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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

#include #include  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

process #12;#include #include pid_t pid = fork(); if (pid () failed */ } else if (pid == 0) { /* parent process */ } else { /* child process */ } #12;thread #12

Campbell, Andrew T.

2

#include #include  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#include #include //Rappels : "getpid()" permet d'obtenir son propre pid // "getppid()" renvoie le pid du père d'un processus int main (void) { pid_t pid_fils; pid_fils = fork(); if(pid_fils==-1) { printf("Erreur de création du processus fils\

Poinsot, Laurent

3

Controlling Opossum Damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

damage; however, their pelts can be sold only during the furbearer season and with the proper licenses. Other furbearers include beaver, otter, mink, nutria, ringtailed cat, badger, skunk, weasel, raccoon, muskrat, fox and civet cat. Homeowners...

Texas Wildlife Services

2007-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

4

Guest Editorial: Laser Damage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser damage of optical materials, first reported in 1964, continues to limit the output energy and power of pulsed and continuous-wave laser systems. In spite of some 48 years of research in this area, interest from the international laser community to laser damage issues remains at a very high level and does not show any sign of decreasing. Moreover, it grows with the development of novel laser systems, for example, ultrafast and short-wavelength lasers that involve new damage effects and specific mechanisms not studied before. This interest is evident from the high level of attendance and presentations at the annual SPIE Laser Damage Symposium (aka, Boulder Damage Symposium) that has been held in Boulder, Colorado, since 1969. This special section of Optical Engineering is the first one devoted to the entire field of laser damage rather than to a specific part. It is prepared in response to growing interest from the international laser-damage community. Some papers in this special section were presented at the Laser Damage Symposium; others were submitted in response to the general call for papers for this special section. The 18 papers compiled into this special section represent many sides of the broad field of laser-damage research. They consider theoretical studies of the fundamental mechanisms of laser damage including laser-driven electron dynamics in solids (O. Brenk and B. Rethfeld; A. Nikiforov, A. Epifanov, and S. Garnov; T. Apostolova et al.), modeling of propagation effects for ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses (J. Gulley), an overview of mechanisms of inclusion-induced damage (M. Koldunov and A. Manenkov), the formation of specific periodic ripples on a metal surface by femtosecond laser pulses (M. Ahsan and M. Lee), and the laser-plasma effects on damage in glass (Y. Li et al). Material characterization is represented by the papers devoted to accurate and reliable measurements of absorption with special emphasis on thin films (C. Mhlig and S. Bublitz; B. Cho, E. Danielewicz, and J. Rudisill; W. Palm et al; and J. Lu et al.). Statistical treatment of measurements of the laser-damage threshold (J. Arenberg) and the relationship to damage mechanisms (F. Wagner et al.) represent the large subfield of laser-damage measurements. Various aspects of multilayer coating and thin-film characterization are considered in papers by B. Cho, J. Rudisill, and E. Danielewicz (spectral shift in multilayer mirrors) and R. Weber et al. (novel approach to damage studies based on third-harmonic generation microscopy). Of special interest for readers is the paper by C. Stolz that summarizes the results of four thin-film damage competitions organized as a part of the Laser Damage Symposium. Another paper is devoted to thermal annealing of damage precursors (N. Shen et al.). Finally, the influence of nano-size contamination on initiation of laser damage by ultrashort pulses is considered in paper of V. Komolov et al.

Vitaly Gruzdev, Michelle D. Shinn

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Method for producing damage resistant optics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a system that mitigates the growth of surface damage in an optic. Damage to the optic is minimally initiated. In an embodiment of the invention, damage sites in the optic are initiated, located, and then treated to stop the growth of the damage sites. The step of initiating damage sites in the optic includes a scan of the optic using a laser to initiate defects. The exact positions of the initiated sites are identified. A mitigation process is performed that locally or globally removes the cause of subsequent growth of the damaged sites.

Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Burnham, Alan K. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Wegner, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Kozlowski, Mark R. (Windsor, CA); Feit, Michael D. (Livermore, CA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Environmental Stigma Damages: Speculative Damages in Environmental Tort Cases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contami- nation causing environmental damage cannot be seen,Damages: Speculative Damages in Environmental Tort Cases E.in cases of environmental damage, primar- ily because it is

Johnson, E. Jean

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Damage experiments in a cylindrical geometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studying spallation damage with a cylindrical configuration allows for a natural recollection of the damaged material under proper driving conditions. Additionally, the damaged material can come to a complete rest without the application of further stopping forces. Specific areas of research include the damage initiation regime in convergent geometry, behavior of material recollected after damage, and effects of convergent geometry on the material response. Such experiments produce unique strain and shear stress states, motivating improvements in existing computational material models and increasing the predictive capabilities of codes. A LANL/VNIIEF joint experimental series has produced cylindrical aluminum failure initiation data and studied the behavior of material recollected after damage initiation and after complete failure. In addition to post-shot collection of the damaged target material for subsequent metallographic analysis, dynamic in-situ experimental diagnostics include velocimetry and transverse radial radiography. This paper will discuss the current experimental status.

Kaul, Ann M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

8

Damage susceptibility tables  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

conditions, 3) that x-ray induced damage rates for a common material (relatively pure PVC in this example 7,8 ) can be used to normalize different sets of XPS damage...

9

Internship Contract (Includes Practicum)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Internship Contract (Includes Practicum) Student's name-mail: _________________________________________ Internship Agency Contact Agency Name: ____________________________________ Address-mail: __________________________________________ Location of Internship, if different from Agency: ________________________________________________ Copies

Thaxton, Christopher S.

10

Pump apparatus including deconsolidator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

11

E-Print Network 3.0 - actinides including cm Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: of waste actinides. Such damage can be studied by many techniques, including heavy-ionfast neutron... were presented and proposed, including; Fundamental studies...

12

Remote sensing and forest damage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Each year, damage to North American forests caused by insects, diseases, pollution, and fire results in multibillion dollar losses of revenue and resources. To respond to these losses effectively, forest managers need timely information on the location, extent, and spread of the damage. Traditional techniques for monitoring forest damage include high-resolution aerial photography, color infrared photography, and visual reconnaissance mapping. These techniques require visual interpretation of the data and often are somewhat subjective. In addition, because such analyses are time-consuming and costly, many areas of forest are never mapped, and in cases where maps exist, they often are obsolete or incomplete. An airborne imager has been developed to solve the problems of time-consuming visual analysis and interpretations. The Programmable Multispectral Imager measures small changes - invisible by conventional detection methods - in light reflected by the forest canopy. The PMI measures the color an intensity of reflected light and records this information digitally in computer tape aboard an aircraft. This information is then available for later entry into a computer for processing and enhancement. Although airborne imagers have been available for nearly three decades, they have not been used extensively for forest damage assessment or other forestry applications because of their poor sensitivity and their limited number of fixed spectral channels. The PMI is the first of a new generation of imagers that combine high sensitivity with the flexibility of continuous spectral coverage. This allows scientists to evaluate the potential causes and effects of stress on vegetation.

Reid, N.J.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Completion strategy includes clay and precipitate control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes the conditions which are necessary for a successful oil well completion in the Mississippi and Cherokee zones of South Central Kansas. Topics considered include paraffin precipitation, clay swelling and migration, and iron precipitation. Clays in these zones are sensitive to water-base treating fluids and tend to swell and migrate to the well bore, thereby causing permeability damage. The presence of iron in the Mississippi and Cherokee formations has been indicated by cuttings, core samples, and connate water samples.

Sandy, T.; Gardner, G.R.

1985-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

14

Controlling Beaver Damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Beavers are important because their dams stabilize creek flow, slow runoff and create ponds. However, these same dams can negatively alter the flow of creeks. Damage prevention, control and various trapping methods are discussed in this publication....

Texas Wildlife Services

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

15

Composite heat damage assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of heat damage were determined on the residual mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of IM6/3501-6 laminates, and potential nondestructive techniques to detect and assess material heat damage were evaluated. About one thousand preconditioned specimens were exposed to elevated temperatures, then cooled to room temperature and tested in compression, flexure, interlaminar shear, shore-D hardness, weight loss, and change in thickness. Specimens experienced significant and irreversible reduction in their residual properties when exposed to temperatures exceeding the material upper service temperature of this material (350{degrees}F). The Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform and Laser-Pumped Fluorescence techniques were found to be capable of rapid, in-service, nondestructive detection and quantitation of heat damage in IM6/3501- 6. These techniques also have the potential applicability to detect and assess heat damage effects in other polymer matrix composites.

Janke, C.J.; Wachter, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Philpot, H.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Powell, G.L. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

This article was downloaded by: [University of Arizona] On: 10 January 2013, At: 04:09  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that include solid electrolyte batteries, fuel cells etc [1]. The special attention is paid to the crystals, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly conductor where pro- tons can move in the subsystem of hydrogen bonds. The consideration is based

17

Regulation with anticipated learning about environmental damages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

abatement costs and environmental damages, and a generalemissions. 2.2 Environmental damages and learning Let S t begas stocks and environmental damages. In some respects these

Karp, L; Zhang, J

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

19

RESEARCH ARTICLE Increase in crop damage caused by wild boar (Sus scrofa L.)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH ARTICLE Increase in crop damage caused by wild boar (Sus scrofa L.): the "refuge effect /Published online: 14 October 2011 Abstract The occurrence of crop damage by wild boars raised dramatically, including hunting, can play a relevant role in causing crop damage. We studied a Mediterranean area

Boyer, Edmond

20

9 1990by The Humana Press Inc. All rights of any nature whatsoever reserved.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. SCHELL,*NORMAND. HINMAN, CHARLES E. WYMAN,AND PAMELAJ. WERDENE Biotechnology Research Branch, Solar Energy Research Institute, 16I 7 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401 ABSTRACT Cellulase, an enzyme-glucosidase into the culture broth, and some questions have existed about the advantages of using whole cell broth in SSF

California at Riverside, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

9 1989by The Humana Press Inc. All rights of any nature whatsoever reserved.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The economic impact of conversion of xylose to ethanol for a wood-to-ethanol plant was examined, and the maximum potential reduction in the price of ethanol from utilization of xylose is estimated to be $0.42 per gallon from a base case price of $1.65. The sensitivity of the price of ethanol to the yield

California at Riverside, University of

22

~Copyright 1988by The Humana Press Inc. All rights of any nature whatsoever reserved.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-2289/88/1700-0279/$02.80 Thermotolerant Yeast for Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Cellulose to Ethanol DIANED. SPINDLER in various fermentation studies involving cellulose to ethanol production. In addition, a S. cerevisiae evaluation on Sigmacell-50 cellulose with Genencor 150 L cellulase enzyme. Brettanomyces clausenii (Y-1414

California at Riverside, University of

23

Meals included in Conference Registrations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Meals included in Conference Registrations Meals included as part of the cost of a conference the most reasonable rates are obtained. Deluxe hotels and motels should be avoided. GSA rates have been for Georgia high cost areas. 75% of these amounts would be $21 for non- high cost areas and $27 for high cost

Arnold, Jonathan

24

Treatment of anisotropic damage development within a scalar damage formulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is concerned with describing a damage mechanics formulation which provides for non-isotropic effects using a scalar damage variable. An investigation has been in progress for establishing the constitutive behavior of rock salt at long times and low to moderate confining pressures in relation to the possible use of excavated rooms in rock salt formations as repositories for nuclear waste. An important consideration is the effect of damage manifested principally by the formation of shear induced wing cracks which have a stress dependent orientation. The analytical formulation utilizes a scalar damage parameter, but is capable of indicating the non- isotropic dependence of inelastic straining on the stress state and the confining pressure. Also, the equations indicate the possibility of volumetric expansions leading to the onset of tertiary creep and eventually rupture if the damage variable reaches a critical value.

Chan, K.S. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Bodner, S.R. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)][Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Controlling Raccoon Damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

itiscausingdamageorcreatinganuisance;howev- er, the pelt can be sold only during the furbearer seasonandwiththeproperlicenses.Otherfurbear- ers include beaver, otter, mink, ringtailed cat, bad- ger, skunk, nutria, weasel, opossum, muskrat, fox andcivetcat. Landowners wishing to live...

Texas Wildlife Services

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

Controlling Badger Damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

furbearers include otter, mink, ring-tailed cat, beaver, skunk, nutria, weasel, raccoon, opossum, muskrat, fox and civet cat. Landowners wishing to live trap badgers and relocate them after they have been caught must notify a representative of the Texas...

Texas Wildlife Damage Management Service

2004-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

27

Sponsorship includes: Agriculture in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sponsorship includes: · Agriculture in the Classroom · Douglas County Farm Bureau · Gifford Farm · University of Nebraska Agricultural Research and Development Center · University of Nebraska- Lincoln Awareness Coalition is to help youth, primarily from urban communities, become aware of agriculture

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

28

Evaluation of radiation damage using nonlinear ultrasound  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nonlinear ultrasound was used to monitor radiation damage in two reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. The microstructural changes associated with radiation damage include changes in dislocation density and the formation of precipitates, and nonlinear ultrasonic waves are known to be sensitive to such changes. Six samples each of two different RPV steels were previously irradiated in the Rheinsberg power reactor to two fluence levels, up to 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV). Longitudinal waves were used to measure the acoustic nonlinearity in these samples, and the results show a clear increase in the measured acoustic nonlinearity from the unirradiated state to the medium dose, and then a decrease from medium dose to high dose.

Matlack, K. H. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Wall, J. J. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, North Carolina 28262 (United States); Kim, J.-Y. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Qu, J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Jacobs, L. J. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Viehrig, H.-W. [Department of Structural Materials, Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Ion-Beam Physics and Materials Research, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Mechanisms and impact of damage resulting from hydraulic fracturing. Topical report, May 1995-July 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This topical report documents the mechanisms of formation damage following hydraulic fracturing and their impact upon gas well productivity. The categories of damage reviewed include absolute or matrix permeability damage, relative permeability alterations, the damage of natural fracture permeability mechanisms and proppant conductivity impairment. Case studies are reviewed in which attempts are made to mitigate each of the damage types. Industry surveys have been conducted to determine the perceptions of the industry on the topic of formation damage following hydraulic fracturing and to identify key formations in which formation damage is a problem. From this information, technical hurdles and new technology needs are identified and estimates are made of the benefits of developing and applying minimum formation damage technology.

Penny, G.S.; Conway, M.W.; Almond, S.W.; Himes, R.; Nick, K.E.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

BDS thin film damage competition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

Stolz, C J; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

31

Long-term models of oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in insulin resistance progression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

factors [8, 9]. Common environmental influences include a high fat-high calorie diet, lack of physical in mitochondria. The resulting oxidative stress can damage resident proteins, including antioxidants, along

Adler, Fred

32

An Economic Analysis of Erosion and Sediment Damage in the Duck Creek Watershed, Dickens County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and voluntary policies are considered. Economic impacts examined include: (a) impacts of the policies on farm income; (b) government costs associated with the policies, including administration costs; (c) off-site sediment damages that would be abated; and (d...

Reneau, D. R.; Taylor, C. R.; Harris, B. L.; Lacewell, R.D.; Mueller, P. E.

33

Identification and Elimination of Mechanisms Leading to UV Damage of DKDP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This LDRD project addressed both bulk and surface damage induced by UV-laser exposure. The primary objectives were (1) to complete our understanding of the factors leading to bulk damage, including growth conditions and orientational direction, and (2) to identify mechanisms of surface damage initiation and growth leading to mitigation methods. Due to the more advanced state of knowledge in bulk damage, a greater portion of that work was completed during the one-year term of this project. Three papers were presented at the 32nd Boulder Damage Symposium on Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, and the three resulting manuscripts submitted to the Proceeding are attached: An important result from this work is that it established a dependence of obscuration from bulk damage on fluence and pulse length, which is shown.

Burnham, A; Runkel, M; Chase, L; Demos, S; Staggs, M; Siekhaus, W

2001-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

34

NONLINEAR ACOUSTIC IMAGING OF STRUCTURAL DAMAGES IN LAMINATED COMPOSITES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are performed on a carbon fiber/epoxy laminated composite plate with barely visible impact damage and requires an ever increasing accuracy of detection. A good example is the inspection of composite materials been applied to a variety of materials including rocks [4], metals [5-10] and composites [11

Boyer, Edmond

35

A damage model for fracking  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Injections of large volumes of water into tight shale reservoirs allows the extraction of oil and gas not previously accessible. This large volume "super" fracking induces damage that allows the oil and/or gas to flow to an extraction well. The purpose of this paper is to provide a model for understanding super fracking. We assume that water is injected from a small spherical cavity into a homogeneous elastic medium. The high pressure of the injected water generates hoop stresses that reactivate natural fractures in the tight shales. These fractures migrate outward as water is added creating a spherical shell of damaged rock. The porosity associated with these fractures is equal to the water volume injected. We obtain an analytic expression for this volume. We apply our model to a typical tight shale reservoir and show that the predicted water volumes are in good agreement with the volumes used in super fracking.

Norris, J Quinn; Rundle, John B

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Analysis of tank damage during the 1994 Northridge earthquake  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The damage sustained by cylindrical liquid storage tanks during the 1994 Northridge earthquake is summarized. It included elephant foot buckling, anchor failure and roof-shell connection separation. A few of the important lessons learned, in particular, as related to the accuracy of code computations in predicting the actual behavior of these structures are outlined. A detailed case study is presented to illustrate the application of current seismic design standards to a damaged unanchored tank and to demonstrate the use of a state-of-the-art finite element analysis in assessing the seismic safety of the same tank.

Haroun, M.A.; Bhatia, H. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

37

On Damage Propagation in a Soft Low-Permeability Formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this presentation, we develop a mathematical model of fluid flow with changing formation properties. The modification of formation permeability is caused by development of a connected system of fractures. As the fluids are injected or withdrawn from the reservoir, the balance between the pore pressure and the geostatic formation stresses is destroyed. If the strength of the rock is not sufficient to accommodate such an imbalance, the cementing bonds between the rock grains become broken. Such a process is called damage propagation. The micromechanics and the basic mathematical model of damage propagation have been studied in [7]. The theory was further developed in [3], where new nonlocal damage propagation model has been studied. In [2] this theory has been enhanced by incorporation of the coupling between damage propagation and fluid flow. As it has been described above, the forced fluid flow causes changes in the rock properties including formation permeability. At the same time, changing permeability facilitates fluid flow and, therefore, enhances damage propagation. One of the principle concepts introduced in [3] and [2] is the characterization of damage by a dimensionless ratio of the number of broken bonds to the number of bonds in pristine rock per unit volume. It turns out, that the resulting mathematical model consist of a system of two nonlinear parabolic equations. As it has been shown in [6] using modeling of micromechanical properties of sedimentary rocks, at increasing stress the broken bonds coalesce into a system of cracks surrounding practically intact matrix blocks. These blocks have some characteristic size and a regular geometry. The initial microcracks expand, interact with each other, coalesce and form bigger fractures, etc. Therefore, as the damage is accumulated, the growing system of connected fractures determines the permeability of the reservoir rock. Significant oil deposits are stored in low-permeability soft rock reservoirs such as shales, chalks and diatomites [9, 10]. The permeability of the pristine formation matrix in such reservoirs is so low that oil production was impossible until hydraulic fracturing was applied. For development of correct production policy, it is very significant to adequately understand and predict how fast and to what extend the initial damage induced by drilling and hydrofracturing will propagate into the reservoir. The importance of fractures for rock flow properties is a well-established and recognized fact [4, 9, 5]. Different conceptual models have been developed [8]. In this study, we propose a damage propagation model based on a combination of the model of double-porosity and double-permeability medium [4] and a modification of the model of damage propagation developed in [2].

Silin, D.; Patzek, T.; Barenblatt, G.I.

2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

38

High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We nd that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.

Zarkadoula, Evangelia [Queen Mary, University of London] [Queen Mary, University of London; Devanathan, Ram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Weber, William J [ORNL] [ORNL; Seaton, M [Daresbury Laboratory, UK] [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Todorov, I T [Daresbury Laboratory, UK] [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Nordlund, Kai [University of Helsinki] [University of Helsinki; Dove, Martin T [Queen Mary, University of London] [Queen Mary, University of London; Trachenko, Kostya [Queen Mary, University of London] [Queen Mary, University of London

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Oxidative stress and oxidative damage in chemical carcinogenesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are induced through a variety of endogenous and exogenous sources. Overwhelming of antioxidant and DNA repair mechanisms in the cell by ROS may result in oxidative stress and oxidative damage to the cell. This resulting oxidative stress can damage critical cellular macromolecules and/or modulate gene expression pathways. Cancer induction by chemical and physical agents involves a multi-step process. This process includes multiple molecular and cellular events to transform a normal cell to a malignant neoplastic cell. Oxidative damage resulting from ROS generation can participate in all stages of the cancer process. An association of ROS generation and human cancer induction has been shown. It appears that oxidative stress may both cause as well as modify the cancer process. Recently association between polymorphisms in oxidative DNA repair genes and antioxidant genes (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and human cancer susceptibility has been shown.

Klaunig, James E., E-mail: jklauni@indiana.edu; Wang Zemin; Pu Xinzhu; Zhou Shaoyu

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

International Trade and the Internalization of Environmental Damages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

estimates of environmental damages efficiently and quickly,an overview of environmental damages and internalizationdo little to decrease environmental damage, and may actually

Karp, Larry; Dumas, Christopher F.; Koo, Bonwoo; Sacheti, Sandeep

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Radiation Damage in Polarized Ammonia Solids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid NH3 and ND3 provide a highly polarizable, radiation resistant source of polarized protons and deuterons and have been used extensively in high luminosity experiments investigating the spin structure of the nucleon. Over the past twenty years, the UVA polarized target group has been instrumental in producing and polarizing much of the material used in these studies, and many practical considerations have been learned in this time. In this discussion, we analyze the polarization performance of the solid ammonia targets used during the recent JLab Eg4 run. Topics include the rate of polarization decay with accumulated charge, the annealing procedure for radiation damaged targets to recover polarization, and the radiation induced change in optimum microwave frequency used to polarize the sample. We also discuss the success we have had in implementing frequency modulation of the polarizing microwave frequency.

K. Slifer

2007-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

42

Competition between mesoplasticity and damage under HCF Elasticity/damage shakedown concept  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

during all the sample lifetime of the plasticity and damage effects. The plasticity mechanisms induce in the framework of the continuum damage mechanics, according to the identified physical mechanisms during, the damage growth arrest. Keywords High cycle fatigue; Multiaxial loading; Continuum damage mechanics

Boyer, Edmond

43

28-nm laser damage testing of LIF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have tested several samples of LIF, both single crystal and press forged, for damage resistance to 10-ns 248-nm pulses at 35 pps. The damage thresholds - the highest levels at which no damage could be produced - ranged from 4 to 6 J/cm/sup 2/ although some test sites survived irradiation at approx. 30 J/cm/sup 2/. We observed that bulk damage is the primary failure mechanism in single crystal and press forged samples and that both types exhibit the same resistance to laser damage.

Foltyn, S.R.; Newman, B.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Influence of fundamental material properties and air void structure on moisture damage of asphalt mixes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the properties of the materials and the microstructure distribution, while the external factors include the environmental conditions, production and construction practices, pavement design, and traffic level. The majority of the research on moisture damage...

Arambula Mercado, Edith

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

On the economic optimality of marine reserves when fishing damages habitat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, I expand a spatially-explicit bioeconomic fishery model to include the negative effects of fishing effort on habitat quality. I consider two forms of effort driven habitat damage: First, fishing effort may ...

Moeller, Holly Villacorta

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Cell damage seen from Chernobyl  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 30 kilometer radius forbidden zone around the Chernobyl atomic plant serves as a sobering reminder of the world's worst nuclear accident. But for former Soviet biologists, it's also a unique natural laboratory. And one scientist, Nadejda Gulaya of Kiev's Pallaguine Institute of Biochemistry, has been doing studies that she claims offer surprising evidence of Chernobyl's after-effects. Prolonged exposure to radioactive fallout from the 1986 accident, she says, has caused damage to cell membranes in both animals and humans. For the past year, Gulaya has been comparing tissues from animals such as mink, pigs, and rodents inhabiting the Chernobyl area with those from other parts of Ukraine. Her conclusion: Exposure to radiation has, in many cases, caused alterations to membrane phospholipids. These changes, are similar to those that disrupt cellular metabolism following exposure to oxidizing free radicals. Gulaya also has preliminary data from human studies. She claims to have found similar alterations in the neurons of people who have died since being exposed to Chernobyl radiation. That leads her to speculate that the frequent psychiatric disorders may not just be from mental stress or radiophobia, but might reflect actual damage to the central nervous system.

Not Available

1992-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

47

Prices include compostable serviceware and linen tablecloths  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPETIZERS Prices include compostable serviceware and linen tablecloths for the food tables.ucdavis.edu. BUTTERNUT SQUASH & BLACK BEAN ENCHILADAS #12;BUFFETS Prices include compostable serviceware and linen

California at Davis, University of

48

(INCLUDING ANY CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF EPRI OR ANY EPRI REPRESENTATIVE HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES) RESULTING FROM YOUR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with Section 734.3(b)(3) and published in accordance with Section 734.7 of the U.S. Export Administration Regulations. As a result of this publication, this report is subject to only copyright protection and does not require any license agreement from EPRI. This notice supersedes the export control restrictions and any proprietary licensed material notices embedded in the document prior to publication. Graphite Decommissioning

C. Wood; Bradtec Decon Technologies

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Nanofoams Response to Radiation Damage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) np-Au foams were successfully synthesized by de-alloying process; (2) np-Au foams remain porous structure after Ne ion irradiation to 1 dpa; (3) SFTs were observed in irradiated np-Au foams with highest and intermediate flux, while no SFTs were observed with lowest flux; (4) SFTs were observed in irradiated np-Au foams at RT, whereas no SFTs were observed at LNT irradiation; (5) The diffusivity of vacancies in Au at RT is high enough so that the vacancies have enough time to agglomerate and thus collapse. As a result, SFTs were formed; (6) The high flux created much more damage/time, vacancies don't have enough time to diffuse or recombine. As a result, SFTs were formed.

Fu, Engang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Serrano De Caro, Magdalena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yongqiang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nastasi, Michael [Nebraska Center for Energy Sciences Research, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE 68508; Zepeda-Ruiz, Luis [PLS, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551; Bringa, Eduardo M. [CONICET and Inst. Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, 5500 Argentina; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Caro, Jose A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

50

Insulator damage endangers public, power reliability; ratepayers...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Insulator-damage-endangers-public-power-reliability-ratepayers-foot-repair-bill Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us...

51

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Personal fall-protection systems include a body harness (safe-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Personal fall-protection systems include a body harness so they will not be damaged. Personal Fall-Protection Systems Safety Tip #8 Just because you always;Additional Information for Presenters Review the information provided on the reverse side of this safety tip

Minnesota, University of

52

GENETIC AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF DNA DAMAGE REPAIR AND TOLERANCE PATHWAYS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiation can damage cellular components, including DNA. Organisms have developed a panoply of means of dealing with DNA damage. Some repair paths have rather narrow substrate specificity (e.g. photolyases), which act on specific pyrimidine photoproducts in a specific type (e.g., DNA) and conformation (double-stranded B conformation) of nucleic acid. Others, for example, nucleotide excision repair, deal with larger classes of damages, in this case bulky adducts in DNA. A detailed discussion of DNA repair mechanisms is beyond the scope of this article, but one can be found in the excellent book of Friedberg et al. [1] for further detail. However, some DNA damages and paths for repair of those damages important for photobiology will be outlined below as a basis for the specific examples of genetic and molecular analysis that will be presented below.

SUTHERLAND, B.M.

2001-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

53

Strategic petroleum reserve caverns casing damage update 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hanging casing strings are used for oil and brine transfer in the domal salt storage caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Damage to these casings is of concern because hanging string replacement is costly and because of implications on cavern stability. Although the causes of casing damage are not always well defined, many events leading to damage are assumed to be the result of salt falls impacting the hanging strings. However, in some cases, operational aspects may be suspected. The history of damage to hanging strings is updated in this study to include the most recent events. Potential general domal and local operational and material factors that could influence the tendency for caverns to have salt falls are examined in detail. As a result of this examination, general factors, such as salt dome anomalies and crude type, and most of the operational factors, such as geometry, location and depressurizations, are not believed to be primary causes of casing damage. Further analysis is presented of the accumulation of insolubles during cavern solutioning and accumulation of salt fall material on the cavern floor. Inaccuracies in sump geometry probably make relative cavern insolubles contents uncertain. However, determination of the salt fall accumulations, which are more accurate, suggest that the caverns with the largest salt fall accumulations show the greatest number of hanging string events. There is good correlation between the accumulation rate and the number of events when the event numbers are corrected to an equivalent number for a single hanging string in a quiescent, operating cavern. The principal factor that determines the propensity for a cavern to exhibit this behavior is thought to be the effect of impurity content on the fracture behavior of salt.

Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A.; Neal, J.T. [and others

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

A new damage testing system for detailed evaluation of damage behavior of bulk KDP and DKDP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a new damage testing approach and instrumentation that provides quantitative measurements of bulk damage performance versus fluence for several frequencies. A major advantage of this method is that it can simultaneously provide direct information on pinpoint density and size, and beam obscuration. This allows for more accurate evaluation of material performance under operational conditions. Protocols for laser conditioning to improve damage performance can also be easily and rapidly evaluated.This damage testing approach has enabled us to perform complex experiments toward probing the fundamental mechanisms of damage initiation and conditioning.

DeMange, P; Negres, R A; Carr, C W; Radousky, H B; Demos, S G

2004-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

55

Pathogenic Mechanisms in Ischemic Damage: A Computational Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pathogenic Mechanisms in Ischemic Damage: A Computational Study Eytan Ruppin and Elad Ofer Depts of ischemic tissue damage during acute stroke. Two prime pathogenic mechanisms, cor- tical spreading the patterns of damage that arise if damage is caused by either mechanism are generated. These damaged tissue

Ruppin, Eytan

56

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Net Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) Period 2000 2001 (2) 2002 2003 2004 "gross" to "net" , was deemed impractical. (5) This report replaces the Gross Taxable Gasoline Gallons (Including Aviation Gasoline) report which will not be produced after December 2002. (6) The November 2007

57

Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the optical components required to utilize XFEL beams, including radiation damage. Theoretical workDamage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength SC were exposed to single 25 fs long pulses of 32.5 nm free-electron-laser radiation at fluences of up

von der Linde, D.

58

Assessment of damage to geomembrane liners by shredded scrap tires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a field and laboratory study performed to assess damage to the geomembrane liner caused by using shredded scrap tires as a leachate drainage layer material in landfills. The field testing was performed to assess the damage that occurred to the geomembrane liner during construction and included nine tests conducted with different combinations of tire chip size and thickness, both with a geotextile and without a geotextile overlying the geomembrane, and under different loading conditions. The laboratory testing was performed to characterize the shredded tires, particularly their size distribution, hydraulic conductivity, compressibility, and chemical resistance. The laboratory testing also included performing simulation testing to determine the extent of damage that occurs to the geomembrane liner by the shredded tires under long-term waste-loading conditions. the damage that occurred to the geomembrane liners in both field tests and simulated laboratory tests was determined by visual observations as well as by conducting multi-axial tension tests, wide strip tension tests, and water vapor transmission tests on the exhumed geomembrane samples. Based on these results, a 0.46-m thick layer of secondary shred tire chips, with an average size of 7.6 cm, placed over a 543-g/m{sup 2} geotextile installed over a geomembrane liner using low-ground-pressure (<58 kPa) equipment was determined to provide adequate protection in the geomembrane liner during construction. The degree of protection offered under long-term loading conditions depends on the normal stress and the random orientation of the shredded tire chips at the geomembrane interface.

Reddy, K.R.; Saichek, R.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Materials Engineering

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Carbon Fiber Damage in Accelerator Beam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon fibers are commonly used as moving targets in Beam Wire Scanners. Because of their thermomechanical properties they are very resistant to particle beams. Their strength deteriorates with time due to radiation damage and low-cycle thermal fatigue. In case of high intensity beams this process can accelerate and in extreme cases the fiber is damaged during a single scan. In this work a model describing the fiber temperature, thermionic emission and sublimation is discussed. Results are compared with fiber damage test performed on SPS beam in November 2008. In conclusions the limits of Wire Scanner operation on high intensity beams are drawn.

Sapinski, M; Guerrero, A; Koopman, J; Mtral, E

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

War damages and reconstruction of Peruca dam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper describes the heavy damages caused by blasting in the Peruca rockfill dam in Croatia in January 1993. Complete collapse of the dam by overtopping was prevented through quick action of the dam owner by dumping clayey gravel on the lowest sections of the dam crest and opening the bottom outlet of the reservoir, thus efficiently lowering the water level. After the damages were sufficiently established and alternatives for restoration of the dam were evaluated, it was decided to construct a diaphragm wall through the damaged core in the central dam part as the impermeable dam element and to rebuild the central clay core at the dam abutments. Reconstruction works are described.

Nonveiller, E. [Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Civil Engineering] [Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Civil Engineering; Rupcic, J. [Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Civil Engineering] [Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Civil Engineering; [Elektroprojekt Consulting Engineering, Zagreb (Croatia); Sever, Z. [Elektroprojekt Consulting Engineering, Zagreb (Croatia)] [Elektroprojekt Consulting Engineering, Zagreb (Croatia)

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Analysis of high resolution scatter images from laser damage experiments performed on KDP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interest in producing high damage threshold KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KDP) and (D{sub x}H{sub 1-x}){sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KD*P, DKDP) for optical switching and frequency conversion applications is being driven by the system requirements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL). Historically, the path to achieving higher damage thresholds has been to improve the purity of crystal growth solutions. Application of advanced filtration technology has increased the damage threshold, but gives little insight into the actual mechanisms of laser damage. We have developed a laser scatter diagnostic to better study bulk defects and laser damage mechanisms in KDP and KD*P crystals. This diagnostic consists of a cavity doubled, kilohertz class, Nd:YLF laser (527 nm) and high dynamic range CCD camera which allows imaging of bulk scatter signals. With it, we have performed damage tests at 355 nm on four different {open_quotes}vintages{close_quotes} of KDP crystals, concentrating on crystals produced via fast growth methods. We compare the diagnostic`s resolution to LLNL`s standard damage detection method of 100X darkfield microscopy and discuss its impact on damage threshold determination. We have observed the disappearance of scatter sites upon exposure to subthreshold irradiation. In contrast, we have seen scatterers appear where none previously existed. This includes isolated, large (high signal) sites as well as multiple small scatter sites which appear at fluences above 7 J/cm{sup 2} (fine tracking). However, we have not observed a strong correlation of preexisting scatter sites and laser damage sites. We speculate on the connection between the laser-induced disappearance of scatter sites and the observed increase in damage threshold with laser conditioning.

Runkel, M.; Woods, B.; Yan, M. [and others

1996-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

62

EE Regional Technology Roadmap Includes comparison  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EE Regional Technology Roadmap Includes comparison against 6th Power Plan (Update cyclically Data Clearinghouse BPA/RTF NEEA/Regional Programs Group Update Regional EE Technology Roadmap Lighting

63

DIDACTICAL HOLOGRAPHIC EXHIBIT INCLUDING (HOLOGRAPHIC TELEVISION)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DIDACTICAL HOLOGRAPHIC EXHIBIT INCLUDING HoloTV (HOLOGRAPHIC TELEVISION) José J. Lunazzi , DanielCampinasSPBrasil Abstract: Our Institute of Physics exposes since 1980 didactical exhibitions of holography in Brazil where

de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.

64

Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

65

Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

66

Assessing United States hurricane damage under different environmental conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hurricane activity between 1979 and 2011 was studied to determine damage statistics under different environmental conditions. Hurricanes cause billions of dollars of damage every year in the United States, but damage ...

