JBEI), but was not successful in isolating sufficient lignin residue. Additional residue material for thermochemical research was supplied from the dilute-acid simultaneous saccharification/fermentation (SSF) pilot-scale process at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The high-temperature volatiles yields of the different residues were measured, as were the char combustion reactivities. The residue chars showed slightly lower reactivity than raw biomass char, except for the SSF residue, which had substantially lower reactivity. Exergy analysis was applied to the NREL standard process design model for thermochemical ethanol production and from a prototypical dedicated biochemical process, with process data supplied by a recent report from the National Research Council (NRC). The thermochemical system analysis revealed that most of the system inefficiency is associated with the gasification process and subsequent tar reforming step. For the biochemical process, the steam generation from residue combustion, providing the requisite heating for the conventional pretreatment and alcohol distillation processes, was shown to dominate the exergy loss. An overall energy balance with different potential distillation energy requirements shows that as much as 30% of the biomass energy content may be available in the future as a feedstock for thermochemical production of liquid fuels.

  17. Compositions and methods for increasing cellulose production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhenbiao (Riverside, CA); Karr, Stephen (Camarillo, CA)

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This disclosure relates to methods and compositions for genetically altering cellulose biosynthesis.

  18. Fuel Etanol from Cellulosic Biomass LEE R. LYND, JANET H. CusHmAN, ROBERTA J. NICHOLS, CHARLES E. WYMAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    in the United States, petroleum supplies the largest share of total energy used and has the highest fraction, global climate change, bal- ance oftrade, and energy security. Energy balance, feed- stock supply corn and other starch- rich grains in the United States, ethanol also can be made from cellulosic

  19. Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, Myles A. (Falmouth, MA); Morris, Robert S. (Fairhaven, MA)

    1986-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorbtion agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure.

  20. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Daniel I. C. (Belmont, MA); Dalal, Rajen (Chicago, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  1. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, March 1-August 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, D. I.C.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported in this coordinated research program to effect the microbiological degradation of cellulosic biomass by anaerobic microorganisms possessing cellulolytic enzymes. Three main areas of research are discussed: increasing enzyme levels through genetics, mutations, and genetic manipulation; the direct conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid fuel (ethanol); and the production of chemical feedstocks from biomass (acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, and acetic acid). (DMC)

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: Ethanol - Global Warming Potential and Environmental Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Hsu, D. D.; Inman, D.; Aden, A.; Mann, M. K.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the global warming potential (GWP), water use, and net energy value (NEV) associated with the EISA-mandated 16 bgy cellulosic biofuels target, which is assumed in this study to be met by cellulosic-based ethanol, and the EISA-mandated 15 bgy conventional corn ethanol target. Specifically, this study compares, on a per-kilometer-driven basis, the GWP, water use, and NEV for the year 2022 for several biomass feedstocks.

  3. NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol Fermentation via Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Ling Tao, Dan Schell, Ryan...

  4. Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (the Act) outlined a national energy strategy that called for reducing the nation's dependency on petroleum imports. The Act directed the Secretary of Energy to establish a program to promote and expand the use of renewable fuels. The Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has evaluated a wide range of potential fuels and has concluded that cellulosic ethanol is one of the most promising near-term prospects. Ethanol is widely recognized as a clean fuel that helps reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants. Furthermore, cellulosic ethanol produces less greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline or any of the other alternative transportation fuels being considered by DOE.

  5. Value of Coproduction of Ethanol and Furfural from Acid Hydrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, S.; Calnon, M.; Feinberg, D.; Power, A.; Weiss, L.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the acid hydrolysis of a cellulosic feedstock (wood, wood wastes, or crop residues), up to 3.65 lb of furfural may be coproduced with each gallon of ethanol for only the cost of recovering and purifying it. Each plant producing 50 x 106 gal/yr of ethanol would produce an amount of by-product furfural equal to the total current domestic production. Thus, the need arises for investigation into potentially suitable processes for deriving profitable end products from furfural and thus expanding the market. The objectives of this study were to determine the economic potential of five selected, large volume derivatives of furfural that could displace hydrocarbon-based chemicals, and the consequent value of furfural as a by-product to the cellulose hydrolysis process of ethanol production.

  6. Combined enzyme mediated fermentation of cellulous and xylose to ethanol by Schizosaccharoyces pombe, cellulase, .beta.-glucosidase, and xylose isomerase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lastick, Stanley M. (Longmont, CO); Mohagheghi, Ali (Northglen, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Winter Haven, FL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing ethanol from mixed sugar streams from pretreated biomass comprising xylose and cellulose using enzymes to convert these substrates to fermentable sugars; selecting and isolating a yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe ATCC No. 2476, having the ability to ferment these sugars as they are being formed to produce ethanol; loading the substrates with the fermentation mix composed of yeast, enzymes and substrates; fermenting the loaded substrates and enzymes under anaerobic conditions at a pH range of between about 5.0 to about 6.0 and at a temperature range of between about 35.degree. C. to about 40.degree. C. until the fermentation is completed, the xylose being isomerized to xylulose, the cellulose being converted to glucose, and these sugars being concurrently converted to ethanol by yeast through means of the anaerobic fermentation; and recovering the ethanol.

  7. Inverse Temperature-Dependent Pathway of Cellulose Decrystallization...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inverse Temperature-Dependent Pathway of Cellulose Decrystallization in Trifluoroacetic Acid. Inverse Temperature-Dependent Pathway of Cellulose Decrystallization in...

  8. Cellulose degradation system of Cytophaga hutchinsonii 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Chao-Kuo

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, Cytophaga hutchinsonii, an aerobic gliding bacterium with cellulose-degrading ability, was studied, since its cellulase system was unknown and might be very different from those of other cellulose-degrading ...

  9. Clostridium thermocellum ATCC27405 transcriptomic, metabolomic and proteomic profiles after ethanol stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Shihui [ORNL; Giannone, Richard J [ORNL; Dice, Lezlee T [ORNL; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clostridium thermocellum is a candidate consolidated bioprocessing biocatalyst, which is a microorganism that expresses enzymes for both cellulose hydrolysis and its fermentation to produce fuels such as lignocellulosic ethanol. However, C. thermocellum is relatively sensitive to ethanol compared to ethanologenic microorganisms such as yeast and Zymomonas mobilis that are used in industrial fermentations but do not possess native enzymes for industrial cellulose hydrolysis. In this study, C. thermocellum was grown to mid-exponential phase and then treated with ethanol to a final concentration of 3.9 g/L to investigate its physiological and regulatory responses to ethanol stress. Samples were taken pre-shock and 2, 12, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min post-shock, and from untreated control fermentations for systems biology analyses. Cell growth was arrested by ethanol supplementation with intracellular accumulation of carbon sources such as cellobiose, and sugar phosphates, including fructose-6-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate. The largest response of C. thermocellum to ethanol shock treatment was in genes and proteins related to nitrogen uptake and metabolism, which is likely important for redirecting the cells physiology to overcome inhibition and allow growth to resume. This study suggests possible avenues for metabolic engineering and provides comprehensive, integrated systems biology datasets that will be useful for future metabolic modeling and strain development endeavors.

  10. Compositions for saccharification of cellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBrayer, Brett; Shaghasi, Tarana; Vlasenko, Elena

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to enzyme compositions for high temperature saccharification of cellulosic material and to uses thereof.

  11. Ethanol Myths: Under the Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    , transport to facility, convert to ethanol, and distribute Future biomass feedstocks will come primarily from

  12. Process for producing ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

    1993-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

  13. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  14. Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Pacific Ethanol, Inc | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Pacific Ethanol, Inc Pacific Ethanol, Inc Pacific Ethanol, Inc More Documents & Publications RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red Shield Environmental, LLC) Major DOE...

  16. Ethanol Myths and Facts | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ethanol Myths and Facts Ethanol Myths and Facts Ethanol Myths and Facts More Documents & Publications Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts Microsoft Word -...

  17. Biogeochemical Processes In Ethanol Stimulated Uranium Contaminated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processes In Ethanol Stimulated Uranium Contaminated Subsurface Sediments. Biogeochemical Processes In Ethanol Stimulated Uranium Contaminated Subsurface Sediments. Abstract: A...

  18. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Bin; Dai, Ziyu; Ding, Shi-You; Wyman, Charles E.

    2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals offers the high yields to products vital to economic success and the potential for very low costs. Enzymatic hydrolysis that converts lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars may be the most complex step in this process due to substrate-related and enzyme-related effects and their interactions. Although enzymatic hydrolysis offers the potential for higher yields, higher selectivity, lower energy costs, and milder operating conditions than chemical processes, the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis and the relationship between the substrate structure and function of various glycosyl hydrolase components are not well understood. Consequently, limited success has been realized in maximizing sugar yields at very low cost. This review highlights literature on the impact of key substrate and enzyme features that influence performance to better understand fundamental strategies to advance enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass for biological conversion to fuels and chemicals. Topics are summarized from a practical point of view including characteristics of cellulose (e.g., crystallinity, degree of polymerization, and accessible surface area) and soluble and insoluble biomass components (e.g., oligomeric xylan, lignin, etc.) released in pretreatment, and their effects on the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis. We further discuss the diversity, stability, and activity of individual enzymes and their synergistic effects in deconstructing complex lignocellulosic biomass. Advanced technologies to discover and characterize novel enzymes and to improve enzyme characteristics by mutagenesis, post-translational modification, and over-expression of selected enzymes and modifications in lignocellulosic biomass are also discussed.

  19. Electrospinning of Cellulose and Carbon Nanotube-Cellulose Fibers for Smart Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pankonien, Alexander

    2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulose is one of the Earth’s most abundant natural polymers and is used as a raw material in various applications. Recently, cellulose based electro-active paper (EAPap) has been investigated for its potential as a smart material...

  20. Ethanol Waivers: Needed or Irrelevant?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boas, Harold P.

    Ethanol Waivers: Needed or Irrelevant? JAMES M. GRIFFIN & RACHAEL DAHL The Mosbacher Institute VOLUME 3 | ISSUE 2 | 2012 2012 RELAXING THE ETHANOL MANDATE The severity of the drought of 2012 affecting for ethanol production, 6.72 BB for domestic food and feed and the remainder for exports (Figure 1). The USDA

  1. F.O. Licht's 17th Annual World Ethanol & Biofuels Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The F.O. Licht's 17th Annual World Ethanol & Biofuels Conference will be held on November 3–6, 2014, in Budapest, Hungary. Valerie Reed, Deputy Director of the Bioenergy Technolgies Office will be serving on two panels: "Maintaining Next Generation Investments in the Years Ahead" on November 4 and "Putting Together a Constant Supply of Feedstocks for Advanced and Cellulosic Biofuels, Biochemicals and Aviation Fuels" on November 5.

  2. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlberg, Jeff; Wolfrum, Ed

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called �dedicated bioenergy crops� including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help provide a major portion of the feedstocks required to produce renewable domestic transportation fuels.

  3. CELLULOSE CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY Cellulose Chem. Technol., 44 (7-8), 217-221 (2010)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .e. how the solid cellulose xanthate fibres are dissolved under mixing conditions. A probable reason or a thermal treatment that reverts the cellulose derivative back to cellulose, with a noticeable change such experiments. The dissolution of a solid material into a solvent is a process of great importance in many

  4. Less is more: Novel cellulose structure requires fewer enzymes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cellulose requires fewer enzymes to process biomass to fuel Less is more: Novel cellulose structure requires fewer enzymes to process biomass to fuel Improved methods for breaking...

  5. Methods for enhancing the degradation or conversion of cellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Paul (Carnation, WA) Rey, Michael (Davis, CA); Ding, Hanshu (Davis, CA)

    2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to methods for degrading or converting a cellulosic material and for producing a substance from a cellulosic material.

  6. Methods for enhancing the degradation or conversion of cellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Paul (Carnation, WA); Rey, Michael (Davis, CA); Ding, Hanshu (Davis, CA)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to methods for degrading or converting a cellulosic material and for producing a substance from a cellulosic material.

  7. Advanced and Cellulosic Biofuels and Biorefineries: State of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Cellulosic Biofuels and Biorefineries: State of the Industry, Policy and Politics Advanced and Cellulosic Biofuels and Biorefineries: State of the Industry, Policy and Politics...

  8. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  9. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1996-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 15 figs.

  10. Improvement of cellulose catabolism in Clostridium cellulolyticum by sporulation abolishment and carbon alleviation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yongchao [ORNL] [ORNL; Xu, Tao [University of Oklahoma, Norman] [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL] [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL] [ORNL; He, Zhili [University of Oklahoma, Norman] [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman] [University of Oklahoma, Norman

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background Clostridium cellulolyticum can degrade lignocellulosic biomass, and ferment the soluble sugars to produce valuable chemicals such as lactate, acetate, ethanol and hydrogen. However, the cellulose utilization efficiency of C. cellulolyticum still remains very low, impeding its application in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels production. In this study, two metabolic engineering strategies were exploited to improve cellulose utilization efficiency, including sporulation abolishment and carbon overload alleviation. Results The spo0A gene at locus Ccel_1894, which encodes a master sporulation regulator was inactivated. The spo0A mutant abolished the sporulation ability. In a high concentration of cellulose (50 g/l), the performance of the spo0A mutant increased dramatically in terms of maximum growth, final concentrations of three major metabolic products, and cellulose catabolism. The microarray and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses showed that the valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis pathways were up-regulated in the spo0A mutant. Based on this information, a partial isobutanol producing pathway modified from valine biosynthesis was introduced into C. cellulolyticum strains to further increase cellulose consumption by alleviating excessive carbon load. The introduction of this synthetic pathway to the wild-type strain improved cellulose consumption from 17.6 g/l to 28.7 g/l with a production of 0.42 g/l isobutanol in the 50 g/l cellulose medium. However, the spo0A mutant strain did not appreciably benefit from introduction of this synthetic pathway and the cellulose utilization efficiency did not further increase. A technical highlight in this study was that an in vivo promoter strength evaluation protocol was developed using anaerobic fluorescent protein and flow cytometry for C. cellulolyticum. Conclusions In this study, we inactivated the spo0A gene and introduced a heterologous synthetic pathway to manipulate the stress response to heavy carbon load and accumulation of metabolic products. These findings provide new perspectives to enhance the ability of cellulolytic bacteria to produce biofuels and biocommodities with high efficiency and at low cost directly from lignocellulosic biomass.

  11. New Ethanol Ordering Process Effective March 11, 2013, Ethanol must be ordered through an Ethanol Form in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibille, Etienne

    New Ethanol Ordering Process Effective March 11, 2013, Ethanol must be ordered through an Ethanol Services will accept faxed orders for Ethanol. · Monday, March 11, 2013 is the first day the PantherExpress System will accept orders for Ethanol. Requirements · Your PantherExpress System account must be properly

  12. Effects of Dilute Acid Pretreatment on Cellulose DP and the Relationship Between DP Reduction and Cellulose Digestibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W.; Chen, X.; Tucker, M.; Himmel, M. E.; Johnson, D. K.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The degree of polymerization(DP) of cellulose is considered to be one of the most important properties affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Various pure cellulosic and biomass materials have been used in a study of the effect of dilute acid treatment on cellulose DP. A substantial reduction in DP was found for all pure cellulosic materials studied even at conditions that would be considered relatively mild for pretreatment. The effect of dilute acid pretreatment on cellulose DP in biomass samples was also investigated. Corn stover pretreated with dilute acid under the most optimal conditions contained cellulose with a DPw in the range of 1600{approx}3500, which is much higher than the level-off DP(DPw 150{approx}300) obtained with pure celluloses. The effect of DP reduction on the saccharification of celluloses was also studied. From this study it does not appear that cellulose DP is a main factor affecting cellulose saccharification.

  13. Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation, Lactation and Weaning Increases Ethanol examined effects of ethanol consumption in rat dams during gestation, lactation, and weaning on voluntary ethanol consumption by their adolescent young. We found that exposure to an ethanol-ingesting dam

  14. Ethanol Waivers: Needed or Irrelevant?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, James M.; Dahl, Rachel

    regulatory apparatus could accommo- date a substantial ethanol reduction with no need for a waiver. Even if gasoline blenders found it both economically and technically desirable to reduce ethanol consumption, a reduction of 2.6 billion gal- lons... up the price of corn and gasoline blenders will have little choice but to pay the higher ethanol prices. OIL PRICE UNCERTAINTY ARGUES FOR A WAIVER With a 2013 waiver in place, refiners would have time to implement the planning to produce higher...

