National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for damages whatsoever including

  1. Advanced aerospace materials, including fiber reinforced polymer and ceramic matrix composites, are increasingly being used in critical and demanding applications, challenging the current damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced aerospace materials, including fiber reinforced polymer and ceramic matrix composites of ceramic matrix composite processing, improve the understanding of the effects of architectural and geometric variability in polymer matrix composites, and provide an accurate and computational efficient

  2. Property Loss / Damage Report Damage Loss Details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Property Loss / Damage Report Damage Loss Details Date & Time of Damage / Loss: Type of damage / loss: Location - specific address / room: Project / Grant associated with damage / loss - grant Police: When was damage / loss first discovered - BY WHOM: Pictures available or attached? Was personal

  3. Method for producing damage resistant optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Burnham, Alan K. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Wegner, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Kozlowski, Mark R. (Windsor, CA); Feit, Michael D. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a system that mitigates the growth of surface damage in an optic. Damage to the optic is minimally initiated. In an embodiment of the invention, damage sites in the optic are initiated, located, and then treated to stop the growth of the damage sites. The step of initiating damage sites in the optic includes a scan of the optic using a laser to initiate defects. The exact positions of the initiated sites are identified. A mitigation process is performed that locally or globally removes the cause of subsequent growth of the damaged sites.

  4. Detection of damage in axial (membrane) systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, T.A. [Duffey (T.A.), Tijeras, NM (United States); Baker, W.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Farrar, C.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Rhee, W.H. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    In a recent paper, two methods of damage identification (Modified Damage Index and Change-in-Flexibility) were applied to detection of damage in an 8-DOF vibrating system. The goal of the work was to detect damage (reduction in stiffness of one or more of the elements) as well as to locate the particular damaged elements (S). However, the investigation was limited to numerical simulations only. In this paper, a physical, spring-mass model of a similar, degenerate 8-DOF system (7 normal modes plus a rigid-body mode) was constructed. Experiments were then performed and the modal properties of the system were determined in undamaged and damaged states. Excitation was provided either by an impact hammer or by an electromechanical shaker. Damage was induced by replacing one of the springs with a spring of lower stiffness. The Modified Damage Index method clearly isolated the location of damage for a variety of damage locations and levels of damage. The Change-in-Flexibility method, however, was found to be less reliable. The ability of the method to locate damage depended strongly on location and the level of damage as well as the number of modes included.

  5. System and damage identification of civil structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moaveni, Babak

    2007-01-01

    12 Damage Index Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Model Updating for Damage Identification . . . . . . . .298 x Damage Factors and Residual

  6. Identifying structural damage from images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, ZhiQiang

    2009-01-01

    feature extraction methods ( A). . . . . . . . . . . .damage feature extraction methods (B). . . . . . . . . . . .a damage feature extraction method and a multi-level

  7. RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pehl, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    the high-energy proton damage than was the planar detector.as far as radiation damage is concerned. Unfortunately, some28-29, 1978 LBL-7967 RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS

  8. Controlling Beaver Damage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2007-03-13

    Beavers are important because their dams stabilize creek flow, slow runoff and create ponds. However, these same dams can negatively alter the flow of creeks. Damage prevention, control and various trapping methods are discussed in this publication....

  9. Controlling Feral Hog Damage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2008-04-15

    This publication discusses the distribution of feral hogs as well as their habitats, food habits and reproduction. Feral hogs can damage crops and kill lambs and kid goats. Methods of control are also explained....

  10. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  11. A UNIFIED FAILURE/DAMAGE APPROACH TO BATTLE DAMAGE REGENERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A UNIFIED FAILURE/DAMAGE APPROACH TO BATTLE DAMAGE REGENERATION : APPLICATION TO GROUND MILITARY-availability. Military weapon systems availability can be affected by system failures or by damage to the system damage into account in their more general dependability studies. This paper takes a look at the issues

  12. Bridge Damage and Repair Costs from Hurricane Katrina Jamie Padgett1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padgett, Jamie Ellen

    Bridge Damage and Repair Costs from Hurricane Katrina Jamie Padgett1 ; Reginald DesRoches2 ; Bryant to repair or replace the bridges damaged during the hurricane is estimated at over $1 billion. This paper describes the observed damage patterns to bridges, including damage attributed to storm surge, wind, impact

  13. Damage detection for applications undergoing axial (membrane) response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, T.A. [Duffey (T.A.), Tijeras, NM (United States); Farrar, C.R.; Doebling, S.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper extends and applies recently reported damage identification methods, previously utilized for flexural vibrations only, to axial-type vibrations. The methods are applied to an 8-DOF linear spring-mass system, which models a multi-degree-of-freedom axial or membrane system. The goal of the work is to detect damage (as indicated by reduction in stiffness of one or more of the elements) as well as to locate the damage elements. Two damage detection methods were investigated--the change-in-flexibility method and the damage-index method. Both were found to successfully locate the damaged element(s) for 10% reduction in element stiffness. The change-in-flexibility method indicated damage location even when only a limited number of lower modes were included.

  14. The application of ultrasonics to assess damage in composite materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eden, John Gregory

    1985-01-01

    of the plies in the laminate, the loading history, and the current state of damage in the laminate. Reifsnider [1] describes damage in terms of 'critical elements' and 'subcr itical elements'. Critical elements are defined as damage which results... in the final failure of a laminate (i. e, , 0 degree ply failure in tensile loading, unstable plies that have not buckled under compressive loading, etc. ). Subcritical elements include porosity, micr ovoid growth, matrix or ack- ing, matrix/fiber debonding...

  15. RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pehl, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    occurring within the detector, radiation may also change theLBL-7967 RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS Richard H.LBL-7967 RADIATION DAMAGE OF GERMANIUM DETECTORS* Richard H.

  16. Alkbh8 Regulates Selenocysteine-Protein Expression to Protect against Reactive Oxygen Species Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endres, Lauren

    Environmental and metabolic sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can damage DNA, proteins and lipids to promote disease. Regulation of gene expression can prevent this damage and can include increased transcription, ...

  17. Balancing repair and tolerance of DNA damage caused by alkylating agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Dragony

    Alkylating agents constitute a major class of frontline chemotherapeutic drugs that inflict cytotoxic DNA damage as their main mode of action, in addition to collateral mutagenic damage. Numerous cellular pathways, including ...

  18. Controlling Armadillo Damage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2007-03-13

    of overlapping rings. The under- parts are covered with soft skin and a few long hairs. The armadillo is about the size of an opos- sum. Its front feet are well adapted for digging. Tracks made by an armadillo appear to have been made by a three-toed animal... and other invertebrates, as well as on small amounts of fruit and vegetable matter such as berries and tender roots. Damage Although armadillos are beneficial because they eat insects and other invertebrates, they sometimes become a nuisance by digging...

  19. Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

    2012-11-20

    A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

  20. Nowcasting Disaster Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and intensity of natural disasters due to climate change. And during such events, citizens are turning to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. Additionally, spatiotemporal distribution of disaster-related messages helps with real-time monitoring and assessment of the disaster itself. Here we present a multiscale analysis of Twitter activity before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We examine the online response of 50 metropolitan areas of the United States and find a strong relationship between proximity to Sandy's path and hurricane-related social media activity. We show that real and perceived threats -- together with the physical disaster effects -- are directly observable through the intens...

  1. Radiation Damage/Materials Modification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ion irradiation is an important tool for studying radiation damage effects Materials in a nuclear reactor are exposed to extreme temperature and radiation conditions that degrade...

  2. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  3. Plate damage identification using wave propagation and impedance methods.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wait, J. R. (Jeannette R.); Park, G. H. (Gyu Hae); Sohn, H. (Hoon); Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

    2004-01-01

    This paper illustrates an integrated approach for identifying structural damage in an aluminum plate. Piezoelectric (PZT) materials are used to actuatehense the dynamic response of the structure. Two damage identification techniques are integrated in this study, including Lamb wave propagations and impedance methods. In Lamb wave propagations, one PZT launches an elastic wave through the structure, and responses are measured by an array of PZT sensors. The changes in both wave attenuation and reflection are used to detect and locate the damage. The impedance method monitors the variations in structural mechanical impedance, which is coupled with the electrical impedance of the PZT. Both methods operate in high frequency ranges at which there are measurable changes in structural responses even for incipient damage such as small cracks or loose connections. This paper summarizes two methods used for damage identification, experimental procedures, and additional issues that can be used as a guideline for future investigations.

  4. DAMAGE DIAGNOSIS CONSIDERING CHANGING EVNIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. SOHN; K. WORDER; C. FARRAR

    2001-05-01

    The primary objective of novelty detection is to examine a system's dynamic response to determine if the system significantly deviates from an initial baseline condition. In reality, the system is often subject to changing environmental and operation conditions that affect its dynamic characteristics. Such variations include changes in loading, boundary conditions, temperature, and moisture. Most damage diagnosis techniques, however, generally neglect the effects of these changing ambient conditions. Here, a novelty detection technique is developed explicitly taking into account these natural variations of the system in order to minimize false positive indications of true system changes. Auto-associative neural networks are employed to discriminate system changes of interest such as structural deterioration and damage from the natural variations of the system.

  5. Freezing Spring Temperatures Damage Knobcone Pine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freezing Spring Temperatures Damage Knobcone Pine Stanley L. Krugman U. S. FOREST SERVICE RESEARCH, Stanley L. 1966. Freezing spring temperatures damage knobcone pine conelets. Berkeley, Calif.. Pacific pine, conelets, freezing temperature) Krugman, Stanley L. 1966. Freezing spring temperatures damage

  6. Radiation Damage: Accelerator Surprises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    of this process. · Helium gas production adds, becoming increasingly important at high energies. · Graphite as material properties including its temperature. These dependencies ­ amplified by increased helium gas production for high-energy beams - are responsible for "surprises/unknowns" learned recently at accelerators

  7. This article was downloaded by: [University of Helsinki], [Aarne Pohjonen] On: 16 July 2012, At: 01:15

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordlund, Kai

    not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever; surface protrusion; dislocations; metal; surface; electrical breakdown; copper 1. Introduction

  8. Countries Gasoline Prices Including Taxes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and...

  9. Probabilistic Assessment of Structural Seismic Damage for Buildings in Mid-America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Jong-Wha; Hueste, Mary Beth D.; Gardoni, Paolo [Zachry Dept. of Civil Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3136 (United States)

    2008-07-08

    This paper provides an approach to conduct a probabilistic assessment of structural damage due to seismic events with an application to typical building structures in Mid-America. The developed methodology includes modified damage state classifications based on the ATC-13 and ATC-38 damage states and the ATC-38 database of building damage. Damage factors are assigned to each damage state to quantify structural damage as a percentage of structural replacement cost. To account for the inherent uncertainties, these factors are expressed as random variables with a Beta distribution. A set of fragility curves, quantifying the structural vulnerability of a building, is mapped onto the developed methodology to determine the expected structural damage. The total structural damage factor for a given seismic intensity is then calculated using a probabilistic approach. Prediction and confidence bands are also constructed to account for the prevailing uncertainties. The expected seismic structural damage is assessed for a typical building structure in the Mid-America region using the developed methodology. The developed methodology provides a transparent procedure, where the structural damage factors can be updated as additional seismic damage data becomes available.

  10. @Copyright 1994 by Humana Press Inc. All rights of any nature whatsoever reserved.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    into methanol. Algae could consume carbon dioxide from power plants and other sources to produce lipid oil for pipeline-quality methane. Cata- lytic processing of pyrolytic oils from biomass produces a mixture is recycled through their use, reducing substantially the net release of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere

  11. 9 1989by The Humana Press Inc. All rights of any nature whatsoever reserved.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    E. WYMAN Solar Energy Research Institute, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 ABSTRACT, and xylose. A liquid stream, containing xylose, is separated from a cellulose/lignin stream, and the liquid stream is then neutralized. After removing gypsum, the neutralized xylose stream is ready for further

  12. ~Copyright 1988by The Humana Press Inc. All rights of any nature whatsoever reserved.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    production. In addition, ethanol can be blended with gasoline as an octane enhancer and fuel extender or used

  13. DAMAGE LOCALIZATION USING LOAD VECTORS Dionisio Bernal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, Dionisio

    DAMAGE LOCALIZATION USING LOAD VECTORS Dionisio Bernal Associate Professor Department of Civil: A technique to localize damage in structures that can be treated as linear in the pre and post-damage state is presented. Central to the approach is the computation of a set of vectors, designated as Damage Locating

  14. Damage-prone regions in structural composite materials are difficult to detect and even harder to repair. Damage is preceded by complex spatial and temporal changes in stress state, and it is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Materials Seminar Damage-prone regions in structural composite materials are difficult to detect and even harder to repair. Damage is preceded by complex spatial and temporal changes in stress state about in response to damage or high-stress conditions include: (1) signal generation to warn of ensuing

  15. Neutralino relic density including coannihilations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo Gondolo; Joakim Edsjo

    1997-11-25

    We give an overview of our precise calculation of the relic density of the lightest neutralino, in which we included relativistic Boltzmann averaging, subthreshold and resonant annihilations, and coannihilation processes with charginos and neutralinos.

  16. Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques Damage Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques for Damage Detection H. T. Banks and M. L. Joyner Center.P. Winfree Nasa Langley Research Center Hampton, VA Plenary Lecture, Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation 2001 (ENDE 2001), Kobe, Japan, May 18-19, 20001 #12;Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques

  17. Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques Damage Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques for Damage Detection H. T. Banks #3; and M. L. Joyner Wincheski and W.P. Winfree Nasa Langley Research Center Hampton, VA #3; Plenary Lecture, Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation 2001 (ENDE 2001), Kobe, Japan, May 18­19, 20001 #12; Electromagnetic Interrogation

  18. Collateral damage: Evolution with displacement of fracture distribution and secondary fault strands in fault damage zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savage, Heather M.; Brodsky, Emily E.

    2011-01-01

    E. McCallum (1999), Reservoir damage around faults: OutcropSkar (2005), Controls on damage zone asymmetry of a normal2007), The evolution of the damage zone with fault growth in

  19. PRELIMINARY REPORT ON STEEL BUILDING DAMAGE FROM THE DARFIELD EARTHQUAKE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Michel

    351 PRELIMINARY REPORT ON STEEL BUILDING DAMAGE FROM THE DARFIELD EARTHQUAKE OF SEPTEMBER 4, 2010 the Darfield earthquake of September 4, 2010, including concentrically braced frames, eccentrically braced this earthquake, but much of this is attributed to the fact that seismic demands from the Darfield earthquake were

  20. Model-based Prognostics with Concurrent Damage Progression Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daigle, Matthew

    and wear processes contribute to the overall component degradation. We develop a model- based prognostics-based model of a centrifugal pump that includes damage progression models, to which we apply our model Terms--model-based prognostics, particle filters, vari- ance control, centrifugal pumps I. INTRODUCTION

  1. A damage model for fracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norris, J Quinn; Rundle, John B

    2015-01-01

    Injections of large volumes of water into tight shale reservoirs allows the extraction of oil and gas not previously accessible. This large volume "super" fracking induces damage that allows the oil and/or gas to flow to an extraction well. The purpose of this paper is to provide a model for understanding super fracking. We assume that water is injected from a small spherical cavity into a homogeneous elastic medium. The high pressure of the injected water generates hoop stresses that reactivate natural fractures in the tight shales. These fractures migrate outward as water is added creating a spherical shell of damaged rock. The porosity associated with these fractures is equal to the water volume injected. We obtain an analytic expression for this volume. We apply our model to a typical tight shale reservoir and show that the predicted water volumes are in good agreement with the volumes used in super fracking.

  2. KU Public Safety Office Criminal Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KU Public Safety Office ! Criminal Damage The unidentified white male pictured below is a suspect in the damage of a Coca-Cola vending machine in the Parking Services lobby at 1501 Irving Hill Drive and damage to Coca-Cola vending machines across the campus. Suspect Description: W/M, 5 feet 10 inches, 150

  3. Multiscale Modeling of Radiation Damage in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiscale Modeling of Radiation Damage in Fusion Reactor Materials Brian D. Wirth, R.J. Kurtz-7405-Eng-48. #12;Presentation overview · Introduction to fusion reactor materials and radiation damage. tailor He HFIR isotopic tailor He HFIR target/RB He appmHe displacement damage (dpa) ffuussiioonn

  4. Density Functional Theory Models for Radiation Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Density Functional Theory Models for Radiation Damage S.L. Dudarev EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association and informative as the most advanced experimental techniques developed for the observation of radiation damage investigation and assessment of radiation damage effects, offering new insight into the origin of temperature

  5. Structural Damage Detection and Localization Using NETSHM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gnawali, Omprakash

    Structural Damage Detection and Localization Using NETSHM Krishna Chintalapudi, Jeongyeup Paek and localize damage in large civil structures. Structural engineers often implement and test SHM algorithms the intricacies of wireless networking, or the details of sensor data acquisition. We have implemented a damage

  6. Catastrophic nanosecond laser induced damage in the bulk of potassium titanyl phosphate crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Frank R., E-mail: frank.wagner@fresnel.fr; Natoli, Jean-Yves; Akhouayri, Hassan; Commandré, Mireille [Institut Fresnel, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Ecole Centrale Marseille, Campus de St Jérôme, 13013 Marseille (France); Duchateau, Guillaume [CELIA, UMR 5107 Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS-CEA, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2014-06-28

    Due to its high effective nonlinearity and the possibility to produce periodically poled crystals, potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO{sub 4}, KTP) is still one of the economically important nonlinear optical materials. In this overview article, we present a large study on catastrophic nanosecond laser induced damage in this material and the very similar RbTiOPO{sub 4} (RTP). Several different systematic studies are included: multiple pulse laser damage, multi-wavelength laser damage in KTP, damage resistance anisotropy, and variations of the laser damage thresholds for RTP crystals of different qualities. All measurements were carried out in comparable experimental conditions using a 1064?nm Q-switched laser and some were repeated at 532?nm. After summarizing the experimental results, we detail the proposed model for laser damage in this material and discuss the experimental results in this context. According to the model, nanosecond laser damage is caused by light-induced generation of transient laser-damage precursors which subsequently provide free electrons that are heated by the same nanosecond pulse. We also present a stimulated Raman scattering measurement and confront slightly different models to the experimental data. Finally, the physical nature of the transient damage precursors is discussed and similarities and differences to laser damage in other crystals are pointed out.

  7. Thermomechanics of damageable materials under diffusion:modeling and analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomas Roubicek; Giuseppe Tomassetti

    2014-12-16

    We propose a thermodynamically consistent general-purpose model describing diffusion of a solute or a fluid in a solid undergoing possible phase transformations and damage, beside possible visco-inelastic processes. Also heat generation/consumption/transfer is considered. Damage is modelled as rate-independent. The applications include metal-hydrogen systems with metal/hydride phase transformation, poroelastic rocks, structural and ferro/para-magnetic phase transformation, water and heat transport in concrete, and, if diffusion is neglected, plasticity with damage and viscoelasticity, etc. For the ensuing system of partial differential equations and inclusions, we prove existence of solutions by a carefully devised semi-implicit approximation scheme of the fractional-step type.

  8. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: Modeling results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkadoula, E.; Devanathan, R.; Weber, W. J.; Seaton, M. A.; Todorov, I. T.; Nordlund, K.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1–0.5?MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution, and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  9. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Seaton, Michael; Todorov, Ilian; Nordlund, Kai; Dove, Martin T.; Trachenko, Kostya

    2014-02-28

    Zirconia has been viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and was consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as a nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with the account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely disjoint from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  10. High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkadoula, Evangelia; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J; Seaton, M; Todorov, I T; Nordlund, Kai; Dove, Martin T; Trachenko, Kostya

    2014-01-01

    Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We nd that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

  11. Damage Detection in Plate Structures using Guided Ultrasonic Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarmer, Gregory James Sylvester

    2009. “Evaluation of the Damage Detection Capability of alikelihood Estimation of Damage Location in Guided- waveStatistically-based Damage Detection in Geometrically-

  12. Micromechanical Damage Models for Continuous Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yi

    2013-01-01

    2008). Micromechanical modeling of damage and fracture ofmatrix viscoplasticity and evolving damage, Journal of theW.A. (1998). Stochastic damage evolution and failure in

  13. Blast damage mitigation of steel structures from near- contact charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfson, Janet Crumrine

    2008-01-01

    OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Blast Damage Mitigation of Steel35  Damage Levels Observed in LaboratoryFigure 3.34: Progression of damage for a Ballistic Loading

  14. Cognitive Empathy Following Orbitofrontal Cortex and Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodkind, Madeleine Shirley

    2010-01-01

    following bilateral damage to the human amygdala. Nature,as a measure of frontal lobe damage. Journal of Clinical andcaused by frontal damage fail to respond autonomically to

  15. RADIATION DAMAGE RESISTANCE OF REVERSE ELECTRODE GE COAXIAL DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pehl, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    Parker, "Radiation Damage of Germanium Detectors", Bull. Am.to radiation damage between the two detectors was clearlyRADIATION DAMAGE RESISTANCE OF REVERSE ELECTRODE GE COAXIAL DETECTORS

  16. Radiation Damage in Polarized Ammonia Solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Slifer

    2007-11-28

    Solid NH3 and ND3 provide a highly polarizable, radiation resistant source of polarized protons and deuterons and have been used extensively in high luminosity experiments investigating the spin structure of the nucleon. Over the past twenty years, the UVA polarized target group has been instrumental in producing and polarizing much of the material used in these studies, and many practical considerations have been learned in this time. In this discussion, we analyze the polarization performance of the solid ammonia targets used during the recent JLab Eg4 run. Topics include the rate of polarization decay with accumulated charge, the annealing procedure for radiation damaged targets to recover polarization, and the radiation induced change in optimum microwave frequency used to polarize the sample. We also discuss the success we have had in implementing frequency modulation of the polarizing microwave frequency.

  17. Nonlocal Damage Models 8.1 Basic Types of Nonlocal Damage Formulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jirasek, Milan

    Chapter 8 Nonlocal Damage Models 8.1 Basic Types of Nonlocal Damage Formulations 8.1.1 Formulations Motivated by Isotropic Damage A number of nonlocal concepts giving local response in the linear elastic damage model from Section 5.2. Certain models use a formulation in which the role of the equivalent

  18. Non-invasive Acceleration-based Methodology for Damage Detection and Assessment of Water Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    sensor network 1. INTRODUCTION Urban water distribution systems, particularly underground pipeline networks, can be damaged due to earthquake, pipe corrosion, severely cold weather, heavy traffic load include corrosion and aging, excessive surface traffic load- ing, soil failure, etc. For identifying

  19. #include #include

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, Christoph

    ] (where a[n] = +infty). C's * bsearch() can't be used, it requires a[j]==key. */ int findloc( void *key Combine­CRCW BSP­Quicksort * variant by Gerbessiotis/Valiant JPDC 22(1994) * implemented in NestStep­C. */ int N=10; // default value /** findloc(): find largest index j in [0..n­1] with * a[j

  20. Nanofoams Response to Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Engang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Serrano De Caro, Magdalena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yongqiang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nastasi, Michael [Nebraska Center for Energy Sciences Research, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE 68508; Zepeda-Ruiz, Luis [PLS, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551; Bringa, Eduardo M. [CONICET and Inst. Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, 5500 Argentina; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Caro, Jose A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-30

    Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) np-Au foams were successfully synthesized by de-alloying process; (2) np-Au foams remain porous structure after Ne ion irradiation to 1 dpa; (3) SFTs were observed in irradiated np-Au foams with highest and intermediate flux, while no SFTs were observed with lowest flux; (4) SFTs were observed in irradiated np-Au foams at RT, whereas no SFTs were observed at LNT irradiation; (5) The diffusivity of vacancies in Au at RT is high enough so that the vacancies have enough time to agglomerate and thus collapse. As a result, SFTs were formed; (6) The high flux created much more damage/time, vacancies don't have enough time to diffuse or recombine. As a result, SFTs were formed.

  1. Corrosion-induced damage raises serious implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, R.D.; Cayard, M.S. [CLI International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-06-01

    One of the most difficult and often underestimated aspects of pipeline rehabilitation is the assessment of corrosion-induced damage. This question involves evaluation of damage from prior service as well as consideration of conditions which may pose additional time-dependent degradation which could affect the future serviceability of the pipeline. The present study examines the assessment of pipeline damage and rehabilitation requirements through knowledge of materials of construction, operating conditions, field inspection and service records.

  2. Method for assaying clustered DNA damages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Betsy M.

    2004-09-07

    Disclosed is a method for detecting and quantifying clustered damages in DNA. In this method, a first aliquot of the DNA to be tested for clustered damages with one or more lesion-specific cleaving reagents under conditions appropriate for cleavage of the DNA to produce single-strand nicks in the DNA at sites of damage lesions. The number average molecular length (Ln) of double stranded DNA is then quantitatively determined for the treated DNA. The number average molecular length (Ln) of double stranded DNA is also quantitatively determined for a second, untreated aliquot of the DNA. The frequency of clustered damages (.PHI..sub.c) in the DNA is then calculated.

  3. Prediction of Damage Zone Growth in Composites Using Continuum Damage Mechanics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLendon, Wesley R.

    2010-07-14

    The continuum damage mechanics (CDM) approach is widely used to model damage in polymer matrix composite materials which are represented using the homogenized properties of the fiber and matrix constituents. CDM simplifies the problem of accounting...

  4. Damage Identification with Linear Discriminant Operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Nix, D.A.; Duffey, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Pardoen, G.C.

    1999-02-08

    This paper explores the application of statistical pattern recognition and machine learning techniques to vibration-based damage detection. First, the damage detection process is described in terms of a problem in statistical pattern recognition. Next, a specific example of a statistical-pattern-recognition-based damage detection process using a linear discriminant operator, ''Fisher's Discriminant'', is applied to the problem of identifying structural damage in a physical system. Accelerometer time histories are recorded from sensors attached to the system as that system is excited using a measured input. Linear Prediction Coding (LPC) coefficients are utilized to convert the accelerometer time-series data into multi-dimensional samples representing the resonances of the system during a brief segment of the time series. Fisher's discriminant is then used to find the linear projection of the LPC data distributions that best separates data from undamaged and damaged systems. The method i s applied to data from concrete bridge columns as the columns are progressively damaged. For this case, the method captures a clear distinction between undamaged and damaged vibration profiles. Further, the method assigns a probability of damage that can be used to rank systems in order of priority for inspection.

  5. MODELING LONGITUDINAL DAMAGE IN SHIP COLLISIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Alan

    . Performing Organization Name and Address Department of Aerospace and Ocean Engineering. 10. Work Unit No made excellent progress towards predicting damage penetration in ship collisions. This project focuses collision data for penetrating collisions. 17. Key Words ship collisions, longitudinal ship damage 18

  6. Radiation Damage In Reactor Cavity Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Kevin G; Le Pape, Yann; Naus, Dan J; Remec, Igor; Busby, Jeremy T; Rosseel, Thomas M; Wall, Dr. James Joseph

    2015-01-01

    License renewal up to 60 years and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years has established a renewed focus on long-term aging of nuclear generating stations materials, and recently, on concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis (EMDA), jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Industry, identified the urgent need to develop a consistent knowledge base on irradiation effects in concrete [1]. Much of the historical mechanical performance data of irradiated concrete [2] does not accurately reflect typical radiation conditions in NPPs or conditions out to 60 or 80 years of radiation exposure [3]. To address these potential gaps in the knowledge base, The Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working to disposition radiation damage as a degradation mechanism. This paper outlines the research program within this pathway including: (i) defining the upper bound of the neutron and gamma dose levels expected in the biological shield concrete for extended operation (80 years of operation and beyond), (ii) determining the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation as well as extended time at temperature on concrete, (iii) evaluating opportunities to irradiate prototypical concrete under accelerated neutron and gamma dose levels to establish a conservative bound and share data obtained from different flux, temperature, and fluence levels, (iv) evaluating opportunities to harvest and test irradiated concrete from international NPPs, (v) developing cooperative test programs to improve confidence in the results from the various concretes and research reactors, (vi) furthering the understanding of the effects of radiation on concrete (see companion paper) and (vii) establishing an international collaborative research and information exchange effort to leverage capabilities and knowledge.

  7. Passenger life-saving in a badly damaged aircraft scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-03-28

    Offered is a new method for saving passenger lives in any catastrofic situation, including total failure of aircraft control, extreme damage and loss aircraft wings, tail, breakdown all propelling engines, etc. It shown here that previous works which have proposed using only parachutes are useless because their proposers failed to consider the likely overload of the parachute jerk stress (at the moment of parachute release) and the impact of aircraft on Earth surface. These jeck and impact destroy aircraft and kill passengers. Offered is a connected series of related technical innovations which overcome these obvious difficalties and allow for a soft, near zero speed landing in any topographically suitable place, allowing potential to save aircraft. This method may be applied to all existing airplanes and increases their weight only about 1.5 - 2.5%. Also, the method may be used for vertically landing the already built aircraft, for example, when any runway is damaged or would become overloaded.

  8. War damages and reconstruction of Peruca dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nonveiller, E.; Rupcic, J.; Sever, Z.

    1999-04-01

    The paper describes the heavy damages caused by blasting in the Peruca rockfill dam in Croatia in January 1993. Complete collapse of the dam by overtopping was prevented through quick action of the dam owner by dumping clayey gravel on the lowest sections of the dam crest and opening the bottom outlet of the reservoir, thus efficiently lowering the water level. After the damages were sufficiently established and alternatives for restoration of the dam were evaluated, it was decided to construct a diaphragm wall through the damaged core in the central dam part as the impermeable dam element and to rebuild the central clay core at the dam abutments. Reconstruction works are described.

  9. Prices include compostable serviceware and linen tablecloths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    APPETIZERS Prices include compostable serviceware and linen tablecloths for the food tables.ucdavis.edu. BUTTERNUT SQUASH & BLACK BEAN ENCHILADAS #12;BUFFETS Prices include compostable serviceware and linen

  10. DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF COMPOSITE PLATE STRUCTURES WITH UNCERTAINTY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF COMPOSITE PLATE STRUCTURES WITH UNCERTAINTY Chandrashekhar M.* , Ranjan Uncertainties associated with a structural model and measured vibration data may lead to unreliable damage that material uncertainties in composite structures cause considerable problem in damage assessment which can

  11. New navel orangeworm sanitation standards ?could reduce almond damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higbee, Bradley S.; Siegel, Joel P

    2009-01-01

    disruption, dispersal and damage prediction. Proc 34thtype and amount of insect damage. J Ag Food Chem 49:4513–9.standards could reduce almond damage by Bradley S. Higbee

  12. RADIATION DAMAGE TO BSCCO-2223 FROM 50 MEV PROTONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeller, A.F.; Ronningen, R.M.; Godeke, A.; Heilbronn, L.H.; McMahan-Norris, P.; Gupta, R.

    2007-01-01

    RADIATION DAMAGE TO BSCCO-2223 FROM 50 MEV PROTONS A. F.BSCCO-2223. Radiation damage. INTRODUCTION The magnets incomponents be resistant to damage. One solution [1] is to

  13. A Damage-Revelation Rationale for Coupon Remedies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polinsky, A. Mitchell; Rubinfeld, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    Bargaining and the Design of Damage Awards,” 10 Journal ofpage 1 Revised: March 2006 A DAMAGE-REVELATION RATIONALE FORin a setting in which damages vary among plaintiffs and are

  14. INSTANTANEOUS DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION AND LOCALIZATION THROUGH SPARSE LASER ULTRASONIC SCANNING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    INSTANTANEOUS DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION AND LOCALIZATION THROUGH SPARSE LASER ULTRASONIC SCANNING This study proposes an instantaneous damage identification and localization technique through sparse laser ultrasonic signals are obtained, a damage index (DI) representing the violation of the linear reciprocity

  15. A Damage-Revelation Rationale for Coupon Remedies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polinsky, A. Mitchell; Rubinfeld, Daniel L

    2007-01-01

    Bargaining and the Design of Damage Awards,’’ 10 Journal ofGramlich, Fred. 1986. ‘‘Scrip Damages in Antitrust Cases,’’in the Assessment of Damages,’’ 39 Journal of Law and

  16. Assessing United States hurricane damage under different environmental conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheras, Anastasia Francis

    2012-01-01

    Hurricane activity between 1979 and 2011 was studied to determine damage statistics under different environmental conditions. Hurricanes cause billions of dollars of damage every year in the United States, but damage ...