Maheras, Anastasia Francis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Beam damage of poly(2-chloroethyl methylacrylate) [PCEMA] films...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

evaluating x-ray damage. PCEMA has been shown to be more sensitive to degradation than PVC which has also been used as a damage sensitive material useful for comparison of damage...

68

Formation damage in underbalanced drilling operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formation damage has long been recognized as a potential source of reduced productivity and injectivity in both horizontal and vertical wells. From the moment that the pay zone is being drilled until the well is put on production, a formation...

Reyes Serpa, Carlos Alberto

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Laser Damage Precursors in Fused Silica  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a longstanding, and largely unexplained, correlation between the laser damage susceptibility of optical components and both the surface quality of the optics, and the presence of near surface fractures in an optic. In the present work, a combination of acid leaching, acid etching, and confocal time resolved photoluminescence (CTP) microscopy has been used to study laser damage initiation at indentation sites. The combination of localized polishing and variations in indentation loads allows one to isolate and characterize the laser damage susceptibility of densified, plastically flowed and fractured fused silica. The present results suggest that: (1) laser damage initiation and growth are strongly correlated with fracture surfaces, while densified and plastically flowed material is relatively benign, and (2) fracture events result in the formation of an electronically defective rich surface layer which promotes energy transfer from the optical beam to the glass matrix.

Miller, P; Suratwala, T; Bude, J; Laurence, T A; Shen, N; Steele, W A; Feit, M; Menapace, J; Wong, L

2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

70

Thin Film Femtosecond Laser Damage Competition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors, a damage competition was started at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state of the art of high laser resistance coatings since they are tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. In 2009 a high reflector coating was selected at a wavelength of 786 nm at normal incidence at a pulse length of 180 femtoseconds. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials and layer count, and spectral results will also be shared.

Stolz, C J; Ristau, D; Turowski, M; Blaschke, H

2009-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

71

Micropatterned cell arrays for detecting DNA damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerous agents are capable of interacting with DNA and damaging it. Permanent changes in the DNA structure can be both mutagenic and cytotoxic; therefore, methods to measure the susceptibility of cells to mutations are ...

Mittal, Sukant

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Structural damage detection using frequency response functions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.........................90 5.1.2 Case 3: 1 st - 3 rd Story Braces Are Damaged .................................................92 5.1.2.1 All Four Modes Are Used for Damage Detection..........................95 5.1.2.2 The Last Two Modes... for Trial #2 with Hillclimbing #739 .......................................................................................................... 92 Figure 5.8 FRF for the 1 st Floor 1 st - 3 rd Story Braces Are Broken SIMO 12 DOF Symmetric...

Dincal, Selcuk

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

73

Quantitative damage evaluation of localized deep pitting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Localized deep pitting is considered difficult to precisely measure and evaluate using simple techniques and daily-use analysis approaches. A case study was made of carbon steel heat exchangers in a typical fresh cooling water environment that experienced severe pitting. To effectively and precisely evaluate the encountered pitting damage, a simple measurement and analyses approach was devised. In this article, the pitting measurement technique and the damage evaluation approach are presented and discussed in detail.

Al Beed, A.A.; Al Garni, M.A.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Atomic-Scale Simulations of Cascade Overlap and Damage Evolution...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic-Scale Simulations of Cascade Overlap and Damage Evolution in Silicon Carbide. Atomic-Scale Simulations of Cascade Overlap and Damage Evolution in Silicon Carbide. Abstract:...

75

Exemplary Hurricane Damage Cleanup Earns Petroleum Reserve Coveted...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Exemplary Hurricane Damage Cleanup Earns Petroleum Reserve Coveted Environmental Award Exemplary Hurricane Damage Cleanup Earns Petroleum Reserve Coveted Environmental Award April...

76

Scramjet including integrated inlet and combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a scramjet engine. It comprises: a first surface including an aft facing step; a cowl including: a leading edge and a trailing edge; an upper surface and a lower surface extending between the leading edge and the trailing edge; the cowl upper surface being spaced from and generally parallel to the first surface to define an integrated inlet-combustor therebetween having an inlet for receiving and channeling into the inlet-combustor supersonic inlet airflow; means for injecting fuel into the inlet-combustor at the step for mixing with the supersonic inlet airflow for generating supersonic combustion gases; and further including a spaced pari of sidewalls extending between the first surface to the cowl upper surface and wherein the integrated inlet-combustor is generally rectangular and defined by the sidewall pair, the first surface and the cowl upper surface.

Kutschenreuter, P.H. Jr.; Blanton, J.C.

1992-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

77

Experimental determination of the relationship between permeability and microfracture-induced damage in bedded salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of deep underground structures (e.g., shafts, mines, storage and disposal caverns) significantly alters the stress state in the rock near the structure or opening. The effect of such an opening is to concentrate the far-field stress near the free surface. For soft rock such as salt, the concentrating effect of the opening induces deviatoric stresses in the salt that may be large enough to initiate microcracks which then propagate with time. The volume of rock susceptible to damage by microfracturing is often referred to as the disturbed rock zone and, by its nature, is expected to exhibit high permeability relative to that of the native, far-field rock. This paper presents laboratory data that characterize microfracture-induced damage and the effect this damage has on permeability for bedded salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant located in southeastern New Mexico. Damage is induced in the salt through a series of tertiary creep experiments and quantified in terms of dilatant volumetric strain. The permeability of damaged specimens is then measured using nitrogen gas as the permeant. The range in damage investigated included dilatant volumetric strains from less than 0.03 percent to nearly 4.0 percent. Permeability values corresponding to these damage levels ranged from 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2} to 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} m{sup 2}. Two simple models were fitted to the data for use in predicting permeability from dilatant volumetric strain.

Pfeifle, T.W. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Brodsky, N.S.; Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

Not Available

1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

79

Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable Communication Devices Pavel Somavat1 consumption, questions are being asked about the energy contribution of computing equipment. Al- though studies have documented the share of energy consumption by this type of equipment over the years, research

Namboodiri, Vinod

80

Communication in automation, including networking and wireless  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Communication in automation, including networking and wireless Nicholas Kottenstette and Panos J and networking in automation is given. Digital communication fundamentals are reviewed and networked control are presented. 1 Introduction 1.1 Why communication is necessary in automated systems Automated systems use

Antsaklis, Panos

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Ultra-fast photoluminescence as a diagnostic for laser damage initiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using high-sensitivity confocal time-resolved photoluminescence (CTP) techniques, we report an ultra-fast photoluminescence (40ps-5ns) from impurity-free surface flaws on fused silica, including polished, indented or fractured surfaces of fused silica, and from laser-heated evaporation pits. This fast photoluminescence (PL) is not associated with slower point defect PL in silica which has characteristic decay times longer than 5ns. Fast PL is excited by the single photon absorption of sub-band gap light, and is especially bright in fractures. Regions which exhibit fast PL are strongly absorptive well below the band gap, as evidenced by a propensity to damage with 3.5eV ns-scale laser pulses, making CTP a powerful non-destructive diagnostic for laser damage in silica. The use of CTP to provide insights into the nature of damage precursors and to help develop and evaluate new damage mitigation strategies will be presented.

Laurence, T A; Bude, J D; Shen, N; Miller, P E; Steele, W A; Guss, G; Adams, J J; Wong, L L; Feit, M D; Suratwala, T I

2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

82

Impact of contaminates on the laser damage threshold of 1w HR coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In operational laser systems, it is often difficult to keep optical components completely free of foreign material. We have investigated the performance of high damage threshold 1.053 {micro}m high reflectors in the presence of surface contaminants. We have looked at the impact of stainless steel, aluminum, Azurlite{reg_sign}, dust, cotton fibers and polyester fibers on the performance of the mirrors under laser irradiation. The first four contaminants were deposited in sizes ranging from 30 microns to 150 microns. The fibers included lengths ranging to several millimeters. The testing was done at either a single fluence in the range of 6 J/cm{sup 2} to 24 J/cm{sup 2}, or a ramped sequence of shots starting at 1 J/cm{sup 2}. We will present data showing the onset of damage, the type of damage, and the propensity to damage growth in the fluence range studied.

Norton, M A; Stolz, C J; Donohue, E; Hollingsworth, W G; Listiyo, K; Pryatel, J A; Hackel, R P

2005-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

83

Subterranean barriers including at least one weld  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Richardson, John G.; Walsh, Stephanie; Kostelnik, Kevin M.

2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

84

Power generation method including membrane separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

Snitchler, Gregory L. (Shrewsbury, MA); Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Voccio, John P. (Somerville, MA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

Rouse, Carl A. (Del Mar, CA); Simnad, Massoud T. (La Jolla, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

Not Available

1990-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

88

Creep damage mechanisms in composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the past year, research has focused on processing and characterization of intermetallic composites synthesized by plasma spray deposition. This versatile process allows rapid synthesis of a variety of different composite systems with potential applications for coatings, functionally gradient materials, rapid proto-typing and 3d printing, as well as near-net-shape processing of complex shapes. We have been pursuing an experimental program of research aimed at a fundamental understanding of the microstructural processes involved in the synthesis of intermetallic composites, including diffusion, heat transfer, grain boundary migration, and the dependence of these phenomena on deposition parameters. The work has been motivated by issues arising from composite materials manufacturing technologies. Recent progress is described in section B on the following topics: (1) Reactive atomization and deposition of intermetallic composites (Ni3Al); (2) Reactive synthesis of MoSi2-SiC composites; (3) Mechanical alloying of nanocrystalline alloys; (4) Tensile creep deformation of BMAS glass-ceramic composites.

Nutt, S.R.

1994-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

89

Fretting Corrosion Damage of Total Hip Prosthesis: Friction Coefficient and Damage Rate Constant Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Fretting Corrosion Damage of Total Hip Prosthesis: Friction Coefficient and Damage Rate Constant Building, University Park 16802 PA USA 4 Chair Professor Center for Research Excellence in Corrosion hip prosthesis. Fretting corrosion tests were conducted with stainless steel and poly (methyl

Boyer, Edmond

90

To be submitted to Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics From the onset of damage to rupture: construction of responses with damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To be submitted to Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics From the onset of damage to rupture: construction of responses with damage localization for a general class of gradient damage models Kim Pham solutions for the traction problem of an elastic damaging bar. This bar has a softening behavior which obeys

Boyer, Edmond

91

Optical panel system including stackable waveguides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

DeSanto, Leonard (Dunkirk, MD); Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

92

Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.

Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

Optical panel system including stackable waveguides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

95

AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF RAMAN LASER INDUCED DAMAGE ON CDZNTECRYSTAL SURFACES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High quality CdZnTe (or CZT) crystals have the potential for use in room temperature gamma-ray and X-ray spectrometers. Over the last decade, the methods for growing high quality CZT have improved the quality of the produced crystals however there are material features that can influence the performance of these materials as radiation detectors. The presence of structural heterogeneities within the crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), and secondary phases (SPs) can have an impact on the detector performance. There is considerable need for reliable and reproducible characterization methods for the measurement of crystal quality. With improvements in material characterization and synthesis, these crystals may become suitable for widespread use in gamma radiation detection. Characterization techniques currently utilized to test for quality and/or to predict performance of the crystal as a gamma-ray detector include infrared (IR) transmission imaging, synchrotron X-ray topography, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. In some cases, damage caused by characterization methods can have deleterious effects on the crystal performance. The availability of non-destructive analysis techniques is essential to validate a crystal's quality and its ability to be used for either qualitative or quantitative gamma-ray or X-ray detection. The work presented herein discusses the damage that occurs during characterization of the CZT surface by a laser during Raman spectroscopy, even at minimal laser powers. Previous Raman studies have shown that the localized annealing from tightly focused, low powered lasers results in areas of higher Te concentration on the CZT surface. This type of laser damage on the surface resulted in decreased detector performance which was most likely due to increased leakage current caused by areas of higher Te concentration. In this study, AFM was used to characterize the extent of damage to the CZT crystal surface following exposure to a Raman laser. AFM data reveal localized surface damage and increased conductivity in the areas exposed to the Raman laser beam.

Teague, L.; Duff, M.

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

96

Integrating natural resource damage assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

NONE

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2007, Proceedings of the SPIE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Boulder Damage Symposium is the leading forum for the exchange of information on the physics/technology of materials for high power/high energy lasers. The series of conference proceedings has grown to be a comprehensive source of information on optics for lasers and includes topics on materials and thin film preparation, durability, properties modeling, testing, and component fabrication. Four subject areas comprise core topics within the Symposium. These include: Thin Films; Materials and Measurements; Fundamental Mechanisms; and, Surfaces and Mirrors. To insure that the meeting is indeed dynamic, a Mini-Symposium is offered each year in a subject area of current interest to the laser-damage community. This year the focus is on damage issues in fiber laser systems. Key issues in this current technical program that are distributed among the respective topical areas, tend to emphasize shorter wavelength irradiation and ultrashort pulsewidths.

Exarhos, Gregory J.; Guenther, Arthur H.; Lewis, Keith L.; Ristau, Detlev; Soileau, M. J.; Stolz, Christopher J.

2008-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

99

Models of Procyon A including seismic constraints  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detailed models of Procyon A based on new asteroseismic measurements by Eggenberger et al (2004) have been computed using the Geneva evolution code including shellular rotation and atomic diffusion. By combining all non-asteroseismic observables now available for Procyon A with these seismological data, we find that the observed mean large spacing of 55.5 +- 0.5 uHz favours a mass of 1.497 M_sol for Procyon A. We also determine the following global parameters of Procyon A: an age of t=1.72 +- 0.30 Gyr, an initial helium mass fraction Y_i=0.290 +- 0.010, a nearly solar initial metallicity (Z/X)_i=0.0234 +- 0.0015 and a mixing-length parameter alpha=1.75 +- 0.40. Moreover, we show that the effects of rotation on the inner structure of the star may be revealed by asteroseismic observations if frequencies can be determined with a high precision. Existing seismological data of Procyon A are unfortunately not accurate enough to really test these differences in the input physics of our models.

P. Eggenberger; F. Carrier; F. Bouchy

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

100

Density Functional Theory Models for Radiation Damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density Functional Theory Models for Radiation Damage S.L. Dudarev EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, DFT Abstract Density functional theory models developed over the past decade provide unique phenomena. Density functional theory models have effectively created a new paradigm for the scientific

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of this research are a step forward in helping to improve the management of gas condensate reservoirs by understanding the mechanics of liquid build-up. It also provides methodology for quantifying the condensate damage that impairs linear flow of gas...

Reza, Rostami Ravari

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

102

The Status of Radiation Damage Experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments have been on-going for about two years to determine the effects that radiation damage have on the physical and chemical properties of candidate titanate ceramics for the immobilization of plutonium. We summarize the results of these experiments in this document.

Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Sell, Richard L.; Legore, Virginia L.; Schaef, Herbert T.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Buchmiller, William C.

2001-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

103

Nondestructive Damage Detection in General Beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is to provide NDE methodologies that simultaneously identify the location, the extent, and the severity of damage in general beams. By general beams, we mean beyond Euler-Bernoulli beams (i.e. slender beams) to deep beams and stubby beams whose response may...

Dincal, Selcuk

2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

104

This article was downloaded by: [Georgia Tech Library] On: 10 April 2013, At: 14:09  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the variation in manufacturing and environmental condi- tions, and degradation over time, the actual value, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly

Wu, Jeff

105

Continuum-based Multiscale Computational Damage Modeling of Cementitous Composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of ? , and its comparison with experimental results by Kupfer et al. (1969) ...... 32 5.1 Evolution of the damage due to the change of the compressive hardening modulus Q ? for: (a) Exponential damage evolution law in Eq. (2.48) and (b) power damage... evolution law in Eq. (2.52) ............... 71 5.2 Evolution of the damage due to the change of the compressive hardening rate constant b? for: (a) Exponential damage evolution law in Eq. (2.48) and (b) power damage evolution law in Eq. (2...

Kim, Sun-Myung

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

106

Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANLs pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Carbon Fiber Damage in Particle Beam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon fibers are commonly used as moving targets in beam wire scanners. The heating of the fiber due to energy loss of the particles travelling through is simulated with Geant4. The heating induced by the beam electromagnetic field is estimated with ANSYS. The heat transfer and sublimation processes are modelled. Due to the model nonlinearity, a numerical approach based on discretization of the wire movement is used to solve it for particular beams. Radiation damage to the fiber is estimated with SRIM. The model is tested with available SPS and LEP data and a dedicated damage test on the SPS beam is performed followed by a post-mortem analysis of the wire remnants. Predictions for the LHC beams are made.

Dehning, B; Kroyer, T; Meyer, M; Sapinski, M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Damage analysis in asphalt concrete mixtures based on parameter relationships  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Asphalt pavements experience damage due to traffic loading under various environmental conditions. Damage can be caused by viscopl microcracks, fracture due to fatigue cracking, or fracture due to thermal cracking. Asphalt pavements have...

Song, Injun

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

The biological and metabolic fates of endogenous DNA damage products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DNA and other biomolecules are subjected to damaging chemical reactions during normal physiological processes and in states of pathophysiology caused by endogenous and exogenous mechanisms. In DNA, this damage affects ...

Chan, Wan Simon

111

Single cell trapping and DNA damage analysis using microwell arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With a direct link to cancer, aging, and heritable diseases as well as a critical role in cancer treatment, the importance of DNA damage is well-established. The intense interest in DNA damage in applications ranging from ...

Wood, David

112

Modeling of damage in unidirectional ceramic matrix composites and multi-scale experimental validation on third generation SiC/SiC minicomposites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Modeling of damage in unidirectional ceramic matrix composites and multi-scale experimental to macroscopic tensile tests, the evolution of microscopic damage mechanisms - in the form of matrix cracks and computed tomography tensile tests. A complete model, including both matrix cracking and fiber breaking

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

113

The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gasthe ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxideis also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Metabolites of arsenic and increased DNA damage of p53 gene in arsenic plant workers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent studies have shown that monomethylarsonous acid is more cytotoxic and genotoxic than arsenate and arsenite, which may attribute to the increased levels of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we used hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry to determine three arsenic species in urine of workers who had been working in arsenic plants,and calculated primary and secondary methylation indexes. The damages of exon 5, 6, 8 of p53 gene were determined by the method developed by Sikorsky, et al. Results show that the concentrations of each urinary arsenic species,and damage indexes of exon 5 and 8 of p53 gene in the exposed population were significantly higher, but SMI was significantly lower than in the control group. The closely positive correlation between the damage index of exon 5 and PMI,MMA, DMA were found, but there was closely negative correlation between the damage index of exon 5 and SMI. Those findings suggested that DNA damage of exon 5 and 8 of p53 gene existed in the population occupationally exposed to arsenic. For exon 5, the important factors may include the model of arsenic metabolic transformation, the concentrations of MMA and DMA, and the MMA may be of great importance. - Research Highlights: > In our study, the mean SMI for workers came from arsenic plants is 4.06, so they may be in danger. > There are more MMA, there are more damage of exon 5 of p53 gene. > MMA and damage of exon 5 of p53 gene may be useful biomarkers to assess adverse health effects caused by arsenic.

Wen Weihua, E-mail: Dongsijiehua@sina.com [Department of Occupational Health, Yunnan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 158, Dongsi Street, Kunming, Yunnan, 650022 (China); Public Health College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 13, Hangkong Road, Wuhan City, Hubei, 430030 (China); Wen Jinghua [Guizhou College of Finance and Economics, No. 276, Chongguan Road, Guiyang, Guizhou, 550004 (China); Lu Lin [Department of Occupational Health, Yunnan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 158, Dongsi Street, Kunming, Yunnan, 650022 (China); Liu Hua [The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical College, No. 295 Xichang Road, Kunming, Yunnan, 650032 (China); Yang Jun; Cheng Huirong [Department of Occupational Health, Yunnan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 158, Dongsi Street, Kunming, Yunnan, 650022 (China); Che Wangjun [The First Division of Public Health, Kunming Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 4, Ziyun Road, Xishan District, Kunming, Yunnan 650228 (China); Li Liang [Honghe Zhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 1, Guannan Road, Mengzi City, Yunnan, 661100 (China); Zhang Guanbei [Yunnan Institute for Drug Abuse, Kunming, 650028 (China)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

ANALYSIS OF DAMAGE TO WASTE PACKAGES CAUSED BY SEISMIC EVENTS DURING POST-CLOSURE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents methodology and results of an analysis of damage due to seismic ground motion for waste packages emplaced in a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A series of three-dimensional rigid body kinematic simulations of waste packages, pallets, and drip shields subjected to seismic ground motions was performed. The simulations included strings of several waste packages and were used to characterize the number, location, and velocity of impacts that occur during seismic ground motion. Impacts were categorized as either waste package-to-waste package (WP-WP) or waste package-to-pallet (WP-P). In addition, a series of simulations was performed for WP-WP and WP-P impacts using a detailed representation of a single waste package. The detailed simulations were used to determine the amount of damage from individual impacts, and to form a damage catalog, indexed according to the type, angle, location and force/velocity of the impact. Finally, the results from the two analyses were combined to estimate the total damage to a waste package that may occur during an episode of seismic ground motion. This study addressed two waste package types, four levels of peak ground velocity (PGV), and 17 ground motions at each PGV. Selected aspects of waste package degradation, such as effective wall thickness and condition of the internals, were also considered. As expected, increasing the PGV level of the vibratory ground motion increases the damage to the waste packages. Results show that most of the damage is caused by WP-P impacts. TAD-bearing waste packages with intact internals are highly resistant to damage, even at a PGV of 4.07 m/s, which is the highest level analyzed.

Alves, S W; Blair, S C; Carlson, S R; Gerhard, M; Buscheck, T A

2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

116

A BAYESIAN PROBABILISTIC APPROACH TO DAMAGE DETECTION FOR CIVIL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

damage or other environmental e ects. Results based on the eld vibration test of a bridge indicate on the vibration parameters can be di erentiated from other environmental e ects or potential structural damage. vA BAYESIAN PROBABILISTIC APPROACH TO DAMAGE DETECTION FOR CIVIL STRUCTURES a dissertation submitted

Stanford University

117

Structural damage identification in wind turbine blades using piezoelectric active sensing with ultrasonic validation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper gives a brief overview of a new project at LANL in structural damage identification for wind turbines. This project makes use of modeling capabilities and sensing technology to understand realistic blade loading on large turbine blades, with the goal of developing the technology needed to automatically detect early damage. Several structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques using piezoelectric active materials are being investigated for the development of wireless, low power sensors that interrogate sections of the wind turbine blade using Lamb wave propagation data, frequency response functions (FRFs), and time-series analysis methods. The modeling and sensor research will be compared with extensive experimental testing, including wind tunnel experiments, load and fatigue tests, and ultrasonic scans - on small- to mid-scale turbine blades. Furthermore, this study will investigate the effect of local damage on the global response of the blade by monitoring low-frequency response changes.

Claytor, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ammerman, Curtt N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyu Hae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Atterbury, Marie K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Modeling and analysis framework for core damage propagation during flow-blockage-initiated accidents in the Advanced Neutron Source reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes modeling and analysis to evaluate the extent of core damage during flow blockage events in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor planned to be built at ORNL. Damage propagation is postulated to occur from thermal conduction between dmaged and undamaged plates due to direct thermal contact. Such direct thermal contact may occur beause of fuel plate swelling during fission product vapor release or plate buckling. Complex phenomena of damage propagation were modeled using a one-dimensional heat transfer model. A parametric study was done for several uncertain variables. The study included investigating effects of plate contact area, convective heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity on fuel swelling, and initial temperature of the plate being contacted by the damaged plate. Also, the side support plates were modeled to account for their effects of damage propagation. Results provide useful insights into how variouss uncertain parameters affect damage propagation.

Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Georgevich, V.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

Mechanical Damage from Cavitation in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Accelerated Thrombolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Mechanical Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3.3 Connection to Mechanical Damage . . . . . . 3.41.2.5 Assessing mechanical damage . . 1.3 Bubble

Weiss, Hope

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Clean Assembly Practices to Prevent Contamination and Damage to Optics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key lesson learned from the earliest optics installed in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was that the traditional approach for maintaining cleanliness, such as the use of cleanrooms and associated garments and protocols, is inadequate. Assembly activities often negate the benefits provided by cleanrooms, and in fact generate contamination with high damage potential. As a result, NIF introduced ''clean assembly protocols'' and related practices to supplement the traditional clean room protocols. These new protocols included ''clean-as-you-go'' activities and regular bright light inspections. Introduction of these new protocols has greatly reduced the particle contamination found on more recently installed optics. In this paper we will describe the contamination mechanisms we have observed and the details of the clean assembly protocols we have successfully introduced to mitigate them.

Pryatel, J; Gourdin, W H

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Damaged Spent Nuclear Fuel at U.S. DOE Facilities Experience and Lessons Learned  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From a handling perspective, any spent nuclear fuel (SNF) that has lost its original technical and functional design capabilities with regard to handling and confinement can be considered as damaged. Some SNF was damaged as a result of experimental activities and destructive examinations; incidents during packaging, handling, and transportation; or degradation that has occurred during storage. Some SNF was mechanically destroyed to protect proprietary SNF designs. Examples of damage to the SNF include failed cladding, failed fuel meat, sectioned test specimens, partially reprocessed SNFs, over-heated elements, dismantled assemblies, and assemblies with lifting fixtures removed. In spite of the challenges involved with handling and storage of damaged SNF, the SNF has been safely handled and stored for many years at DOE storage facilities. This report summarizes a variety of challenges encountered at DOE facilities during interim storage and handling operations along with strategies and solutions that are planned or were implemented to ameliorate those challenges. A discussion of proposed paths forward for moving damaged and nondamaged SNF from interim storage to final disposition in the geologic repository is also presented.

Brett W. Carlsen; Eric Woolstenhulme; Roger McCormack

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Delay-active damage versus non-local enhancement for anisotropic damage dynamics computations with alternated loading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of anisotropic visco-damage, by introducing a material strain rate effect in the cases of positive hydro- static: anisotropic damage, concrete, non-local, visco-damage, micro-cracks closure Email address: desmorat such as concrete are mainly governed by the nucleation and the propagation of micro-cracks. Present within

123

Damage of MEMS thermal actuators heated by laser irradiation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical actuation of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is advantageous for applications for which electrical isolation is desired. Thirty-two polycrystalline silicon opto-thermal actuators, optically-powered MEMS thermal actuators, were designed, fabricated, and tested. The design of the opto-thermal actuators consists of a target for laser illumination suspended between angled legs that expand when heated, providing the displacement and force output. While the amount of displacement observed for the opto-thermal actuators was fairly uniform for the actuators, the amount of damage resulting from the laser heating ranged from essentially no damage to significant amounts of damage on the target. The likelihood of damage depended on the target design with two of the four target designs being more susceptible to damage. Failure analysis of damaged targets revealed the extent and depth of the damage.

Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Klody, Kelly Anne; Sackos, John T.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Damage of MEMS thermal actuators heated by laser irradiation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical actuation of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is advantageous for applications for which electrical isolation is desired. Thirty-two polycrystalline silicon opto-thermal actuators, optically-powered MEMS thermal actuators, were designed, fabricated, and tested. The design of the opto-thermal actuators consists of a target for laser illumination suspended between angled legs that expand when heated, providing the displacement and force output. While the amount of displacement observed for the opto-thermal actuators was fairly uniform for the actuators, the amount of damage resulting from the laser heating ranged from essentially no damage to significant amounts of damage on the target. The likelihood of damage depended on the target design with two of the four target designs being more susceptible to damage. Failure analysis of damaged targets revealed the extent and depth of the damage.

Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Klody, Kelly Anne; Sackos, John T.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Survey of four damage models for concrete.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Four conventional damage plasticity models for concrete, the Karagozian and Case model (K&C), the Riedel-Hiermaier-Thoma model (RHT), the Brannon-Fossum model (BF1), and the Continuous Surface Cap Model (CSCM) are compared. The K&C and RHT models have been used in commercial finite element programs many years, whereas the BF1 and CSCM models are relatively new. All four models are essentially isotropic plasticity models for which 'plasticity' is regarded as any form of inelasticity. All of the models support nonlinear elasticity, but with different formulations. All four models employ three shear strength surfaces. The 'yield surface' bounds an evolving set of elastically obtainable stress states. The 'limit surface' bounds stress states that can be reached by any means (elastic or plastic). To model softening, it is recognized that some stress states might be reached once, but, because of irreversible damage, might not be achievable again. In other words, softening is the process of collapse of the limit surface, ultimately down to a final 'residual surface' for fully failed material. The four models being compared differ in their softening evolution equations, as well as in their equations used to degrade the elastic stiffness. For all four models, the strength surfaces are cast in stress space. For all four models, it is recognized that scale effects are important for softening, but the models differ significantly in their approaches. The K&C documentation, for example, mentions that a particular material parameter affecting the damage evolution rate must be set by the user according to the mesh size to preserve energy to failure. Similarly, the BF1 model presumes that all material parameters are set to values appropriate to the scale of the element, and automated assignment of scale-appropriate values is available only through an enhanced implementation of BF1 (called BFS) that regards scale effects to be coupled to statistical variability of material properties. The RHT model appears to similarly support optional uncertainty and automated settings for scale-dependent material parameters. The K&C, RHT, and CSCM models support rate dependence by allowing the strength to be a function of strain rate, whereas the BF1 model uses Duvaut-Lion viscoplasticity theory to give a smoother prediction of transient effects. During softening, all four models require a certain amount of strain to develop before allowing significant damage accumulation. For the K&C, RHT, and CSCM models, the strain-to-failure is tied to fracture energy release, whereas a similar effect is achieved indirectly in the BF1 model by a time-based criterion that is tied to crack propagation speed.

Leelavanichkul, Seubpong (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Brannon, Rebecca Moss (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT)

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal.

Cooke, D. Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Cockroft, Nigel J. (Santa Fe, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal. 5 figs.

Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Cockroft, N.J.

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

128

Radiation damage evolution in ceramics. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, and 323 RS-PO-0001-001.docW.Radiation damage

129

Surface Damage and Treatment by Impact of a Low Temperature Nitrogen Jet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen jets under high pressure and low temperature have been introduced recently. The process consists in projecting onto a surface a low temperature jet obtained from releasing the liquid nitrogen stored in a high pressure tank (e.g. 3000 bars) through a nozzle. It can be used in a range of industrial applications, including surface treatment or material removal through cutting, drilling, striping and cleaning. The process does not generate waste other than the removed matter, and it only releases neutral gas into the atmosphere. This work is aimed at understanding the mechanisms of the interaction between the jet and the material surface. Depending on the impacted material, the thermo-mechanical shock and blast effect induced by the jet can activate a wide range of damage mechanisms, including cleavage, crack nucleation and spalling, as well as void expansion and localized ductile failure. The test parameters (standoff distance, dwell time, operating pressure) play a role in selecting the dominant damage mechanism, but combinations of these various modes are usually present. Surface treatment through phase transformation or grain fragmentation in a layer below the surface can also be obtained by adequate tuning of the process parameters. In the current study, work is undertaken to map the damage mechanisms in metallic materials as well as the influence of the test parameters on damage, along with measurements of the thermo-mechanical conditions (impact force, temperature) in the impacted area.

Laribou, Hicham; Fressengeas, Claude; Entemeyer, Denis; Jeanclaude, Veronique [LPMM - Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz / CNRS, Ile du Saulcy, Metz, 57045 (France); Tazibt, Abdel [CRITT TJF and U, Laboratoire Jet Fluide Tres Hautes Pressions, Bar-le-Duc, 55000 (France)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

130

A damage mechanics based approach to structural deterioration and reliability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Structural deterioration often occurs without perceptible manifestation. Continuum damage mechanics defines structural damage in terms of the material microstructure, and relates the damage variable to the macroscopic strength or stiffness of the structure. This enables one to predict the state of damage prior to the initiation of a macroscopic flaw, and allows one to estimate residual strength/service life of an existing structure. The accumulation of damage is a dissipative process that is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Partial differential equations for damage growth in terms of the Helmholtz free energy are derived from fundamental thermodynamical conditions. Closed-form solutions to the equations are obtained under uniaxial loading for ductile deformation damage as a function of plastic strain, for creep damage as a function of time, and for fatigue damage as function of number of cycles. The proposed damage growth model is extended into the stochastic domain by considering fluctuations in the free energy, and closed-form solutions of the resulting stochastic differential equation are obtained in each of the three cases mentioned above. A reliability analysis of a ring-stiffened cylindrical steel shell subjected to corrosion, accidental pressure, and temperature is performed.

Bhattcharya, B.; Ellingwood, B. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Damage from the impacts of small asteroids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fragmentation of a small asteroid in the atmosphere greatly increases its aerodynamic drag and rate of energy dissipation. The differential atmospheric pressure across it disperses its fragments at a velocity that increases with atmospheric density and impact velocity and decreases with asteroid density. Extending our previous work, we use a spherical atmosphere and a fitted curve to its density profile to find the damage done by an asteroid entering the atmosphere at various zenith angles. In previous work we estimated the blast damage by scaling from data on nuclear explosions in the atmosphere during the 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s. This underestimated the blast from asteroid impacts because nuclear fireballs radiate away a larger fraction of their energy than do meteors, so less of their energy goes into the blast wave. We have redone the calculations to allow for this effect. We have found the area of destruction around the impact point in which the over pressure in the blast wave exceeds 4 pounds/inch{sup 2} = 2.8 X 10{sup 5} dynes/cm{sup 3}, which is enough to knock over trees and destroy buildings. About every 100 years an impactor should blast an area of 300 km{sup 2} or more somewhere on the land area of Earth. The optical flux from asteroids 60 meters or more in diameter is enough to ignite pine forests. However, the blast from an impacting asteroid goes beyond the radius within which the fire starts. It tends to blow out the fire, so it is likely that the impact will char the forest (as at Tunguska), but it will not produce a sustained fire. Because of the atmosphere, asteroids less than about 200 m in diameter are not effective in producing craters and earthquakes. They are also not effective in producing water waves and tsunami in ocean impacts. Tsunami is probably the most devastating type of damage for asteroids that are between 200 meters and 1 km in diameter.

Hills, J.G.; Goda, M.P.

1996-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

Damage-induced nonassociated inelastic flow in rock salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The multi-mechanism deformation coupled fracture model recently developed by CHAN, et al. (1992), for describing time-dependent, pressure-sensitive inelastic flow and damage evolution in crystalline solids was evaluated against triaxial creep experiments on rock salt. Guided by experimental observations, the kinetic equation and the flow law for damage-induced inelastic flow in the model were modified to account for the development of damage and inelastic dilatation in the transient creep regime. The revised model was then utilized to obtain the creep response and damage evolution in rock salt as a function of confining pressure and stress difference. Comparison between model calculation and experiment revealed that damage-induced inelastic flow is nonassociated, dilatational, and contributes significantly to the macroscopic strain rate observed in rock salt deformed at low confining pressures. The inelastic strain rate and volumetric strain due to damage decrease with increasing confining pressures, and all are suppressed at sufficiently high confining pressures.

Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Brodsky, N.S.; Fossum, A.F. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Damage detection in initially nonlinear systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary goal of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is to detect structural anomalies before they reach a critical level. Because of the potential life-safety and economic benefits, SHM has been widely studied over the past decade. In recent years there has been an effort to provide solid mathematical and physical underpinnings for these methods; however, most focus on systems that behave linearly in their undamaged state - a condition that often does not hold in complex 'real world' systems and systems for which monitoring begins mid-lifecycle. In this work, we highlight the inadequacy of linear-based methodology in handling initially nonlinear systems. We then show how the recently developed autoregressive support vector machine (AR-SVM) approach to time series modeling can be used for detecting damage in a system that exhibits initially nonlinear response. This process is applied to data acquired from a structure with induced nonlinearity tested in a laboratory environment.