  15. Microscopic Analysis of Corn Fiber Using Corn Starch- and Cellulose-Specific Molecular Probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Beery, K. E.; Xu, Q.; Ding, S.-Y.; Vinzant, T. B.; Abbas, C. A.; Himmel, M. E.

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  16. BlueFire Ethanol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10|BlueFire Ethanol, Inc. Corporate

  17. Ethanol-blended Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-l 1, 13 DE@EnergyErnestEthanol-Blended Fuels A Study

  18. Ethanol: Producting Food, Feed, and Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ethanol Ethanol blend prices are generally 10 cents lower Net Ethanol price at wholesale today is more than 1.50+gal lower than gasoline. Higher blends may emerge in the...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ethanol can be combined with gasoline in blends ranging from E10 (10% or less ethanol, 90% gasoline) up to E85 (up to 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). The Renewable Fuels Standard (under the Energy...

  20. Ethanol production in non-recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Youngnyun; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O.

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-recombinant bacteria that produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product, associated nucleic acids and polypeptides, methods for producing ethanol using the bacteria, and kits are disclosed.

  1. Synthetic biology approach to cellulose degradation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakhundi, Sahreena Saleem

    2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer on earth, is composed of ? – 1,4 – linked glucose units, which in turn form a highly ordered crystalline structure that is insoluble and recalcitrant to degradation. It is the ...

  2. Corn Ethanol -April 2006 11 Cover Story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Corn Ethanol - April 2006 11 Cover Story orn ethanol is the fuel du jour. It's domestic. It oil into gasoline or diesel fuel. Ethanol refineries also use huge amounts of water. An average dry's not oil. Ethanol's going to help promote "energy independence." Magazines trumpet it as the motor vehicle

  3. Consolidated Bio-Processing of Cellulosic Biomass for Efficient Biofuel Production Using Yeast Consortium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Garima

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the yeast chromosomes for direct conversion of cellulose tothe yeast chromosomes for direct conversion of cellulose to

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Two Cellulose Morphology Mutants of Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769 Producing Cellulose with Lower Crystallinity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Fang, Lin; Luan, Xin; Catchmark, Jeffrey M.; Tien, Ming; Kao, Teh-hui; Lai, Hsin-Chih

    2015-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Gluconacetobacter hansenii, a Gram-negative bacterium, produces and secrets highly crystalline cellulose into growth medium, and has long been used as a model system for studying cellulose synthesis in higher plants. Cellulose synthesis involves the formation of ?-1,4 glucan chains via the polymerization of glucose units by a multi-enzyme cellulose synthase complex (CSC). These glucan chains assemble into ordered structures including crystalline microfibrils. AcsA is the catalytic subunit of the cellulose synthase enzymes in the CSC, and AcsC is required for the secretion of cellulose. However, little is known about other proteins required for the assembly of crystalline cellulose. To addressmore »this question, we visually examined cellulose pellicles formed in growth media of 763 individual colonies of G. hansenii generated via Tn5 transposon insertion mutagenesis, and identified 85 that produced cellulose with altered morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis of these 85 mutants identified two that produced cellulose with significantly lower crystallinity than wild type. The gene disrupted in one of these two mutants encoded a lysine decarboxylase and that in the other encoded an alanine racemase. Solid-state NMR analysis revealed that cellulose produced by these two mutants contained increased amounts of non-crystalline cellulose and monosaccharides associated with noncellulosic polysaccharides as compared to the wild type. Monosaccharide analysis detected higher percentages of galactose and mannose in cellulose produced by both mutants. Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that cellulose produced by the mutants was unevenly distributed, with some regions appearing to contain deposition of non-cellulosic polysaccharides; however, the width of the ribbon was comparable to that of normal cellulose. As both lysine decarboxylase and alanine racemase are required for the integrity of peptidoglycan, we propose a model for the role of peptidoglycan in the assembly of crystalline cellulose.« less

  5. Electric Field Alignment of Cellulose Based-Polymer Nanocomposites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalidindi, Sanjay Varma

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulose whiskers (CWs) obtained from naturally occuring cellulose are nano-inclusions which show a lot of promise as mechanical reinforcements in polymers. Typically, a relatively high content is added to realize improvement in effective...

  6. Cellulosic Biofuels: Expert Views on Prospects for Advancement: Supplementary Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Cellulosic Biofuels: Expert Views on Prospects for Advancement: Supplementary Material Erin Baker Keywords: Biofuels; Technology R&D; Uncertainty; Environmental policy 2 #12;1 Introduction This paper contains supplementary material for "Cellulosic Biofuels: Expert Views on Prospects for Advancement

  7. Relationships between circadian rhythms and ethanol intake in mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trujillo, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4.2.3. Ethanol Vapor Sessions . . . . . . . . .4.2.4.scheduling a?ects subsequent voluntary ethanol 2.1.of circadian period to ethanol intake . . . . . . . . . .

  8. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc. Natl.Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: currentGenetic engineering of ethanol production in Escherichia

  9. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbialproducts, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so,producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently dominates the

  10. Biofuel Supply Chain Infrastructure Optimizing the Evolution of Cellulosic Biofuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biofuel Supply Chain Infrastructure Optimizing the Evolution of Cellulosic Biofuel Center infrastructure. Cellulosic-based ad- vanced biofuel has a target of 21 billion gallons by 2022 and requires into a national economic model of biofuel sustainability. Cellulosic biomass relocates the demand

  11. Method for separating the non-inked cellulose fibers from the inked cellulose fibers in cellulosic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodward, J.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for enzymatically separating the non-inked cellulose fibers from the inked cellulose fibers in cellulosic materials. The cellulosic material, such as newsprint, is introduced into a first chamber containing a plastic canvas basket. This first chamber is in fluid communication, via plastic tubing, with a second chamber containing cellobiase beads in a plastic canvas basket. Cellulase is then introduced into the first chamber. A programmable pump then controls the flow rate between the two chambers. The action of cellulase and stirring in the first chamber results in the production of a slurry of newsprint pulp in the first chamber. This slurry contains non-inked fibers, inked fibers, and some cellobiose. The inked fibers and cellobiose flow from the first chamber to the second chamber, whereas the non-inked fibers remain in the first chamber because they are too large to pass through the pores of the plastic canvas basket. The resulting non-inked and inked fibers are then recovered. 6 figs.

  12. Method for separating the non-inked cellulose fibers from the inked cellulose fibers in cellulosic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodward, Jonathan (Kingston, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for enzymatically separating the non-inked cellulose fibers from the inked cellulose fibers in cellulosic materials. The cellulosic material, such as newsprint, is introduced into a first chamber containing a plastic canvas basket. This first chamber is in fluid communication, via plastic tubing, with a second chamber containing cellobiase beads in a plastic canvas basket. Cellulase is then introduced into the first chamber. A programmable pump then controls the flow rate between the two chambers. The action of cellulase and stirring in the first chamber results in the production of a slurry of newsprint pulp in the first chamber. This slurry contains non-inked fibers, inked fibers, and some cellobiose. The inked fibers and cellobiose flow from the first chamber to the second chamber, whereas the non-inked fibers remain in the first chamber because they are too large to pass through the pores of the plastic canvas basket. The resulting non-inked and inked fibers are then recovered.

  13. Energy Utilization in Fermentation Ethanol Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easley, C. E.

    be fermented to ethanol. The energy usage for this design is about 20,900 Btu per gallon of ethanol produced. WATER PARTIAL CONDENSER GRAIN MEA MIX 140?F 360?F FLASH TANK COOLING STEAM MALT COOKER FIGURE 1 - OLD STYLE MASHING SYSTEM Energy savings... ethanol. The basic process for fuel ethanol. as shown in Figure 3. involves steam stripping and rectification to produce 95 volume percent ethanol which is near the ethanol-water azeotropic composition. Except for the modest heat recovery provided...

  14. Magnetic Alignment of Cellulose Nanowhiskers in an All-Cellulose Composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Dongsheng; Liu, Zuyan; Al-Haik, Marwan; Tehrani, Mehran; Murray, Frank; Tennenbaum, Rina; Garmestani, Hamid

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unidirectional reinforced nanocomposite paper was fabricated from cellulose nanowhiskers and wood pulp under an externally-applied magnetic field. A 1.2 Tesla magnetic field was applied in order to align the nanowhiskers in the pulp as it was being formed into a sheet of paper. The magnetic alignment was driven by the characteristic negative diamagnetic anisotropy of the cellulose nanowhiskers. ESEM micrographs demonstrated unidirectional alignment of the nanowhiskers in the all-cellulose composite paper. Comparing with control paper sheets made from wood pulp only, the storage modulus in the all-cellulose nanocomposites increased dramatically. The storage modulus along the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field was much stronger than that parallel to the magnetic field. This new nanocomposite, which contains preferentially-oriented microstructures and has improved mechanical properties, demonstrates the possibility of expanding the functionality of paper products and constitutes a promising alternative to hydrocarbon based materials and fibers.

  15. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation" Jian Shi, Mirvatwaste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation Jian Shi, MirvatIn addition, techno- economic evaluation of large scale

  16. Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass M. R. Schmer*, K. P. Vogel*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    derived from switchgrass were 94% lower than estimated GHG from gasoline. This is a baseline study in conventional gasoline and in the long term because of U.S. government mandates (2, 3). Maize or corn (Zea mays production, but competing feed and food demands on grain supplies and prices will eventually limit expansion

  17. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and fermentation) rate and increasing the production of neutral products at the expense of acetic andand acetic acid concen- trations on the rate of fermentationacetic acid production (data not shown). all fermentation

  18. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and acetic acid concen- trations on the rate of fermentationacetic acid production (data not shown). all fermentationand fermentation) rate and increasing the production of neutral products at the expense of acetic and other acids.

  19. Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Received in revised form 8 November 2011 Accepted 9 December 2011 Available online xxx Keywords: Bioethanol

  20. Compositions and methods relating to transgenic plants and cellulosic ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tien, Ming (State College, PA); Carlson, John (Port Matilda, PA); Liang, Haiying (Clemson, SC)

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Transgenic lignocellulosic plants are provided according to embodiments of the present invention, the transgenic plants transformed with an expression cassette encoding a protein operably linked to a signal peptide which targets the protein to a cell wall of the transgenic plant, where at least 5% of the total amino acid residues of the protein are tyrosine, lysine, serine, threonine or cysteine. Methods of increasing lignin-protein bonds in a lignocellulosic plant are provided according to embodiments of the present invention which include expressing a recombinant nucleic acid in a lignocellulosic plant, the recombinant nucleic acid encoding a protein operably linked to a signal peptide which targets the protein to the cell wall of a plant, where at least 5% of the total amino acid residues of the protein are tyrosine, lysine, serine, threonine or cysteine.

  1. Enzymatically based cellulosic ethanol production technology was selected as a key area for biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    of biotechnology offered the promise for significant advances that could dramati- cally reduce costs and make Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA 5 Center for Environmental Research & Technology, Bourns

  2. PILOT PLANT STUDIES OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of the Kudzu Plant ..Chemical Analysis of the Kudzu Plant. As promised in a1-30-77), the study on the Kudzu plant has been completed.

  3. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    feedstocks, such as agricultural wastes and energy crops,feedstocks, such as agricultural wastes and forestry wastes,biomass, such as agricultural waste corn stover (112.7

  4. PILOT PLANT STUDIES OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steven Isaacs, Chemical Engineering, M.I.T. , B.S. 1976,Richard Lindsey, Chemical Engineering, Illinois Inst. of1974. Harry Wong, Chemical Engineering, M.I.T. , M.S. 1973.

  5. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Charles R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steven Wald, Chemical Engineering, Cornell, U. B.S.Candidate Dale Wiley, Chemical Engineering, UCSB, MS 1977,Candidate Harry Wong, Chemical Engineering, M.I.T. , M.S.

  6. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Charles R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production In shake flasks, Chaetomium trilaterat~ -2264 grows in pelletProduction In shake flask, Chaetomium trilaterate No. 2264 grows in pellet

  7. Uncertainty in techno-economic estimates of cellulosic ethanol production due to experimental measurement uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vicari, Kristin Jenise

    Abstract Background Cost-effective production of lignocellulosic biofuels remains a major financial and technical challenge at the industrial scale. A critical tool in biofuels process development is the techno-economic ...

  8. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in above newsletter is for bagasse and not corn stover astheir Figure 19 is for bagasse. Therefore assumptions, basedthe Purdue analysis of bagasse. Presumably the results would

  9. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MATERIALS AND PROCESS EVALUATION Analysis of Bagasse. Ray P.AND PROCESS EVALUATION Analysis of Bagasse Approximately 2pounds of bagasse stalks and stems were received through the

  10. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Charles R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    II, Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Bagasse Pith A, Sciamanna HighA, Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Bagasse Pith We recently receivedapproximately 2 KG of bagasse pith fraction (sucrose pre-

  11. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Charles R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compounds, Lyophilization, resuspension to concentrate thepH 5.5. Lyophilization. resuspension to concentrate the

  12. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is typically disposed of by incineration and/or landfill.on air pollution from incineration have halted construction

  13. Review: Continuous hydrolysis and fermentation for cellulosic ethanol production Simone Brethauer, Charles E. Wyman *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    with powerful economic, environmental, and strategic attributes, but production costs must be competitive. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction According to the recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel to 379 ppm in 2005, primarily as a result of fossil fuel use (IPCC, 2007). Overall, petroleum

  14. Department of Energy Delivers on R&D Targets around Cellulosic Ethanol |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsNovember 13, 2014ContributingDOE ContractDepartmentDecrease

  15. Microbial Fuel Cells for Recycle of Process Water from Cellulosic Ethanol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals fromprocess used in miningMicroBooNEThruBiorefineries -

  16. High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol Process Using High-Impact Feedstock

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D e e p p a a rDepartment| Departmenta d e b

  17. Genes and Mechanisms for Improving Cellulosic Ethanol Production in E. Coli

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof EnergyFundingGene ControlsCounselGeneral- Energy

  18. ZeaChem Pilot Project: High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol Process Using

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want to follow this link? If so, clickYucca MountainZERHHigh-Impact

  19. Greater Ohio Ethanol LLC GO Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG Contracting JumpGoveNebraska:Ethanol LLC GO Ethanol Jump to:

  20. Structure and processing of fibrous cellulose: bacterial and ascidian material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandelwal, Mudrika

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    of bacterial cellulose gel produced at ridged PDMS/liquid interfaces (scale bar 50 ?m) [113] b) SEM images of the cellulose networks produced under voltage gradient 0.45 V/cm (scale bar 1?m)[114] 2.8 Cellulose Nanoparticles The properties, functionality... Few microns 20 x 20 5 x 20-30 Algae 100-4000 nm 8 x 20 nm Tunicates 50-500 nm 3-5 nm Plant, wood % crystallinity and % cellulose content increases Acid hydrolysis Acid hydrolysis 26 Figure 2.18: Cellulose nanoparticles a) SEM image...

