National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for daily trans-atlantic spot

  1. Trans-Atlantic Workshop on Rare Earth Elements and Other Critical Materials for a Clean Energy Future

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Trans-Atlantic Workshop on Rare Earth Elements and Other Critical Materials for a Clean Energy Future

  2. TransAtlantic Petroleum | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Product: acquisition, development, exploration, and production of crude oil and natural gas. Year Founded: 1985 Phone Number: 214-220-4323 Website: www.transatlanticpetro...

  3. Reactor hot spot analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilim, R.B.

    1985-08-01

    The principle methods for performing reactor hot spot analysis are reviewed and examined for potential use in the Applied Physics Division. The semistatistical horizontal method is recommended for future work and is now available as an option in the SE2-ANL core thermal hydraulic code. The semistatistical horizontal method is applied to a small LMR to illustrate the calculation of cladding midwall and fuel centerline hot spot temperatures. The example includes a listing of uncertainties, estimates for their magnitudes, computation of hot spot subfactor values and calculation of two sigma temperatures. A review of the uncertainties that affect liquid metal fast reactors is also presented. It was found that hot spot subfactor magnitudes are strongly dependent on the reactor design and therefore reactor specific details must be carefully studied. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  4. Today in Energy - Daily Prices - Prices - U.S. Energy Information

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Administration (EIA) September 2, 2016Daily Prices Daily wholesale and retail prices for various energy products are shown below, including spot prices and select futures prices at national or regional levels. Prices are updated each weekday (excluding federal holidays), typically between 7:30 and 8:30 a.m. This page is meant to provide a snapshot of selected daily prices only. Prices are republished by EIA with permission as follows: Wholesale Spot Petroleum Prices from Thomson Reuters,

  5. IR Spot Weld Inspect

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    In automotive industry, destructive inspection of spot welds is still the mandatory quality assurance method due to the lack of efficient non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tools. However, it is costly and time-consuming. Recently at ORNL, a new NDE prototype system for spot weld inspection using infrared (IR) thermography has been developed to address this problem. This software contains all the key functions that ensure the NDE system to work properly: system input/output control, image acquisition, datamore » analysis, weld quality database generation and weld quality prediction, etc.« less

  6. ARM - Datastreams - aosaeth2spot

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon concentration for spot 2 uncorrected for loading factors ngm3 equivalentblackcarbonspot2uncorrected ( time, wavelength ) Aethalometer instrument flags unitless...

  7. Sensor Placement + Optimization Software (SPOT) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.archenergy.comSPOT Cost: Free Language: English References: http:www.archenergy.comSPOT SPOT(tm) is intended to...

  8. Hot Spot | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Tectonic Settings List of tectonic settings known to host modern geothermal systems: Extensional Tectonics Subduction Zone Rift Zone Hot Spot...

  9. SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science SPOT Suite brings advanced algorithms, high performance computing and data management to the masses August 18, 2014 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov als.jpg Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Berkeley Lab (Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt) Some mysteries of science can only be explained on a nanometer scale -even smaller than a single strand of human DNA, which is about 2.5 nanometers wide. At this scale, scientists

  10. ClearSpot Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ClearSpot Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: ClearSpot Energy Sector: Solar Product: US-based solar project developer for rooftop commercial installations. References:...

  11. HotSpot | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HotSpot HotSpot Current Central Registry Toolbox Version(s): 2.07.1 Code Owner: Department of Energy, Office of Emergency Operations and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Description: The HotSpot Health Physics Code is used for safety-analysis of DOE facilities handling nuclear material. Additionally, HotSpot provides emergency response personnel and emergency planners with a fast, field-portable set of software tools for evaluating incidents involving radioactive material. HotSpot

  12. Backstage at the Daily Show

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Backstage footage from Secretary Chu's appearance on the Daily Show where he discuses the green room candy dish and possible lighting considerations.

  13. BPA Daily Notice (pbl/products)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Products > Products Daily Notice (surplus power) Transmission Losses Power Products Catalog Wind Smoothing and Intertie Service (Pilot) Firstgov BPA'S DAILY NOTICE Daily Notice...

  14. HotSpot Software Configuration Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, H; Homann, S G

    2009-03-12

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) describes the software configuration management procedures used to ensure that the HotSpot dispersion model meets the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot for consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendations 1 and 3 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

  15. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  16. TEVA-SPOT Toolkit 1.2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-07-26

    The TEVA-SPOT Toolkit (SPOT) supports the design of contaminant warning systems (CWSs) that use real-time sensors to detect contaminants in municipal water distribution networks. Specifically, SPOT provides the capability to select the locations for installing sensors in order to maximize the utility and effectiveness of the CWS. SPOT models the sensor placement process as an optimization problem, and the user can specify a wide range of performance objectives for contaminant warning system design, including populationmore » health effects, time to detection, extent of contamination, volume consumed and number of failed detections. For example, a SPOT user can integrate expert knowledge during the design process by specigying required sensor placements or designating network locations as forbidden. Further, cost considerations can be integrated by limiting the design with user-specified installation costs at each location.« less

  17. Trans-Atlantic Workshop on Rare Earth Elements and Other Critical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials and Alternatives for Storage Batteries Session C: Strategies and Research for ... of Science and Technology, Material Flow Analysis Session D: Opportunities for ...

  18. Spot Prices for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Spot Prices (Crude Oil in Dollars per Barrel, Products in Dollars per Gallon) Period: Daily Weekly Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Product by Area 08/30/16 08/31/16 09/01/16 09/02/16 09/05/16 09/06/16 View History Crude Oil WTI - Cushing, Oklahoma 46.32 44.68 43.17 44.39 44.39 44.85 1986-2016 Brent - Europe 47.94 47.94 45.05 45.96 46.72 46.21 1987-2016 Conventional Gasoline New York Harbor, Regular

  19. Volume higher; spot price ranges widen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-11-01

    This article is the October 1994 uranium market summary. During this reporting period, volume on the spot concentrates market doubled. Twelve deals took place: three in the spot concentrates market, one in the medium and long-term market, four in the conversion market, and four in the enrichment market. The restricted price range widened due to higher prices at the top end of the range, while the unrestricted price range widened because of lower prices at the bottom end. Spot conversion prices were higher, and enrichment prices were unchanged.

  20. ,"Weekly Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Weekly Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per ...

  1. Investigations of initiation spot size effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Steven A; Akinci, Adrian A; Leichty, Gary; Schaffer, Timothy; Murphy, Michael J; Munger, Alan; Thomas, Keith A

    2010-01-01

    As explosive components become smaller, a greater understanding of the effect of initiation spot size on detonation becomes increasingly critical. A series of tests of the effect of initiation spot size will be described. A series of DOI (direct optical initiation) detonators with initiation spots sizes from {approx}50 um to 1000um have been tested to determine laser parameters for threshold firing of low density PETN pressings. Results will be compared with theoretical predictions. Outputs of the initiation source (DOI ablation) have been characterized by a suite of diagnostics including PDV and schlieren imaging. Outputs of complete detonators have been characterized using PDV, streak, and/or schlieren imaging. At present, we have not found the expected change in the threshold energy to spot size relationship for DOI type detonators found in similar earlier for projectiles, slappers and EBWs. New detonators designs (Type C) are currently being tested that will allow the determination of the threshold for spot sizes from 250 um to 105um, where we hope to see change in the threshold vs. spot size relationship. Also, one test of an extremely small diameter spot size (50um) has resulted in preliminary NoGo only results even at energy densities as much as 8 times the energy density of the threshold results presented here. This gives preliminary evidence that 50um spot may be beyond the critical initiation diameter. The constant threshold energy to spot size relationship in the data to date does however still give some insight into the initiation mechanism of DOI detonators. If the DOI initiation mechanism were a 1D mechanism similar to a slapper or a flyer impact, the expected inflection point in the graph would have been between 300um and 500um diameter spot size, within the range of the data presented here. The lack of that inflection point indicates that the DOI initiation mechanism is more likely a 2D mechanism similar to a sphere or rod projectile. We expect to

  2. HotSpot Health Physics Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-03-02

    The HotSpot Health Physics Codes were created to provide emergency response personnel and emergency planners with a fast, field-portable set of software tools for evaluating incidents involving radioactive material. The software is also used for safety-analysis of facilities handling nuclear material. HotSpot provides a fast and usually conservative means for estimation the radiation effects associated with the short-term (less than 24 hours) atmospheric release of radioactive materials.

  3. HotSpot Health Physics Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-04-18

    The HotSpot Health Physics Codes were created to provide emergency response personnel and emergency planners with a fast, field-portable set of software tools for evaluating insidents involving redioactive material. The software is also used for safety-analysis of facilities handling nuclear material. HotSpot provides a fast and usually conservative means for estimation the radiation effects associated with the short-term (less than 24 hours) atmospheric release of radioactive materials.

  4. WAPA Daily Energy Accounting Activities

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1990-10-01

    ISA (Interchange, Scheduling, & Accounting) is the interchange scheduling system used by the DOE Western Area Power Administration to perform energy accounting functions associated with the daily activities of the Watertown Operations Office (WOO). The system's primary role is to provide accounting functions for scheduled energy which is exchanged with other power companies and power operating organizations. The system has a secondary role of providing a historical record of all scheduled interchange transactions. The followingmore » major functions are performed by ISA: scheduled energy accounting for received and delivered energy; generation scheduling accounting for both fossil and hydro-electric power plants; metered energy accounting for received and delivered totals; energy accounting for Direct Current (D.C.) Ties; regulation accounting; automatic generation control set calculations; accounting summaries for Basin, Heartland Consumers Power District, and the Missouri Basin Municipal Power Agency; calculation of estimated generation for the Laramie River Station plant; daily and monthly reports; and dual control areas.« less

  5. Energy Assurance Daily | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Assurance Daily Energy Assurance Daily Energy Assurance Daily provides a summary of public information concerning current energy issues. Published Monday through Friday to inform stakeholders of developments affecting energy systems, flows, and markets, it provides highlights of energy issues rather than a comprehensive coverage. Energy Assurance Daily covers: Major energy developments Electricity, petroleum, and natural gas industries Other relevant news Energy prices The Infrastructure

  6. ATS Spotted MSI Analysis with Matlab

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-02-09

    Samples are placed on a surface using an acoustic transfer system (ATS). This results in one ore more small droplets on a surface. Typically there are hundreds to thousands of these droplets arrayed in a regular coordinate system. The surface is analyzed using mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and at each position, one or more mass spectra are recorded. The purpose of the software is to help the user assign locations to the spots and buildmore » a report for each spot.« less

  7. TWP-ICE Daily Synoptic Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Daily Synoptic Overview 16 January - 14 February 2006 Lori Chappel Bureau of Meteorology Weather Overview * 13 January - 2 February 2006 Monsoon across north Australia; - 13-25...

  8. Energy Assurance Daily (EAD): June 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Assurance Daily provides a summary of public information concerning current energy issues. Published Monday through Friday to inform stakeholders of developments affecting energy systems,...

  9. Energy Assurance Daily (EAD): January- March 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Assurance Daily provides a summary of public information concerning current energy issues. Published Monday through Friday to inform stakeholders of developments affecting energy systems,...

  10. Energy Assurance Daily (EAD): April 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Assurance Daily provides a summary of public information concerning current energy issues. Published Monday through Friday to inform stakeholders of developments affecting energy systems,...

  11. Energy Assurance Daily (EAD): May 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Assurance Daily provides a summary of public information concerning current energy issues. Published Monday through Friday to inform stakeholders of developments affecting energy systems,...

  12. Energy Assurance Daily (EAD): July 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Assurance Daily provides a summary of public information concerning current energy issues. Published Monday through Friday to inform stakeholders of developments affecting energy systems,...

  13. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle ...

  14. Solar Renewable Energy Credits (SRECs) Spot Market Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: While interested parties can still trade DE SRECs in the spot market, the spot market in itself is limited since most of the SRECs produced are part of the SREC Purchase Program, or the SREC...

  15. Fermi surface topology and hot spot distribution in the Kondo...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fermi surface topology and hot spot distribution in the Kondo lattice system CeB 6 ... September 17, 2016 Title: Fermi surface topology and hot spot distribution in the Kondo ...

  16. ,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    12:23:06 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","RNGWHHD" "Date","Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per ...

  17. ,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    12:23:08 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","RNGWHHD" "Date","Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per ...

  18. ,"Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    12:23:12 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)" "Sourcekey","RNGWHHD" "Date","Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per ...

  19. Sweet Spot Supersymmetry and Composite Messengers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2007-10-30

    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenologically and cosmologically perfect framework to realize a supersymmetric world at short distance. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 10{sup 5} GeV {approx}< M{sub mess} {approx}< 10{sup 10} GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields N{sub mess} are possible depending on the choice of the gauge group.

  20. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.; Santella, M. L.

    2009-11-13

    Friction stir spot welding techniques were developed to successfully join several advanced high strength steels. Two distinct tool materials were evaluated to determine the effect of tool materials on the process parameters and joint properties. Welds were characterized primarily via lap shear, microhardness, and optical microscopy. Friction stir spot welds were compared to the resistance spot welds in similar strength alloys by using the AWS standard for resistance spot welding high strength steels. As further comparison, a primitive cost comparison between the two joining processes was developed, which included an evaluation of the future cost prospects of friction stir spot welding in advanced high strength steels.

  1. Spot market volume sluggish in October

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    This article is the October 1995 uranium market summary. Spot market volume reached a meager 116,000 lbs of U3O8 and equivalent. The restricted price range increased from September`s high end of $11.75 to $12.00. The unrestricted range also increased with September`s high end of $9.65 as October`s low end and a high of $9.80. Conversion prices have held steady the past few months. However, the SWU price range increased this month to a high of $97.00.

  2. Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light Jump to: navigation, search Name: Daylighter Daily Solar Roof Light Address: 1991 Crocker Road, Suite 600 Place: Cleveland, Ohio Zip: 44145...

  3. Property:DailyOpWaterUseConsumed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name DailyOpWaterUseConsumed Property Type Number Description Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProper...

  4. Property:DailyOpWaterUseGross | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name DailyOpWaterUseGross Property Type Number Description Daily Operation Water Use (afday) Gross. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:...

  5. Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 Carbon Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Frederick, Alan; Grant, Glenn J.; Dahl, Michael E.

    2009-09-15

    Friction stir spot welds were made in uncoated and galvannneled DP780 sheets using polycrystalline boron nitride stir tools. The tools were plunged at either a single continuous rate or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate of shorter depth. Welding times ranged from 1-10 s. Increasing tool rotation speed from 800 to 1600 rpm increased strength values. The 2-segment welding procedures also produced higher strength joints. Average lap-shear strengths exceeding 10.3 kN were consistently obtained in 4 s on both the uncoated and the galvannealed DP780. The likelihood of diffusion and mechanical interlocking contributing to bond formation was supported by metallographic examinations. A cost analysis based on spot welding in automobile assembly showed that for friction stir spot welding to be economically competitive with resistance spot welding the cost of stir tools must approach that of resistance spot welding electrode tips.

  6. A procedure to determine the planar integral spot dose values of proton pencil beam spots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Aman; Sahoo, Narayan; Zhu, X. Ronald; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.; Poenisch, Falk; Amos, Richard A.; Ciangaru, George; Titt, Uwe; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Mohan, Radhe; Gillin, Michael T.

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Planar integral spot dose (PISD) of proton pencil beam spots (PPBSs) is a required input parameter for beam modeling in some treatment planning systems used in proton therapy clinics. The measurement of PISD by using commercially available large area ionization chambers, like the PTW Bragg peak chamber (BPC), can have large uncertainties due to the size limitation of these chambers. This paper reports the results of our study of a novel method to determine PISD values from the measured lateral dose profiles and peak dose of the PPBS. Methods: The PISDs of 72.5, 89.6, 146.9, 181.1, and 221.8 MeV energy PPBSs were determined by area integration of their planar dose distributions at different depths in water. The lateral relative dose profiles of the PPBSs at selected depths were measured by using small volume ion chambers and were investigated for their angular anisotropies using Kodak XV films. The peak spot dose along the beam's central axis (D{sub 0}) was determined by placing a small volume ion chamber at the center of a broad field created by the superposition of spots at different locations. This method allows eliminating positioning uncertainties and the detector size effect that could occur when measuring it in single PPBS. The PISD was then calculated by integrating the measured lateral relative dose profiles for two different upper limits of integration and then multiplying it with corresponding D{sub 0}. The first limit of integration was set to radius of the BPC, namely 4.08 cm, giving PISD{sub RBPC}. The second limit was set to a value of the radial distance where the profile dose falls below 0.1% of the peak giving the PISD{sub full}. The calculated values of PISD{sub RBPC} obtained from area integration method were compared with the BPC measured values. Long tail dose correction factors (LTDCFs) were determined from the ratio of PISD{sub full}/PISD{sub RBPC} at different depths for PPBSs of different energies. Results: The spot profiles were

  7. Finite Cosmology and a CMB Cold Spot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adler, R.J.; Bjorken, J.D.; Overduin, J.M.; /Stanford U., HEPL

    2006-03-20

    The standard cosmological model posits a spatially flat universe of infinite extent. However, no observation, even in principle, could verify that the matter extends to infinity. In this work we model the universe as a finite spherical ball of dust and dark energy, and obtain a lower limit estimate of its mass and present size: the mass is at least 5 x 10{sup 23}M{sub {circle_dot}} and the present radius is at least 50 Gly. If we are not too far from the dust-ball edge we might expect to see a cold spot in the cosmic microwave background, and there might be suppression of the low multipoles in the angular power spectrum. Thus the model may be testable, at least in principle. We also obtain and discuss the geometry exterior to the dust ball; it is Schwarzschild-de Sitter with a naked singularity, and provides an interesting picture of cosmogenesis. Finally we briefly sketch how radiation and inflation eras may be incorporated into the model.

  8. Hot spot-ridge crest convergence in the northeast Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karsten, J.L.; Delaney, J.R. )

    1989-01-10

    Evolution of the Juan de Fuca Ridge during the past 7 m.y. has been reconstructed taking into account both the propagating rift history and migration of the spreading center in the 'absolute' (fixed hot spot) reference frame. Northwestward migration of the spreading center (at a rate of 30 km/m.y.) has resulted in progressive encroachment of the ridge axis on the Cobb Hot Spot and westward jumping of the central third of the ridge axis more recently than 0.5 Ma. Seamounts in the Cobb-Eickelberg chain are predicted to display systematic variations in morphology and petrology, and a reduction in the age contrast between the edifice and underlying crust, as a result of the ridge axis approach. Relative seamount volumes also indicate that magmatic output of the hot spot varied during this interval, with a reduction in activity between 2.5 and 4.5 Ma, compared with relatively more robust activity before and after this period. Spatial relationships determined in this reconstruction allow hypotheses relating hot spot activity and rift propagation to be evaluated. In most cases, rift propagation has been directed away from the hot spot during the time period considered. Individual propagators show some reduction in propagation rate as separation between the propagating rift tip and hot spot increases, but cross comparison of multiple propagators does not uniformly display the same relationship. No obvious correlation exists between propagation rate and increasing proximity of the hot spot to the ridge axis or increasing hot spot output. Taken together, these observations do not offer compelling support for the concept of hot spot driven rift propagation. However, short-term reversals in propagation direction at the Cobb Offset coincide with activity of the Heckle melting anomaly, suggesting that local propagation effects may be related to excess magma supply at the ridge axis.

  9. Wall and laser spot motion in cylindrical hohlraums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huser, G.; Courtois, C.; Monteil, M.-C.

    2009-03-15

    Wall and laser spot motion measurements in empty, propane-filled and plastic (CH)-lined gold coated cylindrical hohlraums were performed on the Omega laser facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Wall motion was measured using axial two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging and laser spot motion was perpendicularly observed through a thinned wall using streaked hard x-ray imaging. Experimental results and 2D hydrodynamic simulations show that while empty targets exhibit on-axis plasma collision, CH-lined and propane-filled targets inhibit wall expansion, corroborated with perpendicular streaked imaging showing a slower motion of laser spots.

  10. Forecasting Crude Oil Spot Price Using OECD Petroleum Inventory Levels

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a short-term monthly forecasting model of West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot price using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) petroleum inventory levels.

  11. Unique Bioreactor Finds Algae's Sweet Spot - News Feature | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unique Bioreactor Finds Algae's Sweet Spot February 18, 2014 Close-up photo of a vial of green algae. Enlarge image Aeration helps algae grow and helps replicate real-life ...

  12. Portsmouth Training Exercise Helps Radiological Trainees Spot Mistakes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Safely | Department of Energy Portsmouth Training Exercise Helps Radiological Trainees Spot Mistakes Safely Portsmouth Training Exercise Helps Radiological Trainees Spot Mistakes Safely February 11, 2016 - 12:10pm Addthis Connie Martin performs work inside the Error Lab while trainees observe her actions for mistakes. Connie Martin performs work inside the Error Lab while trainees observe her actions for mistakes. Lorrie Graham (left) talks with trainees in a classroom setting before

  13. On the burn topology of hot-spot-initiated reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Larry G; Zimmermann, Bjorn; Nichols, Albert L

    2009-01-01

    We determine the reaction progress function for an ideal hot spot model problem. The considered problem has an exact analytic solution that can derived from a reduction of Nichols statistical hot spot model. We perform numerical calculations to verify the analytic solution and to illustrate the error realized in real, finite systems. We show how the baseline problem, which does not distinguish between the reactant and product densities, can be scaled to handle general cases for which the two densities differ.

  14. Jefferson Lab Medical Imager Spots Breast Cancer | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Medical Imager Spots Breast Cancer PEM This PEM image shows two cancerous lesions. The one on the right was depicted by conventional mammography, but the one on the left was only identified by the PEM unit. Image courtesy: Eric Rosen, Duke University Medical Center Jefferson Lab Medical Imager Spots Breast Cancer March 3, 2005 Newport News, VA - A study published in the February issue of the journal Radiology shows that a positron emission mammography (PEM) device designed and built by Jefferson

  15. Imager Spots and Samples Tiny Tumors | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imager Spots and Samples Tiny Tumors Imager Spots and Samples Tiny Tumors NEWPORT NEWS, Va. Feb. 8, 2008 -- The positron emission mammography/tomography breast imaging and biopsy system was designed and constructed by scientists at Jefferson Lab, West Virginia University and the University of Maryland School of Medicine. The PEM/PET system is designed for detecting and guiding the biopsies of suspicious breast cancer lesions. "This is the most-important and most-difficult imager we've

  16. Impact of spot size on plan quality of spot scanning proton radiosurgery for peripheral brain lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Dongxu Dirksen, Blake; Hyer, Daniel E.; Buatti, John M.; Sheybani, Arshin; Dinges, Eric; Felderman, Nicole; TenNapel, Mindi; Bayouth, John E.; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To determine the plan quality of proton spot scanning (SS) radiosurgery as a function of spot size (in-air sigma) in comparison to x-ray radiosurgery for treating peripheral brain lesions. Methods: Single-field optimized (SFO) proton SS plans with sigma ranging from 1 to 8 mm, cone-based x-ray radiosurgery (Cone), and x-ray volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were generated for 11 patients. Plans were evaluated using secondary cancer risk and brain necrosis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: For all patients, secondary cancer is a negligible risk compared to brain necrosis NTCP. Secondary cancer risk was lower in proton SS plans than in photon plans regardless of spot size (p = 0.001). Brain necrosis NTCP increased monotonically from an average of 2.34/100 (range 0.42/100–4.49/100) to 6.05/100 (range 1.38/100–11.6/100) as sigma increased from 1 to 8 mm, compared to the average of 6.01/100 (range 0.82/100–11.5/100) for Cone and 5.22/100 (range 1.37/100–8.00/100) for VMAT. An in-air sigma less than 4.3 mm was required for proton SS plans to reduce NTCP over photon techniques for the cohort of patients studied with statistical significance (p = 0.0186). Proton SS plans with in-air sigma larger than 7.1 mm had significantly greater brain necrosis NTCP than photon techniques (p = 0.0322). Conclusions: For treating peripheral brain lesions—where proton therapy would be expected to have the greatest depth-dose advantage over photon therapy—the lateral penumbra strongly impacts the SS plan quality relative to photon techniques: proton beamlet sigma at patient surface must be small (<7.1 mm for three-beam single-field optimized SS plans) in order to achieve comparable or smaller brain necrosis NTCP relative to photon radiosurgery techniques. Achieving such small in-air sigma values at low energy (<70 MeV) is a major technological challenge in commercially available proton therapy systems.