  17. Mechanical failure characterization of optical components caused by laser induced damage initiated at contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faux, D. R., LLNL

    1997-12-01

    The goal of this research is to quantify by numerical techniques the effects of surface and subsurface absorbing defects on damage initiation and growth in high power laser optical components. The defects include laser absorbing spots (e.g., surface particulate contamination) and surface damage regions (e.g., micro-cracks and voids) which are present due to environmental exposure and fabrication processes. This report focuses on three sources of contamination that can cause damage to optical components: (1) Front surface particle contamination, (2) Back surface particle contamination, and (3) Subsurface particle contamination. The DYNA2D (non-linear structural mechanics) code was used to model the growth of damage in the glass substrate. The damage in the nominally transparent glass substrate as a result of front surface particle contamination was found to be dependent on the magnitude of the resultant pressure pulse applied to the particle and the initial area of contact between the particle and glass substrate. The pressures generated from a back surface particle being blown off the surface provided sufficient loading to severely damage (crack) the glass substrate. A subsurface Ceria dioxide particle showed a strong surface interaction that influenced the formation and direction of the damage (cracking) that ultimately resulted in the blow-out of the damaged material leaving a relatively clean crater in the glass. Crater shape and size was determined. Since fused silica is the most transparent, and therefore laser damage resistant, of the optical materials, it is used for the most at-risk optical elements. The present studies are for a fused silica substrate. Some oxides such as Ceria are transparent in the infrared and visible, but absorbing in the UV part of the spectrum. Because ICF lasers like NIF use frequency tripling, effects of such oxides must be included.

  18. Ubiquitylation, neddylation and the DNA damage response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jessica S.; Jackson, Stephen P.

    2015-04-01

    , collectively termed the DNA damage response (DDR), requires the recruitment and subsequent post-translational modification (PTM) of a complex network of proteins. Ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) SUMO have established roles in regulating...

  19. Thin Film Femtosecond Laser Damage Competition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolz, C J; Ristau, D; Turowski, M; Blaschke, H

    2009-11-14

    In order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors, a damage competition was started at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state of the art of high laser resistance coatings since they are tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. In 2009 a high reflector coating was selected at a wavelength of 786 nm at normal incidence at a pulse length of 180 femtoseconds. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials and layer count, and spectral results will also be shared.

  20. Damage spreading and coupling in Markov chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etienne P. Bernard; Cédric Chanal; Werner Krauth

    2011-06-23

    In this paper, we relate the coupling of Markov chains, at the basis of perfect sampling methods, with damage spreading, which captures the chaotic nature of stochastic dynamics. For two-dimensional spin glasses and hard spheres we point out that the obstacle to the application of perfect-sampling schemes is posed by damage spreading rather than by the survey problem of the entire configuration space. We find dynamical damage-spreading transitions deeply inside the paramagnetic and liquid phases, and show that critical values of the transition temperatures and densities depend on the coupling scheme. We discuss our findings in the light of a classic proof that for arbitrary Monte Carlo algorithms damage spreading can be avoided through non-Markovian coupling schemes.

  1. Micropatterned cell arrays for detecting DNA damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Sukant

    2008-01-01

    Numerous agents are capable of interacting with DNA and damaging it. Permanent changes in the DNA structure can be both mutagenic and cytotoxic; therefore, methods to measure the susceptibility of cells to mutations are ...

  2. Formation damage in underbalanced drilling operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyes Serpa, Carlos Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Formation damage has long been recognized as a potential source of reduced productivity and injectivity in both horizontal and vertical wells. From the moment that the pay zone is being drilled until the well is put on production, a formation...

  3. Dealing with Storm-Damaged Trees 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirk, Melanie; Taylor, Eric; Foster, C. Darwin

    2005-10-25

    -Damaged Trees Melanie R. Kirk, Extension Program Specialist, Eric L. Taylor, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, and C. Darwin Foster, Associate Department Head and Extension Program Leader for Forestry, The Texas A&M University System Downed trees...

  4. Controlled ion implant damage profile for etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., George W. (Tijeras, NM); Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Brannon, Paul J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A process for etching a material such as LiNbO.sub.3 by implanting ions having a plurality of different kinetic energies in an area to be etched, and then contacting the ion implanted area with an etchant. The various energies of the ions are selected to produce implant damage substantially uniformly throughout the entire depth of the zone to be etched, thus tailoring the vertical profile of the damaged zone.

  5. Cable Damage Detection System and Algorithms Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, G A; Robbins, C L; Wade, K A; Souza, P R

    2009-03-24

    This report describes the hardware system and the set of algorithms we have developed for detecting damage in cables for the Advanced Development and Process Technologies (ADAPT) Program. This program is part of the W80 Life Extension Program (LEP). The system could be generalized for application to other systems in the future. Critical cables can undergo various types of damage (e.g. short circuits, open circuits, punctures, compression) that manifest as changes in the dielectric/impedance properties of the cables. For our specific problem, only one end of the cable is accessible, and no exemplars of actual damage are available. This work addresses the detection of dielectric/impedance anomalies in transient time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements on the cables. The approach is to interrogate the cable using time domain reflectometry (TDR) techniques, in which a known pulse is inserted into the cable, and reflections from the cable are measured. The key operating principle is that any important cable damage will manifest itself as an electrical impedance discontinuity that can be measured in the TDR response signal. Machine learning classification algorithms are effectively eliminated from consideration, because only a small number of cables is available for testing; so a sufficient sample size is not attainable. Nonetheless, a key requirement is to achieve very high probability of detection and very low probability of false alarm. The approach is to compare TDR signals from possibly damaged cables to signals or an empirical model derived from reference cables that are known to be undamaged. This requires that the TDR signals are reasonably repeatable from test to test on the same cable, and from cable to cable. Empirical studies show that the repeatability issue is the 'long pole in the tent' for damage detection, because it is has been difficult to achieve reasonable repeatability. This one factor dominated the project. The two-step model-based approach is summarized as follows: Step 1, Cable Modeling: Given input-output TDR signals s(n) and x{sub U}(n) for a cable known to be free of damage, system identification algorithms are used to compute a dynamic prediction-error cable model that has output {cflx x}{sub U}(n). The model is declared valid when the innovations e{sub U}(n) = x{sub U}(n) {cflx x}{sub U}(n) satisfy a statistical zero-mean whiteness test. This validated model output is then used as a known reference to which other cables can be compared. Step 2, Cable Testing: The TDR output signal x{sub D}(n) from a cable under test is compared with the model output {cflx x}{sub U}(n) by computing the innovations e{sub D}(n) = x{sub D}(n) {cflx x}{sub U}(n). The innovations are tested using a short-term whiteness test statistic, which employs a statistical confidence interval. If the cable passes the test, this implies that the model is valid and the cable is declared undamaged. If the cable fails the test, this indicates a model mismatch, which means that the cable's dielectric properties have changed; and this implies that the cable is damaged. The test threshold is adjusted to maximize probability of detection and minimize probability of false alarm according to an empirically determined receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. An associated confidence interval on the probability of correct classification is also provided. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated using measured TDR signals for undamaged and damaged cables. Experimental and algorithmic methods for coping with repeatability issues are presented. The model-based damage detection algorithms have been shown to perform well for some representative examples of real TDR signals acquired using the two-dimensional (2D) mockup fixture. If the damage causes a short circuit, then damage detection performance is generally good to excellent. Examples include the cases demonstrated in this report for cuts and pinholes. If the damage does not cause a short circuit, then damage detection performance is generally poor to fair. Examples include

  6. Evader Interdiction and Collateral Damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutfraind, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    In network interdiction problems, evaders (hostile agents or data packets) are moving through a network towards their targets and we wish to choose sensor placement locations in order to intercept them before they reach their destinations. Sensor locations should be chosen economically, balancing security gains with cost, including the inconvenience sensors inflict upon innocent travelers. We give optimal sensor allocation algorithms for several classes of special graphs and hardness and optimal approximation results for general graphs, including for deterministic or Markov chain-based and oblivious or reactive evaders. In a similar-sounding but much different problem setting posed by [10] where the innocent travelers can also be reactive, we again give optimal algorithms for special cases and hardness and (essentially) optimal approximation results on general graphs.

  7. An overview of modal-based damage identification methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Doebling, S.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Engineering Analysis Group

    1997-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of methods that examine changes in measured vibration response to detect, locate, and characterize damage in structural and mechanical systems. The basic idea behind this technology is that modal parameters (notably frequencies, mode shapes, and modal damping) are functions of the physical properties of the structure (mass, damping, and stiffness). Therefore, changes in the physical properties will cause detectable changes in the modal properties. The motivation for the development of this technology is first provided. The methods are then categorized according to various criteria such as the level of damage detection provided, model-based vs. non-model-based methods and linear vs. nonlinear methods. This overview is limited to methods that can be adapted to a wide range of structures (i.e., are not dependent on a particular assumed model form for the system such as beam-bending behavior and methods and that are not based on updating finite element models). Next, the methods are described in general terms including difficulties associated with their implementation and their fidelity. Past, current and future-planned applications of this technology to actual engineering systems are summarized. The paper concludes with a discussion of critical issues for future research in the area of modal-based damage identification.

  8. (Microstructural dependence of the cavitation damage function in the FCC materials: Annual report, 1990--1991)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The interface damage function (IDF) defines an area fraction of damage on crystallite interfaces. This function, which is material and condition dependent, sustains a complete geometrical description of grain boundaries and identifies those types of interfaces which are preferentially damaged. Included in the IDF is functional dependence, not only upon lattice orientations or misorientations, but also upon grain boundary normal; this dependence has been largely neglected in other studies examining damage inhomogeneity of polycrystals. The experimental method used in describing the damaged microstructures included random sectioning of the damaged specimen, and the manual or semi-automatic construction of grain maps describing the observed microstructure. The grain maps for the initial IDF determination were constructed from scanning electron micrographs. Several of these micrographs were joined together and the grain boundaries were traced. There were manually fed back into the computer using a digitizing pad with each grain boundary intersection defined by an (x,y) pair of coordinates. Using algorithms written as a part of this work, the computer then reconstructs the grain map from this series of points. Manual correction of the computer generated maps was required to obtain an acceptable digitized reproduction of the observed microstructure.

  9. Radiation damage monitoring of the ATLAS pixel detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seidel, Sally; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A measurement has been made of the radiation damage incurred by the ATLAS Pixel Detector barrel silicon modules from the beginning of operations through the end of 2012. This translates to hadronic fluence received over the full period of operation at energies up to and including 8 TeV. The measurement is based on a per-module record of the silicon sensor leakage current. The results are presented as a function of integrated luminosity and compared to predictions by the Hamburg Model. This information can be used to predict limits on the lifetime of the Pixel Detector due to current, for various operating scenarios.

  10. Condition/damage monitoring methodologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.); Sohn, Hong Yong

    2001-01-01

    COSMOS, in cooperation with the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS), is sponsoring an invited workshop entitled Strong-Motion Instrumentation of Buildings. The workshop is motivated by the need to obtain broad input from earthquake engineering professionals for the purpose of developing guidelines for strong motion instrumentation of buildings as part of the ANSS instrument installation effort. The ANSS has been authorized capital finding for 6,000 strong-motion instruments. It is expected that funding for purchase and installation of instruments will be appropriated over a period of several years. The instrument installations must meet multiple monitoring objectives including instrumentation of buildings of various types, urban reference stations, and emergency response and recovery actions. An important opportunity therefore, exists to comprehensively define strong-motion monitoring needs as an underpinning basis for developing guidelines for installation of this important monitoring system. This workshop will specifically address instrumentation of buildings.

  11. Creep damage mechanisms in composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nutt, S.R.

    1994-10-17

    During the past year, research has focused on processing and characterization of intermetallic composites synthesized by plasma spray deposition. This versatile process allows rapid synthesis of a variety of different composite systems with potential applications for coatings, functionally gradient materials, rapid proto-typing and 3d printing, as well as near-net-shape processing of complex shapes. We have been pursuing an experimental program of research aimed at a fundamental understanding of the microstructural processes involved in the synthesis of intermetallic composites, including diffusion, heat transfer, grain boundary migration, and the dependence of these phenomena on deposition parameters. The work has been motivated by issues arising from composite materials manufacturing technologies. Recent progress is described in section B on the following topics: (1) Reactive atomization and deposition of intermetallic composites (Ni3Al); (2) Reactive synthesis of MoSi2-SiC composites; (3) Mechanical alloying of nanocrystalline alloys; (4) Tensile creep deformation of BMAS glass-ceramic composites.

  12. Prevention of Salt Damage inPrevention of Salt Damage in LimestoneLimestone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Prevention of Salt Damage inPrevention of Salt Damage in LimestoneLimestone Kathy Whitaker.jpg #12;Introduction: Sodium Sulfate Thenardite: Na2SO4 Mirabilite: Na2SO4·10H2O Salt exposure for 5 weeks the stone by capillary uptake of water containing the dissolved salt. Degradation of mortar. #12

  13. Damage and Damage Prediction for Wood Shearwalls Subjected to Simulated Earthquake Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    -structure predictive damage model and its integration into the development of a performance-based seismic design and refinement of modern strength-based seismic design codes were in use. One result of this significant damage-based seismic design PBSD philosophy for woodframe structures. Such phi- losophies are currently being developed

  14. DAMAGE DETECTION IN COMPOSITES BY NONCONTACT LASER Byeongjin Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DAMAGE DETECTION IN COMPOSITES BY NONCONTACT LASER ULTRASONIC Byeongjin Park 1 , Hoon Sohn 1 author: p.malinowski@imp.gda.pl ABSTRACT This study proposes an instantaneous damage localization, are obtained. Then possible damage locations are estimated through time-of-flight triangulation of damage

  15. DAMAGE ESTIMATION USING MULTI-OBJECTIVE GENETIC ALGORITHMS Faisal Shabbir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    DAMAGE ESTIMATION USING MULTI-OBJECTIVE GENETIC ALGORITHMS Faisal Shabbir 1 , Piotr Omenzetter 2 1.omenzetter@abdn.ac.uk ABSTRACT It is common to estimate structural damage severity by updating a structural model against experimental responses at different damage states. When experimental results from the healthy and damaged

  16. RUPTURE BY DAMAGE ACCUMULATION IN ROCKS David Amitrano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RUPTURE BY DAMAGE ACCUMULATION IN ROCKS David Amitrano LIRIGM, Université J. Fourier, Grenoble of rocks is associated with microcracks nucleation and propagation, i.e. damage. The accumulation of damage as strength and modulus. The damage process can be studied both statically by direct observation of thin

  17. Ductile damage parameters identification for cold metal forming applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ductile damage parameters identification for cold metal forming applications Pierre damage mechanics is essential to predict failure during cold metal forming applications. Several damage models can be found in the literature. These damage models are coupled with the mechanical behavior so

  18. Structural damage detection using the holder exponent.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.); Do, N. B. (Nguyen B.); Green, S. R. (Scott R.); Schwartz, T. A. (Timothy A.)

    2002-01-01

    This paper implements a damage detection strategy that identifies damage sensitive features associated with nonlinearities. Some rion-linezlrities result from discontinuities introduced into the data by certain types of darnage. These discontinuities may also result from noise in the measured dynamic response data or can be caused by random excitation of the system. The Holder Exponent, which is a measure of the degree to which a signal is differentiable, is used to detect the discontinuities. By studying the Holder bponent as a function af time, a statistical model is developed that classifies changes in the Holder Exponent that are associated with clamage-induced discontinuities. The results show that for certain cases, the Holder Exponent is an effective technique to detect damage.

  19. Method to reduce damage to backing plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a method for penetrating a workpiece using an ultra-short pulse laser beam without causing damage to subsequent surfaces facing the laser. Several embodiments are shown which place holes in fuel injectors without damaging the back surface of the sack in which the fuel is ejected. In one embodiment, pulses from an ultra short pulse laser remove about 10 nm to 1000 nm of material per pulse. In one embodiment, a plasma source is attached to the fuel injector and initiated by common methods such as microwave energy. In another embodiment of the invention, the sack void is filled with a solid. In one other embodiment, a high viscosity liquid is placed within the sack. In general, high-viscosity liquids preferably used in this invention should have a high damage threshold and have a diffusing property.

  20. Thermal Damage Characterization of Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P C; DeHaven, M R; Springer, H K; Maienschein, J L

    2009-08-14

    We conducted thermal damage experiments at 180?C on PBXN-9 and characterized its material properties. Volume expansion at high temperatures was very significant which led to a reduction in material density. 2.6% of weight loss was observed, which was higher than other HMX-based formulations. Porosity of PBXN-9 increased to 16% after thermal exposure. Small-scale safety tests (impact, friction, and spark) showed no significant sensitization when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature. Gas permeation measurements showed that gas permeability in damaged materials was several orders of magnitude higher than that in pristine materials. In-situ measurements of gas permeability and density were proved to be possible at higher temperatures.

  1. Seawater can damage Saudi sandstone oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahab, A.S. (King Saud Univ., Riyadh (SA))

    1990-12-10

    Experiments have shown that formation damage from waterflooding of the Aramco and Alkhafji sandstones of Saudi Arabia will not occur if the salinity of the injected brines is higher than 20% NaCl. Because the connate water in these reservoirs has a high salt content of up to 231,000 ppm, Saudi oil fields are almost always susceptible to formation damage when flooded with seawater (about 38,500 ppm). The productive behavior of a reservoir can be affected by clay crystals developed within rock pores.

  2. Resistance of cotton to pink bollworm damage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brazzel, J. R.

    1956-01-01

    for resistance to pink bollworra damage, College Station, Texas, 1SAI . 12. Group comparisons analyses for a number of cottons with Deltapine TA based on number of larvae re? covered per gram of boll weight in greenhouse screening experiments for pink... screening experiment for resistance to pink bollworm damage, College Station, Texas, 195U- 1955: (A) Deltapine 15, (B) G^ thurberi, (C) Texas 389, (D) MW-298, (E) G^ stocksii, '(F) Stoneville 2-B x G. tomentosum, (G) Hexaploia Z-61j., (H) MW-1U7 . ? 5U...

  3. INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; RADIATION

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interval technical basis document Chiaro, P.J. Jr. 44 INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; RADIATION DETECTORS; RADIATION MONITORS; DOSEMETERS;...

  4. Gabriele Simi1 BaBar SVT: Radiation Damage and BaBar SVT: Radiation Damage and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Gabriele Simi1 BaBar SVT: Radiation Damage and BaBar SVT: Radiation Damage and Other OperationalBar and SVTIntro to BaBar and SVT Radiation Environment Damage to Si Detectors Damage to Front End Electronics for Photon and KL detection DIRC for K/ separation DCH for charged particle tracking SVT for tracking

  5. To be submitted to Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics From the onset of damage to rupture: construction of responses with damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    To be submitted to Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics From the onset of damage to rupture: construction of responses with damage localization for a general class of gradient damage models Kim Pham solutions for the traction problem of an elastic damaging bar. This bar has a softening behavior which obeys

  6. Delay-active damage versus non-local enhancement for anisotropic damage dynamics computations with alternated loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Delay-active damage versus non-local enhancement for anisotropic damage dynamics computations, Laboratoire d'´etudes dynamiques F-91191 GIF-SUR-YVETTE Abstract Anisotropic damage thermodynamics framework of anisotropic visco-damage, by introducing a material strain rate effect in the cases of positive hydro- static

  7. Undulator Radiation Damage Experience at LCLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuhn, H. D.; Field, C.; Mao, S.; Levashov, Y.; Santana, M.; Welch, J. N.; Wolf, Z.

    2015-01-06

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has been running the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first x-ray Free Electron Laser since 2009. Undulator magnet damage from radiation, produced by the electron beam traveling through the 133-m long straight vacuum tube, has been and is a concern. A damage measurement experiment has been performed in 2007 in order to obtain dose versus damage calibrations. Radiation reduction and detection devices have been integrated into the LCLS undulator system. The accumulated radiation dose rate was continuously monitored and recorded. In addition, undulator segments have been routinely removed from the beamline to be checked for magnetic (50 ppm, rms) and mechanic (about 0.25 µm, rms) changes. A reduction in strength of the undulator segments is being observed, at a level, which is now clearly above the noise. Recently, potential sources for the observed integrated radiation levels have been investigated. The paper discusses the results of these investigation as well as comparison between observed damage and measured dose accumulations and discusses, briefly, strategies for the new LCLS-II upgrade, which will be operating at more than 300 times larger beam rate.

  8. Nondestructive Damage Detection in General Beams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dincal, Selcuk

    2010-12-08

    is to provide NDE methodologies that simultaneously identify the location, the extent, and the severity of damage in general beams. By general beams, we mean beyond Euler-Bernoulli beams (i.e. slender beams) to deep beams and stubby beams whose response may...

  9. Gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adeyeye, Adedeji Ayoola

    2004-09-30

    This project is a research into the effect of gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells. It is the result of a problem encountered in producing a low permeability formation from a well in South Texas owned by the El Paso Production...

  10. How do energetic ions damage metallic surfaces?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Calder, Andrew F.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2015-02-20

    Surface modification under bombardment by energetic ions observed under different conditions in structural and functional materials and can be either unavoidable effect of the conditions or targeted modification to enhance materials properties. Understanding basic mechanisms is necessary for predicting properties changes. The mechanisms activated during ion irradiation are of atomic scale and atomic scale modeling is the most suitable tool to study these processes. In this paper we present results of an extensive simulation program aimed at developing an understanding of primary surface damage in iron by energetic particles. We simulated 25 keV self-ion bombardment of Fe thin films withmore »(100) and (110) surfaces at room temperature. A large number of simulations, ~400, were carried out allow a statistically significant treatment of the results. The particular mechanism of surface damage depends on how the destructive supersonic shock wave generated by the displacement cascade interacts with the free surface. Three basic scenarios were observed, with the limiting cases being damage created far below the surface with little or no impact on the surface itself, and extensive direct surface damage on the timescale of a few picoseconds. In some instances, formation of large vacancy loops beneath the free surface was observed, which may explain some earlier experimental observations.« less

  11. 1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF BAOTOU EARTHQUAKE DAMAGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer Jr., Billie F.

    frame gallery (west) of No. 5 coke oven system of BISC. It acted in the violation of the national, water towers, bridges, substations, gas holders, open-hearth furnaces and reservoirs etc, 50% of them and heat supplying pipe networks, as well as gas pipelines for the municipal utilities. Damages

  12. Course may include: Research in Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Course may include: Research in Education Statistics in Education Theories of Educational Admin Policy Analysis Sociological Aspects of Education Approaches to Literacy Development Information and Communication Technologies Issues in Education Final Project Seminar Master of Education Educational

  13. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  14. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  15. Radiation damage by light- and heavy-ion bombardment of single-crystal LiNbO?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hsu-Cheng [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Zhang, Lihua [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Malladi, Girish [SUNY Polytechnic Inst., Albany, NY (United States); Dadap, Jerry I. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Manandhar, Sandeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kisslinger, Kim [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vemuri, Rama Sesha R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bakhru, Hassaram [SUNY Polytechnic Inst., Albany, NY (United States); Osgood, Jr., Richard M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a battery of analytical methods including in situ RBS/C, confocal micro-Raman, TEM/STEM, EDS, AFM, and optical microscopy were used to provide a comparative investigation of light- and heavy-ion radiation damage in single-crystal LiNbO?. High (~MeV) and low (~100s keV) ion energies, corresponding to different stopping power mechanisms, were used and their associated damage events were observed. In addition, sequential irradiation of both ion species was also performed and their cumulative depth-dependent damage was determined. It was found that the contribution from electronic stopping by high-energy heavy ions gave rise to a lower critical fluence for damage formation than for the case of low-energy irradiation. Such energy-dependent critical fluence of heavy-ion irradiation is two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that for the case of light-ion damage. In addition, materials amorphization and collision cascades were seen for heavy-ion irradiation, while for light ion, crystallinity remained at the highest fluence used in the experiment. The irradiation-induced damage is characterized by the formation of defect clusters, elastic strain, surface deformation, as well as change in elemental composition. In particular, the presence of nanometric-scale damage pockets results in increased RBS/C backscattered signal and the appearance of normally forbidden Raman phonon modes. The location of the highest density of damage is in good agreement with SRIM calculations. (author)

  16. A continuum theory of grain size evolution and damage and D. Bercovici2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and coalescence. The continuous and discontinuous processes of grain size variation are prescribed. Damage per se is the generic process for generation of microcracks, defects, dislocations (including standard mass, momentum, and energy conservation, as well as entropy production, on a statistically

  17. Nonlinear Rate-Dependent Material Model with Damage and Plasticity from Granular Micromechanics Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Viraj

    2014-05-31

    -mechanics to develop a physics based constitutive model with included damage and plasticity at micro-scale. To obtain the stress-strain behavior, appropriate micro-scale force displacement relationship is used along with the kinematic assumption and theory of stress...

  18. Comparison of Various Structural Damage Tracking Techniques Based on Experimental Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jann

    Comparison of Various Structural Damage Tracking Techniques Based on Experimental Data Hongwei identification based on measured vibration data have received considerable attention, including the least identification of structures based on experimental data. A series of experimental tests using a small-scale 3

  19. Yeast Rad17 Mec3 Ddc1: A sliding clamp for the DNA damage checkpoint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgers, Peter M.

    lead to inhibition of the cdk kinases that drive the cell cycle are relatively well understood to cell cycle arrest. Rad24 interacts with the four small subunits of replication factor C (RFC) to form of cellular responses which includes DNA repair, apoptosis, and cell- cycle arrest. The DNA damage checkpoint

  20. Health damages from air pollution in China Kira Matus a,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Health damages from air pollution in China Kira Matus a,1 , Kyung-Min Nam b,1, *, Noelle E. Selin c to its environment, including air pollution, the availability of clean water, and desertification. Issues in negative health outcomes, such as contaminated water and high levels of air pollution, also incur real

  1. HumanWildlife Interactions 4(1):130144, Spring 2010 Evaluation of damage by vertebrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    survey, distress call, grapes, human­wildlife conflicts, Meleagris gallopavo, vineyards, wild turkey range have resulted in conflict with human interests. Complaints include turkeys causing a nuisance in the Napa Valley and Sierra Foothills American Viticultural Areas of California. We conducted damage surveys

  2. Scramjet including integrated inlet and combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutschenreuter, P.H. Jr.; Blanton, J.C.

    1992-02-04

    This patent describes a scramjet engine. It comprises: a first surface including an aft facing step; a cowl including: a leading edge and a trailing edge; an upper surface and a lower surface extending between the leading edge and the trailing edge; the cowl upper surface being spaced from and generally parallel to the first surface to define an integrated inlet-combustor therebetween having an inlet for receiving and channeling into the inlet-combustor supersonic inlet airflow; means for injecting fuel into the inlet-combustor at the step for mixing with the supersonic inlet airflow for generating supersonic combustion gases; and further including a spaced pari of sidewalls extending between the first surface to the cowl upper surface and wherein the integrated inlet-combustor is generally rectangular and defined by the sidewall pair, the first surface and the cowl upper surface.

  3. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  4. Laser damage creates backdoors in quantum communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vadim Makarov; Jean-Philippe Bourgoin; Poompong Chaiwongkhot; Mathieu Gagne; Thomas Jennewein; Sarah Kaiser; Raman Kashyap; Matthieu Legre; Carter Minshull; Shihan Sajeed

    2015-10-12

    Quantum communication protocols such as quantum cloud computing, digital signatures, coin-tossing, secret-sharing, and key distribution, using similar optical technologies, claim to provide unconditional security guaranteed by quantum mechanics. Among these protocols, the security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is most scrutinized and believed to be guaranteed as long as implemented devices are properly characterized and existing implementation loopholes are identified and patched. Here we show that this assumption is not true. We experimentally demonstrate a class of attacks based on laser damage, capable of creating new security loopholes on-demand. We perform it on two different implementations of QKD and coin-tossing protocols, and create new information leakage side-channels. Our results show that quantum communication protocols cannot guarantee security alone, but will always have to be supported by additional technical countermeasures against laser damage.

  5. Carbon Fiber Damage in Particle Beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dehning, B; Kroyer, T; Meyer, M; Sapinski, M

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fibers are commonly used as moving targets in beam wire scanners. The heating of the fiber due to energy loss of the particles travelling through is simulated with Geant4. The heating induced by the beam electromagnetic field is estimated with ANSYS. The heat transfer and sublimation processes are modelled. Due to the model nonlinearity, a numerical approach based on discretization of the wire movement is used to solve it for particular beams. Radiation damage to the fiber is estimated with SRIM. The model is tested with available SPS and LEP data and a dedicated damage test on the SPS beam is performed followed by a post-mortem analysis of the wire remnants. Predictions for the LHC beams are made.

  6. MOTIVATION INCLUDED OR EXCLUDED FROM Mihaela Cocea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cocea, Mihaela

    MOTIVATION ­ INCLUDED OR EXCLUDED FROM E-LEARNING Mihaela Cocea National College of Ireland Mayor, Dublin 1, Ireland sweibelzahl@ncirl.ie ABSTRACT The learners' motivation has an impact on the quality-Learning, motivation has been mainly considered in terms of instructional design. Research in this direction suggests

  7. Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namboodiri, Vinod

    processing unit (CPU) processing power and capacity of mass storage devices doubles every 18 months. Such growth in both processing and storage capabilities fuels the production of ever more powerful portableEnergy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable Communication Devices Pavel Somavat1

  8. Course may include: Research in Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development Information and Communication Technologies Issues in Education Final Project Seminar Master, the Final Project Seminar. This graduate program will allow you to develop your skills and knowledgeCourse may include: Research in Education Qualitative Methods in Educational Research Fundamentals

  9. Communication in automation, including networking and wireless

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antsaklis, Panos

    Communication in automation, including networking and wireless Nicholas Kottenstette and Panos J and networking in automation is given. Digital communication fundamentals are reviewed and networked control are presented. 1 Introduction 1.1 Why communication is necessary in automated systems Automated systems use

  10. Recent Advances in Understanding Radiation Damage in Reactor Cavity Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosseel, Thomas M; Field, Kevin G; Le Pape, Yann; Remec, Igor; Giorla, Alain B; Wall, Dr. James Joseph

    2015-01-01

    License renewal up to 60 years and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years has resulted in a renewed focus on long-term aging of materials at nuclear power plants (NPPs) including concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis, jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Nuclear Industry, identified the urgent need to develop a consistent knowledge base on irradiation effects in concrete (Graves et al., (2014)). Much of the historical mechanical performance data of irradiated concrete (Hilsdorf et al., (1978)) does not accurately reflect typical radiation conditions in NPPs or conditions out to 60 or 80 years of radiation exposure (Kontani et al., (2011)). To address these potential gaps in the knowledge base, the Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are working to better understand radiation damage as a degradation mechanism. This paper outlines recent progress toward: 1) assessing the radiation environment in concrete biological shields and defining the upper bound of the neutron and gamma dose levels expected in the biological shield for extended operation, and estimating adsorbed dose, 2) evaluating opportunities to harvest and test irradiated concrete from international NPPs, 3) evaluating opportunities to irradiate prototypical concrete and its components under accelerated neutron and gamma dose levels to establish conservative bounds and inform damage models, 4) developing improved models to enhance the understanding of the effects of radiation on concrete and 5) establishing an international collaborative research and information exchange effort to leverage capabilities and knowledge including developing cooperative test programs to improve confidence in data obtained from various concretes and from accelerated irradiation experiments.

  11. DDT of hot, thermally damaged PBX 9501 in heavy confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Gary R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickerson, Peter M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Asay, Blaine W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Afee, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The research presented examines DDT of cylinders of PBX 9501 damaged above 180 C in heavy confinement for 0-3 hours and end-ignited or ramped until self-ignition (cookoff) occurred. Progression of luminous reaction was observed by streak photography through a glass-filled slit running the length of the cylinder. Post-mortem analysis of the steel DDT tubes was also done for correlation with the optical records. Results indicate that repeatable, Type I DDT was observed to occur in hot, thermally damaged PBX 9501 with low levels of porosity. It was demonstrated that multiple parameters affect DDT behavior, most likely in a coupled fashion. These parameters are porosity, ignition temperature and thermal soak duration. Conditions leading up to cookoff were shown to sensitize the HE to DDT by increasing likelihood and decreasing run length. Over the range of porosities (0-37%) and ignition temperatures (180-235 C), run lengths and detonation velocities varied, respectively, from approximately 22-109 mm and 6.0-8.3 mm {micro}s{sup -1}. This work fills a valuable and realistic space in the understanding of high explosive violent reaction, including DDT, in abnormal thermal environments.