  1. Method of forming an electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Barbara R. (Oak Ridge, TN); O'Neill, Hugh M. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Ashtead, GB)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  2. Introduction Proposed Strategy for Cellulosic Bioethanol Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Introduction Proposed Strategy for Cellulosic Bioethanol Production Bioethanol: Eco for industries interested in new approaches for synthesizing bioethanol. Lastly, we suggest which downstream use of bioethanol would be the most eco-effective and the most economic by considering both environmental health

  3. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  4. IMPACTS OF BIOFILM FORMATION ON CELLULOSE FERMENTATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leschine, Susan

    2009-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addressed four major areas of investigation: i) characterization of formation of Cellulomonas uda biofilms on cellulose; ii) characterization of Clostridium phytofermentans biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; iii) characterization of Thermobifida fusca biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; and iii) description of the architecture of mature C. uda, C. phytofermentans, and T. fusca biofilms. This research is aimed at advancing understanding of biofilm formation and other complex processes involved in the degradation of the abundant cellulosic biomass, and the biology of the microbes involved. Information obtained from these studies is invaluable in the development of practical applications, such as the single-step bioconversion of cellulose-containing residues to fuels and other bioproducts. Our results have clearly shown that cellulose-decomposing microbes rapidly colonize cellulose and form complex structures typical of biofilms. Furthermore, our observations suggest that, as cells multiply on nutritive surfaces during biofilms formation, dramatic cell morphological changes occur. We speculated that morphological changes, which involve a transition from rod-shaped cells to more rounded forms, might be more apparent in a filamentous microbe. In order to test this hypothesis, we included in our research a study of biofilm formation by T. fusca, a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete commonly found in compost. The cellulase system of T. fusca has been extensively detailed through the work of David Wilson and colleagues at Cornell, and also, genome sequence of a T. fusca strain has been determine by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. Thus, T. fusca is an excellent subject for studies of biofilm development and its potential impacts on cellulose degradation. We also completed a study of the chitinase system of C. uda. This work provided essential background information for understanding how C. uda colonizes and degrades insoluble substrates. Major accomplishments of the project include: • Development of media containing dialysis tubing (described by the manufacturer as “regenerated cellulose”) as sole carbon and energy source and a nutritive surface for the growth of cellulolytic bacteria, and development of various microscopic methods to image biofilms on dialysis tubing. • Demonstration that cultures of C. phytofermentans, an obligate anaerobe, C. uda, a facultative aerobe, and T. fusca, a filamentous aerobe, formed microbial communities on the surface of dialysis tubing, which possessed architectural features and functional characteristics typical of biofilms. • Demonstration that biofilm formation on the nutritive surface, cellulose, involves a complex developmental processes, including colonization of dialysis tubing, formation of cell clusters attached to the nutritive surface, cell morphological changes, formation of complex structures embedded in extracellular polymeric matrices, and dispersal of biofilm communities as the nutritive surface is degraded. • Determination of surface specificity and regulatory aspects of biofilm formation by C. phytofermentans, C. uda, and T. fusca. • Demonstration that biofilm formation by T. fusca forms an integral part of the life cycle of this filamentous cellulolytic bacterium, including studies on the role of mycelial pellet formation in the T. fusca life cycle and a comparison of mycelial pellets to surface-attached T. fusca biofilms. • Characterization of T. fusca biofilm EPS, including demonstration of a functional role for EPS constituents. • Correlation of T. fusca developmental life cycle and cellulase gene expression.

  5. Ethanol production method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W.

    1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  6. Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is aimed at assessing the quantitative risks involved with an ethanol pipeline. Pipelines that run from the Midwest, where the vast majority of ethanol is produced, to the target areas where reformulated gasoline is required...

  7. Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is aimed at assessing the quantitative risks involved with an ethanol pipeline. Pipelines that run from the Midwest, where the vast majority of ethanol is produced, to the target areas where reformulated gasoline is required...

  8. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbialtechnologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of workstrategy for producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently

  9. Dekkera bruxellensis, a Non-conventional Ethanol Production Yeast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : risks and benefits 16 2.3 Bioethanol industry 17 3 Ethanol production overview 19 3.1 Industrial ethanol

  10. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  11. Effects of ethanol preservation on otolith microchemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of ethanol preservation on otolith microchemistry K. J. HEDGES*, S. A. LUDSIN*§ AND B. J coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to examine the effects of exposure time to ethanol (0, 1, 3, 9, 27 and 81 days) and ethanol quality (ACS- v. HPLC- grade) on strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba

  12. Original article Parallel selection of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Parallel selection of ethanol and acetic-acid tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster significantly with latitude (0.036 ! 0.004 for 1° latitude; genetic divergence FST = 0.25). Patterns of ethanol of latitudinal ethanol tolerance (10 to 15%) and acetic-acid tolerance (3.7 to 13.2%) were observed in adult

  13. EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN U.S. ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CORN GRAIN, CORN STOVER, AND SWITCHGRASS ON WORLD AGRICULTURAL MARKETS AND TRADE 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campiche, Jody L.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    biofuel technologies in a CGE framework. However, most of these studies do not include both an explicit sector for agricultural biomass feedstocks and allow for joint products. The specific methods of this dissertation include: ii. Incorporate...% more energy than is produced. The net energy balance of biofuels is highly dependent on the particular biomass feedstock used to produce the biofuel. However, it is important to note that cellulosic ethanol is not currently produced on a large...

  14. EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN U.S. ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CORN GRAIN, CORN STOVER, AND SWITCHGRASS ON WORLD AGRICULTURAL MARKETS AND TRADE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campiche, Jody L.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    biofuel technologies in a CGE framework. However, most of these studies do not include both an explicit sector for agricultural biomass feedstocks and allow for joint products. The specific methods of this dissertation include: ii. Incorporate...% more energy than is produced. The net energy balance of biofuels is highly dependent on the particular biomass feedstock used to produce the biofuel. However, it is important to note that cellulosic ethanol is not currently produced on a large...

  15. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Beall, David S. (Gainesville, FL); Burchhardt, Gerhard F. H. (Gainesville, FL); Guimaraes, Walter V. (Vicosa, BR); Ohta, Kazuyoshi (Miyazaki, JP); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL); Shanmugam, Keelnatham T. (Gainesville, FL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  16. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Horton, Philip G. (Gainesville, FL); Ben-Bassat, Arie (Gainesville, FL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  17. Cellulosic Liquid Fuels Commercial Production Today

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-Desert SouthwestofDepartmentCellulosic

  18. Review: Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Bin; Dai, Ziyu; Ding, Shi-You; Wyman, Charles E.

    2011-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals offers the high yields to products vital to economic success and the potential for very low costs. Enzymatic hydrolysis that converts lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars may be the most complex step in this process due to substrate-related and enzyme-related effects and their interactions. Although enzymatic hydrolysis offers the potential for higher yields, higher selectivity, lower energy costs, and milder operating conditions than chemical processes, the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis and the relationship between the substrate structure and function of various glycosyl hydrolase components are not well understood. Consequently, limited success has been realized in maximizing sugar yields at very low cost. This review highlights literature on the impact of key substrate and enzyme features that influence performance to better understand fundamental strategies to advance enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass for biological conversion to fuels and chemicals. Topics are summarized from a practical point of view including characteristics of cellulose (e.g., crystallinity, degree of polymerization, and accessible surface area) and soluble and insoluble biomass components (e.g., oligomeric xylan, lignin, etc.) released in pretreatment, and their effects on the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis. We further discuss the diversity, stability, and activity of individual enzymes and their synergistic effects in deconstructing complex lignocellulosic biomass. Advanced technologies to discover and characterize novel enzymes and to improve enzyme characteristics by mutagenesis, post-translational modification, and over-expression of selected enzymes and modifications in lignocellulosic biomass are also discussed.

  19. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

  20. Metallization of bacterial cellulose for electrical and electronic device manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Barbara R. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Jansen, Valerie Malyvanh (Memphis, TN) [Memphis, TN; Woodward, Jonathan (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the deposition of metals in bacterial cellulose and for the employment of the metallized bacterial cellulose in the construction of fuel cells and other electronic devices is disclosed. The method for impregnating bacterial cellulose with a metal comprises placing a bacterial cellulose matrix in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal salt is reduced to metallic form and the metal precipitates in or on the matrix. The method for the construction of a fuel cell comprises placing a hydrated bacterial cellulose support structure in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal precipitates in or on the support structure, inserting contact wires into two pieces of the metal impregnated support structure, placing the two pieces of metal impregnated support structure on opposite sides of a layer of hydrated bacterial cellulose, and dehydrating the three layer structure to create a fuel cell.

  1. Metallization of bacterial cellulose for electrical and electronic device manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Barbara R. (Oak Ridge, TN); O'Neill, Hugh M. (Knoxville, TN); Jansen, Valerie Malyvanh (Memphis, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the deposition of metals in bacterial cellulose and for the employment of the metallized bacterial cellulose in the construction of fuel cells and other electronic devices is disclosed. The method for impregnating bacterial cellulose with a metal comprises placing a bacterial cellulose matrix in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal salt is reduced to metallic form and the metal precipitates in or on the matrix. The method for the construction of a fuel cell comprises placing a hydrated bacterial cellulose support structure in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal precipitates in or on the support structure, inserting contact wires into two pieces of the metal impregnated support structure, placing the two pieces of metal impregnated support structure on opposite sides of a layer of hydrated bacterial cellulose, and dehydrating the three layer structure to create a fuel cell.

  2. Metallization of bacterial cellulose for electrical and electronic device manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Jansen, Valerie Malyvanh; Woodward, Jonathan

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The employment of metallized bacterial cellulose in the construction of fuel cells and other electronic devices is disclosed. The fuel cell includes an electrolyte membrane comprising a membrane support structure comprising bacterial cellulose, an anode disposed on one side of the electrolyte membrane, and a cathode disposed on an opposite side of the electrolyte membrane. At least one of the anode and the cathode comprises an electrode support structure comprising bacterial cellulose, and a catalyst disposed in or on the electrode support structure.

  3. acid swollen cellulose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a uniaxial extensional flow that mimics 178 Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse Environmental Sciences and Ecology...

  4. Enzymatic Degradation of Cellulose by the Filamentous Fungus Neurospora crassa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Christopher Michael

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of plant cell wall degradation by the model filamentousessential for chitin degradation, J. Biol. Chem. 280, 28492-Trichoderma-Reesei in the Degradation of Cellulose, Bio-

  5. Single-step conversion of cellulose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of HMF directly from raw natural cellulose represents the last major barrier toward the development of a sustainable HMF platform. Here we report an unprecedented single-step...

  6. acetobacter xylinum cellulose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the structure and properties (more) Kuutti, Lauri 2013-01-01 78 HYDROGELS AND AEROGELS BASED ON CHEMICALLY CROSS-LINKED CELLULOSE NANOCRYSTALS. Open Access Theses and...

  7. Final Report on Development of Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, Christopher D.; Kenealy, William R.; Shaw, A. Joe; Raman, Babu; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Brown, Steven D.; Davison, Brian H.; Covalla, Sean F.; Sillers, W. Ryan; Xu, Haowen; Tsakraklides, Vasiliki; Hogsett, David A.

    2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addressed the need for economical technology for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels, specifically the conversion of pretreated hardwood to ethanol. The technology developed is a set of strains of the bacterium Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum and an associated fermentation process for pretreated hardwood. Tools for genetic engineering and analysis of the organism were developed, including a markerless mutation method, a complete genome sequence and a set of gene expression profiles that show the activity of its genes under a variety of conditions relevant to lignocellulose conversion. Improved strains were generated by selection and genetic engineering to be able to produce higher amounts of ethanol (up to 70 g/L) and to be able to better tolerate inhibitory compounds from pretreated hardwood. Analysis of these strains has generated useful insight into the genetic basis for desired properties of biofuel producing organisms. Fermentation conditions were tested and optimized to achieve ethanol production targets established in the original project proposal. The approach proposed was to add cellulase enzymes to the fermentation, a method called Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). We had reason to think SSF would be an efficient approach because the optimal temperature and pH for the enzymes and bacterium are very close. Unfortunately, we discovered that commercially available cellulases are inactivated in thermophilic SSF by a combination of low redox potential and ethanol. Despite this, progress was made against the fermentation targets using bacterial cellulases. Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum may still prove to be a commercially viable technology should cellulase enzyme issues be addressed. Moreover, the organism was demonstrated to produce ethanol at approximately theoretical yield from oligomeric hemicellulose extracts, an ability that may prove to be uniquely valuable in pretreatment configurations in which cellulose and hemicellulose are separated.

  8. Cellulosic biomass could help meet California’s transportation fuel needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E.; Yang, Bin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bacterial catalysts for fuel ethanol production. Biotech-of process streams in fuel ethanol production from softwoodtion of biotechnology to fuel ethanol production from

  9. National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis of Biorefinery Siting Based on Cellulosic Feedstock Grown on Marginal Lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, David H.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project undertaken by GLBRC (Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center) Area 4 (Sustainability) modelers is to develop a national capability to model feedstock supply, ethanol production, and biogeochemical impacts of cellulosic biofuels. The results of this project contribute to sustainability goals of the GLBRC; i.e. to contribute to developing a sustainable bioenergy economy: one that is profitable to farmers and refiners, acceptable to society, and environmentally sound. A sustainable bioenergy economy will also contribute, in a fundamental way, to meeting national objectives on energy security and climate mitigation. The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) develop a spatially explicit national geodatabase for conducting biofuel simulation studies and (4) locate possible sites for the establishment of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries. To address the first objective, we developed SENGBEM (Spatially Explicit National Geodatabase for Biofuel and Environmental Modeling), a 60-m resolution geodatabase of the conterminous USA containing data on: (1) climate, (2) soils, (3) topography, (4) hydrography, (5) land cover/ land use (LCLU), and (6) ancillary data (e.g., road networks, federal and state lands, national and state parks, etc.). A unique feature of SENGBEM is its 2008-2010 crop rotation data, a crucially important component for simulating productivity and biogeochemical cycles as well as land-use changes associated with biofuel cropping. ARRA support for this project and to the PNNL Joint Global Change Research Institute enabled us to create an advanced computing infrastructure to execute millions of simulations, conduct post-processing calculations, store input and output data, and visualize results. These computing resources included two components installed at the Research Data Center of the University of Maryland. The first resource was 'deltac': an 8-core Linux server, dedicated to county-level and state-level simulations and PostgreSQL database hosting. The second resource was the DOE-JGCRI 'Evergreen' cluster, capable of executing millions of simulations in relatively short periods. ARRA funding also supported a PhD student from UMD who worked on creating the geodatabases and executing some of the simulations in this study. Using a physically based classification of marginal lands, we simulated production of cellulosic feedstocks from perennial mixtures grown on these lands in the US Midwest. Marginal lands in the western states of the US Midwest appear to have significant potential to supply feedstocks to a cellulosic biofuel industry. Similar results were obtained with simulations of N-fertilized perennial mixtures. A detailed spatial analysis allowed for the identification of possible locations for the establishment of 34 cellulosic ethanol biorefineries with an annual production capacity of 5.6 billion gallons. In summary, we have reported on the development of a spatially explicit national geodatabase to conduct biofuel simulation studies and provided simulation results on the potential of perennial cropping systems to serve as feedstocks for the production of cellulosic ethanol. To accomplish this, we have employed sophisticated spatial analysis methods in combination with the process-based biogeochemical model EPIC. The results of this study will be submitted to the USDOE Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework as a way to contribute to the development of a sustainable bioenergy industry. This work provided the opportunity to test the hypothesis that marginal lands can serve as sources of cellulosic feedstocks and thus contribute to avoid potential conflicts between bioenergy and food production systems. This work, we believe, opens the door for further analysis on the characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks as major contributors to the development of a sustainable bioenergy economy.

  10. Food for fuel: The price of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albino, Dominic K; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversion of corn to ethanol in the US since 2005 has been a major cause of global food price increases during that time and has been shown to be ineffective in achieving US energy independence and reducing environmental impact. We make three key statements to enhance understanding and communication about ethanol production's impact on the food and fuel markets: (1) The amount of corn used to produce the ethanol in a gallon of regular gas would feed a person for a day, (2) The production of ethanol is so energy intensive that it uses only 20% less fossil fuel than gasoline, and (3) The cost of gas made with ethanol is actually higher per mile because ethanol reduces gasoline's energy per gallon.

  11. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  12. Ethanol production from spent sulfite liquor fortified by hydrolysis of pulp mill primary clarifier sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritz, J.W.; Duff, S.J.B. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Some low-yield sulfite pulping operations ferment spent sulfite liquor (SSL) to remove biochemical oxygen demand associated with dissolved sugars while at the same time generating ethanol as a salable product. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of primary clarifier sludge in a medium of SSL was proposed as a means of reducing the amount of sludge to be disposed of while at the same time increasing ethanol productivity. In this article, the option of fortifying existing SSL fermenting processes with the sugars produced via in situ enzymatic hydrolysis of sulfite primary clarifier sludge (PCS) has been explored. In 100% SSL PCS hydrolysis rates as high as 3.4 g/(L{center_dot}h) were observed at an initial enzyme loading of 10 filter paper units (FPU)/g PCS. To reduce the deleterious effects of glucose inhibition, single-stage SSF was carried out using cellulose enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The production rate of ethanol in SSL was increased by as much as 25% through the SSF process. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Innovative Breakthrough Demonstrated for Biological Ethanol Production...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Biological Ethanol Production June 30, 2015 - 11:43am Addthis Advanced Biofuels Process Demonstration Unit at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Photo credit:...