  17. Daily HMS Extremes in Met Data - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hanford Meteorological Station Daily HMS Extremes in Met Data Hanford Meteorological Station Real Time Met Data from Around the Site Current and Past 48 Hours HMS Observations Daily HMS Extremes in Met Data Met and Climate Data Summary Products Contacts / Hours Current NWS Forecast for the Tri-Cities NWS Windchill Chart Daily HMS Extremes in Met Data Email Email Page | Print Print Page | Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size This table shows the daily extremes at each of the remote stations

  18. Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 Carbon Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Hovanski, Yuri [ORNL; Frederick, David Alan [ORNL; Grant, Glenn J [ORNL; Dahl, Michael E [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Friction stir spot welds were made in uncoated and galvannealed DP780 sheets using polycrystalline boron nitride stir tools. The tools were plunged at either a single continuous rate or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate of shorter depth. Welding times ranged from 1 to 10 s. Increasing tool rotation speed from 800 to 1600 rev min{sup -1} increased strength values. The 2-segment welding procedures also produced higher strength joints. Average lap shear strengths exceeding 10 {center_dot} 3 kN were consistently obtained in 4 s on both the uncoated and the galvannealed DP780. The likelihood of diffusion and mechanical interlocking contributing to bond formation was supported by metallographic examinations. A cost analysis based on spot welding in automobile assembly showed that for friction stir spot welding to be economically competitive with resistance spot welding the cost of stir tools must approach that of resistance spot welding electrode tips.

  19. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  20. Plasmonic electromagnetic hot spots temporally addressed by photoinduced molecular displacement.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juan, M. L.; Plain, J.; Bachelot, R.; Vial, A.; Royer, P.; Gray, S. K.; Montgomery, J. M.; Wiederrecht, G. P.; Univ. de Technologie de Troyes

    2009-04-23

    We report the observation of temporally varying electromagnetic hot spots in plasmonic nanostructures. Changes in the field amplitude, position, and spatial features are induced by embedding plasmonic silver nanorods in the photoresponsive azo-polymer. This polymer undergoes cis?trans isomerization and wormlike transport within resonant optical fields, producing a time-varying local dielectric environment that alters the locations where electromagnetic hot spots are produced. Finite-difference time-domain and Monte Carlo simulations that model the induced field and corresponding material response are presented to aid in the interpretation of the experimental results. Evidence for propagating plasmons induced at the ends of the rods is also presented.

  1. FRICTION STIR SPOT WELDING OF 6016 ALUMINUM ALLOY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Rajiv S.; Webb, S.; Freeney, T. A.; Chen, Y. L.; Gayden, X.; Grant, Glenn J.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2007-01-08

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of 6016 aluminum alloy was evaluated with conventional pin tool and new off-center feature tools. The off-center feature tool provides significant control over the joint area. The tool rotation rate was varied between 1000 and 2500 rpm. Maximum failure strength was observed in the tool rotation range of 1200-1500 rpm. The results are interpreted in the context of material flow in the joint and influence of thermal input on microstructural changes. The off-center feature tool concept opens up new possibilities for plunge-type friction stir spot welding.

  2. New director of Jefferson Lab named (Daily Press) | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https:www.jlab.orgnewsarticlesnew-director-jefferson-lab-named-daily-press New director of Jefferson Lab named Hugh Montgomery Hugh Montgomery has been named president of...

  3. Montana Total Maximum Daily Load Development Projects Wiki |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wiki Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Total Maximum Daily Load Development Projects Wiki Abstract Provides information on...

  4. Question of the Week: What Is Your Daily Commute Like?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In data collected from 2005 through 2007, The U.S. Census Bureau found that 76% of workers drove alone to work. Tell us about your daily commute?

  5. REAL TIME ULTRASONIC ALUMINUM SPOT WELD MONITORING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regalado, W. Perez; Chertov, A. M.; Maev, R. Gr.

    2010-02-22

    Aluminum alloys pose several properties that make them one of the most popular engineering materials: they have excellent corrosion resistance, and high weight-to-strength ratio. Resistance spot welding of aluminum alloys is widely used today but oxide film and aluminum thermal and electrical properties make spot welding a difficult task. Electrode degradation due to pitting, alloying and mushrooming decreases the weld quality and adjustment of parameters like current and force is required. To realize these adjustments and ensure weld quality, a tool to measure weld quality in real time is required. In this paper, a real time ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation system for aluminum spot welds is presented. The system is able to monitor nugget growth while the spot weld is being made. This is achieved by interpreting the echoes of an ultrasound transducer located in one of the welding electrodes. The transducer receives and transmits an ultrasound signal at different times during the welding cycle. Valuable information of the weld quality is embedded in this signal. The system is able to determine the weld nugget diameter by measuring the delays of the ultrasound signals received during the complete welding cycle. The article presents the system performance on aluminum alloy AA6022.

  6. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems You ...

  7. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas ...

  8. X-ray focal spot locating apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Hubert W.

    1985-07-30

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  9. Texas students win regional National Science Bowl competition, secure spot

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    in finals in nation's capital | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Texas students win regional National Science Bowl competition, secure spot in finals in nation's capital Monday, March 21, 2016 - 10:22am NPO's Mark Padilla congratulates the winning Amarillo High School Team Black with their victory at the Pantex Science Bowl 2016. More than 200 students from 37 from High schools across the Texas Panhandle gathered together with a few hundred volunteers for a meeting and

  10. The Information Role of Spot Prices and Inventories

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Role of Spot Prices and Inventories James L. Smith, Rex Thompson, and Thomas Lee June 24, 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Washington, DC 20585 This paper is released to encourage discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions expressed here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. WORKING PAPER SERIES June 2014 James L. Smith, Rex Thomas, and Thomas K.

  11. Price convergence in North America natural gas spot markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, M.; Cuc, M.

    1996-12-01

    Government policy changes and subsequent regulatory actions in Canada and the United States (US) in the mid-1980s led to effective deregulation of the commodity market for natural gas. This was done by price deregulation, unbundling of pipeline services, and the fostering of a competitive market through equal and open access to pipeline transportation capacity by all suppliers and users. This paper attempts to measure the degree of price convergence in the North American natural gas spot markets. 38 refs.

  12. STOCHASTIC DESCRIPTION OF THE HIGH-FREQUENCY CONTENT OF DAILY SUNSPOTS AND EVIDENCE FOR REGIME CHANGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapoval, A.; Le Mouël, J.-L.; Courtillot, V.; Shnirman, M.

    2015-01-20

    The irregularity index λ is applied to the high-frequency content of daily sunspot numbers ISSN. This λ is a modification of the standard maximal Lyapunov exponent. It is computed here as a function of embedding dimension m, within four-year time windows centered at the maxima of Schwabe cycles. The λ(m) curves form separate clusters (pre-1923 and post-1933). This supports a regime transition and narrows its occurrence to cycle 16, preceding the growth of activity leading to the Modern Maximum. The two regimes are reproduced by a simple autoregressive process AR(1), with the mean of Poisson noise undergoing 11 yr modulation. The autocorrelation a of the process (linked to sunspot lifetime) is a ≈ 0.8 for 1850-1923 and ≈0.95 for 1933-2013. The AR(1) model suggests that groups of spots appear with a Poisson rate and disappear at a constant rate. We further applied the irregularity index to the daily sunspot group number series for the northern and southern hemispheres, provided by the Greenwich Royal Observatory (RGO), in order to study a possible desynchronization. Correlations between the north and south λ(m) curves vary quite strongly with time and indeed show desynchronization. This may reflect a slow change in the dimension of an underlying dynamical system. The ISSN and RGO series of group numbers do not imply an identical mechanism, but both uncover a regime change at a similar time. Computation of the irregularity index near the maximum of cycle 24 will help in checking whether yet another regime change is under way.

  13. Their best defense is good fiscal sense (Daily Press) | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https:www.jlab.orgnewsarticlestheir-best-defense-good-fiscal-sense-daily-press Their best defense is good fiscal sense Top Guard Security finds it can be a good idea to say,...

  14. Jefferson Lab: Laser gun to eventually shoot down missiles (Daily...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab: Laser gun to eventually shoot down missiles (Daily Press) External Link: http:articles.dailypress.com2011-02-21newsdp-nws-jefferson-lab-201102211j... By ...

  15. JLab's economic footprint expands (Daily Press) | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JLab's economic footprint expands (Daily Press) External Link: http://articles.dailypress.com/2011-01-20/news/dp-nws-jlab-economy-20110120_1_je... By jlab_admin on Thu, 2011-01-2

  16. Italian Physicist Named Deputy Associate Director at JLab (Daily Press) |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Italian Physicist Named Deputy Associate Director at JLab (Daily Press) External Link: http://www.dailypress.com/news/science/dead-rise-blog/dp-italian-physicist-named... By jlab_admin on Tue, 2012-02-1

  17. Invisible Science: Lab Breakthroughs in Our Daily Lives | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Invisible Science: Lab Breakthroughs in Our Daily Lives Invisible Science: Lab Breakthroughs in Our Daily Lives April 24, 2012 - 2:30pm Addthis The Lab Breakthroughs video series focuses on the array of technological advancements and discoveries that stem from research performed in the National Labs, including improvements in industrial processes, discoveries in fundamental scientific research, and innovative medicines. <a href="http://energy.gov/lab-breakthroughs">See

  18. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Santella, M. L.; Grant, Glenn J.

    2009-12-28

    Friction stir spot welding was used to join two advanced high-strength steels using polycrystalline cubic boron nitride tooling. Numerous tool designs were employed to study the influence of tool geometry on weld joints produced in both DP780 and a hot-stamp boron steel. Tool designs included conventional, concave shouldered pin tools with several pin configurations; a number of shoulderless designs; and a convex, scrolled shoulder tool. Weld quality was assessed based on lap shear strength, microstructure, microhardness, and bonded area. Mechanical properties were functionally related to bonded area and joint microstructure, demonstrating the necessity to characterize processing windows based on tool geometry.

  19. Algorithms for a spot price responding residential load controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweppe, F.C.; Daryanian, B.; Tabors, R.D.

    1989-05-01

    Increased unbundling of electric utility services has become a major interest in the industry. This paper presents a description of the logic and structure for a set of spot price based algorithms designed for use in residential load control systems. The paper presents the functions to be fulfilled by such a price responding device and describes the end use devices available in residences and the control logics applicable to each. The paper concludes that there is a need to understand customer attitudes and acceptance in the design of the response strategies and in the design of the man machine interface.

  20. Hot spot-derived shock initiation phenomena in heterogeneous nitromethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M; Sheffield, Stephen A; Stahl, David B; Dattelbaum, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    The addition of solid silica particles to gelled nitromethane offers a tractable model system for interrogating the role of impedance mismatches as one type of hot spot 'seed' on the initiation behaviors of explosive formulations. Gas gun-driven plate impact experiments are used to produce well-defined shock inputs into nitromethane-silica mixtures containing size-selected silica beads at 6 wt%. The Pop-plots or relationships between shock input pressure and rundistance (or time)-to-detonation for mixtures containing small (1-4 {micro}m) and large (40 {micro}m) beads are presented. Overall, the addition of beads was found to influence the shock sensitivity of the mixtures, with the smaller beads being more sensitizing than the larger beads, lowering the shock initiation threshold for the same run distance to detonation compared with neat nitromethane. In addition, the use of embedded electromagnetic gauges provides detailed information pertaining to the mechanism of the build-up to detonation and associated reactive flow. Of note, an initiation mechanism characteristic of homogeneous liquid explosives, such as nitromethane, was observed in the nitromethane-40 {micro}m diameter silica samples at high shock input pressures, indicating that the influence of hot spots on the initiation process was minimal under these conditions.

  1. March market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The spot market price for uranium in unrestricted markets weakened further during March, and at month end, the NUEXCO Exchange Value had fallen $0.15, to $7.45 per pound U3O8. The Restricted American Market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates increased $0.15, to $2.55 per pound U3O8. Ample UF6 supplies and limited demand led to a $0.50 decrease in the UF6 Value, to $25.00 per kgU as UF6, while the RAMP for UF6 increased $0.75, to $5.25 per kgU. Nine near-term uranium transactions were reported, totalling almost 3.3 million pounds equivalent U3O8. This is the largest monthly spot market volume since October 1992, and is double the volume reported in January and February. The March 31 Conversion Value was $4.25 per kgU as UF6. Beginning with the March 31 Value, NUEXCO now reports its Conversion Value in US dollars per kilogram of uranium (US$/kgU), reflecting current industry practice. The March loan market was inactive with no transactions reported. The Loan Rate remained unchanged at 3.0 percent per annum. Low demand and increased competition among sellers led to a one-dollar decrease in the SWU Value, to $65 per SWU, and the RAMP for SWU declined one dollar, to $9 per SWU.

  2. Diode magnetic-field influence on radiographic spot size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekdahl, Carl A. Jr.

    2012-09-04

    Flash radiography of hydrodynamic experiments driven by high explosives is a well-known diagnostic technique in use at many laboratories. The Dual-Axis Radiography for Hydrodynamic Testing (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos was developed for flash radiography of large hydrodynamic experiments. Two linear induction accelerators (LIAs) produce the bremsstrahlung radiographic source spots for orthogonal views of each experiment ('hydrotest'). The 2-kA, 20-MeV Axis-I LIA creates a single 60-ns radiography pulse. For time resolution of the hydrotest dynamics, the 1.7-kA, 16.5-MeV Axis-II LIA creates up to four radiography pulses by slicing them out of a longer pulse that has a 1.6-{micro}s flattop. Both axes now routinely produce radiographic source spot sizes having full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) less than 1 mm. To further improve on the radiographic resolution, one must consider the major factors influencing the spot size: (1) Beam convergence at the final focus; (2) Beam emittance; (3) Beam canonical angular momentum; (4) Beam-motion blur; and (5) Beam-target interactions. Beam emittance growth and motion in the accelerators have been addressed by careful tuning. Defocusing by beam-target interactions has been minimized through tuning of the final focus solenoid for optimum convergence and other means. Finally, the beam canonical angular momentum is minimized by using a 'shielded source' of electrons. An ideal shielded source creates the beam in a region where the axial magnetic field is zero, thus the canonical momentum zero, since the beam is born with no mechanical angular momentum. It then follows from Busch's conservation theorem that the canonical angular momentum is minimized at the target, at least in principal. In the DARHT accelerators, the axial magnetic field at the cathode is minmized by using a 'bucking coil' solenoid with reverse polarity to cancel out whatever solenoidal beam transport field exists there. This is imperfect in practice, because of

  3. Seven federally protected Mexican spotted owl chicks hatch on Los Alamos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory property Federally protected Mexican spotted owl chicks hatch on LANL property Seven federally protected Mexican spotted owl chicks hatch on Los Alamos National Laboratory property Biologists located a record seven federally threatened Mexican spotted owl chicks on Los Alamos National Laboratory property during nest surveys last month. July 13, 2015 A parent owl sits with two chicks. A parent owl sits with two chicks. Contact Los Alamos National Laboratory Lorrie

  4. Effects of High Shock Pressures and Pore Morphology on Hot Spot...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects of High Shock Pressures and Pore Morphology on Hot Spot Mechanisms in HMX Citation ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 75 ...

  5. Modeling Hot-Spot Contributions in Shocked High Explosives at the Mesoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrier, Danielle

    2015-08-12

    When looking at performance of high explosives, the defects within the explosive become very important. Plastic bonded explosives, or PBXs, contain voids of air and bonder between the particles of explosive material that aid in the ignition of the explosive. These voids collapse in high pressure shock conditions, which leads to the formation of hot spots. Hot spots are localized high temperature and high pressure regions that cause significant changes in the way the explosive material detonates. Previously hot spots have been overlooked with modeling, but now scientists are realizing their importance and new modeling systems that can accurately model hot spots are underway.

  6. Once-Daily Radiation Therapy for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Lindsay; Harmsen, William; Blanchard, Miran; Goetz, Matthew; Jakub, James; Mutter, Robert; Petersen, Ivy; Rooney, Jessica; Stauder, Michael; Yan, Elizabeth; Laack, Nadia

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive breast cancer variant treated with multimodality therapy. A variety of approaches intended to escalate the intensity and efficacy of radiation therapy have been reported, including twice-daily radiation therapy, dose escalation, and aggressive use of bolus. Herein, we examine our outcomes for patients treated with once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive bolus utilization, focusing on treatment technique. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with nonmetastatic IBC treated from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and predictors thereof were assessed. Results: Fifty-two women with IBC were identified, 49 (94%) of whom were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All underwent mastectomy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. Radiation was delivered in once-daily fractions of 1.8 to 2.25 Gy (median, 2 Gy). Patients were typically treated with daily 1-cm bolus throughout treatment, and 33 (63%) received a subsequent boost to the mastectomy scar. Five-year Kaplan Meier survival estimates for LRC, DFS, and OS were 81%, 56%, and 64%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence was associated with poorer OS (P<.001; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1). Extracapsular extension was associated with worse LRC (P=.02), DFS (P=.007), and OS (P=.002). Age greater than 50 years was associated with better DFS (P=.03). Pathologic complete response was associated with a trend toward improved LRC (P=.06). Conclusions: Once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive use of bolus for IBC results in outcomes consistent with previous reports using various intensified radiation therapy regimens. LRC remains a challenge despite modern systemic therapy. Extracapsular extension, age ≤50 years, and lack of complete response to chemotherapy appear to be associated with worse outcomes. Novel strategies are needed in IBC

  7. Mechanism of cathode spot splitting in vacuum arcs in an oblique magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beilis, I. I.

    2015-10-15

    Experiments in the last decade showed that for cathode spots in a magnetic field that obliquely intercepts the cathode surface, the current per spot increased with the transverse component of the magnetic field and decreased with the normal component. The present work analyzes the nature of cathode spot splitting in an oblique magnetic field. A physical model for cathode spot current splitting was developed, which considered the relation between the plasma kinetic pressure, self-magnetic pressure, and applied magnetic pressure in a current carrying cathode plasma jet. The current per spot was calculated, and it was found to increase with the tangential component of the magnetic field and to decrease with the normal component, which agrees well with the experimental dependence.

  8. Morphological changes in ultrafast laser ablation plumes with varying spot size

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harilal, S. S.; Diwakar, P. K.; Polek, M. P.; Phillips, M. C.

    2015-06-04

    We investigated the role of spot size on plume morphology during ultrafast laser ablation of metal targets. Our results show that the spatial features of fs LA plumes are strongly dependent on the focal spot size. Two-dimensional self-emission images showed that the shape of the ultrafast laser ablation plumes changes from spherical to cylindrical with an increasing spot size from 100 to 600 ?m. The changes in plume morphology and internal structures are related to ion emission dynamics from the plasma, where broader angular ion distribution and faster ions are noticed for the smallest spot size used. The present resultsmoreclearly show that the morphological changes in the plume with spot size are independent of laser pulse width.less

  9. SU-E-J-72: Geant4 Simulations of Spot-Scanned Proton Beam Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanehira, T; Sutherland, K; Matsuura, T; Umegaki, K; Shirato, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate density inhomogeneities which can effect dose distributions for real-time image gated spot-scanning proton therapy (RGPT), a dose calculation system, using treatment planning system VQA (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo) spot position data, was developed based on Geant4. Methods: A Geant4 application was developed to simulate spot-scanned proton beams at Hokkaido University Hospital. A CT scan (0.98 × 0.98 × 1.25 mm) was performed for prostate cancer treatment with three or four inserted gold markers (diameter 1.5 mm, volume 1.77 mm3) in or near the target tumor. The CT data was read into VQA. A spot scanning plan was generated and exported to text files, specifying the beam energy and position of each spot. The text files were converted and read into our Geant4-based software. The spot position was converted into steering magnet field strength (in Tesla) for our beam nozzle. Individual protons were tracked from the vacuum chamber, through the helium chamber, steering magnets, dose monitors, etc., in a straight, horizontal line. The patient CT data was converted into materials with variable density and placed in a parametrized volume at the isocenter. Gold fiducial markers were represented in the CT data by two adjacent voxels (volume 2.38 mm3). 600,000 proton histories were tracked for each target spot. As one beam contained about 1,000 spots, approximately 600 million histories were recorded for each beam on a blade server. Two plans were considered: two beam horizontal opposed (90 and 270 degree) and three beam (0, 90 and 270 degree). Results: We are able to convert spot scanning plans from VQA and simulate them with our Geant4-based code. Our system can be used to evaluate the effect of dose reduction caused by gold markers used for RGPT. Conclusion: Our Geant4 application is able to calculate dose distributions for spot scanned proton therapy.

  10. May market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    Seven uranium transactions totalling nearly three million pounds equivalent U3O8 were reported during May, but only two, totalling less than 200 thousand pounds equivalent U3O8, involved concentrates. As no discretionary buying occurred during the month, and as near-term supply and demand were in relative balance, prices were steady, while both buyers and sellers appeared to be awaiting some new market development to signal the direction of future spot-market prices. The May 31, 1993, Exchange Value and the Restricted American market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates were both unchanged at $7.10, and $2.95 per pound U3O8, respectively. NUEXCO's judgement was that transactions for significant quantities of uranium concentrates that were both deliverable in and intended for consumption in the USA could have been concluded on May 31 at $10.05 per pound U3O8. Two near-term concentrate transactions were reported in which one US utility purchased less than 200 thousand pounds equivalent U3O8 from two separate sellers. These sales occurred at price levels at or near the May 31 Exchange Value plus RAMP. No long-term uranium transactions were reported during May. Consequently, the UF6 Value decreased $0.20 to $24.30 per kgU as UF6, reflecting some weakening of the UF6 market outside the USA.

  11. DRAMATIC CHANGE IN JUPITER'S GREAT RED SPOT FROM SPACECRAFT OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, Amy A.; Wong, Michael H.; De Pater, Imke; Rogers, John H.; Orton, Glenn S.; Carlson, Robert W.; Asay-Davis, Xylar; Marcus, Philip S.

    2014-12-20

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features. Since the advent of modern telescopes, keen observers have noted its appearance and documented a change in shape from very oblong to oval, confirmed in measurements from spacecraft data. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show that this change has been accompanied by an increase in cloud/haze reflectance as sensed in methane gas absorption bands, increased absorption at wavelengths shorter than 500nm, and increased spectral slope between 500 and 630nm. These changes occurred between 2012 and 2014, without a significant change in internal tangential wind speeds; the decreased size results in a 3.2day horizontal cloud circulation period, shorter than previously observed. As the GRS has narrowed in latitude, it interacts less with the jets flanking its north and south edges, perhaps allowing for less cloud mixing and longer UV irradiation of cloud and aerosol particles. Given its long life and observational record, we expect that future modeling of the GRS's changes, in concert with laboratory flow experiments, will drive our understanding of vortex evolution and stability in a confined flow field crucial for comparison with other planetary atmospheres.

  12. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jian-Shi; Giometti, C.S.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1987-09-04

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a dc power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. 8 figs.

  13. Daily temperature and precipitation data for 223 USSR Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Apasova, E.G.; Martuganov, R.A.; Vose, R.S.; Steurer, P.M.

    1993-11-01

    On- May 23, 1972, the United States and the USSR established a bilateral initiative known as the Agreement on Protection of the Environment. Given recent interest in possible greenhouse gas-induced climate change, Working Group VIII (Influence of Environmental Changes on Climate) has become particularly useful to the scientific communities of both nations. Among its many achievements, Working Group VIII has been instrumental in the exchange of climatological information between the principal climate data centers of each country [i.e., the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina, and the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information in Obninsk, Russia]. Considering the relative lack of climate records previously available for the USSR, data obtained via this bilateral exchange are particularly valuable to researchers outside the former Soviet Union. To expedite the dissemination of these data, NOAA`s Climate and Global Change Program funded the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and NCDC to distribute one of the more useful archives acquired through this exchange: a 223-station daily data set covering the period 1881-1989. This data set contains: (1) daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature data; (2) daily precipitation data; (3) station inventory information (WMO No., name, coordinates, and elevation); (4) station history information (station relocation and rain gauge replacement dates); and (5) quality assurance information (i.e., flag codes that were assigned as a result of various data checks). The data set is available, free of charge, as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of 18 data files and a printed document which describes both the data files and the 223-station network in detail.

  14. WE-E-BRE-04: Dual Focal Spot Dose Painting for Precision Preclinical Radiobiological Investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, J; Lindsay, P; Jaffray, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recent progress in small animal radiotherapy systems has provided the foundation for delivering the heterogeneous, millimeter scale dose distributions demanded by preclinical radiobiology investigations. Despite advances in preclinical dose planning, delivery of highly heterogeneous dose distributions is constrained by the fixed collimation systems and large x-ray focal spot common in small animal radiotherapy systems. This work proposes a dual focal spot dose optimization and delivery method with a large x-ray focal spot used to deliver homogeneous dose regions and a small focal spot to paint spatially heterogeneous dose regions. Methods: Two-dimensional dose kernels were measured for a 1 mm circular collimator with radiochromic film at 10 mm depth in a solid water phantom for the small and large x-ray focal spots on a recently developed small animal microirradiator. These kernels were used in an optimization framework which segmented a desired dose distribution into low- and high-spatial frequency regions for delivery by the large and small focal spot, respectively. For each region, the method determined an optimal set of stage positions and beam-on times. The method was demonstrated by optimizing a bullseye pattern consisting of 0.75 mm radius circular target and 0.5 and 1.0 mm wide rings alternating between 0 and 2 Gy. Results: Compared to a large focal spot technique, the dual focal spot technique improved the optimized dose distribution: 69.2% of the optimized dose was within 0.5 Gy of the intended dose for the large focal spot, compared to 80.6% for the dual focal spot method. The dual focal spot design required 14.0 minutes of optimization, and will require 178.3 minutes for automated delivery. Conclusion: The dual focal spot optimization and delivery framework is a novel option for delivering conformal and heterogeneous dose distributions at the preclinical level and provides a new experimental option for unique radiobiological investigations

  15. April market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The spot market price for uranium outside the USA weakened further during April, and at month end, the NUEXCO Exchange Value had fallen $0.35, to $7.10 per pound U3O8. This is the lowest Exchange Value observed in nearly twenty years, comparable to Values recorded during the low price levels of the early 1970s. The Restricted American Market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates increased $0.40, to $2.95 per pound U3O8. Transactions for significant quantities of uranium concentrates that are both deliverable in and intended for consumption in the USA could have been concluded on April 30 at $10.05 per pound U3O8, up $0.05 from the sum of corresponding March Values. Four near-term concentrates transactions were reported, totalling nearly 1.5 million pounds equivalent U3O8. One long-term sale was reported. The UF6 Value also declined, as increased competition among sellers led to a $0.50 decrease, to $24.50 per kgU as UF6. However, the RAMP for UF6 increased $0.65, to $5.90 per kgU as UF6, reflecting an effective US market level of $30.40 per kgU. Two near term transactions were reported totalling approximately 1.1 million pounds equivalent U3O8. In total, eight uranium transactions totalling 28 million pounds equivalent U3O8 were reported, which is about average for April market activity.