Bornn, Luke [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Thermal Decomposition of Radiation-Damaged Polystyrene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiation-damaged polystyrene (given the identification name of 'polycube') was fabricated by mixing high-density polystyrene material ("Dylene Fines # 100") with plutonium and uranium oxides. The polycubes were used in the 1960s for criticality studies during processing of spent nuclear fuel. The polycubes have since been stored for almost 40 years at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) after failure of two processes to reclaim the plutonium and uranium oxides from the polystyrene matrix. Thermal decomposition products from this highly cross-linked polystyrene matrix were characterized using Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) system coupled to a horizontal furnace. The decomposition studies were performed in air and helium atmospheres at about 773 K. The volatile and semi-volatile organic products for the radiation-damaged polystyrene were different compared to virgin polystyrene. The differences were in the number of organic species generated and their concentrations. In the inert (i.e., helium) atmosphere, the major volatile organic products identified (in order of decreasing concentrations) were styrene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, nathphalene, propane, .alpha.-methylbenzene, indene and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene. But in air, the major volatile organic species identified changed slightly. Concentrations of the organic species in the inert atmosphere were significantly higher than those for the air atmosphere processing. Overall, 38 volatile organic species were identified in the inert atmosphere compared to 49 species in air. Twenty of the 38 species in the inert conditions were also products in the air atmosphere. Twenty-two oxidized organic products were identified during thermal processing in air.

Abrefah, John; Klinger, George S.

2000-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

136

Thermal Decomposition of Radiation-Damaged Polystyrene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiation-damaged polystyrene material (''polycube'') used in this study was synthesized by mixing a high-density polystyrene (''Dylene Fines No. 100'') with plutonium and uranium oxides. The polycubes were used on the Hanford Site in the 1960s for criticality studies to determine the hydrogen-to-fissile atom ratios for neutron moderation during processing of spent nuclear fuel. Upon completion of the studies, two methods were developed to reclaim the transuranic (TRU) oxides from the polymer matrix: (1) burning the polycubes in air at 873 K; and (2) heating the polycubes in the absence of oxygen and scrubbing the released monomer and other volatile organics using carbon tetrachloride. Neither of these methods was satisfactory in separating the TRU oxides from the polystyrene. Consequently, the remaining polycubes were sent to the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for storage. Over time, the high dose of alpha and gamma radiation has resulted in a polystyrene matrix that is highly cross-linked and hydrogen deficient and a stabilization process is being developed in support of Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-1. Baseline processes involve thermal treatment to pyrolyze the polycubes in a furnace to decompose the polystyrene and separate out the TRU oxides. Thermal decomposition products from this degraded polystyrene matrix were characterized by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to provide information for determining the environmental impact of the process and for optimizing the process parameters. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system coupled to a horizontal tube furnace was used for the characterization studies. The decomposition studies were performed both in air and helium atmospheres at 773 K, the planned processing temperature. The volatile and semi-volatile organic products identified for the radiation-damaged polystyrene were different from those observed for virgin polystyrene. The differences were in the n umber of organic species generated and their concentrations.

J Abrefah GS Klinger

2000-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

137

Investigation of Stinson Beach Park storm damage and evaluation of alternative shore protection measures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation was made of storm damage during the winter of 1982-83 to the National Park Service's Stinson Beach Park. The investigation included an assessment of the storm damage, evaluation of physical processes contributing to the damage, subsequent beach recovery, and the feasibility of implementing shoreline protection measure to reduce future risk. During the winter of 1982-83, the beach was almost completely denuded of sand, wave overwash damaged the foredune, vegetation on the foredune was destroyed, and backshore flooding occurred. Two structures and a parking lot were endangered as the shoreline receded. Subsequent recovery of the park beach was rapid. By January 1982 sand had moved back onshore and a beach berm was beginning to reform. The foredune and dune vegetation received the only permanent damage. Four shoreline protection alternatives were evaluated. These include no action, dune development/enhancement, construction of a rock riprap revetment, and offshore installation of artificial seaweed. The first costs (estimated costs, excluding maintenance) range from about $90,000 to $475,000. The least-cost protection measure is riprap revetment, which protects the two structures and parking lot endangered during the 1982-83 winter storms. Construction of a foredune along the entire park beach is the highest cost protection measure. If no shore protection action measures are implemented, wave overwash of the foredune can be expected to occur on the average of every 2 to 3 years, and beach degradation, similar to that during the 1982-83 winter, can be expected to occur on the average of every 10 to 12 years. 12 references, 19 figures, 18 tables.

Ecker, R.M.; Whelan, G.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Damage Detection and Characterization in Smart Material Structures \\Lambda y  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­maps'' as done in the thermal based tomography techniques of [BK1, BK2, BKW] wherein the damaged physical domain

139

attack damage due: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cell damage extent due to irradiation with nanosecond laser pulses under cell culturing medium and dry environment Engineering Websites Summary: Autnoma de Mxico; Av....

140

A matrix damage accumulation model for laminated composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the evolutionary relationship with respect to either time or the number of loa, d cycles. The damage histories f' or cross-ply laminates subjected to constant maximum stress fatigue were generated by the dart. age evolutionary relationship. These predictions... with respect to the measured damage state. . 5 Structure of FORTRAN code for the integration of the damage evolution- ary rela. tionship. 6 Matrix ' rack damage variable in the 90' plies for a. [Os/90s], AS4/3501 ? 6 laminate loaded at a maximum fatigue...

Lo, David Chi Shing

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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141

Hail Ice Damage of Stringer-Stiffened Curved Composite Panels /  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stiffener Impact Damage. Composite Structures 2003;62:213FTE Values of Carbon/Epoxy Composite Tape Laminate Plates [Sarh B, Kismarton MU. Composite Structures: The First 100

Le, Jacqueline Linh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

assessing dna damage: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

damage may not only reduce the number of amplifiable template molecules, but may also lead to the generation of erroneous sequence information. A qualitative and quantitative...

143

affects dna damage: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

damage may not only reduce the number of amplifiable template molecules, but may also lead to the generation of erroneous sequence information. A qualitative and quantitative...

144

assessing tubal damage: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

State University, Deborah French, Applied Sciences Associates, Bruce Wright 5 Natural Resource Damage Assessment for the Deepwater BP Oil Spill Environmental Sciences and...

145

Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

Plancher, Henry (Laramie, WY); Petersen, Joseph C. (Laramie, WY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Imaging System to Measure Kinetics of Material Cluster Ejection During Exit-Surface Damage Initiation and Growth in Fused Silica  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser-induced damage on the surface of optical components typically is manifested by the formation of microscopic craters that can ultimately degrade the optics performance characteristics. It is believed that the damage process is the result of the material exposure to high temperatures and pressures within a volume on the order of several cubic microns located just below the surface. The response of the material following initial localized energy deposition by the laser pulse, including the timeline of events and the individual processes involved during this timeline, is still largely unknown. In this work we introduce a time-resolved microscope system designed to enable a detailed investigation of the sequence of dynamic events involved during surface damage. To best capture individual aspects of the damage timeline, this system is employed in multiple imaging configurations (such as multi-view image acquisition at a single time point and multi-image acquisition at different time points of the same event) and offers sensitivity to phenomena at very early delay times. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated with preliminary results from the study of exit-surface damage in fused silica. The time-resolved images provide information on the material response immediately following laser energy deposition, the processes later involved during crater formation or growth, the material ejecta kinetics, and overall material motion and transformation. Such results offer insight into the mechanisms governing damage initiation and growth in the optical components of ICF class laser systems.

Raman, R N; Negres, R A; Demos, S G

2009-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

147

QUANTIFICATION OF ACTINIDE ALPHA-RADIATION DAMAGE IN MINERALS AND CERAMICS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are large amounts of heavy alpha-emitters in nuclear waste and nuclear materials inventories stored in various sites around the world. These include plutonium and minor actinides such as americium and curium. In preparation for geological disposal there is a consensus that actinides that have been separated from spent nuclear fuel should be immobilised within mineral-based ceramics rather than glass. Over the long-term, the alpha-decay taking place in these ceramics will severely disrupt their crystalline structure and reduce their durability. A fundamental property in predicting cumulative radiation damage is the number of atoms permanently displaced per alphadecay. Currently, this number is estimated as 1000-2000 atoms/alpha decay event. Here, we report nuclear magnetic resonance, spin-counting experiments that measure close to 5000 atoms/alpha decay event in radiation damaged natural zircons. New radiological NMR measurements on highly radioactive, 239Pu zircon show damage similar to that created by 238U and 232Th in mineral zircons at the same dose, indicating no significant effect of dose rate. Based on these measurements, the initially crystalline structure of a 10 wt% 239Pu zircon would be amorphous after only 1400 years in a geological repository. These measurements establish a basis for assessing the long-term structural durability of actinide-containing ceramics based on an atomistic understanding of the fundamental damage event.

Farnan, Ian E.; Cho, Herman M.; Weber, William J.

2007-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

148

Inhibition of HAS2 induction enhances the radiosensitivity of cancer cells via persistent DNA damage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: HAS2 may be a promising target for the radiosensitization of human cancer. HAS2 is elevated (up to ?10-fold) in irradiated radioresistant and -sensitive cancer cells. HAS2 knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to radiation. HAS2 knockdown potentiates irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptotic death. Thus, the irradiation-induced up-regulation of HAS2 contributes to the radioresistance of cancer cells. -- Abstract: Hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), a synthetic enzyme for hyaluronan, regulates various aspects of cancer progression, including migration, invasion and angiogenesis. However, the possible association of HAS2 with the response of cancer cells to anticancer radiotherapy, has not yet been elucidated. Here, we show that HAS2 knockdown potentiates irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in cancer cells. Upon exposure to radiation, all of the tested human cancer cell lines exhibited marked (up to 10-fold) up-regulation of HAS2 within 24 h. Inhibition of HAS2 induction significantly reduced the survival of irradiated radioresistant and -sensitive cells. Interestingly, HAS2 depletion rendered the cells to sustain irradiation-induced DNA damage, thereby leading to an increase of apoptotic death. These findings indicate that HAS2 knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to radiation via persistent DNA damage, further suggesting that the irradiation-induced up-regulation of HAS2 contributes to the radioresistance of cancer cells. Thus, HAS2 could potentially be targeted for therapeutic interventions aimed at radiosensitizing cancer cells.

Shen, Yan Nan; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Joo, Hyun-Yoo; Park, Eun-Ran; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Hwang, Sang-Gu [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Chun-Ho [Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)] [Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kee-Ho, E-mail: khlee@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

149

Task order #24 update: exploration of damage mechanisms in cylindrical geometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A typical method of failure for ductile materials is spallation damage, which is caused by the nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids due to the presence of high tensile stress in the material. Spallation damage models, such as TEPLA, are currently implemented in hydrodynamic computer codes used at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Parameters for such constitutive models are derived from data sets obtained primarily from gas gun and shock-driven experiments, which are designed to allow one-dimensional analysis of the evolution of the failure characteristics. However, in a non-planar geometry, advanced failure models predict failure to be a multi-dimensional process. Additionally, a limited amount of data exists for the process of void nucleation, growth and coalescence. Another lightly researched area is the state of the material in the event that the spallation layer is recollected and voids are closed. The experiments described here are being conducted as part of a Campaign-l effort to provide data addressing these issues. The Russian Damage Experimental Series is designed to provide fundamental non-planar (cylindrical) spallation damage data, including early time processes (void nucleation, growth and coalescence) and late time processes (recollection of the spallation layer). Previous experiments produced data addressing some of the early time processes. This presentation will be provided to LANL and VNIIEF colleagues as a means of assessing the status of Task Order No.24 at the current time.

Kaul, Ann M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

150

Unlimited Damage Accumulation in Metallic Materials Under Cascade-Damage Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most experiments on neutron or heavy-ion cascade-produced irradiation of pure metals and metallic alloys demonstrate unlimited void growth as well as development of the dislocation structure. In contrast, the theory of radiation damage predicts saturation of void swelling at sufficiently high irradiation doses and, accordingly, termination of accumulation of interstitial-type defects. It is shown in the present paper that, under conditions of steady production of one-dimensionally (1-D) mobile clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in displacement cascades, any one of the following three conditions can result in indefinite damage accumulation. First, if the fraction of SIAs generated in the clustered form is smaller than some finite value of the order of the dislocation bias factor. Second, if solute, impurity or transmuted atoms form atmospheres around voids and repel the SIA clusters. Third, if spatial correlations between voids and other defects, such as second-phase precipitates and dislocations, exist that provide shadowing of voids from the SIA clusters. The driving force for the development of such correlations is the same as for void lattice formation and is argued to be always present under cascade-damage conditions. It is emphasised that the mean-free path of 1-D migrating SIA clusters is typically at least an order of magnitude longer than the average distance between microstructural defects; hence spatial correlations on the same scale should be taken into consideration. A way of developing a predictive theory is discussed. An interpretation

Barashev, Aleksandr [University of Liverpool; Golubov, Stanislav I [ORNL

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

[Article 1 of 7: Motivates and Includes the Consumer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and include the consumer exist. Some examples include advanced two-way metering (AMI), demand response (DR), and distributed energy resources (DER). A common misconception is...

152

An enhanced Lemaitre model formulation for materials processing damage computation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are presented and discussed to deal with complex multiaxial configurations ­ such as multi-stages bulk forming loading, involving crack closure effects. - Simple parameters identification: whatever the damage model used, the identification of damage parameters is an important issue. Most of the time

Boyer, Edmond

153

Evaluation of moisture damage within asphalt concrete mixes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pavements are a major part of the infrastructure in the United States. Moisture damage of these pavements is a significant problem. To predict and prevent this kind of moisture damage a great deal of research has been performed on this issue in past...

Shah, Brij D.

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

154

AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF LASER INDUCED DAMAGE ON CDZNTE CRYSTAL SURFACES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Semi-conducting CdZnTe (or CZT) crystals can be used in a variety of detector-type applications. CZT shows great promise for use as a gamma radiation spectrometer. However, its performance is adversely affected by point defects, structural and compositional heterogeneities within the crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), secondary phases and in some cases, damage caused by external forces. One example is damage that occurs during characterization of the surface by a laser during Raman spectroscopy. Even minimal laser power can cause Te enriched areas on the surface to appear. The Raman spectra resulting from measurements at moderate intensity laser power show large increases in peak intensity that is attributed to Te. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the extent of damage to the CZT crystal surface following exposure to the Raman laser. AFM data reveal localized surface damage in the areas exposed to the Raman laser beam. The degree of surface damage to the crystal is dependent on the laser power, with the most observable damage occurring at high laser power. Moreover, intensity increases in the Te peaks of the Raman spectra are observed even at low laser power with little to no visible damage observed by AFM. AFM results also suggest that exposure to the same amount of laser power yields different amounts of surface damage depending on whether the exposed surface is the Te terminating face or the Cd terminating face of CZT.

Hawkins, S; Lucile Teague, L; Martine Duff, M; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

155

Atomic processes during damage production and defect Nasr M. Ghoniem *  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- sitivity to the deleterious eects of neutron irradiation. Electro-optical properties of semi uncertainties exposed. Damage production under neutron and ion irradiation proceeds through the elementary step-cascade interaction events. Under fusion neutron irradiation, single cascade damage production occurs within 10 ps

Ghoniem, Nasr M.

156

LASER ULTRASONIC IMAGING FOR IMPACT DAMAGE VISUALIZATION IN COMPOSITE STRUCTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LASER ULTRASONIC IMAGING FOR IMPACT DAMAGE VISUALIZATION IN COMPOSITE STRUCTURE Chao Zhang1 , Jinhao Qiu1* , Hongli Ji1 1 State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures ultrasonic scanning technique has great potential for damage evaluation in various applications. In order

Boyer, Edmond

157

Damage detection in mechanical structures using extreme value statistic.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first and most important objective of any damage identification algorithms is to ascertain with confidence if damage is present or not. Many methods have been proposed for damage detection based on ideas of novelty detection founded in pattern recognition and multivariate statistics. The philosophy of novelty detection is simple. Features are first extracted from a baseline system to be monitored, and subsequent data are then compared to see if the new features are outliers, which significantly depart from the rest of population. In damage diagnosis problems, the assumption is that outliers are generated from a damaged condition of the monitored system. This damage classification necessitates the establishment of a decision boundary. Choosing this threshold value is often based on the assumption that the parent distribution of data is Gaussian in nature. While the problem of novelty detection focuses attention on the outlier or extreme values of the data i.e. those points in the tails of the distribution, the threshold selection using the normality assumption weighs the central population of data. Therefore, this normality assumption might impose potentially misleading behavior on damage classification, and is likely to lead the damage diagnosis astray. In this paper, extreme value statistics is integrated with the novelty detection to specifically model the tails of the distribution of interest. Finally, the proposed technique is demonstrated on simulated numerical data and time series data measured from an eight degree-of-freedom spring-mass system.

Worden, K.; Allen, D. W. (David W.); Sohn, H. (Hoon); Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Permeability of WIPP Salt During Damage Evolution and Healing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The presence of damage in the form of microcracks can increase the permeability of salt. In this paper, an analytical formulation of the permeability of damaged rock salt is presented for both initially intact and porous conditions. The analysis shows that permeability is related to the connected (i.e., gas accessible) volumetric strain and porosity according to two different power-laws, which may be summed to give the overall behavior of a porous salt with damage. This relationship was incorporated into a constitutive model, known as the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which has been formulated to describe the inelastic flow behavior of rock salt due to coupled creep, damage, and healing. The extended model was used to calculate the permeability of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site under conditions where damage evolved with stress over a time period. Permeability changes resulting from both damage development under deviatoric stresses and damage healing under hydrostatic pressures were considered. The calculated results were compared against experimental data from the literature, which indicated that permeability in damaged intact WIPP salt depends on the magnitude of the gas accessible volumetric strain and not on the total volumetric strain. Consequently, the permeability of WIPP salt is significantly affected by the kinetics of crack closure, but shows little dependence on the kinetics of crack removal by sintering.

BODNER,SOL R.; CHAN,KWAI S.; MUNSON,DARRELL E.

1999-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

159

Ris-R-1334(EN) Identification of Damage to Wind  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ris-R-1334(EN) Identification of Damage to Wind Turbine Blades by Modal Parameter Estimation April 2002 #12;Ris-R-1334(EN) Identification of Damage to Wind Turbine Blades by Modal Parameter condition monitoring of wind turbine blades (Phase I)". The goal of Phase I is to make a pre

160

Application of Damage Detection Techniques Using Wind Turbine Modal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As any structure ages, its structural characteristics will also change. The goal of this work was to determine if modal response data fkom a wind turbine could be used in the detection of damage. The input stimuli to the wind turbine were from traditional modal hammer input and natural wind excitation. The structural response data was acquired using accelerometers mounted on the rotor of a parked and undamaged horizontal-axis wind turbine. The bolts at the root of one of the three blades were then loosened to simulate a damaged blade. The structural response data of the rotor was again recorded. The undamaged and damage-simulated datasets were compared using existing darnage detection algorithms. Also, a novel algorithm for combining the results of different damage detection algorithms was utilized in the assessment of the data. This paper summarizes the code development and discusses some preliminary damage detection results.

Gross, E.; Rumsey, M.; Simmermacher, T.; Zadoks, R.I.

1998-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

How Damage Diversification Can Reduce Systemic Risk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the problem of risk diversification in complex networks. Nodes represent e.g. financial actors, whereas weighted links represent e.g. financial obligations (credits/debts). Each node has a risk to fail because of losses resulting from defaulting neighbors, which may lead to large failure cascades. Classical risk diversification strategies usually neglect network effects and therefore suggest that risk can be reduced if possible losses (i.e., exposures) are split among many neighbors (exposure diversification, ED). But from a complex networks perspective diversification implies higher connectivity of the system as a whole which can also lead to increasing failure risk of a node. To cope with this, we propose a different strategy (damage diversification, DD), i.e. the diversification of losses that are imposed on neighboring nodes as opposed to losses incurred by the node itself. Here, we quantify the potential of DD to reduce systemic risk in comparison to ED. For this, we develop a branching proce...

Burkholz, Rebekka; Schweitzer, Frank

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Modeling and analysis framework for core damage propagation during flow-blockage-initiated accidents in the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes modeling and analysis to evaluate the extent of core damage during flow blockage events in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor planned to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Damage propagation is postulated to occur from thermal conduction between damaged and undamaged plates due to direct thermal contact. Such direct thermal contact may occur because of fuel plate swelling during fission product vapor release or plate buckling. Complex phenomena of damage propagation were modeled using a one-dimensional heat transfer model. A scoping study was conducted to learn what parameters are important for core damage propagation, and to obtain initial estimates of core melt mass for addressing recriticality and steam explosion events. The study included investigating the effects of the plate contact area, the convective heat transfer coefficient, thermal conductivity upon fuel swelling, and the initial temperature of the plate being contacted by the damaged plate. Also, the side support plates were modeled to account for their effects on damage propagation. The results provide useful insights into how various uncertain parameters affect damage propagation.

Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Georgevich, V.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Formation damage studies of lubricants used with drill-in fluids systems on horizontal open-hole wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of lubricants in formation damage. Two types of lubricants were tested along with two types of drill-in fluids. The DIF's tested included a sized-calcium carbonate (SCC) and a sized-salt (SS). Also a set...

Gutierrez, Fernando A

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

A damage mechanics approach to life prediction for a salt structure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Excavated rooms in natural bedded salt formations are being considered for use as repositories for nuclear waste. It is presumed that deformation of the rooms by creep will lead to loss of structural integrity and affect room life history and seal efficiency. At projected repository temperatures, two possible fracture mechanisms in salt are creep-induced microcracking in triaxial compression and cleavage in tension. Thus, an accurate prediction of room life and seal degradation requires a reliable description of the creep and damage processes. While several constitutive models that treat either creep or fracture in salt are available in the literature, very few models have considered creep and damage in a coupled manner. Previously, Munson and Dawson formulated a set of creep equations for salt based on the consideration of dislocation mechanisms in the creep process. This set of creep equations has been generalized to include continuum, isotropic damage as a fully coupled variable in the response equation. The extended model has been referred to as the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model. A set of material constants for the creep and damage terms was deduced based on test data for both clean and argillaceous salt. In this paper, the use of the MDCF model for establishing the failure criteria and for analyzing the creep response of a salt structure is demonstrated. The paper is divided into three parts. A summary of the MDCF model is presented first, which is followed by an evaluation of the MDCF model against laboratory data. Finally, finite-element calculations of the creep and damage response of a salt structure are presented and compared against in-situ field measurements.

Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); DeVries, K.L.; Fossum, A.F. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Radiation Damage in Nanostructured Metallic Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with favorable microstructures and to investigate their response to radiation. The goals of this thesis are to study the radiation responses of several nanostructured metallic thin film systems, including Ag/Ni multilayers, nanotwinned Ag and nanocrystalline Fe...

Yu, Kaiyuan

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

Small Gas Bubble Experiment for Mitigation of Cavitation Damage and Pressure Waves in Short-pulse Mercury Spallation Targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Populations of small helium gas bubbles were introduced into a flowing mercury experiment test loop to evaluate mitigation of beam-pulse induced cavitation damage and pressure waves. The test loop was developed and thoroughly tested at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) prior to irradiations at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center - Weapons Neutron Research Center (LANSCE-WNR) facility. Twelve candidate bubblers were evaluated over a range of mercury flow and gas injection rates by use of a novel optical measurement technique that accurately assessed the generated bubble size distributions. Final selection for irradiation testing included two variations of a swirl bubbler provided by Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) collaborators and one orifice bubbler developed at SNS. Bubble populations of interest consisted of sizes up to 150 m in radius with achieved gas void fractions in the 10^-5 to 10^-4 range. The nominal WNR beam pulse used for the experiment created energy deposition in the mercury comparable to SNS pulses operating at 2.5 MW. Nineteen test conditions were completed each with 100 pulses, including variations on mercury flow, gas injection and protons per pulse. The principal measure of cavitation damage mitigation was surface damage assessment on test specimens that were manually replaced for each test condition. Damage assessment was done after radiation decay and decontamination by optical and laser profiling microscopy with damaged area fraction and maximum pit depth being the more valued results. Damage was reduced by flow alone; the best mitigation from bubble injection was between half and a quarter that of flow alone. Other data collected included surface motion tracking by three laser Doppler vibrometers (LDV), loop wall dynamic strain, beam diagnostics for charge and beam profile assessment, embedded hydrophones and pressure sensors, and sound measurement by a suite of conventional and contact microphones.

Wendel, Mark W [ORNL] [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL] [ORNL; Sangrey, Robert L [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL] [ORNL; West, David L [ORNL] [ORNL; Shea, Thomas J [ORNL] [ORNL; Hasegawa, Shoichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Kogawa, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Naoe, Dr. Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Farny, Dr. Caleb H. [Boston University] [Boston University; Kaminsky, Andrew L [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

Dey, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Rabdall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

168

Biomarkers Core Lab Price List Does NOT Include  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

v3102014 Biomarkers Core Lab Price List Does NOT Include Kit Cost PURCHASED by INVESTIGATOR/1/2013 Page 1 of 5 #12;Biomarkers Core Lab Price List Does NOT Include Kit Cost PURCHASED by INVESTIGATOR

Grishok, Alla

169

Including Retro-Commissioning in Federal Energy Savings Performance Contracts  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Guidance document on the importance of (and steps to) including retro-commissioning in Federal energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs).

170

WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The existence of problems with wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is nothing new to the Western Hemisphere. Damage by these introduced animals was reported as far back as 1505 by the early Spanish colonies in the Caribbean, where wild pigs were killing the colonists cattle. Droves of these animals also ravaged cultivated crops of maize and sugarcane on islands in the West Indies during this same time period. These wild pigs reportedly were very aggressive and often attacked Spanish soldiers hunting rebellious Indians or escaped slaves on these islands, especially when these animals were cornered. The documentation of such impacts by introduced populations of this species in the United States has subsequently increased in recent years, and continued up through the present (Towne and Wentworth. 1950, Wood and Barrett 1979, Mayer and Brisbin 1991, Dickson et al. 2001). In spite of a fairly constant history in this country since the early 1900s, wild pigs have had a dramatic recent increase in both distribution and numbers in the United States. Between 1989 and 2009, the number of states reporting the presence of introduced wild pigs went from 19 up to as many as 44. This increase, in part natural, but largely manmade, has caused an increased workload and cost for land and resource managers in areas where these new populations are found. This is the direct result of the damage that these introduced animals do. The cost of both these impacts and control efforts has been estimated to exceed a billion dollars annually (Pimentel 2007). The complexity of this problem has been further complicated by the widespread appeal and economic potential of these animals as a big game species (Tisdell 1982, Degner 1989). Wild pigs are a controversial problem that is not going away and will likely only get worse with time. Not only do they cause damage, but wild pigs are also survivors. They reproduce at a rate faster than any other mammal of comparable size, native or introduced; they can eat just about anything; and, they can live just about anywhere. On top of that, wild pigs are both very difficult to control and, with the possible exception of island ecosystems, almost impossible to eradicate (Dickson et al. 2001, Sweeney et al. 2003). The solution to the wild pig problem has not been readily apparent. The ultimate answer as to how to control these animals has not been found to date. In many ways, wild pigs are America's most successful large invasive species. All of which means that wild pigs are a veritable nightmare for land and resource managers trying to keep the numbers of these animals and the damage that they do under control. Since the more that one knows about an invasive species, the easier it is to deal with and hopefully control. For wild pigs then, it is better to 'know thy enemy' than to not, especially if one expects to be able to successfully control them. In an effort to better 'know thy enemy,' a two-day symposium was held in Augusta, Georgia, on April 21-22, 2004. This symposium was organized and sponsored by U.S.D.A. Forest Service-Savannah River (USFS-SR), U. S. Department of Energy-Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR), the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), the South Carolina Chapter of the Soil & Water Conservation Society, and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The goal of this symposium was to assemble researchers and land managers to first address various aspects of the biology and damage of wild pigs, and then review the control techniques and management of this invasive species. The result would then be a collected synopsis of what is known about wild pigs in the United States. Although the focus of the symposium was primarily directed toward federal agencies, presenters also included professionals from academic institutions, and private-sector control contractors and land managers. Most of the organizations associated with implementing this symposium were affiliated with the Savannah River Site (SRS), a 803 km{sup 2} federal nuclear facility, located in western South Carolina along the Savannah

Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

171

SUBSPACE-BASED DETECTION OF FATIGUE DAMAGE ON JACKET SUPPORT STRUCTURES OF OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SUBSPACE-BASED DETECTION OF FATIGUE DAMAGE ON JACKET SUPPORT STRUCTURES OF OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES damage in real size structural components of offshore wind turbines. KEYWORDS : Damage detection, Offshore wind turbines, Numerical response simulation. INTRODUCTION Offshore wind turbines are exposed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

172

Strain localization and cyclic damage of polyurethane foam cylinders: experimental tests and theoretical model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strain localization and cyclic damage of polyurethane foam cylinders: experimental tests subject to progressive damage. The chain of springs models the strain localization, and the second series qualitative agreement with the experiments. Keywords: polyurethane foams; strain localization; cyclic damage

Boyer, Edmond

173

ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE AS NEGATIVE EXTERNALITY: UNCERTAINTY, MORAL COMPLEXITY AND THE LIMITS OF THE MARKET  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

21 ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE AS NEGATIVE EXTERNALITY: UNCERTAINTY, MORAL COMPLEXITY AND THE LIMITS environmental damage with a sociological approach, I show how the process of externalities definition inclusive and democratic public deliberation on environmental damage and its reparation. Key Words

Boyer, Edmond

174

Automated structural damage detection using one class machine learning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measuring and analysing the vibration of structures using sensors can help identify and detect damage, potentially prolonging the life of structures and preventing disasters. Wireless sensor systems promise to make this ...

Long, James, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at < 200 C. In short, there are no gamma and neutron irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

RADIATION DAMAGE TO BSCCO-2223 FROM 50 MEV PROTONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

B. and Gupta, R. , Radiation Resistant Magnets for the RIARADIATION DAMAGE TO BSCCO-2223 FROM 50 MEV PROTONS A. F.HTS materials in high radiation environments requires that

Zeller, A.F.; Ronningen, R.M.; Godeke, A.; Heilbronn, L.H.; McMahan-Norris, P.; Gupta, R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Review of Dynamic Recovery Effects on Ion Irradiation Damage...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6HSiC, ionization processes are less dominant. Citation: Weber WJ, Y Zhang, and LM Wang.2012."Review of Dynamic Recovery Effects on Ion Irradiation Damage in...

178

Obstacles to Determining Punitive Damages in Class Actions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Courts and commentators have often embraced the class action device as an ideal means of assessing punitive damages fairly in mass tort cases. In this Article, Professor Hines sounds a cautionary note by identifying a number of procedural...

Hines, Laura J.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Assessing blackbird damage to ripening rice in Matagorda County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of pyrotechnic and auditory scare devices, but with only limited success. However, in order to develop new control techniques, as well as to test the efficacy of current techniques, damage must be accurately assessed. Large scale estimates (over entire fields...

Wright, Robert Glen

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Hail Ice Damage of Stringer-Stiffened Curved Composite Panels /  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Damage. Composite Structures 2003;62:21321. Ice Drop.How to make clear ice. 28 February 2011. Victoria, BC,2011/02/how-to- make-clear-ice-that-actually-works/ Graham,

Le, Jacqueline Linh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Drag amplification and fatigue damage in vortex-induced vibrations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fatigue damage and drag force amplification due to Vortex-Induced-Vibrations (VIV) continue to cause significant problems in the design of structures which operate in ocean current environments. These problems are magnified ...

Jhingran, Vikas Gopal

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Visual Indication of Mechanical Damage Using Core-Shell Microcapsules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-7 Changes in pH have been used to detect compression in polymer brushes,8 and microcapsules containing a p have been incorporated into filled hollow fibers to enhance damage visibility in the structure

Sottos, Nancy R.

183

Atomistic simulations of radiation damage in amorphous metal alloys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

While numerous fundamental studies have characterized the atomic-level radiation response mechanisms in irradiated crystalline alloys, comparatively little is known regarding the mechanisms of radiation damage in amorphous ...

Baumer, Richard E. (Richard Edward)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Spatially localized generation of nucleotide sequence-specific DNA damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatially localized generation of nucleotide sequence-specific DNA damage Dennis H. Oh* , Brett A- neously manipulated at the nucleotide level and in three dimen- sions. This approach for targeting

Boxer, Steven G.

185

Economic Damages from Climate Change: An Assessment of Market Impacts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

damage induced by sea level rise in the United States. InImpacts on Water Sea Level Rise Temperature-Related Extremewater supply and sea level rise and the costs of adjustment

Hanemann, W Michael; Dale, Larry

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Graded Materials for Resistance to Contact Deformation and Damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graded Materials for Resistance to Contact Deformation and Damage S. Suresh The mechanical response as diverse as tribology, geology, optoelectronics, biomechanics, fracture mechanics, and nanotechnology changes in the elastic properties of sands, soils, and rocks beneath Earth's surface in- fluence

Suresh, Subra

187

Effects of ballistic damage on the dynamics of composite driveshafts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this research program is to study the dynamics of a composite driveshaft before and after ballistic damage is incurred. Driveshafts are tested under static and dynamic loads to obtain material, mechanical, and vibrational...

Ayers, Thomas Ray

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Linking Cell Cycle Reentry and DNA Damage in Neurodegeneration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aberrant cell cycle activity and DNA damage have been observed in neurons in association with various neurodegenerative conditions. While there is strong evidence for a causative role for these events in neurotoxicity, it ...

Kim, Dohoon

189

Existence and Regularity for Dynamic Viscoelastic Adhesive Contact with Damage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model for the dynamic process of frictionless adhesive contact between a viscoelastic body and a reactive foundation, which takes into account the damage of the material resulting from tension or compression, is presented. Contact is described by the normal compliance condition. Material damage is modelled by the damage field, which measures the pointwise fractional decrease in the load-carrying capacity of the material, and its evolution is described by a differential inclusion. The model allows for different damage rates caused by tension or compression. The adhesion is modelled by the bonding field, which measures the fraction of active bonds on the contact surface. The existence of the unique weak solution is established using the theory of set-valued pseudomonotone operators introduced by Kuttler and Shillor (1999). Additional regularity of the solution is obtained when the problem data is more regular and satisfies appropriate compatibility conditions.

Kuttler, Kenneth L. [Department of Mathematics, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)], E-mail: klkuttler@math.byu.edu; Shillor, Meir [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309 (United States)], E-mail: shillor@oakland.edu; Fernandez, Jose R. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Facultade de Matematicas, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: jramon@usc.es

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Quantitative studies of severe fuel damage using delayed neutron data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A technique to quantify fuel damage in an LMR through analysis of delayed neutron data is presented, which is suitable for analysis of both small-scale in-pile experiments and full-scale plants. Validating analyses are described for five in-pile severe accident simulations performed within the SLSF and Mol 7C test programs. Comparison is made of measured and calculated amounts of fuel damage. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Bauer, T.H.; Braid, T.H. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Schleisiek, K. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Quantitative studies of severe fuel damage using delayed neutron data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, a technique is presented to quantify fuel damage in a liquid-metal reactor through fast-running computer analysis of delayed neutron data, suitable for analysis of both small-scale in-pile experiments and full-scale plants. Validating analyses are described for five in-pile severe accident simulations performed within the Sodium Loop Safety Facility and Mol-7C test programs. Comparison is made of measured and calculated amounts of fuel damage.

Bauer, T.H.; Braiel, T.H. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Schleisiek, K. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

The application of ultrasonics to assess damage in composite materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE APPLICATION OF ULTRASONICS TO ASSESS DAMAGE IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS A Thesis by JOHN GREGORY EDEN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1985 Major Subjectr Aerospace Engineering THE APPLICATION OF ULTRASONICS TO ASSESS DAMAGE IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS A Thesis by JOHN GREGORY EDEN Approved as to style and content by: (V. . Kinra, Chairman) (D. H. Allen, Member) (R. A...