  14. Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels ? Implementation Perspectives

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives William Woebkenberg - US Fuels Technical and Regulatory Affairs Mercedes-Benz Research & Development North America July 25, 2013...

  15. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Carriera, Laura H. (Athens, GA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  16. Ethanol: Producting Food, Feed, and Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the August 7, 2008 joint quarterly Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Todd Sneller (Nebraska Ethanol Board) discussed the food versus fuel issue.

  17. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  18. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  19. Methods of detection using a cellulose binding domain fusion product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, Oded (Shimshon, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (North Gallilea, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  20. Methods of detection using a cellulose binding domain fusion product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 34 figs.

  1. Methods of use of cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  2. Methods of use of cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1997-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  3. Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts of Ethanol Fuel Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts of Ethanol Fuel Use Dylan B. Millet,*, Eric Apel, Daven K. Henze,§ Jason Hill, Julian D. Marshall, Hanwant B-Chem chemical transport model to constrain present-day North American ethanol sources, and gauge potential long

  4. PEMFC Power System on EthanolPEMFC Power System on Ethanol Caterpillar Inc.Caterpillar Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. RichardsThomas J. Richards #12;PEM ETHANOL FUEL CELL DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cells 2003 Annual Merit Review 21 May 2003 #12;PEM ETHANOL FUEL CELL In 2003, a 10-15 kW stationary PEM fuel cell system examines the durability of a PEM based fuel cell system while operating on ethanol - a renewable fuel

  5. Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts of Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    of Ethanol Fuel Use Dylan B. Millet*,1 , Eric Apel2 , Daven K. Henze3 , Jason Hill1 , Julian D. Marshall1S1 Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts INFORMATION Supporting Information contains a total of 12 pages, 1 table, and 7 figures. 1. AIRBORNE ETHANOL

  6. Ethanol 2000 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to:EmminolEntergyEnvisoryInformationEthanol 2000 Jump to:

  7. Ethanol Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to:EmminolEntergyEnvisoryInformationEthanol

  8. Highwater Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel Jump to: navigation, searchCounty, Virginia:HighlineHighwater Ethanol

  9. Northstar Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: EnergyExcellence Seed LLC JumpNew Jersey:Northstar Ethanol Jump to:

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About BecomeTechnologies | BlandineNaturalEmerging FuelsEthanol

  11. Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of St. Paul

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of St. Paul Ramsey County, Minnesota September with the Gopher State Ethanol, St. Paul, Ramsey County, Minnesota. It is based on a formal site evaluation....................................................................................................................... 3 Ethanol Production

  12. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production...

  13. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Clark, David P. (Carbondale, IL)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  14. Biotech Breakthrough Produces Ethanol from Waste Glycerin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    . Biodiesel is one of the green alternatives and US production of this fuel is at an all-time high, with new biodiesel plants being constructed in record number. However, there is one problem, the fact. They developed a new technology that transforms glycerin into ethanol, another ecological fuel. Ethanol

  15. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 Updated Feb 2009 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

  16. Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

  17. aqueous ethanol pulping: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assisted combustion of ethanol a means of using nearly pure ethanol as a diesel engine fuel by using hydrogen rich gases to facilitate of combustion (SOC) A good...

  18. acute ethanol exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assisted combustion of ethanol a means of using nearly pure ethanol as a diesel engine fuel by using hydrogen rich gases to facilitate of combustion (SOC) A good...

  19. acute ethanol challenge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assisted combustion of ethanol a means of using nearly pure ethanol as a diesel engine fuel by using hydrogen rich gases to facilitate of combustion (SOC) A good...

  20. affects ethanolic fermentation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assisted combustion of ethanol a means of using nearly pure ethanol as a diesel engine fuel by using hydrogen rich gases to facilitate of combustion (SOC) A good...

  1. Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid The National Renewable Energy...

  2. Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline Feasability Study...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline Feasability Study - Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Section 243 Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline...

  3. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model An update to...

  4. acute ethanol assessment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Delaine 2008-10-10 3 Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of St. Paul Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of...

  5. Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene. Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene. Abstract: The desorption kinetics of methanol,...

  6. Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-B:...

  7. Ethanol mandate thrown out by appeals court

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begley, R.

    1995-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In a victory for the oil industry, a federal appeals court has overturned EPA`s mandate for ethanol use in reformulated gasoline (REG), saying the agency lacks authority to require 30% of the oxygenate market be reserved for ethanol. EPA says the ruling does not prevent ethanols use in RFG - {open_quotes}It only says that EPA cannot dictate the recipe.{close_quotes} Charles DiBona, president of the American Petroleum Institute (API), says {open_quotes}API and its member companies are not opposed to the use of ethanol as an oxygenate. We oppose this illegal mandate.{close_quotes} Urvan Sternfels, president of the National Petroleum Refiners Association, says, {open_quotes}Mandating market shares for any product is unsound economic policy.{close_quotes} The two trade groups led the legal battle against the ethanol requirement.

  8. A laboratory and pilot plant scaled continuous stirred reactor separator for the production of ethanol from sugars, corn grits/starch or biomass streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, M.C.; Lei, Shuiwang; Zhou, Chongde

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved bio-reactor has been developed to allow the high speed, continues, low energy conversion of various substrates to ethanol. The Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS) incorporates gas stripping of the ethanol using a recalculating gas stream between cascading stirred reactors in series. We have operated a 4 liter lab scale unit, and built and operated a 24,000 liter pilot scale version of the bioreactor. High rates of fermentation are maintained in the reactor stages using a highly flocculent yeast strain. Ethanol is recovered from the stripping gas using a hydrophobic solvent absorber (isothermal), after which the gas is returned to the bioreactor. Ethanol can then be removed from the solvent to recover a highly concentrated ethanol product. We have applied the lab scale CSRS to sugars (glucose/sucrose), molasses, and raw starch with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the starch granules (SSF). The pilot scale CSRS has been operated as a cascade reactor using dextrins as a feed. Operating data from both the lab and pilot scale CSRS are presented. Details of how the system might be applied to cellulosics, with some preliminary data are also given.

  9. The structure and mechanics of nanofibrillar cellulose foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, Zubaidah Mohammed

    Crystalline nanofibrillar cellulose has remarkable mechanical properties: a Young's modulus of about 130 GPa and a tensile strength in the range of 750–1000 MPa. Recently, there has been increasing interest in exploiting ...

  10. Shear and Extensional Rheology of Cellulose/Ionic Liquid Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haward, Simon J.

    In this study, we characterize the shear and extensional rheology of dilute to semidilute solutions of cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIAc). In steady shear flow, the semidilute solutions ...

  11. affecting cellulose content: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and mass loss are important data to be measured for wildland fires modelling purpose and fire hazard studies on ligno-cellulosic fuels. Around 638 and 778 K, two dominating and...

  12. Environmental analysis of biomass-ethanol facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Putsche, V.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report analyzes the environmental regulatory requirements for several process configurations of a biomass-to-ethanol facility. It also evaluates the impact of two feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW] and agricultural residues) and three facility sizes (1000, 2000, and 3000 dry tons per day [dtpd]) on the environmental requirements. The basic biomass ethanol process has five major steps: (1) Milling, (2) Pretreatment, (3) Cofermentation, (4) Enzyme production, (5) Product recovery. Each step could have environmental impacts and thus be subject to regulation. Facilities that process 2000 dtpd of MSW or agricultural residues would produce 69 and 79 million gallons of ethanol, respectively.

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulase C.Tier 2North CarolinaE85:EthanolEthanolEthanol

  14. Ethanol Production, Distribution, and Use: Discussions on Key Issues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrow, G.

    2008-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    From production to the environment, presentation discusses issues surrounding ethanol as a transportation fuel.

  15. U.S. Energy Situation, Ethanol, and Energy Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slide 1 U.S. Energy Situation, Ethanol, and Energy Policy Wally Tyner #12;Slide 2 Breakeven Corn and Crude Prices with Ethanol Priced on Energyand PremiumBases plus Ethanol Subsidy 0.00 10.00 20.00 30 #12;Slide 3 Breakeven Corn and Crude Prices with Ethanol Priced on Energyand PremiumBases plus

  16. Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Ethanol (E85)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 2.4.2014 Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Ethanol (E85) Contents Introduction is a renewable alternative transportation fuel blend of gasoline and ethanol. Ethanol (C2H5OH, a.k.a. ethyl matter. The E85 ethanol blend is a low carbon, clean-burning, high-octane fuel, and a versatile solvent

  17. Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines Ethanol continuedOber 2013 Catalystcts.umn.edu Nearly all corn-based ethanol produced in the United States is anhydrous processes required to remove the water from ethanol consume a great deal of energy. Researchers from

  18. Ethanol Tolerance Caused by slowpoke Induction in Drosophila

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkinson, Nigel

    Ethanol Tolerance Caused by slowpoke Induction in Drosophila Roshani B. Cowmeadow, Harish R in the ethanol response. Caenorhabditis elegans carrying mutations in this gene have altered ethanol sensitivity and Drosophila mutant for this gene are unable to acquire rapid tolerance to ethanol or anesthetics

  19. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  20. QER- Comment of ND Ethanol Council

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To whom it may concern, Attached please find comments from the North Dakota Ethanol Council regarding infrastructure constraints in preparation for the OER Public Meeting, which will be held in Bismarck, N.D., on August 8. Sincerely, Deana Wies

  1. Natural Gas Ethanol Flex-Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Gas Propane Electric Ethanol Flex-Fuel Biodiesel Vehicle Buyer's Guide Clean Cities 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 About This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Compressed Natural Gas and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane

  2. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence...

  3. Commercial ethanol production and marketing on a large scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuenkel, A.E.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol use has advanced because of its ability to increase gasoline octane ratings. The recent oil glut, and price decline, will affect the ethanol industry. Yet the country needs the ethanol industry to complement current efforts to eliminate projected grain surpluses. State incentives must be standardized, to provide marketing consistency. At present, ethanol is the only octane enhancer not commanding its true value. Ethanol is more effective than MTBE, Toluene, or TBA, and must take its place beside these enhancers on the market.

  4. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  5. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is continuing in an attempt to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio using C. ljungdahlii. The purpose of this report is to present data utilizing a medium prepared especially for C. ljungdahlii. Medium development studies are presented, as well as reactor studies with the new medium in batch reactors. CSTRs and CSTRs with cell recycle. The use of this new medium has resulted in significant improvements in cell concentration, ethanol concentration and product ratio.

  6. Lignin-Derived Carbon Fiber as a Co-Product of Refining Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Baker, Fred S [ORNL; Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL; Boeman, Raymond G [ORNL; Keller, Martin [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin by-products from biorefineries has the potential to provide a low-cost alternative to petroleum-based precursors to manufacture carbon fiber, which can be combined with a binding matrix to produce a structural material with much greater specific strength and specific stiffness than conventional materials such as steel and aluminum. The market for carbon fiber is universally projected to grow exponentially to fill the needs of clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and to improve the fuel economies in vehicles through lightweighting. In addition to cellulosic biofuel production, lignin-based carbon fiber production coupled with biorefineries may provide $2,400 to $3,600 added value dry Mg-1 of biomass for vehicle applications. Compared to producing ethanol alone, the addition of lignin-derived carbon fiber could increase biorefinery gross revenue by 30% to 300%. Using lignin-derived carbon fiber in 15 million vehicles per year in the US could reduce fossil fuel consumption by 2-5 billion liters year-1, reduce CO2 emissions by about 6.7 million Mg year-1, and realize fuel savings through vehicle lightweighting of $700 to $1,600 per Mg biomass processed. The value of fuel savings from vehicle lightweighting becomes economical at carbon fiber price of $6.60 kg-1 under current fuel prices, or $13.20 kg-1 under fuel prices of about $1.16 l-1.

  7. Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Priyank

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of ethanol, isobutene and MTBE: Experiments and modeling”,of ethanol, isobutene and MTBE: Experiments and modeling”,of ethanol, isobutene and MTBE: Experiments and modeling”,

  8. Length of Stay Following Trauma is not Affected by Ethnicity When Controlled for Ethanol Intoxication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangum, Craig; LoVecchio, Frank; Mathieson, Kathleen

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When Controlled for Ethanol Intoxication Craig Mangum, MD;properly controlled for ethanol and drug intoxication. Wepatients, controlling for ethanol intoxication. Methods:

  9. Brain reward deficits accompany withdrawal (hangover) from acute ethanol in rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulteis, Gery; Liu, Jian

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stimulation reward: effects of ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Resstimulus produced by ethanol withdrawal. J Pharmacol Expthe "anxiogenic" response to ethanol withdrawal in the rat.

  10. Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Priyank

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature oxidation of ethanol. Part 2. -Kineticof high-temperature ethanol ignition”, Soviet Journal ofKinetic modeling of ethanol pyrolysis and combustion”,

  11. The effects of caffeine, nicotine, ethanol, and tetrahydrocannabinol on exercise performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pesta, Dominik H; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Burtscher, Martin; Roberts, Christian K

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alvarez AI: Effect of chronic ethanol ingestion and exerciseR, Urbano-Marquez A: Acute ethanol treatment decreasesA: Comparative effects of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetate

  12. Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Priyank

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was used to vaporize ethanol fuel. The vaporizer wasmixture of the evaporated ethanol fuel and the nitrogen gas.premixed flames of ethanol and other fuels for comparison

  13. Carbon supported PtRh catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Carbon supported PtRh catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell S and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 26 carbon supported PtRh catalysts and compare their catalytic activities with that of Pt/C in alkaline

  14. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

    1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

  15. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, C.S.; Chriswell, C.D.

    1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%. 5 figs.

  16. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the wild strain'' produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  17. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  18. Cellulose Simulations Demystify High-Temperature Behavior (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular simulations that model cellulose microfibrils at high temperature indicate regions that may be easier to break down, which could lead to more efficient processing of cellulose into biofuel.

  19. Cellulosic Biofuels: Expert Views on Prospects for Advancement and Jeffrey Keisler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Cellulosic Biofuels: Expert Views on Prospects for Advancement Erin Baker and Jeffrey Keisler funding and the likelihood of achieving advances in cellulosic biofuel technologies. While in collecting more information on this technology. Keywords: Biofuels; Technology R&D; Uncertainty

  20. DuPont's Journey to Build a Global Cellulosic BioFuel Business...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DuPont's Journey to Build a Global Cellulosic BioFuel Business Enterprise DuPont's Journey to Build a Global Cellulosic BioFuel Business Enterprise Plenary I: Progress in Advanced...

  1. Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system.

  2. Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse Gas on recycled paper #12;1 Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production. Melillo*, John M. Reilly§ , and Sergey Paltsev§ Abstract The production of cellulosic biofuels may have

  3. PILOT PLANT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL. REPORT OF WORK PROGRESS, JUNE 30, 1977

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    phenolic resins and a hot water extraction to remove solubleu lts of alcohol and water extraction on various types o fJ u oj The yield on water extraction was 84 . 9 % and the

  4. PILOT PLANT STUDIES OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL. REPORT OF WORK PROGRESS, JAN. 31, 1977

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Solar Energy at Campinas, Brazil, 1976. LBL-5275 (inEnergy and Bioconversion Symposium, Sao Paulo (Campinas) Brazil,

  5. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, Harold M. (Darien, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

  6. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1980-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by-product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  7. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    products, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so,Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: currentethanol production, the advances are applicable to the production of a variety of fuel

  8. Investigation of the Photocatalytic Degradation of Ethanol and Acetone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Y.; Ding, B.; Dong, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In-situ transmission Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to study the photocatalytic oxidation of acetone, ethanol and the interaction between acetone and ethanol. Compared with the degradation of acetone alone, it cannot...

  9. CODED SPECTROSCOPY FOR ETHANOL DETECTION IN DIFFUSE, FLUORESCENT MEDIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ABSTRACT CODED SPECTROSCOPY FOR ETHANOL DETECTION IN DIFFUSE, FLUORESCENT MEDIA by Scott Thomas Mc FOR ETHANOL DETECTION IN DIFFUSE, FLUORESCENT MEDIA by Scott Thomas McCain Department of Electrical

  10. Renewable Fuels Association’s National Ethanol Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mark Elless, a BETO technology manager, will be representing BETO at the 20th anniversary of the National Ethanol Conference.