  16. Assessment of Prices of Natural Gas Futures Contracts As A Predictor of Realized Spot Prices, An

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    This article compares realized Henry Hub spot market prices for natural gas during the three most recent winters with futures prices as they evolve from April through the following February, when trading for the March contract ends.

  17. Calculation of the fast ion tail distribution for a spherically symmetric hot spot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, X.-Z.; Guo, Z.; Berk, H. L.

    2014-10-15

    The fast ion tail for a spherically symmetric hot spot is computed via the solution of a simplified Fokker-Planck collision operator. Emphasis is placed on describing the energy scaling of the fast ion distribution function in the hot spot as well as the surrounding cold plasma throughout a broad range of collisionalities and temperatures. It is found that while the fast ion tail inside the hot spot is significantly depleted, leading to a reduction of the fusion yield in this region, a surplus of fast ions is observed in the neighboring cold plasma region. The presence of this surplus of fast ions in the neighboring cold region is shown to result in a partial recovery of the fusion yield lost in the hot spot.

  18. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jian-Shi; Giometti, Carol S.; Tollaksen, Sandra L.

    1989-01-01

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. A high percentage extraction of proteins is achieved. The extracted proteins can be removed and subjected to partial digestion by trypsin or the like, followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, resulting in a gel slab having a pattern of peptide gel spots which can be cored out and subjected to electrophoretic extraction to extract individual peptides.

  19. Spot size dependence of laser accelerated protons in thin multi-ion foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Tung-Chang Shao, Xi; Liu, Chuan-Sheng; Eliasson, Bengt; Wang, Jyhpyng; Chen, Shih-Hung

    2014-06-15

    We present a numerical study of the effect of the laser spot size of a circularly polarized laser beam on the energy of quasi-monoenergetic protons in laser proton acceleration using a thin carbon-hydrogen foil. The used proton acceleration scheme is a combination of laser radiation pressure and shielded Coulomb repulsion due to the carbon ions. We observe that the spot size plays a crucial role in determining the net charge of the electron-shielded carbon ion foil and consequently the efficiency of proton acceleration. Using a laser pulse with fixed input energy and pulse length impinging on a carbon-hydrogen foil, a laser beam with smaller spot sizes can generate higher energy but fewer quasi-monoenergetic protons. We studied the scaling of the proton energy with respect to the laser spot size and obtained an optimal spot size for maximum proton energy flux. Using the optimal spot size, we can generate an 80 MeV quasi-monoenergetic proton beam containing more than 10{sup 8} protons using a laser beam with power 250 TW and energy 10 J and a target of thickness 0.15 wavelength and 49 critical density made of 90% carbon and 10% hydrogen.

  20. Alternative hot spot formation techniques using liquid deuterium-tritium layer inertial confinement fusion capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.

    2013-09-15

    The baseline DT ice layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition capsule design requires a hot spot convergence ratio of ∼34 with a hot spot that is formed from DT mass originally residing in a very thin layer at the inner DT ice surface. In the present paper, we propose alternative ICF capsule designs in which the hot spot is formed mostly or entirely from mass originating within a spherical volume of DT vapor. Simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation in two DT liquid layer ICF capsule concepts—the DT wetted hydrocarbon (CH) foam concept and the “fast formed liquid” (FFL) concept—are described and compared to simulations of standard DT ice layer capsules. 1D simulations are used to compare the drive requirements, the optimal shock timing, the radial dependence of hot spot specific energy gain, and the hot spot convergence ratio in low vapor pressure (DT ice) and high vapor pressure (DT liquid) capsules. 2D simulations are used to compare the relative sensitivities to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries in the DT ice and DT liquid capsules. It is found that the overall thermonuclear yields predicted for DT liquid layer capsules are less than yields predicted for DT ice layer capsules in simulations using comparable capsule size and absorbed energy. However, the wetted foam and FFL designs allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio through the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density, with a potentially improved robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetry.

  1. An investigation of the dynamic separation of spot welds under plane tensile pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Bohan; Fan, Chunlei; Chen, Danian Wang, Huanran; Zhou, Fenghua

    2014-08-07

    We performed ultra-high-speed tests for purely opening spot welds using plane tensile pulses. A gun system generated a parallel impact of a projectile plate onto a welded plate. Induced by the interactions of the release waves, the welded plate opened purely under the plane tensile pulses. We used the laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate. We then used a scanning electron microscope to investigate the recovered welded plates. We found that the interfacial failure mode was mainly a brittle fracture and the cracks propagated through the spot nugget, while the partial interfacial failure mode was a mixed fracture comprised ductile fracture and brittle fracture. We used the measured velocity histories to evaluate the tension stresses in the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate by applying the characteristic theory. We also discussed the different constitutive behaviors of the metals under plane shock loading and under uniaxial split Hopkinson pressure bar tests. We then compared the numerically simulated velocity histories of the free surfaces of the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate with the measured results. The numerical simulations made use of the fracture stress criteria, and then the computed fracture modes of the tests were compared with the recovered results.

  2. Real-time spot size camera for pulsed high-energy radiographic machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, S.A.

    1993-06-01

    The focal spot size of an x-ray source is a critical parameter which degrades resolution in a flash radiograph. For best results, a small round focal spot is required. Therefore, a fast and accurate measurement of the spot size is highly desirable to facilitate machine tuning. This paper describes two systems developed for Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays (PHERMEX) facility. The first uses a CCD camera combined with high-brightness floors, while the second utilizes phosphor storage screens. Other techniques typically record only the line spread function on radiographic film, while systems in this paper measure the more general two-dimensional point-spread function and associated modulation transfer function in real time for shot-to-shot comparison.

  3. Real-time spot size camera for pulsed high-energy radiographic machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    The focal spot size of an x-ray source is a critical parameter which degrades resolution in a flash radiograph. For best results, a small round focal spot is required. Therefore, a fast and accurate measurement of the spot size is highly desirable to facilitate machine tuning. This paper describes two systems developed for Los Alamos National Laboratory's Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays (PHERMEX) facility. The first uses a CCD camera combined with high-brightness floors, while the second utilizes phosphor storage screens. Other techniques typically record only the line spread function on radiographic film, while systems in this paper measure the more general two-dimensional point-spread function and associated modulation transfer function in real time for shot-to-shot comparison.

  4. Electron depletion via cathode spot dispersion of dielectric powder into an overhead plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillman, Eric D.; Foster, John E.

    2013-11-15

    The effectiveness of cathode spot delivered dielectric particles for the purpose of plasma depletion is investigated. Here, cathode spot flows kinetically entrain and accelerate dielectric particles originally at rest into a background plasma. The time variation of the background plasma density is tracked using a cylindrical Langmuir probe biased approximately at electron saturation. As inferred from changes in the electron saturation current, depletion fractions of up to 95% are observed. This method could be exploited as a means of communications blackout mitigation for manned and unmanned reentering spacecraft as well as any high speed vehicle enveloped by a dense plasma layer.

  5. Six years of monitoring annual changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1992-12-01

    Fifteen dates of spring-time SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data from spring 1987 through spring 1992 were analyzed to monitor annual changes in a 150-hectare, southeastern floodplain marsh. The marsh underwent rapid changes during the six years from a swamp dominated by non-persistent, thermally tolerant macrophytes to persistent macrophyte and shrub-scrub communities as reactor discharges declined to Pen Branch. Savannah River flooding was also important in the timing of the shift of these wetland communities. SPOT HRV data proved to be an efficient and effective method to monitor trends in these wetland community changes.

  6. Six years of monitoring annual changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen dates of spring-time SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data from spring 1987 through spring 1992 were analyzed to monitor annual changes in a 150-hectare, southeastern floodplain marsh. The marsh underwent rapid changes during the six years from a swamp dominated by non-persistent, thermally tolerant macrophytes to persistent macrophyte and shrub-scrub communities as reactor discharges declined to Pen Branch. Savannah River flooding was also important in the timing of the shift of these wetland communities. SPOT HRV data proved to be an efficient and effective method to monitor trends in these wetland community changes.

  7. Effects of minimum monitor unit threshold on spot scanning proton plan quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, Michelle Beltran, Chris; Mayo, Charles S.; Herman, Michael G.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of the minimum monitor unit (MU) on the quality of clinical treatment plans for scanned proton therapy. Methods: Delivery system characteristics limit the minimum number of protons that can be delivered per spot, resulting in a min-MU limit. Plan quality can be impacted by the min-MU limit. Two sites were used to investigate the impact of min-MU on treatment plans: pediatric brain tumor at a depth of 5–10 cm; a head and neck tumor at a depth of 1–20 cm. Three-field, intensity modulated spot scanning proton plans were created for each site with the following parameter variations: min-MU limit range of 0.0000–0.0060; and spot spacing range of 2–8 mm. Comparisons were based on target homogeneity and normal tissue sparing. For the pediatric brain, two versions of the treatment planning system were also compared to judge the effects of the min-MU limit based on when it is accounted for in the optimization process (Eclipse v.10 and v.13, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Results: The increase of the min-MU limit with a fixed spot spacing decreases plan quality both in homogeneous target coverage and in the avoidance of critical structures. Both head and neck and pediatric brain plans show a 20% increase in relative dose for the hot spot in the CTV and 10% increase in key critical structures when comparing min-MU limits of 0.0000 and 0.0060 with a fixed spot spacing of 4 mm. The DVHs of CTVs show min-MU limits of 0.0000 and 0.0010 produce similar plan quality and quality decreases as the min-MU limit increases beyond 0.0020. As spot spacing approaches 8 mm, degradation in plan quality is observed when no min-MU limit is imposed. Conclusions: Given a fixed spot spacing of ≤4 mm, plan quality decreases as min-MU increased beyond 0.0020. The effect of min-MU needs to be taken into consideration while planning proton therapy treatments.

  8. Characterizing Sub-Daily Flow Regimes: Implications of Hydrologic Resolution on Ecohydrology Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevelhimer, Mark S.; McManamay, Ryan A.; O'Connor, B.

    2014-05-26

    Natural variability in flow is a primary factor controlling geomorphic and ecological processes in riverine ecosystems. Within the hydropower industry, there is growing pressure from environmental groups and natural resource managers to change reservoir releases from daily peaking to run-of-river operations on the basis of the assumption that downstream biological communities will improve under a more natural flow regime. In this paper, we discuss the importance of assessing sub-daily flows for understanding the physical and ecological dynamics within river systems. We present a variety of metrics for characterizing sub-daily flow variation and use these metrics to evaluate general trends among streams affected by peaking hydroelectric projects, run-of-river projects and streams that are largely unaffected by flow altering activities. Univariate and multivariate techniques were used to assess similarity among different stream types on the basis of these sub-daily metrics. For comparison, similar analyses were performed using analogous metrics calculated with mean daily flow values. Our results confirm that sub-daily flow metrics reveal variation among and within streams that are not captured by daily flow statistics. Using sub-daily flow statistics, we were able to quantify the degree of difference between unaltered and peaking streams and the amount of similarity between unaltered and run-of-river streams. The sub-daily statistics were largely uncorrelated with daily statistics of similar scope. Furthermore, on short temporal scales, sub-daily statistics reveal the relatively constant nature of unaltered streamreaches and the highly variable nature of hydropower-affected streams, whereas daily statistics show just the opposite over longer temporal scales.

  9. Characterizing Sub-Daily Flow Regimes: Implications of Hydrologic Resolution on Ecohydrology Studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bevelhimer, Mark S.; McManamay, Ryan A.; O'Connor, B.

    2014-05-26

    Natural variability in flow is a primary factor controlling geomorphic and ecological processes in riverine ecosystems. Within the hydropower industry, there is growing pressure from environmental groups and natural resource managers to change reservoir releases from daily peaking to run-of-river operations on the basis of the assumption that downstream biological communities will improve under a more natural flow regime. In this paper, we discuss the importance of assessing sub-daily flows for understanding the physical and ecological dynamics within river systems. We present a variety of metrics for characterizing sub-daily flow variation and use these metrics to evaluate general trends amongmore » streams affected by peaking hydroelectric projects, run-of-river projects and streams that are largely unaffected by flow altering activities. Univariate and multivariate techniques were used to assess similarity among different stream types on the basis of these sub-daily metrics. For comparison, similar analyses were performed using analogous metrics calculated with mean daily flow values. Our results confirm that sub-daily flow metrics reveal variation among and within streams that are not captured by daily flow statistics. Using sub-daily flow statistics, we were able to quantify the degree of difference between unaltered and peaking streams and the amount of similarity between unaltered and run-of-river streams. The sub-daily statistics were largely uncorrelated with daily statistics of similar scope. Furthermore, on short temporal scales, sub-daily statistics reveal the relatively constant nature of unaltered streamreaches and the highly variable nature of hydropower-affected streams, whereas daily statistics show just the opposite over longer temporal scales.« less

  10. MO-G-BRE-04: Automatic Verification of Daily Treatment Deliveries and Generation of Daily Treatment Reports for a MR Image-Guided Treatment Machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, D; Li, X; Li, H; Wooten, H; Green, O; Rodriguez, V; Mutic, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Two aims of this work were to develop a method to automatically verify treatment delivery accuracy immediately after patient treatment and to develop a comprehensive daily treatment report to provide all required information for daily MR-IGRT review. Methods: After systematically analyzing the requirements for treatment delivery verification and understanding the available information from a novel MR-IGRT treatment machine, we designed a method to use 1) treatment plan files, 2) delivery log files, and 3) dosimetric calibration information to verify the accuracy and completeness of daily treatment deliveries. The method verifies the correctness of delivered treatment plans and beams, beam segments, and for each segment, the beam-on time and MLC leaf positions. Composite primary fluence maps are calculated from the MLC leaf positions and the beam-on time. Error statistics are calculated on the fluence difference maps between the plan and the delivery. We also designed the daily treatment delivery report by including all required information for MR-IGRT and physics weekly review - the plan and treatment fraction information, dose verification information, daily patient setup screen captures, and the treatment delivery verification results. Results: The parameters in the log files (e.g. MLC positions) were independently verified and deemed accurate and trustable. A computer program was developed to implement the automatic delivery verification and daily report generation. The program was tested and clinically commissioned with sufficient IMRT and 3D treatment delivery data. The final version has been integrated into a commercial MR-IGRT treatment delivery system. Conclusion: A method was developed to automatically verify MR-IGRT treatment deliveries and generate daily treatment reports. Already in clinical use since December 2013, the system is able to facilitate delivery error detection, and expedite physician daily IGRT review and physicist weekly chart

  11. Fact #917: March 21, 2016 Work Truck Daily Idle Time by Industry |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 7: March 21, 2016 Work Truck Daily Idle Time by Industry Fact #917: March 21, 2016 Work Truck Daily Idle Time by Industry SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week Results of the 2015 Work Truck Electrification and Idle Management Study showed the daily idle time for work truck fleets. Daily idle times by industry show that the truck fleets in the utility/telecommunications industry had the longest idle times. Thirty-nine percent of respondents indicated that their fleets idled

  12. McGinness Hills Well 27A-10 Daily Drilling Report Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Knudsen, Steven

    This data should be used with the daily drilling record and other data which can be obtained from the contact listed below

  13. McGinness Hills Well 27A-10 Daily Drilling Report Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Knudsen, Steven

    2014-03-25

    This data should be used with the daily drilling record and other data which can be obtained from the contact listed below

  14. Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 and Hot-Stamp Boron Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, Michael L.; Frederick, Alan; Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.

    2008-05-16

    Friction stir spot welds were made in two high-strength steels: DP780, and a hot-stamp-boron steel with tensile strength of 1500 MPa. The spot welds were made at either 800 or 1600 rpm using either of two polycrystalline boron nitride tools. One stir tool, BN77, had the relatively common pin-tool shape. The second tool, BN46, had a convex rather than a concave shoulder profile and a much wider and shorter pin. The tools were plunged to preprogrammed depths either at a continuous rate (1-step schedule) or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate. In all cases, the welds were completed in 4s. The range of lap-shear values were compared to values required for resistance spot welds on the same steels. The minimum value of 10.3 kN was exceeded for friction stir spot welding of DP780 using a 2-step schedule and either the BN77- or the BN46-type stir tool. The respective minimum value of 12 kN was also exceeded for the HSB steel using the 2-step process and the BN46 stir tool.

  15. Pressure fluctuations beneath instability wavepackets and turbulent spots in a hypersonic boundary layer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Casper, Katya M.; Beresh, Steven J.; Schneider, Steven P.

    2014-09-09

    To investigate the pressure-fluctuation field beneath turbulent spots in a hypersonic boundary layer, a study was conducted on the nozzle wall of the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel. Controlled disturbances were created by pulsed-glow perturbations based on the electrical breakdown of air. Under quiet-flow conditions, the nozzle-wall boundary layer remains laminar and grows very thick over the long nozzle length. This allows the development of large disturbances that can be well-resolved with high-frequency pressure transducers. A disturbance first grows into a second-mode instability wavepacket that is concentrated near its own centreline. Weaker disturbances are seen spreading from the centre. The wavesmore » grow and become nonlinear before breaking down to turbulence. The breakdown begins in the core of the packets where the wave amplitudes are largest. Second-mode waves are still evident in front of and behind the breakdown point and can be seen propagating in the spanwise direction. The turbulent core grows downstream, resulting in a spot with a classical arrowhead shape. Behind the spot, a low-pressure calmed region develops. However, the spot is not merely a localized patch of turbulence; instability waves remain an integral part. Limited measurements of naturally occurring disturbances show many similar characteristics. From the controlled disturbance measurements, the convection velocity, spanwise spreading angle, and typical pressure-fluctuation field were obtained.« less

  16. On the mechanism of operation of a cathode spot cell in a vacuum arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mesyats, G. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Bochkarev, M. B.; Barengolts, S. A.

    2014-05-05

    The erosive structures formed on a tungsten cathode as a result of the motion of the cathode spot of a vacuum arc over the cathode surface have been examined. It has been found that the average mass of a cathode microprotrusion having the shape of a solidified jet is approximately equal to the mass of ions removed from the cathode within the lifetime of a cathode spot cell carrying a current of several amperes. The time of formation of a new liquid-metal jet under the action of the reactive force of the plasma ejected by the cathode spot is about 10?ns, which is comparable to the lifetime of a cell. The growth rate of a liquid-metal jet is ?10{sup 4}?cm/s. The geometric shape and size of a solidified jet are such that a new explosive emission center (spot cell) can be initiated within several nanoseconds during the interaction of the jet with the dense cathode plasma. This is the underlying mechanism of the self-sustained operation of a vacuum arc.

  17. Pressure fluctuations beneath instability wavepackets and turbulent spots in a hypersonic boundary layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casper, Katya M.; Beresh, Steven J.; Schneider, Steven P.

    2014-09-09

    To investigate the pressure-fluctuation field beneath turbulent spots in a hypersonic boundary layer, a study was conducted on the nozzle wall of the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel. Controlled disturbances were created by pulsed-glow perturbations based on the electrical breakdown of air. Under quiet-flow conditions, the nozzle-wall boundary layer remains laminar and grows very thick over the long nozzle length. This allows the development of large disturbances that can be well-resolved with high-frequency pressure transducers. A disturbance first grows into a second-mode instability wavepacket that is concentrated near its own centreline. Weaker disturbances are seen spreading from the centre. The waves grow and become nonlinear before breaking down to turbulence. The breakdown begins in the core of the packets where the wave amplitudes are largest. Second-mode waves are still evident in front of and behind the breakdown point and can be seen propagating in the spanwise direction. The turbulent core grows downstream, resulting in a spot with a classical arrowhead shape. Behind the spot, a low-pressure calmed region develops. However, the spot is not merely a localized patch of turbulence; instability waves remain an integral part. Limited measurements of naturally occurring disturbances show many similar characteristics. From the controlled disturbance measurements, the convection velocity, spanwise spreading angle, and typical pressure-fluctuation field were obtained.

  18. Innovative Methodology For Detection of Fracture-Controlled Sweet Spots in the Northern Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobi, Rober

    2007-03-28

    This Topical Report (#6 of 9) consists of the figures 3.6-13 to (and including) 3.6-18 (and appropriate figure captions) that accompany the Final Technical Progress Report entitled: “Innovative Methodology for Detection of Fracture-Controlled Sweet Spots in the Northern Appalachian Basin” for DOE/NETL Award DE-AC26-00NT40698.

  19. Innovative Methodology for Detection of Fracture-Controlled Sweet Spots in the Northern Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobi, Rober

    2007-03-31

    This Topical Report (#6 of 9) consists of the figures 3.6-13 to (and including) 3.6-18 (and appropriate figure captions) that accompany the Final Technical Progress Report entitled: "Fracture-Controlled Sweet Spots in the Northern Appalachian Basin” for DOE/NETL Award DE-AC26-00NT40698.

  20. Hot-spot mix in ignition-scale implosions on the NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Hammel, B. A.; Suter, L. J.; Ralph, J.; Scott, H.; Barrios, M. A.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C.; Collins, G. W.; Dixit, S. N.; Doeppner, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Farley, D. R.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S. H.; and others

    2012-05-15

    Ignition of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target depends on the formation of a central hot spot with sufficient temperature and areal density. Radiative and conductive losses from the hot spot can be enhanced by hydrodynamic instabilities. The concentric spherical layers of current National Ignition Facility (NIF) ignition targets consist of a plastic ablator surrounding a thin shell of cryogenic thermonuclear fuel (i.e., hydrogen isotopes), with fuel vapor filling the interior volume [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. The Rev. 5 ablator is doped with Ge to minimize preheat of the ablator closest to the DT ice caused by Au M-band emission from the hohlraum x-ray drive [D. S. Clark et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 052703 (2010)]. Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by high-mode () ablator-surface perturbations can cause Ge-doped ablator to mix into the interior of the shell at the end of the acceleration phase [B. A. Hammel et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056310 (2011)]. As the shell decelerates, it compresses the fuel vapor, forming a hot spot. K-shell line emission from the ionized Ge that has penetrated into the hot spot provides an experimental signature of hot-spot mix. The Ge emission from tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) cryogenic targets and gas-filled plastic-shell capsules, which replace the THD layer with a mass-equivalent CH layer, was examined. The inferred amount of hot-spot-mix mass, estimated from the Ge K-shell line brightness using a detailed atomic physics code [J. J. MacFarlane et al., High Energy Density Phys. 3, 181 (2006)], is typically below the 75-ng allowance for hot-spot mix [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. Predictions of a simple mix model, based on linear growth of the measured surface-mass modulations, are consistent with the experimental results.

  1. Role of hydrodynamic instability growth in hot-spot mass gain and fusion performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2014-10-15

    In an inertial confinement fusion target, energy loss due to thermal conduction from the hot-spot will inevitably ablate fuel ice into the hot-spot, resulting in a more massive but cooler hot-spot, which negatively impacts fusion yield. Hydrodynamic mix due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the gas-ice interface can aggravate the problem via an increased gas-ice interfacial area across which energy transfer from the hot-spot and ice can be enhanced. Here, this mix-enhanced transport effect on hot-spot fusion-performance degradation is quantified using contrasting 1D and 2D hydrodynamic simulations, and its dependence on effective acceleration, Atwood number, and ablation speed is identified.

  2. Experimental investigation of bright spots in broadband, gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrios, M. A.; Suter, L. J.; Glenn, S.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Collins, G. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Izumi, N.; Ma, T.; Scott, H.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; Kyrala, G. A.