  12. The Role of Nickel in Radiation Damage of Ferritic Alloys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL; Anento, Napoleon [Universitat Politechnica de Catalunia; Serra, Anna [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya; Terentyev, Dmitry [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN

    2015-01-01

    According to the modern theory damage evolution under neutron irradiation depends on the fraction of self interstitial atoms (SIAs) produced in the form of one-dimensionally (1-D) glissile clusters. These clusters, having a low interaction cross-section with other defects, sink mainly on grain boundaries and dislocations creating the so-called production bias. It is known empirically that addition of certain alloying elements affect many radiation effects, including swelling, however the mechanisms are unknown in many cases. In this paper we report the results of an extensive multi-technique atomistic level modeling of SIA clusters mobility in bcc Fe-Ni alloys with Ni content from 0.8 to 10 at.%. We have found that Ni interacts strongly with periphery of clusters affecting their mobility. The total effect is defined by all Ni atoms interacting with the cluster at the same time and can be significant even in low-Ni alloys. Thus 1nm (37SIAs) cluster is practically immobile at T<500K in the Fe-0.8at.% Ni alloy. Increasing cluster size and Ni content enhance cluster immobilization. This effect should have quite broad consequences in swelling rate, matrix damage accumulation, radiation induced hardening, etc. and the results obtained help in better understanding and prediction of radiation effects in Fe-Ni ferritic alloys.

  13. Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Lu, Wei-Yang; Scherzinger, William M.; Hinnerichs, Terry D.; Lo, Chi S.

    2015-06-01

    Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.

  14. Damage threshold of platinum coating used for optics for self...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: Damage threshold of platinum coating used for optics for self-seeding of soft x-ray free electron laser Title: Damage threshold of platinum coating used for...

  15. Conservation of Severely Damaged Paper Using Passivation Polymers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eilert, Eloise

    2012-10-19

    This work examined the use of passivation polymers in the conservation of severely damaged paper. It specifically investigated the use of this functional polymer treatment to address the issues of damage to paper caused ...

  16. Single cell trapping and DNA damage analysis using microwell arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, David

    With a direct link to cancer, aging, and heritable diseases as well as a critical role in cancer treatment, the importance of DNA damage is well-established. The intense interest in DNA damage in applications ranging from ...

  17. Damage analysis in asphalt concrete mixtures based on parameter relationships 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Injun

    2004-11-15

    Asphalt pavements experience damage due to traffic loading under various environmental conditions. Damage can be caused by viscopl microcracks, fracture due to fatigue cracking, or fracture due to thermal cracking. Asphalt pavements have...

  18. Radiation damage in cubic-stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Beuneu, Francois; Weber, William J

    2013-01-01

    Cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) can be used for nuclear applications as an inert matrix for actinide immobilization or transmutation. Indeed, the large amount of native oxygen vacancies leads to a high radiation tolerance of this material owing to defect recombination occurring in the atomic displacements cascades induced by fast neutron irradiation or ion implantations, as showed by Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Amorphization cannot be obtained in YSZ either by nuclear-collision or electronic-excitation damage, just like in urania. A kind of polygonization structure with slightly disoriented crystalline domains is obtained in both cases. In the first steps of damage, specific isolated point defects (like F+-type color centers) and point-defect clusters are produced by nuclear collisions with charged particles or neutrons. Further increase of damage leads to dislocation-loop formation, then to collapse of the dislocation network into a polygonization structure. For swift heavy ion irradiations, a similar polygonization structure is obtained above a threshold stopping power value of about 20-30 keV nm-1.

  19. Salvaging Timber: What should I do with my damaged timber? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Eric; Foster, C. Darwin

    2005-10-31

    preparation costs. Wind-damaged trees may not qualify as sawtimber because of the internal damage they suf- fered. Estimating in Damage Landowners should get help from professional foresters to determine the value of damaged tim- ber. However, if you... representative may be able to obtain this information for you. Determine the value of tim- ber lost as Timber value = acreage x timber value per acre Determining timber value per acre requires a tim- ber inventory. Wind storms tend to blow down trees...

  20. Subterranean barriers including at least one weld

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Richardson, John G.; Walsh, Stephanie; Kostelnik, Kevin M.

    2007-01-09

    A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

  1. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  2. Power generation method including membrane separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  3. Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snitchler, Gregory L. (Shrewsbury, MA); Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Voccio, John P. (Somerville, MA)

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

  4. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouse, Carl A. (Del Mar, CA); Simnad, Massoud T. (La Jolla, CA)

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  5. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  6. Ice Storm Damage Greater Along the Terrestrial-Aquatic Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Clifford E.

    Ice Storm Damage Greater Along the Terrestrial-Aquatic Interface in Forested Landscapes Andrew A- tems. In 1998, a severe ice storm damaged over ten million hectares of forest across northern New York investigated the spatial arrangement of forest damage at the terrestrial-aquatic interface, an ecological edge

  7. Tensile damage response from discrete element virtual testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Tensile damage response from discrete element virtual testing A. DELAPLACE LMT-Cachan, ENS Cachan conditions on brittle materials, damage can generally not be re- duced to a simple scalar. Microcrack into account the damage anisotropy in phenomenological models is a possible option, but the identification

  8. Probabilistic Damage Detection Based on Large Area Electronics Sensing Sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Probabilistic Damage Detection Based on Large Area Electronics Sensing Sheets Yao Yao and Branko-stage damage detection and characterization requires continuous sensing over large areas of structure are not sensitive to damage. In this research, a probabilistic approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations

  9. Photogrammetry Assisted Rapid Measurement of Earthquake-Induced Building Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    Photogrammetry Assisted Rapid Measurement of Earthquake-Induced Building Damage Fei Dai, PhD Hong for rapidly measuring structural damage induced in tall buildings by seismic events such as earthquakes) sustained at key floors along the edge of a damaged building. The measured drift can then be used to compute

  10. DAMAGE AND ROCKVOLATILE MIXTURE EFFECTS ON IMPACT CRATER FORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Sarah T.

    DAMAGE AND ROCK­VOLATILE MIXTURE EFFECTS ON IMPACT CRATER FORMATION JOHN D. O'KEEFE, SARAH T models for material damage, dilatancy, and inhomogeneous materials (mixtures). We found that a strength degradation (damage) model was necessary to produce faulting in homogeneous materials. Both normal and thrust

  11. Damage Detection and Characterization in Smart Material Structures \\Lambda y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damage Detection and Characterization in Smart Material Structures \\Lambda y H.T. Banks and Y. Wang Nos. NAS1­ 18605 and NAS1­19480. #12; 1 Introduction It has been known for some time that damage­maps'' as done in the thermal based tomography techniques of [BK1, BK2, BKW] wherein the damaged physical domain

  12. DAMAGE LOCALIZATION IN PLATES USING DLVs Dionisio Bernal1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, Dionisio

    DAMAGE LOCALIZATION IN PLATES USING DLVs Dionisio Bernal1 and Ariel Levy2 Department of Civil Associate Professor, 2 Graduate Student ABSTRACT The performance of a technique to localize damage based on the computation of load vectors that create stress fields that bypass the damaged region is investigated

  13. Saga of Glass Damage in Urban Environments Continues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Saga of Glass Damage in Urban Environments Continues: Consequences of Aerodynamics and Debris Laboratory University of Notre Dame The Saga of Glass Damage in Urban Environments Continues: Consequences east of the city of Houston. Initial reconnaissance suggested that the observed glass/cladding damage

  14. Flagler County, Florida Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flagler County, Florida Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction Project 26 August 2014 ABSTRACT: The proposed Flagler County hurricane and storm damage reduction project is located on the northeast coast miles of shoreline to assess the feasibility of providing Federal Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction

  15. STOCHASTIC MODELING OF HURRICANE DAMAGE UNDER CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    STOCHASTIC MODELING OF HURRICANE DAMAGE UNDER CLIMATE CHANGE Rick Katz Institute for Study from Hurricanes (2) Stochastic Model for Damage (3) Effects of El Niño (4) Trends in Extreme Hurricanes (5) Unresolved Issues #12;(1) Economic Damage from Hurricanes · Data -- Pielke and Landsea (1998) Web

  16. German National Licence 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-06-15

    systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or ... actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused ..... functions represented by gap series, B. Ya. Levin ...

  17. This article was downloaded by:[Likos, Christos] On: 20 January 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Likos, Christos N.

    not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever of the system and vitrification is not an equilibrium phase transformation. Indeed, the spatial correlations

  18. The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gas—the ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxide—is also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

  19. Structural damage identification in wind turbine blades using piezoelectric active sensing with ultrasonic validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claytor, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ammerman, Curtt N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyu Hae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Atterbury, Marie K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of a new project at LANL in structural damage identification for wind turbines. This project makes use of modeling capabilities and sensing technology to understand realistic blade loading on large turbine blades, with the goal of developing the technology needed to automatically detect early damage. Several structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques using piezoelectric active materials are being investigated for the development of wireless, low power sensors that interrogate sections of the wind turbine blade using Lamb wave propagation data, frequency response functions (FRFs), and time-series analysis methods. The modeling and sensor research will be compared with extensive experimental testing, including wind tunnel experiments, load and fatigue tests, and ultrasonic scans - on small- to mid-scale turbine blades. Furthermore, this study will investigate the effect of local damage on the global response of the blade by monitoring low-frequency response changes.

  20. Mechanical Damage from Cavitation in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Accelerated Thrombolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Hope

    2012-01-01

    for Mechanical Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3.3 Connection to Mechanical Damage . . . . . . 3.41.2.5 Assessing mechanical damage . . 1.3 Bubble

  1. DNA repair decline during mouse spermiogenesis results in the accumulation of heritable DNA damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchetti, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    male germ cells handle DNA damage? Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.strand breaks and DNA base damage at different cellularrelationship to genetic damage, Mutat. Res. 216 (1989) 221-

  2. Abdominal damage control surgery and reconstruction: world society of emergency surgery position paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godat, Laura; Kobayashi, Leslie; Costantini, Todd; Coimbra, Raul

    2013-01-01

    as: Godat et al. : Abdominal damage control surgery andAD, Feliciano DV: Trauma damage control. In Trauma. 6thpatient which indicate damage control and predict outcome.

  3. Mechanical Damage from Cavitation in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Accelerated Thrombolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Hope

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iiiMethod for Estimation of Cavitation Damage for an EmbeddedMethod for Estimation of Cavitation Damage for an Embedded

  4. Damage, Fear, and Transformation: International Currency Systems and Postwar Japan's Currency Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sangbaik

    2012-01-01

    will suffer a serious damage. ” 291 Above, we have surveyedparticularly for alleviating the damage incurred by the yenDamage, Fear, and Transformation: International Currency

  5. Damage Identification of a Composite Beam Using Finite Element Model Updating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moaveni, Babak; He, Xianfei; Conte, Joel P; De Callafon, Raymond A.

    2008-01-01

    Shevitz, D. W. (1996), Damage identification in structuresreview of vibration-based damage identification methods, TheM. , & Samman, M. M. (1991), Damage detection from changes

  6. DNA Repair Decline During Mouse Spermiogenesis Results in the Accumulation of Heritable DNA Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchetti, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    male germ cells handle DNA damage? Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.strand breaks and DNA base damage at different cellularrelationship to genetic damage, Mutat. Res. 216 (1989) 221-

  7. Monitoring genetic damage to ecosystems from hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, S.L.

    1992-03-01

    Applications of ecological toxicity testing to hazardous waste management have increased dramatically over the last few years, resulting in a greater awareness of the need for improved biomonitoring techniques. Our laboratory is developing advanced techniques to assess the genotoxic effects of environmental contamination on ecosystems. We have developed a novel mutagenesis assay using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is potentially applicable for multimedia studies in soil, sediment, and water. In addition, we are conducting validation studies of a previously developed anaphase aberration test that utilizes sea urchin embryos. Other related efforts include field validation studies of the new tests, evaluation of their potential ecological relevance, and analysis of their sensitivity relative to that of existing toxicity tests that assess only lethal effects, rather than genetic damage.

  8. Surface state reconstruction in ion-damaged SmB?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wakeham, N.; Wang, Y. Q.; Fisk, Z.; Ronning, F.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-02-01

    We have used ion-irradiation to damage the (001) surfaces of SmB? single crystals to varying depths, and have measured the resistivity as a function of temperature for each depth of damage. We observe a reduction in the residual resistivity with increasing depth of damage. Our data are consistent with a model in which the surface state is not destroyed by the ion-irradiation, but instead the damaged layer is poorly conducting and the initial surface state is reconstructed below the damage. This behavior is consistent with a surface state that is topologically protected.

  9. Vibration-Based Damage Detection in Rotating Machinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.

    1999-06-28

    Damage detection as determined from changes in the vibration characteristics of a system has been a popular research topic for the last thirty years. Numerous damage identification algorithms have been proposed for detecting and locating damage in structural and mechanical systems. To date, these damage-detection methods have shown mixed results. A particular application of vibration-based damage detection that has perhaps enjoyed the greatest success is that of damage detection in rotating machinery. This paper summarizes the state of technology in vibration-based damage detection applied to rotating machinery. The review interprets the damage detection process in terms of a statistical pattern recognition paradigm that encompasses all vibration-based damage detection methods and applications. The motivation for the study reported herein is to identify the reasons that vibration-based damage detection has been successfully applied to rotating machinery, but has yet to show robust applications to civil engineering infrastructure. The paper concludes by comparing and contrasting the vibration-based damage detection applied to rotating machinery with large civil engineering infrastructure applications.

  10. Calculation of complex DNA damage induced by ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eugene Surdutovich; David C. Gallagher; Andrey V. Solov'yov

    2012-01-27

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of the complex damage of DNA irradiated by ions. The analysis and assessment of complex damage is important because cells in which it occurs are less likely to survive because the DNA repair mechanisms may not be sufficiently effective. We studied the flux of secondary electrons through the surface of nucleosomes and calculated the radial dose and the distribution of clustered damage around the ion's track. The calculated radial dose distribution is compared to simulations. The radial distribution of the complex damage is found to be different from that of the dose. Comparison with experiments may solve the question of what is more lethal for the cell, damage complexity or absorbed energy. We suggest a way to calculate the probability of cell death based on the complexity of the damage. This work is done within the framework of the phenomenon-based multiscale approach to radiation damage by ions.

  11. Damage of MEMS thermal actuators heated by laser irradiation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Klody, Kelly Anne; Sackos, John T.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2005-01-01

    Optical actuation of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is advantageous for applications for which electrical isolation is desired. Thirty-two polycrystalline silicon opto-thermal actuators, optically-powered MEMS thermal actuators, were designed, fabricated, and tested. The design of the opto-thermal actuators consists of a target for laser illumination suspended between angled legs that expand when heated, providing the displacement and force output. While the amount of displacement observed for the opto-thermal actuators was fairly uniform for the actuators, the amount of damage resulting from the laser heating ranged from essentially no damage to significant amounts of damage on the target. The likelihood of damage depended on the target design with two of the four target designs being more susceptible to damage. Failure analysis of damaged targets revealed the extent and depth of the damage.

  12. Damage of MEMS thermal actuators heated by laser irradiation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Klody, Kelly Anne; Sackos, John T.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2004-11-01

    Optical actuation of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is advantageous for applications for which electrical isolation is desired. Thirty-two polycrystalline silicon opto-thermal actuators, optically-powered MEMS thermal actuators, were designed, fabricated, and tested. The design of the opto-thermal actuators consists of a target for laser illumination suspended between angled legs that expand when heated, providing the displacement and force output. While the amount of displacement observed for the opto-thermal actuators was fairly uniform for the actuators, the amount of damage resulting from the laser heating ranged from essentially no damage to significant amounts of damage on the target. The likelihood of damage depended on the target design with two of the four target designs being more susceptible to damage. Failure analysis of damaged targets revealed the extent and depth of the damage.

  13. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke, D. Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Cockroft, Nigel J. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal.

  14. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal. 5 figs.

  15. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSanto, Leonard (Dunkirk, MD); Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    2007-11-20

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  16. Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

  17. Simple Model of Membrane Proteins Including Solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. L. Pagan; A. Shiryayev; T. P. Connor; J. D. Gunton

    2006-03-04

    We report a numerical simulation for the phase diagram of a simple two dimensional model, similar to one proposed by Noro and Frenkel [J. Chem. Phys. \\textbf{114}, 2477 (2001)] for membrane proteins, but one that includes the role of the solvent. We first use Gibbs ensemble Monte Caro simulations to determine the phase behavior of particles interacting via a square-well potential in two dimensions for various values of the interaction range. A phenomenological model for the solute-solvent interactions is then studied to understand how the fluid-fluid coexistence curve is modified by solute-solvent interactions. It is shown that such a model can yield systems with liquid-liquid phase separation curves that have both upper and lower critical points, as well as closed loop phase diagrams, as is the case with the corresponding three dimensional model.

  18. Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, William H.

    2006-10-03

    A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.

  19. LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

  20. Damage detection in initially nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bornn, Luke [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is to detect structural anomalies before they reach a critical level. Because of the potential life-safety and economic benefits, SHM has been widely studied over the past decade. In recent years there has been an effort to provide solid mathematical and physical underpinnings for these methods; however, most focus on systems that behave linearly in their undamaged state - a condition that often does not hold in complex 'real world' systems and systems for which monitoring begins mid-lifecycle. In this work, we highlight the inadequacy of linear-based methodology in handling initially nonlinear systems. We then show how the recently developed autoregressive support vector machine (AR-SVM) approach to time series modeling can be used for detecting damage in a system that exhibits initially nonlinear response. This process is applied to data acquired from a structure with induced nonlinearity tested in a laboratory environment.

  1. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  2. Continuum-based Multiscale Computational Damage Modeling of Cementitous Composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sun-Myung

    2011-08-08

    , aggregates, and interfacial transition zone (ITZ) and interaction among components at meso-scale, and the interaction between reinforcements, such as fiber and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and mortar matrix or the ITZ at nano scale in order to predict more... of Advisory Committee: Dr. Rashid K. Abu Al-Rub Based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM), an isotropic and anisotropic damage model coupled with a novel plasticity model for plain concrete is proposed in this research. Two different damage evolution laws...

  3. A matrix damage accumulation model for laminated composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, David Chi Shing

    1990-01-01

    and the damage variable. A complementary scalar valued dairiage variable was proposed by Rabotnov [33] as an extension. This damage variable & quantif'ying the reduction in load carrying area due to void formation. , was defined as The influence of the current... The aforeurentioned damage growth laws are representative of those found in the current literature. the nxajority of winch are of the evolutions rv type and share 22 a phenomenological basis. Some of these have been extensively modified for specific applications...

  4. 01-07-2000 - Undergroud Cables Damaged during Excavation Work...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 - Undergroud Cables Damaged during Excavation Work Document Number: NA Effective Date: 012000 File (public): 01-07-2000bluealert(2)...

  5. Demonstration of damage with a wireless sensor network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanner, Neal A.; Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

    2001-01-01

    A damage detection system was developed with commercially available wireless sensors. Statistical process control methods were used to monitor the correlation of vibration data from two accelerometers mounted across a joint. Changes in correlation were used to detect damage to the joint. All data processing was done remotely on a microprocessor integrated with the wireless sensors to allow for the transmission of a simple damaged or undamaged status for each monitored joint. Additionally, a portable demonstration structure was developed to showcase the capabilities of the damage detection system to monitor joint failure in real time.

  6. Investigation of Microscale Damage Evolution in High-Strength...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Alloy. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigation of Microscale Damage Evolution in High-Strength Al Alloy. Authors: Jin, Huiqing ; Lu, Wei-Yang ; Mota, Alejandro ;...

  7. Investigation of Microscale Damage Evolution in High Strength...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Alloy. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigation of Microscale Damage Evolution in High Strength A1 Alloy. Authors: Jin, Huiqing ; Lu, Wei-Yang ; Mota, Alejandro ;...

  8. IN VITRO MUTAGENIC AND DNA AND CHROMOSOMAL DAMAGE ACTIVITY BY...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    IN VITRO MUTAGENIC AND DNA AND CHROMOSOMAL DAMAGE ACTIVITY BY SURFACTANT DISPERSION OR SOLVENT EXTRACT OF A REFERENCE DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATERIAL IN VITRO MUTAGENIC AND DNA...

  9. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is extended to October 27, 2010. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation More Documents & Publications CSCExtension.PDF...

  10. Thermomechanics of damage and fatigue by a phase field model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovambattista Amendola; Mauro Fabrizio

    2014-10-26

    In the paper we present an isothermal model for describing damage and fatigue by the use of the Ginzburg-Landau (G-L) equation. Fatigue produces progressive damage, which is related with a variation of the internal structure of the material. The G-L equation studies the evolution of the order parameter, which describes the constitutive arrangement of the system and, in this framework, the evolution of damage. The thermodynamic coherence of the model is proved. In the last part of the work, we extend the results of the paper to a non-isothermal system, where fatigue contains thermal effects, which increase the damage of materials.

  11. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Section 934 Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation, Section 934 LES comments in response to Notice of Inquiry on Convention on...

  12. Investigation of Stinson Beach Park storm damage and evaluation of alternative shore protection measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecker, R.M.; Whelan, G.

    1984-07-01

    An investigation was made of storm damage during the winter of 1982-83 to the National Park Service's Stinson Beach Park. The investigation included an assessment of the storm damage, evaluation of physical processes contributing to the damage, subsequent beach recovery, and the feasibility of implementing shoreline protection measure to reduce future risk. During the winter of 1982-83, the beach was almost completely denuded of sand, wave overwash damaged the foredune, vegetation on the foredune was destroyed, and backshore flooding occurred. Two structures and a parking lot were endangered as the shoreline receded. Subsequent recovery of the park beach was rapid. By January 1982 sand had moved back onshore and a beach berm was beginning to reform. The foredune and dune vegetation received the only permanent damage. Four shoreline protection alternatives were evaluated. These include no action, dune development/enhancement, construction of a rock riprap revetment, and offshore installation of artificial seaweed. The first costs (estimated costs, excluding maintenance) range from about $90,000 to $475,000. The least-cost protection measure is riprap revetment, which protects the two structures and parking lot endangered during the 1982-83 winter storms. Construction of a foredune along the entire park beach is the highest cost protection measure. If no shore protection action measures are implemented, wave overwash of the foredune can be expected to occur on the average of every 2 to 3 years, and beach degradation, similar to that during the 1982-83 winter, can be expected to occur on the average of every 10 to 12 years. 12 references, 19 figures, 18 tables.

  13. Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plancher, Henry (Laramie, WY); Petersen, Joseph C. (Laramie, WY)

    1982-01-01

    Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

  14. Revision of laser-induced damage threshold evaluation from damage probability data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bataviciute, Gintare; Grigas, Povilas; Smalakys, Linas; Melninkaitis, Andrius [Laser Research Center, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 10, LT-10223 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2013-04-15

    In this study, the applicability of commonly used Damage Frequency Method (DFM) is addressed in the context of Laser-Induced Damage Threshold (LIDT) testing with pulsed lasers. A simplified computer model representing the statistical interaction between laser irradiation and randomly distributed damage precursors is applied for Monte Carlo experiments. The reproducibility of LIDT predicted from DFM is examined under both idealized and realistic laser irradiation conditions by performing numerical 1-on-1 tests. A widely accepted linear fitting resulted in systematic errors when estimating LIDT and its error bars. For the same purpose, a Bayesian approach was proposed. A novel concept of parametric regression based on varying kernel and maximum likelihood fitting technique is introduced and studied. Such approach exhibited clear advantages over conventional linear fitting and led to more reproducible LIDT evaluation. Furthermore, LIDT error bars are obtained as a natural outcome of parametric fitting which exhibit realistic values. The proposed technique has been validated on two conventionally polished fused silica samples (355 nm, 5.7 ns).

  15. Unlimited Damage Accumulation in Metallic Materials Under Cascade-Damage Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barashev, Aleksandr [University of Liverpool; Golubov, Stanislav I [ORNL

    2008-09-01

    Most experiments on neutron or heavy-ion cascade-produced irradiation of pure metals and metallic alloys demonstrate unlimited void growth as well as development of the dislocation structure. In contrast, the theory of radiation damage predicts saturation of void swelling at sufficiently high irradiation doses and, accordingly, termination of accumulation of interstitial-type defects. It is shown in the present paper that, under conditions of steady production of one-dimensionally (1-D) mobile clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in displacement cascades, any one of the following three conditions can result in indefinite damage accumulation. First, if the fraction of SIAs generated in the clustered form is smaller than some finite value of the order of the dislocation bias factor. Second, if solute, impurity or transmuted atoms form atmospheres around voids and repel the SIA clusters. Third, if spatial correlations between voids and other defects, such as second-phase precipitates and dislocations, exist that provide shadowing of voids from the SIA clusters. The driving force for the development of such correlations is the same as for void lattice formation and is argued to be always present under cascade-damage conditions. It is emphasised that the mean-free path of 1-D migrating SIA clusters is typically at least an order of magnitude longer than the average distance between microstructural defects; hence spatial correlations on the same scale should be taken into consideration. A way of developing a predictive theory is discussed. An interpretation

  16. Inhibition of HAS2 induction enhances the radiosensitivity of cancer cells via persistent DNA damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yan Nan; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Joo, Hyun-Yoo; Park, Eun-Ran; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Chun-Ho; Lee, Kee-Ho

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •HAS2 may be a promising target for the radiosensitization of human cancer. •HAS2 is elevated (up to ?10-fold) in irradiated radioresistant and -sensitive cancer cells. •HAS2 knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to radiation. •HAS2 knockdown potentiates irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptotic death. •Thus, the irradiation-induced up-regulation of HAS2 contributes to the radioresistance of cancer cells. -- Abstract: Hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), a synthetic enzyme for hyaluronan, regulates various aspects of cancer progression, including migration, invasion and angiogenesis. However, the possible association of HAS2 with the response of cancer cells to anticancer radiotherapy, has not yet been elucidated. Here, we show that HAS2 knockdown potentiates irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in cancer cells. Upon exposure to radiation, all of the tested human cancer cell lines exhibited marked (up to 10-fold) up-regulation of HAS2 within 24 h. Inhibition of HAS2 induction significantly reduced the survival of irradiated radioresistant and -sensitive cells. Interestingly, HAS2 depletion rendered the cells to sustain irradiation-induced DNA damage, thereby leading to an increase of apoptotic death. These findings indicate that HAS2 knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to radiation via persistent DNA damage, further suggesting that the irradiation-induced up-regulation of HAS2 contributes to the radioresistance of cancer cells. Thus, HAS2 could potentially be targeted for therapeutic interventions aimed at radiosensitizing cancer cells.

  17. Radiation damage by light- and heavy-ion bombardment of single-crystal LiNbO?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Hsu-Cheng; Zhang, Lihua; Malladi, Girish; Dadap, Jerry I.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Kisslinger, Kim; Vemuri, Rama Sesha R.; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Bakhru, Hassaram; Osgood, Jr., Richard M.

    2015-04-14

    In this work, a battery of analytical methods including in situ RBS/C, confocal micro-Raman, TEM/STEM, EDS, AFM, and optical microscopy were used to provide a comparative investigation of light- and heavy-ion radiation damage in single-crystal LiNbO?. High (~MeV) and low (~100s keV) ion energies, corresponding to different stopping power mechanisms, were used and their associated damage events were observed. In addition, sequential irradiation of both ion species was also performed and their cumulative depth-dependent damage was determined. It was found that the contribution from electronic stopping by high-energy heavy ions gave rise to a lower critical fluence for damage formationmore »than for the case of low-energy irradiation. Such energy-dependent critical fluence of heavy-ion irradiation is two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that for the case of light-ion damage. In addition, materials amorphization and collision cascades were seen for heavy-ion irradiation, while for light ion, crystallinity remained at the highest fluence used in the experiment. The irradiation-induced damage is characterized by the formation of defect clusters, elastic strain, surface deformation, as well as change in elemental composition. In particular, the presence of nanometric-scale damage pockets results in increased RBS/C backscattered signal and the appearance of normally forbidden Raman phonon modes. The location of the highest density of damage is in good agreement with SRIM calculations. (author)« less

  18. EP 1165-2-1 FLOOD DAMAGE REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    EP 1165-2-1 30 Jul 99 13-1 CHAPTER 13 FLOOD DAMAGE REDUCTION 13-1. The Federal Interest. Congress, in the Flood Control Act of 1936, established as a nationwide policy that flood control (i.e., flood damage consideration of all alternatives in controlling flood waters, reducing the susceptibility of property to flood

  19. Damage detection in mechanical structures using extreme value statistic.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worden, K.; Allen, D. W. (David W.); Sohn, H. (Hoon); Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

    2002-01-01

    The first and most important objective of any damage identification algorithms is to ascertain with confidence if damage is present or not. Many methods have been proposed for damage detection based on ideas of novelty detection founded in pattern recognition and multivariate statistics. The philosophy of novelty detection is simple. Features are first extracted from a baseline system to be monitored, and subsequent data are then compared to see if the new features are outliers, which significantly depart from the rest of population. In damage diagnosis problems, the assumption is that outliers are generated from a damaged condition of the monitored system. This damage classification necessitates the establishment of a decision boundary. Choosing this threshold value is often based on the assumption that the parent distribution of data is Gaussian in nature. While the problem of novelty detection focuses attention on the outlier or extreme values of the data i.e. those points in the tails of the distribution, the threshold selection using the normality assumption weighs the central population of data. Therefore, this normality assumption might impose potentially misleading behavior on damage classification, and is likely to lead the damage diagnosis astray. In this paper, extreme value statistics is integrated with the novelty detection to specifically model the tails of the distribution of interest. Finally, the proposed technique is demonstrated on simulated numerical data and time series data measured from an eight degree-of-freedom spring-mass system.

  20. Melt-band instabilities with two-phase damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudge, John F.; Bercovici, David

    2015-03-09

    phase. For the damage partitioning frac- tion we assume small values within the range 10?4 ? fI ? 10 ?2, which is comparable to that inferred by Rozel et al. (2011) and Austin & Evans (2007), although these studies were more rele- vant for damage...

  1. DNA damage in cells exhibiting radiation-induced genomic instability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Keszenman, Deborah J.; Kolodiuk, Lucia; Baulch, Janet E.