Eden, John Gregory

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

193

Viscoelastic{Viscoplastic Damage Model for Asphalt Concrete  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.2.1 Yield surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.2.2 Viscoplastic potential energy function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.2.3 Hardening function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.3 Numerical... viii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1.1 Moisture-induced damage in pavements results in raveling and potholing 4 1.2 Adhesive and cohesive failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3 Damaged and e ective undamaged con gurations...

Graham, Michael A.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

194

Grey Squirrel bark stripping damage A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Height & DBH each tree Stems per ha Basal area Thinned Nov 1998 43% removed Growth Rate 1998 & 2003 with no damage 223 81.1 51 39 7 13/04/2010 #12;Case study DBH Tree size (DBH) v year of damage for `new.4 9.4 11.4 10 9 12 11 Basal area Post thinning 25.4 18.0 20.0 18 20 18 19 Total Basal area 27.2 28

195

Predicting threshold and location of laser damage on optical surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus useful in the prediction of the damage threshold of various optical devices, the location of weak spots on such devices and the location, identification, and elimination of optical surface impurities comprising, a focused and pulsed laser, an photo electric detector/imaging means, and a timer. The weak spots emit photoelectrons when subjected to laser intensities that are less than the intensity actually required to produce the damage. The weak spots may be eliminated by sustained exposure to the laser beam.

Siekhaus, Wigbert (Berkeley, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

analysis including plasma: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Assembly 2010 Space Plasmas in the Solar System, including Planetary Magnetospheres (D) Solar Variability, Cosmic Rays and Climate (D21) GEOMAGNETIC ACTIVITY AT HIGH-LATITUDE:...

197

Energy Department Expands Gas Gouging Reporting System to Include...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Washington, DC - Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman announced today that the Department of Energy has expanded its gas gouging reporting system to include a toll-free telephone...

198

PLOT: A UNIX PROGRAM FOR INCLUDING GRAPHICS IN DOCUMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

simple, easy-to-read graphics language designed specificallyPROGRAM FOR INCLUDING GRAPHICS IN DOCUMENTS Pavel Curtismeanings as in the GRAFPAC graphics system. Definl. ~ tions

Curtis, Pavel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

U-182: Microsoft Windows Includes Some Invalid Certificates  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The operating system includes some invalid intermediate certificates. The vulnerability is due to the certificate authorities and not the operating system itself.

200

Laser-induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2004  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume contains papers presented at the 35th Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High-Power Lasers, held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado, 22-24 September 2003. The symposium was attended by 125 participants from China, India, Russia, France, Germany, Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom. A meeting summary and some 75 reviewed papers appear. The book is divided into sections devoted to the following topics: thin films, surfaces and mirrors, fundamental mechanisms, materials and measurements, and finally, understanding optical damage with ultrashort laser pulses. Topics of interest to the high-peak-power and high-average-power laser communities in addition to damage issues related to various research efforts and commercial laser applications are discussed. Also discussed are improved scaling relations as a function of pulse duration in the femtosecond range, beam footprint size, and irradiation of optical materials with wavelengths down to the x-ray region. New sources at shorter wavelengths continue to be developed, and a corresponding shift in emphasis to short-wavelength and repetitively pulsed damage problems can be seen in some of these papers. Fabrication and test procedures are discussed particularly in the area of thin films. New materials and the implication of defects on the damage process are emphasized in addition to new reports of conditioning effects and damage repair or damage mitigation.

Exarhos, Gregory J.; Guenther, Arthur H.; Kaiser, Norbert; Lewis, Keith L.; Soileau, M. J.; Stolz, Christopher J.

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Femtosecond pulse damage thresholds of dielectric coatings in vacuum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At 10-7 Torr, the multiple femtosecond pulse damage threshold, F(?), is about 10% of the single pulse damage fluence F(1) for hafnia and silica films compared to about 65% and 50%, respectively, at 630 Torr. In contrast, the single-pulse damage threshold is pressure independent. The decrease of F(?) with decreasing air pressure correlates with the water vapor and oxygen content of the ambient gas with the former having the greater effect. The decrease in F(?) is likely associated with an accumulation of defects derived from oxygen deficiency, for example vacancies. From atmospheric air pressure to pressures of {approx}3 x 10{sup -6} Torr, the damage 'crater' starts deterministically at the center of the beam and grows in diameter as the fluence increases. At pressure below 3x10-6 Torr, damage is initiated at random 'sites' within the exposed area in hafnia films, while the damage morphology remains deterministic in silica films. A possible explanation is that absorbing centers are created at predisposed sample sites in hafnia, for example at boundaries between crystallites, or crystalline and amorphous phases.

Michelle D. Shinn, Duy N. Nguyen, Luke A. Emmert ,Paul Schwoebel, Dinesh Patel, Carmen S. Menoni, Wolfgang Rudolph

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. - Highlights: Oxidative stress plays a key role in UV-induced cell and tissue injuries. Quercitrin decreases ROS generation and restores antioxidants irradiated by UVB. Quercitrin reduces UVB-irradiated oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis, and inflammation. Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB-induced skin injuries.

Yin, Yuanqin [Cancer Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Yao, Hua [Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Luo, Jia [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY (United States); Gao, Ning [Department of Pharmacognos, College of Pharmacy, 3rd Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Shi, Xianglin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Zhang, Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

acetaminophen-induced oxidative damage: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and damage detection...21 3.5 Damage identification using a 3DOFs reduced order system Yang, Jann 105 Numerical aperture...

204

E-Print Network 3.0 - adapted damage control Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carlo simulation Summary: : Monte Carlo simulation; Masked irradiation damage; Josephson junction 1. Introduction Controlled... controlled damaged barrier layers, due to the long...

205

Reliability-based framework for fatigue damage prognosis of bonded structural elements in aerospace composite structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

situ damage detection of composite materials for structuralmaterials, Journal of Composite Materials , 10, 342-354,effects in damaged composite aerospace structures ,

Gobbato, Maurizio

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development A Report Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development Executive Summary In the 21st the Marcellus shale In addition to the specific questions identified for the case of Marcellus shale gas in New

Angenent, Lars T.

207

Prediction and measurement of pitting damage functions for condensing heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pitting corrosion is a form of localized attack resulting in rapid penetration into a metal substrate. It is one of the most destructive and insidious forms of corrosion that occurs in industrial systems. Traditionally, the damage function (i.e., the number of pits vs the pit depth) is measured experimentally, and the development of damage has been described using empirical models. In general, the empirical models are successful because the distribution functions employed display great mathematical flexibility, but they require a significant database to achieve reliability. In fact, they really are successful only when the answer is known in advance. In this study, a deterministic method was developed to predict localized corrosion damage functions for condensing heat exchangers. The method incorporated calculations for the composition of the condensed environment and the electrochemical corrosion potential (E[sub corr]) of the alloy and included mechanistic treatments of pit nucleation and growth. The roles of important environmental parameters such as chloride concentration ([Cl[sup [minus

Macdonald, D.D.; Liu, C.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Center for Advanced Materials); Stickford, G.H.; Hindin, B.; Agrawal, A.K. (Battelle Columbus Labs., Columbus, OH (United States)); Krist, K. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States))

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

On the formulation, parameter identification and numerical integration of the EMMI model :plasticity and isotropic damage.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report we present the formulation of the physically-based Evolving Microstructural Model of Inelasticity (EMMI) . The specific version of the model treated here describes the plasticity and isotropic damage of metals as being currently applied to model the ductile failure process in structural components of the W80 program . The formulation of the EMMI constitutive equations is framed in the context of the large deformation kinematics of solids and the thermodynamics of internal state variables . This formulation is focused first on developing the plasticity equations in both the relaxed (unloaded) and current configurations. The equations in the current configuration, expressed in non-dimensional form, are used to devise the identification procedure for the plasticity parameters. The model is then extended to include a porosity-based isotropic damage state variable to describe the progressive deterioration of the strength and mechanical properties of metals induced by deformation . The numerical treatment of these coupled plasticity-damage constitutive equations is explained in detail. A number of examples are solved to validate the numerical implementation of the model.

Bammann, Douglas J.; Johnson, G. C. (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Marin, Esteban B.; Regueiro, Richard A. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Articles which include chevron film cooling holes, and related processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An article is described, including an inner surface which can be exposed to a first fluid; an inlet; and an outer surface spaced from the inner surface, which can be exposed to a hotter second fluid. The article further includes at least one row or other pattern of passage holes. Each passage hole includes an inlet bore extending through the substrate from the inlet at the inner surface to a passage hole-exit proximate to the outer surface, with the inlet bore terminating in a chevron outlet adjacent the hole-exit. The chevron outlet includes a pair of wing troughs having a common surface region between them. The common surface region includes a valley which is adjacent the hole-exit; and a plateau adjacent the valley. The article can be an airfoil. Related methods for preparing the passage holes are also described.

Bunker, Ronald Scott; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

210

Computational Hydrocode Study of Target Damage due to Fragment-Blast Impact  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A target's terminal ballistic effects involving explosively generated fragments, along with the original blast, are of critical importance for many different security and safety related applications. Personnel safety and protective building design are but a few of the practical disciplines that can gain from improved understanding combined loading effects. Traditionally, any engineering level analysis or design effort involving explosions would divide the target damage analysis into two correspondingly critical areas: blast wave and fragment related impact effects. The hypothesis of this paper lies in the supposition that a linear combination of a blast-fragment loading, coupled with an accurate target response description, can lead to a non-linear target damage effect. This non-linear target response could then stand as the basis of defining what a synergistic or combined frag-blast loading might actually look like. The table below, taken from Walters, et. al. categorizes some of the critical parameters driving any combined target damage effect and drives the evaluation of results. Based on table 1 it becomes clear that any combined frag-blast analysis would need to account for the target response matching similar ranges for the mechanics described above. Of interest are the critical times upon which a blast event or fragment impact loading occurs relative to the target's modal response. A blast, for the purposes of this paper is defined as the sudden release of chemical energy from a given material (henceforth referred to as an energetic material) onto its surrounding medium. During the coupling mechanism a discrete or discontinuous shockwave is generated. This shockwave travels outward from the source transferring energy and momentum to any surrounding objects including personnel and engineering structures. From an engineering perspective blast effects are typically characterized by way of physical characteristics such as Peak Pressure (PP), Time of Arrival (TOA), Pressure-Impulse (PI) and Time of Duration (TD). Other peculiarities include the radial decrease in pressure from the source, any fireball size measurement, and subsequent increase in temperature from the passing of the shockwave through the surrounding medium. In light of all of these metrics, the loading any object receives from a blast event becomes intricately connected to the distance between itself and the source. Because of this, a clear distinction is made between close-in effects and those from a source far away from the object of interest. Explosively generated fragments on the other hand are characterized by means of their localized damage potential. Metrics such as whether the fragment penetrates or perforates a given object is quantified as well as other variables including fragment's residual velocity, % kinetic energy decrease, residual fragment mass and other exit criteria. A fragment launched under such violent conditions could easily be traveling at speeds in excess of 2500 ft/s. Given these speeds it is conceivable to imagine how any given fragment could deliver a concentrated load to a target and penetrates through walls, vehicles or even the protection systems of nearby personnel. This study will focus on the individual fragment-target impact event with the hopes of expanding it to eventually include statistical procedures. Since this is a modeling excursion into the combined frag-blast target damage effects the numerical methods used to frame this problem become important in-so-far as the simulations are done in a consistent manner. For this study a Finite-Element based Hydrocode solution called ALE3D (ALE=Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) was utilized. ALE3D is developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA), and as this paper will show, successfully implemented a converged ALE formulation including as many of the different aspects needed to query the synergistic damage on a given target. Further information on the modeling setup is included.

Hatch-Aguilar, T; Najjar, F; Szymanski, E

2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

211

Structural Health Monitoring for Impact Damage in Composite Structures.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Composite structures are increasing in prevalence throughout the aerospace, wind, defense, and transportation industries, but the many advantages of these materials come with unique challenges, particularly in inspecting and repairing these structures. Because composites of- ten undergo sub-surface damage mechanisms which compromise the structure without a clear visual indication, inspection of these components is critical to safely deploying composite re- placements to traditionally metallic structures. Impact damage to composites presents one of the most signi fi cant challenges because the area which is vulnerable to impact damage is generally large and sometimes very dif fi cult to access. This work seeks to further evolve iden- ti fi cation technology by developing a system which can detect the impact load location and magnitude in real time, while giving an assessment of the con fi dence in that estimate. Fur- thermore, we identify ways by which impact damage could be more effectively identi fi ed by leveraging impact load identi fi cation information to better characterize damage. The impact load identi fi cation algorithm was applied to a commercial scale wind turbine blade, and results show the capability to detect impact magnitude and location using a single accelerometer, re- gardless of sensor location. A technique for better evaluating the uncertainty of the impact estimates was developed by quantifying how well the impact force estimate meets the assump- tions underlying the force estimation technique. This uncertainty quanti fi cation technique was found to reduce the 95% con fi dence interval by more than a factor of two for impact force estimates showing the least uncertainty, and widening the 95% con fi dence interval by a fac- tor of two for the most uncertain force estimates, avoiding the possibility of understating the uncertainty associated with these estimates. Linear vibration based damage detection tech- niques were investigated in the context of structural stiffness reductions and impact damage. A method by which the sensitivity to damage could be increased for simple structures was presented, and the challenges of applying that technique to a more complex structure were identi fi ed. The structural dynamic changes in a weak adhesive bond were investigated, and the results showed promise for identifying weak bonds that show little or no static reduction in stiffness. To address these challenges in identifying highly localized impact damage, the possi- bility of detecting damage through nonlinear dynamic characteristics was also identi fi ed, with a proposed technique which would leverage impact location estimates to enable the detection of impact damage. This nonlinear damage identi fi cation concept was evaluated on a composite panel with a substructure disbond, and the results showed that the nonlinear dynamics at the damage site could be observed without a baseline healthy reference. By further developing impact load identi fi cation technology and combining load and damage estimation techniques into an integrated solution, the challenges associated with impact detection in composite struc- tures can be effectively solved, thereby reducing costs, improving safety, and enhancing the operational readiness and availability of high value assets.

Roach, Dennis P.; Raymond Bond (Purdue); Doug Adams (Purdue)

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Damage tolerance of well-completion and stimulation techniques in coalbed methane reservoirs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs are characterized as naturally fractured, dual porosity, low permeability, and water saturated gas reservoirs. Initially, the gas, water and coal are at thermodynamic equilibrium under prevailing reservoir conditions. Dewatering is essential to promote gas production. This can be accomplished by suitable completion and stimulation techniques. This paper investigates the efficiency and performance of the openhole cavity, hydraulic fractures, frack and packs, and horizontal wells as potential completion methods which may reduce formation damage and increase the productivity in coalbed methane reservoirs. Considering the dual porosity nature of CBM reservoirs, numerical simulations have been carried out to determine the formation damage tolerance of each completion and, stimulation approach. A new comparison parameter named as the normalized productivity index is defined as the ratio of the productivity index of a stimulated well to that of a nondamaged vertical well as a function of time. Typical scenarios have been considered to evaluate the CBM properties, including reservoir heterogeneity, anisotropy, and formation damage, for their effects on this index over the production time. The results for each stimulation technique show that the value of the index declines over the time of production with a rate which depends upon the applied technique and the prevailing reservoir conditions. The results also show that horizontal wells have the best performance if drilled orthogonal to the butt cleats. Open-hole cavity completions outperform vertical fractures if the fracture conductivity is reduced by any damage process. When vertical permeability is much lower than horizontal permeability, production of vertical wells will improve while productivity of horizontal wells will decrease.

Jahediesfanjani, H.; Civan, F. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Detection of exposure damage in composite materials using Fourier transform infrared technology.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Goal: to detect the subtle changes in laminate composite structures brought about by thermal, chemical, ultraviolet, and moisture exposure. Compare sensitivity of an array of NDI methods, including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), to detect subtle differences in composite materials due to deterioration. Inspection methods applied: ultrasonic pulse echo, through transmission ultrasonics, thermography, resonance testing, mechanical impedance analysis, eddy current, low frequency bond testing & FTIR. Comparisons between the NDI methods are being used to establish the potential of FTIR to provide the necessary sensitivity to non-visible, yet significant, damage in the resin and fiber matrix of composite structures. Comparison of NDI results with short beam shear tests are being used to relate NDI sensitivity to reduction in structural performance. Chemical analyses technique, which measures the infrared intensity versus wavelength of light reflected on the surface of a structure (chemical and physical information via this signature). Advances in instrumentation have resulted in hand-held portable devices that allow for field use (few seconds per scan). Shows promise for production quality assurance and in-service applications on composite aircraft structures (scarfed repairs). Statistical analysis on frequency spectrums produced by FTIR interrogations are being used to produce an NDI technique for assessing material integrity. Conclusions are: (1) Use of NDI to assess loss of composite laminate integrity brought about by thermal, chemical, ultraviolet, and moisture exposure. (2) Degradation trends between SBS strength and exposure levels (temperature and time) have been established for different materials. (3) Various NDI methods have been applied to evaluate damage and relate this to loss of integrity - PE UT shows greatest sensitivity. (4) FTIR shows promise for damage detection and calibration to predict structural integrity (short beam shear). (5) Detection of damage for medium exposure levels (possibly resin matrix degradation only) is more difficult and requires additional study. (6) These are initial results only - program is continuing with additional heat, UV, chemical and water exposure test specimens.

Roach, Dennis Patrick; Duvall, Randy L.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Damage identification and health monitoring of structural and mechanical systems from changes in their vibration characteristics: A literature review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains a review of the technical literature concerning the detection, location, and characterization of structural damage via techniques that examine changes in measured structural vibration response. The report first categorizes the methods according to required measured data and analysis technique. The analysis categories include changes in modal frequencies, changes in measured mode shapes (and their derivatives), and changes in measured flexibility coefficients. Methods that use property (stiffness, mass, damping) matrix updating, detection of nonlinear response, and damage detection via neural networks are also summarized. The applications of the various methods to different types of engineering problems are categorized by type of structure and are summarized. The types of structures include beams, trusses, plates, shells, bridges, offshore platforms, other large civil structures, aerospace structures, and composite structures. The report describes the development of the damage-identification methods and applications and summarizes the current state-of-the-art of the technology. The critical issues for future research in the area of damage identification are also discussed.

Doebling, S.W.; Farrar, C.R.; Prime, M.B.; Shevitz, D.W.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Turbomachine injection nozzle including a coolant delivery system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An injection nozzle for a turbomachine includes a main body having a first end portion that extends to a second end portion defining an exterior wall having an outer surface. A plurality of fluid delivery tubes extend through the main body. Each of the plurality of fluid delivery tubes includes a first fluid inlet for receiving a first fluid, a second fluid inlet for receiving a second fluid and an outlet. The injection nozzle further includes a coolant delivery system arranged within the main body. The coolant delivery system guides a coolant along at least one of a portion of the exterior wall and around the plurality of fluid delivery tubes.

Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

216

Experience With Damaged Spent Nuclear Fuel at U.S. DOE Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes some of the challenges encountered and solutions implemented to ensure safe storage and handling of damaged spent nuclear fuels (SNF). It includes a brief summary of some SNF storage environments and resulting SNF degradation, experience with handling and repackaging significantly degraded SNFs, and the associated lessons learned. This work provides useful insight and resolutions to many engineering challenges facing SNF handling and storage facilities. The context of this report is taken from a report produced at Idaho National Laboratory and further detailed information, such as equipment design and usage, can be found in the appendices to that report. (authors)

Carlsen, Brett; Fillmore, Denzel; Woolstenhulme, Eric [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625 Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); McCormack, Roger L. [Fluor Hanford Site, Richland, Wash. (United States); Sindelar, Robert; Spieker, Timothy [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: Proceedings of the SPIE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 40th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium is the leading forum for the exchange of information on the physics/technology of materials for high power/high energy lasers. The series of conference proceedings has grown to be a comprehensive source of information on optics for lasers and includes topics on materials and thin film preparation, durability, properties modeling, testing, and component fabrication. Papers appear in the volume in the following core areas: Materials and Measurements; Thin Films; Fundamental Mechanisms; and, surfaces, Mirrors, and Contamination.

Exarhos, Gregory J.; Ristau, Detlev; Soileau, M. J.; Stolz, Christopher J.

2008-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

218

A Leakage Current-based Measurement of the Radiation Damage in the ATLAS Pixel Detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A measurement has been made of the radiation damage incurred by the ATLAS Pixel Detector barrel silicon modules from the beginning of operations through the end of 2012. This translates to hadronic fluence received over the full period of operation at energies up to and including 8 TeV. The measurement is based on a per-module measurement of the silicon sensor leakage current. The results are presented as a function of integrated luminosity and compared to predictions by the Hamburg Model. This information can be used to predict limits on the lifetime of the Pixel Detector due to current, for various operating scenarios.

Gorelov, Igor V

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

A comparison of bollworm feeding damage on three genotypes of cotton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Heliothis zea (B ddr ), r 3 g* yp f, ~G' ht L. , conducted in the field near Texas A&M University during the summer of 1971. The 3 genotypes included Deltapine 16, an indeterminate commercial variety that fruits on long internodes; and 2 experi- mental..., early maturing strains, DSR LX6-56 and DSR 6-19-66-6m-10, which fruit on comparatively short internodes. The results indi- cated that the compact fruit placement of the 2 experimental geno- types did not enable bollworms to damage significantly more...

Baldwin, Jack Lyell

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Including costs of supply chain risk in strategic sourcing decisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cost evaluations do not always include the costs associated with risks when organizations make strategic sourcing decisions. This research was conducted to establish and quantify the impact of risks and risk-related costs ...

Jain, Avani

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF STEEL WELDED COVERPLATE INCLUDING COMPOSITE DOUBLERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the increasing focus on welded bridge members resulting in crack initiation and propagation, there is a large demand for creative solutions. One of these solutions includes the application of composite doublers over the critical weld. In order...

Petri, Brad

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

atlantic region including: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

R: L. Tossey, T. Beeson, Parks, B. TruittTNC, UD MPEO staff 2 Climate scenarios of sea level rise for the northeast Atlantic Ocean: a study including the effects of ocean...

223

T-603: Mac OS X Includes Some Invalid Comodo Certificates  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The operating system includes some invalid certificates. The vulnerability is due to the invalid certificates and not the operating system itself. Other browsers, applications, and operating systems are affected.

224

Limited Personal Use of Government Office Equipment including Information Technology  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The Order establishes requirements and assigns responsibilities for employees' limited personal use of Government resources (office equipment and other resources including information technology) within DOE, including NNSA. The Order is required to provide guidance on appropriate and inappropriate uses of Government resources. This Order was certified 04/23/2009 as accurate and continues to be relevant and appropriate for use by the Department. Certified 4-23-09. No cancellation.

2005-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

225

Mechanisms for microvascular damage induced by ultrasound-activated microbubbles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To provide insight into the mechanisms of microvascular damage induced by ultrasound-activated microbubbles, experimental studies were performed to correlate microvascular damage to the dynamics of bubble-vessel interactions. High-speed photomicrography was used to record single microbubbles interacting with microvessels in ex vivo tissue, under the exposure of short ultrasound pulses with a center frequency of 1 MHz and peak negative pressures (PNP) ranging from 0.8-4 MPa. Vascular damage associated with observed bubble-vessel interactions was either indicated directly by microbubble extravasation or examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. As observed previously, the high-speed images revealed that ultrasound-activated microbubbles could cause distention and invagination of adjacent vessel walls, and could form liquid jets in microvessels. Vessel distention, invagination, and liquid jets were associated with the damage of microvessels whose diameters were smaller than those of maximally expanded microbubbles. However, vessel invagination appeared to be the dominant mechanism for the damage of relative large microvessels.

Chen Hong; Brayman, Andrew A.; Evan, Andrew P.; Matula, Thomas J. [Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology and Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis (United States); Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

2012-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

226

b) Economic i) Total damage estimates: From Pimentel et al. (2000)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4) Impacts b) Economic i) Total damage estimates: From Pimentel et al. (2000) · United States #12;4) Impacts b) Economic i) Total damage estimates: From Pimentel et al. (2000) · United States Economic impacts from losses/damage #12;4) Impacts b) Economic i) Total damage estimates: From Pimentel et al

Nowak, Robert S.

227

The dynamic interplay between DNA damage and metabolism : the metabolic fate and transport of DNA lesions and novel DNA damage derived from intermediary metabolism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The work presented in this thesis explores two novel and complementary facets of endogenous DNA damage: the development of biomarkers of inflammation based on metabolites of DNA damage products and the formation of DNA ...

Jumpathong, Watthanachai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Application Of Shakedown Analysis To Cyclic Creep Damage Limits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Shakedown analysis may be used to provide a conservative estimate of local rupture and hence cyclic creep damage for use in a creep-fatigue assessment. The shakedown analysis is based on an elastic-perfectly plastic material with a temperature-dependent pseudo yield stress defined to guarantee that a shakedown solution exists which does not exceed rupture stress and temperature for a defined life. The ratio of design life to the estimated maximum cyclic life is the shakedown creep damage. The methodology does not require stress classification and is also applicable to cycles over the full range of temperature above and below the creep regime. Full cyclic creep and damage analysis is the alternative when shakedown analysis appears to be excessively conservative.

Carter, Peter [Stress Engineering Services Inc.] [Stress Engineering Services Inc.; Jetter, Robert I [Consultant] [Consultant; Sham, Sam [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previous studies have identified two significant precursors of laser damage on fused silica surfaces at fluenes below {approx} 35 J/cm{sup 2}, photoactive impurities in the polishing layer and surface fractures. In the present work, isothermal heating is studied as a means of remediating the highly absorptive, defect structure associated with surface fractures. A series of Vickers indentations were applied to silica surfaces at loads between 0.5N and 10N creating fracture networks between {approx} 10{micro}m and {approx} 50{micro}m in diameter. The indentations were characterized prior to and following thermal annealing under various times and temperature conditions using confocal time-resolved photo-luminescence (CTP) imaging, and R/1 optical damage testing with 3ns, 355nm laser pulses. Significant improvements in the damage thresholds, together with corresponding reductions in CTP intensity, were observed at temperatures well below the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). For example, the damage threshold on 05.N indentations which typically initiates at fluences <8 J/cm{sup 2} could be improved >35 J/cm{sup 2} through the use of a {approx} 750 C thermal treatment. Larger fracture networks required longer or higher temperature treatment to achieve similar results. At an annealing temperature > 1100 C, optical microscopy indicates morphological changes in some of the fracture structure of indentations, although remnants of the original fracture and significant deformation was still observed after thermal annealing. This study demonstrates the potential of using isothermal annealing as a means of improving the laser damage resistance of fused silica optical components. Similarly, it provides a means of further understanding the physics associated with optical damage and related mitigation processes.

Shen, N; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Laurence, T A; Suratwala, T I; Steele, W A; Feit, M D; Wang, L L

2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

230

Focused ion beam damage to MOS integrated circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercial focused ion beam (FIB) systems are commonly used to image integrated circuits (ICS) after device processing, especially in failure analysis applications. FIB systems are also often employed to repair faults in metal lines for otherwise functioning ICS, and are being evaluated for applications in film deposition and nanofabrication. A problem that is often seen in FIB imaging and repair is that ICS can be damaged during the exposure process. This can result in degraded response or out-right circuit failure. Because FIB processes typically require the surface of an IC to be exposed to an intense beam of 30--50 keV Ga{sup +} ions, both charging and secondary radiation damage are potential concerns. In previous studies, both types of effects have been suggested as possible causes of device degradation, depending on the type of device examined and/or the bias conditions. Understanding the causes of this damage is important for ICS that are imaged or repaired by a FIB between manufacture and operation, since the performance and reliability of a given IC is otherwise at risk in subsequent system application. In this summary, the authors discuss the relative roles of radiation damage and charging effects during FIB imaging. Data from exposures of packaged parts under controlled bias indicate the possibility for secondary radiation damage during FIB exposure. On the other hand, FIB exposure of unbiased wafers (a more common application) typically results in damage caused by high-voltage stress or electrostatic discharge. Implications for FIB exposure and subsequent IC use are discussed.

FLEETWOOD,D.M.; CAMPBELL,ANN N.; HEMBREE,CHARLES E.; TANGYUNYONG,PAIBOON; JESSING,JEFFREY R.; SODEN,JERRY M.

2000-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

231

Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.

Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi-Chung (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

1989-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

232

Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

234

Can reductions in logging damage increase carbon storage over time? Evaluation of a simulation model for a pilot carbon offset project in Malaysia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selective timber harvesting operations, if uncontrolled, can severely degrade a forest. Although techniques for reducing logging damage are well-known and inexpensive to apply, incentives to adopt these techniques are generally lacking. Power companies and other emitters of {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} gases soon may be forced to reduce or otherwise offset their net emissions; one offset option is to fund programs aimed at reducing logging damage. To investigate the consequences of reductions in logging damage for ecosystem carbon storage, I constructed a model to simulate changes in biomass and carbon pools following logging of primary dipterocarp forests in southeast Asia. I adapted a physiologically-driven, tree-based model of natural forest gap dynamics (FORMIX) to simulate forest recovery following logging. Input variables included stand structure, volume extracted, stand damage (% stems), and soil disturbance (% area compacted). Output variables included total biomass, tree density, and total carbon storage over time. Assumptions of the model included the following: (1) areas with soil disturbances have elevated probabilities of vine colonization and reduced rates of tree establishment, (2) areas with broken canopy but no soil disturbance are colonized initially by pioneer tree species and 20 yr later by persistent forest species, (3) damaged trees have reduced growth and increased mortality rates. Simulation results for two logging techniques, conventional and reduced-impact logging, are compared with data from field studies conducted within a pilot carbon offset project in Sabah, Malaysia.

Pinard, M.A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Optical Damage Threshold of Silicon for Ultrafast Infrared Pulses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While silicon has several properties making it an attractive material for structure-based laser-driven acceleration, its optical damage threshold, a key parameter for high-gradient acceleration, has been unknown. Here we present measurements of the optical damage threshold of crystalline silicon for ultrafast pulses in the mid-infrared. The wavelengths tested span a range from the telecommunications band at 1550 nm extending longer toward the two-photon absorption threshold at around 2200 nm. We discuss the prevailing theories of ultrafast optical breakdown, describe the experimental setup and preliminary results, and propose a relevant performance parameter for candidate accelerator structures.

Cowan, B.; /SLAC

2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

236

Predicting threshold and location of laser damage on optical surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is an apparatus useful in the prediction of the damage threshold of various optical devices, the location of weak spots on such devices and the location, identification, and elimination of optical surface impurities. The apparatus comprises a focused and pulsed laser, a photo electric detector/imaging means, and a timer. The weak spots emit photoelectrons when subjected to laser intensities that are less than the intensity actually required to produce the damage. The weak spots may be eliminated by sustained exposure to the laser beam.

Siekhaus, W.

1985-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

237

BDS Thin Film UV Antireflection Laser Damage Competition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

UV antireflection coatings are a challenging coating for high power laser applications as exemplified by the use of uncoated Brewster's windows in laser cavities. In order to understand the current laser resistance of UV AR coatings in the industrial and university sectors, a double blind laser damage competition was performed. The coatings have a maximum reflectance of 0.5% at 355 nm at normal incidence. Damage testing will be performed using the raster scan method with a 7.5 ns pulse length on a single testing facility to facilitate direct comparisons. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes and coating materials will also be shared.

Stolz, C J

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

238

Measuring Radiation Damage from Heavy Energetic Ions in Aluminum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An intense beam of 122 MeV/u (9.3 GeV) 76Ge ions was stopped in aluminum samples at the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at NSCL, MSU. Attempts were made at ORNL to measure changes in material properties by measuring changes in electrical resistivity and microhardness, and by transmission electron microscopy characterization, for defect density caused by radiation damage, as a function of depth and integrated ion flux. These measurements are relevant for estimating damage to components at a rare isotope beam facility.

Kostin, M., PI-MSU; Ronningen, R., PI-MSU; Ahle, L., PI-LLNL; Gabriel, T., Scientific Investigation and Development; Mansur, L., PI-ORNL; Leonard, K., ORNL; Mokhov, N., FNAL; Niita, K., RIST, Japan

2009-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

239

Biomass Potentials from California Forest and Shrublands Including Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomass Potentials from California Forest and Shrublands Including Fuel Reduction Potentials-04-004 February 2005 Revised: October 2005 Arnold Schwarzenegger, Governor, State of California #12;Biomass Tiangco, CEC Bryan M. Jenkins, University of California #12;Biomass Potentials from California Forest

240

Project Management Business Process Project Delivery Processes Includes VE Budget  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project Management Business Process Project Delivery Processes Includes VE Budget Schedule Activities that do/could feed into PMBP LEGEND VE Cost Avoidance Program Coverage Document Results (Before, could use the value methodology to facilitate after action review. The project manager is responsible

US Army Corps of Engineers

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

DISTINCTIONS The unique combination of factors which distinguish Berea includes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

throughout Appala- chia. SUSTAINABLE CAMPUS FEATURES The College environment demonstrates sustainable living and enhances student learning. Recently renovated historical buildings and residence halls include sustain, Washington Monthly ranked Berea the #1 liberal arts college in the nation Listed as a "Best Buy" college

Baltisberger, Jay H.

242

Free Energy Efficiency Kit includes CFL light bulbs,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Free Energy Efficiency Kit Kit includes CFL light bulbs, spray foam, low-flow shower head, and more! Building Science 101 Presentation BPI Certified Building Professionals will present home energy efficiency for discounted energy assessments. FREE HOME ENERGY EFFICIENCY SEMINAR N e w R i ver L i g ht & Pow e r a n d W

Rose, Annkatrin

243

Area of cooperation includes: Joint research and development on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technologies August 2, 2006: HCL Technologies Ltd (HCL), India's leading global IT services company, has signed projects that are using this technology currently such as BioGrid in Japan, National Grid Service in UKArea of cooperation includes: · Joint research and development on Grid computing technologies

Buyya, Rajkumar

244

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development A Report Engineering) W. VA #12;Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach August 2011 version Page 2 Energy Transitions sources globally, some very strong short-term drivers of energy transitions reflect rising concerns over

Walter, M.Todd

245

Procedures in Modules (1) Including all procedures within modules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Procedures in Modules (1) Including all procedures within modules works very well in almost all designing these if possible #12;Procedures in Modules (2) These are very much like internal procedures Works very well in almost all programs Everything accessible in the module can also be used in the procedure

246

FORUMA Hamilton Spectator Town Hall Event SPEAKERS INCLUDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R001990104 OPEN FORUMA Hamilton Spectator Town Hall Event SPEAKERS INCLUDE: STEVE BUIST, Spectator, former chairman of Hamilton-Wentworth region and now president and CEO of the Hamilton Community Foundation. DR. CHRIS MACKIE, Hamilton's associate medical officer of health. MARK CHAMBERLAIN, president

Thompson, Michael

247

DO NOT INCLUDE: flatten cardboard staples, tape & envelope windows ok  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/ bottles Metal items other than cans/foil Napkins Paper towels Plastic bags Plastic films Plastic utensilsDO NOT INCLUDE: flatten cardboard staples, tape & envelope windows ok Aerosol cans Books Bottle, PDAs, inkjet cartridges, CFL bulbs (cushioned, sealed in plastic) computers, printers, printer

Wolfe, Patrick J.

248

cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids.

Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Namhai Chua; Kush, A.