    2013-07-15

    Bright spots in the hot spot intensity profile of gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Opt. Eng. 443, (2004)] are observed. X-ray images of cryogenically layered deuterium-tritium (DT) and tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) ice capsules, and gas filled plastic shell capsules (Symcap) were recorded along the hohlraum symmetry axis. Heterogeneous mixing of ablator material and fuel into the hot spot (i.e., hot-spot mix) by hydrodynamic instabilities causes the bright spots. Hot-spot mix increases the radiative cooling of the hot spot. Fourier analysis of the x-ray images is used to quantify the evolution of bright spots in both x- and k-space. Bright spot images were azimuthally binned to characterize bright spot location relative to known isolated defects on the capsule surface. A strong correlation is observed between bright spot location and the fill tube for both Symcap and cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets, indicating the fill tube is a significant seed for the ablation front instability causing hot-spot mix. The fill tube is the predominant seed for Symcaps, while other capsule non-uniformities are dominant seeds for the cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets. A comparison of the bright spot power observed for Si- and Ge-doped ablator targets shows heterogeneous mix in Symcap targets is mostly material from the doped ablator layer.

  3. Projectile containing metastable intermolecular composites and spot fire method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Asay, Blaine W.; Son, Steven F.; Sanders, V. Eric; Foley, Timothy; Novak, Alan M.; Busse, James R.

    2012-07-31

    A method for altering the course of a conflagration involving firing a projectile comprising a powder mixture of oxidant powder and nanosized reductant powder at velocity sufficient for a violent reaction between the oxidant powder and the nanosized reductant powder upon impact of the projectile, and causing impact of the projectile at a location chosen to draw a main fire to a spot fire at such location and thereby change the course of the conflagration, whereby the air near the chosen location is heated to a temperature sufficient to cause a spot fire at such location. The invention also includes a projectile useful for such method and said mixture preferably comprises a metastable intermolecular composite.

  4. Vertically-tapered optical waveguide and optical spot transformer formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakke, Thor; Sullivan, Charles T.

    2004-07-27

    An optical waveguide is disclosed in which a section of the waveguide core is vertically tapered during formation by spin coating by controlling the width of an underlying mesa structure. The optical waveguide can be formed from spin-coatable materials such as polymers, sol-gels and spin-on glasses. The vertically-tapered waveguide section can be used to provide a vertical expansion of an optical mode of light within the optical waveguide. A laterally-tapered section can be added adjacent to the vertically-tapered section to provide for a lateral expansion of the optical mode, thereby forming an optical spot-size transformer for efficient coupling of light between the optical waveguide and a single-mode optical fiber. Such a spot-size transformer can also be added to a III-V semiconductor device by post processing.

  5. Influence of hot spot features on the initiation characteristics of heterogeneous nitromethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M; Sheffield, Stephen A; Stahl, David B; Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Engelke, Ray

    2010-01-01

    To gain insights into the critical hot spot features influencing energetic materials initiation characteristics, well-defined micron-scale particles have been intentionally introduced into the homogeneous explosive nitromethane (NM). Two types of potential hot spot origins have been examined - shock impedance mismatches using solid silica beads, and porosity using hollow microballoons - as well as their sizes and inter-particle separations. Here, we present the results of several series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on NM/particle mixtures with well-controlled shock inputs. Detailed insights into the nature of the reactive flow during the build-up to detonation have been obtained from the response of in-situ electromagnetic gauges, and the data have been used to establish Pop-plots (run-distance-to-detonation vs. shock input pressure) for the mixtures. Comparisons of sensitization effects and energy release characteristics relative to the initial shock front between the solid and hollow beads are presented.

  6. Geometrically nonlinear behaviour of spot welded joints in tensile and compressive shear loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radaj, D.; Zhang, S.

    1995-05-01

    The geometrically nonlinear behavior of spot welded joints including buckling and gap closure and its influence on local stress parameters at the weld spot edge (structural stresses, notch stress or fatigue notch factor, stress intensity factors) are determined by a large displacement analysis of the tensile shear specimen subjected to tensile and compressive loading. The local parameters mentioned are considered decisive for fatigue crack initiation. A continuous beam model and a plate strip model are used within a simplified procedure. A more sophisticated finite element model is applied on the specimens thereafter. The nonlinear effect is small for steel plates more than 1 mm thick in the medium and high cycle fatigue range of tensile loading. It may be stronger for compressive loading but is at least partially compensated for in this case by the gap closure effect. 4 refs.

  7. Fact #917: March 21, 2016 Work Truck Daily Idle Time by Industry - Dataset

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 7: March 21, 2016 Work Truck Daily Idle Time by Industry - Dataset Fact #917: March 21, 2016 Work Truck Daily Idle Time by Industry - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Work Truck Daily Idle Time by Industry fotw#917_web.xlsx (15.85 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #916: March 14, 2016 Fuel Savings/Emissions Reduction was the Top Reason Cited by Truck Fleet Management for Adopting Idle Reduction Technologies - Dataset Fact #833: August 11, 2014 Fuel Economy

  8. Eutectic structures in friction spot welding joint of aluminum alloy to copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Junjun Suhuddin, Uceu F. H.; Cardillo, Maria E. B.; Santos, Jorge F. dos

    2014-05-12

    A dissimilar joint of AA5083 Al alloy and copper was produced by friction spot welding. The Al-MgCuAl{sub 2} eutectic in both coupled and divorced manners were found in the weld. At a relatively high temperature, mass transport of Cu due to plastic deformation, material flow, and atomic diffusion, combined with the alloy system of AA5083 are responsible for the ternary eutectic melting.

  9. Macrophyte mapping in ten lakes of South Carolina with multispectral SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Fall and spring multispectral SPOT HRV data for 1987 and 1988 were used to evaluate the macrophyte distributions in ten freshwater reservoirs of South Carolina. The types of macrophyte and wetland communities present along the shoreline of the lakes varied depending on the age, water level fluctuations, water quality, and basin morphology. Seasonal satellite data were important for evaluation of the extent of persistent versus non-persistent macrophyte communities in the lakes. This paper contains only the view graphs of this process.

  10. X marks the spot: Researchers confirm novel method for controlling plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rotation to improve fusion performance | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab X marks the spot: Researchers confirm novel method for controlling plasma rotation to improve fusion performance By Raphael Rosen June 23, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Representative plasma geometries, with the X-point location circled in red / Reprinted from T. Stoltzfus-Dueck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 245001 (2015). Copyright 2015 by the American Physical Society. Representative plasma

  11. X marks the spot: Researchers confirm novel method for controlling plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rotation to improve fusion performance | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab X marks the spot: Researchers confirm novel method for controlling plasma rotation to improve fusion performance By Raphael Rosen June 23, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Representative plasma geometries, with the X-point location circled in red / Reprinted from T. Stoltzfus-Dueck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 245001 (2015). Copyright 2015 by the American Physical Society. Representative plasma

  12. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Betty W.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the present invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve much of the TATB, but readily dissolves these explosives.

  13. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, B.W.

    1984-11-29

    A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the subject invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve the TATB, but readily dissolves these interfering explosives.

  14. Students do cool summer research projects in one of the hottest spots |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Students do cool summer research projects in one of the hottest spots August 4, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Priya Jaglal (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) Priya Jaglal More than 40 college students pursuing careers in physics, engineering and computer science are spending their summer at the U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory working with scientists and engineers on hands-on research

  15. SU-E-T-73: Commissioning of a Treatment Planning System for Proton Spot Scanning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saini, J; Kang, Y; Schultz, L; Nicewonger, D; Herrera, M; Wong, T; Bowen, S; Bloch, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A treatment planning system (TPS) was commissioned for clinical use with a fixed beam line proton delivery system. An outline of the data collection, modeling, and verification is provided. Methods: Beam data modeling for proton spot scanning in CMS Xio TPS requires the following measurements: (i) integral depth dose curves (IDDCs); (ii) absolute dose calibration; and (iii) beam spot characteristics. The IDDCs for 18 proton energies were measured using an integrating detector in a single spot field in a water phantom. Absolute scaling of the IDDCs were performed based on ion chamber measurements in mono-energetic 1010 cm{sup 2} fields in water. Beam spot shapes were measured in air using a flat panel scintillator detector at multiple planes. For beam model verification, more than 45 uniform dose phantom and patient plans were generated. These plans were used to measure range, point dose, and longitudinal and lateral profiles. Tolerances employed for verification are: point dose and longitudinal profiles, 2%; range, 1 mm; FWHM for lateral profiles, 2 mm; and patient plan dose distribution, gamma index of >90% at 3%/3 mm criteria. Results: More than 97% of the point dose measurements out of 115 were within +/-2% with maximum deviation of 3%. 98% of the ranges measured were within 1 mm with maximum deviation of 1.4mm. The normalized depth doses were within 2% at all depths. The maximum error in FWHM of lateral profiles was found to be less than 2mm. For 5 patient plans representing different anatomic sites, a total of 38 planes for 12 beams were analyzed for gamma index with average value of 99% and minimum of 94%. Conclusions: The planning system is successfully commissioned and can be safely deployed for clinical use. Measurements of IDDCs on user beam are highly recommended instead of using standard beam IDDCs.

  16. Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Pan, Tsung-Yu

    2012-04-16

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is applied to join advanced high strength steels (AHSS): galvannealed dual phase 780 MPa steel (DP780GA), transformation induced plasticity 780 MPa steel (TRIP780), and hot-stamped boron steel (HSBS). A low-cost Si3N4 ceramic tool was developed and used for making welds in this study instead of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) material used in earlier studies. FSSW has the advantages of solid-state, low-temperature process, and the ability of joining dissimilar grade of steels and thicknesses. Two different tool shoulder geometries, concave with smooth surface and convex with spiral pattern, were used in the study. Welds were made by a 2-step displacement control process with weld time of 4, 6, and 10 seconds. Static tensile lap-shear strength achieved 16.4 kN for DP780GA-HSBS and 13.2kN for TRIP780-HSBS, above the spot weld strength requirements by AWS. Nugget pull-out was the failure mode of the joint. The joining mechanism was illustrated from the cross-section micrographs. Microhardness measurement showed hardening in the upper sheet steel (DP780GA or TRIP780) in the weld, but softening of HSBS in the heat-affect zone (HAZ). The study demonstrated the feasibility of making high-strength AHSS spot welds with low-cost tools.

  17. Study of global daily solar radiation and its relation to sunshine duration in Bahrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Sadah, F.H.; Ragab, F.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The regression coefficients a and b of Angstrom type correlation for the monthly daily average global solar radiation have been determined. The two constants a and b have been derived for different months during the period 1983-1987. The clearness index (H/H{sub 0}) based on predicted and measured values of global daily solar radiation is presented for different seasons of the year. The study depicts the various astronomical and meteorological parameters affecting the global radiation in Bahrain.

  18. The effect of laser spot shapes on polar-direct-drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weilacher, F.; Radha, P. B. Collins, T. J. B.; Marozas, J. A.

    2015-03-15

    Ongoing polar-direct-drive (PDD) implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl and E. I. Moses, Phys. Plasmas 18, 050901 (2011)] use existing NIF hardware, including indirect-drive phase plates. This limits the performance achievable in these implosions. Spot shapes are identified that significantly improve the uniformity of PDD NIF implosions; outer surface deviation is reduced by a factor of 7 at the end of the laser pulse and hot-spot distortion is reduced by a factor of 2 when the shell has converged by a factor of ?10. As a result, the neutron yield increases by approximately a factor of 2. This set of laser spot shapes is a combination of circular and elliptical spots, along with elliptical spot shapes modulated by an additional higher-intensity ellipse offset from the center of the beam. This combination is motivated in this paper. It is also found that this improved implosion uniformity is obtained independent of the heat conduction model. This work indicates that significant improvement in performance can be obtained robustly with the proposed spot shapes.

  19. MODELING OF HIGH SPEED FRICTION STIR SPOT WELDING USING A LAGRANGIAN FINITE ELEMENT APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, Michael; Karki, U.; Woodward, C.; Hovanski, Yuri

    2013-09-03

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) has been shown to be capable of joining steels of very high strength, while also being very flexible in terms of controlling the heat of welding and the resulting microstructure of the joint. This makes FSSW a potential alternative to resistance spot welding (RSW) if tool life is sufficiently high, and if machine spindle loads are sufficiently low so that the process can be implemented on an industrial robot. Robots for spot welding can typically sustain vertical loads of about 8kN, but FSSW at tool speeds of less than 3000 rpm cause loads that are too high, in the range of 11-14 kN. Therefore, in the current work tool speeds of 3000 rpm and higher were employed, in order to generate heat more quickly and to reduce welding loads to acceptable levels. The FSSW process was modeled using a finite element approach with the Forge® software package. An updated Lagrangian scheme with explicit time integration was employed to model the flow of the sheet material, subjected to boundary conditions of a rotating tool and a fixed backing plate [3]. The modeling approach can be described as two-dimensional, axisymmetric, but with an aspect of three dimensions in terms of thermal boundary conditions. Material flow was calculated from a velocity field which was two dimensional, but heat generated by friction was computed using a virtual rotational velocity component from the tool surface. An isotropic, viscoplastic Norton-Hoff law was used to model the evolution of material flow stress as a function of strain, strain rate, and temperature. The model predicted welding temperatures and the movement of the joint interface with reasonable accuracy for the welding of a dual phase 980 steel.

  20. Numerical studies of third-harmonic generation in laser filament in air perturbed by plasma spot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng Liubin; Lu Xin; Liu Xiaolong; Li Yutong; Chen Liming; Ma Jinglong; Dong Quanli; Wang Weimin; Xi Tingting; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; He Duanwei

    2012-07-15

    Third-harmonic emission from laser filament intercepted by plasma spot is studied by numerical simulations. Significant enhancement of the third-harmonic generation is obtained due to the disturbance of the additional plasma. The contribution of the pure plasma effect and the possible plasma-enhanced third-order susceptibility on the third-harmonic generation enhancement are compared. It is shown that the plasma induced cancellation of destructive interference [Y. Liu et al., Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011)] of two-colored filament is the dominant mechanism of the enhancement of third-harmonic generation.

  1. Resistance spot welding of ultra-fine grained steel sheets produced by constrained groove pressing: Optimization and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khodabakhshi, F.; Kazeminezhad, M., E-mail: mkazemi@sharif.edu; Kokabi, A.H.

    2012-07-15

    Constrained groove pressing as a severe plastic deformation method is utilized to produce ultra-fine grained low carbon steel sheets. The ultra-fine grained sheets are joined via resistance spot welding process and the characteristics of spot welds are investigated. Resistance spot welding process is optimized for welding of the sheets with different severe deformations and their results are compared with those of as-received samples. The effects of failure mode and expulsion on the performance of ultra-fine grained sheet spot welds have been investigated in the present paper and the welding current and time of resistance spot welding process according to these subjects are optimized. Failure mode and failure load obtained in tensile-shear test, microhardness, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope images have been used to describe the performance of spot welds. The region between interfacial to pullout mode transition and expulsion limit is defined as the optimum welding condition. The results show that optimum welding parameters (welding current and welding time) for ultra-fine grained sheets are shifted to lower values with respect to those for as-received specimens. In ultra-fine grained sheets, one new region is formed named recrystallized zone in addition to fusion zone, heat affected zone and base metal. It is shown that microstructures of different zones in ultra-fine grained sheets are finer than those of as-received sheets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resistance spot welding process is optimized for joining of UFG steel sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum welding current and time are decreased with increasing the CGP pass number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microhardness at BM, HAZ, FZ and recrystallized zone is enhanced due to CGP.

  2. Application of Markov chain model to daily maximum temperature for thermal comfort in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordin, Muhamad Asyraf bin Che; Hassan, Husna

    2015-10-22

    The Markov chain’s first order principle has been widely used to model various meteorological fields, for prediction purposes. In this study, a 14-year (2000-2013) data of daily maximum temperatures in Bayan Lepas were used. Earlier studies showed that the outdoor thermal comfort range based on physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) index in Malaysia is less than 34°C, thus the data obtained were classified into two state: normal state (within thermal comfort range) and hot state (above thermal comfort range). The long-run results show the probability of daily temperature exceed TCR will be only 2.2%. On the other hand, the probability daily temperature within TCR will be 97.8%.

  3. SMART II : the spot market agent research tool version 2.0.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    North, M. J. N.

    2000-12-14

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has worked closely with Western Area Power Administration (Western) over many years to develop a variety of electric power marketing and transmission system models that are being used for ongoing system planning and operation as well as analytic studies. Western markets and delivers reliable, cost-based electric power from 56 power plants to millions of consumers in 15 states. The Spot Market Agent Research Tool Version 2.0 (SMART II) is an investigative system that partially implements some important components of several existing ANL linear programming models, including some used by Western. SMART II does not implement a complete model of the Western utility system but it does include several salient features of this network for exploratory purposes. SMART II uses a Swarm agent-based framework. SMART II agents model bulk electric power transaction dynamics with recognition for marginal costs as well as transmission and generation constraints. SMART II uses a sparse graph of nodes and links to model the electric power spot market. The nodes represent power generators and consumers with distinct marginal decision curves and varying investment capital as well individual learning parameters. The links represent transmission lines with individual capacities taken from a range of central distribution, outlying distribution and feeder line types. The application of SMART II to electric power systems studies has produced useful results different from those often found using more traditional techniques. Use of the advanced features offered by the Swarm modeling environment simplified the creation of the SMART II model.

  4. DEFINING THE 'BLIND SPOT' OF HINODE EIS AND XRT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Mulu-Moore, Fana [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, VP 62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Schmelz, Joan T. [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Golub, Leon [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kobayashi, Ken, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, 320 Sparkman Dr, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    Observing high-temperature, low emission measure plasma is key to unlocking the coronal heating problem. With current instrumentation, a combination of EUV spectral data from Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS; sensitive to temperatures up to 4 MK) and broadband filter data from Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT; sensitive to higher temperatures) is typically used to diagnose the temperature structure of the observed plasma. In this Letter, we demonstrate that a 'blind spot' exists in temperature-emission measure space for combined Hinode EIS and XRT observations. For a typical active region core with significant emission at 3-4 MK, Hinode EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with temperatures greater than {approx}6 MK and emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 27} cm{sup -5}. We then demonstrate that the temperature and emission measure limits of this blind spot depend upon the temperature distribution of the plasma along the line of sight by considering a hypothetical emission measure distribution sharply peaked at 1 MK. For this emission measure distribution, we find that EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 26} cm{sup -5}. We suggest that a spatially and spectrally resolved 6-24 Angstrom-Sign spectrum would improve the sensitivity to these high-temperature, low emission measure plasma.

  5. Monitoring seasonal and annual wetland changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1989-12-31

    Eleven dates of SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data for 1987, 1988, and 1989 were evaluated to determine seasonal and annual changes in a 400-hectare, southeastern freshwater marsh. Early April through mid-May was the best time to discriminate among the cypress (Taxodium distichum)/water tupelo (Nyssa acquatica) swamp forest and the non-persistent (Ludwigia spp.) and persistent (Typha spp.) stands in this wetlands. Furthermore, a ten-fold decrease in flow rate from 11 cubic meters per sec (cms) in 1987 to one cms in 1988 was recorded in the marsh followed by a shift to drier wetland communities. The Savannah River Site (SRS), maintained by the US Department of Energy, is a 777 km{sup 2} area located in south central South Carolina. Five tributaries of the Savannah River run southwest through the SRS and into the floodplain swamp of the Savannah River. This paper describes the use of SPOT HRV data to monitor seasonal and annual trends in one of these swamp deltas, Pen Branch Delta, during a three-year period, 1987--1989.

  6. Monitoring seasonal and annual wetland changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Eleven dates of SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data for 1987, 1988, and 1989 were evaluated to determine seasonal and annual changes in a 400-hectare, southeastern freshwater marsh. Early April through mid-May was the best time to discriminate among the cypress (Taxodium distichum)/water tupelo (Nyssa acquatica) swamp forest and the non-persistent (Ludwigia spp.) and persistent (Typha spp.) stands in this wetlands. Furthermore, a ten-fold decrease in flow rate from 11 cubic meters per sec (cms) in 1987 to one cms in 1988 was recorded in the marsh followed by a shift to drier wetland communities. The Savannah River Site (SRS), maintained by the US Department of Energy, is a 777 km{sup 2} area located in south central South Carolina. Five tributaries of the Savannah River run southwest through the SRS and into the floodplain swamp of the Savannah River. This paper describes the use of SPOT HRV data to monitor seasonal and annual trends in one of these swamp deltas, Pen Branch Delta, during a three-year period, 1987--1989.

  7. Sensitivity of inertial confinement fusion hot spot properties to the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melvin, J.; Lim, H.; Rana, V.; Glimm, J.; Cheng, B.; Sharp, D. H.; Wilson, D. C.

    2015-02-15

    We determine the dependence of key Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hot spot simulation properties on the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat, here modified by addition of energy to the cold shell. Variation of this parameter reduces the simulation to experiment discrepancy in some, but not all, experimentally inferred quantities. Using simulations with radiation drives tuned to match experimental shots N120321 and N120405 from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), we carry out sets of simulations with varying amounts of added entropy and examine the sensitivities of important experimental quantities. Neutron yields, burn widths, hot spot densities, and pressures follow a trend approaching their experimentally inferred quantities. Ion temperatures and areal densities are sensitive to the adiabat changes, but do not necessarily converge to their experimental quantities with the added entropy. This suggests that a modification to the simulation adiabat is one of, but not the only explanation of the observed simulation to experiment discrepancies. In addition, we use a theoretical model to predict 3D mix and observe a slight trend toward less mixing as the entropy is enhanced. Instantaneous quantities are assessed at the time of maximum neutron production, determined dynamically within each simulation. These trends contribute to ICF science, as an effort to understand the NIC simulation to experiment discrepancy, and in their relation to the high foot experiments, which features a higher adiabat in the experimental design and an improved neutron yield in the experimental results.

  8. Joint strength in high speed friction stir spot welded DP 980 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, Nathan; Miles, Michael; Hartman, Trent; Hovanski, Yuri; Hong, Sung Tae; Steel, Russell

    2014-05-01

    High speed friction stir spot welding was applied to 1.2 mm thick DP 980 steel sheets under different welding conditions, using PCBN tools. The range of vertical feed rates used during welding was 2.5 mm 102 mm per minute, while the range of spindle speeds was 2500 6000 rpm. Extended testing was carried out for five different sets of welding conditions, until tool failure. These welding conditions resulted in vertical welding loads of 3.6 8.2 kN and lap shear tension failure loads of 8.9 11.1 kN. PCBN tools were shown, in the best case, to provide lap shear tension fracture loads at or above 9 kN for 900 spot welds, after which tool failure caused a rapid drop in joint strength. Joint strength was shown to be strongly correlated to bond area, which was measured from weld cross sections. Failure modes of the tested joints were a function of bond area and softening that occurred in the heat-affected zone.

  9. Wear testing of friction stir spot welding tools for joining of DP 980 Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridges, Chris; Miles, Michael; Hovanski, Yuri; Peterson, Jeremy; Steel, Russell

    2011-06-06

    Friction stir spot welding has been shown to be a viable method of joining ultra high strength steel (UHSS), both in terms of joint strength and process cycle time. However, the cost of tooling must be reasonable in order for this method to be adopted as an industrial process. Several tooling materials have been evaluated in prior studies, including silicon nitride and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN). Recently a new tool alloy has been developed, where a blend of PCBN and tungsten rhenium (W-Re) was used in order to improve the toughness of the tool. Wear testing results are presented for two of these alloys: one with a composition of 60% PCBN and 40% W-Re (designated as Q60), and one with 70% PCBN and 30% W-Re (designated at Q70). The sheet material used for all wear testing was DP 980. Tool profiles were measured periodically during the testing process in order to show the progression of wear as a function of the number of spots produced. Lap shear testing was done each time a tool profile was taken in order to show the relationship between tool wear and joint strength. For the welding parameters chosen for this study the Q70 tool provided the best combination of wear resistance and joint strength.