    2015-02-22

    Cells exhibiting radiation induced genomic instability exhibit varied spectra of genetic and chromosomal aberrations. Even so, oxidative stress remains a common theme in the initiation and/or perpetuation of this phenomenon. Isolated oxidatively modified bases, abasic sites, DNA single strand breaks and clustered DNA damage are induced in normal mammalian cultured cells and tissues due to endogenous reactive oxygen species generated during normal cellular metabolism in an aerobic environment. While sparse DNA damage may be easily repaired, clustered DNA damage may lead to persistent cytotoxic or mutagenic events that can lead to genomic instability. In this study, we tested the hypothesismore »that DNA damage signatures characterised by altered levels of endogenous, potentially mutagenic, types of DNA damage and chromosomal breakage are related to radiation-induced genomic instability and persistent oxidative stress phenotypes observed in the chromosomally unstable progeny of irradiated cells. The measurement of oxypurine, oxypyrimidine and abasic site endogenous DNA damage showed differences in non-double-strand breaks (DSB) clusters among the three of the four unstable clones evaluated as compared to genomically stable clones and the parental cell line. These three unstable clones also had increased levels of DSB clusters. The results of this study demonstrate that each unstable cell line has a unique spectrum of persistent damage and lead us to speculate that alterations in DNA damage signaling and repair may be related to the perpetuation of genomic instability.« less

  2. Proton Irradiation Damage Assessment of Carbon Reinforced Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Proton Irradiation Damage Assessment of Carbon Reinforced Composites: 2-D & 3-D Weaved Structures. of thermal expansion (CTE). #12;Positive news regarding 3D Carbon composite kept coming !! Irradiation damage-carbon under heavy irradiation (LHC Phase-I collimator material) Phase 2 Expose 2D & 3D carbon

  3. Walton County Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Project Walton County, FL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    to reduce coastal storm damages by constructing berms and dunes along 18.8 miles of Walton County shoreline;vegetation and replacement of dune walkover structures as required. Material for the berm and duneWalton County Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Project Walton County, FL 13 December 2012 ABSTRACT

  4. Viscoelastic damage modeling of sinkhole formation Eyal Shalev*, Vladimir Lyakhovsky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

    Viscoelastic damage modeling of sinkhole formation Eyal Shalev*, Vladimir Lyakhovsky Geological 2012 Keywords: Sinkholes Damage Viscoelasticity Modeling a b s t r a c t The sinkholes along the Dead Sea coast are observed in two main sedimentary environments: alluvial fan sinkholes, which usually

  5. Solution found to chronic trim damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smirl, P.A. [Design Engineering Control Components Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, CA (United States); Edwards, T.W. [Edwards (T.W.), Sun City, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    For some time, 2-inch single-stage gas-pressure letdown valve trim at a large Mideast oil and gas production facility suffered severe erosion damage, and experienced noise/vibration problems both within the valves themselves and the downstream piping. It was determined that the trim erosion which caused the problem was due to high oxide corrosion products from the upstream piping passing at high velocity (1,020 ft/sec) through the single-stage, drilled-hole-cage valve trim. This was also the source of the noise/vibration problems. Since it takes into account fluid density, it has been established that velocity head (V2/2) is a better criterion than just pure fluid velocity in judging design adequacy in pressure-reducing valves. It is very useful in eliminating the destructive effects of high fluid velocity and noise/vibration problems. In this case, the actual velocity head equaled 360 psi. For these reasons, it was decided to replace these single-stage pressure-reduction valves with multi-stage pressure-reduction valves capable of limiting this high velocity. These valves are described.

  6. How Damage Diversification Can Reduce Systemic Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burkholz, Rebekka; Schweitzer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of risk diversification in complex networks. Nodes represent e.g. financial actors, whereas weighted links represent e.g. financial obligations (credits/debts). Each node has a risk to fail because of losses resulting from defaulting neighbors, which may lead to large failure cascades. Classical risk diversification strategies usually neglect network effects and therefore suggest that risk can be reduced if possible losses (i.e., exposures) are split among many neighbors (exposure diversification, ED). But from a complex networks perspective diversification implies higher connectivity of the system as a whole which can also lead to increasing failure risk of a node. To cope with this, we propose a different strategy (damage diversification, DD), i.e. the diversification of losses that are imposed on neighboring nodes as opposed to losses incurred by the node itself. Here, we quantify the potential of DD to reduce systemic risk in comparison to ED. For this, we develop a branching proce...

  7. Mesoscale polycrystal calculations of damage in spallation in metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonks, Davis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bingert, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Livescu, Veronica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, C A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this project is to produce a damage model for spallation in metals informed by the polycrystalline grain structure at the mesoscale. Earlier damage models addressed the continuwn macroscale in which these effects were averaged out. In this work we focus on cross sections from recovered samples examined with EBSD (electron backscattered diffraction), which reveal crystal grain orientations and voids. We seek to understand the loading histories of specific sample regions by meshing up the crystal grain structure of these regions and simulating the stress, strain, and damage histories in our hydro code, FLAG. The stresses and strain histories are the fundamental drivers of damage and must be calculated. The calculated final damage structures are compared with those from the recovered samples to validate the simulations.

  8. Uncertainty of silicon 1-MeV damage function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danjaji, M.B.; Griffin, P.J.

    1997-02-01

    The electronics radiation hardness-testing community uses the ASTM E722-93 Standard Practice to define the energy dependence of the nonionizing neutron damage to silicon semiconductors. This neutron displacement damage response function is defined to be equal to the silicon displacement kerma as calculated from the ORNL Si cross-section evaluation. Experimental work has shown that observed damage ratios at various test facilities agree with the defined response function to within 5%. Here, a covariance matrix for the silicon 1-MeV neutron displacement damage function is developed. This uncertainty data will support the electronic radiation hardness-testing community and will permit silicon displacement damage sensors to be used in least squares spectrum adjustment codes.

  9. An analysis of the kinetics of thermal damage and movement of damage front in laser irradiated egg white 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azeemi, Aamer Amjed

    1993-01-01

    the process of thermal coagulation. This study assumes tissue to be composed of two or more components, having different rates of damage. The results of this model are then used to find an effective rate of damage for a single rate model which would yield...

  10. Tsai, Hsiao, Bruneau: Overview of building damages in 921 Chi-Chi earthquake 93 Overview of Building Damages in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Michel

    Tsai, Hsiao, Bruneau: Overview of building damages in 921 Chi-Chi earthquake 93 Overview of Building Damages in 921 Chi-Chi Earthquake K.C. Tsai 1) Chiang Pi Hsiao 2) Michel Bruneau 3) 1) Professor, Architecture and Building Research Institute, Ministry of Interior, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. 3) Professor

  11. Formation damage studies of lubricants used with drill-in fluids systems on horizontal open-hole wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutierrez, Fernando A

    2000-01-01

    Tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of lubricants in formation damage. Two types of lubricants were tested along with two types of drill-in fluids. The DIF's tested included a sized-calcium carbonate (SCC) and a sized-salt (SS). Also a set...

  12. Reconstitution of the cellular response to DNA damage in vitro using damage-activated extracts from mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roper, Katherine; Coverley, Dawn

    2012-03-10

    In proliferating mammalian cells, DNA damage is detected by sensors that elicit a cellular response which arrests the cell cycle and repairs the damage. As part of the DNA damage response, DNA replication is inhibited and, within seconds, histone H2AX is phosphorylated. Here we describe a cell-free system that reconstitutes the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks using damage-activated cell extracts and naieve nuclei. Using this system the effect of damage signalling on nuclei that do not contain DNA lesions can be studied, thereby uncoupling signalling and repair. Soluble extracts from G1/S phase cells that were treated with etoposide before isolation, or pre-incubated with nuclei from etoposide-treated cells during an in vitro activation reaction, restrain both initiation and elongation of DNA replication in naieve nuclei. At the same time, H2AX is phosphorylated in naieve nuclei in a manner that is dependent upon the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like protein kinases. Notably, phosphorylated H2AX is not focal in naieve nuclei, but is evident throughout the nucleus suggesting that in the absence of DNA lesions the signal is not amplified such that discrete foci can be detected. This system offers a novel screening approach for inhibitors of DNA damage response kinases, which we demonstrate using the inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cell free system that reconstitutes the response to DNA damage in the absence of DNA lesions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Damage-activated extracts impose the cellular response to DNA damage on naieve nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIKK-dependent response impacts positively and negatively on two separate fluorescent outputs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Can be used to screen for inhibitors that impact on the response to damage but not on DNA repair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LY294002 and wortmannin demonstrate the system's potential as a pathway focused screening approach.

  13. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dey, Thomas N; Bos, Rabdall J

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  14. Structural health monitoring (SHM) entails the use of structural response data to identify the existence, location, and severity of structural damage. However, damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Jerome P.

    the existence, location, and severity of structural damage. However, damage detection is a challenging problem because damage is a local phenomenon difficult to observe using global measures of structural response. With the existence and location of damage unknown a priori, sensor strategies monitoring the structure

  15. Calibration of damage parameters is an important issue for the use of damage laws, and particularly for industrial manufacturing processes. This paper deals with an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Abstract Calibration of damage parameters is an important issue for the use of damage laws Lemaitre damage parameters using tensile tests. An adapted objective function is built, and Efficient, ductile damage, global measurement. 1 Introduction An actual industrial issue is the study of material

  16. Characterization of Damage in Sandstones along the Mojave Section of the San Andreas Fault: Implications for the Shallow Extent of Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    Characterization of Damage in Sandstones along the Mojave Section of the San Andreas Fault: Implications for the Shallow Extent of Damage Generation ORY DOR,1,5 JUDITH S. CHESTER,2 YEHUDA BEN-ZION,1 shallow generation of rock damage during an earthquake rupture, we measure the degree of fracture damage

  17. Radiation damage in a micron-sized protein crystal studied via reciprocal space mapping and Bragg coherent diffractive imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlan, H. D.; Darmanin, C.; Phillips, N. W.; Hofmann, F.; Clark, J. N.; Harder, R. J.; Vine, D. J.; Abbey, B.

    2015-04-29

    For laboratory and synchrotron based X-ray sources, radiation damage has posed a significant barrier to obtaining high-resolution structural data from biological macromolecules. The problem is particularly acute for micron-sized crystals where the weaker signal often necessitates the use of higher intensity beams to obtain the relevant data. Here, we employ a combination of techniques, including Bragg coherent diffractive imaging to characterise the radiation induced damage in a micron-sized protein crystal over time. The approach we adopt here could help screen for potential protein crystal candidates for measurement at X-ray free election laser sources.

  18. Mathematical analysis of fully coupled approach to creep damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Shutov; A. -M. Saendig

    2006-01-25

    We prove the existence and uniqueness of solution to a classical creep damage problem. We formulate a sufficient condition for the problem to have a unique smooth solution, locally in time. This condition is stated in terms of smoothness of given data, such as solid geometry, boundary conditions, applied loads, and initial conditions. Counterexamples with an arbitrary small lifetime of a structure are also given, showing the mechanical interpretation of imposed smoothness conditions. The proposed theory gives a rigorous framework for a strain localization analysis. The influence of the damage gradient on the strain localization process is characterized within this framework and a measure of the damage localization is proposed.

  19. Assessing Hail and Freeze Damage to Field Corn and Sorghum 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Livingston, Stephen

    1995-11-30

    New Growth. Physical damage to young corn can be experienced from a freeze or heavy frost, from blowing sand and whipping in high winds, and from hail. Sometimes it may be a combination of several events. With each of these the growing point has... sunshine and temperatures above 55?F to support photosynthesis and to grow through any extended stress period once seed stores are depleted. Frost Damage (27 to 32?F). Tissue loss from frost damage is directly proportional to how low the temperature falls...

  20. WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

    2009-12-31

    The existence of problems with wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is nothing new to the Western Hemisphere. Damage by these introduced animals was reported as far back as 1505 by the early Spanish colonies in the Caribbean, where wild pigs were killing the colonists cattle. Droves of these animals also ravaged cultivated crops of maize and sugarcane on islands in the West Indies during this same time period. These wild pigs reportedly were very aggressive and often attacked Spanish soldiers hunting rebellious Indians or escaped slaves on these islands, especially when these animals were cornered. The documentation of such impacts by introduced populations of this species in the United States has subsequently increased in recent years, and continued up through the present (Towne and Wentworth. 1950, Wood and Barrett 1979, Mayer and Brisbin 1991, Dickson et al. 2001). In spite of a fairly constant history in this country since the early 1900s, wild pigs have had a dramatic recent increase in both distribution and numbers in the United States. Between 1989 and 2009, the number of states reporting the presence of introduced wild pigs went from 19 up to as many as 44. This increase, in part natural, but largely manmade, has caused an increased workload and cost for land and resource managers in areas where these new populations are found. This is the direct result of the damage that these introduced animals do. The cost of both these impacts and control efforts has been estimated to exceed a billion dollars annually (Pimentel 2007). The complexity of this problem has been further complicated by the widespread appeal and economic potential of these animals as a big game species (Tisdell 1982, Degner 1989). Wild pigs are a controversial problem that is not going away and will likely only get worse with time. Not only do they cause damage, but wild pigs are also survivors. They reproduce at a rate faster than any other mammal of comparable size, native or introduced; they can eat just about anything; and, they can live just about anywhere. On top of that, wild pigs are both very difficult to control and, with the possible exception of island ecosystems, almost impossible to eradicate (Dickson et al. 2001, Sweeney et al. 2003). The solution to the wild pig problem has not been readily apparent. The ultimate answer as to how to control these animals has not been found to date. In many ways, wild pigs are America's most successful large invasive species. All of which means that wild pigs are a veritable nightmare for land and resource managers trying to keep the numbers of these animals and the damage that they do under control. Since the more that one knows about an invasive species, the easier it is to deal with and hopefully control. For wild pigs then, it is better to 'know thy enemy' than to not, especially if one expects to be able to successfully control them. In an effort to better 'know thy enemy,' a two-day symposium was held in Augusta, Georgia, on April 21-22, 2004. This symposium was organized and sponsored by U.S.D.A. Forest Service-Savannah River (USFS-SR), U. S. Department of Energy-Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR), the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), the South Carolina Chapter of the Soil & Water Conservation Society, and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The goal of this symposium was to assemble researchers and land managers to first address various aspects of the biology and damage of wild pigs, and then review the control techniques and management of this invasive species. The result would then be a collected synopsis of what is known about wild pigs in the United States. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily directed toward federal agencies, presenters also included professionals from academic institutions, and private-sector control contractors and land managers. Most of the organizations associated with implementing this symposium were affiliated with the Savannah River Site (SRS), a 803 km{sup 2} federal nuclear facility, located in western South Carolina along the Savannah

  1. Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment Deepwater Horizon Trustees Announce Agreement in Principle for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) ------- The Deepwater Horizon oil spill Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustees (Trustees) today announced another Horizon oil spill Natural Resource Damage Assessment and restoration will continue until the publicDeepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment Deepwater Horizon Trustees Announce Agreement

  2. Damage to HDPE geomembrane from interface shear over gravelly compacted clay liner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thielmann, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    R. S. (2011). “Geomembrane damage due to static and cyclic66 Figure 4.10. GM damage results after shearing for Testsshear displacement on shear strength and GM damage for test

  3. DAMAGE DETECTION METHODS ON WIND TURBINE BLADE TESTING WITH WIRED AND WIRELESS ACCELEROMETER SENSORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DAMAGE DETECTION METHODS ON WIND TURBINE BLADE TESTING WITH WIRED AND WIRELESS ACCELEROMETER degrees of damage. Excitation was performed in two ways: near the delamination zone to demonstrate their performance. We explore methods for determining damage. We first explore results

  4. RhoJ Regulates Melanoma Chemoresistance by Suppressing Pathways that Sense DNA Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Hsiang; Aruri, Jayavani; Kapadia, Rubina; Mehr, Hootan; White, Michael A.; Ganesan, Anand K.

    2012-01-01

    Pathways that Sense DNA Damage $watermark-text Hsiang Ho 1 ,16. Roos WP, Kaina B. DNA damage-induced apoptosis: FromDNA lesions to the DNA damage response and apoptosis. Cancer

  5. SUBSPACE-BASED DETECTION OF FATIGUE DAMAGE ON JACKET SUPPORT STRUCTURES OF OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SUBSPACE-BASED DETECTION OF FATIGUE DAMAGE ON JACKET SUPPORT STRUCTURES OF OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES damage in real size structural components of offshore wind turbines. KEYWORDS : Damage detection, Offshore wind turbines, Numerical response simulation. INTRODUCTION Offshore wind turbines are exposed

  6. Effect of cumulative seismic damage and corrosion on life-cycle cost of reinforced concrete bridges 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ramesh

    2009-05-15

    reinforced concrete (RC) bridges in earthquake prone regions. The approach is developed by combining cumulative seismic damage and damage associated to corrosion due to environmental conditions. Cumulative seismic damage is obtained from a low-cycle fatigue...

  7. Reducing/Minimizing Water Damage Claims

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    temperature issues) 2. Accidental sprinkler system discharge (poor maintenance, pipe failure and inadequate infrastructures and deferred maintenance · Construction Deficiencies · Human Behavior ­ taps left running, toilets and heating including stairwells, underutilized/vacant rooms, fire pump and sprinkler riser rooms. d) Ensure

  8. Probabilistic aspects of progressive damage in composite structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynante, Brandon M

    2011-01-01

    The effects and importance of incorporating probabilistic aspects of the progression of damage in the analysis of composite structures are assessed. Two specific cases of graphite/epoxy with centrally-located holes are ...

  9. Obstacles to Determining Punitive Damages in Class Actions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hines, Laura J.

    2001-01-01

    Courts and commentators have often embraced the class action device as an ideal means of assessing punitive damages fairly in mass tort cases. In this Article, Professor Hines sounds a cautionary note by identifying a number of procedural...

  10. Embedded Damage Detection in Water Pipelines Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    Embedded Damage Detection in Water Pipelines Using Wireless Sensor Networks Hadil Mustafa real-time detec- tion algorithm for detecting rupture events in water pipelines noninvasively reducing the total energy consumption significantly. Index Terms--Water pipeline monitoring, ruptures

  11. Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

    2012-04-01

    This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at < 200 C. In short, there are no gamma and neutron irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

  12. Activation and radiation damage in the environment of hadron accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiselev, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    A component which suffers radiation damage usually also becomes radioactive, since the source of activation and radiation damage is the interaction of the material with particles from an accelerator or with reaction products. However, the underlying mechanisms of the two phenomena are different. These mechanisms are described here. Activation and radiation damage can have far-reaching consequences. Components such as targets, collimators, and beam dumps are the first candidates for failure as a result of radiation damage. This means that they have to be replaced or repaired. This takes time, during which personnel accumulate dose. If the dose to personnel at work would exceed permitted limits, remote handling becomes necessary. The remaining material has to be disposed of as radioactive waste, for which an elaborate procedure acceptable to the authorities is required. One of the requirements of the authorities is a complete nuclide inventory. The methods used for calculation of such inventories are presented,...

  13. Atomistic simulations of radiation damage in amorphous metal alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumer, Richard E. (Richard Edward)

    2013-01-01

    While numerous fundamental studies have characterized the atomic-level radiation response mechanisms in irradiated crystalline alloys, comparatively little is known regarding the mechanisms of radiation damage in amorphous ...

  14. Lengthscale effects in the damage and failure of composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chambers, Jeffrey Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this work is to investigate and identify lengthscale effects associated with damage in composite materials and their structures, and to determine how these lengthscales vary across levels of ...

  15. Multiscale Computational Modeling of Multiphase Composites with Damage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Feifei

    2013-11-01

    A multiscale computational framework for multiphase composites considering damage is developed in this research. In micro-scale, micromechanics based homogenization methods are used to estimate effective elastic moduli of graded Ti_(2)Al...

  16. Secondary sex ratios and male lifespan: Damaged or culled cohorts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim

    2006-01-01

    9. Lazarus, J. (2002) in Sex Ratios: Concepts and ResearchSecondary sex ratios and male lifespan: Damaged or culledreduce the human secondary sex ratio (i.e. , the odds of a

  17. Viscoelastic{Viscoplastic Damage Model for Asphalt Concrete 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, Michael A.

    2010-10-12

    in experiments, and their model was limited to uniaxial loading. Chehab et al. (2003) developed a continuum viscoelastoplastic model for undamaged asphalt concrete, but its scope was also limited to uniaxial characterization. Uzan (2005) developed a damaged...

  18. Nondestrutive damage detection by simultaneous identification of stiffness and damping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyung, Sang Su

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this study is to develop a nondestructive damage evaluation methodology that can identify simultaneously both stiffness and damping changes in a structure. Two approaches are used to meet the stated objectives. First, a method...

  19. Evaluation of moisture damage within asphalt concrete mixes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Brij D.

    2004-09-30

    (Member) (Head of Department) August 2003 Major Subject: Civil Engineering iii ABSTRACT Evaluation of Moisture Damage within Asphalt Concrete Mixes. (August 2003) Brij D. Shah, B.E., Gujarat University Chair...

  20. Modeling of Damage, Permeability Changes and Pressure Responses during Excavation of the TSX Tunnel in Granitic Rock at URL, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, Jonny

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of Damage, Permeability Changes and Pressureof excavation-induced damage, permeability changes, andrange of approaches to model damage and permeability changes

  1. 2-ethylpyridine, a cigarette smoke component, causes mitochondrial damage in human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenney, MC; Mansoor, S; Gupta, N; Falatoonzadeh, P; Kuppermann, BD

    2014-01-01

    a cigarette smoke component, causes mitochondrial damage ina cigarette smoke component, causes mitochondrial damage ina cigarette smoke component, causes mitochondrial damage in

  2. Development of a failure prediction method for damaged tubular members 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritter, James Edward

    1992-01-01

    DEVELOPMENT OF A FAILURE PREDICTION METHOD FOR DAMAGED TUBULAR MEMBERS A Thesis by ZAMES EDWARD RITTER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Civil Engineering DEVELOPMEMT OF A FAILURE PREDICTION METHOD FOR DAMAGED TUBULAR MEMBER8 A Thesis by JAMES EDWARD RITTER Approved as to style and content by: T ry L. Kohutek (Chair of Committee) Loren D. Lutes...

  3. Predicting threshold and location of laser damage on optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siekhaus, Wigbert (Berkeley, CA)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus useful in the prediction of the damage threshold of various optical devices, the location of weak spots on such devices and the location, identification, and elimination of optical surface impurities comprising, a focused and pulsed laser, an photo electric detector/imaging means, and a timer. The weak spots emit photoelectrons when subjected to laser intensities that are less than the intensity actually required to produce the damage. The weak spots may be eliminated by sustained exposure to the laser beam.

  4. An investigation of damage accumulation in graphite/epoxy laminates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norvell, Robert Gerald

    1985-01-01

    AN INVESTIGATION OF DAMAGE ACCUMULATION IN GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATES A Thesis by ROBERT GERALD NORVELL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1985 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF DAMAGE ACCUMULATION IN GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATES A Thesis by ROBERT GERALD NORVELL Approved as to style and content by: David H. Allen (Co-Chair of C mmitt. ) Richard A. Schap...

  5. Damage in porous media due to salt crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noushine Shahidzadeh-Bonn; Julie Desarnaud; François Bertrand; Xavier Chateau; Daniel Bonn

    2010-07-13

    We investigate the origins of salt damage in sandstones for the two most common salts: sodium chloride and sulfate. The results show that the observed difference in damage between the two salts is directly related to the kinetics of crystallization and the interfacial properties of the salt solutions and crystals with respect to the stone. We show that, for sodium sulfate, the existence of hydrated and anhydrous crystals and specifically their dissolution and crystallization kinetics are responsible for the damage. Using magnetic resonance imaging and optical microscopy we show that when water imbibes sodium sulfate contaminated sandstones, followed by drying at room temperature, large damage occurs in regions where pores are fully filled with salts. After partial dissolution, anhydrous sodium sulfate salt present in these regions gives rise to a very rapid growth of the hydrated phase of sulfate in the form of clusters that form on or close to the remaining anhydrous microcrystals. The rapid growth of these clusters generates stresses in excess of the tensile strength of the stone leading to the damage. Sodium chloride only forms anhydrous crystals that consequently do not cause damage in the experiments.

  6. Nuclear Arms Control R&D Consortium includes Los Alamos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Arms Control R&D Consortium includes Los Alamos Nuclear Arms Control R&D Consortium includes Los Alamos A consortium led by the University of Michigan that includes LANL as...

  7. Newport News in Review, ch. 47, segment includes TEDF groundbreaking...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https:www.jlab.orgnewsarticlesnewport-news-review-ch-47-segment-includes-tedf-groundbreaking-event Newport News in Review, ch. 47, segment includes TEDF groundbreaking event...

  8. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Part II. Sun story. Includes glossary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. Includes glossary You are...

  9. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths Microfluidic...

  10. Structural Health Monitoring for Impact Damage in Composite Structures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Raymond Bond; Doug Adams

    2014-08-01

    Composite structures are increasing in prevalence throughout the aerospace, wind, defense, and transportation industries, but the many advantages of these materials come with unique challenges, particularly in inspecting and repairing these structures. Because composites of- ten undergo sub-surface damage mechanisms which compromise the structure without a clear visual indication, inspection of these components is critical to safely deploying composite re- placements to traditionally metallic structures. Impact damage to composites presents one of the most signi fi cant challenges because the area which is vulnerable to impact damage is generally large and sometimes very dif fi cult to access. This work seeks to further evolve iden- ti fi cation technology by developing a system which can detect the impact load location and magnitude in real time, while giving an assessment of the con fi dence in that estimate. Fur- thermore, we identify ways by which impact damage could be more effectively identi fi ed by leveraging impact load identi fi cation information to better characterize damage. The impact load identi fi cation algorithm was applied to a commercial scale wind turbine blade, and results show the capability to detect impact magnitude and location using a single accelerometer, re- gardless of sensor location. A technique for better evaluating the uncertainty of the impact estimates was developed by quantifying how well the impact force estimate meets the assump- tions underlying the force estimation technique. This uncertainty quanti fi cation technique was found to reduce the 95% con fi dence interval by more than a factor of two for impact force estimates showing the least uncertainty, and widening the 95% con fi dence interval by a fac- tor of two for the most uncertain force estimates, avoiding the possibility of understating the uncertainty associated with these estimates. Linear vibration based damage detection tech- niques were investigated in the context of structural stiffness reductions and impact damage. A method by which the sensitivity to damage could be increased for simple structures was presented, and the challenges of applying that technique to a more complex structure were identi fi ed. The structural dynamic changes in a weak adhesive bond were investigated, and the results showed promise for identifying weak bonds that show little or no static reduction in stiffness. To address these challenges in identifying highly localized impact damage, the possi- bility of detecting damage through nonlinear dynamic characteristics was also identi fi ed, with a proposed technique which would leverage impact location estimates to enable the detection of impact damage. This nonlinear damage identi fi cation concept was evaluated on a composite panel with a substructure disbond, and the results showed that the nonlinear dynamics at the damage site could be observed without a baseline healthy reference. By further developing impact load identi fi cation technology and combining load and damage estimation techniques into an integrated solution, the challenges associated with impact detection in composite struc- tures can be effectively solved, thereby reducing costs, improving safety, and enhancing the operational readiness and availability of high value assets.

  11. STATISTICAL DAMAGE CLASSIFICATION USING SEQUENTIAL PROBABILITY RATIO TESTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SOHN, HOON; ALLEN, DAVID W; WORDEN, KEITH; FARRAR, CHARLES R

    2002-02-16

    The primary objective of damage detection is to ascertain with confidence if damage is present or not within a structure of interest. In this study, a damage classification problem is cast in the context of the statistical pattern recognition paradigm. First, a time prediction model, called an autoregressive and autoregressive with exogenous inputs (AR-ARX) model, is fit to a vibration signal measured during a normal operating condition of the structure. When a new time signal is recorded from an unknown state of the system, the prediction errors are computed for the new data set using the time prediction model. When the structure undergoes structural degradation, it is expected that the prediction errors will increase for the damage case. Based on this premise, a damage classifier is constructed using a sequential hypothesis testing technique called the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT). The SPRT is one form of parametric statistical inference tests, and the adoption of the SPRT to damage detection problems can improve the early identification of conditions that could lead to performance degradation and safety concerns. The sequential test assumes a probability distribution of the sample data sets, and a Gaussian distribution of the sample data sets is often used. This assumption, however, might impose potentially misleading behavior on the extreme values of the data, i.e. those points in the tails of the distribution. As the problem of damage detection specifically focuses attention on the tails, the assumption of normality is likely to lead the analysis astray. To overcome this difficulty, the performance of the SPRT is improved by integrating extreme values statistics, which specifically models behavior in the tails of the distribution of interest into the SPRT.

  12. Damage identification and health monitoring of structural and mechanical systems from changes in their vibration characteristics: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doebling, S.W.; Farrar, C.R.; Prime, M.B.; Shevitz, D.W.

    1996-05-01

    This report contains a review of the technical literature concerning the detection, location, and characterization of structural damage via techniques that examine changes in measured structural vibration response. The report first categorizes the methods according to required measured data and analysis technique. The analysis categories include changes in modal frequencies, changes in measured mode shapes (and their derivatives), and changes in measured flexibility coefficients. Methods that use property (stiffness, mass, damping) matrix updating, detection of nonlinear response, and damage detection via neural networks are also summarized. The applications of the various methods to different types of engineering problems are categorized by type of structure and are summarized. The types of structures include beams, trusses, plates, shells, bridges, offshore platforms, other large civil structures, aerospace structures, and composite structures. The report describes the development of the damage-identification methods and applications and summarizes the current state-of-the-art of the technology. The critical issues for future research in the area of damage identification are also discussed.

  13. Including the Effects of Electronic Excitations and Electron-Phonon Coupling in Cascade Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, Dorothy |

    2008-07-01

    Radiation damage has traditionally been modeled using cascade simulations however such simulations generally neglect the effects of electron-ion interactions, which may be significant in high energy cascades. A model has been developed which includes the effects of electronic stopping and electron-phonon coupling in Molecular Dynamics simulations by means of an inhomogeneous Langevin thermostat. The energy lost by the atoms to electronic excitations is gained by the electronic system and the energy evolution of the electronic system is modeled by the heat diffusion equation. Energy is exchanged between the electronic system and the atoms in the Molecular Dynamics simulation by means of a Langevin thermostat, the temperature of which is the local electronic temperature. The model is applied to a 10 keV cascade simulation for Fe. (authors)

  14. A Leakage Current-based Measurement of the Radiation Damage in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor V. Gorelov; for the ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-02-12

    A measurement has been made of the radiation damage incurred by the ATLAS Pixel Detector barrel silicon modules from the beginning of operations through the end of 2012. This translates to hadronic fluence received over the full period of operation at energies up to and including 8 TeV. The measurement is based on a per-module measurement of the silicon sensor leakage current. The results are presented as a function of integrated luminosity and compared to predictions by the Hamburg Model. This information can be used to predict limits on the lifetime of the Pixel Detector due to current, for various operating scenarios.

  15. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Damage Cascade Formation in Ion Bombarded Solids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Di

    2012-10-19

    includes the types of boiling water reactor and pressure water reactor, uranium oxide is used as nuclear fuels, which are surrounded by fuel cladding materials made of Zircaloy. Under normal operation conditions, the fuel center can reach a temperature....46exp[ ( / ) /1.02]M M? ? ? ? (4.2) Where 1M and 2M are mass of the incident and target atom, respectively. 4.3 Results and Discussion Fig. 8 plots the damage creation per Ag atom ( /dV n ) as a function of Ag cluster size n...

  16. An integrated active sensing system for damage identifcation and prognosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wait, J. R. (Jeannette R.); Park, G. H. (Gyu Hae); Sohn, H. (Hoon); Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

    2004-01-01

    This paper illustrates an integrated approach for identifying structural damage. Two damage identification techniques, Lamb wave propagation and impedance-based methods, are investigated utilizing piezoelectric (PZT) actuators/sensors. The Lamb wave propagation and the impedance methods operate in high frequency ranges (typically > 30 kHz) at which there are measurable changes in structural responses even for incipient damage such as small cracks, debonding, delamination, and loose connections. In Lamb wave propagation, one PZT is used to launch an elastic wave through the structure, and responses are measured by an array of sensors. The technique used for the Lamb wave propagation method looks for the possibility of damage by tracking changes in transmission velocity and wave attenuation/reflections. Experimental results show that this method works well for surface anomalies. The impedance method monitors the variations in structural mechanical impedance, which is coupled with the electrical impedance of the PZT. Through monitoring the measured electrical impedance and comparing it to a baseline measurement, a decision can be made about whether or not structural damage has occurred or is imminent. In addition, significant advances have been made recently by incorporating advanced statistic-based signal processing techniques into the impedance methods. To date, several sets of experiments have been conducted on a cantilevered aluminum plate and composite plate to demonstrate the feasibility of this combined active sensing technology.

  17. Damage and Mortality Assessment of Redwood and Mixed Conifer Forest Types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    347 Damage and Mortality Assessment of Redwood and Mixed Conifer Forest Types in Santa Cruz County left with tough decisions on how to treat tree damage and mortality compounded by the Pine Mountain a method for evaluating damage and mortality. Qualitative criteria for evaluating stand damage focused

  18. DNA Damage by Fasicularin Sanjay Dutta, Hideki Abe, Sakae Aoyagi, Chihiro Kibayashi, and Kent S. Gates*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Kent. S.