  11. Ethanol Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. ethanol vehicle and infrastructure projects.

  12. Clean Cities: Ethanol Basics, Fact Sheet, October 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Document answers frequently asked questions about ethanol as a transportation fuel, including those on production, environmental effects, and vehicles.

  13. The Renewable Fuel Standard and Ethanol Pricing: A Sensitivity Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNair, Robert

    2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    of biofuel. The current Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requires 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel use by 2022. A large proportion of the mandate is to consist of corn-based ethanol. Most ethanol is consumed in the U.S. as a 10 percent blend of ethanol...

  14. Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation Christopher R. Knittel and Aaron proponents of ethanol have argued that ethanol production greatly lowers gasoline prices, with one industry group claiming it reduced gasoline prices by 89 cents in 2010 and $1.09 in 2011. The estimates have been

  15. GUV formation protocol: -Ethanol, DI water and Kimwipes for cleaning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Movileanu, Liviu

    GUV formation protocol: Materials: - Ethanol, DI water and Kimwipes for cleaning - 5-10 µl glass with ethanol and DI water using Kimwipes alternating the solvents at least twice to make sure any grease-ring using a Kimwipe and ethanol. Use Que-tip or grease slide to apply a thin layer of vacuum grease to one

  16. Mouse inbred strain differences in ethanol drinking to intoxication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garland Jr., Theodore

    Mouse inbred strain differences in ethanol drinking to intoxication J. S. Rhodes*, , M. M. Ford , C described a simple procedure, Drinking in the Dark (DID), in which C57BL/6J mice self-administer ethanol to a blood ethanol concentration (BEC) above 1 mg/ml. The test consists of replacing the water with 20

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Utilization of diets containing graded levels of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to manufacture fuel ethanol (Rosentrater and Muthukumarappan, 2006). In 2008, 174 operating ethanol plantsORIGINAL ARTICLE Utilization of diets containing graded levels of ethanol production co-Pascual, 2000), fuel-based DDGS are a co-product of dry mill pro- cessing, where primarily corn is used

  18. Modified Dry Grind Ethanol Process Vijay Singh1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modified Dry Grind Ethanol Process Vijay Singh1 , Kent D. Rausch1 *, Ping Yang2 , Hosein Shapouri3-265-0697). #12;Modified Dry Grind Ethanol Process ­ University of Illinois 2 Table of Contents 1. Introductory.....................................................................................................7 3.2. Dry Grind Ethanol

  19. Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerances in Drosophila melanogaster: similar maternal) Summary - Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerances were studied in a cross between 2 geo- graphic races disappeared in the F2. Further investigations demonstrated that for ethanol tolerance, the large difference

  20. Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerance in Indian geographical populations of Drosophila clines of ethanol toler- ance (1.5-4.2%) and acetic-acid tolerance (2.9-4.9%) were observed in adult individuals of 4 geographical populations of Drosophila immigrans. Thus, both ethanol and acetic

  1. ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 decreases ethanol intake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 decreases ethanol intake in mice Wei Hu Rationale Cyclic AMP (cAMP)­protein kinase A signal- ing has been implicated in the regulation of ethanol intracellular cAMP levels in the brain. However, the role of PDE4 in ethanol consumption remains unknown

  2. LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL P. Dirrenberger1 , P.A. Glaude*1 WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL P. Dirrenberger1 , P.A. Glaude*1 , R. Bounaceur1 , H. Le Gall1 , A. Pires da Cruz2 , A. The influence of ethanol as an oxygenated additive has been investigated for these two fuels and has been found

  3. Energy Analysis of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Energy Analysis of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle First Draft Tad W. Patzek Department of Civil legitimately ask: Why do the various energy balances of the corn-ethanol cycle still differ so much? Why do some authors claim that the corn-ethanol cycle has a positive net energy balance (Wang et al., 1997

  4. Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with carbonate-containing solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, Raymond

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with an acidic solution and then a carbonate-containing solution to produce a pretreated cellulosic material are provided. The pretreated material may then be further treated in a pulping process, for example, a soda-anthraquinone pulping process, to produce a cellulose pulp. The pretreatment solutions may be extracted from the pretreated cellulose material and selectively re-used, for example, with acid or alkali addition, for the pretreatment solutions. The resulting cellulose pulp is characterized by having reduced lignin content and increased yield compared to prior art treatment processes.

  5. U.S. Ethanol Policy: The Unintended

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meagher, Mary

    petroleum and to cut greenhouse gas emissions. A new blend of ethanol and conventional gasoline was to cost consequences of the policy, especially those influencing world food prices, are negative and far outweigh, four intended conse- quences would result: 1) the American motorist would see low- er prices

  6. Ethanol production in gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F. (Gainesville, FL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  7. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F. (Gainesville, FL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  8. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  9. Cellulose and Biomass Conversion Technology and Its Application to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    have risen markedly over the last few years.' Because OPEC con- trols about 75% of tbe world's oil re-carbon sugar that has historically been more difficult to con- 68 FUEL REFORMULATION vert into useful products,700 million dry tons of cellulosic biomass per year at prices from $20-70 per dry ton." 10 This quantity

  10. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water, methanol + water, and ethanol + water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Takeda, Kouichi; Kojima, Kazuo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry; Minoura, Tsuyoshi [Mitui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured for the ternary system methanol + ethanol + water and its constituent binary systems of methanol + water and ethanol + water at 323.15, 328.15, and 333.15 K. The apparatus that was used made it possible to control the measured temperature and total pressure by computer. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system was predicted using the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

  11. Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

  12. Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content on the lifespan and maximum length of benzene plumes Diego E. Gomez1 and Pedro 10 March 2009. [1] A numerical model was used to evaluate how the concentration of ethanol

  13. Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

  14. Surface-induced anisotropic orientations of interfacial ethanol molecules at air/sapphire (1-102) and ethanol/sapphire (1-102) interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SSP-SFVS spectra of the ethanol liquid/? -Al 2 O 3 ( 1102 )In Ref. 7, ? for the first ethanol monolayer was assumed toassumptions led to results on ethanol bilayers different

  15. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  16. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  17. Combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis of cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agu, R.C.; Amadife, A.E.; Ude, C.M.; Onyia, A.; Ogu, E.O. [Enugu State Univ. of Science and Technology (Nigeria). Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences] [Enugu State Univ. of Science and Technology (Nigeria). Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences; Okafor, M.; Ezejiofor, E. [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ., Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Microbiology] [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ., Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Microbiology

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis (various concentrations) on cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production was investigated. At high concentrations of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (1--5 M), hydrolysis of the CGW biomass was achieved but with excessive charring or dehydration reaction. At lower acid concentrations, hydrolysis of CGW biomass was also achieved with 0.3--0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, while partial hydrolysis was obtained below 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (the lowest acid concentration that hydrolyzed CGW biomass) at 120 C and 1 atm pressure for 30 min. A 60% process efficiency was achieved with 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in hydrolyzing the cellulose and lignin materials present in the CGW biomass. High acid concentration is therefore not required for CGW biomass hydrolysis. The low acid concentration required for CGW biomass hydrolysis, as well as the minimal cost required for detoxification of CGW biomass because of low hydrogen cyanide content of CGW biomass would seem to make this process very economical. From three liters of the CGW biomass hydrolysate obtained from hydrolysis with 0.3M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, ethanol yield was 3.5 (v/v%) after yeast fermentation. However, although the process resulted in gainful utilization of CGW biomass, additional costs would be required to effectively dispose new by-products generated from CGW biomass processing.

  18. Oxygenates du`jour...MTBE? Ethanol? ETBE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, R.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many different liquids that contain oxygen which could be blended into gasoline. The ones that have been tried and make the most sense are in the alcohol (R-OH) and ether (R-O-R) chemical family. The alcohols considered are: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). The ethers are: methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). Of the eight oxygenates listed above, the author describes the five that are still waiting for widespread marketing acceptance (methanol, TBA, TAME, TAEE, and DIPE). He then discusses the two most widely used oxygenates in the US, MTBE and ethanol, along with the up-and-coming ethanol ether, ETBE. Selected physical properties for all of these oxygenates can be found in Table 2 at the end of this paper. A figure shows a simplified alcohol/ether production flow chart for the oxygenates listed above and how they are interrelated.

  19. Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attrition mill and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system. 1 fig.

  20. Study of polyelectrolyte complexes of chitosan and sulfoethyl cellulose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baklagina, Yu. G., E-mail: membrane@hq.macro.ru; Kononova, S. V.; Petrova, V. A.; Kruchinina, E. V.; Nud'ga, L. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds (Russian Federation); Romanov, D. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Grebenshchikov Institute of Silicate Chemistry (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Grebenshchikov Institute of Silicate Chemistry (Russian Federation); Klechkovskaya, V. V.; Orekhov, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Bogomazov, A. V.; Arkhipov, S. N. [ZAO Nauchnye Pribory (Russian Federation)] [ZAO Nauchnye Pribory (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The complexing of polycation chitosan and polyanion sulphoethyl cellulose during the formation of polyelectrolyte simplex membranes using the layer-by-layer deposition of a solution of one polyion on a gel-like film of another one has been studied. The structural characteristics of the multilayer composites and their components have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. A technique is proposed for studying the structure of surface layers of thin polymer films (15-20 {mu}m) using a portable DIFREI-401 diffractometer. It is shown that the sequence of layer deposition during the formation of membrane films does not affect their structural characteristics. The interaction between positively charged chitosan groups (-NH{sub 3}{sup +}) and negatively charged sulfoethyl cellulose groups (-SO{sub 3}{sup -}) during the growth of polyelectrolyte complexes results in a packing of chitosan chains in the multilayer film.

  1. Development of Cellulosic Biofuels (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Somerville, Chris [Director, Energy Biosciences Institute

    2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Summer Lecture Series 2007: Chris Somerville, Director of the Energy Biosciences Institute and an award-winning plant biochemist with Berkeley Lab's Physical Biosciences Division, is a leading authority on the structure and function of plant cell walls. He discusses an overview of some of the technical challenges associated with the production of cellulosic biofuels, which will require an improved understanding of a diverse range of topics in fields such as agronomy, chemical engineering, microbiology, structural biology, genomics, environmental sciences, and socioeconomics.

  2. Pathway engineering to improve ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynd, L.R.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuation of a research project jointly funded by the NSF and DOE is proposed. The primary project goal is to develop and characterize strains of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum having ethanol selectivity similar to more convenient ethanol-producing organisms. An additional goal is to document the maximum concentration of ethanol that can be produced by thermophiles. These goals build on results from the previous project, including development of most of the genetic tools required for pathway engineering in the target organisms. As well, we demonstrated that the tolerance of C. thermosaccharolyticum to added ethanol is sufficiently high to allow practical utilization should similar tolerance to produced ethanol be demonstrated, and that inhibition by neutralizing agents may explain the limited concentrations of ethanol produced in studies to date. Task 1 involves optimization of electrotransformation, using either modified conditions or alternative plasmids to improve upon the low but reproducible transformation, frequencies we have obtained thus far.

  3. Analysis of Metabolic Pathways and Fluxes in a Newly Discovered Thermophilic and Ethanol-Tolerant Geobacillus Strain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Yinjie J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: currentcharacterization of two novel ethanol-tolerant facultative-Lin Y, Tanaka S. 2006. Ethanol fermentation from biomass

  4. Direct Use of Wet Ethanol in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine: Experimental and Numerical Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L; Aceves, Salvador M; Dibble, Robert W

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy balance of corn ethanol revisited, Transaction offor autoignition. The wet ethanol modeling study [REF] usedengine running on wet ethanol. Fuel mixtures studied range

  5. Charging process of polyurethane based composites under electronic irradiation: Effects of cellulose fiber content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadjadj, Aomar; Jbara, Omar; Tara, Ahmed; Gilliot, Mickael [Laboratoire d'Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux (LISM EA 4695), Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51687 Reims cedex 2 (France)] [Laboratoire d'Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux (LISM EA 4695), Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51687 Reims cedex 2 (France); Dellis, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matičre Condensée (LPMC EA 2081), Université de Picardie Jules Vernes, 80009 Amiens cedex 1 (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matičre Condensée (LPMC EA 2081), Université de Picardie Jules Vernes, 80009 Amiens cedex 1 (France)

    2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The study deals with the charging effect of polyurethanes-based composites reinforced with cellulose fibers, under electronic beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that the leakage current and the trapped charge as well as the kinetics of charging process significantly change beyond a critical concentration of 10% cellulose fibers. These features are correlated with the cellulose concentration-dependence of the electrical properties, specifically resistivity and capacitance, of the composite.

  6. Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells: Platinum/Rhodium Anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells: Platinum/Rhodium Anode Catalysis Ken Ellis-Guardiola PCCM REU 2010 #12 EtOH+3H2O 12H+ +2CO2+ 12e- Pt C 4H+ + 4e- + O2 2H2O O2 Anode Cathode The Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell #12 Fuel Cell Test ~ 1.5 mg Pt loading. 1.0 M Ethanol flowing at 1 ml/min. O2 flowing at 100 ml/min. Cells

  7. Forest Biomass and Lignocellulosic Materials Forest-derived biopolymers lignin and cellulose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Forest Biomass and Lignocellulosic Materials Forest-derived biopolymers lignin and cellulose of sustainable products such as nanocellulose and biocomposites from forest biomass; biorefining to develop high

  8. Composite polymer electrolytes based on MG49 and carboxymethyl cellulose from kenaf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jafirin, Serawati; Ahmad, Ishak; Ahmad, Azizan [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of 49% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG49) and carboxymethyl cellulose as a composite polymer electrolyte film incorporating LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} were explored. Carboxymethyl cellulose was synthesized from kenaf bast fibres via carboxymethylation process by alkali catalyzed reaction of cellulose with sodium chloroacetate. Reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy showed the presence of carboxyl peak after modification of cellulose with sodium chloroacetate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystallinity of cellulose was decrease after synthesis. High performance composite polymer electrolytes were prepared with various composition of carboxymethyl cellulose (2–10 wt%) via solution-casting method. The conductivity was increased with carboxymethyl cellulose loading. The highest conductivity value achieved was 3.3 × 10{sup ?7} Scm{sup ?1} upon addition of 6% wt carboxymethyl cellulose. 6% wt carboxymethyl cellulose composition showed the highest tensile strength value of 7.9 MPa and 273 MPa of modulus value which demonstrated high mechanical performance with accepatable level of ionic conductivity.

  9. Wet Gasification of Ethanol Residue: A Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Michael D.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary technoeconomic assessment has been made of several options for the application of catalytic hydrothermal gasification (wet gasification) to ethanol processing residues.

  10. Enhanced Ethanol Engine And Vehicle Efficiency (Agreement 13425...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    merit08west.pdf More Documents & Publications Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies...

  11. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    117 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated February 2009 Prepared by Keith Knoll Brian West Wendy Clark...

  12. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc.187 24 Fukuda, H. et al. (2001) Biodiesel fuel production by26 Chisti, Y. (2007) Biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnol.

  13. aqueous ethanolic leaf: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Polymeric Assembly of Gluten Proteins in an Aqueous Ethanol Solvent Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: The supramolecular organization of wheat...

  14. Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and US06, transient accelerations plus steady state * Fuels: Gasoline and intermediate ethanol blends (E0, E10, E20) * Measurements: - Particle mass: collection on Teflon-coated...

  15. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    * * * * June 2002 * NRELTP-510-32438 Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for...

  16. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethanol and plant-based biodiesel ( Box 1). Although bio-acid pathway Currently, biodiesel production uses plant oilsbeen developed for use as biodiesel. However, if biodiesel

  17. Low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol and ethanol-PRF blends: An experimental and modeling study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, Francis M.; Chaos, Marcos; Dryer, Frederick L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this brief communication, we present new experimental species profile measurements for the low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol under knock-prone conditions. These experiments show that ethanol exhibits no global low temperature reactivity at these conditions, although we note the heterogeneous decomposition of ethanol to ethylene and water. Similar behavior is reported for an E85 blend in n-heptane. Kinetic modeling results are presented to complement these experiments and elucidate the interaction of ethanol and primary reference fuels undergoing cooxidation. (author)

  18. Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Dawson 41 12 0 Lincoln 46 21 0 Keith 24 14 0 Deuel 21 8 1 Colorado Counties Sedgwick 7 2 0 Logan 14 5 0 Washington 9 2 0 Morgan 15 4 0 Weld 115 37 10 Adams 133 31 3 Jefferson 75 15 2 Clear Creek 24 3 3 Summit 36 13 2 Eagle 34 9 3 Garfield 33 9 1 Mesa 24... emissions. One effect of blending ethanol with gasoline is increasing the nation’s energy security by reducing reliance on foreign oil. According to the Energy Information Administration, in 2005 United States gasoline consumption was about 385 million...