  10. EIA - Daily Report 9/12/05 - Hurricane Katrina's Impact on U.S. Oil &

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Energy Markets 2, 5:00 pm According to the Minerals Management Service (MMS), as of 11:30 September 12, Gulf of Mexico oil production was reduced by 860,636 barrels per day as a result of Hurricane Katrina, equivalent to 57.38 percent of daily Gulf of Mexico oil production (which is 1.5 million barrels per day). The MMS also reported that 3.784 billion cubic feet per day of natural gas production was shut in, equivalent to 37.84 percent of daily Gulf of Mexico natural gas

  11. EIA - Daily Report 9/13/05 - Hurricane Katrina's Impact on U.S. Oil &

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Energy Markets Tuesday, September 13, 4:00 pm According to the Minerals Management Service (MMS), as of 11:30 September 12, Gulf of Mexico oil production was reduced by 846,720 barrels per day as a result of Hurricane Katrina, equivalent to 56.45 percent of daily Gulf of Mexico oil production (which had been1.5 million barrels per day). The MMS also reported that 3.720 billion cubic feet per day of natural gas production was shut in, equivalent to 37.20 percent of daily Gulf of

  12. EIA - Daily Report 9/14/05 - Hurricane Katrina's Impact on U.S. Oil &

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Energy Markets Wednesday, September 14, 4:00 pm According to the Minerals Management Service (MMS), as of 11:30 September 14, Gulf of Mexico oil production was reduced by 843,725 barrels per day as a result of Hurricane Katrina, equivalent to 56.25 percent of daily Gulf of Mexico oil production (which had been 1.5 million barrels per day). The MMS also reported that 3.518 billion cubic feet per day of natural gas production was shut in, equivalent to 35.18 percent of daily Gulf

  13. EIA - Daily Report 9/15/05 - Hurricane Katrina's Impact on U.S. Oil &

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Energy Markets Thursday, September 15, 3:00 pm According to the Minerals Management Service (MMS), as of 11:30 September 15, Gulf of Mexico oil production was reduced by 842,091 barrels per day as a result of Hurricane Katrina, equivalent to 56.14 percent of daily Gulf of Mexico oil production (which had been 1.5 million barrels per day). The MMS also reported that 3.411 billion cubic feet per day of natural gas production was shut in, equivalent to 34.11 percent of daily Gulf of

  14. EIA - Daily Report 9/7/05 - Hurricane Katrina's Impact on U.S. Oil &

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Energy Markets 7, 3:00 pm According to the Minerals Management Service (MMS), as of 11:30 September 7, Gulf of Mexico oil production was reduced by 861,000 barrels per day as a result of Hurricane Katrina, equivalent to 57.37 percent of daily Gulf of Mexico oil production (which is 1.5 million barrels per day). The MMS also reported that 4.0360 billion cubic feet per day of natural gas production was shut in, equivalent to 40.36 percent of daily Gulf of Mexico natural gas

  15. Effects of Fusion Zone Size on Failure Modes and Performance of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2006-04-28

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. The critical fusion zone sizes to ensure nugget pull-out failure mode are developed for both DP800 and TRIP800 using the limit load based analytical model and the micro-hardness measurements of the weld cross sections. Static weld strength tests using cross tension samples were performed on the joint populations with controlled fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that the conventional weld size of 4 t can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 materials. The results also suggest that performance based spot weld acceptance criteria should be developed for different AHSS spot welds.

  16. Femtosecond laser-induced size reduction of carbon nanodots in solution: Effect of laser fluence, spot size, and irradiation time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Vanthan; Yan, Lihe Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

    2015-02-28

    Photoluminescent carbon nanodots (C-dots) with size tunability and uniformity were fabricated in polyethylene glycol (PEG{sub 200N}) solution using femtosecond laser ablation method. The size distributions and photoluminescence (PL) properties of C-dots are well controlled by adjusting the combined parameters of laser fluence, spot size, and irradiation time. The size reduction efficiency of the C-dots progressively increases with decreasing laser fluence and spot size. The optimal PL spectra are red-shifted and the quantum yields decrease with the increase in C-dots size, which could be attributed to the more complex surface functional groups attached on C-dots induced at higher laser fluence and larger spot size. Moreover, an increase in irradiation time leads to a decrease in size of C-dots, but long-time irradiation will result in the generation of complex functional groups on C-dots, subsequently the PL spectra are red-shifted.

  17. Pool daily fuel scheduling. Volume 1: technical manual. Final Report, February 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, C.K.; Mikolinnas, T.A.; Reppen, N.D.; Ringlee, R.J.; Wollenberg, B.F.

    1981-02-01

    The results and efforts of research and development of methods for daily fuel scheduling performed under EPRI Project RP 1048-5 by Power Technologies, Inc. (PTI) are reported in three volumes: Technical Manual, Programming Manual, and Program Listings. Daily fuel scheduling involves the scheduling and dispatching of generating facilities to meet all system loads and operating requirements for periods ranging from a day to a week. Daily fuel scheduling and computer requirements are defined. The scheduling problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) optimization problem in which the total system operating cost is minimized. A potentially practical scheduling procedure, based on a combination of search and MILP approaches, was proposed; these two approaches were investigated, coded in FORTRAN and tested individually. This volume of the report (Volume 1) is the Technical Manual and contains the main body of the report, which includes descriptions and results for two approaches to the daily fuel scheduling problem: Search Approach and Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) Approach. Prototype computer programs on these approaches have been coded in FORTRAN for testing and evaluation purposes using PTI in-house PRIME time-sharing computer.

  18. Virginia Senate Approves Budget Deal to Include Money for FEL (Daily Press)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Jefferson Lab Virginia Senate Approves Budget Deal to Include Money for FEL (Daily Press) External Link: http://articles.dailypress.com/2012-04-18/news/dp-nws-general-assembly-budget-da... By jlab_admin on Wed, 2012-04-18

  19. Newport News School Board Member Hosting Town Hall Thursday (Daily Press) |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Newport News School Board Member Hosting Town Hall Thursday (Daily Press) External Link: http://articles.dailypress.com/2012-03-05/news/dp-nws-ednotebook-0305-20120304_1... By jlab_admin on Tue, 2012-03-06

  20. Daily snow depth measurements from 195 stations in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, L.J.; Easterling, D.R.; Jamason, P.; Bowman, D.P.; Hughes, P.Y.; Mason, E.H.

    1997-02-01

    This document describes a database containing daily measurements of snow depth at 195 National Weather Service (NWS) first-order climatological stations in the United States. The data have been assembled and made available by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina. The 195 stations encompass 388 unique sampling locations in 48 of the 50 states; no observations from Delaware or Hawaii are included in the database. Station selection criteria emphasized the quality and length of station records while seeking to provide a network with good geographic coverage. Snow depth at the 388 locations was measured once per day on ground open to the sky. The daily snow depth is the total depth of the snow on the ground at measurement time. The time period covered by the database is 1893--1992; however, not all station records encompass the complete period. While a station record ideally should contain daily data for at least the seven winter months (January through April and October through December), not all stations have complete records. Each logical record in the snow depth database contains one station`s daily data values for a period of one month, including data source, measurement, and quality flags.

  1. Jefferson Lab: Laser gun to eventually shoot down missiles (Daily Press) |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Jefferson Lab: Laser gun to eventually shoot down missiles (Daily Press) External Link: http://articles.dailypress.com/2011-02-21/news/dp-nws-jefferson-lab-20110221_1_j... By jlab_admin on Mon, 2011-02-21

  2. Daily air pollution effects on children's respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedal, S.; Schenker, M.B.; Munoz, A.; Samet, J.M.; Batterman, S.; Speizer, F.E.

    1987-06-01

    To identify acute respiratory health effects associated with air pollution due to coal combustion, a subgroup of elementary school-aged children was selected from a large cross-sectional study and followed daily for eight months. Children were selected to obtain three equal-sized groups: one without respiratory symptoms, one with symptoms of persistent wheeze, and one with cough or phlegm production but without persistent wheeze. Parents completed a daily diary of symptoms from which illness constellations of upper respiratory illness (URI) and lower respiratory illness (LRI) and the symptom of wheeze were derived. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured daily for nine consecutive weeks during the eight-month study period. Maximum hourly concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and coefficient of haze for each 24-hour period, as well as minimum hourly temperature, were correlated with daily URI, LRI, wheeze, and PEFR using multiple regression models adjusting for illness occurrence or level of PEFR on the immediately preceding day. Respiratory illness on the preceding day was the most important predictor of current illness. A drop in temperature was associated with increased URI and LRI but not with increased wheeze or with a decrease in level of PEFR. No air pollutant was strongly associated with respiratory illness or with level of PEFR, either in the group of children as a whole, or in either of the symptomatic subgroups; the pollutant concentrations observed, however, were uniformly lower than current ambient air quality standards.

  3. JLab Nanotube Research Leads To Newport News Start-Up (Daily Press) |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Nanotube Research Leads To Newport News Start-Up (Daily Press) External Link: http://articles.dailypress.com/2012-08-03/news/dp-nws-cp-jefferson-lab-spinoff-2... By jlab_admin on Fri, 2012-08-03

  4. JLab's Walt Akers: from Fife and Drum to Windmill (Daily Press) | Jefferson

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab Walt Akers: from Fife and Drum to Windmill (Daily Press) External Link: http://articles.dailypress.com/2012-03-08/news/dp-tsq-ypq-five-questions-0308-20... By jlab_admin on Thu, 2012-03-08

  5. A dynamic collimation system for penumbra reduction in spot-scanning proton therapy: Proof of concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyer, Daniel E. Hill, Patrick M.; Wang, Dongxu; Smith, Blake R.; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: In the absence of a collimation system the lateral penumbra of spot scanning (SS) dose distributions delivered by low energy proton beams is highly dependent on the spot size. For current commercial equipment, spot size increases with decreasing proton energy thereby reducing the benefit of the SS technique. This paper presents a dynamic collimation system (DCS) for sharpening the lateral penumbra of proton therapy dose distributions delivered by SS. Methods: The collimation system presented here exploits the property that a proton pencil beam used for SS requires collimation only when it is near the target edge, enabling the use of trimmers that are in motion at times when the pencil beam is away from the target edge. The device consists of two pairs of parallel nickel trimmer blades of 2 cm thickness and dimensions of 2 cm × 18 cm in the beam's eye view. The two pairs of trimmer blades are rotated 90° relative to each other to form a rectangular shape. Each trimmer blade is capable of rapid motion in the direction perpendicular to the central beam axis by means of a linear motor, with maximum velocity and acceleration of 2.5 m/s and 19.6 m/s{sup 2}, respectively. The blades travel on curved tracks to match the divergence of the proton source. An algorithm for selecting blade positions is developed to minimize the dose delivered outside of the target, and treatment plans are created both with and without the DCS. Results: The snout of the DCS has outer dimensions of 22.6 × 22.6 cm{sup 2} and is capable of delivering a minimum treatment field size of 15 × 15 cm{sup 2}. Using currently available components, the constructed system would weigh less than 20 kg. For irregularly shaped fields, the use of the DCS reduces the mean dose outside of a 2D target of 46.6 cm{sup 2} by approximately 40% as compared to an identical plan without collimation. The use of the DCS increased treatment time by 1–3 s per energy layer. Conclusions: The spread of the

  6. United States Historical Climatology Network Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data (1871-1997)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Easterling, D.R.

    2002-10-28

    This document describes a database containing daily observations of maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation amount, snowfall amount, and snow depth from 1062 observing stations across the contiguous US. This database is an expansion and update of the original 138-station database previously released by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) as CDIAC numeric data package NDP-042. These 1062 stations are a subset of the 1221-station US Historical Climatology Network (HCN), a monthly database compiled by the National Climatic Data Center (Asheville, North Carolina) that has been widely used in analyzing US climate. Data from 1050 of these daily records extend into the 1990s, while 990 of these extend through 1997. Most station records are essentially complete for at least 40 years; the latest beginning year of record is 1948. Records from 158 stations begin prior to 1900, with that of Charleston, South Carolina beginning the earliest (1871). The daily resolution of these data makes them extremely valuable for studies attempting to detect and monitor long-term climatic changes on a regional scale. Studies using daily data may be able to detect changes in regional climate that would not be apparent from analysis of monthly temperature and precipitation data. Such studies may include analyses of trends in maximum and minimum temperatures, temperature extremes, daily temperature range, precipitation ''event size'' frequency, and the magnitude and duration of wet and dry periods. The data are also valuable in areas such as regional climate model validation and climate change impact assessment. This database is available free of charge from CDIAC as a numeric data package (NDP).

  7. Effect of the laser spot shape on spatial distribution of the ion bunch accelerated in a superstrong field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komarov, V M; Charukhchev, A V; Andreev, A A; Platonov, K Yu

    2014-12-31

    We have investigated the effect of the laser spot shape on the spatial distribution of accelerated ions on the front and back sides of a thin target irradiated by a picosecond laser pulse having the intensity of (3 – 4) × 10{sup 18} W cm{sup -2}. Experimental data are compared with numerical calculations. It is shown that the spatial structure of the ion bunch on the front side of the target resembles the laser spot structure rotated by 90°. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  8. Electric rate that shifts hourly may foretell spot-market kWh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, N.

    1985-11-25

    Four California industrial plants have cut their electricity bills up to 16% by shifting from the traditional time-of-use rates to an experimental real-time program (RTP) that varies prices hourly. The users receive a price schedule reflecting changing generating costs one day in advance to encourage them to increase power consumption during the cheapest time periods. Savings during the pilot program range between $11,000 and $32,000 per customer. The hourly cost breakdown encourages consumption during the night and early morning. The signalling system could be expanded to cogenerators and independent small power producers. If an electricity spot market develops, forecasters think a place on the stock exchanges for future-delivery contracts could develop in the future.

  9. Reciprocal space mapping by spot profile analyzing low energy electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer zu Heringdorf, Frank-J.; Horn-von Hoegen, Michael

    2005-08-15

    We present an experimental approach for the recording of two-dimensional reciprocal space maps using spot profile analyzing low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). A specialized alignment procedure eliminates the shifting of LEED patterns on the screen which is commonly observed upon variation of the electron energy. After the alignment, a set of one-dimensional sections through the diffraction pattern is recorded at different energies. A freely available software tool is used to assemble the sections into a reciprocal space map. The necessary modifications of the Burr-Brown computer interface of the two Leybold and Omicron type SPA-LEED instruments are discussed and step-by-step instructions are given to adapt the SPA 4.1d software to the changed hardware. Au induced faceting of 4 deg. vicinal Si(001) is used as an example to demonstrate the technique.

  10. Chopped sample heating for quantitative profile analysis of low energy electron diffraction spots at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kury, P.; Zahl, P.; Horn-von Hoegen, M.; Voges, C.; Frischat, H.; Guenter, H.-L.; Pfnuer, H.; Henzler, M.

    2004-11-01

    Spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED) is one of the most versatile and powerful methods for the determination of the structure and morphology of surfaces even at elevated temperatures. In setups where the sample is heated directly by an electric current, the resolution of the diffraction images at higher temperatures can be heavily degraded due to the inhomogeneous electric and magnetic fields around the sample. Here we present an easily applicable modification of the common data acquisition hardware of the SPA-LEED, which enables the system to work in a pulsed heating mode: Instead of heating the sample with a constant current, a square wave is used and electron counting is only performed when the current through the sample vanishes. Thus, undistorted diffration images can be acquired at high temperatures.

  11. On the development of nugget growth model for resistance spot welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Kang, E-mail: zhoukang326@126.com, E-mail: melcai@ust.hk; Cai, Lilong, E-mail: zhoukang326@126.com, E-mail: melcai@ust.hk [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-04-28

    In this paper, we developed a general mathematical model to estimate the nugget growth process based on the heat energy delivered into the welds by the resistance spot welding. According to the principles of thermodynamics and heat transfer, and the effect of electrode force during the welding process, the shape of the nugget can be estimated. Then, a mathematical model between heat energy absorbed and nugget diameter can be obtained theoretically. It is shown in this paper that the nugget diameter can be precisely described by piecewise fractal polynomial functions. Experiments were conducted with different welding operation conditions, such as welding currents, workpiece thickness, and widths, to validate the model and the theoretical analysis. All the experiments confirmed that the proposed model can predict the nugget diameters with high accuracy based on the input heat energy to the welds.

  12. Impact of tool wear on joint strength in friction stir spot welding of DP 980 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, Michael; Ridges, Chris; Hovanski, Yuri; Peterson, Jeremy; Santella, M. L.; Steel, Russel

    2011-09-14

    Friction stir spot welding has been shown to be a viable method of joining ultra high strength steel (UHSS), both in terms of joint strength and process cycle time. However, the cost of tooling must be reasonable in order for this method to be adopted as an industrial process. Recently a new tool alloy has been developed, using a blend of PCBN and tungsten rhenium (W-Re) in order to improve the toughness of the tool. Wear testing results are presented for two of these alloys: one with a composition of 60% PCBN and 40% W-Re, and one with 70% PCBN and 30% W-Re. The sheet material used for all wear testing was 1.4 mm DP 980. Lap shear testing was used to show the relationship between tool wear and joint strength. The Q70 tool provided the best combination of wear resistance and joint strength.

  13. Crystal structure of Spot 14, a modulator of fatty acid synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colbert, Christopher L.; Kim, Chai-Wan; Moon, Young-Ah; Henry, Lisa; Palnitkar, Maya; McKean, William B.; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Deisenhofer, Johann; Horton, Jay D.; Kwon, Hyock Joo

    2011-09-06

    Spot 14 (S14) is a protein that is abundantly expressed in lipogenic tissues and is regulated in a manner similar to other enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis. Deletion of S14 in mice decreased lipid synthesis in lactating mammary tissue, but the mechanism of S14's action is unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of S14 to 2.65 {angstrom} and biochemical data showing that S14 can form heterodimers with MIG12. MIG12 modulates fatty acid synthesis by inducing the polymerization and activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the first committed enzymatic reaction in the fatty acid synthesis pathway. Coexpression of S14 and MIG12 leads to heterodimers and reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase polymerization and activity. The structure of S14 suggests a mechanism whereby heterodimer formation with MIG12 attenuates the ability of MIG12 to activate ACC.

  14. Ultrasonic Spot Welding of AZ31B to Galvanized Mild Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Dr. Tsung-Yu; Franklin, Teresa; Pan, Professor Jwo; Brown, Elliot; Santella, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic spot welds were made between sheets of 0.8-mm-thick hot-dip-galvanized mild steel and 1.6-mm-thick AZ31B-H24. Lap-shear strengths of 3.0-4.2 kN were achieved with weld times of 0.3-1.2 s. Failure to achieve strong bonding of joints where the Zn coating was removed from the steel surface indicate that Zn is essential to the bonding mechanism. Microstructure characterization and microchemical analysis indicated temperatures at the AZ31-steel interfaces reached at least 344 C in less than 0.3 s. The elevated temperature conditions promoted annealing of the AZ31-H24 metal and chemical reactions between it and the Zn coating.

  15. Landsat and SPOT data for oil exploration in North-Western China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishidai, Takashi

    1996-07-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology has been employed by Japex to provide information related to oil exploration programs for many years. Since the beginning of the 1980`s, regional geological interpretation through to advanced studies using satellite imagery with high spectral and spatial resolutions (such as Landsat TM and SPOT HRV), have been carried out, for both exploration programs and for scientific research. Advanced techniques (including analysis of airborne hyper-multispectral imaging sensor data) as well as conventional photogeological techniques were used throughout these programs. The first program using remote sensing technology in China focused on the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and was carried out using Landsat MSS data. Landsat MSS imagery allows us to gain useful preliminary geological information about an area of interest, prior to field studies. About 90 Landsat scenes cover the entire Xinjiang Uygru Autonomous Region, this allowed us to give comprehensive overviews of 3 hydrocarbon-bearing basins (Tarim, Junggar, and Turpan-Hami) in NW China. The overviews were based on the interpretations and assessments of the satellite imagery and on a synthesis of the most up-to-date accessible geological and geophysical data as well as some field works. Pairs of stereoscopic SPOT HRV images were used to generate digital elevation data with a 40 in grid cover for part of the Tarim Basin. Topographic contour maps, created from this digital elevation data, at scales of 1:250,000 and 1:100,000 with contour intervals of 100 m and 50 m, allowed us to make precise geological interpretation, and to carry out swift and efficient geological field work. Satellite imagery was also utilized to make medium scale to large scale image maps, not only to interpret geological features but also to support field workers and seismic survey field operations.

  16. Heat-affected zone liquation crack on resistance spot welded TWIP steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saha, Dulal Chandra [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, InSung [Automotive Production Development Division, Hyundai Motor Company (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Do, E-mail: ypark@deu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the heat affected zone (HAZ) liquation crack and segregation behavior of the resistance spot welded twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel have been reported. Cracks appeared in the post-welded joints that originated at the partially melted zone (PMZ) and propagated from the PMZ through the heat affected zone (HAZ) to the base metal (BM). The crack length and crack opening widths were observed increasing with heat input; and the welding current was identified to be the most influencing parameter for crack formation. Cracks appeared at the PMZ when nugget diameter reached at 4.50 mm or above; and the liquation cracks were found to occur along two sides of the notch tip in the sheet direction rather than in the electrode direction. Cracks were backfilled with the liquid films which has lamellar structure and supposed to be the eutectic constituent. Co-segregation of alloy elements such as, C and Mn were detected on the liquid films by electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) line scanning and element map which suggests that the liquid film was enrich of Mn and C. The eutectic constituent was identified by analyzing the calculated phase diagram along with thermal temperature history of finite element simulation. Preliminary experimental results showed that cracks have less/no significant effect on the static cross-tensile strength (CTS) and the tensile-shear strength (TSS). In addition, possible ways to avoid cracking were discussed. - Highlights: The HAZ liquation crack during resistance spot welding of TWIP steel was examined. Cracks were completely backfilled and healed with divorced eutectic secondary phase. Co-segregation of C and Mn was detected in the cracked zone. Heat input was the most influencing factor to initiate liquation crack. Cracks have less/no significant effect on static tensile properties.

  17. SU-D-BRE-03: Dosimetric Impact of In-Air Spot Size Variations for Commissioning a Room-Matched Beam Model for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y; Giebeler, A; Mascia, A; Piskulich, F; Perles, L; Lepage, R; Dong, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate dosimetric consequence of spot size variations and validate beam-matching criteria for commissioning a pencil beam model for multiple treatment rooms. Methods: A planning study was first conducted by simulating spot size variations to systematically evaluate dosimetric impact of spot size variations in selected cases, which was used to establish the in-air spot size tolerance for beam matching specifications. A beam model in treatment planning system was created using in-air spot profiles acquired in one treatment room. These spot profiles were also acquired from another treatment room for assessing the actual spot size variations between the two treatment rooms. We created twenty five test plans with targets of different sizes at different depths, and performed dose measurement along the entrance, proximal and distal target regions. The absolute doses at those locations were measured using ionization chambers at both treatment rooms, and were compared against the calculated doses by the beam model. Fifteen additional patient plans were also measured and included in our validation. Results: The beam model is relatively insensitive to spot size variations. With an average of less than 15% measured in-air spot size variations between two treatment rooms, the average dose difference was ?0.15% with a standard deviation of 0.40% for 55 measurement points within target region; but the differences increased to 1.4%1.1% in the entrance regions, which are more affected by in-air spot size variations. Overall, our single-room based beam model in the treatment planning system agreed with measurements in both rooms < 0.5% within the target region. For fifteen patient cases, the agreement was within 1%. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that dosimetrically equivalent machines can be established when in-air spot size variations are within 15% between the two treatment rooms.

  18. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Peter E; Thornton, Michele M; Mayer, Benjamin W; Wilhelmi, Nate; Wei, Yaxing; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Cook, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    More information: http://daymet.ornl.gov Presenter: Ranjeet Devarakonda Environmental Sciences Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data and Climatological Summaries provides gridded estimates of daily weather parameters for North America, including daily continuous surfaces of minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation occurrence and amount, humidity, shortwave radiation, snow water equivalent, and day length. The current data product (Version 2) covers the period January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2013 [1]. The prior product (Version 1) only covered from 1980-2008. Data are available on a daily time step at a 1-km x 1-km spatial resolution in Lambert Conformal Conic projection with a spatial extent that covers the conterminous United States, Mexico, and Southern Canada as meteorological station density allows. Daymet data can be downloaded from 1) the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) search and order tools (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/cart/add2cart.pl?add=1219) or directly from the DAAC FTP site (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1219) and 2) the Single Pixel Tool [2] and THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Data Services) Data Server [3]. The Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool allows users to enter a single geographic point by latitude and longitude in decimal degrees. A routine is executed that translates the (lon, lat) coordinates into projected Daymet (x,y) coordinates. These coordinates are used to access the Daymet database of daily-interpolated surface weather variables. Daily data from the nearest 1 km x 1 km Daymet grid cell are extracted from the database and formatted as a table with one column for each Daymet variable and one row for each day. All daily data for selected years are returned as a single (long) table, formatted for display in the browser window. At the top of this table is a link to the same data in a simple comma-separated text format, suitable for import into a

  19. Pool daily fuel scheduling. Volume 2: programming manual. Final report, February 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, C.K.; Mikolinnas, T.A.

    1981-02-01

    The results and efforts of research and development of methods for daily fuel scheduling performed under EPRI Project RP 1048-5 by Power Technologies, Inc. (PTI) are reported in three volumes: Technical Manual; Programming Manual and Program Listings. Daily fuel scheduling involves the scheduling and dispatching of generating facilities to meet all system loads and operating requirements for periods ranging from a day to a week. Daily fuel scheduling and computer requirements are defined. The scheduling problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) optimization problem in which the total system operating cost is minimized. A potentially practical scheduling procedure, based on a combination of search and MILP approaches, was proposed; these two approaches were investigated, coded in FORTRAN and tested individually. Tests using the New York Power Pool system show that the search approach may produce potential savings for fuel scheduling approaches. Additional efforts are needed to make the MILP approach practical. Finally, a number of special scheduling problems have been identified and recommended for future work. This volume of the report (Volume 2) is the Programming Manual which describes the organization and structure of the programs. Layout and function of data files, sample outputs and test data are also presented. Program organization and data for the search and MILP approaches are given. Preliminary test results, system data descriptions and sample outputs for the search approach are included in the appendices.