    DNA Damage by Fasicularin Sanjay Dutta, Hideki Abe, Sakae Aoyagi, Chihiro Kibayashi, and Kent S that a DNA repair- deficient cell line is hypersensitive to fasicularin suggest that an ability to damage DNA of DNA damage. For example, oxidatiVe damage at guanine residues can also generate base-labile lesions.13

  19. DAMAGE DETECTION IN A WIND TURBINE BLADE BASED ON TIME SERIES Simon Hoell, Piotr Omenzetter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    DAMAGE DETECTION IN A WIND TURBINE BLADE BASED ON TIME SERIES METHODS Simon Hoell, Piotr Omenzetter (SHM) systems. Different methods have been developed for detection of damages in WT blades. However a damage detection method based on autocorrelations of response accelerations. The damage sensitive feature

  20. Damage In a Random Mlerstructure: Size Effects, Fractals, and Entropy Maximization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    Damage In a Random Mler©structure: Size Effects, Fractals, and Entropy Maximization Martin Ostoja a micromechanical approach to damage growth in graph- representable microstructures is presented. Damage is denned in scatter of strength, and the fractal character of damage geometry, and thus provides a basis

  1. Radiation damage calculation in PHITS Y. Iwamoto1, K. Niita2, T. Sawai1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Radiation damage calculation in PHITS 1 Y. Iwamoto1, K. Niita2, T. Sawai1, R.M. Ronningen3, T Feb. ­ 15 Feb. 2012 #12;2 Introduction Radiation damage model in PHITS Radiation damage calculation As the power of proton and heavy-ion accelerators is increasing, the prediction of the structural damage

  2. Nonlinear damage rheology and wave resonance in rocks V. Lyakhovsky1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ampuero, Jean Paul

    1 Nonlinear damage rheology and wave resonance in rocks V. Lyakhovsky1 , Y. Hamiel1 , P. Ampuero2 of damaged materials with theoretical analyses and numerical simulations based on a nonlinear continuum damage model. Quasi-static simulations of damage accumulation under cyclic load reproduce the laboratory

  3. HumanWildlife Conflicts 1(2):205213, Fall 2007 Intrafield patterns of wildlife damage to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Human­Wildlife Conflicts 1(2):205­213, Fall 2007 Intrafield patterns of wildlife damage to corn at reducing wildlife damage to row crops rely on information concerning the spatial nature of wildlife damage at local and landscape scales. In this study we explored spatial patterns of wildlife damage within

  4. DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION IN A STEEL FRAME USING HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTRO-MECHANICAL IMPEDANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ji

    411 DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION IN A STEEL FRAME USING HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTRO-MECHANICAL IMPEDANCE presents an experimental investigation of damage detection of a steel frame using electro damage in structures. Damages are introduced by completely loosening bolts over several locations

  5. Impurity Radiation from the LHCD Launcher During Operation in JET and Investigation of Launcher Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impurity Radiation from the LHCD Launcher During Operation in JET and Investigation of Launcher Damage

  6. A Review of Damage Detection and Health Monitoring of Mechanical Systems from Changes in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Review of Damage Detection and Health Monitoring of Mechanical Systems from Changes of Damage Detection and Health Monitoring... 1 1. Introduction Damage are a main cause of structural failure of structural components by detection damage in structures in the early state. More specifically, structural

  7. A Novel Damage Sensitive Feature Based on State-Space Representation1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Novel Damage Sensitive Feature Based on State-Space Representation1 ABSTRACT Damage detection and the variable and unknown excitation. There is still a lack of a robust damage detection process. Taking in a reconstructed state-space, a novel damage sensitive feature vector is proposed. Statistical modelling using

  8. Microfracturing, damage, and failure of brittle granites and Ze'ev Reches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ze'ev, Reches

    Microfracturing, damage, and failure of brittle granites Oded Katz1 and Ze'ev Reches Institute; accepted 17 October 2003; published 20 January 2004. [1] The evolution of stress-induced damage the damage intensity in two methods and directly compare model predictions and actual damage. The 14 samples

  9. Impact damage of carbon fiber polymermatrix composites, studied by electrical resistance measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    properties; D. Non-destructive testing; Damage 1. Introduction Impact is a commonly encountered cause measurement, which is non-destructive, to evaluate impact damage after damage affliction. Although, resistance of the techniques, such as residual strength measurement, are destructive. Study of the impact damage process has

  10. The dynamic interplay between DNA damage and metabolism : the metabolic fate and transport of DNA lesions and novel DNA damage derived from intermediary metabolism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jumpathong, Watthanachai

    2014-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis explores two novel and complementary facets of endogenous DNA damage: the development of biomarkers of inflammation based on metabolites of DNA damage products and the formation of DNA ...

  11. Analysis of bending properties for damaged laminated pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yokoyama, A.; Nishiwaki, T.; Nakai, A.; Hamada, H.

    1996-12-01

    Various composite cylinders, such as braided cylinders, could be fabricated with a high volume fabrication method, using thermoplastic composites and so on. If so, usage of composite cylinder would be extended. In this paper, a new analytical model named Quasi-Three-Dimensional model was proposed and applied to a two-layered composite cylinder. Under various service environments, a damaged cylinder with interlaminar fracture often appeared. The calculated elastic modulus was decreased with an increase of the damaged area. From deformation states and stress distribution of interlaminae, some coupling effects were recognized, even if the analytical cylinder without any damage never showed any coupling effects. This result showed the usefulness of the Quasi-Three-Dimensional model.

  12. Statistical damage identification techniques applied to the I-40 bridge over the Rio Grande River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doebling, S.W.; Farrar, C.R.

    1998-03-01

    The statistical significance of vibration-based damage identification parameters is studied via application to the data from the tests performed on the Interstate 40 highway bridge in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A test of statistical significance is applied to the mean and confidence interval estimates of the modal properties and the corresponding damage indicators. The damage indicator used in this study is the change in the measured flexibility matrix. Previously presented deterministic results indicate that damage is detectable in all of the damage cases from these data sets. The results of this study indicate that the changes in both the modal properties and the damage indicators are statistically significant for all of the damage cases. However, these changes are distributed spatially for the first three damage cases and do not localize the damage until the fourth and final damage case.

  13. Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, N; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Laurence, T A; Suratwala, T I; Steele, W A; Feit, M D; Wang, L L

    2012-03-19

    Previous studies have identified two significant precursors of laser damage on fused silica surfaces at fluenes below {approx} 35 J/cm{sup 2}, photoactive impurities in the polishing layer and surface fractures. In the present work, isothermal heating is studied as a means of remediating the highly absorptive, defect structure associated with surface fractures. A series of Vickers indentations were applied to silica surfaces at loads between 0.5N and 10N creating fracture networks between {approx} 10{micro}m and {approx} 50{micro}m in diameter. The indentations were characterized prior to and following thermal annealing under various times and temperature conditions using confocal time-resolved photo-luminescence (CTP) imaging, and R/1 optical damage testing with 3ns, 355nm laser pulses. Significant improvements in the damage thresholds, together with corresponding reductions in CTP intensity, were observed at temperatures well below the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). For example, the damage threshold on 05.N indentations which typically initiates at fluences <8 J/cm{sup 2} could be improved >35 J/cm{sup 2} through the use of a {approx} 750 C thermal treatment. Larger fracture networks required longer or higher temperature treatment to achieve similar results. At an annealing temperature > 1100 C, optical microscopy indicates morphological changes in some of the fracture structure of indentations, although remnants of the original fracture and significant deformation was still observed after thermal annealing. This study demonstrates the potential of using isothermal annealing as a means of improving the laser damage resistance of fused silica optical components. Similarly, it provides a means of further understanding the physics associated with optical damage and related mitigation processes.

  14. Title IX & Discrimination Complaint Form (including sexual harassment)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    Title IX & Discrimination Complaint Form (including sexual harassment) Office of Diversity. Although the university cannot commit to keeping a complaint of discrimination confidential the process for filing or investigating complaints of discrimination (including sexual harassment). Note

  15. Explosion at Louisa (including Morrison Old) Colliery, Durham 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yates, R.

    MINISTRY OF FUEL AND POWER - EXPLOSION AT LOUISA (including MORRISON OLD) COLLIERY, DURHAM REPORT On the Causes of, and Circumstances attending, the Explosion which occurred at Louisa (including Morrison Old) Colliery, ...

  16. High-Temperature Oxide Regrowth on Mechanically-Damaged Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, Peter Julian; Lowe, Tracie M

    2008-01-01

    Here we report the effects of mechanical damage from a sharp stylus on the regrowth of oxide layers on a Ni-based superalloy known as Pyromet 80A . It was found that the oxide that reformed on the damaged portion of a pre-oxidized surface differed from that which formed on undamaged areas after the equal exposures to elevated temperature in air. These findings have broad implications for modeling the processes of material degradation in applications such as exhaust valves in internal combustion engines because they imply that static oxidation data for candidate materials may not adequately reflect their reaction to operating environments that involve both mechanical contact and oxidation.

  17. 1 | De-icing salt damage to trees | November 2011 Pathology Advisory Note

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 | De-icing salt damage to trees | November 2011 Pathology Advisory Note (No. 11) De-icing salt damage to trees De-icing Salt Damage to Trees Joan F Webber, David R Rose, Martin C Dobson #12;2 | De-icing salt damage to trees | November 2011 S a l t D a m a g e De-icing Salt Damage Introduction Rock salt

  18. Development of advanced drilling, completion, and stimulation systems for minimum formation damage and improved efficiency: A program overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layne, A.W.; Yost, A.B. II

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Natural Gas Resource and Extraction Program consists of industry/government co-sponsored research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) projects, which focus on gas recovery from both conventional and nonconventional resources. The Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation (DCS) Project focuses on advanced, non-damaging technology systems and equipment for improving gas recovery from conventional and nonconventional reservoirs. As operators move from development of current day economically attractive gas-field development to the lower permeability geologic regions of domestic onshore plays, increasing the emphasis on minimum formation damage DCS will permit economic development of gas reserves. The objective of the Project is to develop and demonstrate cost-effective, advanced technology to accelerate widespread use and acceptance of minimum formation damage DCS systems. The goal of this product development effort is to reduce costs and improve the overall efficiency of vertical, directional, and horizontally drilled wells in gas formations throughout the US. The current focus of the Project is on the development of underbalanced drilling technology and minimum formation damage stimulation technology concurrently with the appropriate completion hardware to improve the economics of domestic natural gas field development. Ongoing drilling technology projects to be discussed include development of an electromagnetic measurement while drilling system for directional and horizontal drilling in underbalanced drilling applications and the development of a steerable air percussion drilling system for hard formation drilling and improved penetration rates. Ongoing stimulation technology projects to be discussed include introduction of carbon dioxide/sand fracturing technology for minimal formation damage.

  19. Summary of property damage control programs of the United States Department of Energy CY 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dix, George P.; Maybee, Walter W.

    1980-10-01

    Calendar year 1979 was the second full year of operation of the Department of Energy. This report summarizes the loss experience in overall terms and itemizes facility and program achievements in property protection. Planned projects for CY 1980 are included and several subjects of interest to loss-control specialists are discussed in detail. Property damage from all causes was $2.5 million, of which $0.65 million was due to fire, the major cause of losses in both the Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies. Combined losses for the 2 full years of Department of Energy experience total over $20 million, of which over $13 million is due to fire. The fire loss ratio for 1979 was 0.13 cents for each $100 of property values at risk, more than an order-of-magnitude less than that expeienced by the better class of insured private property. Final decontamination and cleanup costs necessitated by a product spill at a solvent-refined coal pilot plant at the end of 1979 may exceed $2 million. Even including this estimate, the total loss from all causes (fire, explosion, mechanical or electrical damage, acts of nature, radioactive and non-radioactive contamination/cleanup costs, and a variety of miscellaneous causes), would yield a loss ratio of about 1 cent for each $100 of property. This indicated the overall property protection program is exemplary.

  20. ADVANCED COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE DESIGN BASED ON DURABILITY AND DAMAGE TOLERANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galib Abumeri; Frank Abdi

    2012-02-16

    The objective of the program was to demonstrate and verify Certification-by-Analysis (CBA) capability for wind turbine blades made from advanced lightweight composite materials. The approach integrated durability and damage tolerance analysis with robust design and virtual testing capabilities to deliver superior, durable, low weight, low cost, long life, and reliable wind blade design. The GENOA durability and life prediction software suite was be used as the primary simulation tool. First, a micromechanics-based computational approach was used to assess the durability of composite laminates with ply drop features commonly used in wind turbine applications. Ply drops occur in composite joints and closures of wind turbine blades to reduce skin thicknesses along the blade span. They increase localized stress concentration, which may cause premature delamination failure in composite and reduced fatigue service life. Durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) were evaluated utilizing a multi-scale micro-macro progressive failure analysis (PFA) technique. PFA is finite element based and is capable of detecting all stages of material damage including initiation and propagation of delamination. It assesses multiple failure criteria and includes the effects of manufacturing anomalies (i.e., void, fiber waviness). Two different approaches have been used within PFA. The first approach is Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) PFA while the second one is strength-based. Constituent stiffness and strength properties for glass and carbon based material systems were reverse engineered for use in D&DT evaluation of coupons with ply drops under static loading. Lamina and laminate properties calculated using manufacturing and composite architecture details matched closely published test data. Similarly, resin properties were determined for fatigue life calculation. The simulation not only reproduced static strength and fatigue life as observed in the test, it also showed composite damage and fracture modes that resemble those reported in the tests. The results show that computational simulation can be relied on to enhance the design of tapered composite structures such as the ones used in turbine wind blades. A computational simulation for durability, damage tolerance (D&DT) and reliability of composite wind turbine blade structures in presence of uncertainties in material properties was performed. A composite turbine blade was first assessed with finite element based multi-scale progressive failure analysis to determine failure modes and locations as well as the fracture load. D&DT analyses were then validated with static test performed at Sandia National Laboratories. The work was followed by detailed weight analysis to identify contribution of various materials to the overall weight of the blade. The methodology ensured that certain types of failure modes, such as delamination progression, are contained to reduce risk to the structure. Probabilistic analysis indicated that composite shear strength has a great influence on the blade ultimate load under static loading. Weight was reduced by 12% with robust design without loss in reliability or D&DT. Structural benefits obtained with the use of enhanced matrix properties through nanoparticles infusion were also assessed. Thin unidirectional fiberglass layers enriched with silica nanoparticles were applied to the outer surfaces of a wind blade to improve its overall structural performance and durability. The wind blade was a 9-meter prototype structure manufactured and tested subject to three saddle static loading at Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). The blade manufacturing did not include the use of any nano-material. With silica nanoparticles in glass composite applied to the exterior surfaces of the blade, the durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) results from multi-scale PFA showed an increase in ultimate load of the blade by 9.2% as compared to baseline structural performance (without nano). The use of nanoparticles lead to a delay in the onset of delamination. Load-displacement relati

  1. Microwave Cylindrical Reflection Imaging Array For Structural Damage Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Flaviis, Franco

    States and elsewhere. However, seismic damage such as debonding between the jacket and the column, can signifi- cantly degrade the structural integrity and safety that could otherwise be attainable cylindrical array is developed and verified for its capabilities to assess the bonding condition of FRP

  2. Communication Damage monitoring of cement paste by electrical resistance measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    on the use of electrical resistance measurement to sense strain in cement reinforced with short carbon fibers of curing [2±5]. How- ever, this paper is not concerned with carbon fiber-rein- forced cement. 2 in the elastic deformation regime. However, damage in the plastic deformation regime is much more significant

  3. AN EXPERIMENTALCOMPUTATIONAL APPROACH TO THE INVESTIGATION OF DAMAGE EVOLUTION IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Somnath

    Engineering, Applied Mechanics and Aviation, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, U.S.A. and 2 ALCOA the in¯uence of morphological parameters on damage. Micro- mechanical modeling of two. INTRODUCTION The commercial use of particle-reinforced metal matrix composites in automotive, aerospace

  4. Abundance and genetic damage of barn swallows from Fukushima

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mousseau, Timothy A.

    dose ionizing radiation increased genetic damage to their peripheral erythrocytes. We estimated,21 . A study on earthworms also demonstrated that animals from sites where radiation level was as low as 2.8 m Japan Bird Research Association, Fuchu, Tokyo, Japan, 3 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University

  5. Consideration of environmental and operational variability for damage diagnosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohn, H. (Hoon); Worden, K.; Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

    2002-01-01

    Damage diagnosis is a problem that can be addressed at many levels. Stated in its most basic form, the objective is to ascertain simply if damage is present or not. In a statistical pattern recognition paradigm of this problem, the philosophy is to collect baseline signatures from a system to be monitored and to compare subsequent data to see if the new 'pattern' deviates significantly from the baseline data. Unfortunately, matters are seldom as simple as this. In reality, structures will be subjected to changing environmental and operational conditions that will affect measured signals. In this case, there may be a wide range of normal conditions, and it is clearly undesirable to signal damage simply because of a change in the environment. In this paper, a unique combination of time series analysis, neural networks, and statistical inference techniques is developed for damage classification explicitly taking into account these natural variations of the system in order to minimize false positive indication of true system changes.

  6. Impurity-doped optical shock, detonation and damage location sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, J.D.

    1995-02-07

    A shock, detonation, and damage location sensor providing continuous fiber-optic means of measuring shock speed and damage location, and could be designed through proper cabling to have virtually any desired crush pressure. The sensor has one or a plurality of parallel multimode optical fibers, or a singlemode fiber core, surrounded by an elongated cladding, doped along their entire length with impurities to fluoresce in response to light at a different wavelength entering one end of the fiber(s). The length of a fiber would be continuously shorted as it is progressively destroyed by a shock wave traveling parallel to its axis. The resulting backscattered and shifted light would eventually enter a detector and be converted into a proportional electrical signals which would be evaluated to determine shock velocity and damage location. The corresponding reduction in output, because of the shortening of the optical fibers, is used as it is received to determine the velocity and position of the shock front as a function of time. As a damage location sensor the sensor fiber cracks along with the structure to which it is mounted. The size of the resulting drop in detector output is indicative of the location of the crack. 8 figs.

  7. Specific grinding energy causing thermal damage in precision gear steels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatathodi, Srinivas

    2002-01-01

    This project is aimed at developing a better understanding of thermal damage caused by grinding of precision gear materials and also a model to predict the onset of burn in AISI 9310 gear steel. This study is concerned with the thermal aspects...

  8. Wildlife damage management professionals deal with very few

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , environmental degradation, or disease transmission, feral hogs play a substantial role. Earlier this year damage caused by feral hogs, a growing threat is transmission of diseases, primarily pseudorabies, Washington, DC 20250-3402, USA William H. Clay #12;138 Human­Wildlife C

  9. Topeka, Kansas, Flood Damage Reduction Project 30 January 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    provides for flood risk management and restores the reliability of the Topeka, Kansas, Levee System located and reservoirs that provides flood risk management benefits to the Kansas River basin. During project analysisTopeka, Kansas, Flood Damage Reduction Project 30 January 2009 Abstract: The recommended plan

  10. MATERIAL IRRADIATION DAMAGE STUDIES FOR HIGH POWER ACCELERATORS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    MATERIAL IRRADIATION DAMAGE STUDIES FOR HIGH POWER ACCELERATORS* N. Simos# , H. Kirk, L. Trung, H under severe shock and high irradiation exposure. The limitations of solid materials to function as high performance targets and in particular the effects of irradiation on key material properties are assessed

  11. Impurity-doped optical shock, detonation and damage location sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A shock, detonation, and damage location sensor providing continuous fiber-optic means of measuring shock speed and damage location, and could be designed through proper cabling to have virtually any desired crush pressure. The sensor has one or a plurality of parallel multimode optical fibers, or a singlemode fiber core, surrounded by an elongated cladding, doped along their entire length with impurities to fluoresce in response to light at a different wavelength entering one end of the fiber(s). The length of a fiber would be continuously shorted as it is progressively destroyed by a shock wave traveling parallel to its axis. The resulting backscattered and shifted light would eventually enter a detector and be converted into a proportional electrical signals which would be evaluated to determine shock velocity and damage location. The corresponding reduction in output, because of the shortening of the optical fibers, is used as it is received to determine the velocity and position of the shock front as a function of time. As a damage location sensor the sensor fiber cracks along with the structure to which it is mounted. The size of the resulting drop in detector output is indicative of the location of the crack.

  12. Building Damage, Death and Downtime Risk Attenuation in Earthquakes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yinghui

    2012-07-16

    Whether it is for pre-event prevention and preparedness or for post-event response and recovery of a catastrophic earthquake, estimates of damage, death and downtime (3d) losses are needed by engineers, owners, and policy makers. In this research, a...

  13. Applying nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy to improving thermal damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at interrogating the mechanical damage influence on the nonlinear response, applying bend- ing, or longitudinal in this paper. In addition, feasibility and sensitivity of applying shear modes for the NRUS method are explored modulus9 in the stress strain relationship in one dimension can be written M , = M0 1 - - 2 - ¯ - + sign

  14. Dynamics and Fatigue Damage of Wind Turbine Rotors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    6 3 RiS0-Rr512 Dynamics and Fatigue Damage of Wind Turbine Rotors during Steady Operation Peter OF WIND TURBINE ROTORS DURING STEADY OPERATION Peter Hauge Madsen, Sten Frandsen, William E. Holley-carrying capacity of a wind turbine rotor with respect to short-term strength and material fatigue are presented

  15. ELECTROMECHANICAL IMPEDANCE METHOD FOR DAMAGE DETECTION IN MECHANICAL STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ELECTROMECHANICAL IMPEDANCE METHOD FOR DAMAGE DETECTION IN MECHANICAL STRUCTURES MATEUSZ ROSIEK@agh.edu.pl Abstract Non-destructive measurements of an electromechanical impedance allow for the effective assessment structure was excited to vibrate at high frequency range and electromechanical impedance plots were obtained

  16. Temporary patching of damaged UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardenas, A.L. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Patching techniques based on application of epoxy resins have been developed for temporarily repairing UF{sub 6} cylinders which have sustained relatively minor damage and must be safely emptied. The method is considerably faster and simpler than metallurgical weld repairs. Laboratory tests, detailed operational procedures, and case histories of experience at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are described.

  17. CLIMATE POLICY OUTCOMES IN GERMANY Environmental Performance and Environmental Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Weigang

    CLIMATE POLICY OUTCOMES IN GERMANY Environmental Performance and Environmental Damage in Eleven and is exceeding its ambitious Kyoto commitment. Hence, it is commonly portrayed as a climate-policy success story. Third, researchers on climate policies should more often begin with outcomes, work backward to policies

  18. Collateral damage of Facebook Apps: an enhanced privacy scoring model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Collateral damage of Facebook Apps: an enhanced privacy scoring model Iraklis Symeonidis1 , Filipe relationships on Facebook often entails in- formation sharing which is based on the social trust and implicit con- tract between users and their friends. In this context, Facebook of- fers applications (Apps

  19. Multiscale modeling of damage in multidirectional composite laminates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Chandra Veer

    2009-05-15

    n= p]s laminates. : : : : : : : 166 xi LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Market expansion of carbon bers in the past few decades (source: [9]). : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 2 Percentage of composite...]). : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 4 Various mechanisms of damage in composite laminates. : : : : : : : : 6 5 The stress strain curves for borosilicate glass alone (dotted line) and reinforced with aligned carbon bers (source: [12]). : : : : : : : : 7 6 Strain to initiate...

  20. Estimating Hurricane Outage and Damage Risk in Power Distribution System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Seung Ryong

    2009-05-15

    Hurricanes have caused severe damage to the electric power system throughout the Gulf coast region of the U.S., and electric power is critical to post-hurricane disaster response as well as to long-term recovery for impacted areas. Managing...

  1. Propagation of Reactions in Thermally-damaged PBX-9501

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tringe, J W; Glascoe, E A; Kercher, J R; Willey, T M; Springer, H K; Greenwood, D W; Molitoris, J D; Smilowitz, L; Henson, B F; Maienschein, J L

    2010-03-05

    A thermally-initiated explosion in PBX-9501 (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) is observed in situ by flash x-ray imaging, and modeled with the LLNL multi-physics arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian code ALE3D. The containment vessel deformation provides a useful estimate of the reaction pressure at the time of the explosion, which we calculate to be in the range 0.8-1.4 GPa. Closely-coupled ALE3D simulations of these experiments, utilizing the multi-phase convective burn model, provide detailed predictions of the reacted mass fraction and deflagration front acceleration. During the preinitiation heating phase of these experiments, the solid HMX portion of the PBX-9501 undergoes a {beta}-phase to {delta}-phase transition which damages the explosive and induces porosity. The multi-phase convective burn model results demonstrate that damaged particle size and pressure are critical for predicting reaction speed and violence. In the model, energetic parameters are taken from LLNL's thermochemical-kinetics code Cheetah and burn rate parameters from Son et al. (2000). Model predictions of an accelerating deflagration front are in qualitative agreement with the experimental images assuming a mode particle diameter in the range 300-400 {micro}m. There is uncertainty in the initial porosity caused by thermal damage of PBX-9501 and, thus, the effective surface area for burning. To better understand these structures, we employ x-ray computed tomography (XRCT) to examine the microstructure of PBX-9501 before and after thermal damage. Although lack of contrast between grains and binder prevents the determination of full grain size distribution in this material, there are many domains visible in thermally damaged PBX-9501 with diameters in the 300-400 {micro}m range.

  2. Radiation Damage Effects in Candidate Titanates for Pu Disposition: Zirconolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.; Buck, Edgar C.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Sell, Rachel L.; Elovich, Robert J.; Buchmiller, William C.

    2008-01-15

    This is the second of two papers on the results of radiation-induced damage accumulation in titanate ceramics that potentially could be used for weapons grade plutonium disposition. In the first paper we discussed the results from pyrochlore (betafite) based ceramics. In this paper, we discuss the effects of radiation-induced damage on the density and crystal structure of a nominally phase-pure zirconolite and two other zirconolite-bearing ceramics from the alpha decay of 238Pu. Macro (bulk) and micro (X-ray diffraction) swelling were found to be temperature independent, whereas the density determined with He gas pycnometry was temperature dependent. It took approximately 740 days (2.6?1018 ?/g) for the specimens to become X-ray amorphous—longer for the swelling to saturate. Unlike what we observed for the pyrochlore-based ceramics, we did not observe any phase changes associated with storage temperature and damage ingrowth. The forward dissolution rate at a pH value of 2 for material containing essentially all zirconolite is 1.7(4)?10-3 g/(m2?d). Very little pH dependence was observed for zirconolite specimens and, like we observed for the pyrochlore-bearing ceramics in this study, there was no dependence on the amount of radiation-induced damage. As with the pyrochlore, these materials did not become substantially friable with increasing radiation-induced damage. Even after the radiation-induced swelling saturated, the specimens remained physically intact with no evidence for microcracking. Thus, the material remains physically a viable material for the disposition of surplus weapons-grade Pu.

  3. The discrepancies in multistep damage evolution of yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Tengfei; Taylor, Caitlin A.; Kong, Shuyan; Wang, Chenxu; Zhang, Yanwen; Huang, Xuejun; Xue, Jianming; Yan, Sha; Wang, Yugang

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive investigation of structural damage in yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions over a wide fluence range. A similar multistep damage accumulation exists for the irradiations of different ions, but the critical doses for occurrence of second damage step, characterized by a faster increase in damage fraction, and the maximum elastic strain at the first damage step are varied and depend on ion mass. For irradiations of heavier ions, the second damage step occurs at a higher dose with a lower critical elastic strain. Furthermore, larger extended defects were observed in the irradiations of heavy ions at the second damage step. Associated with other experiment results and multistep damage accumulation model, the distinct discrepancies in the damage buildup under irradiations of different ions were interpreted by the effects of electronic excitation, energy of primary knock-on atom and chemistry contributions of deposited ions.

  4. What To Include In The Whistleblower Complaint? | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home About Us Our Operations Management and Budget Whistleblower Program What To Include In The Whistleblower Complaint?...

  5. Introduction to Small-Scale Photovoltaic Systems (Including RETScreen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Introduction to Small-Scale Photovoltaic Systems (Including RETScreen Case Study) (Webinar) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Introduction to Small-Scale...

  6. Including Retro-Commissioning in Federal Energy Savings Performance...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Including Retro-Commissioning in Federal Energy Savings Performance Contracts Enabling Mass-Scale Financing for Federal Energy, Water, and...

  7. Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including direct channels to validate statistical models Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Numerical simulations for...

  8. U-182: Microsoft Windows Includes Some Invalid Certificates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The operating system includes some invalid intermediate certificates. The vulnerability is due to the certificate authorities and not the operating system itself.

  9. MICROWAVE IMAGING FOR DAMAGE DETECTION Microwave imaging technology has been developed to detect invisible damage such as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Flaviis, Franco

    MICROWAVE IMAGING FOR DAMAGE DETECTION By ABSTRACT Microwave imaging technology has been developed to construct 2D and 3D objects from the scattered microwave fields. Both numerical simulation and experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed microwave imaging technology in detecting voids inside

  10. PSERC 97-12 "Thermal Unit Commitment Including

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PSERC 97-12 "Thermal Unit Commitment Including Optimal AC Power Flow Constraints" Carlos Murillo-562-3966. #12;Thermal Unit Commitment Including Optimal AC Power Flow Constraints Carlos Murillo S anchez Robert a new algorithm for unit commitment that employs a Lagrange relaxation technique with a new augmentation

  11. Summer Conference Participant Registration Fee: $200 Includes the following

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Summer Conference Participant Registration Fee: $200 Includes the following: Lodging for Wednesday on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday Brunch on Saturday Summer Conference T-shirt Class materials Congress Only only (although they are encouraged to attend the entire conference). This fee includes the following

  12. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  13. Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development A Report Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development Executive Summary In the 21st the Marcellus shale In addition to the specific questions identified for the case of Marcellus shale gas in New

  14. Articles which include chevron film cooling holes, and related processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunker, Ronald Scott; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2014-12-09

    An article is described, including an inner surface which can be exposed to a first fluid; an inlet; and an outer surface spaced from the inner surface, which can be exposed to a hotter second fluid. The article further includes at least one row or other pattern of passage holes. Each passage hole includes an inlet bore extending through the substrate from the inlet at the inner surface to a passage hole-exit proximate to the outer surface, with the inlet bore terminating in a chevron outlet adjacent the hole-exit. The chevron outlet includes a pair of wing troughs having a common surface region between them. The common surface region includes a valley which is adjacent the hole-exit; and a plateau adjacent the valley. The article can be an airfoil. Related methods for preparing the passage holes are also described.

  15. Geomechanical modeling of reservoir compaction, surface subsidence, and casing damage at the Belridge diatomite field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FREDRICH,JOANNE T.; DEITRICK,G.L.; ARGUELLO JR.,JOSE G.; DEROUFFIGNAC,E.P.

    2000-05-01

    Geologic, and historical well failure, production, and injection data were analyzed to guide development of three-dimensional geomechanical models of the Belridge diatomite field, California. The central premise of the numerical simulations is that spatial gradients in pore pressure induced by production and injection in a low permeability reservoir may perturb the local stresses and cause subsurface deformation sufficient to result in well failure. Time-dependent reservoir pressure fields that were calculated from three-dimensional black oil reservoir simulations were coupled uni-directionally to three-dimensional non-linear finite element geomechanical simulations. The reservoir models included nearly 100,000 gridblocks (100--200 wells), and covered nearly 20 years of production and injection. The geomechanical models were meshed from structure maps and contained more than 300,000 nodal points. Shear strain localization along weak bedding planes that causes casing dog-legs in the field was accommodated in the model by contact surfaces located immediately above the reservoir and at two locations in the overburden. The geomechanical simulations are validated by comparison of the predicted surface subsidence with field measurements, and by comparison of predicted deformation with observed casing damage. Additionally, simulations performed for two independently developed areas at South Belridge, Sections 33 and 29, corroborate their different well failure histories. The simulations suggest the three types of casing damage observed, and show that although water injection has mitigated surface subsidence, it can, under some circumstances, increase the lateral gradients in effective stress, that in turn can accelerate subsurface horizontal motions. Geomechanical simulation is an important reservoir management tool that can be used to identify optimal operating policies to mitigate casing damage for existing field developments, and applied to incorporate the effect of well failure potential in economic analyses of alternative infilling and development options.