  19. Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Dawson 41 12 0 Lincoln 46 21 0 Keith 24 14 0 Deuel 21 8 1 Colorado Counties Sedgwick 7 2 0 Logan 14 5 0 Washington 9 2 0 Morgan 15 4 0 Weld 115 37 10 Adams 133 31 3 Jefferson 75 15 2 Clear Creek 24 3 3 Summit 36 13 2 Eagle 34 9 3 Garfield 33 9 1 Mesa 24... emissions. One effect of blending ethanol with gasoline is increasing the nation?s energy security by reducing reliance on foreign oil. According to the Energy Information Administration, in 2005 United States gasoline consumption was about 385 million...

  20. Ethanol enhances collective dynamics of lipid membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaye, Martin D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Schmalzl, Karin [Juelich Centre for Neutron Science, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Outstation at ILL, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Conti Nibali, Valeria [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Messina, I-98100 Messina (Italy); Tarek, Mounir [UMR 7565, Structure et Reactivite des Systemes Moleculaires Complexes, CNRS-Nancy University, F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Rheinstaedter, Maikel C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 Canada (Canada); Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, National Research Council Canada, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    From inelastic neutron-scattering experiments and all atom molecular dynamics simulations we present evidence for a low-energy dynamical mode in the fluid phase of a 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phoshatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer immersed in a 5% water/ethanol solution. In addition to the well-known phonon that shows a liquidlike dispersion with energies up to 4.5 meV, we observe an additional mode at smaller energies of 0.8 meV, which shows little or no dispersion. Both modes show transverse properties and might be related to molecular motion perpendicular to the bilayer.

  1. NMR and NQR parameters of ethanol crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milinkovic, M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric field gradients and chemical shielding tensors of the stable monoclinic crystal phase of ethanol are computed. The projector-augmented wave (PAW) and gauge-including projector-augmented wave (GIPAW) models in the periodic plane-wave density functional theory are used. The crystal data from X-ray measurements, as well as the structures where either all atomic, or only hydrogen atom positions are optimized in the density functional theory are analyzed. These structural models are also studied by including the semi-empirical Van der Waals correction to the density functional theory. Infrared spectra of these five crystal models are calculated.

  2. Ethanol Grain Processors LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to:EmminolEntergyEnvisoryInformationEthanol 2000 Jump

  3. Ethanol Management Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to:EmminolEntergyEnvisoryInformationEthanol 2000

  4. Western Ethanol Company LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwideWTED JumpHills, NewWestbrook, Minnesota:Western Ethanol Company LLC

  5. Prairie Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BV Jump to: navigation,Power Rental MarketEthanol LLC Jump to:

  6. Iowa Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtelInterias Solar Energy Jump to:IESIntervalIosil EnergyIowaIowa Ethanol

  7. Kaapa Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtelInteriasIowa: Energy ResourcesKACO GeraetetechnikKaapa Ethanol LLC

  8. Kansas Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii |Island, Florida:KaneEthanol LLC Place: Lyons,

  9. Platte Valley Fuel Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska: EnergyPiratini Energia S APlataforma Itaipu deValley Fuel Ethanol

  10. Show Me Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |Rippey JumpAirPower Partners WindSherbinoShirleyMe Ethanol

  11. Sioux River Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |Rippey JumpAirPowerSilcioEthanol LLC Place: Hudson, South

  12. Center Ethanol Company LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpenadd: China Datang CorporationCenter Ethanol Company LLC Jump

  13. Gulf Ethanol Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG| Open Energy InformationGettopGuilford, Maine:AmbujaCounty,Ethanol

  14. Tharaldson Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tharaldson

  15. Standard Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern IL Elec Coop,Lanka-DLRStandard Ethanol LLC Jump to:

  16. Sterling Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern IL Elec Coop,Lanka-DLRStandardStaxeraEthanol LLC Jump to:

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels Clean Cities ReflectsElectricityEthanol Blends to

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Feedstocks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels Clean Cities ReflectsElectricityEthanol Blends

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Related Links

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative Fuels Clean CitiesStation Locations to someone byEthanol

  20. Atlantic Ethanol Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass Conversions Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name:Ethanol Capital Jump to:

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulase C.Tier 2North CarolinaE85:Ethanol Benefits

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulase C.Tier 2North CarolinaE85:Ethanol

  3. Blue Flint Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass ConversionsSouthby 2022 |Bleckley County,Minnesota:OpenFlint Ethanol Place:

  4. High performance of a carbon supported ternary PdIrNi catalyst for ethanol electro-oxidation in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    -oxidation in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells Shuiyun Shen, T. S. Zhao,* Jianbo Xu and Yinshi Li-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells (AEM DEFCs). We demonstrate that the use of the ternary PdIrNi catalyst for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells (AEM DEFCs) offers

  5. FERMENTATION OF PENTOSE SUGARS TO ETHANOL AND OTHER NEUTRAL PRODUCTS BY MICROORGANISMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, S.L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Fermentation of Xylose to Ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum,OF PENTOSE SUGARS TO ETHANOL AND OTHER NEUTRAL PRODUCTS BYPYRUVATE V~ P a-ACETOLACTATE ETHANOL CoA AC ETA LDE HYDE V

  6. Divergence in Cactophilic Drosophila: The Evolutionary Significance of Adult Ethanol Metabolism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etges, William J.

    Divergence in Cactophilic Drosophila: The Evolutionary Significance of Adult Ethanol Metabolism IN CACTOPHILIC DROSOPHILA: THE EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE OF ADULT ETHANOL METABOLISM WILLIAMJ. ETGES~ Department of volatile com- pounds, particularly ethanol, than Opuntia or other Sonoran Desert columnar cacti, because

  7. What’s the Issue? Changing Frames of Ethanol Policy in Congress and the Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiner, Sarah

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    our use of fossil fuels” and “Ethanol does not help reduce2011 Note: Ethanol production data from the Renewable Fuelsand fuel mandate programs to a growing suite of ethanol

  8. honeys were classified higher and were pre-ferred. Honeys with an ethanol content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    honeys were classified higher and were pre- ferred. Honeys with an ethanol content higher than 100 with an ethanol con- tent higher than 1000 mg·kg-1 were classi- fied as 'extremely fermented'. Ethanol

  9. Impact of ethanol expansion on the cattle feeding industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, Erin

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    feedlots are located more than 200 miles from an ethanol plant, Dried Distiller�s Grains with Solubles (DDGS) can be fed to lower the cost of gain; therefore, ethanol co-products can be fed to help offset potential increases in corn prices. The partial...

  10. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  11. External Quality Assurance Services (EQAS) Ethanol/Ammonia Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Carlos

    External Quality Assurance Services (EQAS) Ethanol/Ammonia Program BC35 12 x 3 mL 2 Analytes QC35 12 x 3 mL Specimen Only ENGLISH INTENDED USE Bio-Rad EQAS Ethanol/Ammonia Program is designed

  12. Softwood Biomass to Ethanol Feasibility Study; Final Report: June 14, 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of design and project evaluation work studying various aspects of ethanol related projects including a conceptual ethanol plant located in Martell California.

  13. Red wine but not ethanol at low doses can protect against the toxicity of methamphetamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bondy, Stephen Bondy C

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C.F. , Chen, C. , 2002. Melatonin in concentrated ethanoland ethanol alone attenuate methamphetamine-induced dopaminewine polyphenol, attenuates ethanol-induced oxidative stress

  14. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  15. Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Breakout...

  16. Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain...

  17. A Pre-Treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Pre-Treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric Analysis of Starch Solutions (1 Activity) A Pre-Treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric...

  18. Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  19. Cellulosic Liquid Fuels Commercial Production Today | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuilding RemovalCSS LetterStateDepartment ofEqualityCellulosic Liquid

  20. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

  1. Alkaline stability of cellulose ethers and impact of their degradation products on cement hydration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Alkaline stability of cellulose ethers and impact of their degradation products on cement-mail address: pourchez@emse.fr emse-00449712,version1-18Sep2010 Author manuscript, published in "Cement the potential role of cellulose ethers degradation on the alteration of the cement hydration kinetics

  2. Surface pre-coating of talc particles by carboxyl methyl cellulose adsorption : study of adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Surface pre-coating of talc particles by carboxyl methyl cellulose adsorption : study of adsorption and consequences on surface properties and settling rate P. Bacchin1 , J-P. Bonino2 , F. Martin3 This paper investigates the adsorption of different sized carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) onto talc particles

  3. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose Coupled With Electricity Generation in a Microbial Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the exoelectrogen Geobacter sulfurreducens generated electricity, and the power generated using soluble celluloseARTICLE Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose Coupled With Electricity Generation in a Microbial Fuel.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/bit.22015 ABSTRACT: Electricity can be directly generated by bacteria in microbial fuel

  4. Kits and methods of detection using cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.

    1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  5. Kits and methods of detection using cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  6. Less is more: Novel cellulose structure requires fewer enzymes to process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC), the Center for Non-Linear Studies, and the Laboratory are central to cost-effective biofuel production and the subject of new research from Los Alamos National and designer enzymes for biofuel production from cellulosic--or non-food--plant derived biomass. "Cellulose

  7. Silicon cantilever functionalization for cellulose-specific chemical force imaging of switchgrass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Ida [ORNL; Evans, Barbara R [ORNL; Foston, Marcus B [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur J [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for direct functionalization of silicon and silicon nitride cantilevers with bifunctional silanes was tested with model surfaces to determine adhesive forces for different hydrogen-bonding chemistries. Application for biomass surface characterization was tested by mapping switchgrass and isolated switchgrass cellulose in topographic and force-volume mode using a cellulose-specific cantilever.

  8. Topic T4 Claudia Hildenbrand #274 EDLC electrodes from cellulose-based carbon aerogels: influence of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Topic T4 Claudia Hildenbrand #274 EDLC electrodes from cellulose-based carbon aerogels: influence performance if used as EDLC electrode material. Carbon aerogels were synthesized by crosslinking cellulose atmosphere (1000°C, nitrogen atmosphere). Subsequently, the surface chemistry of the carbon aerogels

  9. Fabrication of "Roll-off" and "Sticky" Superhydrophobic Cellulose Surfaces via Plasma Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breedveld, Victor

    Fabrication of "Roll-off" and "Sticky" Superhydrophobic Cellulose Surfaces via Plasma Processing. In Final Form: January 10, 2008 Most of the artificial superhydrophobic surfaces that have been fabricated, but it is not superhydrophobic. Superhydrophobicity on cellulose paper was obtained by domain- selective etching of amorphous

  10. 106 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 ETHANOL AND ()--PINENE FOR DETECTING AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    106 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 ETHANOL AND (­)--PINENE FOR DETECTING traps baited with ethanol or ethanol and (-)--pinene for bark and ambrosia beetles in pine stands control; (2) ethanol; (3) (-)--pinene; and (4) ethanol + (-)--pinene. The release rates for ethanol

  11. Exploring Potential U.S. Switchgrass Production for Lignocellulosic Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunderson, Carla A [ORNL; Davis, Ethan [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; West, Tristram O. [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Baskaran, Latha Malar [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to concerns about oil dependency and the contributions of fossil fuel use to climatic change, the U.S. Department of Energy has begun a research initiative to make 20% of motor fuels biofuel based in 10 years, and make 30% of fuels bio-based by 2030. Fundamental to this objective is developing an understanding of feedstock dynamics of crops suitable for cellulosic ethanol production. This report focuses on switchgrass, reviewing the existing literature from field trials across the United States, and compiling it for the first time into a single database. Data available from the literature included cultivar and crop management information, and location of the field trial. For each location we determined latitude and longitude, and used this information to add temperature and precipitation records from the nearest weather station. Within this broad database we were able to identify the major sources of variation in biomass yield, and to characterize yield as a function of some of the more influential factors, e.g., stand age, ecotype, precipitation and temperature in the year of harvest, site latitude, and fertilization regime. We then used a modeling approach, based chiefly on climatic factors and ecotype, to predict potential yields for a given temperature and weather pattern (based on 95th percentile response curves), assuming the choice of optimal cultivars and harvest schedules. For upland ecotype varieties, potential yields were as high as 18 to 20 Mg/ha, given ideal growing conditions, whereas yields in lowland ecotype varieties could reach 23 to 27 Mg/ha. The predictive equations were used to produce maps of potential yield across the continental United States, based on precipitation and temperature in the long term climate record, using the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Potential yields calculated via this characterization were subsequently compared to the Oak Ridge Energy Crop County Level data base (ORECCL), which was created at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Graham et al. 1996) to predict biofuel crop yields at the county level within a limited geographic area. Mapped output using the model was relatively consistent with known switchgrass distribution. It correctly showed higher yields for lowland switchgrass when compared with upland varieties at most locations. Projections for the most northern parts of the range suggest comparable yields for the two ecotypes, but inadequate data for lowland ecotypes grown at high latitudes make it difficult to fully assess this projection. The final model is a predictor of optimal yields for a given climate scenario, but does not attempt to identify or account for other limiting or interacting factors. The statistical model is nevertheless an improvement over historical efforts, in that it is based on quantifiable climatic differences, and it can be used to extrapolate beyond the historic range of switchgrass. Additional refinement of the current statistical model, or the use of different empirical or process-based models, might improve the prediction of switchgrass yields with respect to climate and interactions with cultivar and management practices, assisting growers in choosing high-yielding cultivars within the context of local environmental growing conditions.

  12. Preliminary Review of the Degradation of Cellulosic, Plastic, and Rubber Materials in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, and Possible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preliminary Review of the Degradation of Cellulosic, Plastic, and Rubber Materials in the Waste............................................... 2-1 2.1.1 Microbial Degradation of Cellulosic, Plastic, and Rubber Materials ...... 2-1 2.1.2 Anoxic-Biodegradable.............................................................................. 3-4 3.2.4 Uncertainties in Cellulosics, Plastics, and Rubber Inventory.................. 3-6 4

  13. Construction materials as a waste management solution for cellulose sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modolo, R., E-mail: regina.modolo@ua.pt [University of Aveiro, Civil Engineering Department/CICECO, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Ferreira, V.M. [University of Aveiro, Civil Engineering Department/CICECO, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Machado, L.M. [RAIZ - Forest and Paper Research Institute, Portucel-Soporcel, Eixo (Portugal); Rodrigues, M.; Coelho, I. [CIMIANTO - Sociedade Tecnica Hidraulica, S.A., Alhandra (Portugal)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sustainable waste management system for effluents treatment sludge has been a pressing issue for pulp and paper sector. Recycling is always recommended in terms of environmental sustainability. Following an approach of waste valorisation, this work aims to demonstrate the technical viability of producing fiber-cement roof sheets incorporating cellulose primary sludge generated on paper and pulp mills. From the results obtained with preliminary studies it was possible to verify the possibility of producing fiber-cement sheets by replacing 25% of the conventional used virgin long fiber by primary effluent treatment cellulose sludge. This amount of incorporation was tested on an industrial scale. Environmental parameters related to water and waste, as well as tests for checking the quality of the final product was performed. These control parameters involved total solids in suspension, dissolved salts, chlorides, sulphates, COD, metals content. In the product, parameters like moisture, density and strength were controlled. The results showed that it is possible to replace the virgin long fibers pulp by primary sludge without impacts in final product characteristics and on the environment. This work ensures the elimination of significant waste amounts, which are nowadays sent to landfill, as well as reduces costs associated with the standard raw materials use in the fiber-cement industrial sector.

  14. Stripping ethanol from ethanol-blended fuels for use in NO.sub.x SCR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kass, Michael Delos (Oak Ridge, TN); Graves, Ronald Lee (Knoxville, TN); Storey, John Morse Elliot (Oak Ridge, TN); Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur (Andersonville, TN); Sluder, Charles Scott (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, John Foster (Powell, TN)

    2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to use diesel fuel alchohol micro emulsions (E-diesel) to provide a source of reductant to lower NO.sub.x emissions using selective catalytic reduction. Ethanol is stripped from the micro emulsion and entered into the exhaust gasses upstream of the reducing catalyst. The method allows diesel (and other lean-burn) engines to meet new, lower emission standards without having to carry separate fuel and reductant tanks.

  15. MTBE, ethanol rules come under fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begley, R.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EPA is facing stiff challenges to the mandates for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol in its reformulated gasoline (RFG) program. Wisconsin officials are receiving hundreds of complaints about the alleged health effects and other problems with MTBE added to gasoline, and Gov. Tommy Thompson is demanding that EPA suspend the RFG program until April 1. Rep. James Sensenbrenner (R., WI) is threatening to introduce a bill to repeal the program in Wisconsin if EPA does not comply. However, EPA administrator Carol Browner says the agency will {open_quotes}defer any decision{close_quotes} on the request. EPA has sent technical experts to Milwaukee to respond to and monitor citizens` complaints.

  16. Experimental investigation of burning rates of pure ethanol and ethanol blended fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parag, Shintre; Raghavan, Vasudevan [Thermodynamics and Combustion Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamilnadu, 600036 (India)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental experimental study to determine the burning rates of ethanol and ethanol-blended fossil fuels is presented. Pure liquid ethanol or its blends with liquid fossil fuels such as gasoline or diesel, has been transpired to the surface a porous sphere using an infusion pump. Burning of the fuel takes place on the surface of the porous sphere, which is placed in an air stream blowing upwards with a uniform velocity at atmospheric pressure and temperature under normal gravity conditions. At low air velocities, when ignited, a flame envelopes the sphere. For each sphere size, air stream velocity and fuel type, the fuel feed rate will vary and the same is recorded as the burning rate for that configuration. The flame stand-off distances from the sphere surface are measured by post-processing the digital image of the flame photograph using suitable imaging software. The transition velocity at which the flame moves and establishes itself at the wake region of the sphere has been determined for different diameters and fuel types. Correlations of these parameters are also presented. (author)

  17. Recombinant host cells and media for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Brent E; Ingram, Lonnie O; Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are recombinant host cells suitable for degrading an oligosaccharide that have been optimized for growth and production of high yields of ethanol, and methods of making and using these cells. The invention further provides minimal media comprising urea-like compounds for economical production of ethanol by recombinant microorganisms. Recombinant host cells in accordance with the invention are modified by gene mutation to eliminate genes responsible for the production of unwanted products other than ethanol, thereby increasing the yield of ethanol produced from the oligosaccharides, relative to unmutated parent strains. The new and improved strains of recombinant bacteria are capable of superior ethanol productivity and yield when grown under conditions suitable for fermentation in minimal growth media containing inexpensive reagents. Systems optimized for ethanol production combine a selected optimized minimal medium with a recombinant host cell optimized for use in the selected medium. Preferred systems are suitable for efficient ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as an oligosaccharide source. The invention also provides novel isolated polynucleotide sequences, polypeptide sequences, vectors and antibodies.

  18. Certification of an agricultural spray aircraft on ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G. [Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A Piper Pawnee, one of the most common agricultural spray aircraft, is currently undergoing Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification to allow the use of denatured ethanol as its fuel. This certification is part of a broader effort to introduce ethanol as a replacement for aviation gasoline. Various reasons brought about the choice of an agricultural spray aircraft to be certified on ethanol. One is the minimization of initial fuel distribution problems. Agricultural aviation often requires only single fuel storage since most of the flying is local. Additionally, corn-produced ethanol is the natural fuel of choice for farming operations. The increased power developed on ethanol compared to aviation gasoline (avgas) is very important when operating heavily loaded spray aircraft at very low altitudes. The power-plant, a Lycoming IO-540, is already certified. The aircraft is currently flying on ethanol in order to satisfy the airframe requirements. The effort is being supported by a consortium of organizations of corn-producing states. Upon completion of certification, the aircraft will be demonstrated around the mid-western states. Certification will allow the use of the aircraft in the commercial arena. Many mid-western agricultural spray operations and ag-pilots have already expressed interest in converting their aircraft to ethanol fuel.

  19. Implications of ethanol-based fuels for greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); DeLuchi, M.A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies; Wyman, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a rule which would mandate that 30% of the oxygen content of reformulated gasoline be provided by renewable oxygenates. The rule would essentially require that biomass-based ethanol, or ETBE derived from ethanol, be used to supply 30% of the oxygen in reformulated gasoline. This short statement addresses the very narrow question, ``Would this rule result in a net decrease in greenhouse gas emissions?`` The challenge then is to determine how much greenhouse gas is emitted during the ethanol fuel cycle, a fuel cycle that is much less mature and less well documented than the petroleum fuel cycle. In the petroleum fuel cycle, most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from fuel combustion. In the ethanol fuel cycle most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from the fuel production processes. Details of corn productivity, fertilizer use, process efficiency, fuel source, etc. become very important. It is also important that the ethanol fuel cycle produces additional products and the greenhouse gas emissions have somehow to be allocated among the respective products. With so many variables in the ethanol fuel cycle, the concern is actually with ethanol-based additives which will be produced in response to the proposed rule, and not necessarily with the average of ethanol which is being produced now. A first important observation is that the difference between standard gasoline and reformulated gasoline is very small so that when differences are drawn against alternative fuels, it makes little difference whether the contrast is against standard or reformulated gasoline. A second observation is that for this base case comparison, emissions of CO{sub 2} alone are roughly 13% less for the ethanol fuel cycle than for the reformulated gasoline cycle.

  20. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

    1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

  1. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

  2. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, play an integral role in our daily lives. Naturally-occurring polymers include cellulose (mentioned in gun cotton demo), rubber, skin, hair,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    . Naturally- occurring polymers include cellulose (mentioned in gun cotton demo), rubber, skin, hair, DNA, etc

  3. Introduction The use of ethanol as a gasoline additive is likely to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Introduction The use of ethanol as a gasoline additive is likely to increase in the near future will also lead to additional ethanol use. There- fore, it is important to understand how ethanol affects that the presence of ethanol could have undesirable effects on the biodegradation of BTEX (i.e., benzene, toluene

  4. Research Report Long lasting effects of rearing by an ethanol-consuming dam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Research Report Long lasting effects of rearing by an ethanol-consuming dam on voluntary ethanol rats as subjects, we examined effects of exposure during weaning to a dam consuming ethanol on adolescents' later affinity for ethanol. In a preliminary experiment, we offered rat pups a choice between 8

  5. O P I N I O N Ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil: a `midway' strategy for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    O P I N I O N Ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil: a `midway' strategy for increasing ethanol of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA Abstract This article reviews the history and current state of ethanol. We propose that it is possible to produce ethanol from sugarcane while maintaining or even recovering

  6. TOLERANT ETHANOL ESTIMATION IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES DURING MAF SENSOR DRIFTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    TOLERANT ETHANOL ESTIMATION IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES DURING MAF SENSOR DRIFTS Kyung-ho Ahn, Anna G Engineering Dearborn, Michigan 48121 ABSTRACT Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of ethanol on ethanol sensor installed in the vehicle fueling system, or on the ethanol- dependent air-to-fuel ratio

  7. Stabilization of the palladium electrocatalyst with alloyed gold for ethanol oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Keywords: Fuel cell Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell Electrocatalyst Stabilization Palladiumegold alloy oxidation reaction, especially for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in alkaline direct ethanol fuelStabilization of the palladium electrocatalyst with alloyed gold for ethanol oxidation J.B. Xu, T

  8. Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrogen Using Combinatorial Shici Duan and Selim Senkan*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    in this area focused on steam reforming of ethanol at relatively high temperatures (T > 500 °C), where carbon 0.5-5 wt %. Ethanol steam reforming activities and H2 selectivities of these 840 distinct materials-4 In contrast, ethanol steam reforming has been studied to a much more limited extent. Ethanol has several

  9. MOLECULAR PHYSICS, 1999, VOL. 97, NO. 7, 897 905 Dynamics and hydrogen bonding in liquid ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saiz, Leonor

    MOLECULAR PHYSICS, 1999, VOL. 97, NO. 7, 897± 905 Dynamics and hydrogen bonding in liquid ethanol L of liquid ethanol at three temperatures have been carried out. The hydrogen bonding states of ethanol measurements of the frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity of liquid ethanol. 1. Introduction A detailed

  10. Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Chien-Ju

    2010-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation focuses on the development of facile and rapid quantitative Raman spectroscopy measurements for the determination of conversion products in producing bioethanol from corn stover. Raman spectroscopy was chosen to determine glucose, xylose and ethanol in complex hydrolysis and fermentation matrices. Chapter 1 describes the motives and main goals of this work, and includes an introduction to biomass, commonly used pretreatment methods, hydrolysis and fermentation reactions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy, its advantages and applications related to biomass analysis are also illustrated. Chapter 2 and 3 comprise two published or submitted manuscripts, and the thesis concludes with an appendix. In Chapter 2, a Raman spectroscopic protocol is described to study the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by measuring the main product in hydrolysate, glucose. Two commonly utilized pretreatment methods were investigated in order to understand their effect on glucose measurements by Raman spectroscopy. Second, a similar method was set up to determine the concentration of ethanol in fermentation broth. Both of these measurements are challenged by the presence of complex matrices. In Chapter 3, a quantitative comparison of pretreatment protocols and the effect of enzyme composition are studied using systematic methods. A multipeak fitting algorithm was developed to analyze spectra of hydrolysate containing two analytes: glucose and xylose. Chapter 4 concludes with a future perspective of this research area. An appendix describes a convenient, rapid spectrophotometric method developed to measure cadmium in water. This method requires relatively low cost instrumentation and can be used in microgravity, such as space shuttles or the International Space Station. This work was performed under the supervision of Professor Marc Porter while at Iowa State University. Research related to producing biofuel from bio-renewable resources, especially bioethanol from biomass, has grown significantly in the past decade due to the high demand and rising costs of fossil fuels. More than 3 percent of the energy consumption in the U.S. is derived from renewable biomass, mostly through industrial heat and steam production by the pulp and paper industry, and electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) and forest industry residues. The utilization of food-based biomass to make fuels has been widely criticized because it may increase food shortages throughout the world and raise the cost of food. Thus, nonfood-based and plentiful lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover, perennial grass, bagasse, sorghum, wheat/rice straw, herbaceous and woody crops, have great potential to be new bio-renewable sources for energy production. Given that many varieties of biomass are available, there is need for a rapid, simple, high-throughput method to screen the conversion of many plant varieties. The most suitable species for each geographic region must be determined, as well as the optimal stage of harvest, impacts of environmental conditions (temperature, soil, pH, etc.). Various genetically modified plants should be studied in order to establish the desired biomass in bioethanol production. The main screening challenge, however, is the complexity of plant cell wall structures that make reliable and sensitive analysis difficult. To date, one of the most popular methods to produce lignocellulosic ethanol is to perform enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation of the hydrolysate with yeast. There are several vital needs related to the field of chemistry that have been suggested as primary research foci needed to effectively improve lignocellulosic ethanol production. These topics include overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the pervasiveness of pretreatment, advanced biological processing and better feedstocks. In this thesis, a novel approach using Raman spectroscopy has been developed to address important issues related to bioethanol generation, which will aid the research aimed to solve the topics m

  11. Biomass to ethanol : potential production and environmental impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groode, Tiffany Amber, 1979-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study models and assesses the current and future fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas impacts of ethanol produced from three feedstocks; corn grain, corn stover, and switchgrass. A life-cycle assessment approach ...

  12. anaerobic ethanol producer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    attractive to both male and female M. sutor beetles Hanks, Lawrence M. 4 Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest...

  13. acute ethanol effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of the Effects of Government Subsidies and the Renewable Fuels Standard on the Fuel Ethanol Industry: A Fossil Fuels Websites Summary: of the future evolution of the fuel...

  14. Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop 2011 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review May 10, 2011 Neeraj Shidore (PI) - Vehicle...

  15. Continuous production of ethanol by use of flocculent zymomonas mobilis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arcuri, Edward J. (Del Mar, CA); Donaldson, Terrence L. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is produced by means of a floc-forming strain of Zymomonas mobilis bacteria. Gas is vented along the length of a column containing the flocculent bacteria to preclude disruption of liquid flow.

  16. Methods for increasing the production of ethanol from microbial fermentation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Arora, Dinesh K. (Fayetteville, AR); Ko, Ching-Whan (Fayetteville, AR); Phillips, John Randall (Fayetteville, AR); Basu, Rahul (Bethlehem, PA); Wikstrom, Carl V. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A stable continuous method for producing ethanol from the anaerobic bacterial fermentation of a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas involves culturing a fermentation bioreactor anaerobic, acetogenic bacteria in a liquid nutrient medium; supplying the gaseous substrate to the bioreactor; and manipulating the bacteria in the bioreactor by reducing the redox potential, or increasing the NAD(P)H TO NAD(P) ratio, in the fermentation broth after the bacteria achieves a steady state and stable cell concentration in the bioreactor. The free acetic acid concentration in the bioreactor is maintained at less than 5 g/L free acid. This method allows ethanol to be produced in the fermentation broth in the bioreactor at a productivity greater than 10 g/L per day. Both ethanol and acetate are produced in a ratio of ethanol to acetate ranging from 1:1 to 20:1.

  17. Ethanol supply chain and industry overview : more harm than good?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruce, Sarah L

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is a comprehensive study that aggregates the key aspects of ethanol including its supply chain, government legislation that impacts the use of, and the inherent material characteristics of the fuel as well as ...

  18. Impact of ethanol expansion on the cattle feeding industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, Erin

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. has a history of producing surplus corn, but the current and projected growth in ethanol production combined with strong feed and export demand is causing an overall increase in corn utilization. Although livestock ...

  19. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. (2006) Bonkers about biofuels. Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 755–Schubert, C. (2006) Can biofuels finally take center stage?

  20. Economic feasibility of ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Brittany Danielle

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    or Sweet Sorghum and Corn to Produce Ethanol in Each Study Area............................. 73 12. Sweet Sorghum Processing Coefficients for an Ethanol Refinery.................... 74 13. Corn Processing Assumptions for Each Study Area... 22. Variable Costs to Operate a Sweet Sorghum Ethanol Refinery, 2008............. 83 23. Variable Costs to Operate a Corn Ethanol Refinery, 2008 .............................. 84 24. Land Cost and Acreage for the Ethanol Refinery in Each Study...

  1. DECREASE Final Technical Report: Development of a Commercial Ready Enzyme Application System for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teter, Sarah A

    2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversion of biomass to sugars plays a central in reducing our dependence on petroleum, as it allows production of a wide range of biobased fuels and chemicals, through fermentation of those sugars. The DECREASE project delivers an effective enzyme cocktail for this conversion, enabling reduced costs for producing advanced biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol. Benefits to the public contributed by growth of the advanced biofuels industry include job creation, economic growth, and energy security. The DECREASE primary project objective was to develop a two-fold improved enzyme cocktail, relative to an advanced cocktail (CZP00005) that had been developed previously (from 2000- 2007). While the final milestone was delivery of all enzyme components as an experimental mixture, a secondary objective was to deploy an improved cocktail within 3 years following the close of the project. In February 2012, Novozymes launched Cellic CTec3, a multi-enzyme cocktail derived in part from components developed under DECREASE. The externally validated performance of CTec3 and an additional component under project benchmarking conditions indicated a 1.8-fold dose reduction in enzyme dose required for 90% conversion (based on all available glucose and xylose sources) of NREL dilute acid pretreated PCS, relative to the starting advanced enzyme cocktail. While the ability to achieve 90% conversion is impressive, targeting such high levels of biomass digestion is likely not the most cost effective strategy. Novozymes techno economic modeling showed that for NREL's dilute acid pretreated corn stover (PCS), 80% target conversion enables a lower total production cost for cellulosic ethanol than for 90% conversion, and this was also found to be the case when cost assumptions were based on the NREL 2002 Design Report. A 1.8X dose-reduction was observed for 80% conversion in the small scale (50 g) DECREASE benchmark assay for CTec3 and an additional component. An upscaled experiment (in 0.5 kg kettle reactors) was performed to compare the starting enzyme mixture CZP00005 with CTec3 alone; these results indicated a 1.9X dose- reduction for 80% conversion. The CTec3 composition does not include the best available enzyme components from the DECREASE effort. While these components are not yet available in a commercial product, experimental mixtures were assayed in a smaller scale assay using DECREASE PCS, at high solids loadings (21.5% TS). The results indicated that the newer mixtures required 2.9X-less enzyme for 90% conversion, and 3.2X-less enzyme for 80% conversion, relative to the starting enzyme cocktail. In conclusion, CTec3 delivers a 1.8-1.9X dose reduction on NREL PCS at high solids loadings, and the next generation enzyme from Novozymes will continue to show dramatically improved biochemical performance. CTec3 allows reduced costs today, and the experimental cocktails point to continued biotechnological improvements that will further drive down costs for biorefineries of tomorrow.