  20. SU-E-J-153: MRI Based, Daily Adaptive Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer: Contour Adaptation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleijnen, J; Burbach, M; Verbraeken, T; Weggers, R; Zoetelief, A; Reerink, O; Lagendijk, J; Raaymakers, B; Asselen, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A major hurdle in adaptive radiotherapy is the adaptation of the planning MRI's delineations to the daily anatomy. We therefore investigate the accuracy and time needed for online clinical target volume (CTV) adaptation by radiation therapists (RTT), to be used in MRI-guided adaptive treatments on a MRI-Linac (MRL). Methods: Sixteen patients, diagnosed with early stage rectal cancer, underwent a T2-weighted MRI prior to each fraction of short-course radiotherapy, resulting in 4–5 scans per patient. On these scans, the CTV was delineated according to guidelines by an experienced radiation oncologist (RO) and considered to be the gold standard. For each patient, the first MRI was considered as the planning MRI and matched on bony anatomy to the 3–4 daily MRIs. The planning MRI's CTV delineation was rigidly propagated to the daily MRI scans as a proposal for adaptation. Three RTTs in training started the adaptation of the CTV conform guidelines, after a two hour training lecture and a two patient (n=7) training set. To assess the inter-therapist variation, all three RTTs altered delineations of 3 patients (n=12). One RTT altered the CTV delineations (n=53) of the remaining 11 patients. Time needed for adaptation of the CTV to guidelines was registered.As a measure of agreement, the conformity index (CI) was determined between the RTTs' delineations as a group. Dice similarity coefficients were determined between delineations of the RTT and the RO. Results: We found good agreement between RTTs' and RO's delineations (average Dice=0.91, SD=0.03). Furthermore, the inter-observer agreement between the RTTs was high (average CI=0.94, SD=0.02). Adaptation time reduced from 10:33 min (SD= 3:46) to 2:56 min (SD=1:06) between the first and last ten delineations, respectively. Conclusion: Daily CTV adaptation by RTTs, seems a feasible and safe way to introduce daily, online MRI-based plan adaptation for a MRL.

  1. High explosive spot test analyses of samples from Operable Unit (OU) 1111

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McRae, D.; Haywood, W.; Powell, J.; Harris, B.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation has been completed of environmental contaminants at selected sites within the Group DX-10 (formally Group M-7) area. Soil samples taken from specific locations at this detonator facility were analyzed for harmful metals and screened for explosives. A sanitary outflow, a burn pit, a pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) production outflow field, an active firing chamber, an inactive firing chamber, and a leach field were sampled. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to obtain semi-quantitative concentrations of metals in the soil. Two field spot-test kits for explosives were used to assess the presence of energetic materials in the soil and in items found at the areas tested. PETN is the major explosive in detonators manufactured and destroyed at Los Alamos. No measurable amounts of PETN or other explosives were detected in the soil, but items taken from the burn area and a high-energy explosive (HE)/chemical sump were contaminated. The concentrations of lead, mercury, and uranium are given.

  2. Statistical Analysis of Microarray Data with Replicated Spots: A Case Study withSynechococcusWH8102

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas, E. V.; Phillippy, K. H.; Brahamsha, B.; Haaland, D. M.; Timlin, J. A.; Elbourne, L. D. H.; Palenik, B.; Paulsen, I. T.

    2009-01-01

    Until recently microarray experiments often involved relatively few arrays with only a single representation of each gene on each array. A complete genome microarray with multiple spots per gene (spread out spatially across the array) was developed in order to compare the gene expression of a marine cyanobacterium and a knockout mutant strain in a defined artificial seawater medium. Statistical methods were developed for analysis in the special situation of this case study where there is gene replication within an array and where relatively few arrays are used, which can be the case with current array technology. Due in partmoreto the replication within an array, it was possible to detect very small changes in the levels of expression between the wild type and mutant strains. One interesting biological outcome of this experiment is the indication of the extent to which the phosphorus regulatory system of this cyanobacterium affects the expression of multiple genes beyond those strictly involved in phosphorus acquisition.less

  3. DIESEL TRUCK IDLING EMISSIONS - MEASUREMENTS AT A PM2.5 HOT SPOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Miller, Terry L.; Storey, John Morse; Fu, Joshua S.; Hromis, Boris

    2007-01-01

    The University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a 5-month long air monitoring study at the Watt Road interchange on I-40 in Knoxville Tennessee where there are 20,000 heavy-duty trucks per day traveling the interstate. In addition, there are 3 large truck stops at this interchange where as many as 400 trucks idle engines at night. As a result, high levels of PM2.5 were measured near the interchange often exceeding National Ambient Air Quality Standards. This paper presents the results of the air monitoring study illustrating the hourly, day-of-week, and seasonal patterns of PM2.5 resulting from diesel truck emissions on the interstate and at the truck stops. Surprisingly, most of the PM2.5 concentrations occurred during the night when the largest contribution of emissions was from idling trucks rather than trucks on the interstate. A nearby background air monitoring site was used to identify the contribution of regional PM2.5 emissions which also contribute significantly to the concentrations measured at the site. The relative contributions of regional background, local truck idling and trucks on the interstate to local PM2.5 concentrations are presented and discussed in the paper. The results indicate the potential significance of diesel truck idling emissions to the occurrence of hot-spots of high PM2.5 concentrations near large truck stops, ports or border crossings.

  4. Statistical Analysis of Microarray Data with Replicated Spots: A Case Study with Synechococcus WH8102

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas, E. V.; Phillippy, K. H.; Brahamsha, B.; Haaland, D. M.; Timlin, J. A.; Elbourne, L. D. H.; Palenik, B.; Paulsen, I. T.

    2009-01-01

    Until recently microarray experiments often involved relatively few arrays with only a single representation of each gene on each array. A complete genome microarray with multiple spots per gene (spread out spatially across the array) was developed in order to compare the gene expression of a marine cyanobacterium and a knockout mutant strain in a defined artificial seawater medium. Statistical methods were developed for analysis in the special situation of this case study where there is gene replication within an array and where relatively few arrays are used, which can be the case with current array technology. Due in partmore » to the replication within an array, it was possible to detect very small changes in the levels of expression between the wild type and mutant strains. One interesting biological outcome of this experiment is the indication of the extent to which the phosphorus regulatory system of this cyanobacterium affects the expression of multiple genes beyond those strictly involved in phosphorus acquisition.« less

  5. EIA - Daily Report 9/16/05 - Hurricane Katrina's Impact on U.S. Oil &

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Energy Markets 16, 4:00 pm Hurricane Katrina in Perspective (see figures below) While the peak crude oil production loss from Hurricane Katrina was similar to Hurricane Ivan last year and even less than Hurricane Dennis earlier this year, the pace of restoration is expected to be much more similar to Hurricane Ivan than any of the other recent hurricanes. For example, while the peak daily loss in crude oil production during Hurricane Dennis was slightly more than suffered

  6. EIA - Daily Report 9/19/05 - Hurricane Katrina's Impact on U.S. Oil &

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Energy Markets Monday, September 19, 5:00 pm Hurricane Katrina in Perspective (see figures below). While the peak crude oil production loss from Hurricane Katrina was similar to 2004's Hurricane Ivan and even less than Hurricane Dennis earlier this year, the pace of restoration is expected to be much more similar to Hurricane Ivan than any of the other recent hurricanes. For example, while the peak daily loss in crude oil production during Hurricane Dennis was slightly more than

  7. Daily diaries of respiratory symptoms and air pollution: Methodological issues and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, J. ); Wypij, D.; Dockery D.; Ware, J.; Spengler, J.; Ferris, B. Jr. ); Zeger, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Daily diaries of respiratory symptoms are a powerful technique for detecting acute effects of air pollution exposure. While conceptually simple, these diary studies can be difficult to analyze. The daily symptom rates are highly correlated, even after adjustment for covariates, and this lack of independence must be considered in the analysis. Possible approaches include the use of incidence instead of prevalence rates and autoregressive models. Heterogeneity among subjects also induces dependencies in the data. These can be addressed by stratification and by two-stage models such as those developed by Korn and Whittemore. These approaches have been applied to two data sets: a cohort of school children participating in the Harvard Six Cities Study and a cohort of student nurses in Los Angeles. Both data sets provide evidence of autocorrelation and heterogeneity. Controlling for autocorrelation corrects the precision estimates, and because diary data are usually positively autocorrelated, this leads to larger variance estimates. Controlling for heterogeneity among subjects appears to increase the effect sizes for air pollution exposure. Preliminary results indicate associations between sulfur dioxide and cough incidence in children and between nitrogen dioxide and phlegm incidence in student nurses.

  8. Daily movements of female white-tailed deer relative to parturition and breeding.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gino J. D'Angelo; Christopher E. Comer; John C. Kilgo; Cory D. Drennan; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller

    2005-10-01

    Abstract: To assess how white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd demographics influence reproductive behaviors, we examined 24-h diel movements of female whitetailed deer relative to parturition and breeding in a low-density population with a near even sex ratio at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. We conducted a series of intensive, 24-h radio-tracking periods of 13 females during spring and fall 2002. We compared daily range (ha), rate of travel (m/h), and distance between extreme daily locations (m), among the periods of pre-parturition and post-parturition and pre-, peak-, and post-rut. From pre-parturition to post-parturition, we observed decreases in diel range size (?¢????38.2%), distance between extreme diel locations (?¢????17.0%), and diel rate of travel (?¢????18.2%). Diel range size, distance between extreme diel locations, and diel rate of travel during the pre-rut and rut exceeded those observed during post-rut. We further identified substantial increases in mobility during 12 24-h diel periods for eight females during our fall monitoring. Our data suggest that female white-tailed deer reduce mobility post-fawning following exaggerated movements during pre-parturition. Furthermore, despite a near equal sex ratio, estrous does may be required to actively seek potential mates due to low population density.

  9. Markov chain decomposition of monthly rainfall into daily rainfall: Evaluation of climate change impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Chulsang; Lee, Jinwook; Ro, Yonghun

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of climate change on daily rainfall, especially on the mean number of wet days and the mean rainfall intensity. Assuming that the mechanism of daily rainfall occurrences follows the first-order Markov chain model, the possible changes in the transition probabilities are estimated by considering the climate change scenarios. Also, the change of the stationary probabilities of wet and dry day occurrences and finally the change in the number of wet days are derived for the comparison of current (1x CO2) and 2x CO2conditions. As a result of this study, the increase or decrease in the mean number of wet days was found to be not enough to explain all of the change in monthly rainfall amounts, so rainfall intensity should also be modified. The application to the Seoul weather station in Korea shows that about 30% of the total change in monthly rainfall amount can be explained by the change in the number of wet days and the remaining 70% by the change in the rainfall intensity. That is, as an effect of climate change, the increase in the rainfall intensity could be more significant than the increase in the wet days and, thus, the risk of flood will be much highly increased.

  10. Markov chain decomposition of monthly rainfall into daily rainfall: Evaluation of climate change impact

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yoo, Chulsang; Lee, Jinwook; Ro, Yonghun

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of climate change on daily rainfall, especially on the mean number of wet days and the mean rainfall intensity. Assuming that the mechanism of daily rainfall occurrences follows the first-order Markov chain model, the possible changes in the transition probabilities are estimated by considering the climate change scenarios. Also, the change of the stationary probabilities of wet and dry day occurrences and finally the change in the number of wet days are derived for the comparison of current (1x CO2) and 2x CO2conditions. As a result of this study, the increase or decrease in themore » mean number of wet days was found to be not enough to explain all of the change in monthly rainfall amounts, so rainfall intensity should also be modified. The application to the Seoul weather station in Korea shows that about 30% of the total change in monthly rainfall amount can be explained by the change in the number of wet days and the remaining 70% by the change in the rainfall intensity. That is, as an effect of climate change, the increase in the rainfall intensity could be more significant than the increase in the wet days and, thus, the risk of flood will be much highly increased.« less

  11. Direct optical measurement of the on-shot incoherent focal spot and intensity contrast on the OMEGA EP laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dorrer, C.; Consentino, A.; Irwin, D.

    2016-05-18

    Characterizing the prepulse temporal contrast of optical pulses is required to understand their interaction with matter. Light with relatively low intensity can interact with the target before the main high-intensity pulse. Estimating the intensity contrast, instead of the spatially averaged power contrast, is important to understand intensity-dependent laser–matter interactions. A direct optical approach to determining the on-shot intensity of the incoherent pedestal on an aberrated high-intensity laser system is presented. The spatially resolved focal spot of the incoherent pedestal preceding the main coherent pulse and the intensity contrast are calculated using experimental data. Furthermore, this technique is experimentally validated onmore » one of the chirped pulse amplification beamlines of the OMEGA EP Laser System. The intensity contrast of a 1-kJ, 10-ps laser pulse is shown to be ~10× higher than the power contrast because of the larger spatial extent of the incoherent focal spot relative to the coherent focal spot.« less

  12. The net utility revenue impact of small power producing facilities operating under spot pricing policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacGregor, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The National Energy Act, in general, and Section 210 of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978 in particular, have dramatically stimulated increasing levels of independent non-utility power generation. As these levels of independent non-utility power generation increase, the electric utility is subjected to new and significant operational and financial impacts. One important concern is the net revenue impact on the utility which is the focus of the research discussed in this thesis and which is inextricably intertwined with the operational functions of the utility system. In general, non-utility generation, and specifically, cogeneration, impact utility revenues by affecting the structure and magnitude of the system load, the scheduling of utility generation, and the reliability of the composite system. These effects are examined by developing a comprehensive model non-utility independent power producing facilities, referenced as Small Power Producing Facilities, a cash-flow-based corporate model of the electric utility, a thermal plant based generation scheduling algorithm, and a system reliability evaluation. All of these components are integrated into an iterative closed loop solution algorithm to both assess and enhance the net revenue. In this solution algorithm, the spot pricing policy of the utility is the principal control mechanism in the process and the system reliability is the primary procedural constraint. A key issue in reducing the negative financial impact of non-utility generation is the possibility of shutting down utility generation units given sufficient magnitudes of non-utility generation in the system. A case study simulating the financial and system operations of the Georgia Power Company with representative cogeneration capacity and individual plant characteristics is analyzed in order to demonstrate the solution process.

  13. SU-E-T-552: Minimum Monitor Unit Effects On Plan Quality for Multi-Field Optimized Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, M; Beltran, C; Herman, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of the minimum monitor unit (MU) on the quality of clinical treatment plans for scanned proton therapy. Methods: Delivery system characteristics limit the minimum number of protons that can be delivered per spot, resulting in a min-MU limit. Plan quality can be impacted by the min-MU limit. Two sites were used to investigate the impact of min-MU on treatment plans: pediatric brain tumor at a depth of 5-10 cm; a head and neck tumor at a depth of 1-20 cm. Three field intensity modulated spot scanning proton plans were created for each site with the following parameter variations: min-MU limit range of 0.0000-0.0060; and spot spacing range of 0.5-2.0σ of the nominal spot size at isocenter in water (σ=4mm in this work). Comparisons were based on target homogeneity and normal tissue sparing. Results: The increase of the min-MU with a fixed spot spacing decreases plan quality both in homogeneous target coverage and in the avoidance of critical structures. Both head and neck and pediatric brain plans show a 20% increase in relative dose for the hot spot in the CTV and 10% increase in key critical structures when comparing min-MU limits of 0.0000 and 0.0060 with a fixed spot spacing of 1σ. The DVHs of CTVs show min-MU limits of 0.0000 and 0.0010 produce similar plan quality and quality decreases as the min-MU limit increases beyond 0.0020. As spot spacing approaches 2σ, degradation in plan quality is observed when no min-MU limit is imposed. Conclusion: Given a fixed spot spacing of ≤ 1σ of the spot size in water, plan quality decreases as min- MU increases greater than 0.0020. The effect of min-MU should be taken into consideration while planning spot scanning proton therapy treatments to realize its full potential.

  14. Daily treatment with {alpha}-naphthoflavone enhances follicular growth and ovulation rate in the rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barreiro, Karina A.; Di Yorio, Maria P.; Artillo-Guida, Romina D.; Paz, Dante A.; Faletti, Alicia G.

    2011-04-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and the first protein involved in a variety of physiological and toxicological processes, including those of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. AhR has been found in the ovary of many species and seems to mediate the ovarian toxicity of many environmental contaminants, which are AhR ligands. However, the role of AhR in the ovarian function is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the action of {alpha}-naphthoflavone ({alpha}NF), known to be an AhR antagonist, on both follicular growth and ovulation. Immature Sprague-Dawley rats were daily injected intraperitoneally with {alpha}NF (0.1-80 mg/kg) or vehicle for 12 days, and primed with gonadotrophins (eCG/hCG) to induce follicular growth and ovulation. Ovaries were obtained 20 h after hCG administration. By means of immunohistochemistry, we found that the numbers of primordial, primary and antral follicles were increased in rats treated with 80 mg/kg {alpha}NF and that there were no differences with other doses. Likewise, the ovarian weight and the ovulation rate, measured by both number of oocytes within oviducts and corpora lutea in ovarian sections, were increased when the rats received either 1 or 10 mg/kg daily. Although further studies are necessary to know the mechanism of action of {alpha}NF, it is possible that the different ovarian processes can be differentially responsive to the presence of different levels of {alpha}NF, and that the same or different endogenous AhR ligands can be involved in these ovarian processes in a cell type-dependent manner.

  15. SU-D-BRF-04: Digital Tomosynthesis for Improved Daily Setup in Treatment of Liver Lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, H; Jones, B; Miften, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Daily localization of liver lesions with cone-beam CT (CBCT) is difficult due to poor image quality caused by scatter, respiratory motion, and the lack of radiographic contrast between the liver parenchyma and the lesion(s). Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is investigated as a modality to improve liver visualization and lesion/parenchyma contrast for daily setup. Methods: An in-house tool was developed to generate DTS images using a point-by-point filtered back-projection method from on-board CBCT projection data. DTS image planes are generated in a user defined orientation to visualize the anatomy at various depths. Reference DTS images are obtained from forward projection of the planning CT dataset at each projection angle. The CBCT DTS image set can then be registered to the reference DTS image set as a means for localization. Contour data from the planning CT's associate RT Structure file and forward projected similarly to the planning CT data. DTS images are created for each contoured structure, which can then be overlaid onto the DTS images for organ volume visualization. Results: High resolution DTS images generated from CBCT projections show fine anatomical detail, including small blood vessels, within the patient. However, the reference DTS images generated from forward projection of the planning CT lacks this level of detail due to the low resolution of the CT voxels as compared to the pixel size in the projection images; typically 1mm-by-1mm-by-3mm (lat, vrt, lng) for the planning CT vs. 0.4mm-by-0.4mm for CBCT projections. Overlaying of the contours onto the DTS image allows for visualization of structures of interest. Conclusion: The ability to generate DTS images over a limited range of projection angles allows for reduction in the amount of respiratory motion within each acquisition. DTS may provide improved visualization of structures and lesions as compared to CBCT for highly mobile tumors.

  16. Temperature and Material Flow Prediction in Friction-Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High-Strength Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, Michael; Karki, U.; Hovanski, Yuri

    2014-10-01

    Friction-stir spot welding (FSSW) has been shown to be capable of joining advanced high-strength steel, with its flexibility in controlling the heat of welding and the resulting microstructure of the joint. This makes FSSW a potential alternative to resistance spot welding if tool life is sufficiently high, and if machine spindle loads are sufficiently low that the process can be implemented on an industrial robot. Robots for spot welding can typically sustain vertical loads of about 8 kN, but FSSW at tool speeds of less than 3000 rpm cause loads that are too high, in the range of 1114 kN. Therefore, in the current work, tool speeds of 5000 rpm were employed to generate heat more quickly and to reduce welding loads to acceptable levels. Si3N4 tools were used for the welding experiments on 1.2-mm DP 980 steel. The FSSW process was modeled with a finite element approach using the Forge* software. An updated Lagrangian scheme with explicit time integration was employed to predict the flow of the sheet material, subjected to boundary conditions of a rotating tool and a fixed backing plate. Material flow was calculated from a velocity field that is two-dimensional, but heat generated by friction was computed by a novel approach, where the rotational velocity component imparted to the sheet by the tool surface was included in the thermal boundary conditions. An isotropic, viscoplastic Norton-Hoff law was used to compute the material flow stress as a function of strain, strain rate, and temperature. The model predicted welding temperatures to within percent, and the position of the joint interface to within 10 percent, of the experimental results.

  17. Comparing bacterial community composition of healthy and dark spot-affected Siderastrea siderea in Florida and the Caribbean

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Gray, Michael A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Mormile, Melanie R.

    2014-10-07

    Coral disease is one of the major causes of reef degradation. Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS) was described in the early 1990's as brown or purple amorphous areas of tissue on a coral and has since become one of the most prevalent diseases reported on Caribbean reefs. It has been identified in a number of coral species, but there is debate as to whether it is in fact the same disease in different corals. Further, it is questioned whether these macroscopic signs are in fact diagnostic of an infectious disease at all. The most commonly affected species in the Caribbean ismore » the massive starlet coral Siderastrea siderea. We sampled this species in two locations, Dry Tortugas National Park and Virgin Islands National Park. Tissue biopsies were collected from both healthy colonies and those with dark spot lesions. Microbial-community DNA was extracted from coral samples (mucus, tissue, and skeleton), amplified using bacterial-specific primers, and applied to PhyloChip G3 microarrays to examine the bacterial diversity associated with this coral. Samples were also screened for the presence of a fungal ribotype that has recently been implicated as a causative agent of DSS in another coral species, but the amplifications were unsuccessful. S. siderea samples did not cluster consistently based on health state (i.e., normal versus dark spot). Various bacteria, including Cyanobacteria and Vibrios, were observed to have increased relative abundance in the discolored tissue, but the patterns were not consistent across all DSS samples. Overall, our findings do not support the hypothesis that DSS in S. siderea is linked to a bacterial pathogen or pathogens. This dataset provides the most comprehensive overview to date of the bacterial community associated with the scleractinian coral S. siderea.« less

  18. Experimental analysis of thermal performance of flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors in stationary standard and daily conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zambolin, E.; Del Col, D.

    2010-08-15

    New comparative tests on two different types of solar collectors are presented in this paper. A standard glazed flat plate collector and an evacuated tube collector are installed in parallel and tested at the same working conditions; the evacuated collector is a direct flow through type with external compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) reflectors. Efficiency in steady-state and quasi-dynamic conditions is measured following the standard and it is compared with the input/output curves measured for the whole day. The first purpose of the present work is the comparison of results in steady-state and quasi-dynamic test methods both for flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. Besides this, the objective is to characterize and to compare the daily energy performance of these two types of collectors. An effective mean for describing and analyzing the daily performance is the so called input/output diagram, in which the collected solar energy is plotted against the daily incident solar radiation. Test runs have been performed in several conditions to reproduce different conventional uses (hot water, space heating, solar cooling). Results are also presented in terms of daily efficiency versus daily average reduced temperature difference: this allows to represent the comparative characteristics of the two collectors when operating under variable conditions, especially with wide range of incidence angles. (author)

  19. Assessing Energy Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Significance of Daily Distance Variation over Time and Among Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on petroleum and electricity consumption is a necessary step toward effective policies. Variations in daily vehicle miles traveled (VMT) over time and among drivers affect PHEV energy impact, but the significance is not well understood. This paper uses a graphical illustration, a mathematical derivation, and an empirical study to examine the cause and significance of such an effect. The first two methods reveal that ignoring daily variation in VMT always causes underestimation of petroleum consumption and overestimation of electricity consumption by PHEVs; both biases increase as the assumed PHEV charge-depleting (CD) range moves closer to the average daily VMT. The empirical analysis based on national travel survey data shows that the assumption of uniform daily VMT over time and among drivers causes nearly 68% underestimation of expected petroleum use and nearly 48% overestimation of expected electricity use by PHEVs with a 40-mi CD range (PHEV40s). Also for PHEV40s, consideration of daily variation in VMT over time but not among drivers similar to the way the utility factor curve is derived in SAE Standard SAE J2841 causes underestimation of expected petroleum use by more than 24% and overestimation of expected electricity use by about 17%. Underestimation of petroleum use and overestimation of electricity use increase with larger-battery PHEVs.

  20. Magnetostatic focal spot correction for x-ray tubes operating in strong magnetic fields using iterative optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lillaney, Prasheel; Shin, Mihye; Conolly, Steven M.; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: Combining x-ray fluoroscopy and MR imaging systems for guidance of interventional procedures has become more commonplace. By designing an x-ray tube that is immune to the magnetic fields outside of the MR bore, the two systems can be placed in close proximity to each other. A major obstacle to robust x-ray tube design is correcting for the effects of the magnetic fields on the x-ray tube focal spot. A potential solution is to design active shielding that locally cancels the magnetic fields near the focal spot. Methods: An iterative optimization algorithm is implemented to design resistive active shielding coils that will be placed outside the x-ray tube insert. The optimization procedure attempts to minimize the power consumption of the shielding coils while satisfying magnetic field homogeneity constraints. The algorithm is composed of a linear programming step and a nonlinear programming step that are interleaved with each other. The coil results are verified using a finite element space charge simulation of the electron beam inside the x-ray tube. To alleviate heating concerns an optimized coil solution is derived that includes a neodymium permanent magnet. Any demagnetization of the permanent magnet is calculated prior to solving for the optimized coils. The temperature dynamics of the coil solutions are calculated using a lumped parameter model, which is used to estimate operation times of the coils before temperature failure. Results: For a magnetic field strength of 88 mT, the algorithm solves for coils that consume 588 A/cm{sup 2}. This specific coil geometry can operate for 15 min continuously before reaching temperature failure. By including a neodymium magnet in the design the current density drops to 337 A/cm{sup 2}, which increases the operation time to 59 min. Space charge simulations verify that the coil designs are effective, but for oblique x-ray tube geometries there is still distortion of the focal spot shape along with deflections of

  1. Oxygen chemisorption on Cu(19 19 1) studied by spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandstetter, T.; Draxler, M.; Hohage, M.; Zeppenfeld, P.