  16. Damage tolerance assessment of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, D.

    1998-08-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration has sponsored a project at its Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to validate the use of bonded composite doublers on commercial aircraft. A specific application was chosen in order to provide a proof-of-concept driving force behind this test and analysis project. However, the data stemming from this study serves as a comprehensive evaluation of bonded composite doublers for general use. The associated documentation package provides guidance regarding the design, analysis, installation, damage tolerance, and nondestructive inspection of these doublers. This report describes a series of fatigue and strength tests which were conducted to study the damage tolerance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Tension-tension fatigue and ultimate strength tests attempted to grow engineered flaws in coupons with composite doublers bonded to aluminum skin. An array of design parameters, including various flaw scenarios, the effects of surface impact, and other off-design conditions, were studied. The structural tests were used to: (1) assess the potential for interply delaminations and disbonds between the aluminum and the laminate, and (2) determine the load transfer and crack mitigation capabilities of composite doublers in the presence of severe defects. A series of specimens were subjected to ultimate tension tests in order to determine strength values and failure modes. It was demonstrated that even in the presence of extensive damage in the original structure (cracks, material loss) and in spite of non-optimum installations (adhesive disbonds), the composite doubler allowed the structure to survive more than 144,000 cycles of fatigue loading. Installation flaws in the composite laminate did not propagate over 216,000 fatigue cycles. Furthermore, the added impediments of impact--severe enough to deform the parent aluminum skin--and hot-wet exposure did not effect the doubler`s performance. Since the tests were conducting using extreme combinations of flaw scenarios (sizes and collocation) and excessive fatigue load spectrums, the performance parameters were arrived at in a conservative manner.

  17. Protection of cisplatin-induced spermatotoxicity, DNA damage and chromatin abnormality by selenium nano-particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Ali; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Ahmadi, Abbas; Baeeri, Maryam; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-02-01

    Cisplatin (CIS), an anticancer alkylating agent, induces DNA adducts and effectively cross links the DNA strands and so affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. The present study investigated the cellular/biochemical mechanisms underlying possible protective effect of selenium nano-particles (Nano-Se) as an established strong antioxidant with more bioavailability and less toxicity, on reproductive toxicity of CIS by assessment of sperm characteristics, sperm DNA integrity, chromatin quality and spermatogenic disorders. To determine the role of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of CIS gonadotoxicity, the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and peroxynitrite (ONOO) as a marker of nitrosative stress (NS) and testosterone (T) concentration as a biomarker of testicular function were measured in the blood and testes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups. A single IP dose of CIS (7 mg/kg) and protective dose of Nano-Se (2 mg/kg/day) were administered alone or in combination. The CIS-exposed rats showed a significant increase in testicular and serum LPO and ONOO level, along with a significant decrease in enzymatic antioxidants levels, diminished serum T concentration and abnormal histologic findings with impaired sperm quality associated with increased DNA damage and decreased chromatin quality. Coadministration of Nano-Se significantly improved the serum T, sperm quality, and spermatogenesis and reduced CIS-induced free radical toxic stress and spermatic DNA damage. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that Nano-Se may be useful to prevent CIS-induced gonadotoxicity through its antioxidant potential. Highlights: ? Cisplatin (CIS) affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. ? Effect of Nano-Se on CIS-induced spermatotoxicity was investigated. ? CIS-exposure induces oxidative sperm DNA damage and impairs steroidogenesis. ? Nano-Se retained sperm quality against CIS-induced free radicals toxic stress.

  18. K. Pham et alii, Frattura ed Integrit Strutturale, 19 (2012) 5-19; DOI: 10.3221/IGF-ESIS.19.01 Damage localization and rupture with gradient damage models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2012-01-01

    Damage localization and rupture with gradient damage models K. Pham Université Pierre et Marie Curie of an elastic-damaging material whose softening behavior is regularized by a gradient damage model. We show that at the center of the localization zone when the damage reaches there the critical value corresponding

  19. Persistent activation of DNA damage signaling in response to complex mixtures of PAHs in air particulate matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvis, Ian W.H.; Bergvall, Christoffer; Bottai, Matteo; Westerholm, Roger; Stenius, Ulla; Dreij, Kristian

    2013-02-01

    Complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in air particulate matter (PM) and have been associated with many adverse human health effects including cancer and respiratory disease. However, due to their complexity, the risk of exposure to mixtures is difficult to estimate. In the present study the effects of binary mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and complex mixtures of PAHs in urban air PM extracts on DNA damage signaling was investigated. Applying a statistical model to the data we observed a more than additive response for binary mixtures of BP and DBP on activation of DNA damage signaling. Persistent activation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) was observed at significantly lower BP equivalent concentrations in air PM extracts than BP alone. Activation of DNA damage signaling was also more persistent in air PM fractions containing PAHs with more than four aromatic rings suggesting larger PAHs contribute a greater risk to human health. Altogether our data suggests that human health risk assessment based on additivity such as toxicity equivalency factor scales may significantly underestimate the risk of exposure to complex mixtures of PAHs. The data confirms our previous findings with PAH-contaminated soil (Niziolek-Kierecka et al., 2012) and suggests a possible role for Chk1 Ser317 phosphorylation as a biological marker for future analyses of complex mixtures of PAHs. -- Highlights: ? Benzo[a]pyrene (BP), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and air PM PAH extracts were compared. ? Binary mixture of BP and DBP induced a more than additive DNA damage response. ? Air PM PAH extracts were more potent than toxicity equivalency factor estimates. ? Larger PAHs (> 4 rings) contribute more to the genotoxicity of PAHs in air PM. ? Chk1 is a sensitive marker for persistent activation of DNA damage signaling from PAH mixtures.

  20. Chimeric proteins for detection and quantitation of DNA mutations, DNA sequence variations, DNA damage and DNA mismatches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Chimeric proteins having both DNA mutation binding activity and nuclease activity are synthesized by recombinant technology. The proteins are of the general formula A-L-B and B-L-A where A is a peptide having DNA mutation binding activity, L is a linker and B is a peptide having nuclease activity. The chimeric proteins are useful for detection and identification of DNA sequence variations including DNA mutations (including DNA damage and mismatches) by binding to the DNA mutation and cutting the DNA once the DNA mutation is detected.

  1. Damage mechanics characterization on fatigue behavior of a solder joint material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, C.L.; Yang, F. [Univ. of Michigan, Dearborn, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Fang, H.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Computational Physics Dept.

    1998-08-01

    This paper presents the first part of a comprehensive mechanics approach capable of predicting the integrity and reliability of solder joint material under fatigue loading without viscoplastic damage considerations. A separate report will be made to present a comprehensive damage model describing life prediction of the solder material under thermomechanical fatigue loading. The method is based on a theory of damage mechanics which makes possible a macroscopic description of the successive material deterioration caused by the presence of microcracks/voids in engineering materials. A damage mechanics model based on the thermodynamic theory of irreversible processes with internal state variables is proposed and used to provide a unified approach in characterizing the cyclic behavior of a typical solder material. With the introduction of a damage effect tensor, the constitutive equations are derived to enable the formulation of a fatigue damage dissipative potential function and a fatigue damage criterion. The fatigue evolution is subsequently developed based on the hypothesis that the overall damage is induced by the accumulation of fatigue and plastic damage. This damage mechanics approach offers a systematic and versatile means that is effective in modeling the entire process of material failure ranging from damage initiation and propagation leading eventually to macro-crack initiation and growth. As the model takes into account the load history effect and the interaction between plasticity damage and fatigue damage, with the aid of a modified general purpose finite element program, the method can readily be applied to estimate the fatigue life of solder joints under different loading conditions.

  2. Acoustic emission from fiber reinforced plastic damaged hoop wrapped cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akhtar, A.; Kung, D.; Westbrook, D.R.

    2000-03-01

    Metal lined continuous fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) hoop wrapped cylinders with axial cuts to the FRP were modeled mathematically and tested experimentally. Steel lined and aluminum alloy lined glass FRP vessels were subjected to acoustic emission tests (AE) and hydraulic burst tests. The burst pressure decreased monotonically with the length of the axial cut. Acoustic emission increased initially with a decrease in burst pressure, and attained a maximum at an intermediate level of damage to the FRP. However, acoustic emission decreased when the level of damage was higher and the burst pressure was lower. Implications of the findings are discussed in the context of the search for an acoustic emission test method to inspect periodically the vessels used for the storage of compressed gaseous fuels on natural gas vehicles (NGV) and hydrogen vehicles.

  3. Evaluation of ATWS core damage frequency for a BWR/4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiu, K.; Ilberg, D.; Hanan, N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports a study performed to evaluate the core damage frequency contribution from Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) in a BWR/4 plant. Discussions on improvements in the design and operation of BWR plants to reduce the likelihood of occurrence and core damage frequency of ATWS have continued for years. In November 1981, subsequent to the issuance of three alternate proposed ATWS rules, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission invited comments on these rules. In June 1984, a final rule on the reduction of risk from ATWS events was issued. In the study, it is assumed that the BWR/4 reactor is of an earlier vintage. However, only two of the modifications have been implemented in accordance with the final rule: a diverse scram system and automatic recirculation pump trip. It is further assumed that the setpoint for Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIVs) closure is at reactor pressure vessel (RPV) water level 1 and that the BWR emergency procedure guidelines are implemented.

  4. Damage-tolerant nanotwinned metals with nanovoids under radiation environments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Y.; Yu, K. Y.; Liu, Y.; Shao, S.; Wang, H.; Kirk, M. A.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X.

    2015-04-24

    Material performance in extreme radiation environments is central to the design of future nuclear reactors. Radiation induces significant damage in the form of dislocation loops and voids in irradiated materials, and continuous radiation often leads to void growth and subsequent void swelling in metals with low stacking fault energy. Here we show that by using in situ heavy ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope, pre-introduced nanovoids in nanotwinned Cu efficiently absorb radiation-induced defects accompanied by gradual elimination of nanovoids, enhancing radiation tolerance of Cu. In situ studies and atomistic simulations reveal that such remarkable self-healing capability stems from highmore »density of coherent and incoherent twin boundaries that rapidly capture and transport point defects and dislocation loops to nanovoids, which act as storage bins for interstitial loops. This study describes a counterintuitive yet significant concept: deliberate introduction of nanovoids in conjunction with nanotwins enables unprecedented damage tolerance in metallic materials.« less

  5. Including Retro-Commissioning in Federal Energy Savings Performance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the cost of the survey. Developing a detailed scope of work and a fixed price for this work is important to eliminate risk to the Agency and the ESCo. Including a detailed scope...

  6. T-603: Mac OS X Includes Some Invalid Comodo Certificates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The operating system includes some invalid certificates. The vulnerability is due to the invalid certificates and not the operating system itself. Other browsers, applications, and operating systems are affected.

  7. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF STEEL WELDED COVERPLATE INCLUDING COMPOSITE DOUBLERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petri, Brad

    2008-05-15

    With the increasing focus on welded bridge members resulting in crack initiation and propagation, there is a large demand for creative solutions. One of these solutions includes the application of composite doublers over ...

  8. Title 16 USC 818 Public Lands Included in Project - Reservation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Lands From Entry Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Title 16 USC 818 Public Lands Included in Project...

  9. Including costs of supply chain risk in strategic sourcing decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Avani

    2009-01-01

    Cost evaluations do not always include the costs associated with risks when organizations make strategic sourcing decisions. This research was conducted to establish and quantify the impact of risks and risk-related costs ...

  10. Hybrid powertrain system including smooth shifting automated transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Nellums, Richard A.

    2006-10-24

    A powertrain system is provided that includes a prime mover and a change-gear transmission having an input, at least two gear ratios, and an output. The powertrain system also includes a power shunt configured to route power applied to the transmission by one of the input and the output to the other one of the input and the output. A transmission system and a method for facilitating shifting of a transmission system are also provided.

  11. Limited Personal Use of Government Office Equipment including Information Technology

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-01-07

    The Order establishes requirements and assigns responsibilities for employees' limited personal use of Government resources (office equipment and other resources including information technology) within DOE, including NNSA. The Order is required to provide guidance on appropriate and inappropriate uses of Government resources. This Order was certified 04/23/2009 as accurate and continues to be relevant and appropriate for use by the Department. Certified 4-23-09. No cancellation.

  12. Scientists Assess Damage Caused by Earthquake near Amchitka | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-AA-1 SECTIONEnergy Scientists Assess Damage Caused by

  13. High-speed, low-damage grinding of advanced ceramics Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovach, J.A. [Eaton Corp., Willoughby Hills, OH (United States). Mfg. Technologies Center; Malkin, S. [Univ. of Massachusetts (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In manufacture of structural ceramic components, grinding costs can comprise up to 80% of the entire manufacturing cost. Most of these costs arise from the conventional multi-step grinding process with numerous grinding wheels and additional capital equipment, perishable dressing tools, and labor. In an attempt to reduce structural ceramic grinding costs, a feasibility investigation was undertaken to develop a single step, roughing-finishing process suitable for producing high-quality silicon nitride ceramic parts at high material removal rates at lower cost than traditional, multi-stage grinding. This feasibility study employed combined use of laboratory grinding tests, mathematical grinding models, and characterization of resultant material surface condition. More specifically, this Phase 1 final report provides a technical overview of High-Speed, Low-Damage (HSLD) ceramic grinding and the conditions necessary to achieve the small grain depths of cut necessary for low damage grinding while operating at relatively high material removal rates. Particular issues addressed include determining effects of wheel speed and material removal rate on resulting mode of material removal (ductile or brittle fracture), limiting grinding forces, calculation of approximate grinding zone temperatures developed during HSLD grinding, and developing the experimental systems necessary for determining HSLD grinding energy partition relationships. In addition, practical considerations for production utilization of the HSLD process are also discussed.

  14. Studying impact damage on carbon-fiber reinforced aircraft composite panels with sonicir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han Xiaoyan; Zhang Ding; He Qi; Song Yuyang; Lubowicki, Anthony [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Zhao Xinyue; Newaz, Golam. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Favro, Lawrence D.; Thomas, Robert L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    Composites are becoming more important materials in commercial aircraft structures such as the fuselage and wings with the new B787 Dreamliner from Boeing which has the target to utilize 50% by weight of composite materials. Carbon-fiber reinforced composites are the material of choice in aircraft structures. This is due to their light weight and high strength (high strength-to-weight ratio), high specific stiffness, tailorability of properties, design flexibility etc. Especially, by reducing the aircraft's body weight by using such lighter structures, the cost of fuel can be greatly reduced with the high jet fuel price for commercial airlines. However, these composites are prone to impact damage and the damage may occur without any observable sign on the surface, yet resulting in delaminations and disbonds that may occur well within the layers. We are studying the impact problem with carbon-fiber reinforced composite panels and developing SonicIR for this application as a fast and wide-area NDE technology. In this paper, we present our results in studying composite structures including carbon-fiber reinforced composite materials, and preliminary quantitative studies on delamination type defect depth identification in the panels.

  15. Review: Clearing the Air: The Health and Economic Damages of Air Pollution in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    and Economic Damages of Air Pollution in China Mun S. Ho andEconomic Damages of Air Pollution in China. Cambridge, MA:the assessment of air pollution and its health and economic

  16. Engineering a single cell microarray platform for high throughput DNA damage and repair analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weingeist, David McGregor

    2012-01-01

    DNA damage contributes to cancer, aging, and heritable diseases. Ironically, DNA damaging agents are also commonly used in current cancer treatment. We therefore need robust, high throughput, and inexpensive tools for ...

  17. Damage Modeling and Life Extending Control of a Boiler-Turbine System1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    Damage Modeling and Life Extending Control of a Boiler-Turbine System1 Donglin Li Tongwen Chen2 hierarchical LEC structure and apply it to a typ- ical boiler system. There are two damage models

  18. Predictive storm damage modeling and optimizing crew response to improve storm response operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whipple, Sean David

    2014-01-01

    Utility infrastructures are constantly damaged by naturally occurring weather. Such damage results in customer service interruption and repairs are necessary to return the system to normal operation. In most cases these ...

  19. A Performance Comparison of Condition Based Monitoring Damage Features Used in Rotating Machines under Variable Conditions /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Luke Thomas

    2013-01-01

    on the top of the second main bearing housing closest to thePower Spectra for Main Shaft Bearing Ball Fault Damage @Distributions for Main Shaft Bearing Ball Fault Damage @

  20. Regulation of DNA damage tolerance : studies of the translesion synthesis DNA ploymerase eta in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodruff, Rachel Van Etten

    2008-01-01

    All organisms must control the effects of DNA damage to protect the integrity of their genomes. In addition to DNA repair, this requires DNA damage tolerance pathways, which allow the continuation of essential processes ...

  1. Statutory Damages in Copyright Law: A Remedy in Need of Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuelson, Pamela; Wheatland, Tara

    2009-01-01

    license was terminated) obtained statutory damage awards ofdamage award which was more than 200 times the lost licenselicense fee to which the plaintiff was entitled). Courts sometimes also segment statutory damage awards

  2. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. comprehensive earthquake management plan: Engineering survey building damage assessment training manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The training objectives are: differentiate between the various levels of damage caused to buildings and structures by an earthquake and classify them as to their safety of occupancy, extent of damage, and resources needed for recovery/repair.

  3. Aligned composite structures for mitigation of impact damage and resistance to wear in dynamic environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mulligan, Anthony C. (Tucson, AZ); Rigali, Mark J. (Tucson, AZ); Sutaria, Manish P. (Malden, MA); Popovich, Dragan (Redmond, WA); Halloran, Joseph P. (Tucson, AZ); Fulcher, Michael L. (Tucson, AZ); Cook, Randy C. (Tucson, AZ)

    2009-04-14

    Fibrous monolith composites having architectures that provide increased flaw insensitivity, improved hardness, wear resistance and damage tolerance and methods of manufacture thereof are provided for use in dynamic environments to mitigate impact damage and increase wear resistance.

  4. Aligned composite structures for mitigation of impact damage and resistance to wear in dynamic environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mulligan, Anthony C.; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Popovich, Dragan; Halloran, Joseph P.; Fulcher, Michael L.; Cook, Randy C.

    2005-12-13

    Fibrous monolith composites having architectures that provide increased flaw insensitivity, improved hardness, wear resistance and damage tolerance and methods of manufacture thereof are provided for use in dynamic environments to mitigate impact damage and increase wear resistance.

  5. Aligned composite structures for mitigation of impact damage and resistance to wear in dynamic environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Mulligan, Anthony C.; Popovich, Dragan

    2004-03-23

    Fibrous monolith composites having architectures that provide increased flaw insensitivity, improved hardness, wear resistance and damage tolerance and methods of manufacture thereof are provided for use in dynamic environments to mitigate impact damage and increase wear resistance.

  6. Piezoelectric-based in-situ damage detection of composite materials for structural health monitoring systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, Seth Stovack, 1977-

    2002-01-01

    Cost-effective and reliable damage detection is critical for the utilization of composite materials. This thesis presents the conclusions of an analytical and experimental survey of candidate methods for in-situ damage ...

  7. [Localized fracture damage effects in toughened ceramics]. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The primary research goal was to investigate localized fracture damage due to single point cutting of ceramic materials and then to compare this to multipoint cutting during precision grinding of the same materials. Two test systems were designed and constructed for the single-point cutting tests. The first system used a PZT actuator for closed-loop load control. An acoustic emission data acquisition system was used for crack initiation detection. The second test system employed a high-precision diamond-turning machine for closed-loop position (cutting depth) control. A high stiffness load cell and data acquisition system were used for crack initiation detection. Microcutting tests were carried out on silicon, borosilicate glass and CVD silicon carbide. The crack initiation thresholds and the fracture damage distribution were determined as a function of the loading conditions using a Vickers diamond as the cutting tool. The grinding tests were done using a plunge-grinding technique with metal-bonded diamond wheels. Optical microscopy, surface roughness and specific cutting energy were measured in order to characterize the fracture damage as a function of the grinding infeed rate. Simulation models were developed in order to estimate the average grain-depth of cut in grinding so that the response could be compared to the single-point microcutting tests.

  8. SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a field-scale application demonstrating the use of continuum damage mechanics to determine the minimum allowable operating pressure of compressed natural gas storage caverns in salt formations. A geomechanical study was performed of two natural gas storage caverns (one existing and one planned) utilizing state-of-the-art salt mechanics to assess the potential for cavern instability and collapse. The geomechanical study consisted primarily of laboratory testing, theoretical development, and analytical/numerical tasks. A total of 50 laboratory tests was performed on salt specimens to aid in the development and definition of the material model used to predict the behavior of rock salt. Material model refinement was performed that improved the predictive capability of modeling salt during damage healing, recovery of work-hardened salt, and the behavior of salt at stress states other than triaxial compression. Results of this study showed that the working gas capacity of the existing cavern could be increased by 18 percent and the planned cavern could be increased by 8 percent using the proposed method compared to a conventional stress-based method. Further refinement of the continuum damage model is recommended to account for known behavior of salt at stress conditions other than triaxial compression that is not characterized accurately by the existing model.

  9. Assessment of Natural Hazard Damage and Reconstruction: A Case Study from Band Aceh, Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillespie, Thomas; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Braughton, Matt; Cooke, Abigail M.; Armenta, Tiffany; Thomas, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    mapping to assist flood risk and flood damage assessment.Banda Aceh. Flood estimations of populations at risk depend

  10. A 3D Orthotropic Strain-Rate Dependent Elastic Damage Material Model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    English, Shawn Allen

    2014-09-01

    A three dimensional orthotropic elastic constitutive model with continuum damage and cohesive based fracture is implemented for a general polymer matrix composite lamina. The formulation assumes the possibility of distributed (continuum) damage followed b y localized damage. The current damage activation functions are simply partially interactive quadratic strain criteria . However, the code structure allows for changes in the functions without extraordinary effort. The material model formulation, implementation, characterization and use cases are presented.

  11. Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the White Oak Bayou Federal Flood Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the White Oak Bayou Federal Flood Damage Independent External Peer Review Report for the White Oak Bayou Federal Flood Damage Reduction Plan PEER REVIEW REPORT for the White Oak Bayou Federal Flood Damage Reduction Plan EXECUTIVE SUMMARY White

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of Augmented Reality-Assisted Building Damage Reconnaissance Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    .1 Reconfigurable Virtual Prototype of Seismically Damaged Building 11 4.2 Damage Modeling 13 4.3 Camera with Instrument Error 29 6. Conclusion 32 #12;4 ABASTRCT The timely and accurate assessment of the damage in determining the building's structural safety and suitability for future occupancy. Among many indicators

  13. SIMULTANEOUS DAMAGE DETECTION AND DEFLECTION MEASUREMENT OF MORPHING WING STRUCTURES BY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of an EU-FP7 project named "Fiber Optic System for Deflection and Damage Detection (FOS3D)" [5]. The systemSIMULTANEOUS DAMAGE DETECTION AND DEFLECTION MEASUREMENT OF MORPHING WING STRUCTURES BY FIBER OPTIC of simultaneous damage detection and deflection measurement of morphing CFRP honeycomb structure by fiber optic

  14. An elasto-plastic damage model cast in a co-rotational kinematic framework for large

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masud, Arif

    An elasto-plastic damage model cast in a co-rotational kinematic framework for large deformation an elasto-plastic damage model that is based on irreversible thermodynamics and internal state variable that is defined in terms of an internal damage variable of energy, along with a set of rate-independent elasto-plastic

  15. IRRADIATION DAMAGE STUDIES OF HIGH POWER ACCELERATOR MATERIALS Nicholas Simos1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    IWSMT8 IRRADIATION DAMAGE STUDIES OF HIGH POWER ACCELERATOR MATERIALS Nicholas Simos1 , H.G. Kirk@bnl.gov, telephone: 631-344-7229, fax: 631 344-7650) #12;IWSMT8 IRRADIATION DAMAGE STUDIES OF HIGH-POWER ACCELERATOR which leads to accumulated irradiation damage, also endure short exposure that manifests itself

  16. DNA Strand Damage Product Analysis Provides Evidence That the Tumor Cell-Specific Cytotoxin Tirapazamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Kent. S.

    DNA Strand Damage Product Analysis Provides Evidence That the Tumor Cell-Specific Cytotoxin DNA strand damage that is initiated by the abstraction of hydrogen atoms from the deoxyribose damage. We find that the action of TPZ on duplex DNA under hypoxic conditions generates 5-methylene-2

  17. DAMAGE DETECTION AND LOCALISATION USING MODE-BASED METHOD AND PERTURBATION THEORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DAMAGE DETECTION AND LOCALISATION USING MODE-BASED METHOD AND PERTURBATION THEORY Alaa Hamze1 analysis technique. The damage is considered as a local perturbation of Young's modulus. Finally, the localisation of damage is done using classical modal-based methods and perturbation theory. The frequency

  18. Anisotropic damage modelling of biaxial behaviour and rupture of concrete structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Anisotropic damage modelling of biaxial behaviour and rupture of concrete structures Ragueneau F with damage induced anisotropy modelling for concrete-like materials. A thermodynamics based constitutive relationship is presented coupling anisotropic damage and elasticity. The biaxial behaviour of such a model

  19. A QUASISTATIC EVOLUTION MODEL FOR THE INTERACTION BETWEEN FRACTURE AND DAMAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A QUASISTATIC EVOLUTION MODEL FOR THE INTERACTION BETWEEN FRACTURE AND DAMAGE JEAN- tinuum which undergoes damage and possibly fracture. In both cases, the model appears to be ill posed so that the material prefers to form microstructures through the creation of fine mix- tures between the damaged

  20. Collateral damage: Evolution with displacement of fracture distribution and secondary fault strands in fault

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savage, Heather M.

    Collateral damage: Evolution with displacement of fracture distribution and secondary fault strands in fault damage zones Heather M. Savage1,2 and Emily E. Brodsky1 Received 22 April 2010; revised 10 of fracture distributions as a function of displacement to determine whether damage around small and large

  1. EFFECT OF A DAMAGE TO MODAL PARAMETERS OFA WIND TURBINE Gunner Chr. Larsen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    EFFECT OF A DAMAGE TO MODAL PARAMETERS OFA WIND TURBINE BLADE Gunner Chr. Larsen1 , Peter Berring1 detailed FE model of the same blade using 3D solid elements. Both an undamaged and a damaged blade little due to a significant artificial damage imposed in trailing edge, whereas the mode shapes

  2. Identifying damage locations under ambient vibrations utilizing vector autoregressive models and Mahalanobis distances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Identifying damage locations under ambient vibrations utilizing vector autoregressive models Keywords: Damage location Ambient vibration Vector Autoregressive model Statistical pattern recognition Bridges Structural health monitoring a b s t r a c t This paper presents a study for identifying damage

  3. DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION IN A BENCHMARK CABLE-STAYED BRIDGE USING THE INTERPOLATION METHOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION IN A BENCHMARK CABLE-STAYED BRIDGE USING THE INTERPOLATION METHOD Marco mariagiuseppina.limongelli@polimi.it ABSTRACT In this paper the damage localization algorithm based on Operational Deformed Shapes (ODS) and known as Interpolation Damage Detection Method (IDDM), is applied

  4. Damage mechanisms identification of polymer based composite materials: time-frequency investigation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Damage mechanisms identification of polymer based composite materials: time-frequency investigation 2012, Nantes, France 2045 #12;Presented in this paper, a time-frequency damage characterization Emission (AE) signals by the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). It is to be noted that the study of damage

  5. Damage Identification for Bridges Using Frequency and Time Domain Data Amir Ardalan Mosavi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damage Identification for Bridges Using Frequency and Time Domain Data Amir Ardalan Mosavi1 Error predictions of the ARX model x , y Standard deviations of the prediction errors DF,H , DF,D Damage Features calculated for healthy and damaged conditions of the structure f(DF,H) , g(DF,D) Probability

  6. Damage Identification in Aging Aircraft Structures with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    Damage Identification in Aging Aircraft Structures with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors VICTOR of structural damage such as fatigue cracks and corrosion. Two main detection strategies are considered: (a) the wave propagation method for far-field damage detection; and (b) the electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance

  7. Damage to nearby divertor components of ITER-like devices during giant ELMs and disruptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Damage to nearby divertor components of ITER-like devices during giant ELMs and disruptions. Fusion 50 (2010) 115004 (7pp) doi:10.1088/0029-5515/50/11/115004 Damage to nearby divertor components. The simulation results of the integrated modelling indicate a significant potential damage of the divertor nearby

  8. Damage Rate in V.V. -1 -M. Youssef, UCLA MZY_APEX_98_1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Damage Rate in V.V. -1 - M. Youssef, UCLA MZY_APEX_98_1 APEX Study Memorandum March 24.1998 Title: Damage Rate in V.V. as a Function of Convective Layer Thickness To: APEX Study Participants From: Mahmoud: Preliminary calculations were performed to access the damage rate in the vacuum vessel as a function

  9. STRUCTURAL-DAMAGE DETECTION BY DISTRIBUTED PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCERS AND TUNED ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    STRUCTURAL-DAMAGE DETECTION BY DISTRIBUTED PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCERS AND TUNED ELECTRIC CIRCUITS F Geotecnica, Rome, Italy A novel technique for damage detection of structures is introduced and discussed measurements, it allows for accurate results in the identification and localization of damages. Use

  10. Urban damage assessment using multimodal QuickBird images and ancillary data: the Bam and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Urban damage assessment using multimodal QuickBird images and ancillary data: the Bam proved its usefulness for the crisis mitigation through situation report and damage assessment. Visual. We propose a semi-automatic damage assessment method based on a pair of very high spatial resolution

  11. A Methodology for Weapon System Availability Assessment, incorporating Failure, Damage and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A Methodology for Weapon System Availability Assessment, incorporating Failure, Damage systems can become unavailable due to system failures or damage to the system; in both cases, system the more specific availability studies take battlefield damage into account. This paper aims to define

  12. Damage and seismic velocity structure of pulverized rocks near the San Andreas Fault

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    Damage and seismic velocity structure of pulverized rocks near the San Andreas Fault Marieke Rempe south of Littlerock, California. The examined site has a strongly asymmetric damage structure with respect to the SAF core. The conglomerates to the southwest show little to no damage, whereas a ~100 m

  13. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibition Protects the Kidney from Hypertension-Induced Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibition Protects the Kidney from Hypertension-Induced Damage XUEYING hypertension in- duced renal damage. Chronic administration of the specific SEH inhibitor 1-cyclohexyl-3 by histol- ogy. Urinary albumin excretion, an index of renal damage, was also lower in CDU

  14. Antaphid interactions on Asclepias syriaca are mediated by plant genotype and caterpillar damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mooney, Kailen A.