1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

249

ASTRO-F/FIS observing simulation including detector characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASTRO-F/FIS observing simulation including detector characteristics Woong-Seob Jeong a,*, Soojong instruments, the far-infrared surveyor (FIS) will map the entire sky in four bands using short wavelength (SW- oped a suite of software with an aim to simulate the FIS observations (Jeong et al., 2000, 2003, 2004

Pak, Soojong

250

ASTRO-F/FIS Observing Simulation Including Detector Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASTRO-F/FIS Observing Simulation Including Detector Characteristics Woong-Seob Jeong1, Soojong Pak1 simulations to examined the detector characteristics on the FIS instrument (Far- Infrared Surveyor) images narrow and wide bands using a short wavelength (SW) and long wavelength (LW) detector array. The FIS (Far

Lee, Hyung Mok

251

Methods of Purchasing Purchasing methods include the different  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

" purchases must be reviewed and approved by the Controller's Office. This may result in the end user beingMethods of Purchasing Purchasing methods include the different processes of ordering goods and/or services, and encumbering funds. #12;Method of Purchase Field Purchase Orders (FPO) Accepted

252

Including Blind Students in Computer Science Through Access to Graphs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Including Blind Students in Computer Science Through Access to Graphs Suzanne Balik, Sean Mealin SKetching tool, GSK, to provide blind and sighted people with a means to create, examine, and share graphs (node-link diagrams) in real-time. GSK proved very effective for one blind computer science student

Young, R. Michael

253

HTS Conductor Design Issues Including Quench and Stability,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/background · Stability and protection are crucial issues for HTS tapes and coils applied to electric power devices. ­Both for the economic argument for HTS AC applications like cables and transformers. · Conductor design is importantHTS Conductor Design Issues Including Quench and Stability, AC Losses, and Fault Currents M. J

254

Bayesian hierarchical reconstruction of protein profiles including a digestion model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bayesian hierarchical reconstruction of protein profiles including a digestion model Pierre to recover the protein biomarkers content in a robust way. We will focus on the digestion step since and each branch to a molecular processing such as digestion, ionisation and LC-MS separation

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

255

GRADUATE STUDIES IN BUILDING TECHNOLOGY AN INTERDISCIPLINARY PROGRAM INCLUDING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-growing economies in other parts of the world, there is a growing demand for practical, sustainable building designs as the broader architectural design and construction processes. Likely careers of graduates are in the building1 GRADUATE STUDIES IN BUILDING TECHNOLOGY AN INTERDISCIPLINARY PROGRAM INCLUDING DEPARTMENT

Reif, Rafael

256

Requirements: A minimum of 15 PSYC credits, including  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

» Three other 2000-3000-level PSYC courses (any area) No more than 3 credits of PSYC 3889 or 3999 canRequirements: A minimum of 15 PSYC credits, including: » One Area I course » One Area II course) ___2100 (Principles of Research in Psychology) Area I. Social, Developmental, Clinical, & Industrial

Alpay, S. Pamir

257

ADVANCED COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE DESIGN BASED ON DURABILITY AND DAMAGE TOLERANCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the program was to demonstrate and verify Certification-by-Analysis (CBA) capability for wind turbine blades made from advanced lightweight composite materials. The approach integrated durability and damage tolerance analysis with robust design and virtual testing capabilities to deliver superior, durable, low weight, low cost, long life, and reliable wind blade design. The GENOA durability and life prediction software suite was be used as the primary simulation tool. First, a micromechanics-based computational approach was used to assess the durability of composite laminates with ply drop features commonly used in wind turbine applications. Ply drops occur in composite joints and closures of wind turbine blades to reduce skin thicknesses along the blade span. They increase localized stress concentration, which may cause premature delamination failure in composite and reduced fatigue service life. Durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) were evaluated utilizing a multi-scale micro-macro progressive failure analysis (PFA) technique. PFA is finite element based and is capable of detecting all stages of material damage including initiation and propagation of delamination. It assesses multiple failure criteria and includes the effects of manufacturing anomalies (i.e., void, fiber waviness). Two different approaches have been used within PFA. The first approach is Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) PFA while the second one is strength-based. Constituent stiffness and strength properties for glass and carbon based material systems were reverse engineered for use in D&DT evaluation of coupons with ply drops under static loading. Lamina and laminate properties calculated using manufacturing and composite architecture details matched closely published test data. Similarly, resin properties were determined for fatigue life calculation. The simulation not only reproduced static strength and fatigue life as observed in the test, it also showed composite damage and fracture modes that resemble those reported in the tests. The results show that computational simulation can be relied on to enhance the design of tapered composite structures such as the ones used in turbine wind blades. A computational simulation for durability, damage tolerance (D&DT) and reliability of composite wind turbine blade structures in presence of uncertainties in material properties was performed. A composite turbine blade was first assessed with finite element based multi-scale progressive failure analysis to determine failure modes and locations as well as the fracture load. D&DT analyses were then validated with static test performed at Sandia National Laboratories. The work was followed by detailed weight analysis to identify contribution of various materials to the overall weight of the blade. The methodology ensured that certain types of failure modes, such as delamination progression, are contained to reduce risk to the structure. Probabilistic analysis indicated that composite shear strength has a great influence on the blade ultimate load under static loading. Weight was reduced by 12% with robust design without loss in reliability or D&DT. Structural benefits obtained with the use of enhanced matrix properties through nanoparticles infusion were also assessed. Thin unidirectional fiberglass layers enriched with silica nanoparticles were applied to the outer surfaces of a wind blade to improve its overall structural performance and durability. The wind blade was a 9-meter prototype structure manufactured and tested subject to three saddle static loading at Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). The blade manufacturing did not include the use of any nano-material. With silica nanoparticles in glass composite applied to the exterior surfaces of the blade, the durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) results from multi-scale PFA showed an increase in ultimate load of the blade by 9.2% as compared to baseline structural performance (without nano). The use of nanoparticles lead to a delay in the onset of delamination. Load-displacement relati

Galib Abumeri; Frank Abdi (PhD)

2012-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

258

Modelling of fatigue damage in aluminum cylinder heads. R. Salapeteb  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 1. INTRODUCTION Increase in the specific power of Diesel engines leads to severe operating fatigue damage that may cause Diesel engine to fail after a few thousand cycles on the test bench and under severe operating conditions. The alternative heating and cooling of the operative Diesel engine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

259

Topeka, Kansas, Flood Damage Reduction Project 30 January 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with and approved by the necessary resource agencies. The long-term environmental and cultural consequences of planTopeka, Kansas, Flood Damage Reduction Project 30 January 2009 Abstract: The recommended plan provides for flood risk management and restores the reliability of the Topeka, Kansas, Levee System located

US Army Corps of Engineers

260

Fungal endophytes limit pathogen damage in a tropical tree  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fungal endophytes limit pathogen damage in a tropical tree A. Elizabeth Arnold* , Luis Carlos Meji species examined to date harbors endophytic fungi within its asymptomatic aerial tissues, such that endophytes rep- resent a ubiquitous, yet cryptic, component of terrestrial plant communities. Fungal

Bermingham, Eldredge

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Temporary patching of damaged UF{sub 6} cylinders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Patching techniques based on application of epoxy resins have been developed for temporarily repairing UF{sub 6} cylinders which have sustained relatively minor damage and must be safely emptied. The method is considerably faster and simpler than metallurgical weld repairs. Laboratory tests, detailed operational procedures, and case histories of experience at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are described.

Cardenas, A.L. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., OH (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

262

Automated Damage Diagnosis and Recovery for Remote Robotics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; damage may require rapid compensation (eg., power drain due to coverage of solar panels); and repeated that are qualitatively different from the original controller. A number of algorithms based on repeated testing have been only handles pre­ specified error types. The algorithm proposed here is demon­ strated to automatically

Bongard, Josh

263

Automated Damage Diagnosis and Recovery for Remote Robotics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; damage may require rapid compensation (eg., power drain due to coverage of solar panels); and repeated that are qualitatively different from the original controller. A number of algorithms based on repeated testing have been only handles pre- specified error types. The algorithm proposed here is demon- strated to automatically

Bongard, Josh

264

Electric heating units in pollination bags avoid damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric heating units in pollination bags avoid damage to flowers by spring frost J. CH. FERRAND n'Orlgans Ardon, F 45160 Olivet Summary An effective, cheap and simple heating device was designed by INRA heating, Larix. Controlled crosses are essential for forest tree breeding, but spring frost can destroy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

265

Specific grinding energy causing thermal damage in precision gear steels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of thermal damage for surface grinding of AISI 9310 gear steel using two different grinding wheels and two different coolants. The grinding wheels used for this research are plain alumina wheel-32A80-JVBE and Seeded Gel alumina abrasive-5SG80-JVS...

Hatathodi, Srinivas

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

A micromechanics based ductile damage model for anisotropic titanium alloys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of internal cavitation. The model is developed from a rigorous micromechanical basis, following well-known previous works in the field. The model incorporates the porosity and void aspect ratio as internal damage variables, and seeks to provide a more accurate...

Keralavarma, Shyam Mohan

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

Scaling of fracture length and distributed damage Vladimir Lyakhovsky  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scaling of fracture length and distributed damage Vladimir Lyakhovsky The Institute of Earth space scaling except linear relations between fracture length and displacements and thus the determination theoretically of the strength of a body or structure directly. Self-similarity of a fracture

Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

268

Dynamics and Fatigue Damage of Wind Turbine Rotors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6 3 RiS0-Rr512 Dynamics and Fatigue Damage of Wind Turbine Rotors during Steady Operation Peter OF WIND TURBINE ROTORS DURING STEADY OPERATION Peter Hauge Madsen, Sten Frandsen, William E. Holley-carrying capacity of a wind turbine rotor with respect to short-term strength and material fatigue are presented

269

Non-Destructive Damage Evaluation Based on Element Strain Energies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

should apply to 1-D as well as 2-D and 3-D structures with single or multiple damage locations. To achieve the objectives listed above, the following four tasks are addressed: (1) the development of the theoretical foundations of the nondestructive...

Li, Ran

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Proton Irradiation Damage Assessment of Carbon Reinforced Composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proton Irradiation Damage Assessment of Carbon Reinforced Composites: 2-D & 3-D Weaved Structures carbon-carbon composite ATJ Graphite 3D CC composite AGS Beam-on-Target tests show clearly that carbon composites are better absorbers of thermo- mechanical shock. This is attributed to the very low coeff

McDonald, Kirk

271

IDENTIFICATION OF MATERIAL DAMAGE IN TWO DIMENSIONAL DOMAINS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IDENTIFICATION OF MATERIAL DAMAGE IN TWO DIMENSIONAL DOMAINS USING SQUID BASED NDE SYSTEM H on such problems entails quantitative nondestructive evaluation methods in SQUID-based NDE system [1]. It is well, SQUID based nondestructive evaluation (NDE) systems using injection current methods have been recently

272

IDENTIFICATION OF MATERIAL DAMAGE IN TWO DIMENSIONAL DOMAINS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IDENTIFICATION OF MATERIAL DAMAGE IN TWO DIMENSIONAL DOMAINS USING SQUID BASED NDE SYSTEM H#ort on such problems entails quantitative nondestructive evaluation methods in SQUID­based NDE system [1]. It is well nondestructive evaluation (NDE) systems using injection current methods have been recently developed [3, 4

273

Collaborative Post-Disaster Damage Mapping via Geo Web Services  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with geospatial services that can interact in a loosely coupled envir- onment and be used to create more suitable architecture for a collaborative post-disaster damage mapping system. We focus particularly on satellite image-based post-disaster support situations, and present our ideas for a prototype based on this architecture

Köbben, Barend

274

Monitoring Forest Damage Methods and Development in Sweden  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, fieldwork in the target-tailored inventory of resin top disease, damage by Spruce bark beetle. (photo: S is the most important information that can be obtained from these kinds of inventories. Short variability. Large-scale monitoring, such as that performed in national forest inventories, has good potential

275

TMI-2 core damage: a summary of present knowledge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extensive fuel damage (oxidation and fragmentation) has occurred and the top approx. 1.5 m of the center portion of the TMI-2 core has relocated. The fuel fragmentation extends outward to slightly beyond one-half the core radius in the direction examined by the CCTV camera. While the radial extent of core fragmentation in other directions was not directly observed, control and spider drop data and in-core instrument data suggest that the core void is roughly symmetrical, although there are a few indications of severe fuel damage extending to the core periphery. The core material fragmented into a broad range of particle sizes, extending down to a few microns. APSR movement data, the observation of damaged fuel assemblies hanging unsupported from the bottom of the reactor upper plenum structure, and the observation of once-molten stainless steel immediately above the active core indicate high temperatures (up to at least 1720 K) extended to the very top of the core. The relative lack of damage to the underside of the plenum structure implies a sharp temperature demarcation at the core/plenum interface. Filter debris and leadscrew deposit analyses indicate extensive high temperature core materials interaction, melting of the Ag-In-Cd control material, and transport of particulate control material to the plenum and out of the vessel.

Owen, D.E.; Mason, R.E.; Meininger, R.D.; Franz, W.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

DAMAGE DETECTION IN COMPOSITES BY NONCONTACT LASER Byeongjin Park  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Composite structures, Wind blade. INTRODUCTION Composite materials are widely used for various industries. The feasibility of the proposed technique is examined by localizing a delamination in a real 10 kW wind turbine blade. KEYWORDS : Laser ultrasonics, Damage detection and localization, Time-of-flight triangulation

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

277

Multi-processor including data flow accelerator module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An accelerator module for a data flow computer includes an intelligent memory. The module is added to a multiprocessor arrangement and uses a shared tagged memory architecture in the data flow computer. The intelligent memory module assigns locations for holding data values in correspondence with arcs leading to a node in a data dependency graph. Each primitive computation is associated with a corresponding memory cell, including a number of slots for operands needed to execute a primitive computation, a primitive identifying pointer, and linking slots for distributing the result of the cell computation to other cells requiring that result as an operand. Circuitry is provided for utilizing tag bits to determine automatically when all operands required by a processor are available and for scheduling the primitive for execution in a queue. Each memory cell of the module may be associated with any of the primitives, and the particular primitive to be executed by the processor associated with the cell is identified by providing an index, such as the cell number for the primitive, to the primitive lookup table of starting addresses. The module thus serves to perform functions previously performed by a number of sections of data flow architectures and coexists with conventional shared memory therein. A multiprocessing system including the module operates in a hybrid mode, wherein the same processing modules are used to perform some processing in a sequential mode, under immediate control of an operating system, while performing other processing in a data flow mode.

Davidson, George S. (Albuquerque, NM); Pierce, Paul E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Conversion of geothermal waste to commercial products including silica  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the treatment of geothermal residue includes contacting the pigmented amorphous silica-containing component with a depigmenting reagent one or more times to depigment the silica and produce a mixture containing depigmented amorphous silica and depigmenting reagent containing pigment material; separating the depigmented amorphous silica and from the depigmenting reagent to yield depigmented amorphous silica. Before or after the depigmenting contacting, the geothermal residue or depigmented silica can be treated with a metal solubilizing agent to produce another mixture containing pigmented or unpigmented amorphous silica-containing component and a solubilized metal-containing component; separating these components from each other to produce an amorphous silica product substantially devoid of metals and at least partially devoid of pigment. The amorphous silica product can be neutralized and thereafter dried at a temperature from about 25.degree. C. to 300.degree. C. The morphology of the silica product can be varied through the process conditions including sequence contacting steps, pH of depigmenting reagent, neutralization and drying conditions to tailor the amorphous silica for commercial use in products including filler for paint, paper, rubber and polymers, and chromatographic material.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Tanioka, Seiichi [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Sakaide (Japan)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

280

Composite armor, armor system and vehicle including armor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Composite armor panels are disclosed. Each panel comprises a plurality of functional layers comprising at least an outermost layer, an intermediate layer and a base layer. An armor system incorporating armor panels is also disclosed. Armor panels are mounted on carriages movably secured to adjacent rails of a rail system. Each panel may be moved on its associated rail and into partially overlapping relationship with another panel on an adjacent rail for protection against incoming ordnance from various directions. The rail system may be configured as at least a part of a ring, and be disposed about a hatch on a vehicle. Vehicles including an armor system are also disclosed.

Chu, Henry S.; Jones, Warren F.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Thinnes, Gary L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a pu GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI); Broekaert, Willem F. (Dilbeek, BE); Chua, Nam-Hai (Scarsdale, NY); Kush, Anil (New York, NY)

1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

282

Assessing Vulnerabilities, Risks, and Consequences of Damage to Critical Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the publication of 'Critical Foundations: Protecting America's Infrastructure,' there has been a keen understanding of the complexity, interdependencies, and shared responsibility required to protect the nation's most critical assets that are essential to our way of life. The original 5 sectors defined in 1997 have grown to 18 Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources (CIKR), which are discussed in the 2009 National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) and its supporting sector-specific plans. The NIPP provides the structure for a national program dedicated to enhanced protection and resiliency of the nation's infrastructure. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides in-depth, multi-disciplinary assessments of threat, vulnerability, and consequence across all 18 sectors at scales ranging from specific facilities to infrastructures spanning multi-state regions, such as the Oil and Natural Gas (ONG) sector. Like many of the CIKR sectors, the ONG sector is comprised of production, processing, distribution, and storage of highly valuable and potentially dangerous commodities. Furthermore, there are significant interdependencies with other sectors, including transportation, communication, finance, and government. Understanding the potentially devastating consequences and collateral damage resulting from a terrorist attack or natural event is an important element of LLNL's infrastructure security programs. Our work began in the energy sector in the late 1990s and quickly expanded other critical infrastructure sectors. We have performed over 600 physical assessments with a particular emphasis on those sectors that utilize, store, or ship potentially hazardous materials and for whom cyber security is important. The success of our approach is based on building awareness of vulnerabilities and risks and working directly with industry partners to collectively advance infrastructure protection. This approach consists of three phases: The Pre-Assessment Phase brings together infrastructure owners and operators to identify critical assets and help the team create a structured information request. During this phase, we gain information about the critical assets from those who are most familiar with operations and interdependencies, making the time we spend on the ground conducting the assessment much more productive and enabling the team to make actionable recommendations. The Assessment Phase analyzes 10 areas: Threat environment, cyber architecture, cyber penetration, physical security, physical penetration, operations security, policies and procedures, interdependencies, consequence analysis, and risk characterization. Each of these individual tasks uses direct and indirect data collection, site inspections, and structured and facilitated workshops to gather data. Because of the importance of understanding the cyber threat, LLNL has built both fixed and mobile cyber penetration, wireless penetration and supporting tools that can be tailored to fit customer needs. The Post-Assessment Phase brings vulnerability and risk assessments to the customer in a format that facilitates implementation of mitigation options. Often the assessment findings and recommendations are briefed and discussed with several levels of management and, if appropriate, across jurisdictional boundaries. The end result is enhanced awareness and informed protective measures. Over the last 15 years, we have continued to refine our methodology and capture lessons learned and best practices. The resulting risk and decision framework thus takes into consideration real-world constraints, including regulatory, operational, and economic realities. In addition to 'on the ground' assessments focused on mitigating vulnerabilities, we have integrated our computational and atmospheric dispersion capability with easy-to-use geo-referenced visualization tools to support emergency planning and response operations. LLNL is home to the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) and the Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC). NA

Suski, N; Wuest, C

2011-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

283

Cogeneration handbook for the petroleum refining industry. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Handbook deals only with industrial cogeneration, that is, simultaneous production of both heat and electricity at the industrial plant site. The cogenerator has the option of either selling all cogenerated power to the utility while simultaneously purchasing power to satisfy his plant demand, or directly supplying the plant demand with cogenerated power, thus displacing utility-supplied power. This Handbook provides the refinery plant manager or company energy coordinator with a framework for making a preliminary assessment of the feasibility and viability of cogeneration at a particular plant. The handbook is intended to provide an understanding of the potential of several standardized cogeneration systems, as well as their limitations. However, because the decision to cogenerate is very site specific, the handbook cannot provide all of the answers. It does attempt, however, to bring to light the major issues that should be addressed in the decision-making process. The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. 39 figures, 37 tables.

Not Available

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

ORAU's Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

285

Fractal mechanism for characterizing singularity of mode shape for damage detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Damage is an ordinary physical phenomenon jeopardizing structural safety; damage detection is an ongoing interdisciplinary issue. Waveform fractal theory has provided a promising resource for detecting damage in plates while presenting a concomitant problem: susceptibility to false features of damage. This study proposes a fractal dimension method based on affine transformation to address this problem. Physical experiments using laser measurement demonstrate that this method can substantially eliminate false features of damage and accurately identify complex cracks in plates, providing a fundamental mechanism that brings the merits of waveform fractal theory into full play in structural damage detection applications.

Cao, M. S. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China)] [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); Ostachowicz, W. [Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Fiszera 14, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland) [Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Fiszera 14, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Faculty of Automotive and Construction Machinery, Warsaw University of Technology, Narbutta 84, 02-524 Warsaw (Poland); Bai, R. B., E-mail: bairunbo@gmail.com [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271000 (China); Radzie?ski, M. [Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Fiszera 14, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)] [Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Fiszera 14, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

286

Protection of cisplatin-induced spermatotoxicity, DNA damage and chromatin abnormality by selenium nano-particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cisplatin (CIS), an anticancer alkylating agent, induces DNA adducts and effectively cross links the DNA strands and so affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. The present study investigated the cellular/biochemical mechanisms underlying possible protective effect of selenium nano-particles (Nano-Se) as an established strong antioxidant with more bioavailability and less toxicity, on reproductive toxicity of CIS by assessment of sperm characteristics, sperm DNA integrity, chromatin quality and spermatogenic disorders. To determine the role of oxidative stress (OS) in the pathogenesis of CIS gonadotoxicity, the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and peroxynitrite (ONOO) as a marker of nitrosative stress (NS) and testosterone (T) concentration as a biomarker of testicular function were measured in the blood and testes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups. A single IP dose of CIS (7 mg/kg) and protective dose of Nano-Se (2 mg/kg/day) were administered alone or in combination. The CIS-exposed rats showed a significant increase in testicular and serum LPO and ONOO level, along with a significant decrease in enzymatic antioxidants levels, diminished serum T concentration and abnormal histologic findings with impaired sperm quality associated with increased DNA damage and decreased chromatin quality. Coadministration of Nano-Se significantly improved the serum T, sperm quality, and spermatogenesis and reduced CIS-induced free radical toxic stress and spermatic DNA damage. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that Nano-Se may be useful to prevent CIS-induced gonadotoxicity through its antioxidant potential. Highlights: ? Cisplatin (CIS) affects spermatozoa as a male reproductive toxicant. ? Effect of Nano-Se on CIS-induced spermatotoxicity was investigated. ? CIS-exposure induces oxidative sperm DNA damage and impairs steroidogenesis. ? Nano-Se retained sperm quality against CIS-induced free radicals toxic stress.

Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Ali [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, TUMS, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, TUMS, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadi, Abbas [Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baeeri, Maryam; Mohammadirad, Azadeh [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: mohammad.abdollahi@utoronto.ca [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Damage tolerance assessment of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Federal Aviation Administration has sponsored a project at its Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to validate the use of bonded composite doublers on commercial aircraft. A specific application was chosen in order to provide a proof-of-concept driving force behind this test and analysis project. However, the data stemming from this study serves as a comprehensive evaluation of bonded composite doublers for general use. The associated documentation package provides guidance regarding the design, analysis, installation, damage tolerance, and nondestructive inspection of these doublers. This report describes a series of fatigue and strength tests which were conducted to study the damage tolerance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Tension-tension fatigue and ultimate strength tests attempted to grow engineered flaws in coupons with composite doublers bonded to aluminum skin. An array of design parameters, including various flaw scenarios, the effects of surface impact, and other off-design conditions, were studied. The structural tests were used to: (1) assess the potential for interply delaminations and disbonds between the aluminum and the laminate, and (2) determine the load transfer and crack mitigation capabilities of composite doublers in the presence of severe defects. A series of specimens were subjected to ultimate tension tests in order to determine strength values and failure modes. It was demonstrated that even in the presence of extensive damage in the original structure (cracks, material loss) and in spite of non-optimum installations (adhesive disbonds), the composite doubler allowed the structure to survive more than 144,000 cycles of fatigue loading. Installation flaws in the composite laminate did not propagate over 216,000 fatigue cycles. Furthermore, the added impediments of impact--severe enough to deform the parent aluminum skin--and hot-wet exposure did not effect the doubler`s performance. Since the tests were conducting using extreme combinations of flaw scenarios (sizes and collocation) and excessive fatigue load spectrums, the performance parameters were arrived at in a conservative manner.

Roach, D.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Air Conditioning Cold/Heat Source Analysis of the Inclusion of the Monetary Values of Environmental Damage Based on the LCA Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and seawater source heat pump systems. The included monetary values of damage to the environment and health are those result-ing from atmospheric emissions and water-body toxic-ity. An environmental impact assessment model is pre-sented based on the theories...

Li, Z.; Duanmu, L.; Shu, H.; Zhu, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Dual wavelength laser damage testing for high energy lasers.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As high energy laser systems evolve towards higher energies, fundamental material properties such as the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the optics limit the overall system performance. The Z-Backlighter Laser Facility at Sandia National Laboratories uses a pair of such kiljoule-class Nd:Phosphate Glass lasers for x-ray radiography of high energy density physics events on the Z-Accelerator. These two systems, the Z-Beamlet system operating at 527nm/ 1ns and the Z-Petawatt system operating at 1054nm/ 0.5ps, can be combined for some experimental applications. In these scenarios, dichroic beam combining optics and subsequent dual wavelength high reflectors will see a high fluence from combined simultaneous laser exposure and may even see lingering effects when used for pump-probe configurations. Only recently have researchers begun to explore such concerns, looking at individual and simultaneous exposures of optics to 1064 and third harmonic 355nm light from Nd:YAG [1]. However, to our knowledge, measurements of simultaneous and delayed dual wavelength damage thresholds on such optics have not been performed for exposure to 1054nm and its second harmonic light, especially when the pulses are of disparate pulse duration. The Z-Backlighter Facility has an instrumented damage tester setup to examine the issues of laser-induced damage thresholds in a variety of such situations [2] . Using this damage tester, we have measured the LIDT of dual wavelength high reflectors at 1054nm/0.5ps and 532nm/7ns, separately and spatially combined, both co-temporal and delayed, with single and multiple exposures. We found that the LIDT of the sample at 1054nm/0.5ps can be significantly lowered, from 1.32J/cm{sup 2} damage fluence with 1054/0.5ps only to 1.05 J/cm{sup 2} with the simultaneous presence of 532nm/7ns laser light at a fluence of 8.1 J/cm{sup 2}. This reduction of LIDT of the sample at 1054nm/0.5ps continues as the fluence of 532nm/7ns laser light simultaneously present increases. The reduction of LIDT does not occur when the 2 pulses are temporally separated. This paper will also present dual wavelength LIDT results of commercial dichroic beam-combining optics simultaneously exposed with laser light at 1054nm/2.5ns and 532nm/7ns.

Atherton, Briggs W.; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Kimmel, Mark W.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Hydraulic engine valve actuation system including independent feedback control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydraulic valve actuation assembly may include a housing, a piston, a supply control valve, a closing control valve, and an opening control valve. The housing may define a first fluid chamber, a second fluid chamber, and a third fluid chamber. The piston may be axially secured to an engine valve and located within the first, second and third fluid chambers. The supply control valve may control a hydraulic fluid supply to the piston. The closing control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the second fluid chamber to the supply control valve. The opening control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the supply control valve to the second fluid chamber.

Marriott, Craig D

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

291

Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Gruzalski, Greg R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Luck, Christopher F. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Dye laser amplifier including a specifically designed diffuser assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replened supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a relatively high flow rate and a specifically designed diffuser assembly for slowing down the flow of dye while, at the same time, assuring that as the dye stream flows through the diffuser assembly it does so in a stable manner.

Davin, James (Gilroy, CA); Johnston, James P. (Stanford, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C.

Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Luck, C.F.

1995-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

294

Fuel cell repeater unit including frame and separator plate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An example fuel cell repeater includes a separator plate and a frame establishing at least a portion of a flow path that is operative to communicate fuel to or from at least one fuel cell held by the frame relative to the separator plate. The flow path has a perimeter and any fuel within the perimeter flow across the at least one fuel cell in a first direction. The separator plate, the frame, or both establish at least one conduit positioned outside the flow path perimeter. The conduit is outside of the flow path perimeter and is configured to direct flow in a second, different direction. The conduit is fluidly coupled with the flow path.

Yamanis, Jean; Hawkes, Justin R; Chiapetta, Jr., Louis; Bird, Connie E; Sun, Ellen Y; Croteau, Paul F

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

295

Pulse transmission transmitter including a higher order time derivate filter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission transmitter includes: a clock; a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to the clock, the pseudorandom polynomial generator having a polynomial load input; an exclusive-OR gate coupled to the pseudorandom polynomial generator, the exclusive-OR gate having a serial data input; a programmable delay circuit coupled to both the clock and the exclusive-OR gate; a pulse generator coupled to the programmable delay circuit; and a higher order time derivative filter coupled to the pulse generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

Dress Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

296

Including stereoscopic information in the reconstruction of coronal magnetic fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a method to include stereoscopic information about the three dimensional structure of flux tubes into the reconstruction of the coronal magnetic field. Due to the low plasma beta in the corona we can assume a force free magnetic field, with the current density parallel to the magnetic field lines. Here we use linear force free fields for simplicity. The method uses the line of sight magnetic field on the photosphere as observational input. The value of $\\alpha$ is determined iteratively by comparing the reconstructed magnetic field with the observed structures. The final configuration is the optimal linear force solution constrained by both the photospheric magnetogram and the observed plasma structures. As an example we apply our method to SOHO MDI/EIT data of an active region. In the future it is planned to apply the method to analyse data from the SECCHI instrument aboard the STEREO mission.

T. Wiegelmann; T. Neukirch

2008-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

297

Copper laser modulator driving assembly including a magnetic compression laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser modulator (10) having a low voltage assembly (12) with a plurality of low voltage modules (14) with first stage magnetic compression circuits (20) and magnetic assist inductors (28) with a common core (91), such that timing of the first stage magnetic switches (30b) is thereby synchronized. A bipolar second stage of magnetic compression (42) is coupled to the low voltage modules (14) through a bipolar pulse transformer (36) and a third stage of magnetic compression (44) is directly coupled to the second stage of magnetic compression (42). The low voltage assembly (12) includes pressurized boxes (117) for improving voltage standoff between the primary winding assemblies (34) and secondary winding (40) contained therein.

Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

An Improved Method of Mitigating Laser Induced Surface Damage Growth in Fused Silica Using a Rastered, Pulsed CO2 Laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new method of mitigating (arresting) the growth of large (>200 m diameter and depth) laser induced surface damage on fused silica has been developed that successfully addresses several issues encountered with our previously-reported large site mitigation technique. As in the previous work, a tightly-focused 10.6 {micro}m CO{sub 2} laser spot is scanned over the damage site by galvanometer steering mirrors. In contrast to the previous work, the laser is pulsed instead of CW, with the pulse length and repetition frequency chosen to allow substantial cooling between pulses. This cooling has the important effect of reducing the heat-affected zone capable of supporting thermo-capillary flow from scale lengths on the order of the overall scan pattern to scale lengths on the order of the focused laser spot, thus preventing the formation of a raised rim around the final mitigation site and its consequent down-stream intensification. Other advantages of the new method include lower residual stresses, and improved damage threshold associated with reduced amounts of redeposited material. The raster patterns can be designed to produce specific shapes of the mitigation pit including cones and pyramids. Details of the new technique and its comparison with the previous technique will be presented.

Bass, I L; Guss, G M; Nostrand, M J; Wegner, P L

2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

299

Alpha decay self-damage in cubic and monoclinic zirconolite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Samples of primarily-monoclinic /sup 238/Pu-doped zirconolite were stored at ambient temperature to allow accumulation of alpha decay self-damage to a dose of 1 x 10/sup 24/ ..cap alpha../m/sup 3/ (equivalent to a SYNROC age of approx. 10/sup 3/y). Bulk swelling reached 2.3 vol% with no tendency toward saturation, a damage response similar to that observed for cubic Pu-doped zirconolite. X-ray volumetric swelling at 4 x 10/sup 24/ ..cap alpha../m/sup 3/ was 1 vol%, considerably less than that for the cubic material. Changes in cell dimensions differed significantly from those reported by others for a monoclinic natural mineral. Extensive microcracking was observed, and is attributed at least partially to swelling differences between the matrix and minor phases.

Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Land, C.C.; Peterson, D.E.; Rohr, D.L.; Roof, R.B.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Damage and rupture mechanisms in an austenoferritic duplex steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of ageing on damage and rupture mechanisms in an austenoferritic duplex stainless steel is studied using conventional straining and impact toughness testing at 20 C and 320 C, and in situ SEM straining at 20 C. While the as-received alloy fails in a ductile mode, damage in the aged material starts with cleavage nucleation in ferrite. The authors show that, owing to the bipercolated topology of the alloy, these cleavage cracks can propagate while passing round austenite ligaments whose plastic stretching controls the crack extension. The variations with strain of both the crack size and the average crack separation are computed analytically and their comparison gives a good prediction of ductility.

Verhaeghe, B.; Louchet, F.; Brechet, Y. [LTPCM-CNRS, St. Martin d`Heres (France). Groupe Physique du Metal] [LTPCM-CNRS, St. Martin d`Heres (France). Groupe Physique du Metal; Massoud, J.P. [EDF, Moret sur Loing (France)] [EDF, Moret sur Loing (France)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Constitutive representation of damage development and healing in WIPP salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There has been considerable interest in characterizing and modeling the constitutive behavior of rock salt with particular reference to long-term creep and creep failure. The interest is motivated by the projected use of excavated rooms in salt rock formations as repositories for nuclear waste. It is presumed that closure of those rooms by creep ultimately would encapsulate the waste material, resulting in its effective isolation. A continuum mechanics approach for treating damage healing is formulated as part of a constitutive model for describing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt. Formulation of the healing term is, described and the constitutive model is evaluated against experimental data of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The results indicate that healing anistropy in WIPP salt can be modeled with an appropriate power-conjugate equivalent stress, kinetic equation, and evolution equation for damage healing.

Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Fossum, A.F [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

302

Studying impact damage on carbon-fiber reinforced aircraft composite panels with sonicir  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Composites are becoming more important materials in commercial aircraft structures such as the fuselage and wings with the new B787 Dreamliner from Boeing which has the target to utilize 50% by weight of composite materials. Carbon-fiber reinforced composites are the material of choice in aircraft structures. This is due to their light weight and high strength (high strength-to-weight ratio), high specific stiffness, tailorability of properties, design flexibility etc. Especially, by reducing the aircraft's body weight by using such lighter structures, the cost of fuel can be greatly reduced with the high jet fuel price for commercial airlines. However, these composites are prone to impact damage and the damage may occur without any observable sign on the surface, yet resulting in delaminations and disbonds that may occur well within the layers. We are studying the impact problem with carbon-fiber reinforced composite panels and developing SonicIR for this application as a fast and wide-area NDE technology. In this paper, we present our results in studying composite structures including carbon-fiber reinforced composite materials, and preliminary quantitative studies on delamination type defect depth identification in the panels.

Han Xiaoyan; Zhang Ding; He Qi; Song Yuyang; Lubowicki, Anthony [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Zhao Xinyue; Newaz, Golam. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Favro, Lawrence D.; Thomas, Robert L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

303

High-speed, low-damage grinding of advanced ceramics Phase 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In manufacture of structural ceramic components, grinding costs can comprise up to 80% of the entire manufacturing cost. Most of these costs arise from the conventional multi-step grinding process with numerous grinding wheels and additional capital equipment, perishable dressing tools, and labor. In an attempt to reduce structural ceramic grinding costs, a feasibility investigation was undertaken to develop a single step, roughing-finishing process suitable for producing high-quality silicon nitride ceramic parts at high material removal rates at lower cost than traditional, multi-stage grinding. This feasibility study employed combined use of laboratory grinding tests, mathematical grinding models, and characterization of resultant material surface condition. More specifically, this Phase 1 final report provides a technical overview of High-Speed, Low-Damage (HSLD) ceramic grinding and the conditions necessary to achieve the small grain depths of cut necessary for low damage grinding while operating at relatively high material removal rates. Particular issues addressed include determining effects of wheel speed and material removal rate on resulting mode of material removal (ductile or brittle fracture), limiting grinding forces, calculation of approximate grinding zone temperatures developed during HSLD grinding, and developing the experimental systems necessary for determining HSLD grinding energy partition relationships. In addition, practical considerations for production utilization of the HSLD process are also discussed.