    2007-12-15

    Cu(110) and the vicinal Cu(19 19 1) surfaces were characterized by recording maps of the reciprocal space by means of spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). For both surfaces, kinematic simulations were performed to get insight into the main features of the experimental data. Furthermore, it is shown that chemisorption of oxygen and subsequent annealing lead to the formation of a Cu-CuO stripe phase and induce faceting of the Cu(19 19 1) surface. The evolution from the clean Cu(19 19 1) surface to the coexistence of the (110) and (111) facets with increasing oxygen exposure was characterized by SPA-LEED.

  2. Spot Scanning Proton Therapy for Malignancies of the Base of Skull: Treatment Planning, Acute Toxicities, and Preliminary Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosshans, David R.; Zhu, X. Ronald; Melancon, Adam; Allen, Pamela K.; Poenisch, Falk; Palmer, Matthew; McAleer, Mary Frances; McGovern, Susan L.; Gillin, Michael; DeMonte, Franco; Chang, Eric L.; Brown, Paul D.; Mahajan, Anita

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To describe treatment planning techniques and early clinical outcomes in patients treated with spot scanning proton therapy for chordoma or chondrosarcoma of the skull base. Methods and Materials: From June 2010 through August 2011, 15 patients were treated with spot scanning proton therapy for chordoma (n=10) or chondrosarcoma (n=5) at a single institution. Toxicity was prospectively evaluated and scored weekly and at all follow-up visits according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. Treatment planning techniques and dosimetric data were recorded and compared with those of passive scattering plans created with clinically applicable dose constraints. Results: Ten patients were treated with single-field-optimized scanning beam plans and 5 with multifield-optimized intensity modulated proton therapy. All but 2 patients received a simultaneous integrated boost as well. The mean prescribed radiation doses were 69.8 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]; range, 68-70 Gy [RBE]) for chordoma and 68.4 Gy (RBE) (range, 66-70) for chondrosarcoma. In comparison with passive scattering plans, spot scanning plans demonstrated improved high-dose conformality and sparing of temporal lobes and brainstem. Clinically, the most common acute toxicities included fatigue (grade 2 for 2 patients, grade 1 for 8 patients) and nausea (grade 2 for 2 patients, grade 1 for 6 patients). No toxicities of grades 3 to 5 were recorded. At a median follow-up time of 27 months (range, 13-42 months), 1 patient had experienced local recurrence and a second developed distant metastatic disease. Two patients had magnetic resonance imaging-documented temporal lobe changes, and a third patient developed facial numbness. No other subacute or late effects were recorded. Conclusions: In comparison to passive scattering, treatment plans for spot scanning proton therapy displayed improved high-dose conformality. Clinically, the treatment was well tolerated, and

  3. Bear Creek Valley Floodplain Hot Spot Removal Action Project Plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Bear Creek Valley Floodplain Hot Spot Removal Action Project Plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Y/ER-301) was prepared (1) to safely, cost-effectively, and efficiently evaluate the environmental impact of solid material in the two debris areas in the context of industrial land uses (as defined in the Bear Creek Valley Feasibility Study) to support the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Assessment and (2) to evaluate, define, and implement the actions to mitigate these impacts. This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.x.01.20.01.08.

  4. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but

  5. Online updating of context-aware landmark detectors for prostate localization in daily treatment CT images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Xiubin; Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: In image guided radiation therapy, it is crucial to fast and accurately localize the prostate in the daily treatment images. To this end, the authors propose an online update scheme for landmark-guided prostate segmentation, which can fully exploit valuable patient-specific information contained in the previous treatment images and can achieve improved performance in landmark detection and prostate segmentation. Methods: To localize the prostate in the daily treatment images, the authors first automatically detect six anatomical landmarks on the prostate boundary by adopting a context-aware landmark detection method. Specifically, in this method, a two-layer regression forest is trained as a detector for each target landmark. Once all the newly detected landmarks from new treatment images are reviewed or adjusted (if necessary) by clinicians, they are further included into the training pool as new patient-specific information to update all the two-layer regression forests for the next treatment day. As more and more treatment images of the current patient are acquired, the two-layer regression forests can be continually updated by incorporating the patient-specific information into the training procedure. After all target landmarks are detected, a multiatlas random sample consensus (multiatlas RANSAC) method is used to segment the entire prostate by fusing multiple previously segmented prostates of the current patient after they are aligned to the current treatment image. Subsequently, the segmented prostate of the current treatment image is again reviewed (or even adjusted if needed) by clinicians before including it as a new shape example into the prostate shape dataset for helping localize the entire prostate in the next treatment image. Results: The experimental results on 330 images of 24 patients show the effectiveness of the authors’ proposed online update scheme in improving the accuracies of both landmark detection and prostate segmentation

  6. Signal processing Model/Method for Recovering Acoustic Reflectivity of Spot Weld

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-09-08

    Until recently, U.S. auto manufacturers have inspected the veracity of welds in the auto bodies they build by using destructive tear-down, which typically results in more than $1 M of scrappage per plant per year. Much of this expense could possibly be avoided with a nondestructive technique (and 100% instead of 1% inspection could be achieved). Recent advances in ultrasound probes promise to provide a sufficiently accurate non-destructive evaluation technique, but the necessary signal processingmore » has not yet been developed. This disclosure describes a signal processing model and method useful for diagnosing the veracity of spot welds between two sheets of the same thickness from ultrasound signals Standard systems theory describes a signal as a convolution of a transducer function, h(t), and an impulse train (beta(t), tau(t)) [1] (see Eq. (1) attached). With a Gaussian wavelet as a transducer function, this model describes the signal from an ultrasound probe quite well, and the literature provides many methods for "deconvolution," for recovery of the impulse train from the signal [see e.g., 2-3]. What is novel about the technique disclosed is the model that describes the impulse train as a function of reflectivity, the share of energy incident on the interface that is reflected, and that allows the recovery of its estimated value. The reflectivity estimate provides an ideal indicator of weld veracity, compressing each signal into a single value between 0 and 1, which can then be displayed as a 2d greyscale or colormap of the weld. The model describing the system is attached as Eqs. (2). These equations account for the energy in the probe-side and opposite sheets. In each period, this energy is a sum of that reflected from the same sheet plus that transmitted from the opposite (dampened by material attenuation at rate a). This model is consistent with physical first principles (in particular the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics) and has been verified

  7. TH-C-18A-10: The Influence of Tube Current On X-Ray Focal Spot Size for 70 KV CT Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, X; Grimes, J; Yu, L; Leng, S; McCollough, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Focal spot blooming is an increase in the focal spot size at increased tube current and/or decreased tube potential. In this work, we evaluated the influence of tube current on the focal spot size at low kV for two CT systems, one of which used a tube designed to reduce blooming effects. Methods: A slit camera (10 micron slit) was used to measure focal spot size on two CT scanners from the same manufacturer (Siemens Somatom Force and Definition Flash) at 70 kV and low, medium and maximum tube currents, according to the capabilities of each system (Force: 100, 800 and 1300 mA; Flash: 100, 200 and 500 mA). Exposures were made with a stationary tube in service mode using a raised stand without table movement or flying focal spot technique. Focal spot size, nominally 0.8 and 1.2 mm, respectively, was measured parallel and perpendicular to the cathode-anode axis by calculating the full-width-at-half-maximum of the slit profile recording using computed radiographic plates. Results: Focal spot sizes perpendicular to the anode-cathode axis increased at the maximum mA by 5.7% on the Force and 39.1% on the Flash relative to that at the minimal mA, even though the mA was increased 13-fold on the Force and only 5- fold on the Flash. Focal spot size increased parallel to the anode-cathode axis by 70.4% on Force and 40.9% on Flash. Conclusion: For CT protocols using low kV, high mA is typically required. These protocols are relevant in children and smaller adults, and for dual-energy scanning. Technical measures to limit focal spot blooming are important in these settings to avoid reduced spatial resolution. The x-ray tube on a recently-introduced scanner appears to greatly reduce blooming effects, even at very high mA values. CHM has research support from Siemens Healthcare.

  8. Effects of Fusion Zone Size on Failure Modes and Performance of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds (2006-01-0531)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-03-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. The critical fusion zone sizes to ensure nugget pull-out failure mode are developed for both DP800 and TRIP800 using the limit load based analytical model and the micro-hardness measurements of the weld cross sections. Static weld strength tests using cross tension samples were performed on the joint populations with controlled fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that the conventional weld size of 4 t1/2 can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 materials. The results also suggest that performance based spot weld acceptance criteria should be developed for different AHSS spot welds.

  9. Demonstration of fuel hot-spot pressure in excess of 50 Gbar for direct-drive, layered deuterium-tritium implosions on OMEGA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Regan, S. P.; Goncharov, V. N.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Bose, A.; Boehly, T. R.; Bonino, M. J.; Campbell, E. M.; Cao, D.; et al

    2016-07-07

    A record fuel hot-spot pressure Phs = 56±7 Gbar was inferred from x-ray and nuclear diagnostics for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion cryogenic, layered deuterium–tritium implosions on the 60-beam, 30-kJ, 351-nm OMEGA Laser System. When hydrodynamically scaled to the energy of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), these implosions achieved a Lawson parameter ~60% of the value required for ignition [A. Bose et al., Phys. Rev. E (in press)], similar to indirect-drive implosions [R. Betti et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 255003 (2015)], and nearly half of the direct-drive ignition-threshold pressure. Relative to symmetric, one-dimensional simulations, the inferred hot-spot pressure is ~40%more » lower. Furthermore, three-dimensional simulations suggest that low-mode distortion of the hot spot seeded by laser-drive nonuniformity and target-positioning error reduces target performance.« less

  10. SU-E-T-133: Dosimetric Impact of Scan Orientation Relative to Target Motion During Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoker, J; Summers, P; Li, X; Gomez, D; Sahoo, N; Zhu, X; Gillin, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to evaluate the dosimetric effects of intra-fraction motion during spot scanning proton beam therapy as a function of beam-scan orientation and target motion amplitude. Method: Multiple 4DCT scans were collected of a dynamic anthropomorphic phantom mimicking respiration amplitudes of 0 (static), 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cm. A spot-scanning treatment plan was developed on the maximum intensity projection image set, using an inverse-planning approach. Dynamic phantom motion was continuous throughout treatment plan delivery.The target nodule was designed to accommodate film and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Film and TLDs were uniquely labeled by location within the target. The phantom was localized on the treatment table using the clinically available orthogonal kV on-board imaging device. Film inserts provided data for dose uniformity; TLDs provided a 3% precision estimate of absolute dose. An inhouse script was developed to modify the delivery order of the beam spots, to orient the scanning direction parallel or perpendicular to target motion.TLD detector characterization and analysis was performed by the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core group (IROC)-Houston. Film inserts, exhibiting a spatial resolution of 1mm, were analyzed to determine dose homogeneity within the radiation target. Results: Parallel scanning and target motions exhibited reduced target dose heterogeneity, relative to perpendicular scanning orientation. The average percent deviation in absolute dose for the motion deliveries relative to the static delivery was 4.9±1.1% for parallel scanning, and 11.7±3.5% (p<<0.05) for perpendicularly oriented scanning. Individual delivery dose deviations were not necessarily correlated to amplitude of motion for either scan orientation. Conclusions: Results demonstrate a quantifiable difference in dose heterogeneity as a function of scan orientation, more so than target amplitude. Comparison to the analyzed planar dose of a single

  11. Operational Experiences Tuning the ATF2 Final Focus Optics Towards Obtaining a 37nm Electron Beam IP Spot Size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Glen; Seryi, Andrei; Woodley, Mark; Bai, Sha; Bambade, Philip; Renier, Yves; Bolzon, Benoit; Kamiya, Yoshio; Komamiya, Sachio; Oroku, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Shigeru; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Marin, Eduardo; /CERN

    2012-07-06

    The primary aim of the ATF2 research accelerator is to test a scaled version of the final focus optics planned for use in next-generation linear lepton colliders. ATF2 consists of a 1.3 GeV linac, damping ring providing low-emittance electron beams (< 12pm in the vertical plane), extraction line and final focus optics. The design details of the final focus optics and implementation at ATF2 are presented elsewhere. The ATF2 accelerator is currently being commissioned, with a staged approach to achieving the design IP spot size. It is expected that as we implement more demanding optics and reduce the vertical beta function at the IP, the tuning becomes more difficult and takes longer. We present here a description of the implementation of the tuning procedures and describe operational experiences and performances.

  12. Spallation as a dominant source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot mix in inertial confinement fusion capsules

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Orth, Charles D.

    2016-02-23

    We suggest that a potentially dominant but previously neglected source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot “mix” may have been the main degradation mechanism for fusion energy yields of modern inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules designed and fielded to achieve high yields — not hydrodynamic instabilities. This potentially dominant mix source is the spallation of small chunks or “grains” of pusher material into the fuel regions whenever (1) the solid material adjacent to the fuel changes its phase by nucleation, and (2) this solid material spalls under shock loading and sudden decompression. Finally, we describe this mix mechanism, support it with simulationsmore » and experimental evidence, and explain how to eliminate it and thereby allow higher yields for ICF capsules and possibly ignition at the National Ignition Facility.« less

  13. Alignment Focus of Daily Image Guidance for Concurrent Treatment of Prostate and Pelvic Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferjani, Samah; Huang, Guangshun; Shang, Qingyang; Stephans, Kevin L.; Zhong, Yahua; Qi, Peng; Tendulkar, Rahul D.; Xia, Ping, E-mail: xiap@ccf.org

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the dosimetric impact of daily imaging alignment focus on the prostate soft tissue versus the pelvic bones for the concurrent treatment of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes (PLN) and to assess whether multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking or adaptive planning (ART) is necessary with the current clinical planning margins of 8 mm/6 mm posterior to the prostate and 5 mm to the PLN. Methods and Materials: A total of 124 kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) images from 6 patients were studied. For each KV-CBCT, 4 plans were retrospectively created using an isocenter shifting method with 2 different alignment focuses (prostate, PLN), an MLC shifting method, and the ART method. The selected dosimetric endpoints were compared among these plans. Results: For the isoshift contour, isoshift bone, MLC shift, and ART plans, D99 of the prostate was ?97% of the prescription dose in 97.6%, 73.4%, 98.4%, and 96.8% of 124 fractions, respectively. Accordingly, D99 of the PLN was ?97% of the prescription dose in 98.4%, 98.4%, 98.4%, and 100% of 124 fractions, respectively. For the rectum, D5 exceeded 105% of the planned D5 (and D5 of ART plans) in 11% (4%), 10% (2%), and 13% (5%) of 124 fractions, respectively. For the bladder, D5 exceeded 105% of the planned D5 (and D5 of ART) plans in 0% (2%), 0% (2%), and 0% (1%) of 124 fractions, respectively. Conclusion: For concurrent treatment of the prostate and PLN, with a planning margin to the prostate of 8 mm/6 mm posterior and a planning margin of 5 mm to the PLN, aligning to the prostate soft tissue can achieve adequate dose coverage to the both target volumes; aligning to the pelvic bone would result in underdosing to the prostate in one-third of fractions. With these planning margins, MLC tracking and ART methods have no dosimetric advantages.

  14. A Bivariate Mixed Distribution with a Heavy-tailed Component and its Application to Single-site Daily Rainfall Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Chao .; Singh, Vijay P.; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2013-02-06

    This paper presents an improved brivariate mixed distribution, which is capable of modeling the dependence of daily rainfall from two distinct sources (e.g., rainfall from two stations, two consecutive days, or two instruments such as satellite and rain gauge). The distribution couples an existing framework for building a bivariate mixed distribution, the theory of copulae and a hybrid marginal distribution. Contributions of the improved distribution are twofold. One is the appropriate selection of the bivariate dependence structure from a wider admissible choice (10 candidate copula families). The other is the introduction of a marginal distribution capable of better representing low to moderate values as well as extremes of daily rainfall. Among several applications of the improved distribution, particularly presented here is its utility for single-site daily rainfall simulation. Rather than simulating rainfall occurrences and amounts separately, the developed generator unifies the two processes by generalizing daily rainfall as a Markov process with autocorrelation described by the improved bivariate mixed distribution. The generator is first tested on a sample station in Texas. Results reveal that the simulated and observed sequences are in good agreement with respect to essential characteristics. Then, extensive simulation experiments are carried out to compare the developed generator with three other alternative models: the conventional two-state Markov chain generator, the transition probability matrix model and the semi-parametric Markov chain model with kernel density estimation for rainfall amounts. Analyses establish that overall the developed generator is capable of reproducing characteristics of historical extreme rainfall events and is apt at extrapolating rare values beyond the upper range of available observed data. Moreover, it automatically captures the persistence of rainfall amounts on consecutive wet days in a relatively natural and easy way

  15. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. The critical fusion zone sizes to ensure nugget pull-out failure mode are developed for both DP800 and TRIP800 using limit load based analytical model and micro-hardness measurements of the weld cross sections. Static weld strength tests using cross tension samples were performed on the joint populations with controlled fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 materials examined. The critical fusion zone size for nugget pullout shall be derived for individual materials based on different base metal properties as well as different heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld properties resulted from different welding parameters.

  16. Pool daily fuel scheduling. Volume 3: Program listings. Final report, February 1981. [START; MASTER; THCC; HYDR; PSTO; NFLA; LMTF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, C.K.; Mikolinnas, T.A.

    1981-02-01

    The results and efforts of research and development of methods for daily fuel scheduling performed under EPRI Project RP 1048-5 by Power Technologies, Inc. (PTI) are reported in three volumes: Technical Manual; Programming Manual and Program Listing. Daily fuel scheduling involves the scheduling and dispatching of generating facilities to meet all system loads and operating requirements for periods ranging from a day to a week. Daily fuel scheduling and computer requirements are defined. The scheduling problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) optimization problem in which the total system operating cost is minimized. A potentially practical scheduling procedure, based on a combination of search and MILP approaches, was proposed; these two approaches were investigated, coded in FORTRAN and tested individually. Tests using the New York Power Pool system show that the search approach may produce potential savings for fuel scheduling approaches. Additional efforts are needed to make the MILP approach practical. Finally, a number of special scheduling problems have been identified and recommended for future work. This volume of the report (Volume 3) gives the FORTRAN listings of the programs, which had been developed during the course of this project. In the programs, there may be certain statements and functions which could be specific to the PRIME computer system. Comments on them are provided.

  17. SU-D-304-05: Validation of Low-Dose-Tail Modeling for Proton Pencil Beam Spot Scanning Using a Quality Assurance Test Pattern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, L; Huang, S; Kang, M; Solberg, T; McDonough, J; Ainsley, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate the utility of a comprehensive test pattern in validating calculation models of the low-dose tails of proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) spots. Such a pattern has been used previously for quality assurance purposes to assess spot shape and location, and for determining monitor units. Methods: In this study, a scintillation detector was used to measure the test pattern in air at isocenter for two proton beam energies (115 and 225 MeV) of two IBA universal nozzles (UN). Planar measurements were compared with calculated dose distribution based on the weighted superposition of spot profiles previously measured using a pair-magnification method. Results: Including the halo component below 1% of the central dose is shown to improve the gamma-map comparison between calculation and measurement from 94.9% to 98.4% using 2 mm/2% criteria for the 115 MeV proton beam of UN #1. In contrast, including the halo component below 1% of the central dose does not improve the gamma agreement for the 115 MeV proton beam of UN #2, due to the cutoff of the halo component at off-axis locations. When location-dependent spot profiles are used for calculation instead of spot profiles at central axis, the gamma agreement is improved from 98.0% to 99.5% using 2 mm/2% criteria. The cutoff of the halo component is smaller at higher energies, and is not observable for the 225 MeV proton beam for UN #2. Conclusion: In conclusion, the use of a comprehensive test pattern can facilitate the validation of the halo component of proton PBS spots at off axis locations. The cutoff of the halo component should be taken into consideration for large fields or PBS systems that intend to trim spot profiles using apertures. This work was supported by the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command under Contract Agreement No. DAMD17-W81XWH-07-2-0121 and W81XWH-09-2-0174.

  18. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds under Lap Shear Loading Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) under lap shear loading condition. DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. Static weld strength tests using lap shear samples were performed on the joint populations with various fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with conventionally required fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 welds under lap shear loading. Moreover, failure mode has strong influence on weld peak load and energy absorption for all the DP800 welds and the TRIP800 small welds: welds failed in pullout mode have statistically higher strength and energy absorption than those failed in interfacial fracture mode. For TRIP800 welds above the critical fusion zone level, the influence of weld failure modes on peak load and energy absorption diminishes. Scatter plots of peak load and energy absorption versus weld fusion zone size were then constructed, and the results indicate that fusion zone size is the most critical factor in weld quality in terms of peak load and energy absorption for both DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds.

  19. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of Appropriate Resistance Spot Welding Practice for Transformation-Hardened Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Chuko; Jerry Gould

    2002-07-08

    This report describes work accomplished in the project, titled ''Development of Appropriate Resistance Spot Welding Practice for Transformation-Hardened Steels.'' The Phase 1 of the program involved development of in-situ temper diagrams for two gauges of representative dual-phase and martensitic grades of steels. The results showed that tempering is an effective way of reducing hold-time sensitivity (HTS) in hardenable high-strength sheet steels. In Phase 2, post-weld cooling rate techniques, incorporating tempering, were evaluated to reduce HTS for the same four steels. Three alternative methods, viz., post-heating, downsloping, and spike tempering, for HTS reduction were investigated. Downsloping was selected for detailed additional study, as it appeared to be the most promising of the cooling rate control methods. The downsloping maps for each of the candidate steels were used to locate the conditions necessary for the peak response. Three specific downslope conditions (at a fix ed final current for each material, timed for a zero-, medium-, and full-softening response) were chosen for further metallurgical and mechanical testing. Representative samples, were inspected metallographically, examining both local hardness variations and microstructures. The resulting downslope diagrams were found to consist largely of a C-curve. The softening observed in these curves, however, was not supported by subsequent metallography, which showed that all welds made, regardless of material and downslope condition, were essentially martensitic. CCT/TTT diagrams, generated based on microstructural modeling done at Oak Ridge National Laboratories, showed that minimum downslope times of 2 and 10 s for the martensitic and dual-phase grades of steels, respectively, were required to avoid martensite formation. These times, however, were beyond those examined in this study. These results show that downsloping is not an effective means of reducing HTS for production resistance spot

  20. Uranium Bioreduction Rates across Scales: Biogeochemical Hot Moments and Hot Spots during a Biostimulation Experiment at Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Chen; Wu, Hongfei; Li, Li; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2014-09-02

    We aim to understand the scale-dependent evolution of uranium bioreduction during a field experiment at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado. Acetate was injected to stimulate Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and to immobilize aqueous U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Bicarbonate was coinjected in half of the domain to mobilize sorbed U(VI). We used reactive transport modeling to integrate hydraulic and geochemical data and to quantify rates at the grid block (0.25 m) and experimental field scale (tens of meters). Although local rates varied by orders of magnitude in conjunction with biostimulation fronts propagating downstream, field-scale rates were dominated by those orders of magnitude higher rates at a few selected hot spots where Fe(III), U(VI), and FeRB were at their maxima in the vicinity of the injection wells. At particular locations, the hot moments with maximum rates negatively corresponded to their distance from the injection wells. Although bicarbonate injection enhanced local rates near the injection wells by a maximum of 39.4%, its effect at the field scale was limited to a maximum of 10.0%. We propose a rate-versus-measurement-length relationship (log R' = -0.63

  1. SU-D-BRE-02: Development and Commissioning of A Gated Spot Scanning Proton Beam Therapy System with Real-Time Tumor-Tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umegaki, K; Matsuura, T.; Takao, S.; Nihongi, H.; Yamada, T.; Miyamoto, N.; Shimizu, S.; Shirato, H.; Matsuda, K.; Nakamura, F.; Umezawa, M.; Hiramoto, K.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A novel Proton Beam Therapy system has been developed by integrating Real-Time Tumor-Tracking (RTRT) and discrete spot scanning techniques. The system dedicated for spot scanning delivers significant advantages for both clinical and economical points of view. The system has the ability to control dose distribution with spot scanning beams and to gate the beams from the synchrotron to irradiate moving tumors only when the actual positions of them are within the planned position. Methods: The newly designed system consists of a synchrotron, beam transport systems, a compact and rotating gantry system with robotic couch and two orthogonal sets of X-ray fluoroscopes. The fully compact design of the system has been realized by reducing the maximum energy of the beam to 220MeV, corresponding to 30g/cm2 range and the number of circulating protons per synchrotron operation cycle, due to higher beam utilization efficiency in spot scanning. To improve the irradiation efficiency in the integration of RTRT and spot scanning, a new control system has been developed to enable multiple gated irradiation per operation cycle according to the gating signals. After the completion of the equipment installation, beam tests and commissioning has been successfully performed. Results: The basic performances and beam characteristics through the synchrotron accelerator to iso-center have been confirmed and the performance test of the irradiation nozzle and whole system has been appropriately completed. CBCT image has been checked and sufficient quality was obtained. RTRT system has been demonstrated and realized accurate dose distributions for moving targets. Conclusion: The gated spot scanning Proton Beam Therapy system with Real-Time Tumor-Tracking has been developed, successfully installed and tested. The new system enables us to deliver higher dose to the moving target tumors while sparing surrounding normal tissues and to realize the compact design of the system and facility

  2. Plasmon Mapping in Metallic Nanostructures and its Application to Single Molecule Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering: Imaging Electromagnetic Hot-Spots and Analyte Location

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camden, Jon P

    2013-07-16

    A major component of this proposal is to elucidate the connection between optical and electron excitation of plasmon modes in metallic nanostructures. These accomplishments are reported: developed a routine protocol for obtaining spatially resolved, low energy EELS spectra, and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra from the same nanostructures.; correlated optical scattering spectra and plasmon maps obtained using STEM/EELS.; and imaged electromagnetic hot spots responsible for single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SMSERS).