    1 Ant­aphid interactions on Asclepias syriaca are mediated by plant genotype and caterpillar damage in induced responses to herbivory. Here we test whether induced responses to leaf damage and genotypic-way factorial field experiment manipulating plant genotype, leaf damage by specialist monarch caterpillars

  15. STRUCTURAL DAMAGE CLASSIFICATION COMPARISON USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE AND BAYESIAN MODEL SELECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    STRUCTURAL DAMAGE CLASSIFICATION COMPARISON USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE AND BAYESIAN MODEL, CA, USA 92093-0085 mdtodd@ucsd.edu ABSTRACT Since all damage identification strategies inevitably in the decision-making process of damage detection, classification, and prognosis, which employs training data (or

  16. Upregulation of soluble epoxide hydrolase in proximal tubular cells mediated proteinuria-induced renal damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    -induced renal damage Qian Wang,1,3 * Wei Pang,2 * Zhuan Cui,1 Junbao Shi,1 Yan Liu,2 Bo Liu,2 Yunfeng Zhou,2- lase in proximal tubular cells mediated proteinuria-induced renal damage. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. To investigate the role of sEH in proteinuria-induced renal damage, we incubated purified urine protein from

  17. Robust damage assessment of multiple cracks based on the Frequency Response Function and the Constitutive Relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Robust damage assessment of multiple cracks based on the Frequency Response Function a damage assessment technique for the non destructive detection and sizing of multiple open cracks in beams, many researchers have performed extensive investigations and damage assess- ment techniques based

  18. Damage Identification in Aging Aircraft Structures with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    Damage Identification in Aging Aircraft Structures with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors VICTOR the onset and progress of structural damage such as fatigue cracks and corrosion. Two main detection strategies are considered: (a) the wave propagation method for far-field damage detection; and (b

  19. DAMAGE DETECTION BASED ON STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO TEMPERATURE CHANGES AND MODEL UPDATING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    DAMAGE DETECTION BASED ON STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO TEMPERATURE CHANGES AND MODEL UPDATING Marian The paper proposes use of measured structural response to temperature loads for purposes of damage identification. As opposed to the most common approaches, which rely on suppressing temperature effects in damage

  20. Damage production and accumulation in SiC structures in inertial and magnetic fusion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    damage and helium production on defect accumulation in SiC/SiC composites are also discussed. Ó 2010Damage production and accumulation in SiC structures in inertial and magnetic fusion systems M spectrum, and pulsed nature of neutron production result in significant differences in damage parameters

  1. DETECTION OF IMPULSE-LIKE AIRBORNE SOUND FOR DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION IN ROTOR BLADES OF WIND TURBINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    DETECTION OF IMPULSE-LIKE AIRBORNE SOUND FOR DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION IN ROTOR BLADES OF WIND TURBINES burdens of wind turbines. To detect damage of rotor blades, several research projects focus on an acoustic, rotor blade, wind turbine INTRODUCTION There are several publications of non destructive damage

  2. A conceptual model for the origin of fault damage zone structures in high-porosity sandstone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cowie, Patience

    A conceptual model for the origin of fault damage zone structures in high-porosity sandstone Zoe K-porosity sandstones. Damage zone deformation has been particularly well constrained for two 4-km-long normal faults formed in the Navajo Sandstone of central Utah, USA. For these faults the width of the damage zone

  3. LABORATORY TESTING OF STRESS-INDUCED BRITTLE FRACTURE DAMAGE THROUGH INCREMENTAL LOADING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eberhardt, Erik

    LABORATORY TESTING OF STRESS-INDUCED BRITTLE FRACTURE DAMAGE THROUGH INCREMENTAL LOADING Erik-induced brittle fracture damage as a function of the applied load. Strain gauge and acoustic emission measurements of brittle fracture development and to quantify the corresponding permanent strain damage. This paper reports

  4. DNA repair efficiency in germ cells and early mouse embryos and consequences for radiation-induced transgenerational genomic damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchetti, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Kastan, M. B. (1997). DNA damage induces phosphorylation ofby ATM in response to DNA damage. Science 281, Barber, R. ,Nussenzweig, A. (2002). DNA damage-induced G2-M checkpoint

  5. Functional role of p53 N-terminal phosphorylation in regulating the p53 response to DNA damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Connie

    2006-01-01

    the p53 Responses to DNA Damage. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USAapoptosis following DNA damage. EMBO J. 19, 4967-4975. Chao,Herrlich, P. (1999). DNA damage induced p53 stabilization:

  6. ATM Phosphorylates and Activates the Transcription Factor MEF2D for Neuronal Survival in Response to DNA Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Shing Fai

    2009-01-01

    by ATM in response to DNA damage. Science, 281, 1674-1677.J. and Kastan M. B. (2003). DNA damage activates ATM throughgene product causes oxidative damage in target organs. Proc.

  7. A damage mechanics assessment of the Larsen B ice shelf prior to collapse: Toward a physically-based calving law

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    J. (1996), A Course on Damage Mechanics, Springer, New York.10.1029/2012GL053317, 2012 A damage mechanics assessment ofon con- tinuum damage mechanics coupled with the equations

  8. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  9. Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi-Chung (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

    1989-03-28

    One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.

  10. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  11. The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negres, R A; Norton, M A; Liao, Z M; Cross, D A; Bude, J D; Carr, C W

    2009-10-29

    Past work in the area of laser-induced damage growth has shown growth rates to be primarily dependent on the laser fluence and wavelength. More recent studies suggest that growth rate, similar to the damage initiation process, is affected by a number of additional parameters including pulse duration, pulse shape, site size, and internal structure. In this study, we focus on the effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser damage sites located on the exit surface of fused silica optics. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a significant dependence of growth rate at 351 nm on pulse duration from 1 ns to 15 ns as {tau}{sup 0.3} for sites in the 50-100 {micro}m size range.

  12. Damage Identification Study of a Seven-story Full-scale Building Slice Tested on the UCSD-NEES Shake Table

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moaveni, Babak; He, Xianfei; Resterpo, Jose I; Conte, Joel P

    2010-01-01

    Restrepo JI, Elgamal A. Damage identification of a seven-review of vibration-based damage identifi- cation methods.Detection of structural damage through changes in frequency:

  13. Radiation Damage in Nuclear Fuel for Advanced Burner Reactors: Modeling and Experimental Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Niels Gronbech; Asta, Mark; Ozolins, Nigel Browning'Vidvuds; de Walle, Axel van; Wolverton, Christopher

    2011-12-29

    The consortium has completed its existence and we are here highlighting work and accomplishments. As outlined in the proposal, the objective of the work was to advance the theoretical understanding of advanced nuclear fuel materials (oxides) toward a comprehensive modeling strategy that incorporates the different relevant scales involved in radiation damage in oxide fuels. Approaching this we set out to investigate and develop a set of directions: 1) Fission fragment and ion trajectory studies through advanced molecular dynamics methods that allow for statistical multi-scale simulations. This work also includes an investigation of appropriate interatomic force fields useful for the energetic multi-scale phenomena of high energy collisions; 2) Studies of defect and gas bubble formation through electronic structure and Monte Carlo simulations; and 3) an experimental component for the characterization of materials such that comparisons can be obtained between theory and experiment.

  14. On the thermal impact on the excavation damaged zone around deep radioactive waste disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delage, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Clays and claystones are considered in some countries (including Belgium, France and Switzerland) as a potential host rock for high activity long lived radioactive waste disposal at great depth. One of the aspects to deal with in performance assessment is related to the effects on the host rock of the temperature elevation due to the placement of exothermic wastes. The potential effects of the thermal impact on the excavated damaged zone in the close field are another important issue that was the goal of the TIMODAZ European research project. In this paper, some principles of waste disposal in clayey host rocks at great depth are first presented and a series of experimental investigations carried out on specific equipment specially developed to face the problem are presented. Both drained and undrained tests have been developed to investigate the drained thermal volume changes of clays and claystone and the thermal pressurization occurring around the galleries. This importance of proper initial saturation (un...

  15. Biomass Potentials from California Forest and Shrublands Including Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass Potentials from California Forest and Shrublands Including Fuel Reduction Potentials-04-004 February 2005 Revised: October 2005 Arnold Schwarzenegger, Governor, State of California #12;Biomass Tiangco, CEC Bryan M. Jenkins, University of California #12;Biomass Potentials from California Forest

  16. Applied Linguistics Department Curriculum for the IEP Including Curriculum Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, Adam Lee

    Applied Linguistics Department Curriculum for the IEP Including Curriculum Summary 1 C-1-2 Curriculum for the IEP (as described in CEA Curriculum Standards) I. General Curriculum Philosophy a topics, and global issues. b. Skills Development: The IEP curriculum offers courses that provide skills

  17. Optimal Energy Management Strategy including Battery Health through Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Optimal Energy Management Strategy including Battery Health through Thermal Management for Hybrid: Energy management strategy, Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, Li-ion battery aging, thermal management, Pontryagin's Minimum Principle. 1. INTRODUCTION The interest for energy management strategy (EMS) of Hybrid

  18. Directing all emergency activities including evacuation of personnel.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    for employees who perform or shut down critical plant operations. · Systems to account for all employees after· Directing all emergency activities including evacuation of personnel. · Ensuring that outside emergency services are notified when necessary. · Directing the shutdown of plant operations when necessary

  19. Thermal Unit Commitment Including Optimal AC Power Flow Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Unit Commitment Including Optimal AC Power Flow Constraints Carlos Murillo{Sanchez Robert J algorithm for unit commitment that employs a Lagrange relaxation technique with a new augmentation. This framework allows the possibility of committing units that are required for the VArs that they can produce

  20. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Namhai Chua; Kush, A.

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids.

  1. Major initiatives in materials research at Western include

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, Dan

    , and the growth and formation of new materials. Western is a leader in the study of the interactions of radiationMajor initiatives in materials research at Western include Surface Science Western, Interface of the wide range of materials and biomaterials research within the Faculty of Science and across Western

  2. Assessment of Mission Design Including Utilization of Libration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barcelona, Universitat de

    Assessment of Mission Design Including Utilization of Libration Points and Weak Stability: The International Sun-Earth Explorer 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.1.2 WIND/JWST: Next Generation Space Telescope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.1.9 FIRST/HERSCHEL: Far Infra

  3. Free Energy Efficiency Kit includes CFL light bulbs,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Annkatrin

    Free Energy Efficiency Kit Kit includes CFL light bulbs, spray foam, low-flow shower head, and more for discounted energy assessments. FREE HOME ENERGY EFFICIENCY SEMINAR N e w R i ver L i g ht & Pow e r a n d W! Building Science 101 Presentation BPI Certified Building Professionals will present home energy efficiency

  4. Introduction Adhesion complexes play key roles in many events, including

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Jeff

    Introduction Adhesion complexes play key roles in many events, including cell migration cell adhesion are remarkably similar in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and humans (Hynes and Zhao to reveal much about the basic, conserved molecular mechanisms that mediate and regulate cell adhesion

  5. Laser-induced damage threshold of silicon in millisecond, nanosecond, and picosecond regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X.; Shen, Z. H.; Lu, J.; Ni, X. W. [School of Science, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Millisecond, nanosecond, and picosecond laser pulse induced damage thresholds on single-crystal are investigated in this study. The thresholds of laser-induced damage on silicon are calculated theoretically for three pulse widths based on the thermal damage model. An axisymmetric mathematical model is established for the transient temperature field of the silicon. Experiments are performed to test the damage thresholds of silicon at various pulse widths. The results indicate that the damage thresholds obviously increase with the increasing of laser pulse width. Additionally, the experimental results agree well with theoretical calculations and numerical simulation results.

  6. AFM pictures of the surfaces of glass RPC electrodes damaged by water vapor contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Kubo; E. Nakano; Y. Teramoto

    2002-11-08

    We present surface pictures of the damaged electrodes from the Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (GRPCs) taken by an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). For the test, a set of chambers were operated with freon mixed gas (damaged) and freonless gas (not damaged), contaminated with 1000 to 2000 ppm of water vapor. In the AFM pictures, clear differences in damage are seen between the electrodes in the chambers with the freon mixed gas and the freonless gas; a combination of freon and water vapor caused the damage.

  7. Surface state reconstruction in ion-damaged SmB6

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wakeham, N.; Wang, Y. Q.; Fisk, Z.; Ronning, F.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-02-12

    We have used ion-irradiation to damage the (001) surfaces of SmB? single crystals to varying depths, and have measured the resistivity as a function of temperature for each depth of damage. We observe a reduction in the residual resistivity with increasing depth of damage. Our data are consistent with a model in which the surface state is not destroyed by the ion-irradiation, however instead the damaged layer is poorly conducting and the initial surface state is reconstructed below the damage. This behavior is consistent with a surface state that is topologically protected.

  8. Atomistic modeling of nanowires, small-scale fatigue damage in cast magnesium, and materials for MEMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Martin L.; Talmage, Mellisa J.; McDowell, David L., 1956- (,-Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); West, Neil (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Gullett, Philip Michael (Mississippi State University , MS); Miller, David C. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Spark, Kevin (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Diao, Jiankuai (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Horstemeyer, Mark F. (Mississippi State University , MS); Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Gall, K

    2006-10-01

    Lightweight and miniaturized weapon systems are driving the use of new materials in design such as microscale materials and ultra low-density metallic materials. Reliable design of future weapon components and systems demands a thorough understanding of the deformation modes in these materials that comprise the components and a robust methodology to predict their performance during service or storage. Traditional continuum models of material deformation and failure are not easily extended to these new materials unless microstructural characteristics are included in the formulation. For example, in LIGA Ni and Al-Si thin films, the physical size is on the order of microns, a scale approaching key microstructural features. For a new potential structural material, cast Mg offers a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, but the microstructural heterogeneity at various scales requires a structure-property continuum model. Processes occurring at the nanoscale and microscale develop certain structures that drive material behavior. The objective of the work presented in this report was to understand material characteristics in relation to mechanical properties at the nanoscale and microscale in these promising new material systems. Research was conducted primarily at the University of Colorado at Boulder to employ tightly coupled experimentation and simulation to study damage at various material size scales under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. Experimental characterization of nano/micro damage will be accomplished by novel techniques such as in-situ environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), 1 MeV transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). New simulations to support experimental efforts will include modified embedded atom method (MEAM) atomistic simulations at the nanoscale and single crystal micromechanical finite element simulations. This report summarizes the major research and development accomplishments for the LDRD project titled 'Atomistic Modeling of Nanowires, Small-scale Fatigue Damage in Cast Magnesium, and Materials for MEMS'. This project supported a strategic partnership between Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Colorado at Boulder by providing funding for the lead author, Ken Gall, and his students, while he was a member of the University of Colorado faculty.

  9. Correlating cookoff violence with pre-ignition damage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wente, William Baker; Hobbs, Michael L.; Kaneshige, Michael Jiro

    2010-03-01

    Predicting the response of energetic materials during accidents, such as fire, is important for high consequence safety analysis. We hypothesize that responses of ener-getic materials before and after ignition depend on factors that cause thermal and chemi-cal damage. We have previously correlated violence from PETN to the extent of decom-position at ignition, determined as the time when the maximum Damkoehler number ex-ceeds a threshold value. We seek to understand if our method of violence correlation ap-plies universally to other explosive starting with RDX.

  10. Blade reliability collaborative : collection of defect, damage and repair data.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2013-04-01

    The Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) was started by the Wind Energy Technologies Department of Sandia National Laboratories and DOE in 2010 with the goal of gaining insight into planned and unplanned O&M issues associated with wind turbine blades. A significant part of BRC is the Blade Defect, Damage and Repair Survey task, which will gather data from blade manufacturers, service companies, operators and prior studies to determine details about the largest sources of blade unreliability. This report summarizes the initial findings from this work.

  11. Damage due to salt crystallization in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noushine Shahidzadeh Bonn; Francois Bertrand; Daniel Bonn

    2009-06-13

    We investigate salt crystallization in porous media that can lead to their disintegration. For sodium sulfate we show for the first time experimentally that when anhydrous crystals are wetted with water, there is very rapid growth of the hydrated form of sulfate in clusters that nucleate on anhydrous salt micro crystals. The molar volume of the hydrated crystals being four times bigger, the growth of these clusters can generate stresses in excess of the tensile strength of the stone and lead therefore to damage.

  12. The damage function approach for estimating fuel cycle externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, R.

    1993-10-01

    This paper discusses the methodology used in a study of fuel cycle externalities sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Commission of the European Communities. The methodology is the damage function approach. This paper describes that approach and discusses its application and limitations. The fuel cycles addressed are those in which coal, biomass, oil, hydro, natural gas and uranium are used to generate electric power. The methodology is used to estimate the physical impacts of these fuel cycles on environmental resources and human health, and the external costs and benefits of these impacts.

  13. Simulation of neutron radiation damage in silicon semiconductor devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadid, John Nicolas; Hoekstra, Robert John; Hennigan, Gary Lee; Castro, Joseph Pete Jr.; Fixel, Deborah A.

    2007-10-01

    A code, Charon, is described which simulates the effects that neutron damage has on silicon semiconductor devices. The code uses a stabilized, finite-element discretization of the semiconductor drift-diffusion equations. The mathematical model used to simulate semiconductor devices in both normal and radiation environments will be described. Modeling of defect complexes is accomplished by adding an additional drift-diffusion equation for each of the defect species. Additionally, details are given describing how Charon can efficiently solve very large problems using modern parallel computers. Comparison between Charon and experiment will be given, as well as comparison with results from commercially-available TCAD codes.

  14. Conversion of geothermal waste to commercial products including silica

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    2003-01-01

    A process for the treatment of geothermal residue includes contacting the pigmented amorphous silica-containing component with a depigmenting reagent one or more times to depigment the silica and produce a mixture containing depigmented amorphous silica and depigmenting reagent containing pigment material; separating the depigmented amorphous silica and from the depigmenting reagent to yield depigmented amorphous silica. Before or after the depigmenting contacting, the geothermal residue or depigmented silica can be treated with a metal solubilizing agent to produce another mixture containing pigmented or unpigmented amorphous silica-containing component and a solubilized metal-containing component; separating these components from each other to produce an amorphous silica product substantially devoid of metals and at least partially devoid of pigment. The amorphous silica product can be neutralized and thereafter dried at a temperature from about 25.degree. C. to 300.degree. C. The morphology of the silica product can be varied through the process conditions including sequence contacting steps, pH of depigmenting reagent, neutralization and drying conditions to tailor the amorphous silica for commercial use in products including filler for paint, paper, rubber and polymers, and chromatographic material.

  15. Rehabilitating Damaged Urban SoilsRehabilitating Damaged Urban Soils to OptimizeTree Establishment and Growth & Improve Soil Functionto OptimizeTree Establishment and Growth & Improve Soil Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Rehabilitating Damaged Urban SoilsRehabilitating Damaged Urban Soils to OptimizeTree Establishment and Growth & Improve Soil Functionto OptimizeTree Establishment and Growth & Improve Soil Function Rachel of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences This project is funded in part by theTree Research and Education

  16. Damage-tolerant nanotwinned metals with nanovoids under radiation environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.; Yu, K. Y.; Liu, Y.; Shao, S.; Wang, H.; Kirk, M. A.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X.

    2015-04-24

    Material performance in extreme radiation environments is central to the design of future nuclear reactors. Radiation induces significant damage in the form of dislocation loops and voids in irradiated materials, and continuous radiation often leads to void growth and subsequent void swelling in metals with low stacking fault energy. Here we show that by using in situ heavy ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope, pre-introduced nanovoids in nanotwinned Cu efficiently absorb radiation-induced defects accompanied by gradual elimination of nanovoids, enhancing radiation tolerance of Cu. In situ studies and atomistic simulations reveal that such remarkable self-healing capability stems from high density of coherent and incoherent twin boundaries that rapidly capture and transport point defects and dislocation loops to nanovoids, which act as storage bins for interstitial loops. This study describes a counterintuitive yet significant concept: deliberate introduction of nanovoids in conjunction with nanotwins enables unprecedented damage tolerance in metallic materials.

  17. Emulation of reactor irradiation damage using ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Was, G. S.; Jiao, Z.; Getto, E.; Sun, K.; Monterrosa, A. M.; Maloy, S. A.; Anderoglu, O.; Sencer, B. H.; Hackett, M.

    2014-06-14

    The continued operation of existing light water nuclear reactors and the development of advanced nuclear reactor depend heavily on understanding how damage by radiation to levels degrades materials that serve as the structural components in reactor cores. The first high dose ion irradiation experiments on a ferritic-martensitic steel showing that ion irradiation closely emulates the full radiation damage microstructure created in-reactor are described. Ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 (heat 84425) in the form of a hexagonal fuel bundle duct (ACO-3) accumulated 155 dpa at an average temperature of 443°C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Using invariance theory as a guide, irradiation of the same heat was conducted using self-ions (Fe++) at 5 MeV at a temperature of 460°C and to a dose of 188 displacements per atom. The void swelling was nearly identical between the two irradiation and the size and density of precipitates and loops following ion irradiation are within a factor of two of those for neutron irradiation. The level of agreement across all of the principal microstructure changes between ion and reactor irradiation establishes the capability of tailoring ion irradiation to emulate the reactor-irradiated microstructure.

  18. Emulation of reactor irradiation damage using ion beams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Was, G. S.; Jiao, Z.; Getto, E.; Sun, K.; Monterrosa, A. M.; Maloy, S. A.; Anderoglu, O.; Sencer, B. H.; Hackett, M.

    2014-06-14

    The continued operation of existing light water nuclear reactors and the development of advanced nuclear reactor depend heavily on understanding how damage by radiation to levels degrades materials that serve as the structural components in reactor cores. The first high dose ion irradiation experiments on a ferritic-martensitic steel showing that ion irradiation closely emulates the full radiation damage microstructure created in-reactor are described. Ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 (heat 84425) in the form of a hexagonal fuel bundle duct (ACO-3) accumulated 155 dpa at an average temperature of 443°C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Using invariance theory as a guide,more »irradiation of the same heat was conducted using self-ions (Fe++) at 5 MeV at a temperature of 460°C and to a dose of 188 displacements per atom. The void swelling was nearly identical between the two irradiation and the size and density of precipitates and loops following ion irradiation are within a factor of two of those for neutron irradiation. The level of agreement across all of the principal microstructure changes between ion and reactor irradiation establishes the capability of tailoring ion irradiation to emulate the reactor-irradiated microstructure.« less

  19. Damage mechanisms in the dynamic fracture of nominally brittle polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davy Dalmas; Claudia Guerra; Julien Scheibert; Daniel Bonamy

    2013-04-23

    Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) provides a consistent framework to evaluate quantitatively the energy flux released to the tip of a growing crack. Still, the way in which the crack selects its velocity in response to this energy flux remains far from completely understood. To uncover the underlying mechanisms, we experimentally studied damage and dissipation processes that develop during the dynamic failure of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), classically considered as the archetype of brittle amorphous materials. We evidenced a well-defined critical velocity along which failure switches from nominally-brittle to quasi-brittle, where crack propagation goes hand in hand with the nucleation and growth of microcracks. Via post-mortem analysis of the fracture surfaces, we were able to reconstruct the complete spatiotemporal microcracking dynamics with micrometer/nanosecond resolution. We demonstrated that the true local propagation speed of individual crack fronts is limited to a fairly low value, which can be much smaller than the apparent speed measured at the continuum-level scale. By coalescing with the main front, microcracks boost the macroscale velocity through an acceleration factor of geometrical origin. We discuss the key role of damage-related internal variables in the selection of macroscale fracture dynamics.

  20. Emulation of reactor irradiation damage using ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Was; Z. Jiao; E. Beckett; A. M. Monterrosa; O. Anderoglu; B. H. Sencer; M. Hackett

    2014-10-01

    The continued operation of existing light water nuclear reactors and the development of advanced nuclear reactor depend heavily on understanding how damage by radiation to levels degrades materials that serve as the structural components in reactor cores. The first high dose ion irradiation experiments on a ferritic-martensitic steel showing that ion irradiation closely emulates the full radiation damage microstructure created in-reactor are described. Ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 (heat 84425) in the form of a hexagonal fuel bundle duct (ACO-3) accumulated 155 dpa at an average temperature of 443°C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Using invariance theory as a guide, irradiation of the same heat was conducted using self-ions (Fe++) at 5 MeV at a temperature of 460°C and to a dose of 188 displacements per atom. The void swelling was nearly identical between the two irradiations and the size and density of precipitates and loops following ion irradiation are within a factor of two of those for neutron irradiation. The level of agreement across all of the principal microstructure changes between ion and reactor irradiations establishes the capability of tailoring ion irradiations to emulate the reactor-irradiated microstructure.

  1. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Tanioka, Seiichi [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Sakaide (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  2. Composite armor, armor system and vehicle including armor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chu, Henry S.; Jones, Warren F.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Thinnes, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Composite armor panels are disclosed. Each panel comprises a plurality of functional layers comprising at least an outermost layer, an intermediate layer and a base layer. An armor system incorporating armor panels is also disclosed. Armor panels are mounted on carriages movably secured to adjacent rails of a rail system. Each panel may be moved on its associated rail and into partially overlapping relationship with another panel on an adjacent rail for protection against incoming ordnance from various directions. The rail system may be configured as at least a part of a ring, and be disposed about a hatch on a vehicle. Vehicles including an armor system are also disclosed.

  3. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI); Broekaert, Willem F. (Dilbeek, BE); Chua, Nam-Hai (Scarsdale, NY); Kush, Anil (New York, NY)

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a pu GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

  4. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  5. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bawendi, Moungi G. (Boston, MA); Sundar, Vikram C. (New York, NY)

    2008-02-05

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties

  6. User'sManual All information contained in these materials, including products and product specifications,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bezrukov, Sergei

    or systems, surgical implantations etc.), or may cause serious property damages (nuclear reactor control, trains, ships, etc.); traffic control systems; anti-disaster systems; anti- crime systems; and safety

  7. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ORAU's Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  8. Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Luck, C.F.

    1995-10-03

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C.

  9. Protoplanetary disks including radiative feedback from accreting planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montesinos, Matias; Perez, Sebastian; Baruteau, Clement; Casassus, Simon

    2015-01-01

    While recent observational progress is converging on the detection of compact regions of thermal emission due to embedded protoplanets, further theoretical predictions are needed to understand the response of a protoplanetary disk to the planet formation radiative feedback. This is particularly important to make predictions for the observability of circumplanetary regions. In this work we use 2D hydrodynamical simulations to examine the evolution of a viscous protoplanetary disk in which a luminous Jupiter-mass planet is embedded. We use an energy equation which includes the radiative heating of the planet as an additional mechanism for planet formation feedback. Several models are computed for planet luminosities ranging from $10^{-5}$ to $10^{-3}$ Solar luminosities. We find that the planet radiative feedback enhances the disk's accretion rate at the planet's orbital radius, producing a hotter and more luminous environement around the planet, independently of the prescription used to model the disk's turbul...

  10. Including stereoscopic information in the reconstruction of coronal magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Wiegelmann; T. Neukirch

    2008-01-23

    We present a method to include stereoscopic information about the three dimensional structure of flux tubes into the reconstruction of the coronal magnetic field. Due to the low plasma beta in the corona we can assume a force free magnetic field, with the current density parallel to the magnetic field lines. Here we use linear force free fields for simplicity. The method uses the line of sight magnetic field on the photosphere as observational input. The value of $\\alpha$ is determined iteratively by comparing the reconstructed magnetic field with the observed structures. The final configuration is the optimal linear force solution constrained by both the photospheric magnetogram and the observed plasma structures. As an example we apply our method to SOHO MDI/EIT data of an active region. In the future it is planned to apply the method to analyse data from the SECCHI instrument aboard the STEREO mission.

  11. Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Gruzalski, Greg R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Luck, Christopher F. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

  12. Copper laser modulator driving assembly including a magnetic compression laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A laser modulator (10) having a low voltage assembly (12) with a plurality of low voltage modules (14) with first stage magnetic compression circuits (20) and magnetic assist inductors (28) with a common core (91), such that timing of the first stage magnetic switches (30b) is thereby synchronized. A bipolar second stage of magnetic compression (42) is coupled to the low voltage modules (14) through a bipolar pulse transformer (36) and a third stage of magnetic compression (44) is directly coupled to the second stage of magnetic compression (42). The low voltage assembly (12) includes pressurized boxes (117) for improving voltage standoff between the primary winding assemblies (34) and secondary winding (40) contained therein.

  13. Pulse transmission transmitter including a higher order time derivate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-23

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission transmitter includes: a clock; a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to the clock, the pseudorandom polynomial generator having a polynomial load input; an exclusive-OR gate coupled to the pseudorandom polynomial generator, the exclusive-OR gate having a serial data input; a programmable delay circuit coupled to both the clock and the exclusive-OR gate; a pulse generator coupled to the programmable delay circuit; and a higher order time derivative filter coupled to the pulse generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  14. Actuator assembly including a single axis of rotation locking member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quitmeyer, James N.; Benson, Dwayne M.; Geck, Kellan P.

    2009-12-08

    An actuator assembly including an actuator housing assembly and a single axis of rotation locking member fixedly attached to a portion of the actuator housing assembly and an external mounting structure. The single axis of rotation locking member restricting rotational movement of the actuator housing assembly about at least one axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a first end to the actuator housing assembly about a Y axis and at a 90.degree. angle to an X and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the Y axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a second end to a mounting structure, and more particularly a mounting pin, about an X axis and at a 90.degree. angle to a Y and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the X axis. The actuator assembly is thereby restricted from rotation about the Z axis.

  15. Hydraulic engine valve actuation system including independent feedback control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marriott, Craig D

    2013-06-04

    A hydraulic valve actuation assembly may include a housing, a piston, a supply control valve, a closing control valve, and an opening control valve. The housing may define a first fluid chamber, a second fluid chamber, and a third fluid chamber. The piston may be axially secured to an engine valve and located within the first, second and third fluid chambers. The supply control valve may control a hydraulic fluid supply to the piston. The closing control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the second fluid chamber to the supply control valve. The opening control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the supply control valve to the second fluid chamber.

  16. Fuel cell repeater unit including frame and separator plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamanis, Jean; Hawkes, Justin R; Chiapetta, Jr., Louis; Bird, Connie E; Sun, Ellen Y; Croteau, Paul F

    2013-11-05

    An example fuel cell repeater includes a separator plate and a frame establishing at least a portion of a flow path that is operative to communicate fuel to or from at least one fuel cell held by the frame relative to the separator plate. The flow path has a perimeter and any fuel within the perimeter flow across the at least one fuel cell in a first direction. The separator plate, the frame, or both establish at least one conduit positioned outside the flow path perimeter. The conduit is outside of the flow path perimeter and is configured to direct flow in a second, different direction. The conduit is fluidly coupled with the flow path.

  17. DETECTION OF MECHANICAL DAMAGE USING THE MAGNETIC FLUX LEAKAGE TECHNIQUE L. Clapham, V. Babbar, and James Byrne.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clapham, Lynann

    DETECTION OF MECHANICAL DAMAGE USING THE MAGNETIC FLUX LEAKAGE TECHNIQUE L. Clapham, V. Babbar mechanical damage in pipelines. However, MFL application to mechanical damage detection faces hurdles which effects, 2) the stress distribution around a mechanically damaged region is very complex, consisting

  18. Damage monitoring in sandwich beams by modal parameter shifts: A comparative study of burst random and sine dwell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    1 Damage monitoring in sandwich beams by modal parameter shifts: A comparative study of burst Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study on the effects of multi-site damage on the vibration response of honeycomb sandwich beams, damaged by two different ways i.e., impact damage and core

  19. Application of petrographic examination techniques to the assessment of fire-damaged concrete and masonry structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingham, Jeremy P., E-mail: inghamjp@halcrow.com [Halcrow Group Limited, Vineyard House, 44 Brook Green, Hammersmith, London W6 7BY (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The number of building fires has doubled over the last 50 years. There has never been a greater need for structures to be assessed for fire damage to ensure safety and enable appropriate repairs to be planned. Fortunately, even after a severe fire, concrete and masonry structures are generally capable of being repaired rather than demolished. By allowing direct examination of microcracking and mineralogical changes, petrographic examination has become widely used to determine the depth of fire damage for reinforced concrete elements. Petrographic examination can also be applied to fire-damaged masonry structures built of materials such as stone, brick and mortar. Petrography can ensure accurate detection of damaged geomaterials, which provides cost savings during building repair and increased safety reassurance. This paper comprises a review of the role of petrography in fire damage assessments, drawing on a range of actual fire damage investigations.

  20. Critique of the carbonate mass loss model for paint damage functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livingston, R.A.

    1987-06-01

    One of the key questions concerning the assessment of acid deposition damage is its effect on painted surfaces. In order to determine this it is necessary to have a paint damage function that expresses the quantity of physical damage associated with a given level of acid deposition. This problem is now a major focus of EPA's current research; however, results are not yet available. Consequently, the NAPAP paint damage function was derived from data collected in several studies that substantially predated the acid rain research program. Although this damage function may appear plausible at first glance, it has been criticized, in part because paint damage constitutes such an important part of the total, but mainly because it is based largely on a conceptual model involving erosion due to dissolution loss of carbonate extenders in the paint formulation.

  1. Compensation for TID Damage in SOI Pixel Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobita, Naoshi; Hara, Kazuhiko; Aoyagi, Wataru; Arai, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Kurachi, Ikuo; Hatsui, Takaki; Kudo, Togo; Kobayashi, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    We are investigating adaption of SOI pixel devices for future high energy physic(HEP) experiments. The pixel sensors are required to be operational in very severe radiation environment. Most challenging issue in the adoption is the TID (total ionizing dose) damage where holes trapped in oxide layers affect the operation of nearby transistors. We have introduced a second SOI layer - SOI2 beneath the BOX (Buried OXide) layer - in order to compensate for the TID effect by applying a negative voltage to this electrode to cancel the effect caused by accumulated positive holes. In this paper, the TID effects caused by Co gamma-ray irradiation are presented based on the transistor characteristics measurements. The irradiation was carried out in various biasing conditions to investigate hole accumulation dependence on the potential configurations. We also compare the data with samples irradiated with X-ray. Since we observed a fair agreement between the two irradiation datasets, the TID effects have been investigated...