Kovach, J.A. [Eaton Corp., Willoughby Hills, OH (United States). Mfg. Technologies Center; Malkin, S. [Univ. of Massachusetts (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Building Damage, Death and Downtime Risk Attenuation in Earthquakes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

value over a specified amount of time, can be obtained. This was a great development in the field of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Kennedy et al. (1980) conducted research to study the safety of the Oyster Creek nuclear power plant... 2D structural model developed in SAP 2000; and (c) plan of ?Redbook Building? ....... 16 Figure 4 ?Scenario-based? 3d loss model: (a) seismic hazard intensity-attenuation model; (b) structural analysis; (c) damage analysis; and (d) loss...

Huang, Yinghui

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

305

Microstructural Characterization of Material Properties and Damage in Asphalt Composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MICROSTRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES AND DAMAGE IN ASPHALT COMPOSITES A Thesis by SARA MOHAMMAD KHORASANI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Engineering Copyright 2013 Sara Mohammad Khorasani ii ABSTRACT Asphalt composites are used to construct 90% of roads in the United States. These composites consist of asphalt binder, which is a product of the refinery process of oil, aggregates...

Mohammad Khorasani, Sara

2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

306

Damage Assessment and Control of Wireworms in Grain Sorghum.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- plete block design with three replications. Plc': were four rows, 50 feet long. Five days following planting on May 9, 19": 1 wireworm damaged seed and wireworm number- were determined in one linear row foot in err ! plot. After plant emergence...) / insecticides / Texas. color, religion, sex, age or national origin. The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, J. E. Miller, Director, College Station, Texas 2M - 9-76 ...

Teetes, George L.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

NMSLO Water Lease Damage Bond | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 -Energieprojekte3Information Exploration/Development Water EasementLeaseofDamage

308

Paraoxonase-1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a lipoprotein-associated enzyme involved in the detoxification of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) by hydrolyzing the bioactive oxons. Polymorphisms of the PON1 gene are responsible for variation in the expression and catalytic activity of PON1 enzyme. In the present study, we have determined (a) the prevalence of two common PON1 polymorphisms, (b) the activity of PON1 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes, and (c) the influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes variation on DNA damage in workers exposed to OPs. We examined 230 subjects including 115 workers exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The results revealed that PON1 activity toward paraoxon (179.19 {+-} 39.36 vs. 241.52 {+-} 42.32 nmol/min/ml in controls) and phenylacetate (112.74 {+-} 17.37 vs. 134.28 {+-} 25.49 {mu}mol/min/ml in controls) was significantly lower in workers than in control subjects (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the distribution of genotypes and allelic frequencies of PON1{sub 192}QR (Gln/Arg) and PON1{sub 55}LM (Leu/Met) in workers and control subjects (p > 0.05). The PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was found to be significantly higher in the R/R (Arg/Arg) genotypes than Q/R (Gln/Arg) and lowest in Q/Q (Gln/Gln) genotypes in both workers and control subjects (p < 0.001). For PON1{sub 55}LM (Leu/Met), PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was observed to be higher in individuals with L/L (Leu/Leu) genotypes and lowest in individuals with M/M (Met/Met) genotypes in both groups (p < 0.001). No influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes was seen on the activity of acetylcholinesterase and arylesterase. The DNA damage was observed to be significantly higher in workers than in control subjects (p < 0.05). Further, the individuals who showed least paraoxonase activity i.e., those with (Q/Q [Gln/Gln] and M/M [Met/Met]) genotypes showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to other isoforms in workers exposed to OPs (p < 0.05). The results indicate that the individuals with PON1 Q/Q and M/M genotypes are more susceptible toward genotoxicity. In conclusion, the study suggests wide variation in enzyme activities and DNA damage due to polymorphisms in PON1 gene, which might have an important role in the identification of individual risk factors in workers occupationally exposed to OPs.

Singh, Satyender [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control, 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Kumar, Vivek [Environmental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, Dilshad Garden, Delhi-110095 (India); Thakur, Sachin [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control, 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Presently at, Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA), 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900 (United States); Banerjee, Basu Dev [Environmental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, Dilshad Garden, Delhi-110095 (India); Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control, 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Pasha, Syed Tazeen [National Programme for Prevention and Control of Fluorosis, DGHS, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, Nirman Bhavan, New Delhi 110011 (India); Jain, Sudhir Kumar [Centre for Epidemiology and Parasitic Diseases, National Centre for Disease Control, 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Ichhpujani, Rattan Lal [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control, 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); National Programme for Prevention and Control of Fluorosis, DGHS, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, Nirman Bhavan, New Delhi 110011 (India); Rai, Arvind, E-mail: arvindrai.nicd@gmail.com [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control, 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

Measurement and modeling of infrared nonlinear absorption coefficients and laser-induced damage thresholds in Ge and GaSb  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using a simultaneous fitting technique to extract nonlinear absorption coefficients from data at two pulse widths, we measure two-photon and free-carrier absorption coefficients for Ge and GaSb at 2.05 and 2.5 {mu}m for the first time, to our knowledge. Results agreed well with published theory. Single-shot damage thresholds were also measured at 2.5 {mu}m and agreed well with modeled thresholds using experimentally determined parameters including nonlinear absorption coefficients and temperature dependent linear absorption. The damage threshold for a single-layer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} anti-reflective coating on Ge was 55% or 35% lower than the uncoated threshold for picosecond or nanosecond pulses, respectively.

Wagner, T. J.; Bohn, M. J.; Coutu, R. A. Jr. [Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Gonzalez, L. P.; Murray, J. M.; Guha, S. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Schepler, K. L. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

Predictive storm damage modeling and optimizing crew response to improve storm response operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utility infrastructures are constantly damaged by naturally occurring weather. Such damage results in customer service interruption and repairs are necessary to return the system to normal operation. In most cases these ...

Whipple, Sean David

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Review: Clearing the Air: The Health and Economic Damages of Air Pollution in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Economic Damages of Air Pollution in China Mun S. Ho andEconomic Damages of Air Pollution in China. Cambridge, MA:the assessment of air pollution and its health and economic

Lee, Joseph

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Piezoelectric-based in-situ damage detection of composite materials for structural health monitoring systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cost-effective and reliable damage detection is critical for the utilization of composite materials. This thesis presents the conclusions of an analytical and experimental survey of candidate methods for in-situ damage ...

Kessler, Seth Stovack, 1977-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Damage Modeling and Life Extending Control of a Boiler-Turbine System1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Damage Modeling and Life Extending Control of a Boiler-Turbine System1 Donglin Li Tongwen Chen2 hierarchical LEC structure and apply it to a typ- ical boiler system. There are two damage models

Marquez, Horacio J.

314

E-Print Network 3.0 - area damage detection Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

loss due to loss of stems Safety issues Canopy damage Ring Barking Any thin... -barked tree species 10-40 yrs old Grey Squirrel Bark Stripping Damage Deformed stems 12 Source:...

315

Applicability of linear analysis in probabilistic estimation of seismic building damage to reinforced-concrete structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As design has moved from strength based to performance based, there has been an effort to relate building response to damage. Because decision-makers typically consider human lives, property damage and cost, setting ...

James, Timothy P. (Timothy Philip)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Use of CFRP Overlays to Repair Fatigue Damage in Steel Bridge Girders and Components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fatigue damage in steel girder bridges built prior to the mid-1980s is common due to distortion-induced fatigue. Different repair techniques have been developed and implemented to retrofit bridges of this era with existing fatigue damage...

Gangel, Regan Elisabeth

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

317

A study of inter-individual differences in the DNA damage response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agents that damage our DNA are omnipresent in our environment and inside our cells themselves. Left unrepaired, DNA damage can lead to premature aging, neurodegeneration and cancer. Humans have thus evolved intricate and ...

Sefta, Meriem

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. comprehensive earthquake management plan: Engineering survey building damage assessment training manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The training objectives are: differentiate between the various levels of damage caused to buildings and structures by an earthquake and classify them as to their safety of occupancy, extent of damage, and resources needed for recovery/repair.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

E-Print Network 3.0 - acari eriophyidae damage Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

damage Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: acari eriophyidae damage Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 216 Florida Entomologist 85(1) March...

320

DAMAGE DETECTION METHODS ON WIND TURBINE BLADE TESTING WITH WIRED AND WIRELESS ACCELEROMETER SENSORS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DAMAGE DETECTION METHODS ON WIND TURBINE BLADE TESTING WITH WIRED AND WIRELESS ACCELEROMETER turbine blade. We compare the data collected from the wireless sensors against wired sensors for nonstationary blade excitations. KEYWORDS : Structural Health Monitoring, Damage Detection, Wind Turbine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Simple Method for Estimating and Comparing of X-Ray Damage Rates...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Method for Estimating and Comparing of X-Ray Damage Rates. Simple Method for Estimating and Comparing of X-Ray Damage Rates. Abstract: This note describes an approach for...

322

Aligned composite structures for mitigation of impact damage and resistance to wear in dynamic environments  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fibrous monolith composites having architectures that provide increased flaw insensitivity, improved hardness, wear resistance and damage tolerance and methods of manufacture thereof are provided for use in dynamic environments to mitigate impact damage and increase wear resistance.

Mulligan, Anthony C.; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Popovich, Dragan; Halloran, Joseph P.; Fulcher, Michael L.; Cook, Randy C.

2005-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

323

Aligned composite structures for mitigation of impact damage and resistance to wear in dynamic environments  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fibrous monolith composites having architectures that provide increased flaw insensitivity, improved hardness, wear resistance and damage tolerance and methods of manufacture thereof are provided for use in dynamic environments to mitigate impact damage and increase wear resistance.

Mulligan, Anthony C. (Tucson, AZ); Rigali, Mark J. (Tucson, AZ); Sutaria, Manish P. (Malden, MA); Popovich, Dragan (Redmond, WA); Halloran, Joseph P. (Tucson, AZ); Fulcher, Michael L. (Tucson, AZ); Cook, Randy C. (Tucson, AZ)

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

324

Damage analysis and fundamental studies. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress on each of the following topics is outlined: (1) rotating target neutron source, (2) fusion materials irradiation test facility, (3) environmental characterization, (4) damage production, and (5) damage microstructure evolution and mechanical behavior. (MOW)

None

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Beam damage of poly(vinyl chloride) [PVC] as observed by x-ray...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

damage of poly(vinyl chloride) PVC as observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at 143 K, 303 K and 373 K. Beam damage of poly(vinyl chloride) PVC as observed by x-ray...

326

Beam Damage of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) [PVC] Film as Observed by...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Damage of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) PVC Film as Observed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Beam Damage of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) PVC Film as Observed by X-ray Photoelectron...

327

E-Print Network 3.0 - air pollution damage Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

damage Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: air pollution damage Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications...

328

Regulation of DNA damage tolerance : studies of the translesion synthesis DNA ploymerase eta in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

All organisms must control the effects of DNA damage to protect the integrity of their genomes. In addition to DNA repair, this requires DNA damage tolerance pathways, which allow the continuation of essential processes ...

Woodruff, Rachel Van Etten

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

A DNA Damage-Induced, SOS-Independent Checkpoint Regulates Cell Division in Caulobacter crescentus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cells must coordinate DNA replication with cell division, especially during episodes of DNA damage. The paradigm for cell division control following DNA damage in bacteria involves the SOS response where cleavage of the ...

Modell, Joshua W.

330

cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI); Broekaert, Willem F. (Dilbeek, BE); Chua, Nam-Hai (Scarsdale, NY); Kush, Anil (New York, NY)

1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

331

CDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI); Broekaert, Willem F. (Dilbeek, BE); Chua, Nam-Hai (Scarsdale, NY); Kush, Anil (New York, NY)

1995-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

332

cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 12 figs.

Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

333

cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 11 figures.

Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

1995-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

334

Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocalello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

335

SALT DAMAGE CRITERION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT RESEARCH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to conduct a field-scale application demonstrating the use of continuum damage mechanics to determine the minimum allowable operating pressure of compressed natural gas storage caverns in salt formations. A geomechanical study was performed of two natural gas storage caverns (one existing and one planned) utilizing state-of-the-art salt mechanics to assess the potential for cavern instability and collapse. The geomechanical study consisted primarily of laboratory testing, theoretical development, and analytical/numerical tasks. A total of 50 laboratory tests was performed on salt specimens to aid in the development and definition of the material model used to predict the behavior of rock salt. Material model refinement was performed that improved the predictive capability of modeling salt during damage healing, recovery of work-hardened salt, and the behavior of salt at stress states other than triaxial compression. Results of this study showed that the working gas capacity of the existing cavern could be increased by 18 percent and the planned cavern could be increased by 8 percent using the proposed method compared to a conventional stress-based method. Further refinement of the continuum damage model is recommended to account for known behavior of salt at stress conditions other than triaxial compression that is not characterized accurately by the existing model.

Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

A 3D Orthotropic Strain-Rate Dependent Elastic Damage Material Model.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A three dimensional orthotropic elastic constitutive model with continuum damage and cohesive based fracture is implemented for a general polymer matrix composite lamina. The formulation assumes the possibility of distributed (continuum) damage followed b y localized damage. The current damage activation functions are simply partially interactive quadratic strain criteria . However, the code structure allows for changes in the functions without extraordinary effort. The material model formulation, implementation, characterization and use cases are presented.

English, Shawn Allen

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disasterreadiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just thathelp strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

HCTT-CHE

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

338

Thermal imaging investigation of modified fused silica at surface damage sites for understanding the underlying mechanisms of damage growth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use an infrared thermal imaging system in combination with a fluorescence microscope to map the dynamics of the local surface temperature and fluorescence intensity under cw, UV excitation of laser-modified fused silica within a damage site. Based on a thermal diffusion model, we estimate the energy deposited via linear absorption mechanisms and derive the linear absorption coefficient of the modified material. The results indicate that the damage growth mechanism is not entirely based on linear absorption. Specifically, the absorption cross-section derived above would prove insufficient to cause a significant increase in the temperature of the modified material under nanosecond, pulsed excitation (via linear absorption at ICF laser fluences). In addition, irreversible changes in the absorption cross-section following extended cw, UV laser exposure were observed.

Negres, R A; Burke, M W; DeMange, P; Sutton, S B; Feit, M D; Demos, S G

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

DETECTION OF IMPULSE-LIKE AIRBORNE SOUND FOR DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION IN ROTOR BLADES OF WIND TURBINES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DETECTION OF IMPULSE-LIKE AIRBORNE SOUND FOR DAMAGE IDENTIFICATION IN ROTOR BLADES OF WIND TURBINES burdens of wind turbines. To detect damage of rotor blades, several research projects focus on an acoustic, rotor blade, wind turbine INTRODUCTION There are several publications of non destructive damage

Boyer, Edmond

340

PLASTICITY OF DAMAGED SOLIDS AND SHEAR BAND LOCALIZATION MARIA K.DUSZEK and PIOTR PERZYNA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

694 PLASTICITY OF DAMAGED SOLIDS AND SHEAR BAND LOCALIZATION MARIA K.DUSZEK and PIOTR PERZYNA of shear band localization conditions for finite elastic-plastic rate independent deformations of damaged for elastic-plastic solids when iso- tropic and kinematic hardening effects and micro-damage process are taken

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Anisotropic damage modelling of biaxial behaviour and rupture of concrete structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Continuum Damage Mechanics at the Representative Element Volume scale is a relevant tool to deal with largeAnisotropic damage modelling of biaxial behaviour and rupture of concrete structures Ragueneau F with damage induced anisotropy modelling for concrete-like materials. A thermodynamics based constitutive

Boyer, Edmond

342

Damage Threats and Response of Final Optics for Laser-Fusion Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Damage Threats and Response of Final Optics for Laser-Fusion Power Plants M. S. Tillack1 , S. A the various damage threats and also provides nominal goals for a power plant. These goals are driven-1597 The final optics for laser-IFE (inertial fusion energy) power plants will be exposed to a variety of damage

Tillack, Mark

343

N d'ordre : 2011-ISAL-0147 Annee 2011 Ductile damage characterization in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

N d'ordre : 2011-ISAL-0147 Ann´ee 2011 Th`ese Ductile damage characterization in Dual-Phase steels-5Oct2012 #12;Ductile damage characterization in Dual-Phase steels using X-ray tomography Abstract to stress and to damage, the Dual-Phase steels (DP) present an acceptable strength/ductility compromise

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

344

Adaptive modeling of environmental e ects in modal parameters for damage detection in civil structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive modeling of environmental e ects in modal parameters for damage detection in civil parameters due to temperature changes from those caused by structural damage or other environmental e ects to environmental factors can be far larger than those caused by structural damage. During damp weather, for example

Stanford University

345

The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Past work in the area of laser-induced damage growth has shown growth rates to be primarily dependent on the laser fluence and wavelength. More recent studies suggest that growth rate, similar to the damage initiation process, is affected by a number of additional parameters including pulse duration, pulse shape, site size, and internal structure. In this study, we focus on the effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser damage sites located on the exit surface of fused silica optics. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a significant dependence of growth rate at 351 nm on pulse duration from 1 ns to 15 ns as {tau}{sup 0.3} for sites in the 50-100 {micro}m size range.

Negres, R A; Norton, M A; Liao, Z M; Cross, D A; Bude, J D; Carr, C W

2009-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

346

On the thermal impact on the excavation damaged zone around deep radioactive waste disposal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Clays and claystones are considered in some countries (including Belgium, France and Switzerland) as a potential host rock for high activity long lived radioactive waste disposal at great depth. One of the aspects to deal with in performance assessment is related to the effects on the host rock of the temperature elevation due to the placement of exothermic wastes. The potential effects of the thermal impact on the excavated damaged zone in the close field are another important issue that was the goal of the TIMODAZ European research project. In this paper, some principles of waste disposal in clayey host rocks at great depth are first presented and a series of experimental investigations carried out on specific equipment specially developed to face the problem are presented. Both drained and undrained tests have been developed to investigate the drained thermal volume changes of clays and claystone and the thermal pressurization occurring around the galleries. This importance of proper initial saturation (un...

Delage, Pierre

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Development and Application of a Strength and Damage Model for Rock under Dynamic Loading  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simulating the behavior of geologic materials under impact loading conditions requires the use of a constitutive model that includes the effects of bulking, yielding, damage, porous compaction and loading rate on the material response. This paper describes the development, implementation and calibration of a thermodynamically consistent constitutive model that incorporates these features. The paper also describes a computational study in which the model was used to perform numerical simulations of PILE DRIVER, a deeply-buried underground nuclear explosion detonated in granite at the Nevada Test Site. Particle velocity histories, peak velocity and peak displacement as a function of slant range obtained from the code simulations compare favorably with PILE DRIVER data. The simulated attenuation of peak velocity and peak displacement also agrees with the results from several other spherical wave experiments in granite.

Antoun, T H; Lomov, I N; Glenn, L A

2001-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

348

Radiation Damage in Nuclear Fuel for Advanced Burner Reactors: Modeling and Experimental Validation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The consortium has completed its existence and we are here highlighting work and accomplishments. As outlined in the proposal, the objective of the work was to advance the theoretical understanding of advanced nuclear fuel materials (oxides) toward a comprehensive modeling strategy that incorporates the different relevant scales involved in radiation damage in oxide fuels. Approaching this we set out to investigate and develop a set of directions: 1) Fission fragment and ion trajectory studies through advanced molecular dynamics methods that allow for statistical multi-scale simulations. This work also includes an investigation of appropriate interatomic force fields useful for the energetic multi-scale phenomena of high energy collisions; 2) Studies of defect and gas bubble formation through electronic structure and Monte Carlo simulations; and 3) an experimental component for the characterization of materials such that comparisons can be obtained between theory and experiment.

Jensen, Niels Gronbech; Asta, Mark; Ozolins, Nigel Browning'Vidvuds; de Walle, Axel van; Wolverton, Christopher

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

349

Influence of cleaning process on the laser-induced damage threshold of substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cleaning process of optical substrates plays an important role during the manufacture of high-power laser coatings. Two kinds of substrates, fused silica and BK7 glass, and two cleaning processes, called process 1 and process 2 having different surfactant solutions and different ultrasonic cleaning parameters, are adopted to compare the influence of the ultrasonic cleaning technique on the substrates. The evaluation standards of the cleaning results include contaminant-removal efficiency, weak absorption, and laser-induced damage threshold of the substrates. For both fused silica and BK7, process 2 is more efficient than process 1. Because acid and alkaline solutions can increase the roughness of BK7, process 2 is unsuitable for BK7 glass cleaning. The parameters of the cleaning protocol should be changed depending on the material of the optical components and the type of contamination.

Shen Zhengxiang; Ding Tao; Ye Xiaowen; Wang Xiaodong; Ma Bin; Cheng Xinbin; Liu Huasong; Ji Yiqin; Wang Zhanshan

2011-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

350

Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Atomistic modeling of nanowires, small-scale fatigue damage in cast magnesium, and materials for MEMS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lightweight and miniaturized weapon systems are driving the use of new materials in design such as microscale materials and ultra low-density metallic materials. Reliable design of future weapon components and systems demands a thorough understanding of the deformation modes in these materials that comprise the components and a robust methodology to predict their performance during service or storage. Traditional continuum models of material deformation and failure are not easily extended to these new materials unless microstructural characteristics are included in the formulation. For example, in LIGA Ni and Al-Si thin films, the physical size is on the order of microns, a scale approaching key microstructural features. For a new potential structural material, cast Mg offers a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, but the microstructural heterogeneity at various scales requires a structure-property continuum model. Processes occurring at the nanoscale and microscale develop certain structures that drive material behavior. The objective of the work presented in this report was to understand material characteristics in relation to mechanical properties at the nanoscale and microscale in these promising new material systems. Research was conducted primarily at the University of Colorado at Boulder to employ tightly coupled experimentation and simulation to study damage at various material size scales under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. Experimental characterization of nano/micro damage will be accomplished by novel techniques such as in-situ environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), 1 MeV transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). New simulations to support experimental efforts will include modified embedded atom method (MEAM) atomistic simulations at the nanoscale and single crystal micromechanical finite element simulations. This report summarizes the major research and development accomplishments for the LDRD project titled 'Atomistic Modeling of Nanowires, Small-scale Fatigue Damage in Cast Magnesium, and Materials for MEMS'. This project supported a strategic partnership between Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Colorado at Boulder by providing funding for the lead author, Ken Gall, and his students, while he was a member of the University of Colorado faculty.

Dunn, Martin L. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Talmage, Mellisa J. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); McDowell, David L., 1956- (,-Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); West, Neil (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Gullett, Philip Michael (Mississippi State University , MS); Miller, David C. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Spark, Kevin (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Diao, Jiankuai (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Horstemeyer, Mark F. (Mississippi State University , MS); Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Gall, K (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Laser damage resistant pits in dielectric coatings created by femtosecond laser machining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Replacing growing damage sites with benign, laser damage resistant features in multilayer dielectric films may enable large mirrors to be operated at significantly higher fluences. Laser damage resistant features have been created in high reflecting coatings on glass substrates using femtosecond laser machining. These prototype features have been damage tested to over 40 J/cm{sup 2} (1064nm, 3ns pulselength) and have been shown not to damage upon repeated irradiation at 40J/cm{sup 2}. Further work to optimize feature shape and laser machining parameters is ongoing.

Wolfe, J; Roger Qiu, ,; Stolz, C; Thomas, M; Martinez, C; Ozkan, A

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

353

Thermodynamic damage mechanism of transparent films caused by a low-power laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new model for analyzing the laser-induced damage process is provided. In many damage pits, the melted residue can been found. This is evidence of the phase change of materials. Therefore the phase change of materials is incorporated into the mechanical damage mechanism of films. Three sequential stages are discussed: no phase change, liquid phase change, and gas phase change. To study the damage mechanism and process, two kinds of stress have been considered: thermal stress and deformation stress. The former is caused by the temperature gradient and the latter is caused by high-pressure drive deformation. The theory described can determine the size of the damage pit.

Xia Zhilin; Shao Jianda; Fan Zhengxiu; Wu Shigang

2006-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

354

Insulin signaling, dietary restriction and DNA damage : multiple roles for smk-1 in the mediation of C. elegans life span  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

role of oxidative damage and environmental stresses. Natureand environmental insults drive the accumulation of DNA damageenvironmental state. While age- related decay still occurs (due to oxidative damage and

Wolff, Suzanne Christine

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

A Summary of Recent Damage-Initiation Experiments on KDP Crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We summarize recent investigations of the density and morphology of bulk damage in KDP crystals as a function of pulse duration, temporal profile, wavelength, and energy fluence. As previously reported by Runkel et al., we also find that the size of bulk damage sites varies roughly linearly with pulse duration for pulses between 1 ns and 9 ns. However this trend no longer applies at pulse durations below 1 ns. Experiments measuring the damage density and size distribution as a function of wavelength confirm many previous works which indicated a strong dependence of damage density with wavelength. However, we also find that the size of damage sites is relatively insensitive to wavelength. Further we see damage due to Flat-In-Time (FIT) pulses has different pulse length and fluence dependence than Gaussian pulses. We demonstrate that a simple thermal diffusion model can account for observed differences in damage densities due to square and Gaussian temporally shaped pulses of equal fluence. Moreover, we show that the key laser parameter governing size of the bulk damage sites is the length of time the pulse remains above a specific intensity. The different dependences of damage density and damage site size on laser parameters suggest different absorption mechanisms early and late in the damaging pulse.

Carr, C W; Feit, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Trenholme, J B; Spaeth, M L

2005-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

356

Optical Damage Threshold of Silicon for Ultrafast Infrared Pulses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present measurements of the optical damage threshold of crystalline silicon in air for ultrafast pulses in the near infrared. The wavelengths tested span a range from the telecommunications band at 1550 nm, extending to 2260 nm. We discuss the motivation for the measurements and give theoretical context. We then describe the experimental setup, diagnostics, and procedure. The results show a breakdown threshold of 0.2J/cm{sup 2} at 1550 nm and 1.06 ps FWHM pulse duration, and a weak dependence on wavelength.

Cowan, Benjamin M.; /Tech-X, Boulder /SLAC

2007-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

357

Field dependent emission rates in radiation damaged GaAs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have measured the temperature and field dependence of emission rates from five traps in electron damaged GaAs. Four of the traps have previously been identified as radiation defects. One of the traps, seen in higher doped diodes, has not been previously identified. We have fit the data to a multiphonon emission theory that allows recombination in GaAs to be characterized over a broad range of temperature and electric field. These results demonstrate an efficient method to calculate field-dependent emission rates in GaAs.

Fleming, R. M.; Myers, S. M.; Wampler, W. R.; Lang, D. V.; Seager, C. H.; Campbell, J. M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1415 (United States)

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

358

Simulation of neutron radiation damage in silicon semiconductor devices.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A code, Charon, is described which simulates the effects that neutron damage has on silicon semiconductor devices. The code uses a stabilized, finite-element discretization of the semiconductor drift-diffusion equations. The mathematical model used to simulate semiconductor devices in both normal and radiation environments will be described. Modeling of defect complexes is accomplished by adding an additional drift-diffusion equation for each of the defect species. Additionally, details are given describing how Charon can efficiently solve very large problems using modern parallel computers. Comparison between Charon and experiment will be given, as well as comparison with results from commercially-available TCAD codes.

Shadid, John Nicolas; Hoekstra, Robert John; Hennigan, Gary Lee; Castro, Joseph Pete Jr.; Fixel, Deborah A.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Measurement of Radiation Damage on Silica Aerogel \\v Cerenkov Radiator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We measured the radiation damage on silica aerogel \\v Cerenkov radiators originally developed for the $B$-factory experiment at KEK. Refractive index of the aerogel samples ranged from 1.012 to 1.028. The samples were irradiated up to 9.8~MRad of equivalent dose. Measurements of transmittance and refractive index were carried out and these samples were found to be radiation hard. Deteriorations in transparency and changes of refractive index were observed to be less than 1.3\\% and 0.001 at 90\\% confidence level, respectively. Prospects of using aerogels under high-radiation environment are discussed.

S. K. Sahu et al

1996-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

360

Blade reliability collaborative : collection of defect, damage and repair data.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) was started by the Wind Energy Technologies Department of Sandia National Laboratories and DOE in 2010 with the goal of gaining insight into planned and unplanned O&M issues associated with wind turbine blades. A significant part of BRC is the Blade Defect, Damage and Repair Survey task, which will gather data from blade manufacturers, service companies, operators and prior studies to determine details about the largest sources of blade unreliability. This report summarizes the initial findings from this work.

Ashwill, Thomas D.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Paquette, Joshua A.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We exposed samples of B4C, amorphous C, chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD)-diamond C, Si, and SiC to single 25 fs-long pulses of 32.5 nm free-electron-laser radiation at fluences of up to 2.2 J/cm{sup 2}. The samples were chosen as candidate materials for x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) optics. We found that the threshold for surface-damage is on the order of the fluence required for thermal melting. For larger fluences, the crater depths correspond to temperatures on the order of the critical temperature, suggesting that the craters are formed by two-phase vaporization [1]. XFELs have the promise of producing extremely high-intensity ultrashort pulses of coherent, monochromatic radiation in the 1 to 10 keV regime. The expected high output fluence and short pulse duration pose significant challenges to the optical components, including radiation damage. It has not been possible to obtain direct experimental verification of the expected damage thresholds since appropriate x-ray sources are not yet available. FLASH has allowed us to study the interaction of high-fluence short-duration photon pulses with materials at the shortest wavelength possible to date. With these experiments, we have come closer to the extreme conditions expected in XFEL-matter interaction scenarios than previously possible.

Hau-Riege, S; London, R A; Bionta, R M; McKernan, M A; Baker, S L; Krzywinski, J; Sobierajski, R; Nietubyc, R; Pelka, J B; Jurek, M; Klinger, D; Juha, L; Chalupsky, J; Cihelka, J; Hajkova, V; Koptyaev, S; Velyhan, A; Krasa, J; Kuba, J; Tiedtke, K; Toleikis, S; Tschentscher, T; Wabnitz, H; Bergh, M; Caleman, C; Sokolowski-Tinten, K; Stojanovic, N; Zastrau, U; Tronnier, A; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J

2007-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

362

Time-resolved imaging of material response during laser-induced bulk damage in SiO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on time resolved imaging of the dynamic events taking place during laser-induced damage in the bulk of fused silica samples with nanosecond temporal resolution and one micron spatial resolution. These events include: shock/pressure wave formation and propagation, transient absorption, crack propagation and formation of residual stress fields. The work has been performed using a time-resolved microscope system that utilizes a probe pulse to acquire images at delay times covering the entire timeline of a damage event. Image information is enhanced using polarized illumination and simultaneously recording the two orthogonal polarization image components. For the case of fused silica, an electronic excitation is first observed accompanied by the onset of a pressure wave generation and propagation. Cracks are seen to form early in the process and reach their final size at about 25 ns into the damage event. In addition, changes that in part are attributed to transient absorption in the modified material are observed for delays up to about 200 microseconds.

Demos, S G; Negres, R A

2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

363

Experimental evaluation of a constitutive model for inelastic flow and damage evolution in solids subjected to triaxial compression  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent concern over the potential for creep induced development of a damaged rock zone adjacent to shafts and rooms at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has motivated the formulation of a coupled constitutive description of continuum salt creep and damage. This constitutive model gives time-dependent inelastic flow and pressure-sensitive damage in crystalline solids. Initially the constitutive model was successfully used to simulate multiaxial, i.e. true triaxial, experiments obtained at relatively high, 2.5 to 20 MPa, confining pressures. Predictions of the complete creep curve, including the heretofore unmodeled tertiary creep, were also demonstrated. However, comparisons of model predictions with data were hampered because the bulk of the creep data existing on WIPP salt was intentionally obtained under confining pressures typically greater than 15 MPa, in an attempt to match the underground in situ lithostatic pressure level. It was realized that the high confining pressures suppressed tertiary creep and resulted in better defined steady state creep responses. To address the tertiary creep process directly, a number of creep tests were conducted at lower confining pressures for the explicit purpose of creating dilatant behavior.

Fossum, A.F.; Brodsky, N.S. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)); Chan, K.S. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)); Munson, D.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Experimental evaluation of a constitutive model for inelastic flow and damage evolution in solids subjected to triaxial compression  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent concern over the potential for creep induced development of a damaged rock zone adjacent to shafts and rooms at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has motivated the formulation of a coupled constitutive description of continuum salt creep and damage. This constitutive model gives time-dependent inelastic flow and pressure-sensitive damage in crystalline solids. Initially the constitutive model was successfully used to simulate multiaxial, i.e. true triaxial, experiments obtained at relatively high, 2.5 to 20 MPa, confining pressures. Predictions of the complete creep curve, including the heretofore unmodeled tertiary creep, were also demonstrated. However, comparisons of model predictions with data were hampered because the bulk of the creep data existing on WIPP salt was intentionally obtained under confining pressures typically greater than 15 MPa, in an attempt to match the underground in situ lithostatic pressure level. It was realized that the high confining pressures suppressed tertiary creep and resulted in better defined steady state creep responses. To address the tertiary creep process directly, a number of creep tests were conducted at lower confining pressures for the explicit purpose of creating dilatant behavior.

Fossum, A.F.; Brodsky, N.S. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Chan, K.S. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

Schmitt et al. Damage of monolithic refractory linings in steel ladles during drying Damage of monolithic refractory linings in steel ladles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Schmitt et al. Damage of monolithic refractory linings in steel ladles during drying Damage of monolithic refractory linings in steel ladles during drying N. Schmitt(1)& , Y. Berthaud(1) , J.F. Hernandez) & Corresponding author : Email: schmitt@lmt.ens-cachan.fr Abstract: Safety linings of steel ladles are made

366

Damage thresholds of fluoride multilayers at 355 nm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluoride multilayer coatings were evaluated for use in 355 nm high reflector applications. The LaF[sub 3]/Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], NdF[sub 3]/Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6] and GdF[sub 3]/Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6] multilayers had laser damage thresholds of 20, 17.9 and 7.4 (measured at 10-ns pulsewidths), respectively. High tensile stresses in the coatings restricted this evaluation to only 5-layer-pair partial reflectors (49--52%).The LaF[sub 3]/Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], NdF[sub 3]/Na[sub 3]Al[sub 6] and GdF[sub 3]/Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6] multilayers had tensile stresses of [approximately] 1.1 [times] 109, 1.3 [times] 109 and 9.3 [times] 10[sup 8] dynes/cm[sup 2], respectively. Substrate material and glow-discharge processing of the substrates were found to influence the density of stress-induced coating fractures and damage thresholds in some cases. If stress fracturing and scatter can be controlled, these fluoride material combinations are suited for 3[omega] applications.

Chow, R.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Loomis, G.E.; Rainer, F.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Emulation of reactor irradiation damage using ion beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The continued operation of existing light water nuclear reactors and the development of advanced nuclear reactor depend heavily on understanding how damage by radiation to levels degrades materials that serve as the structural components in reactor cores. The first high dose ion irradiation experiments on a ferritic-martensitic steel showing that ion irradiation closely emulates the full radiation damage microstructure created in-reactor are described. Ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 (heat 84425) in the form of a hexagonal fuel bundle duct (ACO-3) accumulated 155 dpa at an average temperature of 443C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Using invariance theory as a guide, irradiation of the same heat was conducted using self-ions (Fe++) at 5 MeV at a temperature of 460C and to a dose of 188 displacements per atom. The void swelling was nearly identical between the two irradiations and the size and density of precipitates and loops following ion irradiation are within a factor of two of those for neutron irradiation. The level of agreement across all of the principal microstructure changes between ion and reactor irradiations establishes the capability of tailoring ion irradiations to emulate the reactor-irradiated microstructure.