  3. Building A Simulation Model For The Prediction Of Temperature Distribution In Pulsed Laser Spot Welding Of Dissimilar Low Carbon Steel 1020 To Aluminum Alloy 6061

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yousef, Adel K. M.; Taha, Ziad A.; Shehab, Abeer A.

    2011-01-17

    This paper describes the development of a computer model used to analyze the heat flow during pulsed Nd: YAG laser spot welding of dissimilar metal; low carbon steel (1020) to aluminum alloy (6061). The model is built using ANSYS FLUENT 3.6 software where almost all the environments simulated to be similar to the experimental environments. A simulation analysis was implemented based on conduction heat transfer out of the key hole where no melting occurs. The effect of laser power and pulse duration was studied.Three peak powers 1, 1.66 and 2.5 kW were varied during pulsed laser spot welding (keeping the energy constant), also the effect of two pulse durations 4 and 8 ms (with constant peak power), on the transient temperature distribution and weld pool dimension were predicated using the present simulation. It was found that the present simulation model can give an indication for choosing the suitable laser parameters (i.e. pulse durations, peak power and interaction time required) during pulsed laser spot welding of dissimilar metals.

  4. Development and Clinical Implementation of a Universal Bolus to Maintain Spot Size During Delivery of Base of Skull Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Both, Stefan; Shen, Jiajian; Kirk, Maura; Lin, Liyong; Tang, Shikui; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle; Lustig, Robert; Lin, Haibo; Deville, Curtiland; Hill-Kayser, Christine; Tochner, Zelig; McDonough, James

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To report on a universal bolus (UB) designed to replace the range shifter (RS); the UB allows the treatment of shallow tumors while keeping the pencil beam scanning (PBS) spot size small. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with brain cancers treated from 2010 to 2011 were planned using the PBS technique with bolus and the RS. In-air spot sizes of the pencil beam were measured and compared for 4 conditions (open field, with RS, and with UB at 2- and 8-cm air gap) in isocentric geometry. The UB was applied in our clinic to treat brain tumors, and the plans with UB were compared with the plans with RS. Results: A UB of 5.5 cm water equivalent thickness was found to meet the needs of the majority of patients. By using the UB, the PBS spot sizes are similar with the open beam (P>.1). The heterogeneity index was found to be approximately 10% lower for the UB plans than for the RS plans. The coverage for plans with UB is more conformal than for plans with RS; the largest increase in sparing is usually for peripheral organs at risk. Conclusions: The integrity of the physical properties of the PBS beam can be maintained using a UB that allows for highly conformal PBS treatment design, even in a simple geometry of the fixed beam line when noncoplanar beams are used.

  5. Quality of Life and Toxicity From Passively Scattered and Spot-Scanning Proton Beam Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugh, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Choi, Seungtaek; Nguyen, Quyhn Nhu; Mathai, Benson [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhu, X. Ron; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Amos, Richard A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California (United States); Mahmood, Usama; Kuban, Deborah A.; Frank, Steven J.; Hoffman, Karen E.; McGuire, Sean E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Andrew K., E-mail: aklee@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To report quality of life (QOL)/toxicity in men treated with proton beam therapy for localized prostate cancer and to compare outcomes between passively scattered proton therapy (PSPT) and spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT). Methods and Materials: Men with localized prostate cancer enrolled on a prospective QOL protocol with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up were reviewed. Comparative groups were defined by technique (PSPT vs SSPT). Patients completed Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaires at baseline and every 3-6 months after proton beam therapy. Clinically meaningful differences in QOL were defined as ?0.5 baseline standard deviation. The cumulative incidence of modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ?2 gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity and argon plasma coagulation were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: A total of 226 men received PSPT, and 65 received SSPT. Both PSPT and SSPT resulted in statistically significant changes in sexual, urinary, and bowel Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite summary scores. Only bowel summary, function, and bother resulted in clinically meaningful decrements beyond treatment completion. The decrement in bowel QOL persisted through 24-month follow-up. Cumulative grade ?2 GU and GI toxicity at 24 months were 13.4% and 9.6%, respectively. There was 1 grade 3 GI toxicity (PSPT group) and no other grade ?3 GI or GU toxicity. Argon plasma coagulation application was infrequent (PSPT 4.4% vs SSPT 1.5%; P=.21). No statistically significant differences were appreciated between PSPT and SSPT regarding toxicity or QOL. Conclusion: Both PSPT and SSPT confer low rates of grade ?2 GI or GU toxicity, with preservation of meaningful sexual and urinary QOL at 24 months. A modest, yet clinically meaningful, decrement in bowel QOL was seen throughout follow-up. No toxicity or QOL differences between PSPT and SSPT were identified. Long-term comparative results in a larger patient

  6. Spot-Hadoop

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-05-06

    Set of scripts (Python and Bash) to help users configure, run, and benchmark Hadoop clusters on ORNL computing infrastructure.

  7. ANNUAL TRILATERAL U.S. - EU - JAPAN CONFERENCE ON CRITICAL MATERIALS...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    November 4, 2014 LAB COMMISSION MEETING MINUTES Microsoft Word - USJapanREEagendaver7.doc Trans-Atlantic Workshop on Rare Earth Elements and Other Critical Materials for a ...

  8. Dallas County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporation NatEl Panda Energy International Inc Shermco Industries Inc Southridge Enterprises Southridge Ethanol SunFuel Midstream Tang Group Energy Ltd TransAtlantic Petroleum...

  9. Kaufman County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Group Meridian Biorefining Corporation Panda Energy International Inc Southridge Enterprises Southridge Ethanol SunFuel Midstream Tang Group Energy Ltd TransAtlantic Petroleum...

  10. Denton County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solutions NatEl Panda Energy International Inc Power Generating Inc Southridge Enterprises Southridge Ethanol SunFuel Midstream Sunluz Tang Group Energy Ltd TransAtlantic...

  11. Collin County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporation NCRC Energy Solutions Panda Energy International Inc Southridge Enterprises Southridge Ethanol SunFuel Midstream Tang Group Energy Ltd TransAtlantic Petroleum...

  12. Dallas, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Group Meridian Biorefining Corporation Panda Energy International Inc Southridge Enterprises Southridge Ethanol SunFuel Midstream Tang Group Energy Ltd TransAtlantic Petroleum...

  13. Rockwall County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Group Meridian Biorefining Corporation Panda Energy International Inc Southridge Enterprises Southridge Ethanol SunFuel Midstream Tang Group Energy Ltd TransAtlantic Petroleum...

  14. Identifying and Mitigating Potential Nutrient and Sediment Hot Spots under a Future Scenario in the Missouri River Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, May; Zhang, Zhonglong

    2015-09-01

    clearly attributable to the conversion of a large amount of land to switchgrass. The Middle Lower Missouri River and Lower Missouri River were identified as hot regions. Further analysis identified four subbasins (10240002, 10230007, 10290402, and 10300200) as being the most vulnerable in terms of sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus loadings. Overall, results suggest that increasing the amount of switchgrass acreage in the hot spots should be considered to mitigate the nutrient loads. The study provides an analytical method to support stakeholders in making informed decisions that balance biofuel production and water sustainability.

  15. SU-E-T-86: Comparison of Two Commercially Available Programs for the Evaluation of Delivered Daily Dose Using Cone Beam CT (CBCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuohy, R; Bosse, C; Mavroidis, P; Shi, Z; Crownover, R; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In this study, two commercially available programs were compared for the evaluation of delivered daily dose using cone beam CT (CBCT). Methods: Thirty (n=30) patients previously treated in our clinic (10 prostate, 10 SBRT lung and 10 abdomen) were used in this study. The patients' plans were optimized and calculated using the Pinnacle treatment planning system. The daily CBCT scans were imported into Velocity and RayStation along with the corresponding planning CTs, structure sets and 3D dose distributions for each patient. The organs at risk (OAR) were contoured on each CBCT by the prescribing physician and were included in the evaluation of the daily delivered dose. Each CBCT was registered to the planning CT, once with rigid registration and then again, separately, with deformable registration. After registering each CBCT, the dose distribution from the planning CT was overlaid and the dose volume histograms (DVH) for the OAR and the planning target volumes (PTV) were calculated. Results: For prostate patients, we observed daily volume changes for the OARs. The DVH analysis for those patients showed variation in the sparing of the OARs while PTV coverage remained virtually unchanged using both Velocity and RayStation systems. Similar results were observed for abdominal patients. In contrast, for SBRT lung patients, the DVH for the OARs and target were comparable to those from the initial treatment plan. Differences in organ volume and organ doses were also observed when comparing the daily fractions using deformable and rigid registrations. Conclusion: By using daily CBCT dose reconstruction, we proved PTV coverage for prostate and abdominal targets is adequate. However, there is significant dosimetric change for the OARs. For lung SBRT patients, the delivered daily dose for both PTV and OAR is comparable to the planned dose with no significant differences.

  16. NIAMEY DAILY RAINFALL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2006 -2 -1 0 1 +2 +3 Average Normalized Departure () Time series (1941-2006) of normalized April-October rainfall departures () for Niamey (2.1666 o E, 13.4833 o N) in Niger...

  17. ARM - Daily Report Archive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... We are back in full operation, just in time for possible ... The new Seasoar steering wing and rudder received its first ... the desiccant indicator is red confirming that the inside ...

  18. Comparing bacterial community composition of healthy and dark spot-affected Siderastrea siderea in Florida and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Gray, Michael A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Mormile, Melanie R.

    2014-10-07

    Coral disease is one of the major causes of reef degradation. Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS) was described in the early 1990's as brown or purple amorphous areas of tissue on a coral and has since become one of the most prevalent diseases reported on Caribbean reefs. It has been identified in a number of coral species, but there is debate as to whether it is in fact the same disease in different corals. Further, it is questioned whether these macroscopic signs are in fact diagnostic of an infectious disease at all. The most commonly affected species in the Caribbean is the massive starlet coral Siderastrea siderea. We sampled this species in two locations, Dry Tortugas National Park and Virgin Islands National Park. Tissue biopsies were collected from both healthy colonies and those with dark spot lesions. Microbial-community DNA was extracted from coral samples (mucus, tissue, and skeleton), amplified using bacterial-specific primers, and applied to PhyloChip G3 microarrays to examine the bacterial diversity associated with this coral. Samples were also screened for the presence of a fungal ribotype that has recently been implicated as a causative agent of DSS in another coral species, but the amplifications were unsuccessful. S. siderea samples did not cluster consistently based on health state (i.e., normal versus dark spot). Various bacteria, including Cyanobacteria and Vibrios, were observed to have increased relative abundance in the discolored tissue, but the patterns were not consistent across all DSS samples. Overall, our findings do not support the hypothesis that DSS in S. siderea is linked to a bacterial pathogen or pathogens. This dataset provides the most comprehensive overview to date of the bacterial community associated with the scleractinian coral S. siderea.

  19. Method based on atomic photoionization for spot-size measurement on focused soft x-ray free-electron laser beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorokin, A. A.; Gottwald, A.; Hoehl, A.; Kroth, U.; Schoeppe, H.; Ulm, G.; Richter, M.; Bobashev, S. V.; Domracheva, I. V.; Smirnov, D. N.; Tiedtke, K.; Duesterer, S.; Feldhaus, J.; Hahn, U.; Jastrow, U.; Kuhlmann, M.; Nunez, T.; Ploenjes, E.; Treusch, R.

    2006-11-27

    A method has been developed and applied to measure the beam waist and spot size of a focused soft x-ray beam at the free-electron laser FLASH of the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron in Hamburg. The method is based on a saturation effect upon atomic photoionization and represents an indestructible tool for the characterization of powerful beams of ionizing electromagnetic radiation. At the microfocus beamline BL2 at FLASH, a full width at half maximum focus diameter of (15{+-}2) {mu}m was determined.

  20. SU-E-T-453: A Novel Daily QA System for Robotic Image Guided Radiosurgery with Variable Aperture Collimator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, L; Nelson, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A novel end-to-end system using a CCD camera and a scintillator based phantom that is capable of measuring the beam-by-beam delivery accuracy of Robotic Radiosurgery has been developed and reported in our previous work. This work investigates its application to end-to-end type daily QA for Robotic Radiosurgery (Cyberknife) with Variable Aperture Collimator (Iris). Methods: The phantom was first scanned with a CT scanner at 0.625 slice thickness and exported to the Cyberknife Muliplan (v4.6) treatment planning system. An isocentric treatment plan was created consisting of ten beams of 25 Monitor Units each using Iris apertures of 7.5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm. The plan was delivered six times in two days on the Cyberknife G4 system with fiducial tracking on the four metal fiducials embedded in phantom with re-positioning between the measurements. The beam vectors (X, Y, Z) are measured and compared with the plan from the machine delivery file (XML file). The Iris apertures (FWHM) were measured from the beam flux map and compared with the commissioning data. Results: The average beam positioning accuracies of the six deliveries are 0.71 0.40 mm, 0.72 0.44 mm, 0.74 0.42 mm, 0.70 0.40 mm, 0.79 0.44 mm and 0.69 0.41 mm respectively. Radiation beam width (FWHM) variations are within 0.05 mm, and they agree with the commissioning data within 0.22 mm. The delivery time for the plan is about 7 minutes and the results are given instantly. Conclusion: The experimental results agree with stated sub-millimeter delivery accuracy of Cyberknife system. Beam FWHM variations comply with the 0.2 mm accuracy of the Iris collimator at SAD. The XRV-100 system has proven to be a powerful tool in performing end-to-end type tests for Robotic Image Guided Radiosurgery Daily QA.

  1. Benchmarking of a treatment planning system for spot scanning proton therapy: Comparison and analysis of robustness to setup errors of photon IMRT and proton SFUD treatment plans of base of skull meningioma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harding, R.; Trnková, P.; Lomax, A. J.; Weston, S. J.; Lilley, J.; Thompson, C. M.; Cosgrove, V. P.; Short, S. C.; Loughrey, C.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Base of skull meningioma can be treated with both intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and spot scanned proton therapy (PT). One of the main benefits of PT is better sparing of organs at risk, but due to the physical and dosimetric characteristics of protons, spot scanned PT can be more sensitive to the uncertainties encountered in the treatment process compared with photon treatment. Therefore, robustness analysis should be part of a comprehensive comparison between these two treatment methods in order to quantify and understand the sensitivity of the treatment techniques to uncertainties. The aim of this work was to benchmark a spot scanning treatment planning system for planning of base of skull meningioma and to compare the created plans and analyze their robustness to setup errors against the IMRT technique. Methods: Plans were produced for three base of skull meningioma cases: IMRT planned with a commercial TPS [Monaco (Elekta AB, Sweden)]; single field uniform dose (SFUD) spot scanning PT produced with an in-house TPS (PSI-plan); and SFUD spot scanning PT plan created with a commercial TPS [XiO (Elekta AB, Sweden)]. A tool for evaluating robustness to random setup errors was created and, for each plan, both a dosimetric evaluation and a robustness analysis to setup errors were performed. Results: It was possible to create clinically acceptable treatment plans for spot scanning proton therapy of meningioma with a commercially available TPS. However, since each treatment planning system uses different methods, this comparison showed different dosimetric results as well as different sensitivities to setup uncertainties. The results confirmed the necessity of an analysis tool for assessing plan robustness to provide a fair comparison of photon and proton plans. Conclusions: Robustness analysis is a critical part of plan evaluation when comparing IMRT plans with spot scanned proton therapy plans.

  2. Semi volatile organic compounds in ambient PM2.5. Seasonal trends and daily resolved source contributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juergen Schnelle-Kreis; Martin Sklorz; Juergen Orasche; Matthias Stoelzel; Annette Peters; Ralf Zimmermann

    2007-06-01

    Concentrations of ambient semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) in the PM2.5 fraction of Augsburg, Germany, have been monitored on a daily basis from January 2003 through December 2004. Samples were taken in a large garden in the city center. Quantitative analysis of n-alkanes, alkanones, alkanoic acid methylesters, long chain linear alkyl benzenes and toluenes, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and oxidized PAH, and some abietan type diterpenes was done. All compounds showed distinct seasonal variations in concentration. Most compounds showed highest concentrations during the cold seasons, but some n-alkanones and 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecanone showed maximum concentration during summer. Changes in patterns between and within compound classes were obvious, e.g., the hopane pattern exhibited a strong seasonal variation. The main source related contributions to changes observed were discussed. Using positive matrix factorization (PMF) for the statistical investigation of the data set, five factors have been separated. These factors are dominated by the pattern of single sources or groups of similar sources: factor 1, lubricating oil; factor 2, emissions of unburned diesel and heating oil consumption; factor 3, wood combustion; factor 4, brown coal combustion; and factor 5, biogenic emissions and transport components. Like the SVOC, the factors showed strong seasonality with highest values in winter for factors 1-4 and in summer for factor 5. 56 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

  4. Microstructural characterization and mechanical properties of high power ultrasonic spot welded aluminum alloy AA6111–TiAl6V4 dissimilar joints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, C.Q. Robson, J.D.; Ciuca, O.; Prangnell, P.B.

    2014-11-15

    Aluminum alloy AA6111 and TiAl6V4 dissimilar alloys were successfully welded by high power ultrasonic spot welding. No visible intermetallic reaction layer was detected in as-welded AA6111/TiAl6V4 welds, even when transmission electron microscopy was used. The effects of welding time and natural aging on peak load and fracture energy were investigated. The peak load and fracture energy of welds increased with an increase in welding time and then reached a plateau. The lap shear strength (peak load) can reach the same level as that of similar Al–Al joints. After natural aging, the fracture mode of welds transferred from ductile fracture of the softened aluminum to interfacial failure due to the strength recovery of AA6111. - Highlights: • Dissimilar Al/Ti welds were produced by high power ultrasonic spot welding. • No visible intermetallic reaction layer was detected on weld interface. • The lap shear strength can reach the same level as that of similar Al–Al joints. • The fracture mode becomes interfacial failure after natural aging.

  5. Daily growth increments in otoliths of juvenile black rockfish, Sebastes melanops: an evaluation of autoradiography as a new method of validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This study evaluates the commonly used oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC) and an alternate chemical, the radioisotope calcium-45, in terms of their success as time-markers to validate daily growth increment formation in the otoliths of juvenile black rockfish, Sebastes melanops.

  6. Vacuum arc with a distributed cathode spot as a plasma source for plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amirov, R. Kh. Vorona, N. A.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Lizyakin, G. D.; Polishchuk, V. P.; Samoilov, I. S.; Smirnov, V. P.; Usmanov, R. A.; Yartsev, I. M.

    2015-10-15

    Results from experimental studies of a vacuum arc with a distributed cathode spot on the heated cathode are presented. Such an arc can be used as a plasma source for plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. The experiments were performed with a gadolinium cathode, the properties of which are similar to those of an uranium arc cathode. The heat flux from the plasma to the cathode (and its volt equivalent) at discharge voltages of 4-15 V and discharge currents of 44-81 A, the radial distribution of the emission intensity of gadolinium atoms and singly charged ions in the arc channel at a voltage of 4.3 V, and the plasma electron temperature behind the anode were measured. The average charge of plasma ions at arc voltages of 3.5-8 V and a discharge current of 52 A and the average rate of gadolinium evaporation in the discharge were also determined.

  7. Prospective Trial of High-Dose Reirradiation Using Daily Image Guidance With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Recurrent and Second Primary Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Cheng, Suzan; Donald, Paul J.; Purdy, James A.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To report a single-institutional experience using intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image-guided radiotherapy for the reirradiation of recurrent and second cancers of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one consecutive patients were prospectively treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy from February 2006 to March 2009 to a median dose of 66 Gy (range, 60-70 Gy). None of these patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Daily helical megavoltage CT scans were obtained before each fraction as part of an image-guided radiotherapy registration protocol for patient alignment. Results: The 1- and 2-year estimates of in-field control were 72% and 65%, respectively. A total of 651 daily megavoltage CT scans were obtained. The mean systematic shift to account for interfraction motion was 1.38 {+-} 1.25 mm, 1.79 {+-} 1.45 mm, and 1.98 {+-} 1.75 mm for the medial-lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. Pretreatment shifts of >3 mm occurred in 19% of setups in the medial-lateral, 27% in the superior-inferior, and 33% in the anterior-posterior directions, respectively. There were no treatment-related fatalities or hospitalizations. Complications included skin desquamation, odynophagia, otitis externa, keratitis, naso-lacrimal duct stenosis, and brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image guidance results in effective disease control with relatively low morbidity and should be considered for selected patients with recurrent and second primary cancers of the head and neck.

  8. Unprotected daily sun exposure is differently associated with central adiposity and beta-cell dysfunction by gender: The Korean national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES) V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohn, Jung Hun; Kwon, In Ho; Park, Juri; Ryu, Ohk Hyun; Lee, Seong Jin; Kim, Doo-Man; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Hong, Eun-Gyoung

    2014-08-15

    Background: Ultraviolet irradiation by sun exposure has been associated with both harms and benefits to metabolic health. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether unprotected daily sun exposure is associated with the prevalence of diabetes and explore the underlying mechanism. Methods: We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey V from 2010 to 2011. Participants 19–60 years of age were asked about the average amount of time they had been exposed to direct sunlight per day since the age of 19. We categorized participants into three groups with different levels of lifetime daily sun exposure and explored the association of sun exposure with the prevalence of diabetes. Results: The risk of diabetes was higher in subjects with more than 5 h of unprotected sun exposure per day, with an odds ratio of 2.39 (95% CI 1.75–3.25), compared to those with less than 2 h of sun exposure, and the association remained significant after adjusting for diabetes risk factors. Long-term sun exposure was associated with increased central obesity and the possibility of an increase in visceral adiposity, especially among women, and with decrease in beta cell function and peripheral adiposity or percent body fat in men. Conclusions: Our study provides a cutoff for upper limit of sun exposure and suggests unprotected daily sun exposure for more than 5 h should be avoided to prevent diabetes. Increased central adiposity and decreased beta cell function were observed in women and men, respectively, who had long-term unprotected daily sun exposure. - Highlights: • Sun exposure for more than 5 h per day is associated with diabetes risk. • Insulin resistance associated with visceral adiposity may play a role in women. • Insulin secretory defect may explain diabetes risk in men.

  9. sup 40 Ar/ sup 39 laser-probe dating by step heating and spot fusion of phengites from the Dora Maira nappe of the western Alps, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scaillet, S.; Feraud, G. ); Lagabrielle, Y. ); Ballevre, M.; Ruffet, G. )

    1990-08-01

    {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar laser-probe dating of phengitic micas has been carried out by step-heating and spot-fusion procedures. These micas represent successive deformation stages in the structural evolution of the internal Dora Maira nappe, western Alps. Single phengites from a gneiss affected by a single ductile strain under retrogressive conditions (sample 99.1) display complete isotopic resetting with nearly homogeneous intracrystalline Ar distribution and yield plateau ages of about 40 Ma. Small clusters of phengites from an earlier foliation were selected from a polydeformed mica schist (sample PTX3). They show a partial isotopic resetting in response to overprinting during the retrogressive deformation stage with a concentric age zoning from 68 Ma on the rim to 87 Ma in the core one cleavage plane. This zonation is fully consistent with the laser-derived discordant age spectrum, which ranges from 40 to 90 Ma from low to high temperatures. According to the deformation history of both samples, these preliminary data suggest a deformation control on Ar migration during recrystallization processes, and they are consistent with the timing of the collisional evolution previously reported for southern Dora Maira units. This study shows that the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar continuous laser-probe dating technique produces data accurate enough to discriminate several tectonometamorphic episodes recorded in single hand samples.

  10. Regions for Select Spot Prices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are used to represent the following regions: Region Gas Point Used Power Point Used New England Algonquin Citygate Massachusetts Hub (ISONE) New York City Transco Zone 6-NY...