  2. Severe fuel-damage scoping test performance. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruen, G.E.; Buescher, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a result of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) accident, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a severe fuel damage test program to evaluate fuel rod and core response during severe accidents similar to TMI-2. The first test of Phase I of this series has been successfully completed in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Following the first test, calculations were performed using the TRAC-BD1 computer code with actual experimental boundary conditions. This paper discusses the test conduct and performance and presents the calculated and measured test bundle results. The test resulted in a slow heatup to 2000 K over about 4 h, with an accelerated reaction of the zirconium cladding at temperatures above 1600 K in the lower part or the bundle and 2000 K in the upper portion of the bundle.

  3. Compensation of radiation damages for SOI pixel detector via tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamada, Miho; Kurachi, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    We are developing monolithic pixel detectors based on SOI technology for high energy physics, X-ray applications and so on.To employ SOI pixel detector on such radiation environments, we have to solve effects of total ionization damages (TID) for transistors which are enclosed in oxide layer.The holes which are generated and trapped in the oxide layers after irradiation affect characteristics of near-by transistors due to its positive electric field.Annealing and radiation of ultraviolet are not realistic to remove trapped holes for a fabricated detector due to thermal resistance of components and difficulty of handling. We studied compensation of TID effects by tunneling using a high-voltage. For decrease of trapped holes, applied high-voltage to buried p-well which is under oxide layer to inject the electrons into the oxide layer.In this report, recent progress of this study is shown.

  4. Radiation Damage Effects in Candidate Titanates for Pu Disposition: Zirconolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.; Buck, Edgar C.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Sell, Rachel L.; Elovich, Robert J.; Buchmiller, William C.

    2008-01-15

    Specimens of titanate ceramics containing approximately 10 mass% 238Pu were tested to determine the long-term effects of radiation-induced damage from the ? decay of 239Pu that would have been disposed of in the nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain. These tests provided information on the changes in bulk properties such as dimensions, densities, and chemical durability. Although these materials become amorphous at low doses, the specimens remained physically strong. Even after the radiation-induced swelling saturated, the specimens remained physically intact with no evidence for microcracking. Thus, in combination with results reported previously on similar materials, the material remains a physically viable material for the disposition of surplus weapons-grade Pu.

  5. Endogenous DNA Damage and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, M B; Sigurdson, A J; Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Graubard, B I; Korde, L; Greene, M H; McGlynn, K A

    2008-01-18

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are comprised of two histologic groups, seminomas and nonseminomas. We postulated that the possible divergent pathogeneses of these histologies may be partially explained by variable endogenous DNA damage. To assess our hypothesis, we conducted a case-case analysis of seminomas and nonseminomas using the alkaline comet assay to quantify single-strand DNA breaks and alkali-labile sites. The Familial Testicular Cancer study and the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort provided 112 TGCT cases (51 seminomas & 61 nonseminomas). A lymphoblastoid cell line was cultured for each patient and the alkaline comet assay was used to determine four parameters: tail DNA, tail length, comet distributed moment (CDM) and Olive tail moment (OTM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regression. Values for tail length, tail DNA, CDM and OTM were modeled as categorical variables using the 50th and 75th percentiles of the seminoma group. Tail DNA was significantly associated with nonseminoma compared to seminoma (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 3.31, 95%CI: 1.00, 10.98; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 3.71, 95%CI: 1.04, 13.20; p for trend=0.039). OTM exhibited similar, albeit statistically non-significant, risk estimates (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 2.27, 95%CI: 0.75, 6.87; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 2.40, 95%CI: 0.75, 7.71; p for trend=0.12) whereas tail length and CDM showed no association. In conclusion, the results for tail DNA and OTM indicate that endogenous DNA damage levels are higher in patients who develop nonseminoma compared with seminoma. This may partly explain the more aggressive biology and younger age-of-onset of this histologic subgroup compared with the relatively less aggressive, later-onset seminoma.

  6. Damage Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Columns Under High

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eberhard, Marc O.

    include seismic design of reinforced concrete structures. M. Sakashita holds M.S. degree from as a Ph. D. student at Kyoto University. His research interests include seismic design of shear wall of seismic design of buildings, including foundations. Fundamental studies have been carried out to elucidate

  7. Defect and damage evolution quantification in dynamically-deformed metals using orientation-imaging microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, George T., III; Livescu, Veronica; Cerreta, Ellen K

    2010-03-18

    Orientation-imaging microscopy offers unique capabilities to quantify the defects and damage evolution occurring in metals following dynamic and shock loading. Examples of the quantification of the types of deformation twins activated, volume fraction of twinning, and damage evolution as a function of shock loading in Ta are presented. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) examination of the damage evolution in sweeping-detonation-wave shock loading to study spallation in Cu is also presented.

  8. C -parameter distribution at N 3 LL ' including power corrections

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hoang, André H.; Kolodrubetz, Daniel W.; Mateu, Vicent; Stewart, Iain W.

    2015-05-01

    We compute the e?e? C-parameter distribution using the soft-collinear effective theory with a resummation to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-log prime accuracy of the most singular partonic terms. This includes the known fixed-order QCD results up to O(?3s), a numerical determination of the two-loop nonlogarithmic term of the soft function, and all logarithmic terms in the jet and soft functions up to three loops. Our result holds for C in the peak, tail, and far tail regions. Additionally, we treat hadronization effects using a field theoretic nonperturbative soft function, with moments ?n. To eliminate an O(?QCD) renormalon ambiguity in the soft function, we switchmore »from the MS¯ to a short distance “Rgap” scheme to define the leading power correction parameter ?1. We show how to simultaneously account for running effects in ?1 due to renormalon subtractions and hadron-mass effects, enabling power correction universality between C-parameter and thrust to be tested in our setup. We discuss in detail the impact of resummation and renormalon subtractions on the convergence. In the relevant fit region for ?s(mZ) and ?1, the perturbative uncertainty in our cross section is ? 2.5% at Q=mZ.« less

  9. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI); Broekaert, Willem F. (Dilbeek, BE); Chua, Nam-Hai (Scarsdale, NY); Kush, Anil (New York, NY)

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  10. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 12 figs.

  11. C -parameter distribution at N 3 LL ' including power corrections

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hoang, André H.; Kolodrubetz, Daniel W.; Mateu, Vicent; Stewart, Iain W.

    2015-05-01

    We compute the e?e? C-parameter distribution using the soft-collinear effective theory with a resummation to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-log prime accuracy of the most singular partonic terms. This includes the known fixed-order QCD results up to O(?3s), a numerical determination of the two-loop nonlogarithmic term of the soft function, and all logarithmic terms in the jet and soft functions up to three loops. Our result holds for C in the peak, tail, and far tail regions. Additionally, we treat hadronization effects using a field theoretic nonperturbative soft function, with moments ?n. To eliminate an O(?QCD) renormalon ambiguity in the soft function, we switch from the MS¯ to a short distance “Rgap” scheme to define the leading power correction parameter ?1. We show how to simultaneously account for running effects in ?1 due to renormalon subtractions and hadron-mass effects, enabling power correction universality between C-parameter and thrust to be tested in our setup. We discuss in detail the impact of resummation and renormalon subtractions on the convergence. In the relevant fit region for ?s(mZ) and ?1, the perturbative uncertainty in our cross section is ? 2.5% at Q=mZ.

  12. Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocalello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2009-04-28

    An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

  13. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  14. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 11 figures.

  15. CDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI); Broekaert, Willem F. (Dilbeek, BE); Chua, Nam-Hai (Scarsdale, NY); Kush, Anil (New York, NY)

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  16. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION AND DEFORMATION OF ZIRCONIUM UNDER CASCADE DAMAGE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barashev, Alexander V; Golubov, Stanislav I; Stoller, Roger E

    2012-06-01

    This work is based on our reaction-diffusion model of radiation growth of Zr-based materials proposed recently in [1]. In [1], the equations for the strain rates in unloaded pure crystal under cascade damage conditions of, e.g., neutron or heavy-ion irradiation were derived as functions of dislocation densities, which include contributions from dislocation loops, and spatial distribution of their Burgers vectors. The model takes into account the intra-cascade clustering of self-interstitial atoms and their one-dimensional diffusion; explains the growth stages, including the break-away growth of pre-annealed samples; and accounts for some striking observations, such as of negative strain in prismatic direction, and co-existence of vacancy- and interstitial-type prismatic loops. In this report, the change of dislocation densities due to accumulation of sessile dislocation loops is taken into account explicitly to investigate the dose dependence of radiation growth. The dose dependence of climb rates of dislocations is calculated, which is important for the climb-induced glide model of radiation creep. The results of fitting the model to available experimental data and some numerical calculations of the strain behavior of Zr for different initial dislocation structures are presented and discussed. The computer code RIMD-ZR.V1 (Radiation Induced Microstructure and Deformation of Zr) developed is described and attached to this report.

  17. Utility of geo-informatics for disaster risk management: linking structural damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utility of geo-informatics for disaster risk management: linking structural damage assessment/ Volcano remote sensing (Uni Cambridge) Geoinformatics for disaster risk management (hazard

  18. Depth Profiling of SiC Lattice Damage Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Post-implantation annealing at 1000 C was also performed in order to study the damage evolution. Optical Absorption Spectrophotometry (OAS) was used for establishing the opacity...

  19. The 2007 Eastern US Spring Freeze: Increased Cold Damage in a...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with a seemingly paradoxical scenario in the relationship between plant growth and climate change: warming may actually increase the risk of plant frost damage. The...

  20. Sensitivity of silicon 1-MeV damage function to cross-section evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, P.J.; Danjaji, M.B.

    1995-12-31

    The electronics radiation hardness-testing community uses the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E722-93 Standard Practice to define the energy dependence of the nonionizing neutron damage to silicon semiconductors. This neutron displacement damage response function is defined to be equal to the silicon displacement kerma. An Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) {sup 28}Si cross-section evaluation and the NJOY code are used to define the standard response function to be used in reporting 1-MeV (silicon) neutron damage and in determining neutron damage equivalence between test facilities. This paper provides information for the precision and bias section of the E722 standard.

  1. HOW MIGHT INDUSTRY GOVERNANCE BE BROADENED TO INCLUDE NONPROLIFERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hund, Gretchen; Seward, Amy M.

    2009-10-06

    Broadening industry governance to support nonproliferation could provide significant new leverage in preventing the spread/diversion of nuclear, radiological, or dual-use material or technology that could be used in making a nuclear or radiological weapon. Industry is defined broadly to include 1) the nuclear industry, 2) dual-use industries, and 3) radioactive source manufacturers and selected radioactive source-user industries worldwide. This paper describes how industry can be an important first line of defense in detecting and thwarting proliferation, such as an illicit trade network or an insider theft case, by complementing and strengthening existing governmental efforts. For example, the dual-use industry can play a critical role by providing export, import, or security control information that would allow a government or the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to integrate this information with safeguards, export, import, and physical protection information it has to create a more complete picture of the potential for proliferation. Because industry is closest to users of the goods and technology that could be illicitly diverted throughout the supply chain, industry information can potentially be more timely and accurate than other sources of information. Industry is in an ideal position to help ensure that such illicit activities are detected. This role could be performed more effectively if companies worked together within a particular industry to promote nonproliferation by implementing an industry-wide self-regulation program. Performance measures could be used to ensure their materials and technologies are secure throughout the supply chain and that customers are legitimately using and/or maintaining oversight of these items. Nonproliferation is the overarching driver that industry needs to consider in adopting and implementing a self-regulation approach. A few foreign companies have begun such an approach to date; it is believed that, ultimately, broad engagement of global industry leaders in self regulation is needed to result in the greatest nonproliferation benefit.

  2. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  3. The waves of damage in elastic-plastic lattices with waiting links: design and simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherkaev, Andrej

    The waves of damage in elastic-plastic lattices with waiting links: design and simulation A, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA Abstract We consider protective structures with elastic-plastic links: Protective structure, Elastic-plastic material, Necking, Bistability, Partial damage, Collision, Waves

  4. Damage to Model DNA Fragments from Very Low-Energy (Electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    Damage to Model DNA Fragments from Very Low-Energy (Electrons Joanna Berdys,, Iwona-mail: simons@chemistry.utah.edu Abstract: Although electrons having enough energy to ionize or electronically suggested that even lower- energy electrons (most recently 1 eV and below) can also damage DNA. The findings

  5. Utility of geo-informatics for disaster risk management: linking structural damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utility of geo-informatics for disaster risk management: linking structural damage assessment) Geoinformatics for disaster risk management (hazard/risk/vulnerability/damage) www.unu-drm.nl Training of disaster risk management (my focus is on post-disaster response/ recovery) Use of object-oriented image

  6. Earthquake Damage Assessment Using Objective Image Segmentation: A Case Study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Earthquake Damage Assessment Using Objective Image Segmentation: A Case Study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake Thomas Oommen1 , Umaa Rebbapragada2 , and Daniel Cerminaro3 1 Department of Geological Engineering Haiti earthquake provided a new opportunity to analyze earthquake-induced damage. Previous work has

  7. Use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition for Damage Location of Water Delivery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    Use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition for Damage Location of Water Delivery Systems Masanobu Shinozuka1 ; Jianwen Liang2 ; and Maria Q. Feng3 Abstract: Urban water delivery systems can, this paper develops a methodology to detect and locate the damage in a water delivery system by monitoring

  8. Radiation damage effects on detectors and eletronic devices in harsh radiation environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiore, S

    2015-01-01

    Radiation damage effects represent one of the limits for technologies to be used in harsh radiation environments as space, radiotherapy treatment, high-energy phisics colliders. Different technologies have known tolerances to different radiation fields and should be taken into account to avoid unexpected failures which may lead to unrecoverable damages to scientific missions or patient health.

  9. Damage Threats and Response of Final Optics for Laser-Fusion Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillack, Mark

    Damage Threats and Response of Final Optics for Laser-Fusion Power Plants M. S. Tillack1 , S. A-1597 The final optics for laser-IFE (inertial fusion energy) power plants will be exposed to a variety of damage to be the most serious concerns for a power plant. 1. Introduction Survival of the final optic is one of the most

  10. Original Contrbution Induction of oxidative and nitrosative damage leads to cerebrovascular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    Original Contrbution Induction of oxidative and nitrosative damage leads to cerebrovascular 2013 Available online 4 March 2013 Keywords: Mild traumatic brain injury Blood­brain barrier Oxidative the hypothesis that oxidative damage of the cerebral vascular barrier interface (the blood­brain barrier, BBB

  11. southeastern geographer, 49(2) 2009: pp. 108131 Florida Hurricanes and Damage Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsner, James B.

    southeastern geographer, 49(2) 2009: pp. 108­131 Florida Hurricanes and Damage Costs JILL MALMSTADT Florida has been visited by some of the most de- structive and devastating hurricanes on record and severity of hurricanes af- fecting Florida are examined from the best set of available data and the damages

  12. Bogue Banks Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Project Carteret County, North Carolina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    the need for hurricane and coastal storm damage reduction, as well as presenting the opportunity to protect existing habitat that would be lost otherwise. The Recommended Plan (which is also the National Economic are allocated to the authorized purpose of hurricane and storm damage reduction. Applying these cost

  13. Multiple-shot laser damage thresholds of ultraviolet reflectors at 248 and 308 nanometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltyn, S.R.; Newnam, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    Multiple-shot damage thresholds of dielectric reflectors have been measured at 248 and 308 nm. Standard irradiation conditions were a 10-ns pulsewidth, 0.6-mm spot diameter and 35-Hz pulse repetition frequency. The reflectors, from various sources, were composed of oxide and fluoride films. Although damage was generally initiated at visible film defects, there was no correlation between damage susceptibility and the appearance of these defects. At levels near threshold, damage was most often observed as an increase in white-light scatter of a site with no growth upon continued irradiation; at higher levels, the damage site grew with successive shots. Test sites were subjected to at least 10/sup 3/ shots and some sites received as many as 2.5 x 10/sup 4/ shots; however, with only one exception damage was found to occur within the first few shots or not at all. Reflectors at 248 nm typically had damage thresholds in the 1.0 to 1.8 J/cm/sup 2/ range with two samples exhibiting unexpectedly high thresholds of 2.8 and 3.0 J/cm/sup 2/. In some cases, a subthreshold pre-irradiation treatment resulted in a 20 to 25% enhancement in damage resistance.

  14. THRESHOLD-BASED QUASI-STATIC BRITTLE DAMAGE ADRIANA GARRONI AND CHRISTOPHER J. LARSEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garroni, Adriana

    THRESHOLD-BASED QUASI-STATIC BRITTLE DAMAGE EVOLUTION ADRIANA GARRONI AND CHRISTOPHER J. LARSEN Abstract We introduce models for static and quasi-static damage in elastic materials, based on a strain definition, are also global minimizers. 1. Introduction Many phenomena in mechanics, such as fracture

  15. DNA Damage Causes p27^(Kip1) Accumulation Through COP1 Signaling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Hyun Ho

    2014-05-06

    p27 is a critical CDK inhibitor involved in cell cycle regulation, but its response to DNA damage remains unclear. Constitutive photomorphogenesis 1 (COP1), a p53- targeting E3 ubiquitin ligase, is downregulated by DNA damage, but the biological...

  16. Real-Time damage localization by means of MEMS sensors and use of wireless data transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    . INTRODUCTION Urban water delivery network systems, particularly the underground components such as pipeline networks, can be damaged due to earthquakes, pipe corrosion, severely cold weather, heavy traffic load WORK In recent years, real-time damage assessment and diagnosis of buried pipelines has attracted much

  17. Ouch! How Embodied Damage Indicators in First-Person Shooting Games Impact Gaming Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , a paper doll, and an x-ray mechanism, observing impact on gaming experience. 1 Introduction and Related in our study. #12;2 Damage Indicators We investigated three damage indicators, a red flash, paper doll doll indicator places a cut-out character silhouette at the top-left of the screen, flashing the screen

  18. EFFECT OF POROSITY ON DEFORMATION, DAMAGE, AND FRACTURE OF CAST STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    EFFECT OF POROSITY ON DEFORMATION, DAMAGE, AND FRACTURE OF CAST STEEL Richard Hardin1 , Christoph 52242-1527 Keywords: Casting, Porosity, Tensile Properties, Damage, Fracture Abstract A combined experimental and computational study is performed to investigate the effect of internal shrinkage porosity

  19. Effect of Porosity on Deformation, Damage, and Fracture of Cast Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    shrinkage porosity on deformation, damage, and fracture of cast steel under tensile testing. Steel plates containing shrinkage porosity are cast in sand molds, machined into test coupons, and tensile testedEffect of Porosity on Deformation, Damage, and Fracture of Cast Steel R.A. HARDIN and C. BECKERMANN

  20. Deformation, structural changes and damage evolution in nanotwinned copper under repeated frictional contact sliding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, Ming

    [1], fatigue crack growth resistance [2] and fracture toughness [3,4]. Nanotwinned (NT) metals have of having a combination of high strength as well as reasonable ductility and damage tolerance, ductility, wear and corrosion resistance, and damage tolerance under monotonic and cyclic loading

  1. NEUTRON DAMAGE IN REACTOR PRESSURE-VESSEL STEEL EXAMINED WITH POSITRON ANNIHILATION LIFETIME SPECTROSCOPY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    annealing the samples at 280' C. INTRODUCTION Reactor pressure-vessel steel embrittlement is one ofthe mostNEUTRON DAMAGE IN REACTOR PRESSURE-VESSEL STEEL EXAMINED WITH POSITRON ANNIHILATION LIFETIME spectroscopy to study the development of damage and annealing behavior ofneutron-irradiated reactor pressure

  2. Lessons from two field tests on pipeline damage detection using acceleration measurement (Invited Paper)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    Lessons from two field tests on pipeline damage detection using acceleration measurement (Invited, Irvine, CA USA 92697-2700 ABSTRACT Early detection of pipeline damages has been highlighted in water supply industry. Water pressure change in pipeline due to a sudden rupture causes pipe to vibrate

  3. Damage detection technique by measuring laser-based mechanical impedance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Sohn, Hoon [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Daehak-ro 291, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701) (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-18

    This study proposes a method for measurement of mechanical impedance using noncontact laser ultrasound. The measurement of mechanical impedance has been of great interest in nondestructive testing (NDT) or structural health monitoring (SHM) since mechanical impedance is sensitive even to small-sized structural defects. Conventional impedance measurements, however, have been based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) using contact-type piezoelectric transducers, which show deteriorated performances induced by the effects of a) Curie temperature limitations, b) electromagnetic interference (EMI), c) bonding layers and etc. This study aims to tackle the limitations of conventional EMI measurement by utilizing laser-based mechanical impedance (LMI) measurement. The LMI response, which is equivalent to a steady-state ultrasound response, is generated by shooting the pulse laser beam to the target structure, and is acquired by measuring the out-of-plane velocity using a laser vibrometer. The formation of the LMI response is observed through the thermo-mechanical finite element analysis. The feasibility of applying the LMI technique for damage detection is experimentally verified using a pipe specimen under high temperature environment.

  4. Radiation Damage Study for PHENIX Silicon Stripixel Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Asai; S. Batsouli; K. Boyle; V. Castillo; V. Cianciolo; D. Fields; C. Haegeman; M. Hoeferkamp; Y. Hosoi; R. Ichimiya; Y. Inoue; M. Kawashima; T. Komatsubara; K. Kurita; Z. Li; D. Lynch; M. Nguyen; T. Murakami; R. Nouicer; H. Ohnishi; R. Pak; K. Sakashita; T. -A. Shibata; K. Suga; A. Taketani; J. Tojo

    2007-10-14

    Silicon stripixel sensors which were developed at BNL will be installed as part of the RHIC-PHENIX silicon vertex tracker (VTX). RHIC II operations provide luminosity up to 2x10^32 /cm2/s so the silicon stripixel sensors will be exposed to a significant amount of radiation. The most problematic radiation effect for VTX is the increase of leakage current, which degrades the signal to noise ratio and may saturate the readout electronics. We studied the radiation damage using the same diodes as CERN-RD48. First, the proportionality between the irradiation fluence and the increase of leakage current of CERN-RD48 was reproduced. Then beam experiments with stripixel sensor were done in which leakage current was found to increase in the same way as that of thereference diode. A stripixel sensor was also irradiated at the PHENIX interaction region (IR) during the 2006 run. We found the same relation between the integrated luminosity and determined fluence from increase of leakage current. The expected fluence is 3-6x10^12 Neq/cm2 (1 MeV neutron equivalent) in RHIC II operations for 10 years. Due to this expected exposure, setting the operating temperature in PHENIX to T< 0 deg. C to suppress leakage current is needed to avoid saturation of preamplifiers.

  5. Rapid Damage eXplorer (RDX): A Probabilistic Framework for Learning Changes From Bitemporal Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vatsavai, Raju

    2012-01-01

    Recent decade has witnessed major changes on the Earth, for example, deforestation, varying cropping and human settlement patterns, and crippling damages due to disasters. Accurate damage assessment caused by major natural and anthropogenic disasters is becoming critical due to increases in human and economic loss. This increase in loss of life and severe damages can be attributed to the growing population, as well as human migration to the disaster prone regions of the world. Rapid assessment of these changes and dissemination of accurate information is critical for creating an effective emergency response. Change detection using high-resolution satellite images is a primary tool in assessing damages, monitoring biomass and critical infrastructures, and identifying new settlements. In this demo, we present a novel supervised probabilistic framework for identifying changes using very high-resolution multispectral, and bitemporal remote sensing images. Our demo shows that the rapid damage explorer (RDX) system is resilient to registration errors and differing sensor characteristics.

  6. Application of Nonlinear Elastic Resonance Spectroscopy For Damage Detection In Concrete: An Interesting Story

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byers, Loren W.; Ten Cate, James A.; Johnson, Paul A.

    2012-06-28

    Nonlinear resonance ultrasound spectroscopy experiments conducted on concrete cores, one chemically and mechanically damaged by alkali-silica reactivity, and one undamaged, show that this material displays highly nonlinear wave behavior, similar to many other damaged materials. They find that the damaged sample responds more nonlinearly, manifested by a larger resonant peak and modulus shift as a function of strain amplitude. The nonlinear response indicates that there is a hysteretic influence in the stress-strain equation of state. Further, as in some other materials, slow dynamics are present. The nonlinear response they observe in concrete is an extremely sensitive indicator of damage. Ultimately, nonlinear wave methods applied to concrete may be used to guide mixing, curing, or other production techniques, in order to develop materials with particular desired qualities such as enhanced strength or chemical resistance, and to be used for damage inspection.

  7. Complex Variables and Elliptic Equations - Department of ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-10-21

    Oct 1, 1989 ... re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or ... demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising ... to the author that power series with large gaps could be associated with other.

  8. PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [CDL Journals Account

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Lisa

    ://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713455114 Spatial distribution of copper in relation to recreational boating in a California shallow, Magali and Deheyn, Dimitri D.(2009)'Spatial distribution of copper in relation to recreational boating not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever

  9. PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [University College London

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Ming-Jun

    not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever variable is a random surface and the response is a real random variable, in various situations where both and Vieu 2006). FDA aggregates consecutive discrete recordings and views them as sampled values of a random

  10. PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [Rochester Institute of Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever, printing press thermal and humidity control equipment, traction devices, mining devices, crude oil plates into four types: formed tube cold plate, deep drilled cold plate, machined channel cold plate

  11. PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [Soward, Andrew

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priest, Eric

    loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising the catastrophe point is reached. Numerical results for field lines that are open into the solar corona suggest-equilibrium to be reached. KEY WORDS: Solar coronal magnetic fields, magnetohydrodynamic stability, line-tying. 1

  12. This article was downloaded by:[Bochkarev, N.] On: 13 December 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priest, Eric

    not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever) Recent observationsof Martin et al. have revealed two new magnetic and structural classes for solar Solar prominences are long, thin sheets that are found in the solar corona. Their density (n-1x lo" m-3

  13. This article was downloaded by: [West Virginia University] On: 05 November 2012, At: 08:20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Brenden

    for detecting change associated with gas well drilling operations Benjamin A. Baker a , Timothy A. Warner with gas well drilling operations, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 34:5, 1633-1651 To link loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising

  14. Safety apparatus for nuclear reactor to prevent structural damage from overheating by core debris

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, John D. (Western Springs, IL); Cassulo, John C. (Stickney, IL); Pedersen, Dean R. (Naperville, IL); Baker, Jr., Louis (Downers Grove, IL)

    1986-01-01

    The invention teaches safety apparatus that can be included in a nuclear reactor, either when newly fabricated or as a retrofit add-on, that will minimize proliferation of structural damage to the reactor in the event the reactor is experiencing an overheating malfunction whereby radioactive nuclear debris might break away from and be discharged from the reactor core. The invention provides a porous bed or sublayer on the lower surface of the reactor containment vessel so that the debris falls on and piles up on the bed. Vapor release elements upstand from the bed in some laterally spaced array. Thus should the high heat flux of the debris interior vaporize the coolant at that location, the vaporized coolant can be vented downwardly to and laterally through the bed to the vapor release elements and in turn via the release elements upwardly through the debris. This minimizes the pressure buildup in the debris and allows for continuing infiltration of the liquid coolant into the debris interior.

  15. A Comparison of Multi-Scale 3D X-ray Tomographic Inspection Techniques for Assessing Carbon Fibre Composite Impact Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Composite Impact Damage D.J. Bull1* , L. Helfen2 , I. Sinclair1 , S.M. Spearing1 , T. Baumbach2 1 Materials-scale damage assessment of carbon fibre composites subjected to impact damage, allowing various internal damage for creating an overall 3D damage assessment at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Overall, microfocus

  16. Reducing Damage Assessment Latency in Survivable Indrakshi Ray1, Ross M. McConnell1, Monte Lunacek1, and Vijay Kumar2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Indrakshi

    Reducing Damage Assessment Latency in Survivable Databases Indrakshi Ray1, Ross M. McConnell1 on other data items can help spread the damage. To prevent the damage from spreading, it is important to assess the damage and confine it as quickly as possible. Algorithms providing fast damage assessment

  17. Effects of measurement statistics on the detection of damage in the Alamosa Canyon Bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doebling, S.W.; Farrar, C.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Goodman, R.S. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a comparison of the statistics on the measured model parameters of a bridge structure to the expected changes in those parameters caused by damage. It is then determined if the changes resulting from damage are statistically significant. This paper considers the most commonly used modal parameters for indication of damage: modal frequency, mode shape, and mode shape curvature. The approach is divided into two steps. First, the relative uncertainties (arising from random error sources) of the measured modal frequencies, mode shapes, and mode shape curvatures are determined by Monte Carlo analysis of the measured data. Based on these uncertainties, 95% statistical confidence bounds are computed for these parameters. The second step is the determination of the measured change in these parameters resulting from structural damage. Changes which are outside the 95% bounds are considered to be statistically significant. It is proposed that this statistical significance can be used to selectively filter which modes are used for damage identification. The primary conclusion of the paper is that the selection of the appropriate parameters to use in the damage identification algorithm must take into account not only the sensitivity of the damage indicator to the structural deterioration, but also the uncertainty inherent in the measurement of the parameters used to compute the indicator.

  18. Damage identification algorithms applied to numerical modal data from a bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jauregui, D.V.; Farrar, C.R.

    1996-02-01

    This paper extends the work summarized in the accompanying paper {open_quotes}Comparison of Damage Identification Algorithms on Experimental Modal Data From A Bridge.{close_quotes} A finite element model of the continuous three-span portion of the I-40 bridges, which once crossed the Rio Grande in Albuquerque, NM, was constructed. Following the experimental modal analysis, the bridge tests are repeated analytically using benchmarked finite element models of the bridge. A combination of shell and beam elements form the bridge model. Damage was simulated by creating adjacent nodes and disconnecting the elements on either side of the crack. However, because of the discretization of the finite element models only the final three levels of damage were evaluated. In addition to the analytical simulation of the experiments, the girder crack was repositioned at other potential damage locations. Analytical modal parameters were extracted through signal processing techniques, similar to those used in the experimental investigation and subsequently fed into damage identification routines. These routines have been adapted from those presented at past IMAC conferences and are identical to the ones used in the experimental investigation reported in the accompanying paper. This study provides a direct comparison of the relative accuracy of these different damage identification methods when they are applied to a set of standard numerical problems. The numerical models allow a variety of damage scenarios to be studied once the models have been benchmarked against experimental data.

  19. DAMAGE MODELING OF INJECTION-MOLDED SHORT- AND LONG-FIBER THERMOPLASTICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.

    2009-10-30

    This article applies the recent anisotropic rotary diffusion – reduced strain closure (ARD-RSC) model for predicting fiber orientation and a new damage model for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs) to analyze progressive damage leading to total failure of injection-molded long-glass-fiber/polypropylene (PP) specimens. The ARD-RSC model was implemented in a research version of the Autodesk Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI) processing code, and it has been used to simulate injection-molding of a long-glass-fiber/PP plaque. The damage model combines micromechanical modeling with a continuum damage mechanics description to predict the nonlinear behavior due to plasticity coupled with damage in LFTs. This model has been implemented in the ABAQUS finite element code via user-subroutines and has been used in the damage analyses of tensile specimens removed from the injection-molded long-glass-fiber/PP plaques. Experimental characterization and mechanical testing were performed to provide input data to support and validate both process modeling and damage analyses. The predictions are in agreement with the experimental results.

  20. Genome-Wide Identification and 3D Modeling of Proteins involved in DNA Damage Recognition and Repair (Final Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruben A. Abagyan, PhD

    2004-04-15

    OAK-B135 DNA Damage Recognition and Repair (DDR and R) proteins play a critical role in cellular responses to low-dose radiation and are associated with cancer. the authors have performed a systematic, genome-wide computational analysis of genomic data for human genes involved in the DDR and R process. The significant achievements of this project include: (1) Construction of the computational pipeline for searching DDR and R genes, building and validation of 3D models of proteins involved in DDR and R; (2) Functional and structural annotation of the 3D models and generation of comprehensive lists of suggested knock-out mutations; (3) Important improvement of macromolecular docking technology and its application to predict the DNA-Protein complex conformation; (4) Development of a new algorithm for improved analysis of high-density oligonucleotide arrays for gene expression profiling; (5) Construction and maintenance of the DNA Damage Recognition and Repair Database; and (6) Producing 14 research papers (10 published and 4 in preparation).