G. S. Was; Z. Jiao; E. Beckett; A. M. Monterrosa; O. Anderoglu; B. H. Sencer; M. Hackett

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Prediction of blast damage from vapor cloud explosions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process industries handle a wide range of different materials and use them in different types of chemical reaction. Of particular concern is the prospect of damage and injury affecting the general public outside the boundary wall of the chemical plant. It is not wise to permit the construction of homes, schools or hospitals so close to chemical plants that they, and the people within, might be damaged or injured should there be an accidental explosion in the plant. The major hazard outside the plant is over-pressure, a consequence of an accidental explosion in a cloud of flammable gas or vapor (Vapor Cloud Explosion or VCE). It is the responsibility of plant management to ensure that any such accidental explosion is not so large as to endanger the public, and of the local planning authorities to ensure that homes, schools or hospitals are not sited so close to chemical plants that they may be endangered by accidental explosion. A vital tool for such authorities is a simple method of assessing the possible consequences of an accidental VCE. In this paper those methods of assessing the consequences are examined.

Phillips, H. [Phillips (H.), Buxton (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

369

Evaluation and remediation of a fire damaged geosynthetic liner system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fire in a hazardous waste landfill damaged the liner system consisting of compacted clay, geomembranes, geonets, geotextiles, and granular soils. Following waste excavation, the visibly damaged liner system materials were removed and samples of each component were obtained from the perimeter of the visibly undamaged area. Geomembrane samples were tested for tensile characteristics and index properties; geonet samples were tested for grab tensile properties and thickness. Test results were compared to the original specifications, manufacturers` quality control data, quality assurance conformance test results, and baseline sample data from an unaffected part of the landfill. Geomembrane baseline results exceeded the original specifications, and the specifications were used as the basis of acceptance of the perimeter samples. Geonet baseline results were inconclusive, with grab elongation consistently below the original specifications. A statistical approach was used to delineate the limit of affected geonet using the baseline sample data. The liner system was reconstructed to the limits defined by this testing program and returned to service following acceptance by the regulatory agencies.

Adams, F.T.; Overmann, L.K.; Cotton, R.L.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

WHAT'S INCLUDED?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500IIVasudhaSurface.Laboratory in Golden, Colorado6

371

Unexpected irreversible damage of an asymmetric bismuth silicate photorefractive spatial light modulator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unexpected irreversible damage occurred repeatedly in the asymmetric bismuth silicate (BSO)photorefractive spatial light modulator under some operation modes, even though thepower of the write-light beam does not exceed the optical damage threshold. Accordingto the microscopic surface images and the Raman spectra of the BSO film, suddenrising of temperature in local areas caused by the drift of the photon-induced electronsis responsible for the damage; the damage exists not only on the surface but also insidethe BSO crystal. The damage is relative to the structure of the spatial lightmodulator, the operation mode, and the growth of the BSO crystal. The informationprovided by the damage is useful for optimizing the structure, the operation modes, and the performance of the photorefractive spatial light modulators.

Li Xiujian; Yang Jiankun; Yang Juncai; Chang Shengli; Liu Ju; Hu Wenhua

2007-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

372

Radiation Damage Study in Natural Zircon Using Neutrons Irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Changes of atomic displacements in crystalline structure of natural zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) can be studied by using neutron irradiation on the surface of zircon and compared the data from XRD measurements before and after irradiation. The results of neutron irradiation on natural zircon using Pneumatic Transfer System (PTS) at PUSPATI TRIGA Research Reactor in the Malaysian Nuclear Agency are discussed in this work. The reactor produces maximum thermal power output of 1 MWatt and the neutron flux of up to 1x10{sup 13} ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. From serial decay processes of uranium and thorium radionuclides in zircon crystalline structure, the emission of alpha particles can produce damage in terms of atomic displacements in zircon. Hence, zircon has been extensively studied as a possible candidate for immobilization of fission products and actinides.

Lwin, Maung Tin Moe; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Kassim, Hasan Abu [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Aziz [Materials Technology Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Karim, Julia Abdul [Reactor Physics Section, Nuclear Power Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

373

Effect of pore pressure on damage accumulation in salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory data acquired from two multistage, triaxial compression creep experiments are presented for bedded salt. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of pore pressure changes on the accumulation of damage (dilatant volumetric strain). The first experiment comprised five constant total stress tests in which the internal pore pressure was incremented during successive stages, while the externally applied axial and radial stresses were maintained constant. The second experiment comprised three constant effective stress tests in which the pore pressure and the externally applied axial and radial stresses were increased in equal increments in successive stages. Volumetric strain rates were determined both before and after the pore pressure changes were made in all tests. The data suggest pore pressure changes made during the constant total stress tests have a greater effect on salt dilation than do changes made during the constant effective stress tests.

PFEIFLE,T.W.; HURTADO,L. DIANE

2000-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

374

Defect and damage evolution quantification in dynamically-deformed metals using orientation-imaging microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Orientation-imaging microscopy offers unique capabilities to quantify the defects and damage evolution occurring in metals following dynamic and shock loading. Examples of the quantification of the types of deformation twins activated, volume fraction of twinning, and damage evolution as a function of shock loading in Ta are presented. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) examination of the damage evolution in sweeping-detonation-wave shock loading to study spallation in Cu is also presented.

Gray, George T., III [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Livescu, Veronica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

375

The effect of lattice temperature on surface damage in fused silica optics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine the effect of lattice temperature on the probability of surface damage initiation for 355nm, 7ns laser pulses for surface temperatures below the melting point to temperatures well above the melting point of fused silica. At sufficiently high surface temperatures, damage thresholds are dramatically reduced. Our results indicate a temperature activated absorption and support the idea of a lattice temperature threshold of surface damage. From these measurements, we estimate the temperature dependent absorption coefficient for intrinsic silica.

Bude, J; Guss, G; Matthews, M; Spaeth, M L

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

376

PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [Rochester Institute of Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Com- pact heat exchanger surfaces were developed in response to the increasing demands from the automo not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever in these fertile grounds, and they went on to become the architects of new products in industry. The Massachusetts

Kandlikar, Satish

377

PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [Harvard College  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

David Caplan Neuropsychology Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Responses of 42 Neuropsychology Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Online publication date: 05 November not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever

Liu, Jun

378

This article was downloaded by:[Rochester Institute of Technology] [Rochester Institute of Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-square minichannel and adiabatic flows corresponding to practical PEM fuel cell conditions. Pressure drop data, chemical processing plants, nuclear reactor systems, and fuel cells. The present work considers a 1 mm not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever

Kandlikar, Satish

379

This article was downloaded by:[Phillip, Jean] [Phillip, Jean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever dust properties (identification, optical thickness, particle radius, and dust density) from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) aboard Meteosat-8, the first of the Meteosat Second

Li, Jun

380

This article was downloaded by: [University of Central Florida] On: 20 February 2012, At: 09:43  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a a Department of Criminal Justice, University of Central Florida, P.O. Box 161600, Orlando, FL, 32816, USA for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising

Wu, Shin-Tson

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

This article was downloaded by: [University of Minnesota -Morris], [Jong-Min Kim] On: 26 February 2013, At: 21:13  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever benefit fraud, individual rent subsidy fraud, consumption of drugs, criminal history, sexual behaviors

Kim, Jong-Min

382

PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [University of Central Florida  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the case of strong anchoring and x ! 1 when the anchoring is weak (1­3). The demand for faster response not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever, are presented. Potential applications of these compounds are discussed. Compounds with a negative dielectric

Wu, Shin-Tson

383

PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [University of Central Florida  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever. The dielectric relaxation and electro-optical properties of these compounds were characterised. Potential is response time. The response time of a LC device is determined by cell gap, viscoelastic coefficient

Wu, Shin-Tson

384

PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

increasing concerns about climate change, food shortages, and wide- spread environmental degradation to widespread rural dislocation and environmental degradation, but have also disrupted the practice of agrarian loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising

Farrell, Anthony P.

385

This article was downloaded by: [Lib4RI] On: 26 August 2011, At: 01:47  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Switzerland b Landscape Ecology Group, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, SE not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever-natural references) or to avoid (degraded references). We studied the extent to which investigators' conclusions

386

Procedures for the external event core damage frequency analyses for NUREG-1150  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents methods which can be used to perform the assessment of risk due to external events at nuclear power plants. These methods were used to perform the external events risk assessments for the Surry and Peach Bottom nuclear power plants as part of the NRC-sponsored NUREG-1150 risk assessments. These methods apply to the full range of hazards such as earthquakes, fires, floods, etc. which are collectively known as external events. The methods described in this report have been developed under NRC sponsorship and represent, in many cases, both advancements and simplifications over techniques that have been used in past years. They also include the most up-to-date data bases on equipment seismic fragilities, fire occurrence frequencies and fire damageability thresholds. The methods described here are based on making full utilization of the power plant systems logic models developed in the internal events analyses. By making full use of the internal events models one obtains an external event analysis that is consistent both in nomenclature and in level of detail with the internal events analyses, and in addition, automatically includes all the appropriate random and tests/maintenance unavailabilities as appropriate. 50 refs., 9 figs., 11 tabs.

Bohn, M.P.; Lambright, J.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

A slow comeback (clean up at the damaged Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article reports on the progress that has been made in cleaning up the damaged Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor, with radioactive debris present not only in the reactor core, but throughout the primary cooling system. Delays in the cleanup operation have been caused by extraordinary technical challenges, regulatory procedures, and funding shortages. The initial stabilization and decontamination of the containment building, which included the removal and processing of the radioactive water, are essentially complete. Reactor disassembly and defueling have yet to begin. The NRC has reported that radiation doses at Unit 2 since the accident have been lower than those experienced at operating reactors, but the estimates for the collective radiation exposure for the work force have recently increased. The NRC has proposed that if robotic devices are used in the defueling and decontamination processes, work-force exposure could be cut by more than half. The projected completion rates for defueling Unit 2 and decontaminating the containment building now range from 1990 to past the year 2000. A five-part inspection program was conducted that included the use of video and sonar probes inside the reactor vessel, and the gathering of debris samples from the core.

Adam, J.A.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION AND DEFORMATION OF ZIRCONIUM UNDER CASCADE DAMAGE CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work is based on our reaction-diffusion model of radiation growth of Zr-based materials proposed recently in [1]. In [1], the equations for the strain rates in unloaded pure crystal under cascade damage conditions of, e.g., neutron or heavy-ion irradiation were derived as functions of dislocation densities, which include contributions from dislocation loops, and spatial distribution of their Burgers vectors. The model takes into account the intra-cascade clustering of self-interstitial atoms and their one-dimensional diffusion; explains the growth stages, including the break-away growth of pre-annealed samples; and accounts for some striking observations, such as of negative strain in prismatic direction, and co-existence of vacancy- and interstitial-type prismatic loops. In this report, the change of dislocation densities due to accumulation of sessile dislocation loops is taken into account explicitly to investigate the dose dependence of radiation growth. The dose dependence of climb rates of dislocations is calculated, which is important for the climb-induced glide model of radiation creep. The results of fitting the model to available experimental data and some numerical calculations of the strain behavior of Zr for different initial dislocation structures are presented and discussed. The computer code RIMD-ZR.V1 (Radiation Induced Microstructure and Deformation of Zr) developed is described and attached to this report.

Barashev, Alexander V [ORNL; Golubov, Stanislav I [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

E-Print Network 3.0 - ameliorate ischemic damage Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the nuclear enzyme poly... . (1996) Role of oxidants in ischemic brain damage. Stroke 27, ... Source: Cossart, Rosa - Institut de Neurobiologie de la Mditerrane, Inserm...

390

E-Print Network 3.0 - acquired brain damage Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Brain Injury, Seizures & Epilepsy Concussion A mild... The blood vessels in the brain may stretch and cranial nerves may be damaged - No bleeding, closed head... : two to...

391

E-Print Network 3.0 - alleviate salinity damage Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA Summary: , anti-acrolein therapy significantly alleviated myelin damage, delayed the Fig. 6 CAP reduction...

392

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute axonal damage Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sections were viewed with a light microscope. Those axons labeled with HRP... that acrolein, a lipid peroxida- tion byproduct, can inflict significant damage in isolated spinal...

393

atr-mediated dna damage: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

damage may not only reduce the number of amplifiable template molecules, but may also lead to the generation of erroneous sequence information. A qualitative and quantitative...

394

aluminium-induced dna damage: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

damage may not only reduce the number of amplifiable template molecules, but may also lead to the generation of erroneous sequence information. A qualitative and quantitative...

395

atr-dependent dna damage: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

damage may not only reduce the number of amplifiable template molecules, but may also lead to the generation of erroneous sequence information. A qualitative and quantitative...

396

Mechanical Damage from Cavitation in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Accelerated Thrombolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3.3 Cavitation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Field Characterization / Passive Cavitation Detection 2.3Method for Estimation of Cavitation Damage for an Embedded

Weiss, Hope

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Prediction of Damage in Randomly Oriented Short-Fibre Composites by means of A Mechanistic Approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A micro-macro mechanistic approach to damage in short-fiber composites is developed in this paper. At the micro-scale, the damage mechanisms such as matrix cracking, fiber/matrix debonding are analyzed to define the associated damage variables. The stiffness reduction law dependent on these variables is then established using micromechanical models and average orientation distributions of fibers and microcracks. The macroscopic response is obtained by means of thermodynamics of continuous media, continuum damage mechanics and a finite element formulation.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Prediction of Damage in Randomly Oriented Short-Fibre Composites by means of A Mechanistic Approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A micro-macro mechanistic approach to damage in short-fiber composites is developed in this paper. At the micro-scale, the damage mechanisms such as matrix cracking, fiber/matrix debonding are analyzed to define the associated damage variables. The stiffness reduction law dependent on these variables is then established using micromechanical models and average orientation distributions of fibers and microcracks. The macroscopic response is obtained by means of thermodynamics of continuous media, continuum damage mechanics and a finite element formulation.

Nguyen, Ba NGHIEP; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Laser-Induced Damage in DKDP Crystals under Simultaneous Exposure to Laser Harmonics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While KDP and DKDP crystals remain the only viable solution for frequency conversion in large aperture laser systems in the foreseeable future, our understanding of damage behavior in the presence of multiple colors is very limited. Such conditions exist during normal operation where, for third harmonic generation, 1{omega}, 2{omega} and 3{omega} components are present with different energy ratios as they propagate inside the crystal. The objective of this work is to shed light into the damage behavior of frequency conversion crystals during operational conditions as well as probe the fundamental mechanisms of damage initiation. We have performed a series of experiments to quantify the damage performance of pristine (unconditioned) DKDP material under simultaneous exposure to 2{omega} and 3{omega} laser pulses from a 3-ns Nd:YAG laser system as a function of the laser influences at each frequency. Results show that simultaneous dual wavelength exposure leads to a much larger damage density as compared to the total damage resulting from separate exposure at each wavelength. Furthermore, under such excitation conditions, the damage performance is directly related to and can be predicted from the damage behavior of the crystal at each wavelength separately while the mechanism and type of defects responsible for damage initiation are shown to be the same at both 2{omega} and 3{omega} excitation.

Negres, R A; DeMange, P; Radousky, H B; Demos, S G

2005-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

400

Laser induced damage of fused silica polished optics due to a droplet forming organic contaminant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the effect of organic molecular contamination on single shot laser induced damage density at the wavelength of 351 nm, with a 3 ns pulse length. Specific contamination experiments were made with dioctylphthalate (DOP) in liquid or gaseous phase, on the surface of fused silica polished samples, bare or solgel coated. Systematic laser induced damage was observed only in the case of liquid phase contamination. Different chemical and morphological characterization methods were used to identify and understand the damage process. We demonstrate that the contaminant morphology, rather than its physicochemical nature, can be responsible for the decrease of laser induced damage threshold of optics.

Bien-Aime, Karell; Neauport, Jerome; Tovena-Pecault, Isabelle; Fargin, Evelyne; Labrugere, Christine; Belin, Colette; Couzi, Michel

2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

E-Print Network 3.0 - alleviates oxidative damage Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

may cause erosion damage... into oxidation and exfoliation,mixed oxidant attack, molten salt accelerated corrosion, and the effect... of corrosion on the mechanical properties of...

402

E-Print Network 3.0 - alleviating oxidative damage Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

may cause erosion damage... into oxidation and exfoliation,mixed oxidant attack, molten salt accelerated corrosion, and the effect... of corrosion on the mechanical properties of...

403

Author's personal copy Statistical pattern analysis of ultrasonic signals for fatigue damage detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-engineered complex electromechanical systems (e.g., aircraft, electric power generation units, and petrochemical plants). Accumulation of fatigue damage may cause catastrophic failures, leading to potential loss

Ray, Asok

404

Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of methyl tert-butyl ether and its metabolites on HL-60 cells in vitro  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widely used oxygenate in unleaded gasoline; however, few studies have been conducted on the toxicity of this compound. This study evaluates the cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of MTBE and its metabolites in a human haemopoietic cell line, HL-60. The metabolites of MTBE studied include tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), {alpha}-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA), and formaldehyde. Comet assay is used to assess DNA damage, and the cytotoxicity is investigated by lactate dehydrogenease (LDH) release. The results show no significant cytotoxic effects of MTBE, TBA, and HIBA over a concentration ranging from 1 to 30 mM. Formaldehyde, in contrast, causes a substantial LDH release at a concentration of 5 {mu}M. Hydrogen peroxide, a known oxidative agent, at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, produces a significant dose-related increase in DNA damage, whereas a much higher concentration of MTBE (1 to 30 mM) is required to produce a similar observation. The genotoxic effects of TBA and HIBA appear to be identical to that of MTBE. Conversely, DNA damage is observed for formaldehyde at a relatively low concentration range (5 to 100 {mu}M). These findings suggest that MTBE and its metabolites, except formaldehyde, have relatively low cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. 16 refs., 4 figs.

Tang, G.H. [Xian Medical Univ. (China); Shen, Y.; Shen, H.M. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

405

ARM: Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Surface Radiation Measurement Quality Control testing, including climatologically configurable limits

Hodges, Gary; Stoffel, Tom; Kutchenreiter, Mark; Kay, Bev; Habte, Aron; Ritsche, Michael; Morris, Victor; Anderberg, Mary

406

Structural damage to the corticospinal tract correlates with bilateral sensorimotor cortex reorganization in stroke patients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reorganization in stroke patients Judith D. Schaechter, Katherine L. Perdue, and Ruopeng Wang MGH 2007 Available online 16 October 2007 Damage to the corticospinal tract (CST) in stroke patients has of structural damage to the CST and functional reorganization in stroke patients. The purpose of the current

Schaechter, Judith D.

407

6 HumanWildlife Conflicts 1(1)Columns The changing face of wildlife damage management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

management methods has risen dramatically. Public scrutiny of these methods has also increased substantially, wildlife damage management professionals are also involved in activities to protect public health damage management. New problems and conflicts with wildlife require increasingly new and unique research

408

Windstorm damage and forest recovery: accelerated succession, stand structure, and spatial pattern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Patterns of wind-induced damage and mortality may vary according to tree species, tree size, tree density). Given the potential variability of wind- related damage, differential tree mortality from a windstorm ? Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012 Abstract We evaluated 25 years of change in wind

Palmer, Michael W.

409

It seems size does matter in the brain. Even the smallest stroke can cause widespread damage.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Health It seems size does matter in the brain. Even the smallest stroke can cause widespread damage by blocking blood vessels called arterioles, stopping blood from reaching capillaries deeper in the brain the blockage. Block several and you can knock out entire brain regions as the damage travels even in areas

Kleinfeld, David

410

NUMERICAL MODELING OF SHOCK-INDUCED DAMAGE FOR GRANITE UNDER DYNAMIC LOADING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NUMERICAL MODELING OF SHOCK-INDUCED DAMAGE FOR GRANITE UNDER DYNAMIC LOADING H. A. Ai1 , T. J beneath impact crater in granite. Model constants are determined either directly from static uniaxial from Century Dynamics to simulate the shock-induced damage in granite targets impacted by projectiles

Stewart, Sarah T.

411

HumanWildlife Interactions 5(2):315320, Fall 2011 Canada goose crop damage abatement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Human­Wildlife Interactions 5(2):315­320, Fall 2011 Canada goose crop damage abatement in South% in 2006 and 80% in 2007, but the timing was important. Fields where abatement practices were applied early in the growing season had less damage than fields where they were applied later. Abatement practices that were

412

DAMAGE MECHANISMS OF ULTRAHIGH STRENGTH STEELS IN BENDING APPLICATION TO A TRIP STEEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 DAMAGE MECHANISMS OF ULTRAHIGH STRENGTH STEELS IN BENDING APPLICATION TO A TRIP STEEL D. Rèche 1, the present study aims at understanding damage mechanisms involved in bending of Ultra High Strength Steels (UHSSs). It focuses on a TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP)-aided steel. This work is based

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

413

Free Vibration Analysis of Kirchoff Plates with Damaged Boundaries by the Chebyshev Collocation Method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Free Vibration Analysis of Kirchoff Plates with Damaged Boundaries by the Chebyshev Collocation for the free vibration analysis of slender Kirchoff plates with both mixed and damaged boundaries an important role in applications of mechanical, aerospace and civil engineering. Studying the free vibration

Butcher, Eric A.

414

NEUTRON DAMAGE IN REACTOR PRESSURE-VESSEL STEEL EXAMINED WITH POSITRON ANNIHILATION LIFETIME SPECTROSCOPY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NEUTRON DAMAGE IN REACTOR PRESSURE-VESSEL STEEL EXAMINED WITH POSITRON ANNIHILATION LIFETIME-vessel steels. We irradiated samples ofASTM A508 nuclear reactor pressure-vessel steel to fast neutron 17 2 (PALS) to study the effects of neutron damage in the steels on positron lifetimes. Non

Motta, Arthur T.

415

Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibition Protects the Kidney from Hypertension-Induced Damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibition Protects the Kidney from Hypertension-Induced Damage XUEYING hypertension in- duced renal damage. Chronic administration of the specific SEH inhibitor 1-cyclohexyl-3-dodecylurea (CDU, 3 mg/d) for 10 d lowered BP in angiotensin hypertensive rats. The contri- bution of renal

Hammock, Bruce D.

416

Hurricane Damage Sustained by the Oyster Industry and the Oyster Reefs Across the Galveston Bay System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hurricane Damage Sustained by the Oyster Industry and the Oyster Reefs Across the Galveston Bay Economics and Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences Texas AgriLife Extension Service Sea Grant College Program., Russell J. Miget, and Lawrence L. Falconer. "Hurricane Damage Sustained by the Oyster Industry

417

Debris and Radiation-Induced Damage Effects on EUV Nanolithography Source Collector Mirror Optics Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Debris and Radiation-Induced Damage Effects on EUV Nanolithography Source Collector Mirror Optics, Argonne, Illinois ABSTRACT Exposure of collector mirrors facing the hot, dense pinch plasma in plasma region of the lamp are known to induce serious damage to nearby collector mirrors. Candidate collector

Harilal, S. S.

418

Lessons from two field tests on pipeline damage detection using acceleration measurement (Invited Paper)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lessons from two field tests on pipeline damage detection using acceleration measurement (Invited, Irvine, CA USA 92697-2700 ABSTRACT Early detection of pipeline damages has been highlighted in water supply industry. Water pressure change in pipeline due to a sudden rupture causes pipe to vibrate

Shinozuka, Masanobu

419

Prevention of tissue damage by water jet during cavitation Daniel Palanker,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prevention of tissue damage by water jet during cavitation Daniel Palanker,a) Alexander Vankov Cavitation bubbles accompany explosive vaporization of water following pulsed energy deposition in liquid can produce tissue damage at a distance exceeding the radius of the cavitation bubble by a factor of 4

Palanker, Daniel

420

FREQUENCY DOMAIN INSTANTANEOUS WAVENUMBER ESTIMATION FOR DAMAGE QUANTIFICATION IN LAYERED PLATE STRUCTURES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FREQUENCY DOMAIN INSTANTANEOUS WAVENUMBER ESTIMATION FOR DAMAGE QUANTIFICATION IN LAYERED PLATE, US 3 G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA of promising techniques for the identification and the characterization of damage in plate structures. Among

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

TEMPORAL INFORMATION OF LINEAR AND NONLINEAR LAMB WAVES FOR FATIGUE DAMAGE LOCALIZATION: ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TEMPORAL INFORMATION OF LINEAR AND NONLINEAR LAMB WAVES FOR FATIGUE DAMAGE LOCALIZATION: ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS Ming Hong1,2 , Zhongqing Su*1,3 , Ye Lu2 , Li Cheng1,3 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering widely applied to locate gross damage in plate structures, which may greatly facilitate the localization

Boyer, Edmond

422

DAMAGE DETECTION IN COMPOSITE STRUCTURES FROM FIBRE OPTIC DISTRIBUTED STRAIN MEASUREMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of backscattered radiation), placing the plain optical fibre at the region where damage is expected. Because of itsDAMAGE DETECTION IN COMPOSITE STRUCTURES FROM FIBRE OPTIC DISTRIBUTED STRAIN MEASUREMENTS Alfredo the backscattered radiation ocurring at every point of the optical fibre by its natural disturbances, and three

Boyer, Edmond

423

A continuum damage modelling of quasi-static fatigue strength of plain concrete  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A continuum damage modelling of quasi-static fatigue strength of plain concrete S. H. Maia,b , F of concrete. The approach is based on the framework of continuum damage mechanics where the fatigue model fatigue tests have been performed on a concrete the formulation of which is close to the one used

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

424

Management Options for Late-Season Hail Damaged Stripper Harvested Cotton Fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Management Options for Late-Season Hail Damaged Stripper Harvested Cotton Fields Extension Agronomy Cooperative Extension Agronomist ­ Cotton Lubbock, TX Dr. Robert Lemon Texas Cooperative Extension Agronomist ­ Cotton College Station, TX Late-season severe weather can result in significant hail damage to immature

Mukhtar, Saqib

425

Radiation damage effects on detectors and eletronic devices in harsh radiation environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation damage effects represent one of the limits for technologies to be used in harsh radiation environments as space, radiotherapy treatment, high-energy phisics colliders. Different technologies have known tolerances to different radiation fields and should be taken into account to avoid unexpected failures which may lead to unrecoverable damages to scientific missions or patient health.

Fiore, S

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

RESULTS FROM CAVITATION DAMAGE EXPERIMENTS WITH MERCURY SPALLATION TARGETS AT THE LANSCE WNR IN 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Damage assessment from proton beam induced cavitation experiments on mercury spallation targets done at the LANSCE WNR facility has been completed. The experiments investigated two key questions for the Spallation Neutron Source target, namely, how damage is affected by flow velocity in the SNS coolant channel geometry, and how damage scales with proton beam intensity at a given constant charge per pulse. With regard to the former question, prior in-beam experiments indicated that the coolant channel geometry with stagnant mercury was especially vulnerable to damage which might warrant a design change. Yet other results indicated a reduction in damage with the introduction of flow. Using more prototypic to the SNS, the 2008 experiment damage results show the channel is less vulnerable than the bulk mercury side of the vessel wall. They also show no benefit from increasing channel flow velocity beyond nominal SNS speeds. The second question probed a consensus belief that damage scales with beam intensity (protons per unit area) by a power law dependence with exponent of around 4. Results from a 2005 experiment did not support this power law dependence but some observations were inconsistent and unexplained. These latest results show weaker damage dependence.

Riemer, Bernie [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL] [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL] [ORNL; Sangrey, Robert L [ORNL] [ORNL; Wendel, Mark W [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity and DNA damage in swallows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity and DNA damage, to evaluate the potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity in brain and gonads and DNA damage in blood cells. The tritiated water-release aromatase assay was used to measure aromatase

Mora, Miguel A.

428

Global Environmental Change 12 (2002) 197202 Increased crop damage in the US from excess precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global Environmental Change 12 (2002) 197202 Increased crop damage in the US from excess Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 90-4000, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA d Environmental Defense, 18 Tremont Street and worldwide have caused great damage to crop production. If the frequency of these weather extremes were

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticide-exposed workers. The present study was designed to determine the role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 284 subjects including 150 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and 134 normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. The results revealed that the PONase activity toward paraoxonase and AChE activity was found significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). Workers showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to control subjects (14.37 {+-} 2.15 vs. 6.24 {+-} 1.37 tail% DNA, p < 0.001). Further, the workers with CYP2D6*3 PM and PON1 (QQ and MM) genotypes were found to have significantly higher DNA damage when compared to other genotypes (p < 0.05). In addition, significant increase in DNA damage was also observed in workers with concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes which need further extensive studies. In conclusion, the results indicate that the PON1 and CYP2D6 genotypes can modulate DNA damage elicited by some OPs possibly through gene-environment interactions. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C, CYP2D6 and PON1 genotypes on DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Workers exposed to some OPs demonstrated increased DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYP2D6 *3 PM and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes are associated with DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 genotypes can increase DNA damage.

Singh, Satyender [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India)] [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Kumar, Vivek [Environmental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, Dilshad Garden, Delhi-110095 (India)] [Environmental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, Dilshad Garden, Delhi-110095 (India); Vashisht, Kapil; Singh, Priyanka [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India)] [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Banerjee, Basu Dev, E-mail: banerjeebd@hotmail.com [Environmental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, Dilshad Garden, Delhi-110095 (India); Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India)] [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Jain, Sudhir Kumar [Centre for Epidemiology and Parasitic Diseases, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India)] [Centre for Epidemiology and Parasitic Diseases, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Rai, Arvind [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India)] [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Application of Nonlinear Elastic Resonance Spectroscopy For Damage Detection In Concrete: An Interesting Story  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nonlinear resonance ultrasound spectroscopy experiments conducted on concrete cores, one chemically and mechanically damaged by alkali-silica reactivity, and one undamaged, show that this material displays highly nonlinear wave behavior, similar to many other damaged materials. They find that the damaged sample responds more nonlinearly, manifested by a larger resonant peak and modulus shift as a function of strain amplitude. The nonlinear response indicates that there is a hysteretic influence in the stress-strain equation of state. Further, as in some other materials, slow dynamics are present. The nonlinear response they observe in concrete is an extremely sensitive indicator of damage. Ultimately, nonlinear wave methods applied to concrete may be used to guide mixing, curing, or other production techniques, in order to develop materials with particular desired qualities such as enhanced strength or chemical resistance, and to be used for damage inspection.

Byers, Loren W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ten Cate, James A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

431

First results from electron-photon damage equivalence studies on a generic ethylene-propylene rubber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of a simulator adequacy assessment program, the relative effectiveness of electrons and photons to produce damage in a generic ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) has been investigated. The investigation was limited in extent in that a single EPR material, in three thickness, was exposed to Cobalt-60 photons and three electron beam energies. Basing material damage on changes in the EPR mechanical properties elongation and tensile strength, we observed that EPR damage was a smoothly varying function of absorbed energy and independent of irradiating particle type. EPR damage tracked equally well as a function of both incident particle energy and material front surface dose. Based on these preliminary data, we tentatively concluded that a correlation between particle, particle energy, and material damage (as measured by changes in material elongation and/or tensile strength) has been demonstrated. 14 figs.

Buckalew, W.H.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Nondestructive evaluation and characterization of damage and repair to continuous-fiber ceramic composite panels.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites are currently being developed for a variety of high-temperature applications. Because of the high costs of making these components, minor damage incurred during manufacturing or operation must be rewired in order to extend the life of the components. In this study, five ceramic-grade Nicalon{trademark} fiber/SiNC-matrix composite panels were intentionally damaged with a pendulum-type impactor during an impact test. The damaged panels were then repaired at Dow Corning Corporation. Three nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods were used to study the characteristics of the panels after the damage and again after the panels were repaired. The NDE methods were X-ray radiography, infrared thermal imaging, and air-coupled ultrasound. The results showed that the impact test induced various types of damage in the panels. The NDE data that were obtained by the three NDE methods were correlated with each other.

Sun, J. G.; Petrak, D. R.; Pillai, T. A. K.; Deemer, C.; Ellingson, W. A.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Ion-beam-induced damage formation in CdTe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Damage formation in <111>- and <112>-oriented CdTe single crystals irradiated at room temperature and 15 K with 270 keV Ar or 730 keV Sb ions was investigated in situ using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) in channeling configuration. Defect profiles were calculated from the RBS spectra using the computer code DICADA and additional energy-dependent RBS measurements were performed to identify the type of defects. At both temperatures no formation of a buried amorphous layer was detected even after prolonged irradiation with several 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. The fact that CdTe is not rendered amorphous even at 15 K suggests that the high resistance to amorphization is caused by the high ionicity of CdTe rather than thermal effects. The calculated defect profiles show the formation of a broad defect distribution that extends much deeper into the crystal than the projected range of the implanted ions at both temperatures. The post-range defects in CdTe thus do not seem to be of thermal origin either, but are instead believed to result from migration driven by the electronic energy loss.

Rischau, C. W.; Schnohr, C. S.; Wendler, E.; Wesch, W. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Damage detection technique by measuring laser-based mechanical impedance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study proposes a method for measurement of mechanical impedance using noncontact laser ultrasound. The measurement of mechanical impedance has been of great interest in nondestructive testing (NDT) or structural health monitoring (SHM) since mechanical impedance is sensitive even to small-sized structural defects. Conventional impedance measurements, however, have been based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) using contact-type piezoelectric transducers, which show deteriorated performances induced by the effects of a) Curie temperature limitations, b) electromagnetic interference (EMI), c) bonding layers and etc. This study aims to tackle the limitations of conventional EMI measurement by utilizing laser-based mechanical impedance (LMI) measurement. The LMI response, which is equivalent to a steady-state ultrasound response, is generated by shooting the pulse laser beam to the target structure, and is acquired by measuring the out-of-plane velocity using a laser vibrometer. The formation of the LMI response is observed through the thermo-mechanical finite element analysis. The feasibility of applying the LMI technique for damage detection is experimentally verified using a pipe specimen under high temperature environment.

Lee, Hyeonseok; Sohn, Hoon [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Daehak-ro 291, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701) (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

435

Synchrotron radiation damage observations in normal incidence copper mirrors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water-cooled copper mirrors used at near-normal incidence on two beam lines at the NSLS are observed to undergo severe degradation upon exposure to the direct SR beam. These mirrors are used on beam lines designed to utilize radiation in the wavelength regions longer than 100 nm and are coated with a uv reflection-enhancing coating, consisting of one or more bilayers of aluminum with a MgF/sub 2/ overcoat. Beamline performance degrades very rapidly following installation of a new set of mirrors. Analysis of the mirror surfaces by various non-destructive techniques indicates severe degradation of the coating and surface along the central strip where most of the x-ray power is absorbed from the beam. In one case where the mirror had three bilayer coatings, the outer coating layer has disappeared along the central strip. Rutherford backscatter measurements indicate compositional changes between layers and confirm the existence of a carbon deposit on the surface. Thermal modeling suggests that most of the damage is caused by direct photon interaction, since the temperature rise in the energy deposition region is small.

Takacs, P.Z.; Melendez, J.; Colbert, J.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Iterative Damage Index Method for Structural Health Monitoring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is %) e ? 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 DIM 11.1 81.5 92.1 93.6 95.6 95.7 97.8 97.9 97.9 98.0 98.1 0 IDIM 5.4 80.5 85.9 87.3 89.4 91.1 99.6 99.9 99.9 100.0 100.0 DIM 11.1 81.5 92.1 93.6 95.6 95.7 97.8 97.9 97.9 98.0 98.1 0.01 IDIM 5....4 80.5 85.9 87.3 89.4 91.1 99.6 99.9 99.9 100.0 100.0 DIM 11.1 81.5 92.1 93.6 95.6 95.7 97.8 97.9 97.9 98.0 98.1 0.02 IDIM 5.4 80.5 85.9 87.3 89.4 91.1 99.6 99.9 99.9 100.0 100.0 26 Table 7. Damage detection percentage Case 5 (unit is %) e...