  2. The Latest Unanticipated Consequence in the Ethanol Fiasco 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, James M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mandated Ethanol Production E10 Blend Wall Source: U.S. Department of E ergy. En rgy I formation Administration. 2007. Annual Energy Outlook 2007. Washington, D.C.: Department of Energy. The 2007 ethanol mandates were based upon faulty gasoline... Blend Wall Source: U.S. Department of Energy. Energy Information Administration. 2013. Annual Energy Outlook 2013. Washington, D.C.: Department of Energy. ABOUT THE MOSBACHER INSTITUTE The Mosbacher Institute was founded in 2009 to honor Robert A...

  3. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc. , Vicksburg, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from a budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains process flowsheets and maps of the proposed site.

  4. Role of ethanol in sodalite crystallization in an ethanolNa2OAl2O3SiO2 Yi Huang,ab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Role of ethanol in sodalite crystallization in an ethanol­Na2O­Al2O3­SiO2­ H2O system Yi Huang 2011 DOI: 10.1039/c1ce05194f Crystallization of sodalite was studied in an ethanol­Na2O­Al2O3­SiO2­H2O system. The addition of ethanol was observed to significantly affect the crystallization process

  5. Journal of Biotechnology 77 (2000) 3747 H NMR study of cellulose metabolism by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemminga, Marcus A.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -echo difference 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The degradation of unlabelled cellulose synthesised by Acetobacter xylinum bacterial fermentation products (glycogen, succinate, acetate). During the pre-incubation period of F

  6. Modified cellulose synthase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana confers herbicide resistance to plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris R. (Portola Valley, CA); Scheible, Wolf (Golm, DE)

    2007-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulose synthase ("CS"), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants is inhibited by herbicides comprising thiazolidinones such as 5-tert-butyl-carbamoyloxy-3-(3-trifluromethyl)phenyl-4-thiazolidinone (TZ), isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). Two mutant genes encoding isoxaben and TZ-resistant cellulose synthase have been isolated from isoxaben and TZ-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. When compared with the gene coding for isoxaben or TZ-sensitive cellulose synthase, one of the resistant CS genes contains a point mutation, wherein glycine residue 998 is replaced by an aspartic acid. The other resistant mutation is due to a threonine to isoleucine change at amino acid residue 942. The mutant CS gene can be used to impart herbicide resistance to a plant; thereby permitting the utilization of the herbicide as a single application at a concentration which ensures the complete or substantially complete killing of weeds, while leaving the transgenic crop plant essentially undamaged.

  7. DuPont’s Journey to Build a Global Cellulosic BioFuel Business Enterprise

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plenary I: Progress in Advanced Biofuels DuPont’s Journey to Build a Global Cellulosic BioFuel Business Enterprise William Provine, Director–Science and Technology External Affairs, DuPont

  8. What Factors Affect the Decision to Invest in a Fuel Ethanol Plant? A Structural Model of the Ethanol Investment Timing Game1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    1 What Factors Affect the Decision to Invest in a Fuel Ethanol Plant? A Structural Model of the Ethanol Investment Timing Game1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin and Fujin Yi Abstract The decision to invest in building an ethanol plant that uses a particular feedstock is a dynamic decision that may be affected by economic

  9. Hydrogen assisted combustion of ethanol in Diesel enginesHydrogen assisted combustion of ethanol in Diesel engines Anil Singh Bika, Luke Franklin, Prof. David B. Kittelson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Hydrogen assisted combustion of ethanol in Diesel enginesHydrogen assisted combustion of ethanol in Diesel engines Anil Singh Bika, Luke Franklin, Prof. David B. Kittelson Department of Mechanical a means of using nearly pure ethanol as a diesel engine fuel by using hydrogen rich gases to facilitate

  10. Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis

  11. The Effects of Surfactant Pretreatment and Xylooligomers on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose and Pretreated Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qing, Qing

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enzymatic Conversion of Biomass for Fuels Production, 566,B. , 2002. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process DesignSummary of findings from the Biomass Refining Consortium for

  12. The action of Trichoderma viride cellulase on purified and partially purified cellulosic substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villarreal, Anita

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE ACTION OF TRICHODERMA VIRIDE CELLUI ASE ON PURIFIED AND PARTIALLY PURIFIED CELLULOSIC SUBSTRATES A Thesis by ANITA VILLARREAL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirenent... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1972 Major Subject: Forest Science THE ACTION OF TRICHODERMA VIRIDE CELLULASE ON PURIFIED AND PARTIALLY PURIFIED CELLULOSIC SUBSTRATES A Thesis by ANITA VILLARREAL Approved as to style and content by...

  13. Ethanol seeking triggered by environmental context is attenuated by blocking dopamine D1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens core and shell in rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhri, Nadia; Sahuque, Lacey L.; Janak, Patricia H.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ment into the prior ethanol self-administration context. SCHreinstatement of responding for ethanol cues triggered byplacement into an ethanol-associated context. Keywords

  14. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Project title: Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production oftert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as ainvestigate the effect of ethanol release on existing MTBE

  15. Overcoming the Recalcitrance of Cellulosic Biomass by Value Prior to Pulping: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-221

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowell, A.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Value Prior to Pulping (VPP) project goal was to demonstrate the technical and commercial feasibility of introducing a new value stream into existing pulp and paper mills. Essentially the intent was to transfer the energy content of extracted hemicellulose from electricity and steam generated in the recovery boiler to a liquid transportation fuel. The hemicellulose fraction was extracted prior to pulping, fractionated, or conditioned if necessary, and fermented to ethanol. Commercial adaptation of the process to wood hemicelluloses was a prerequisite for using this less currently valued component available from biomass and wood. These hemicelluloses are predominately glucurono-xylan in hardwoods and galactoglucomannan in softwoods (with a significant softwood component of an arabino-xylan) and will yield fermentation substrates different from cellulose. NREL provided its expertise in the area of fermentation host evaluation using its Zymomonas strains on the CleanTech Partner's (CTP) VPP project. The project was focused on the production of fuel ethanol and acetic acid from hemicellulose streams generated from wood chips of industrially important hardwood and softwood species. NREL was one of four partners whose ethanologen was tested on the hydrolyzed extracts. The use of commercially available enzymes to treat oligomeric sugar extracts was also investigated and coupled with fermentation. Fermentations by NREL were conducted with the Zymomonas mobilis organism with most of the work being performed with the 8b strain. The wood extracts hydrolyzed and/or fermented by NREL were those derived from maple, mixed southern hardwoods, and loblolly pine. An unhydrolyzed variant of the mixed southern hardwood extract possessed a large concentration of oligomeric sugars and enzymatic hydrolysis was performed with a number of enzymes, followed by fermentation. The fermentation of the wood extracts was carried out at bench scale in flasks or small bioreactors, with a maximum volume of 500 mL.

  16. Biogeochemical Processes In Ethanol Stimulated Uranium Contaminated Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Santosh R.; Kollah, Bharati; Hedrick, David B.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Roden, Eric E.

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted with uranium contaminated subsurface sediment to assess the geochemical and microbial community response to ethanol amendment. A classical sequence of TEAPs was observed in ethanol-amended slurries, with NO3- reduction, Fe(III) reduction, SO4 2- reduction, and CH4 production proceeding in sequence until all of the added 13C-ethanol (9 mM) was consumed. Approximately 60% of the U(VI) content of the sediment was reduced during the period of Fe(III) reduction. No additional U(VI) reduction took place during the sulfate-reducing and methanogenic phases of the experiment. Only gradual reduction of NO3 -, and no reduction of U(VI), took place in ethanol-free slurries. Stimulation of additional Fe(III) or SO4 2- reduction in the ethanol-amended slurries failed to promote further U(VI) reduction. Reverse transcribed 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed major increases in the abundance of organisms related to Dechloromonas, Geobacter, and Oxalobacter in the ethanolamended slurries. PLFAs indicative of Geobacter showed a distinct increase in the amended slurries, and analysis of PLFA 13C/12C ratios confirmed the incorporation of ethanol into these PLFAs. A increase in the abundance of 13C-labeled PLFAs indicative of Desulfobacter, Desulfotomaculum, and Desulfovibrio took place during the brief period of sulfate reduction which followed the Fe(III) reduction phase. Our results show that major redox processes in ethanol-amended sediments can be reliably interpreted in terms of standard conceptual models of TEAPs in sediments. However, the redox speciation of uranium is complex and cannot be explained based on simplified thermodynamic considerations.

  17. Imaging the condensation and evaporation of molecularly thin ethanol films with surface forces apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Gutian; Tan, Qiyan; Xiang, Li; Zhang, Di; Ni, Zhonghua, E-mail: nzh2003@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn; Yi, Hong; Chen, Yunfei, E-mail: nzh2003@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Design and Manufacture of Micro-Nano Biomedical Instruments, School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)] [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Design and Manufacture of Micro-Nano Biomedical Instruments, School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method for imaging condensation and evaporation of molecularly thin ethanol films is reported. It is found that the first adsorbed layer of ethanol film on mica surface behaves as solid like structure that cannot flow freely. With the increase of exposure time, more ethanol molecules condense over the mica surface in the saturated ethanol vapor condition. The first layer of adsorbed ethanol film is about 3.8 Ĺ thick measured from the surface forces apparatus, which is believed to be the average diameter of ethanol molecules while they are confined in between two atomically smooth mica surfaces.

  18. Biological production of ethanol from coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the ``wild strain`` produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  19. Isolation of levoglucosan from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, L.

    1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    High purity levoglucosan is obtained from pyrolysis oil derived from cellulose by: mixing pyrolysis oil with water and a basic metal hydroxide, oxide, or salt in amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of from about 12 to about 12.5, and adding an amount of the hydroxide, oxide, or salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range until colored materials of impurities from the oil are removed and a slurry is formed; drying the slurry azeotropically with methyl isobutyl ketone solvent to form a residue, and further drying the residue by evaporation; reducing the residue into a powder; continuously extracting the powder residue with ethyl acetate to provide a levoglucosan-rich extract; and concentrating the extract by removing ethyl acetate to provide crystalline levoglucosan. Preferably, Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added to adjust the pH to the elevated values, and then Ca(OH)[sub 2] is added in an excess amount needed. 3 figures.

  20. REPLACEMENT OF FISH MEAL WITH ETHANOL YEAST IN THE DIETS OF SUNSHINE BASS: EFFECTS ON PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be investigated. Ethanol yeast (EY), a co-product of bio-ethanol production may be a novel protein source. The increasing capacity of the bio-ethanol industries has made EY an increasingly available commodity. However

  1. Direct Use of Wet Ethanol in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine: Experimental and Numerical Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L; Aceves, Salvador M; Dibble, Robert W

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for 4 different water-in-ethanol fuel blends at a variety ofmotivation for using wet ethanol fuel is that significantengine running on wet ethanol. Fuel mixtures studied range

  2. Certification of the Cessna 152 on 100% ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In June 1996, the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, received a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) for the use of 100% ethanol as a fuel for the Cessna 152, the most popular training aircraft in the world. This is the first certification granted by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for a non-petroleum fuel. Certification of an aircraft on a new fuel requires a certification of the engine followed by a certification of the airframe/engine combination. This paper will describe the FAA airframe certification procedure, the tests required and their outcome using ethanol as an aviation fuel in a Cessna 152.

  3. Ethanol reforming in non-equilibrium plasma of glow discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levko, D

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a detailed kinetic study of the main plasma chemical processes in non-equilibrium ethanol/argon plasma are presented. It is shown that at the beginning of the discharge the molecular hydrogen is mainly generated in the reaction of ethanol H-abstraction. Later hydrogen is formed from active H, CH2OH and CH3CHOH and formaldehyde. Comparison with experimental data has shown that the used kinetic mechanism predicts well the concentrations of main species at the reactor outlet.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Laws and Incentives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulase C.Tier 2North CarolinaE85:EthanolEthanol

  5. The effects of ethanol on strychnine sensitive glycine receptors in the rat basolateral amygdala

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botting, Shaleen Kaye

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major relationship between ethanol and the behavioral response to environmental stressors indicates that ethanol functions to reduce the effects of stress. The most classical presentation of the anxiety-reduction hypothesis of alcoholism...

  6. Direct Conversion of Bio-ethanol to Isobutene on Nanosized ZnxZryOz...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conversion of Bio-ethanol to Isobutene on Nanosized ZnxZryOz Mixed Oxides with Balanced Acid–Base Sites. Direct Conversion of Bio-ethanol to Isobutene on Nanosized ZnxZryOz...

  7. A study of ZnxZryOz mixed oxides for direct conversion of ethanol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    study of ZnxZryOz mixed oxides for direct conversion of ethanol to isobutene. A study of ZnxZryOz mixed oxides for direct conversion of ethanol to isobutene. Abstract: ZnxZryOz...

  8. EA-1848: Fulcrum Sierra Waste-to-Ethanol Facility in McCarran...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    8: Fulcrum Sierra Waste-to-Ethanol Facility in McCarran, Storey County, NV EA-1848: Fulcrum Sierra Waste-to-Ethanol Facility in McCarran, Storey County, NV June 1, 2011 EA-1848:...

  9. Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and emissions using steady-state and transient test procedures Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on...

  10. Catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol on CoMgO catalysts . Catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol on CoMgO catalysts . Abstract:...

  11. Author's personal copy Distributed hydrogen production from ethanol in a microfuel processor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    -reactors? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526 5. Integrated reactor system for steam reforming of ethanol and CO cleanup/microchannels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 5.2. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525 2.1.1. Steam reforming (SR

  12. Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower This page contains information on the...

  13. one was tested, all reaction mixtures were supple-mented with an appropriate amount of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moorcroft, Paul R.

    one was tested, all reaction mixtures were supple- mented with an appropriate amount of ethanol (5% v/v), because the menadione was dissolved in ethanol as a stock solution. The reaction was ini

  14. Ethanol Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for ethanol.

  15. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water and the three constituent binary systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Nakamichi, Mikiyoshi; Kojima, Kazuo (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methanol + ethanol + water and its three constituent binary systems methanol + ethanol, ethanol + water, and methanol + water were measured at 101.3 kPa using a liquid-vapor ebullition-type equilibrium still. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system methanol + ethanol + water was predicted by means of the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

  16. Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, Paul, E-mail: p.joseph@ulster.ac.uk [School of the Built Environment and the Built Environment Research Institute, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, County Antrim, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; McKenna, Siobhan [School of the Built Environment and the Built Environment Research Institute, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, County Antrim, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The gas chromatography indicated the variable quality of the producer gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The char had appreciable NPK values, and can be used as a fertiliser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bio-oil produced was of poor quality, having high moisture content and low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mass and energy balances showed inadequate level energy recovery from the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Future work includes changing the operating parameters of the gasification unit. - Abstract: The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters.

  17. Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith Beardshear Hall, (515) 294-7612." #12;1 Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Relating Ethanol Production to Gasoline Prices" written by myself and Xiadong Du, and published in 2009

  18. Dielectric properties of liquid ethanol. A computer simulation study Leonor Saiz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saiz, Leonor

    Dielectric properties of liquid ethanol. A computer simulation study Leonor Saiz Departament de Fi Static and dynamic dielectric properties of liquid ethanol have been studied as a function of the wave, but in the case of ethanol, the latter are restricted to the microwave region of the spectra6 and to the infrared

  19. Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) using a cobalt ultrathin film (1 nm) as the catalyst and ethanol as carbon feedstock flow during the growth. The trace amount of self-contained water (0.2-5 wt %) in ethanol may act

  20. Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies Rula A. Deeb1 ; Jonathan with Federal Clean Air Act requirements for carbon monoxide and ozone attainment, ethanol is being considered as a replacement for MTBE. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential impact of ethanol on benzene