You, Taesun

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

437

Radiation Damage Study for PHENIX Silicon Stripixel Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Silicon stripixel sensors which were developed at BNL will be installed as part of the RHIC-PHENIX silicon vertex tracker (VTX). RHIC II operations provide luminosity up to 2x10^32 /cm2/s so the silicon stripixel sensors will be exposed to a significant amount of radiation. The most problematic radiation effect for VTX is the increase of leakage current, which degrades the signal to noise ratio and may saturate the readout electronics. We studied the radiation damage using the same diodes as CERN-RD48. First, the proportionality between the irradiation fluence and the increase of leakage current of CERN-RD48 was reproduced. Then beam experiments with stripixel sensor were done in which leakage current was found to increase in the same way as that of thereference diode. A stripixel sensor was also irradiated at the PHENIX interaction region (IR) during the 2006 run. We found the same relation between the integrated luminosity and determined fluence from increase of leakage current. The expected fluence is 3-6x10^12 Neq/cm2 (1 MeV neutron equivalent) in RHIC II operations for 10 years. Due to this expected exposure, setting the operating temperature in PHENIX to T< 0 deg. C to suppress leakage current is needed to avoid saturation of preamplifiers.

J. Asai; S. Batsouli; K. Boyle; V. Castillo; V. Cianciolo; D. Fields; C. Haegeman; M. Hoeferkamp; Y. Hosoi; R. Ichimiya; Y. Inoue; M. Kawashima; T. Komatsubara; K. Kurita; Z. Li; D. Lynch; M. Nguyen; T. Murakami; R. Nouicer; H. Ohnishi; R. Pak; K. Sakashita; T. -A. Shibata; K. Suga; A. Taketani; J. Tojo

2007-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

438

Measurement of Radiation Damage on Silica Aerogel Cerenkov Radiator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We measured the radiation damage on silica aerogel Cerenkov radiators originally developed for the B-factory experiment at KEK. Refractive index of the aerogel samples ranged from 1.012 to 1.028. The samples were irradiated up to 9.8 MRad of equivalent dose. Measurements of transmittance and refractive index were carried out and these samples were found to be radiation hard. Deteriorations in transparency and changes of refractive index were observed to be less than 1.3% and 0.001 at 90% confidence level, respectively. Prospects of using aerogels under high-radiation environment are discussed. 1 Introduction Silica aerogels(aerogels) are a colloidal form of glass, in which globules of silica are connected in three dimensional networks with siloxan bonds. They are solid, very light, transparent and their refractive index can be controlled in the production process. Many high energy and nuclear physics experiments have used aerogels instead of pressurized gas for their Cerenkov coun...

Belle Preprint; Sahu Wang; M. Z. Wang; R. Suda; R. Enomoto; K. C. Peng; C. H. Wang; I. Adachi; M. Amami

439

Safety apparatus for nuclear reactor to prevent structural damage from overheating by core debris  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention teaches safety apparatus that can be included in a nuclear reactor, either when newly fabricated or as a retrofit add-on, that will minimize proliferation of structural damage to the reactor in the event the reactor is experiencing an overheating malfunction whereby radioactive nuclear debris might break away from and be discharged from the reactor core. The invention provides a porous bed or sublayer on the lower surface of the reactor containment vessel so that the debris falls on and piles up on the bed. Vapor release elements upstand from the bed in some laterally spaced array. Thus should the high heat flux of the debris interior vaporize the coolant at that location, the vaporized coolant can be vented downwardly to and laterally through the bed to the vapor release elements and in turn via the release elements upwardly through the debris. This minimizes the pressure buildup in the debris and allows for continuing infiltration of the liquid coolant into the debris interior.

Gabor, John D. (Western Springs, IL); Cassulo, John C. (Stickney, IL); Pedersen, Dean R. (Naperville, IL); Baker, Jr., Louis (Downers Grove, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2005, Proceedings of SPIE,  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume contains papers presented at the 37th Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High-Power Lasers that was held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, Colorado, 19-21 September 2005. The symposium was cosponsored by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA), and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (USA). Cooperating organizations were the Center for High Technology Materials at the University of New Mexico (USA), Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (Germany), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA), QinetiQ (United Kingdom), and the College of Optics and Photonics, CREOL and FPCE, University of Central Florida (USA). The symposium, was attended by 145 scientist and engineers from China, France, Lithuania, Russia, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Russia, the United States, and the United Kingdom. One-third of the attendees and nearly half of the presentations were from abroad. A mini-symposium on Tuesday afternoon, that addressed damage issues associated with petawatt lasers, highlighted our growing interest in the emerging area. Including the mini-symposium, 87 papers were presented in oral and poster sessions.

Exarhos, Gregory J.; Guenther, Arthur H.; Ristau, Detlev; Lewis, Keith L.; Soileau, M. J.; Stolz, Christopher J.

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Damage profile and ion distribution of slow heavy ions in compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Slow heavy ions inevitably produce a significant concentration of defects and lattice disorder in solids during their slowing-down process via ion-solid interactions. For irradiation effects research and many industrial applications, atomic defect production, ion range, and doping concentration are commonly estimated by the stopping and range of ions in matter (SRIM) code. In this study, ion-induced damage and projectile ranges of low energy Au ions in SiC are determined using complementary ion beam and microscopy techniques. Considerable errors in both disorder profile and ion range predicted by the SRIM code indicate an overestimation of the electronic stopping power, by a factor of 2 in most cases, in the energy region up to 25 keV/nucleon. Such large discrepancies are also observed for slow heavy ions, including Pt, Au, and Pb ions, in other compound materials, such as GaN, AlN, and SrTiO{sub 3}. Due to the importance of these materials for advanced device and nuclear applications, better electronic stopping cross section predictions, based on a reciprocity principle developed by Sigmund, is suggested with fitting parameters for possible improvement.

Zhang Yanwen; Wang Chongmin; Zhu Zihua; Jiang Weilin; Weber, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Bae, I.-T. [Small Scale Systems Integration and Packaging Center, State University of New York at Binghamton, P.O. Box 6000, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Sun Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Ishimaru, Manabu [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

Damage characterization of a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-BN fibrous monolith using NDE techniques.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A variety of nondestructive evaluation techniques were utilized to document the damage characteristics of a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-BN fibrous monolith. The techniques included X-ray radiography, infrared thermography, ultrasonic C-scanning, and acoustic emission detection. The focus of this paper is the nondestructive evaluation results from a modified single-edge notched tensile specimen inspected before and after testing. Of the techniques performed, the thermography and ultrasonic methods were the most successful at identifying the predominant types of damage incurred in the fibrous monolith material. Polished cross-sections of the specimen revealed that hairline cracks had developed along inter- and intra-laminar BN cell bundle boundaries. Neither type of crack could be identified from the X-ray radiograph. The delaminated zones were matched with results from the thermography and C-scans. The acoustic emissions correlated well with changes in the load-displacement data and provided source locations consistent with the thermal and C-scan images.

Deemer, C. M.; Ellingson, W. A.; Finch, J. L.; Staehler, J. M.; Sun, J. G.; Zawada, L. P.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

443

Genome-Wide Identification and 3D Modeling of Proteins involved in DNA Damage Recognition and Repair (Final Report)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OAK-B135 DNA Damage Recognition and Repair (DDR and R) proteins play a critical role in cellular responses to low-dose radiation and are associated with cancer. the authors have performed a systematic, genome-wide computational analysis of genomic data for human genes involved in the DDR and R process. The significant achievements of this project include: (1) Construction of the computational pipeline for searching DDR and R genes, building and validation of 3D models of proteins involved in DDR and R; (2) Functional and structural annotation of the 3D models and generation of comprehensive lists of suggested knock-out mutations; (3) Important improvement of macromolecular docking technology and its application to predict the DNA-Protein complex conformation; (4) Development of a new algorithm for improved analysis of high-density oligonucleotide arrays for gene expression profiling; (5) Construction and maintenance of the DNA Damage Recognition and Repair Database; and (6) Producing 14 research papers (10 published and 4 in preparation).

Ruben A. Abagyan, PhD

2004-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

444

Radiation-damage phenomena in insulated-gate field-effect transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study reports on investigation of the electrical influences of ionizing radiation on the characteristics of Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistors. It includes two major parts, i.e., (A) The electrical effects of device characteristics of the defect generated by silicon or oxygen ion implantation has been examined in detail. Surprisingly, large quantities of neutral electron traps (NET) are generated, and only small quantities of fixed positive charge (FPC) is observed. These studies also raise the issue of the correlation between E{sub {gamma}}{prime} centers and FPC. A similar correlation can be made between E{sub {gamma}}{prime} centers and NET since processes that annihilate FPC tend to create fixed negative charge (FNC) from NET, and processes that would tend to generate FPC would tend to create NET from FNC. It was found that silicon or oxygen implanted gate insulators are more susceptible to X-ray radiation than unimplanted devices and that insulator damage due to silicon or oxygen ion implantation is essentially unannealable. (B) A new electron trapping model has been proposed to model experimental data better than is accomplished by existing first-order trapping kinetic approaches. This model includes a continuous decrease of the trapping cross section, {sigma}{sub 0}, as a function of the number of filled traps, N{sub D}. The dependency of {sigma}{sub 0} is believed to be related physically to the annihilation, or buildup of coulombic charge, which repulsive effect has heretofore been neglected in first-order trapping kinetics that describe the entire defect concentration range. It was found that an injection current density dependency of electron trapping at constant total injected charge occurs only when NETs are being filled.

Sune, Chingtzong.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

CometChip: A High-throughput 96-Well Platform for Measuring DNA Damage in Microarrayed Human Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DNA damaging agents can promote aging, disease and cancer and they are ubiquitous in the environment and produced within human cells as normal cellular metabolites. Ironically, at high doses DNA damaging agents are also ...

Ge, Jing

446

A DNA damage checkpoint in Caulobacter crescentus inhibits cell division through a direct interaction with FtsW  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Following DNA damage, cells typically delay cell cycle progression and inhibit cell division until their chromosomes have been repaired. The bacterial checkpoint systems responsible for these DNA damage responses are ...

Modell, Joshua Wexler

447

A novel role for the transcriptional modulator NusA in DNA repair/damage tolerance pathways in Escherichia coli  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

All organisms must contend with the consequences of DNA damage, induced by a variety of both endogenous and exogenous sources. Mechanisms of DNA repair and DNA damage tolerance are crucial for cellular survival after DNA ...

Cohen, Susan E., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Characterizing Damage Evolution and Yield in Sandstone Under Triaxial Loading as a Function of Various Effective Pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and accumulation of microscopic damage at sub-critical stress levels however also are important characteristic of the failure process. Here, load-reload triaxial compression tests are used to investigate damage development at low and high effective pressures...

Choens II, Robert C.

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

449

E-Print Network 3.0 - alginate scaffold including Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

created through a three step process which included: treatment... ; and exposure to a CaCl2 to crosslink the alginate sheets. Process variables included volume and concentra-...

450

Common Data Set 2011-2012 J Column heading for CIP categories to include now reads: CIP 2010 Categories to Include  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Common Data Set 2011-2012 J Column heading for CIP categories to include now reads: CIP 2010 Categories to Include J CIP category 3 description now reads: Natural resources and conservation J CIP category 5 description now reads: Area, ethnic, and gender studies J CIP category 16 description now reads

451

Geologic Assessment of the Damage Zone from the Second Test at Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Center for Nuclear Security, established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), is conducting a series of explosive tests at the Nevada National Security Site that are designed to increase the understanding of certain basic physical phenomena associated with underground explosions. These tests will aid in developing technologies that might be used to detect underground nuclear explosions in support of verification activities for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The initial project is a series of explosive tests, known collectively as the Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N), being conducted in granitic rocks. The SPE-N test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves. The results will help advance the seismic monitoring capability of the United States by improving the predictive capability of physics-based modeling of explosive phenomena. The first SPE N (SPE-N-1) test was conducted in May 2011, using 100 kg of explosives at the depth of 54.9 m in the U 15n source hole. SPE-N-2 was conducted in October 2011, using 1,000 kg of explosives at the depth of 45.7 m in the same source hole. The SPE-N-3 test was conducted in the same source hole in July 2012, using the same amount and type of explosive as for SPE-N-2, and at the same depth as SPE-N-2, within the damage zone created by the SPE-N-2 explosion to investigate damage effects on seismic wave propagation. Following the SPE-N-2 shot and prior to the SPE-N-3 shot, the core hole U-15n#10 was drilled at an angle from the surface to intercept the SPE-N-2 shot point location to obtain information necessary to characterize the damage zone. The objective was to determine the position of the damage zone near the shot point, at least on the northeast, where the core hole penetrated it, and obtain information on the properties of the damaged medium. Geologic characterization of the post-SPE-N-2 core hole included geophysical logging, a directional survey, and geologic description of the core to document visual evidence of damage. Selected core samples were provided to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for measurement of physical and mechanical properties. A video was also run in the source hole after it was cleaned out. A significant natural fault zone was encountered in the angle core hole between 5.7 and 7.5 m from the shot point. However, several of the fractures observed in the core hole are interpreted as having been caused by the explosion. The fractures are characterized by a fresh, mechanically broken look, with uncoated and very irregular surfaces. They tend to terminate against natural fractures and have orientations that differ from the previously defined natural fracture sets; they are common starting at about 5.4 m from the shot point. Within about 3.3 m of the shot point to the end of the recovered core at 1.6 m from the shot point, some of the core samples are softer and lighter in color, but do not appear to be weathered. It is thought this could be indicative of the presence of distributed microfracturing.

Townsend, M. J.; Huckins-Gang, H. E.; Prothro, L. B.; Reed, D. N.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

ANALYTICAL NEUTRONIC STUDIES CORRELATING FAST NEUTRON FLUENCE TO MATERIAL DAMAGE IN CARBON, SILICON, AND SILICON CARBIDE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study evaluates how fast neutron fluence >0.1 MeV correlates to material damage (i.e., the total fluence spectrum folded with the respective materials displacements-per- atom [dpa] damage response function) for the specific material fluence spectra encountered in Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) service and the irradiation tests conducted in material test reactors (MTRs) for the fuel materials addressed in the white paper. It also reports how the evaluated correlations of >0.1 MeV fluence to material damage vary between the different spectral conditions encountered in material service versus testing.

Jim Sterbentz

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Simple go/no-go test for subcritical damage in body armor panels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of a simple test for subcritical damage in body armor panels using pressure-sensitive dye-indicator film has been performed and demonstrated effective. Measurements have shown that static indicator levels are accurately reproduced in dynamic loading events. Impacts from hard blunt impactors instrumented with an accelerometer and embedded force transducer were studied. Reliable correlations between the indicator film and instrumented impact force are shown for a range of impact energies. Force and acceleration waveforms with corresponding indicator film results are presented for impact events onto damaged and undamaged panels. We find that panel damage can occur at impact levels far below the National Institute of Justice acceptance test standard.

Fisher, Jason; Chimenti, D. E. [Center for NDE and Aerospace Engineering Department, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

454

A metallography and x-ray tomography study of spall damage in ultrapure Al  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We characterize spall damage in shock-recovered ultrapure Al with metallography and x-ray tomography. The measured damage profiles in ultrapure Al induced by planar impact at different shock strengths, can be described with a Gaussian function, and showed dependence on shock strengths. Optical metallography is reasonably accurate for damage profile measurements, and agrees within 1025% with x-ray tomography. Full tomography analysis showed that void size distributions followed a power law with an exponent of ? = 1.5 2.0, which is likely due to void nucleation and growth, and the exponent is considerably smaller than the predictions from percolation models.

Qi, M. L. [School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); HPSynC@Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Bie, B. X. [School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences and Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Zhao, F. P.; Fan, D.; Luo, S. N., E-mail: sluo@pims.ac.cn [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences and Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Hu, C. M. [HPSynC@Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Ran, X. X. [School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Xiao, X. H. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Yang, W. G., E-mail: wenge@aps.anl.gov [HPSynC@Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Li, P. [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

Damage monitoring in sandwich beams by modal parameter shifts: A comparative study of burst random and sine dwell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be damaged through crushing and shear failure mechanisms. Safe and functional effectiveness of stressed1 Damage monitoring in sandwich beams by modal parameter shifts: A comparative study of burst Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study on the effects of multi-site damage on the vibration

Mailhes, Corinne

456

620 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 29, No. 6 / March 15, 2004 Damage to extreme-ultraviolet Sc Si multilayer mirrors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

620 OPTICS LETTERS / Vol. 29, No. 6 / March 15, 2004 Damage to extreme-ultraviolet Sc Si multilayer, Russia Received August 21, 2003 The damage threshold and damage mechanism of extreme-ultraviolet Sc Si multilayer mirror coatings are investigated with focused nanosecond pulses at 46.9-nm radiation from

Rocca, Jorge J.

457

2256 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 47, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2000 Characterization of X-Ray Radiation Damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

optical methods. I. INTRODUCTION PRESENTLY, characterization of traps due to radiation damage in Si-Ray Radiation Damage in Si/SiO2 Structures Using Second-Harmonic Generation Z. Marka, S. K. Singh, W. Wang, S. C-harmonic generation (SHG) measurements for the characterization of X-ray radiation damage in Si/SiO2 structures

Tolk, Norman H.

458

NM's Flying 40 List Includes CHTM Start-Up By Stefi Weisburd June 23, 2014  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ups including Sandia Systems, Inc., Semiconductor Bridge Technology, Gratings, Inc., Zia Laser, Inc., K

New Mexico, University of

459

Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

460

Thermo-Poroelastic Modeling of Reservoir Stimulation and Microseismicity Using Finite Element Method with Damage Mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, changing rock permeability. In this work, two- and three-dimensional finite element methods were developed to simulate coupled reservoirs with damage mechanics and stress-dependent permeability. The model considers the influence of fluid flow, temperature...

Lee, Sang Hoon

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Reduction of damage initiation density in fused silica optics via UV laser conditioning  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method for reducing the density of sites on the surface of fused silica optics that are prone to the initiation of laser-induced damage, resulting in optics which have far fewer catastrophic defects and are better capable of resisting optical deterioration upon exposure for a long period of time to a high-power laser beam having a wavelength of about 360 nm or less. The initiation of laser-induced damage is reduced by conditioning the optic at low fluences below levels that normally lead to catastrophic growth of damage. When the optic is then irradiated at its high fluence design limit, the concentration of catastrophic damage sites that form on the surface of the optic is greatly reduced.

Peterson, John E.; Maricle, Stephen M.; Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.

2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

462

Relative Damaging Ability Of Galactic Cosmic Rays Determined Using Monte Carlo Simulations Of Track Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy deposition characteristics of heavy ions vary substantially compared to those of photons. Many radiation biology studies have compared the damaging effects of different types of radiation to establish relative biological effectiveness...

Cox, Bradley

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

463

Precursors to potential severe core damage accidents. A status report, 1982--1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study is a continuation of earlier work that evaluated 1969-1981 and 1984-1994 events affecting commercial light-water reactors. One-hundred nine operational events that affected 51 reactors during 1982 and 1983 and that are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage are described. All these events had conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}6}. These events were identified by first computer screening the 1982-83 licensee event reports from commercial light-water reactors to select events that could be precursors to core damage. Candidates underwent engineering evaluation that identified, analyzed, and documented the precursors. This report discusses the general rationale for the study, the selection and documentation of events as precursors, and the estimation of conditional probabilities of subsequent severe core damage for the events.

Forester, J.A.; Mitchell, D.B.; Whitehead, D.W. [and others] [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Detection of NonSymmetrical Damage in Smart PlateLike Structures 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and compared to experimental data obtained from tests on cantilever aluminum plate­like structures damaged such as the aerospace, automotive and machine­tool industries. In particular, smart structures with self actuating

465

Application of damage mechanism-specific NDE methods in support of risk-informed inspections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Risk-informed inservice inspection (RISI) programs effectively concentrate limited and costly examination resources on systems and locations most relevant to plant safety. The thought process used in the selection of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods and procedures in a RISI program is expected to change toward integrating NDE into integrity management, with a concentration on understanding failure mechanisms. Identifying which damage mechanisms may be operative in specific locations and applying appropriate NDE methods to detect the presence of these damage mechanisms is fundamental to effective RISI application. Considerable information is already available on inspection for damage mechanisms such as intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC), thermal fatigue, and erosion-corrosion. Similar procedures are under development for other damage mechanisms that may occur individually or in combination with other mechanisms. Guidance is provided on application of NDE procedures in an RISI framework to facilitate implementation by utility staff (Gosselin, 1996).

Walker, S.M.; Ammirato, F.V. [EPRI NDE Center, Charlotte, NC (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

USE OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS TO REPAIR STEEL STRUCTURES VULNERABLE TO FATIGUE DAMAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study investigates mainly two different topics related to the use of CFRP's for strengthening and repair of steel bridges: the use of CFRP's to prevent damage in fatigue vulnerable welded connections prior to fatigue-crack initiation...

Alemdar, Fatih

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

E-Print Network 3.0 - analysis reveal damage Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

technique... , Germany Abstract: Laser damage thresholds at 248nm of TiO,, ZrO, and HfO, thin films of h optical... thickness on SQ1 quartz glass substrates are determined by...

468

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Damage Cascade Formation in Ion Bombarded Solids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator). In one subtask, we studied damage cascade interactions caused by two 2 keV Si atoms simultaneously bombarding a crystalline Si substrate. We found that the enhanced displacement creation appears primarily in the thermal spike...

Chen, Di

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

469

The bromodomain protein Brd4 insulates chromatin from DNA damage signalling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DNA damage activates a signalling network that blocks cell-cycle progression, recruits DNA repair factors and/or triggers senescence or programmed cell death. Alterations in chromatin structure are implicated in the ...

Floyd, Scott R.

470

Identifying the Impact of the Built Environment on Wildfire Property Damage in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildfires are a natural hazard that present an increasing risk to communities in fire-prone areas. This study examines the impacts of the municipal-level built environment upon fire damages in California, a particularly fire-vulnerable state...

Makino, Takashi Michael

2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

471

Integration of the phosphorylation-dependent signaling in the DNA damage response network : implications for cancer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The cellular response to DNA damage is an evolutionarily conserved process mediated by Ser/Thr kinases that results in the formation of multiple protein-protein complexes designed to control the cell cycle. The assembly ...

Manke, Isaac Andrew

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

On the Effect of Ramp Rate in Damage Accumulation of the CPV Die-Attach: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is commonly understood that thermal cycling at high temperature ramp rates may activate unrepresentative failure mechanisms. Increasing the temperature ramp rate of thermal cycling, however, could dramatically reduce the test time required to achieve an equivalent amount of thermal fatigue damage, thereby reducing overall test time. Therefore, the effect of temperature ramp rate on physical damage in the CPV die-attach is investigated. Finite Element Model (FEM) simulations of thermal fatigue and thermal cycling experiments are made to determine if the amount of damage calculated results in a corresponding amount of physical damage measured to the die-attach for a variety of fast temperature ramp rates. Preliminary experimental results are in good agreement with simulations and reinforce the potential of increasing temperature ramp rates. Characterization of the microstructure and resulting fatigue crack in the die-attach suggest a similar failure mechanism across all ramp rates tested.

Bosco, N. S.; Silverman, T. J.; Kurtz, S. R.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Landscape-scale patterns of forest pest and pathogen damage in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rust by examining changes in the spatial scale of significant stress and mortality clusters computedLandscape-scale patterns of forest pest and pathogen damage in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

Moorcroft, Paul R.

474

An adaptive control technology for flight safety in the presence of actuator anomalies and damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The challenge of achieving safe flight comes into sharp focus in the face of adverse conditions caused by faults, damage, or upsets. When these situations occur, the corresponding uncertainties directly affect the safe ...

Matsutani, Megumi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Damage evolution in Au-implanted Ho2Ti2O7 titanate pyrochlore...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Zhang Y, J Jagielski, IT Bae, X Xiang, L Thome, G Balakrishnan, DM Paul, and WJ Weber.2010."Damage evolution in Au-implanted Ho2Ti2O7 titanate pyrochlore."Nuclear...

476

Review: Clearing the Air: The Health and Economic Damages of Air Pollution in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the assessment of air pollution and its health and economiclargest source of health damages of air pollution in China,to air pollution, and the economic evaluations of health

Lee, Joseph

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

The role of ClpXP-mediated proteolysis in resculpting the proteome after DNA damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When faced with environmental assaults, E. coli can take extreme measures to survive. For example, starving bacteria consume their own proteins, and bacteria with severe DNA damage introduce mutations into their genomes. ...

Neher, Saskia B. (Saskia Byerly)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

A LARGE SCALE CONTINUUM-DISCRETE NUMERICAL MODELLING: APPLICATION TO OVERBURDEN DAMAGE OF A SALT CAVERN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CAVERN SOULEY Mountaka1 , MERCERAT Diego2 , DRIAD-LEBEAU Lynda1 , BERNARD Pascal2 1 INERIS, Ecole des collapse). KEYWORDS: cavern, numerical modelling, continuum-discrete, overburden, damage. R?SUM?: Dans l

Boyer, Edmond

479

A Coupled Micromechanical Model of Moisture-Induced Damage in Asphalt Mixtures: Formulation and Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The deleterious effect of moisture on the structural integrity of asphalt mixtures has been recognized as one of the main causes of early deterioration of asphalt pavements. This phenomenon, usually referred to as moisture damage, is defined...

Caro Spinel, Silvia

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

480

An Economic Analysis of Erosion and Sediment Damage in the Lower Running Draw Watershed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a study on the economic impact of implementing potential agricultural NPS pollution controls in Lower Running Water Draw watershed. The study focuses on: (a) the effects of erosion control on farm income, (b) off-site sediment damages...

Reneau, D. R.; Taylor, C. R.; Harris, B. L.; Lacewell, R. D.; Mueller, P. E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "damages whatsoever including" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Mechanistic investigation of an anticancer agent that damages DNA and interacts with the androgen receptor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The 11[beta] molecule comprises a ligand for the androgen receptor (AR), which is crucial to progression and survival of many prostate cancers, tethered to a DNA-damaging aniline mustard. The compound was designed to exhibit ...

Proffitt, Kyle David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Regulatory pathways controlling cell division after DNA damage in Caulobacter crescentus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

All cells must coordinate DNA replication with cell division in order to faithfully propagate whole chromosomes to daughter cells. During episodes of DNA damage, cells often delay division until the lesions have been ...

Modell, Joshua Wexler

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Mechanistic investigation of anticancer agents that damage DNA and interact with the estrogen receptor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the primary goals of cancer chemotherapy is the design of antitumor agents that achieve selective targeting of tumor cells while minimizing toxicity to normal tissues. We have synthesized a series of DNA damaging ...

Gopal, Sreeja

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

A micro to macro approach to polymer matrix composites damage modeling : final LDRD report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Capabilities are developed, verified and validated to generate constitutive responses using material and geometric measurements with representative volume elements (RVE). The geometrically accurate RVEs are used for determining elastic properties and damage initiation and propagation analysis. Finite element modeling of the meso-structure over the distribution of characterizing measurements is automated and various boundary conditions are applied. Plain and harness weave composites are investigated. Continuum yarn damage, softening behavior and an elastic-plastic matrix are combined with known materials and geometries in order to estimate the macroscopic response as characterized by a set of orthotropic material parameters. Damage mechanics and coupling effects are investigated and macroscopic material models are demonstrated and discussed. Prediction of the elastic, damage, and failure behavior of woven composites will aid in macroscopic constitutive characterization for modeling and optimizing advanced composite systems.

English, Shawn Allen; Brown, Arthur A.; Briggs, Timothy M.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Examination of the damage and failure response of tantalum and copper under varied shock loading conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of plate impact experiments have been conducted on high purity polycrystalline tantalum and copper samples using graded flyer plate configurations to alter the loading profile. These experiments are designed in a way so that a broad range of damage regimes are probed. The results show that the nucleation of damage primarily occurs at the grain boundaries of the materials. This affords us the opportunity to propose a porosity damage nucleation criterion which begins to account for the length scales of the microstructure (grain size distribution) and the mechanical response of the grain boundary regions (failure stress distribution). This is done in the context of a G-T-N type model for the ductile damage and failure response of both the materials examined. The role of micro-inertial effects on the porosity growth process is also considered.

Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dennis - Koller, Darcie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray Ill, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, Neil [AWE-ALDERMASTON

2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

486

Geometrical characteristics and damage morphology of nodules grown from artificial seeds in multilayer coating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nodules have been planted in an HfO2/SiO2 multilayer system with absorptive gold nanoparticle seeds located on the surface of a substrate. The topography of nodules was scanned by an atomic force microscope and imaged by a scanning electron microscope. The underlying characteristics of nodules were revealed by a focused ion beam. The cross-sectional profiles reveal that nodules grown from small seeds have a continuous boundary and better mechanical stability. A laser-induced damage test shows that nodules decrease the laser-induced damage threshold by up to 3 times. The damage pits are exclusively caused by nodular ejection and triggered by the absorptive seeds. The distribution of electric field and average temperature rise in the nodules were analyzed. Theoretical results met experimental results very well. The strong absorptive seed and microlens effect of the nodule play important roles in laser-induced damage of a planted nodule.

Shan Yongguang; He Hongbo; Wei Chaoyang; Li Shuhong; Zhou Ming; Li Dawei; Zhao Yuan'an

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Laser damage testing of small optics for the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A damage test procedure was established for optical components that have large incident beam footprints. The procedure was applied on coated samples for a high-powered 1053-nm, 3-ns pulse-length laser system.

Chow, Robert; Runkel, Mike; Taylor, John R

2005-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

488

E-Print Network 3.0 - ameliorating oxidative damage Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Arizona State University Collection: Engineering 20 Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment Summary: in acute O3...

489

Genetic damage and cell cycle perturbations: biomarkers of effect in natural populations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spleen tissue from prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) was analyzed using flow cytometry to assess possible genetic damage and cell cycle disruptions following exposure to radionuclides and nitroaromatic...

Wickliffe, Jeffrey Kirk

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Estimating production functions with damage control inputs: an application to Korean vegetable production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis focuses on the use of chemicals for pest control in Korean cucumber production. The empirical issue addressed is whether estimating crop production functions consistent with the economic theory of damage control inputs makes significant...

Park, Pil Ja

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Risk-mapping the potential impact of wind damage to European forests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

European forests are noteworthy both in their size and in their commercial potential. The move towards uniform plantations of equal-age and equally spaced trees has resulted in an increased level of damage occurring to forest stands during storm...

Bragg, Alan M

2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

492

A three dimensional finite element code for the analysis of damage in helically wound composite cylinders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT CODE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF DAMAGE IN HELICALLY WOUND COMPOSITE CYLINDERS A Thesis MARVIiN AiNTHONY ZOCHER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas Ag:M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject; Aerospace Engineering A THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT CODE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF DAMAGE IN HELICALLY WOUND COMPOSITE CYLINDERS A Thesis by i%1ARVIN ANTHONY ZOCHER Approved...

Zocher, Marvin Anthony

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

493

Effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of high damage threshold, 50 cm, rapidly grown KF*P frequency triplers for operation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the 14 J/cm2, 351 nm, 3 ns regime requires a thorough understanding of how the crystal growth parameters and technologies affect laser induced damage. Of particular importance is determining the effect of ionic impurities (e.g. Cr3+, Fe3+, Al3+) which may be introduced in widely varying concentrations via starting salts. In addition, organic particulates can contaminate the solution as leachants from growth platforms or via mechanical ablation. Mechanical stresses in the crystals may also play a strong role in the laser-induced damage distribution (LIDD), particularly in the cases of large boules where hydrodynamic forces in the growth tank may be quite high. WE have developed a dedicated, automated damage test system with diagnostic capabilities specifically designed for measured time resolved bulk damage onset and evolution. The data obtained make it possible to construct characteristic damage threshold distributions for each sample. Test results obtained for a variety of KDP samples grown from high purity starting salts and individually doped with Lucite and Teflon, iron, chromium, and aluminium show that the LIDD drops with increasing contamination content. The results also show that solution filtration leads to increased damage performance for undoped crystals but is not solely responsibility for producing the high LIDDs required by the NIF. The highest LIDD measured on a rapidly grown sample indicate that it is possible to produce high damage threshold material using ultrahigh purity, recrystallized starting salts, continuous filtration and a platform designed to minimize internal stress during growth.

Runkel, M.; Tan, M.; De Yoreo, J.; Zaitseva, N.

1997-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

494

The performance and evaluation of the damaging downburst prediction and detection algorithm for bow echo storms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE PERFORMANCE AND EVALUATION OF THE DAMAGING DOWNBURST PREDICTION AND DETECTION ALGORITHM FOR BOW ECHO STORMS A Thesis by BETH ANN KARL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2000 Major Subject: Atmospheric Sciences THE PERFORMANCE AND EVALUATION OF THE DAMAGING DOWNBURST PREDICTION...

Karl, Beth Ann

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Nondestructive evaluation of distributed damage in graphite/epoxy beams using modal parameters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Beam Extensional Stiffness of Composite Beam in Damaged State Bending Stiffness of Composite Beam in Damaged State SENSITIVITY MATRIX CONSTRUCTION FOR LAMINATED COMPOSITE BEAM . Introductory Remarks Governing Equation I' or Transverse Vibration... in Laminated Composite Beam Calculation of Sensitivity Matrix [F] Page rn 1v v11 v111 5 11 14 14 15 17 21 21 23 24 28 28 28 30 V1 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page PROCEDURE OF EXPERIMENTS AND THEIR RESULTS Introductory Remarks...

Kim, Young Ik

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

The inclusion of damage effects in an incremental finite element analysis of composite plates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Buckling Patterns for Unidirectional Composites is available describing damage accumulation (damage history) models. Some assume simple reductions of material matrix properties and/or stiffness reductions [27-29]. These reduce particular material pro..., 2) compressive fiber breakage, 3) tensile matrix cracking, 4) compressive matrix cracking, 5) fiber microbuckling, 6) delamination. The Z. Hashin [39] failure criteria is attractive because it separates the failure of a composite laminate...

Kilpatrick, Mark Christopher

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

An experimental investigation of damage-dependent material damping of laminated composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

found to alter several material properties [1-3]. Extensive modeling and testing have been performed to determine stiffness loss in laminated composites as a result of matrix cracking and interply delaminations. In addition, several investigators have... noted and measured a change in material damping in composites caused by damage [4-9]. However, no attempt has been made to quantify or model the effect of damage on material damping. It has been postualted that rubbing between matrix crack faces...

Smith, Scott Andrew

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Evaluation of oil shale bitumen as a pavement asphalt additive to reduce moisture damage susceptibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An unrefined shale bitumen was evaluated as an agent to reduce moisture damage susceptibility of asphalt aggregate mixtures. Some activity was observed but less than might have been expected based on the molecular weight and nitrogen content of the bitumen. The counter effects of free carboxylic acids, which are known to be variable in asphalt and which are also present in the unrefined bitumen, appear to diminish the activity of the bitumen to inhibit moisture damage. 5 refs., 1 tab.

Robertson, R.E.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Wolf, J.M.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Damage of multilayer optics with varying capping layers induced by focused extreme ultraviolet beam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extreme ultraviolet Mo/Si multilayers protected by capping layers of different materials were exposed to 13.5 nm plasma source radiation generated with a table-top laser to study the irradiation damage mechanism. Morphology of single-shot damaged areas has been analyzed by means of atomic force microscopy. Threshold fluences were evaluated for each type of sample in order to determine the capability of the capping layer to protect the structure underneath.

Jody Corso, Alain; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Nardello, Marco; Guglielmina Pelizzo, Maria [National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnology, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy) [National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnology, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy); Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova