National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for daily average pad

  1. A preliminary study of the linear relationship between monthly averaged daily solar radiation and daily thermal amplitude in the north of Buenos Aires provence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cionco, R; Rodriguez, R

    2012-01-01

    Using irradiance and temperature measurements obtained at the Facultad Regional San Nicol\\'as of UTN, we performed a preliminary study of the linear relationship between monthly averaged daily solar radiation and daily thermal amplitude. The results show a very satisfactory adjustment (R = 0.848, RMS = 0.066, RMS% = 9.690 %), even taking into account the limited number of months (36). Thus, we have a formula of predictive nature, capable of estimating mean monthly solar radiation for various applications. We expect to have new data sets to expand and improve the statistical significance of these results.

  2. CyclePad Help System CyclePad License

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    of Library Examples of Cycles Simple Steam Rankine Cycle Simple Refrigerator Cycle Basic Gas Turbine Cycle Steam Cycle with Reheat Combined Gas Turbine & Rankine Cycle Basic Engineering Thermodynamics Tables Turbine Compressor Pump Heater Cooler Heat Exchanger Throttle #12;CyclePad Help System 4 Splitter

  3. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1996 January ... 94.6 96.1 94.5 93.0 92.0 89.1 94.9 92.6 94.7 111.7 February ... 95.9 97.5 96.2 93.2 93.8 90.8 95.6 93.7 94.4 112.9...

  4. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1997 January ... 107.9 109.0 108.6 105.2 106.5 102.1 107.0 104.4 106.5 130.4 February ... 105.1 106.0 105.2 102.2 103.4 101.0 104.5...

  5. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 1993 January ........................... 94.3

  6. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 1993 January ........................... 94.3

  7. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 1993 January ........................... 94.3

  8. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 1993 January ........................... 94.3

  9. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA - 2008 1993 January ........................... 94.3

  10. Coherent Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien M. E. Frasse; Daniel Braun

    2015-04-13

    We investigate in detail a recently introduced "coherent averaging scheme" in terms of its usefulness for achieving Heisenberg limited sensitivity in the measurement of different parameters. In the scheme, $N$ quantum probes in a product state interact with a quantum bus. Instead of measuring the probes directly and then averaging as in classical averaging, one measures the quantum bus or the entire system and tries to estimate the parameters from these measurement results. Combining analytical results from perturbation theory and an exactly solvable dephasing model with numerical simulations, we draw a detailed picture of the scaling of the best achievable sensitivity with $N$, the dependence on the initial state, the interaction strength, the part of the system measured, and the parameter under investigation.

  11. Notes 16. Analysis of tilting pad bearings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    San Andres, Luis

    2010-01-01

    affecting tilting pad bearing force coefficients include elastic deformation of the bearing pads and pivots, thermal effects affecting the lubricant viscosity and film clearance, etc. [2,3]. ? Pad Pivot Journal Y X ? Journal speed NOTES 16... is assumed rigid. Journal motion perturbation analysis The bearing supports a static load with components { } YoXo WW , . At speed ?, the static load determines operation with the journal at its static equilibrium position ( YoXo ee ,). At equilibrium...

  12. Sandia Energy - Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Test Pad (ESTP) Home Energy Permalink Gallery Evaluating Powerful Batteries for Modular Electric Grid Energy Storage Energy, Energy Storage, Energy Storage Systems, Energy...

  13. SEP Success Story: "Green Launching Pad" Supports Clean Energy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    "Green Launching Pad" Supports Clean Energy Small Businesses SEP Success Story: "Green Launching Pad" Supports Clean Energy Small Businesses May 24, 2012 - 5:10pm Addthis Green...

  14. SEP Success Story: Green Launching Pad Taps Six More Companies...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Green Launching Pad Taps Six More Companies for Take-off SEP Success Story: Green Launching Pad Taps Six More Companies for Take-off April 29, 2011 - 9:58am Addthis Yesterday, U.S....

  15. A Computational Model for Tilting Pad Journal Bearings with Pad Flexibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yingkun

    2015-07-17

    Tilting pad journal bearings (TPJBs) supporting rotors for high performance turbomachinery have undergone steady design improvements to satisfy more stringent operating conditions that include large specific loads due to smaller footprints, and high...

  16. One-time pad booster for Internet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geraldo A. Barbosa

    2007-04-11

    One-time pad encrypted files can be sent through Internet channels using current Internet protocols. However, the need for renewing shared secret keys make this method unpractical. This work shows how users can use a fast physical random generator based on fluctuations of a light field and the Internet channel to directly boost key renewals. The transmitted signals are deterministic but carries imprinted noise that cannot be eliminated by the attacker. Thus, a one-time pad for Internet can be made practical. Security is achieved without third parties and not relying on the difficulty of factoring numbers in primes. An informational fragility to be avoided is discussed. Information-theoretic analysis is presented and bounds for secure operation are determined.

  17. SPACE DAILY SPACE WAR TERRA DAILY MARS DAILY SPACE MART SPACE TRAVEL World's Smallest Universal Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    SPACE DAILY SPACE WAR TERRA DAILY MARS DAILY SPACE MART SPACE TRAVEL NANO TECH World's Smallest, professor of mechanical Get Our Free Newsletters Via Email Space - War - Earth - Energy - China your email yes Search All Of Our Sites In One Search SpaceDaily - SpaceWar - TerraDaily Search Horacio D

  18. Metal pad instabilities in liquid metal batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zikanov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    A mechanical analogy is used to analyze the interaction between the magnetic field, electric current and deformation of interfaces in liquid metal batteries. It is found that, during charging or discharging, a sufficiently large battery is prone to instabilities of two types. One is similar to the metal pad instability known for aluminum reduction cells. Another type is new. It is related to the destabilizing effect of the Lorentz force formed by the azimuthal magnetic field induced by the base current and the current perturbations caused by the local variations of the thickness of the electrolyte layer.

  19. SEP Success Story: "Green Launching Pad" Supports Clean Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    New Hampshire Photographic Services A commercialization partnership funded by the State Energy Program - known as the Green Launching Pad program -- is a joint effort by the New...

  20. Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 39. No. 2 Distillate a Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States b (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes)...

  1. Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 39. No. 2 Distillate a Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States b (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes)...

  2. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  3. WSU Professional & Academic Development (PAD) Seminar Series Winter 2015 Offerings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    for Interdisciplinary Development, Division of Research THU | APRIL 23, 2015 PAD Seminar Conflict Management 1:00pmWSU Professional & Academic Development (PAD) Seminar Series Winter 2015 Offerings The offices this free career development seminar series for WSU faculty, chairs & directors, postdoctoral trainees

  4. Rotordynamic and thermal analyses of compliant flexure pivot tilting pad gas bearings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Kyu-Ho

    2009-05-15

    Rotordynamic and thermal analyses of compliant flexure pivot tilting pad gas bearings were performed. First, compliant flexure pivot tilting pad gas bearings with pad radial compliance (CFTPBs) were introduced and designed for high-speed oil...

  5. Measured and Predicted Rotor-Pad Transfer Functions for a Rocker-Pivot Tilting-Pad Journal Bearing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Jason Christopher

    2012-02-14

    applied to the shaft resulted in a shaft displacement of 25 microns (1 mil), the pad would displace radially 15 microns (0.6 mils), and the fluid film height would only decrease by 10 microns (0.4 mils). The consequence of this pad motion is that fluid...

  6. Rotordynamic coefficients for a load-between-pad, flexible-pivot tilting pad bearing at high loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hensley, John Eric

    2006-10-30

    The dynamic and static performance of a flexure-pivot tilting pad bearing is presented at a load between pad configuration for various load and speed combinations. A similar work performed on the same bearing at lower loads ranging from 0-1 MPa (0...

  7. Experimental Investigation of the Padding Tower for Air Dehumidifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.; Liu, J.; Li, C.; Zhang, G.; An, S.

    2006-01-01

    of the liquid desiccant air conditioning. Of these design parameters, the framework of the padding tower, ratio of the air and the concentration of the inlet solution is largest through the tower, the temperature and effects of the dehumidifying capability...

  8. Average Angular Velocity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Essen

    2004-01-28

    This paper addresses the problem of the separation of rotational and internal motion. It introduces the concept of average angular velocity as the moment of inertia weighted average of particle angular velocities. It extends and elucidates the concept of Jellinek and Li (1989) of separation of the energy of overall rotation in an arbitrary (non-linear) $N$-particle system. It generalizes the so called Koenig's theorem on the two parts of the kinetic energy (center of mass plus internal) to three parts: center of mass, rotational, plus the remaining internal energy relative to an optimally translating and rotating frame.

  9. Experimental frequency-dependent rotordynamic coefficients for a load-on-pad, high-speed, flexible-pivot tilting-pad bearing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez Colmenares, Luis Emigdio

    2004-09-30

    This thesis provides experimental frequency dependent stiffness and damping coefficient results for a high-speed, lightly loaded, flexible-pivot tilting-pad bearing, with a load-on-pad configuration. Test conditions include four shaft speeds (6000...

  10. Pad polishing for rapid production of large flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, R.R.; Schmell, R.A.

    1997-11-01

    Pad polishing is an efficient technique for polishing-out a ground surface and reaching a figure better than one wave, ready for completion with less than an hour on a planetary polisher. For the 350 mm square piece of BK-7, removal was one micrometer every 10 minutes. Polishing-out from a 5 micrometer grind took less than 3 hours, to a surface smoothness of one nm rms. Other tests verified that the pad leaves no unusual subsurface damage. Following completion on a pitch planetary polisher, surface finish is the same as obtained for conventional processing. Unlike pitch, the pad retains its surface figure, producing a uniform result when used on a production basis. Coupled with the speed of production and low capital cost of overarm machines, it provides a cost-effective approach.

  11. A simple method to downscale daily wind statistics to hourly wind data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhongling

    2013-01-01

    Wind is the principal driver in the wind erosion models. The hourly wind speed data were generally required for precisely wind erosion modeling. In this study, a simple method to generate hourly wind speed data from daily wind statistics (daily average and maximum wind speeds together or daily average wind speed only) was established. A typical windy location with 3285 days (9 years) measured hourly wind speed data were used to validate the downscaling method. The results showed that the overall agreement between observed and simulated cumulative wind speed probability distributions appears excellent, especially for the wind speeds greater than 5 m s-1 range (erosive wind speed). The results further revealed that the values of daily average erosive wind power density (AWPD) calculated from generated wind speeds fit the counterparts computed from measured wind speeds well with high models' efficiency (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient). So that the hourly wind speed data can be predicted from daily average and maximu...

  12. Effort Reporting Professional and Academic Development (PAD) Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    Effort Reporting Professional and Academic Development (PAD) Seminar Series Wednesday, March 2 of the top 100 American research universities. Dan Lodes is a director in Huron's Health and Education for research. The new system will be made available to departmental administrators for review purposes

  13. Roles of discontinuities in bio-inspired adhesive pads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhury, Manoj K.

    Roles of discontinuities in bio-inspired adhesive pads Jun Young Chung and Manoj K. Chaudhury adhesion to various surfaces. Motivated by the adhesive microstructures of insects, we examine the behaviour of adhesion and crack propagation in patterned adhesive films. These films are made of silicone

  14. Efficacy of iPad iTunes U Electronic Curriculum in Emergency Medicine Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, A.; Toohey, S.; Chakravarthy, B.; Wiechmann, W.; Anderson, C.

    2015-01-01

    effect of the learners curriculum satisfaction on knowledgeof iPad iTunes U Electronic Curriculum in Emergency Medicinea distance-learning curriculum; it is iPad based and

  15. Measurements of static loading characteristics of a Flexurepivot Tilt Pad Hydrodynamic Bearing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walton, Nicholas Van Edward

    1995-01-01

    An experimental investigation examining the static loading characteristics of a four-pad, KMC FLEXUREPIVOT Tilt Pad Hydrodynamic Bearing is presented. Tests are conducted on the TRACE Fluid Film Bearing Element Test Rig for journal speeds ranging...

  16. Measurement of rotordynamic coefficients for a high-speed flexure pivot tilting-pad bearing(load between pad) configuration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Ghasem, Adnan Mahmoud

    2005-08-29

    . ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ?? ? ?? ?+ ?? ? ?? ? ? ? ?? ? ?? ?+ ?? ? ?? ? ? ? ?? ? ?? ?= ?? ? ?? ?? y x M M y x C C y x K K f f yy xy yy xy yy xy by bx && && & & In performing a stability analysis of high-speed machinery running on tilting-pad bearings, one would ask if the rotordynamic coefficients should be calculated at the synchronous...

  17. Modeling and Forecasting Electric Daily Peak Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    for the same data. Two methods are described for forecasting daily peak loads up to one week ahead through, including generator unit commitment, hydro-thermal coordination, short-term maintenance, fuel allocation forecasting accuracies. STLF forecasting covers the daily peak load, total daily energy, and daily load curve

  18. The Impact of Annual Average Daily Traffic on Highway Runoff Pollutant Concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kayhanian, Masoud; Singh, Amardeep; Suverkropp, Claus; Borroum, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Cadmium Chromium Copper Lead Nickel Zinc Nutrients Ammonia (N) Nitrate (Cadmium Chromium Copper Lead Nickel Zinc Nutrients Ammonia-N Nitrate-Cadmium Chromium Copper Lead Nickel Zinc Nutrients Ammonia (N) Nitrate (

  19. Why should I recycle? The average American generates 4.5 pounds of waste daily.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    and plastic-coated papers Tissue and paper towels Paper or containers soiled by food or organic waste and clean foil) Beverage and food containers (glass,steel and tin) Plastic bottles or rigid containers free of trash. Empty containers before recycling them. Ensure paper is dry and free of food

  20. Can investor profit from the daily timing strategy? Average Stock Variance and Market Returns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fournier, John J.F.

    we explore the forecasting power on industry classification portfolios other than the market. Further-Series Trading Strategy...........................................10 3.1 Trading Strategies.............................................22 4.2 Volatility of Assets and Speculative Bubbles............................22 4.3 Non-Traded

  1. Toward reducing impact induced brain injury: Lessons from a computational study of army and football helmet pads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moss, W C; Blackman, E G

    2012-01-01

    We use computational simulations to compare the impact response of different football and U.S. Army helmet pad materials. We conduct experiments to characterize the material response of different helmet pads. We simulate experimental helmet impact tests performed by the U.S. Army to validate our methods. We then simulate a cylindrical impactor striking different pads. The acceleration history of the impactor is used to calculate the Head Injury Criterion for each pad. We conduct sensitivity studies exploring the effects of pad composition, geometry, and material stiffness. We find that: (1) The football pad materials do not outperform the currently used military pad material in militarily-relevant impact scenarios; (2) Optimal material properties for a pad depend on impact energy; and (3) Thicker pads perform better at all velocities. Our analysis suggests that by using larger helmet shells with correspondingly thicker pads, impact-induced traumatic brain injury may be significantly reduced. Keywords: helmet,...

  2. Spacetime Averaged Null Energy Condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas Urban; Ken D. Olum

    2010-06-13

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even if one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  3. Spacetime averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-06-15

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even when one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give here a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  4. Averaging Hypotheses in Newtonian Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Buchert

    1995-12-20

    Average properties of general inhomogeneous cosmological models are discussed in the Newtonian framework. It is shown under which circumstances the average flow reduces to a member of the standard Friedmann--Lema\\^\\i tre cosmologies. Possible choices of global boundary conditions of inhomogeneous cosmologies as well as consequences for the interpretation of cosmological parameters are put into perspective.

  5. Determining Pad-Wafer Contact using Dual Emission Laser Induced Fluorescence Caprice Gray1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Robert D.

    energy required to break and re-order the chemical bonds on the glass substrate surface so thickness, asperity layer compressibility, surface roughness measurements and polishing pad rebound

  6. HowtoMentorGraduateStudents Professional and Academic Development (PAD) Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    HowtoMentorGraduateStudents Professional and Academic Development (PAD) Seminar Series Friday Vice President for Research Compliance, Division of Research philc@wayne.edu David Rueda, Associate

  7. Table 40. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sales Type, PAD District...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 191 Table 40. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

  8. Table 40. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sales Type, PAD District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 191 Table 40. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

  9. FCTO Consortia Overview (HyMARC and FC-PAD) Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Download the presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "FCTO Consortia Overview (HyMARC and FC-PAD)" held on January 7, 2016.

  10. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 401 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  11. Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  12. Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  13. Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 203 Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  14. Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 203 Table 42. Residual Fuel Oil Prices by PAD District and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  15. Experimentally Determine the Impact of Jacking-Oil Pockets on the Rotordynamic Characteristics of a Four-Pad, LBP, Tilting-Pad Journal Bearing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kluitenberg, Matthew P

    2015-04-29

    Test results that examine the influence of jacking-oil ports on a tilting pad journal (TPJ) bearing are presented. The static and dynamic characteristics before and after adding jacking-oil ports are compared. The test ...

  16. PADS: A Policy Architecture for Distributed Storage Systems Nalini Belaramani, Jiandan Zheng, Amol Nayate, Robert Soule,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimm, Robert

    PADS: A Policy Architecture for Distributed Storage Systems Nalini Belaramani, Jiandan Zheng, Amol for build- ing distributed storage systems. A policy architecture has two aspects. First, a common set for how policies, them- selves, should be specified. In the case of distributed storage systems, PADS

  17. The Bachelor of Public Management program requires the following courses: PAD 3003 Public Management and Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    and in the use of quantitative and qualitative research designs. COMMUNICATION (Written Communication; Oral Process and Ethics PAD 4702 Quantitative Inquiry for Public Mangers PAD 4704 Research Methods in Public, and case studies that are grammatically correct and include a thesis statement, body and conclusion

  18. Energy Assurance Daily (EAD): April 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Assurance Daily provides a summary of public information concerning current energy issues. Published Monday through Friday to inform stakeholders of developments affecting energy systems,...

  19. Energy Assurance Daily (EAD): July 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Assurance Daily provides a summary of public information concerning current energy issues. Published Monday through Friday to inform stakeholders of developments affecting energy systems,...

  20. Energy Assurance Daily (EAD): May 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Assurance Daily provides a summary of public information concerning current energy issues. Published Monday through Friday to inform stakeholders of developments affecting energy systems,...

  1. Energy Assurance Daily (EAD): June 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Assurance Daily provides a summary of public information concerning current energy issues. Published Monday through Friday to inform stakeholders of developments affecting energy systems,...

  2. Energy Assurance Daily (EAD): January- March 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Assurance Daily provides a summary of public information concerning current energy issues. Published Monday through Friday to inform stakeholders of developments affecting energy systems,...

  3. Quantum Averages of Weak Values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakir Aharonov; Alonso Botero

    2005-08-23

    We re-examine the status of the weak value of a quantum mechanical observable as an objective physical concept, addressing its physical interpretation and general domain of applicability. We show that the weak value can be regarded as a \\emph{definite} mechanical effect on a measuring probe specifically designed to minimize the back-reaction on the measured system. We then present a new framework for general measurement conditions (where the back-reaction on the system may not be negligible) in which the measurement outcomes can still be interpreted as \\emph{quantum averages of weak values}. We show that in the classical limit, there is a direct correspondence between quantum averages of weak values and posterior expectation values of classical dynamical properties according to the classical inference framework.

  4. Daily Precipitation Statistics: An Intercomparison between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    Daily Precipitation Statistics: An Intercomparison between NCEP Reanalyses and Observations Vernon-2010. Resolution T382 (~0.3x0.3 degrees). #12;R1, R2, CFSR: Comparison to OI Station-based Precipitation Analyses station-based daily precipitation analysis data set (1979-2006). The high-resolution reanalysis (CFSR

  5. Historical Material Analysis of DC745U Pressure Pads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-30

    As part of the Enhance Surveillance mission, it is the goal to provide suitable lifetime assessment of stockpile materials. This report is an accumulation of historical publication on the DC745U material and their findings. It is the intention that the B61 LEP program uses this collection of data to further develop their understanding and potential areas of study. DC745U is a commercially available silicone elastomer consisting of dimethyl, methyl-phenyl, and methyl-vinyl siloxane repeat units. Originally, this material was manufactured by Dow Corning as Silastic{reg_sign} DC745U at their manufacturing facility in Kendallville, IN. Recently, Dow Corning shifted this material to the Xiameter{reg_sign} brand product line. Currently, DC745U is available through Xiameter{reg_sign} or Dow Corning's distributor R. D. Abbott Company. DC745U is cured using 0.5 wt% vinyl-specific peroxide curing agent known as Luperox 101 or Varox DBPH-50. This silicone elastomer is used in numerous parts, including two major components (outer pressure pads and aft cap support) in the W80 and as pressure pads on the B61. DC745U is a proprietary formulation, thus Dow Corning provides limited information on its composition and properties. Based on past experience with Dow Corning, DC745U is at risk of formulation changes without notification to the costumer. A formulation change for DC745U may have a significant impact because the network structure is a key variable in determining material properties. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of historical DC745U studies and identify gaps that need to be addressed in future work. Some of the previous studies include the following: 1. Spectroscopic characterization of raw gum stock. 2. Spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical studies on cured DC745U. 3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and solvent swelling studies on DC745U with different crosslink densities. 4. NMR, solvent swelling, thermal, and mechanical studies on thermally aged DC745U. 5. NMR, solvent swelling, thermal, and mechanical studies on radiolytically aged DC745U. Each area is reviewed and further work is suggested to improve our understanding of DC745U for systems engineering, surveillance, aging assessments, and lifetime assessment.

  6. Average-Atom Thomson Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Walter R.

    -Atom Approximation W. R. Johnson, Notre Dame J. Nilsen & K. T. Cheng, LLNL The cross section for Thomson scattering Average-Atom Model Divide plasma into WS cells with a nucleus and Z electrons p2 2 - Z r + V a(r) = a a(r) V(r) = VKS(n(r), r) n(r) = nb(r) + nc(r) 4r2nb(r) = nl 2(2l+1) 1+exp[( nl -µ)/kBT] Pnl(r)2 Z = r

  7. Untappable key distribution system: a one-time-pad booster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geraldo A. Barbosa; Jeroen van de Graaf

    2015-07-08

    One-time-pad (OTP) encryption simply cannot be cracked, even by a quantum computer. The need of sharing in a secure way supplies of symmetric random keys turned the method almost obsolete as a standing-alone method for fast and large volume telecommunication. Basically, this secure sharing of keys and their renewal, once exhausted, had to be done through couriers, in a slow and costly process. This paper presents a solution for this problem providing a fast and unlimited renewal of secure keys: An untappable key distribution system is presented and detailed. This fast key distribution system utilizes two layers of confidentially protection: 1) Physical noise intrinsic to the optical channel that turn the coded signals into stealth signals and 2) Privacy amplification using a bit pool of refreshed entropy run after run, to eliminate any residual information. The resulting level of security is rigorously calculated and demonstrates that the level of information an eavesdropper could obtain is completely negligible. The random bit sequences, fast and securely distributed, can be used to encrypt text, data or voice.

  8. Micro-scale scratching by soft pad asperities in chemical-mechanical polishing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sanha, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    In the manufacture of integrated circuits (IC) and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) is widely used for providing local and global planarization. In the CMP process, polishing pads, ...

  9. NavigatingInterdisciplinaryCareers Professional and Academic Development (PAD) Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    NavigatingInterdisciplinaryCareers Professional and Academic Development (PAD) Seminar Series development and interdisciplinary research Strategies for multiple careers Strategies for tenure and promotion Klein, Faculty Fellow for Interdisciplinary Development, Division of Research and Professor

  10. WhattoDoasaNewFacultyMember Professional and Academic Development (PAD) Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    WhattoDoasaNewFacultyMember Professional and Academic Development (PAD) Seminar Series Friday and your work among research, teaching, and service Seeking advice on teaching, research, setting up a new

  11. The Effect of Pad-asperity Curvature on Material Removal Rate in Chemical-mechanical Polishing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sanha

    In chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP), surface asperities of the polishing pad play a key role, for they transmit normal force and impart tangential motion to the hard, nano-scale abrasive particles in the slurry. It has ...

  12. Viscous-poroelastic interaction as mechanism to create adhesion in frogs' toe pads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tulchinsky, A

    2015-01-01

    The toe pads of frogs consist of soft hexagonal structures and a viscous liquid contained between and within the hexagonal structures. It has been hypothesized that this configuration creates adhesion by allowing for long range capillary forces, or alternatively, by allowing for exit of the liquid and thus improving contact of the toe pad. In this work we suggest interaction between viscosity and elasticity as a mechanism to create temporary adhesion, even in the absence of capillary effects or van der Waals forces. We initially illustrate this concept experimentally by a simplified configuration consisting of two surfaces connected by a liquid bridge and elastic springs. We then utilize poroelastic mixture theory and model frog's toe pads as an elastic porous medium, immersed within a viscous liquid and pressed against a rigid rough surface. The flow between the surface and the toe pad is modeled by the lubrication approximation. Inertia is neglected and analysis of the elastic-viscous dynamics yields a gove...

  13. Lift-off performance in flexure pivot pad and hybrid bearings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mertz, David Hunter

    2009-05-15

    Three flexure pivot pad bearings (FPBs) with different preloads are evaluated for use in high performance applications by comparing them to a hybrid hydrostatic bearing (HHB). One application of these bearings is in turbopumps for liquid rocket...

  14. A Novel Computational Model for Tilting Pad Journal Bearings with Soft Pivot Stiffnesses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao, Yujiao 1988-

    2012-12-10

    A novel tilting pad journal bearing model including pivot flexibility as well as temporal fluid inertia effects on the thin film fluid flow aims to accurately predict the bearing forced performance. The predictive model also accounts for the thermal...

  15. Achronal averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States) and Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent spacetime in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, achronal null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out closed timelike curves and wormholes connecting different asymptotically flat regions.

  16. Modeling an Application's Theoretical Minimum and Average Transactional Response Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paiz, Mary Rose

    2015-04-01

    The theoretical minimum transactional response time of an application serves as a ba- sis for the expected response time. The lower threshold for the minimum response time represents the minimum amount of time that the application should take to complete a transaction. Knowing the lower threshold is beneficial in detecting anomalies that are re- sults of unsuccessful transactions. On the converse, when an application's response time falls above an upper threshold, there is likely an anomaly in the application that is causing unusual performance issues in the transaction. This report explains how the non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value distribution is used to estimate the lower threshold of an ap- plication's daily minimum transactional response time. It also explains how the seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series model is used to estimate the upper threshold for an application's average transactional response time.

  17. Asymmetry of Daily Temperature Records YOSEF ASHKENAZY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gildor, Hezi

    Asymmetry of Daily Temperature Records YOSEF ASHKENAZY Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, BIDR author address: Yosef Ashkenazy, Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, The J. Blaustein al. 1996) database. The main advantage of this reanalysis data is its global 3D coverage. As follows

  18. Daily Weather Laboratory II Spring Semester 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van den Heever, Susan C.

    AT541 Daily Weather Laboratory II Spring Semester 2010 Meeting Times: Tuesday and Thursday: 1, dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of mesoscale weather phenomena. Aspects of synoptic- scale contest will also be held, separated by the mid-term exam. In-class weather briefings will be given

  19. Daily Precipitation Grids for South America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robeson, Scott M.

    W Daily Precipitation Grids for South America --SCOTT M. ROBESON AND LESLIE A. ENSOR Indiana precipitation databases, such as that of Liebmann and Allured (2005, hereafter LA2005). Precipitation this important region has received limited attention with regard to precipitation data- bases (Cook et al. 2003

  20. Spectral averaging techniques for Jacobi matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafael del Rio; Carmen Martinez; Hermann Schulz-Baldes

    2008-02-20

    Spectral averaging techniques for one-dimensional discrete Schroedinger operators are revisited and extended. In particular, simultaneous averaging over several parameters is discussed. Special focus is put on proving lower bounds on the density of the averaged spectral measures. These Wegner type estimates are used to analyze stability properties for the spectral types of Jacobi matrices under local perturbations.

  1. Real-Time Forcast Model Analysis of Daily Average Building Load for a Thermal Storage System Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, L.; Joo, I. S.; Guwana, S.

    2009-01-01

    methods for real-time forecasting of building electrical demand, ASHRAE Transaction vol.97(1):710-721 D.C. Montgomery, C. L. Jennings, M. Kulahci. 2007. Introduction to time series analysis and forecasting, ISBN 978-0-471-65397-4. L Ljung, T. S...?derstr?m, 1987, Theory and application of recursive identification, ISBN 978-0-262-12095-1 ESL-IC-09-11-03 Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Austin, Texas, November 17 - 19, 2009 ...

  2. DAILY JOURNAL NEWSWIRE ARTICLE http://www.dailyjournal.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    DAILY JOURNAL NEWSWIRE ARTICLE http://www.dailyjournal.com 2009 The Daily Journal Corporation IDEAS IN COPENHAGEN By Fiona Smith Daily Journal Staff Writer Two Berkeley Law students will push and is accompanying them to Copenhagen. #12;DAILY JOURNAL NEWSWIRE ARTICLE http://www.dailyjournal.com 2009

  3. Dynamic and Static Characteristics of a Rocker-Pivot, Tilting-Pad Bearing with 50% and 60% Offsets.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulhanek, Chris David

    2012-02-14

    the following characteristics: 5-pads, 101.6 mm (4.0 in) nominal diameter, .0814 - .0837 mm (.0032 - .0033 in) radial bearing clearance, .25 to .27 preload, 60.325 mm (2.375 in) axial pad length. Operating conditions included loads from 0 to 3101 kPa (450 psi...

  4. WorkingwithIndustry:WhyCollaborationsareImportant Professional and Academic Development (PAD) Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    WorkingwithIndustry:WhyCollaborationsareImportant Professional and Academic Development (PAD) Seminar Series Tuesday, April 5, 2011 9:00 a.m. to 10:30 a.m. SOM Margherio Conference Center Discussion Topics: Collaborative research with industry and the implications for both sides What academic labs need

  5. 28 June, 2005 PADS 2005 1 Service Provisioning for HLA-based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teo, Yong-Meng

    Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI) Federation Management Declaration Management Object Management Ownership Level Architecture #12;28-Jun-05 3 28 June, 2005 PADS 2005 5 HLA/RTI: Communications Federate Code of Services Distributed Simulation over the Wide-Area- Network using IEEE HLA/RTI requires: Hardware

  6. Sun Ultra 80 SPEC CFP95 Sun Forte Inter-Array Padding for Data Localization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasahara, Hironori

    Sun Ultra 80 SPEC CFP95 Sun Forte 5.5 Inter-Array Padding for Data Localization with Static for data localization to minimize cache conflict misses. In the evaluation on Sun Ultra 80 using SPEC CFP95, the OSCAR multigrain compiler gave us up to 5.5 times speedup against Sun Forte automatic paralleling

  7. Efficacy of iPad iTunes U Electronic Curriculum in Emergency Medicine Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, A.; Toohey, S.; Chakravarthy, B.; Wiechmann, W.; Anderson, C.

    2015-01-01

    monthly modules would have increased In-Training Exam scoresmodules per month. Objectives: The primary outcome was improvement of In-TrainingTraining Exam Scores of those who consistently complete the iPad curriculum (defined by completion of >75% of modules)

  8. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical engineering applications.

  9. MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS MARTIN BURGER , VINCENZO CAPASSO , AND LIVIO-Kolmogorov relations for the degree of crystallinity. By relating the computation of expected values to mesoscale averaging, we obtain a suitable description of the process at the mesoscale. We show how the variance

  10. Optimal Average Cost Manufacturing Flow Controllers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veatch, Michael H.

    policy the differ- ential cost is C1 on attractive control switching boundaries. Index Terms Average costOptimal Average Cost Manufacturing Flow Controllers: Convexity and Differentiability Michael H and differentiability of the differential cost function are investigated. It is proven that under an optimal control

  11. Averages in vector spaces over finite fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright J.; Carbery A.; Stones B.

    2008-01-01

    We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in R-n when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number ...

  12. Measurements Versus Predictions for the Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Four-pad Rocker-pivot, Tilting-pad Journal Bearing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tschoepe, David 1987-

    2012-08-16

    here, both codes do a decent job at predicting impedance coefficients. iv DEDICATION For my family, You don?t choose your family. They are God?s gift to you, as you are to them. ~Desmond Tutu v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First I... in the ?i? direction) [L/t2] Cij Direct and cross-coupled damping coefficients [F.t/L] ?Cij Uncertainty of direct and cross-coupled damping coefficients [F.t/L] Cb Radial bearing clearance [L] Cp Radial pad clearance [L] cp Lubricant specific heat...

  13. Daily Flight Planning and Operations Schedule

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding Low-Cost2 DOE HQSiteo n n(Technical Report) | SciTechDaily

  14. STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 Mignon Marks Principal Author Mignon Marks Project Manager David Ashuckian Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director

  15. Distributed Averaging Via Lifted Markov Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Kyomin

    Motivated by applications of distributed linear estimation, distributed control, and distributed optimization, we consider the question of designing linear iterative algorithms for computing the average of numbers in a ...

  16. Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...

  17. Selling Geothermal Systems The "Average" Contractor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selling Geothermal Systems #12;The "Average" Contractor History of sales procedures Manufacturer Driven Procedures What makes geothermal technology any harder to sell? #12;"It's difficult to sell a geothermal system." It should

  18. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  19. PAD, a computer-aided molecular model building system utilizing two-dimensional graphical input

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, William Gerald

    1980-01-01

    and an artist. CONTENTS CHAPTER I. BACKGROUND: INTERFACING COMPUTER AND CHEMIcT Graphical Input Hardware Evolution. . . . . Software Systems: Using the Hardware, , Chemical Applications. Program PAD xn Perspective. CHAPTER II. YATERIA' S AND METHODS... are used. The 2-D coordinates of each atom input by the user are stored permanently in XS and YS, after temporary storage in IX and IY. Arrays XS and YS are each 99 elements long, as are all other arrays storing information about input atoms; therefore...

  20. Average transmission probability of a random stack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin Lu; Christian Miniatura; Berthold-Georg Englert

    2009-07-31

    The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower bounds. The upper bound, when used as an approximation for the transmission probability, is unreasonably good and we conjecture that it is asymptotically exact.

  1. Universal Padding Schemes for RSA Jean-S ebastien Coron, Marc Joye, David Naccache, and Pascal Paillier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Universal Padding Schemes for RSA Jean-S#19;ebastien Coron, Marc Joye, David Naccache, and Pascal-sebastien.coron, marc.joye, david.naccache, pascal.paillierg@gemplus.com Abstract. A common practice to encrypt with RSA

  2. EFFECTS OF AN iPAD iBOOK ON READING COMPREHENSION, ELECTRODERMAL ACTIVITY, AND ENGAGEMENT FOR ADOLESCENTS WITH DISABILITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollitt, Daniel Thomas

    2013-12-31

    textbooks. Leveraging media and interactive widgets, iBooks Author holds promise for delivering content to learners of all needs. However, little empirical research currently supports the iPad as a textbook. In this intervention study, 22 middle school...

  3. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  4. Daily Thermal Predictions of the AGR-1 Experiment with Gas Gaps Varying with Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Hawkes; James Sterbentz; John Maki; Binh Pham

    2012-06-01

    A new daily as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the irradiation experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the daily average temperatures of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post irradiation examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps varying from the beginning of life. The control temperature gas gap and the fuel compact graphite holder gas gaps were linearly changed from the original fabrication dimensions, to the end of irradiation measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each daily calculation. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average temperatures to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented.

  5. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  6. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  7. Chaos and scaling in daily river flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. De Domenico; M. Ali Ghorbani

    2011-04-07

    Adequate knowledge of the nature of river flow process is crucial for proper planning and management of our water resources and environment. This study attempts to detect the salient characteristics of flow dynamics of the Karoon River in Iran. Daily discharge series observed over a period of six years (1999-2004) is analyzed to examine the chaotic and scaling characteristics of the flow dynamics. The presence of chaos is investigated through the correlation dimension and Lyapunov exponent methods, while the Hurst exponent and R\\'enyi dimension analyses are performed to explore the scaling characteristics. The low correlation dimension ($2.60 \\pm 0.07$) and the positive largest Lyapunov exponent ($0.014 \\pm 0.001$) suggest the presence of low-dimensional chaos; they also imply that the flow dynamics are dominantly governed by three variables and can be reliably predicted up to 48 days (i.e. prediction horizon). Results from the Hurst exponent and R\\'enyi dimension analyses reveal the multifractal character of the flow dynamics, with persistent and anti-persistent behaviors observed at different time scales.

  8. Risk assessment of the retrieval of transuranic waste: Pads 1, 2, and 4, Technical Area-54, Area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilbert, K.A.; Lyon, B.F.; Hutchison, J.; Holmes, J.A.; Legg, J.L.; Simek, M.P.; Travis, C.C.; Wollert, D.A.

    1995-05-01

    The Risk Assessment for the Retrieval of Transuranic Waste is a comparative risk assessment of the potential adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to contaminants during retrieval and post-retrieval aboveground storage operations of post-1970 earthen-covered transuranic waste. Two alternatives are compared: (1) Immediate Retrieval and (2) Delayed Retrieval. Under the Immediate Retrieval Alternative, retrieval of the waste is assumed to begin immediately, Under the Delayed Retrieval Alternative, retrieval is delayed 10 years. The current risk assessment is on Pads 1, 2, and 4, at Technical Area-54, Area-G, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Risks are assessed independently for three scenarios: (1) incident-free retrieval operations, (2) incident-free storage operations, and (3) a drum failure analysis. The drum failure analysis evaluates container integrity under both alternatives and assesses the impacts of potential drum failures during retrieval operations. Risks associated with a series of drum failures are potentially severe for workers, off-site receptors, and general on-site employees if retrieval is delayed 10 years and administrative and engineering controls remain constant. Under the Delayed Retrieval Alternative, an average of 300 drums out of 16,647 are estimated to fail during retrieval operations due to general corrosion, while minimal drums are predicted to fail under the Immediate Retrieval Alternative. The results of the current study suggest that, based on risk, remediation of Pads 1, 2, and 4 at LANL should not be delayed. Although risks from incident-free operations in the Delayed Retrieval Alternative are low, risks due to corrosion and drum failures are potentially severe.

  9. Laser Fusion Energy The High Average Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laser Fusion Energy and The High Average Power Program John Sethian Naval Research Laboratory Dec for Inertial Fusion Energy with lasers, direct drive targets and solid wall chambers Lasers DPPSL (LLNL) Kr posters Snead Payne #12;Laser(s) Goals 1. Develop technologies that can meet the fusion energy

  10. Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taekoon Lee

    2015-03-27

    The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.

  11. New director of Jefferson Lab named (Daily Press) | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https:www.jlab.orgnewsarticlesnew-director-jefferson-lab-named-daily-press New director of Jefferson Lab named Hugh Montgomery Hugh Montgomery has been named president of...

  12. A Method for Calculating Reference Evapotranspiration on Daily Time Scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farmer, William

    Measures of reference evapotranspiration are essential for applications of agricultural management and water resources engineering. Using numerous esoteric variables, one can calculate daily reference evapotranspiration ...

  13. iPad Price Guide -2015 Wi-Fi Only Wi-Fi/Cellular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    iPad Price Guide - 2015 Wi-Fi Only Wi-Fi/Cellular 16GB 64GB 128GB Wi-Fi Only Wi-Fi/Cellular 16GB 64, 5MP iSight Camera Available in Space Grey or Silver Capacity Wi-Fi Only £250 ex VAT £281 ex VAT Wi-Fi/Cellular in Space Grey or Silver Capacity Wi-Fi Only £187 ex VAT £219 ex VAT Wi-Fi/Cellular £266 ex VAT £297 ex VAT

  14. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7CubicthroughtheSeptember 24,4,630.22 Consumption Ratios PAD District

  15. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7CubicthroughtheSeptember 24,4,630.22 Consumption Ratios PAD District

  16. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7CubicthroughtheSeptember 24,4,630.22 Consumption Ratios PAD District

  17. Average gluon and quark jet multiplicities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Kotikov

    2014-11-30

    We show the results in [1,2] for computing the QCD contributions to the scale evolution of average gluon and quark jet multiplicities. The new results came due a recent progress in timelike small-x resummation obtained in the MSbar factorization scheme. They depend on two nonperturbative parameters with clear and simple physical interpretations. A global fit of these two quantities to all available experimental data sets demonstrates by its goodness how our results solve a longstandig problem of QCD. Including all the available theoretical input within our approach, alphas(Mz)=0.1199 +- 0.0026 has been obtained in the MSbar scheme in an approximation equivalent to next-to-next-to-leading order enhanced by the resummations of ln x terms through the NNLL level and of ln Q2 terms by the renormalization group. This result is in excellent agreement with the present world average.

  18. Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunham, Scott

    Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function Ken relaxation length, v sat h''i ( 0:05m), the energy distribution function is not well described calculation of impact ionization coefficient requires the use of a high energy distribution function because

  19. Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Bal; Alexandre Jollivet

    2009-05-07

    This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured albedo operator. The stability results are obtained by a precise decomposition of the measurements into components with different singular behavior in the time domain.

  20. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100Nationalquestionnaires 0serial codesReversingprovedReynolds-Averaged

  1. The 2009 World Average of $?_s$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegfried Bethke

    2009-08-15

    Measurements of $\\alpha_s$, the coupling strength of the Strong Interaction between quarks and gluons, are summarised and an updated value of the world average of $\\alpha_s (M_Z)$ is derived. Building up on previous reviews, special emphasis is laid on the most recent determinations of $\\alpha_s$. These are obtained from $\\tau$-decays, from global fits of electroweak precision data and from measurements of the proton structure function $\\F_2$, which are based on perturbative QCD calculations up to $O(\\alpha_s^4)$; from hadronic event shapes and jet production in $\\epem$ annihilation, based on $O(\\alpha_s^3) $ QCD; from jet production in deep inelastic scattering and from $\\Upsilon$ decays, based on $O(\\alpha_s^2) $ QCD; and from heavy quarkonia based on unquenched QCD lattice calculations. Applying pragmatic methods to deal with possibly underestimated errors and/or unknown correlations, the world average value of $\\alpha_s (M_Z)$ results in $\\alpha_s (M_Z) = 0.1184 \\pm 0.0007$. The measured values of $\\alpha_s (Q)$, covering energy scales from $Q \\equiv \\mtau = 1.78$ GeV to 209 GeV, exactly follow the energy dependence predicted by QCD and therefore significantly test the concept af Asymptotic Freedom.

  2. SU-E-J-153: MRI Based, Daily Adaptive Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer: Contour Adaptation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleijnen, J; Burbach, M; Verbraeken, T; Weggers, R; Zoetelief, A; Reerink, O; Lagendijk, J; Raaymakers, B; Asselen, B [University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A major hurdle in adaptive radiotherapy is the adaptation of the planning MRI's delineations to the daily anatomy. We therefore investigate the accuracy and time needed for online clinical target volume (CTV) adaptation by radiation therapists (RTT), to be used in MRI-guided adaptive treatments on a MRI-Linac (MRL). Methods: Sixteen patients, diagnosed with early stage rectal cancer, underwent a T2-weighted MRI prior to each fraction of short-course radiotherapy, resulting in 45 scans per patient. On these scans, the CTV was delineated according to guidelines by an experienced radiation oncologist (RO) and considered to be the gold standard. For each patient, the first MRI was considered as the planning MRI and matched on bony anatomy to the 34 daily MRIs. The planning MRI's CTV delineation was rigidly propagated to the daily MRI scans as a proposal for adaptation. Three RTTs in training started the adaptation of the CTV conform guidelines, after a two hour training lecture and a two patient (n=7) training set. To assess the inter-therapist variation, all three RTTs altered delineations of 3 patients (n=12). One RTT altered the CTV delineations (n=53) of the remaining 11 patients. Time needed for adaptation of the CTV to guidelines was registered.As a measure of agreement, the conformity index (CI) was determined between the RTTs' delineations as a group. Dice similarity coefficients were determined between delineations of the RTT and the RO. Results: We found good agreement between RTTs' and RO's delineations (average Dice=0.91, SD=0.03). Furthermore, the inter-observer agreement between the RTTs was high (average CI=0.94, SD=0.02). Adaptation time reduced from 10:33 min (SD= 3:46) to 2:56 min (SD=1:06) between the first and last ten delineations, respectively. Conclusion: Daily CTV adaptation by RTTs, seems a feasible and safe way to introduce daily, online MRI-based plan adaptation for a MRL.

  3. Assessing Energy Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Significance of Daily Distance Variation over Time and Among Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on petroleum and electricity consumption is a necessary step toward effective policies. Variations in daily vehicle miles traveled (VMT) over time and among drivers affect PHEV energy impact, but the significance is not well understood. This paper uses a graphical illustration, a mathematical derivation, and an empirical study to examine the cause and significance of such an effect. The first two methods reveal that ignoring daily variation in VMT always causes underestimation of petroleum consumption and overestimation of electricity consumption by PHEVs; both biases increase as the assumed PHEV charge-depleting (CD) range moves closer to the average daily VMT. The empirical analysis based on national travel survey data shows that the assumption of uniform daily VMT over time and among drivers causes nearly 68% underestimation of expected petroleum use and nearly 48% overestimation of expected electricity use by PHEVs with a 40-mi CD range (PHEV40s). Also for PHEV40s, consideration of daily variation in VMT over time but not among drivers similar to the way the utility factor curve is derived in SAE Standard SAE J2841 causes underestimation of expected petroleum use by more than 24% and overestimation of expected electricity use by about 17%. Underestimation of petroleum use and overestimation of electricity use increase with larger-battery PHEVs.

  4. Experimental analysis of thermal performance of flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors in stationary standard and daily conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zambolin, E.; Del Col, D.

    2010-08-15

    New comparative tests on two different types of solar collectors are presented in this paper. A standard glazed flat plate collector and an evacuated tube collector are installed in parallel and tested at the same working conditions; the evacuated collector is a direct flow through type with external compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) reflectors. Efficiency in steady-state and quasi-dynamic conditions is measured following the standard and it is compared with the input/output curves measured for the whole day. The first purpose of the present work is the comparison of results in steady-state and quasi-dynamic test methods both for flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. Besides this, the objective is to characterize and to compare the daily energy performance of these two types of collectors. An effective mean for describing and analyzing the daily performance is the so called input/output diagram, in which the collected solar energy is plotted against the daily incident solar radiation. Test runs have been performed in several conditions to reproduce different conventional uses (hot water, space heating, solar cooling). Results are also presented in terms of daily efficiency versus daily average reduced temperature difference: this allows to represent the comparative characteristics of the two collectors when operating under variable conditions, especially with wide range of incidence angles. (author)

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224 is located in Areas 02, 03, 05, 06, 11, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is situated approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 224 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Decon Pad and Septic Systems and is comprised of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 02-04-01, Septic Tank (Buried); CAS 03-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 05-04-01, Septic Tanks (4)/Discharge Area; CAS 06-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (3); CAS 06-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 06-17-04, Decon Pad and Wastewater Catch; CAS 06-23-01, Decon Pad Discharge Piping; CAS 11-04-01, Sewage Lagoon; and CAS 23-05-02, Leachfield. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 02-04-01, 03-05-01, 06-03-01, 11-04-01, and 23-05-02 is no further action. As a best management practice, the septic tanks and distribution box were removed from CASs 02-04-01 and 11-04-01 and disposed of as hydrocarbon waste. The NDEP-approved correction action alternative for CASs 05-04-01, 06-05-01, 06-17-04, and 06-23-01 is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of radiologically and pesticide-impacted soil and debris. CAU 224 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 224 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 224 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 224 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 60 cubic yards (yd3) of mixed waste in the form of soil and debris; approximately 70 yd{sup 3} of sanitary waste in the form of soil, liquid from septic tanks, and concrete debris; approximately 10 yd{sup 3} of hazardous waste in the form of pesticide-impacted soil; approximately 0.5 yd{sup 3} of universal waste in the form of fluorescent light bulbs; and approximately 0.5 yd{sup 3} of low-level waste in the form of a radiologically impacted fire hose rack were generated, managed, and disposed of appropriately. Waste minimization techniques, such as the utilization of laboratory analysis and field screening to guide the extent of excavations, were employed during the performance of closure work.

  6. USENIX Association NSDI '09: 6th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation 59 PADS: A Policy Architecture for Distributed Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahlin, Michael D.

    PADS: A Policy Architecture for Distributed Storage Systems Nalini Belaramani, Jiandan Zheng, Amol for build- ing distributed storage systems. A policy architecture has two aspects. First, a common set for how policies, them- selves, should be specified. In the case of distributed storage systems, PADS

  7. Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price Fact 744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster...

  8. Heat transfer in ice hockey halls: measurements, energy analysis and analytical ice pad temperature profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrantelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We consider heat transfer processes in an ice hockey hall, during operating conditions, with a bottom-up approach based upon on-site measurements. Detailed temperature data of both the ice pad and the air above the ice rink are used for a heat balance calculation in the steady-state regime, which quantifies the impact of each single heat source. We solve the heat equation in the ice slab in transient regime, and obtain a general analytical formula for the temperature profile. This solution is then applied to the resurfacing process by using our measurements as (time-dependent) boundary conditions (b.c.), and compared to an analogous numerical computation with good agreement. Our analytical formula is given with implicit initial condition and b.c., therefore it can be used not only in ice halls, but in a large variety of engineering applications.

  9. Heat transfer in ice hockey halls: measurements, energy analysis and analytical ice pad temperature profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Ferrantelli; Klaus Viljanen

    2015-06-30

    We consider heat transfer processes in an ice hockey hall, during operating conditions, with a bottom-up approach based upon on-site measurements. Detailed temperature data of both the ice pad and the air above the ice rink are used for a heat balance calculation in the steady-state regime, which quantifies the impact of each single heat source. We solve the heat equation in the ice slab in transient regime, and obtain a general analytical formula for the temperature profile. This solution is then applied to the resurfacing process by using our measurements as (time-dependent) boundary conditions (b.c.), and compared to an analogous numerical computation with good agreement. Our analytical formula is given with implicit initial condition and b.c., therefore it can be used not only in ice halls, but in a large variety of engineering applications.

  10. Thermal neutron detection using a silicon pad detector and {sup 6}LiF removable converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbagallo, Massimo; Cosentino, Luigi; Marchetta, Carmelo; Pappalardo, Alfio; Scire, Carlotta; Scire, Sergio; Schillaci, Maria; Vecchio, Gianfranco; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Forcina, Vittorio; Peerani, Paolo; Vaccaro, Stefano

    2013-03-15

    A semiconductor detector coupled with a neutron converter is a good candidate for neutron detection, especially for its compactness and reliability if compared with other devices, such as {sup 3}He tubes, even though its intrinsic efficiency is rather lower. In this paper we show a neutron detector design consisting of a 3 cm Multiplication-Sign 3 cm silicon pad detector coupled with one or two external {sup 6}LiF layers, enriched in {sup 6}Li at 95%, placed in contact with the Si active surfaces. This prototype, first characterized and tested at INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and then at JRC Ispra, was successfully shown to detect thermal neutrons with the expected efficiency and an outstanding gamma rejection capability.

  11. Their best defense is good fiscal sense (Daily Press) | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https:www.jlab.orgnewsarticlestheir-best-defense-good-fiscal-sense-daily-press Their best defense is good fiscal sense Top Guard Security finds it can be a good idea to say,...

  12. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    cars are for gasoline cars only. Fuel economy average is the production-weighted harmonic mean. 2014 data are preliminary. Fact 849 Dataset Supporting Information Average...

  13. Placement Optimization of Power Supply Pads Based on Locality Pingqiang Zhou, Vivek Mishra, and Sachin S. Sapatnekar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapatnekar, Sachin

    Placement Optimization of Power Supply Pads Based on Locality Pingqiang Zhou, Vivek Mishra, and Sachin S. Sapatnekar Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. {pingqiang, vivek, sachin}@umn.edu Abstract--This paper presents an efficient

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE SHEAR BEHAVIOR OF RAIL PAD ASSEMBLIES AS A COMPONENT OF THE CONCRETE SLEEPER FASTENING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    Fastening System RAIL PAD ASSEMBLY LATERAL DISPLACEMENT FAILURE MODE AND EFFECT ANALYSIS (FMEA) INTRODUCTION life FMEA is used to define, identify, evaluate and eliminate potential failures from the system FMEA was used to guide the process of answering questions related to the component behavior and also

  15. PADS: A Policy Architecture for Distributed Storage Systems (Extended) Nalini Belaramani, Jiandan Zheng, Amol Nayate, Robert Soule,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimm, Robert

    PADS: A Policy Architecture for Distributed Storage Systems (Extended) Nalini Belaramani, Jiandan architecture for build- ing distributed storage systems. A policy architecture has two aspects. First, a common, a structure for how policies, them- selves, should be specified. In the case of distributed storage systems

  16. Target-rate Tracking for Shale-gas Multi-well Pads by Scheduled Shut-ins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    Target-rate Tracking for Shale-gas Multi-well Pads by Scheduled Shut-ins Brage R. Knudsen Bjarne, Yorktown Heights, NY, USA. Abstract: The recent success of shale-gas production relies on drilling of long caused by water accumulation in the wells. Shale-gas recovery requires a large number of wells in order

  17. Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2011 the average used light vehicle price was 36% higher than in 1990, while the average new light vehicle price was 67% higher than it was in 1990. The average price of a used vehicle had been...

  18. The Average Mass Profile of Galaxy Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. G. Carlberg; H. K. C. Yee; E. Ellingson; S. L. Morris; R. Abraham; P. Gravel; C. J. Pritchet; T. Smecker-Hane; F. D. A. Hartwick; J. E. Hesser; J. B. Hutchings; J. B. Oke

    1997-05-23

    The average mass density profile measured in the CNOC cluster survey is well described with the analytic form rho(r)=A/[r(r+a_rho)^2], as advocated on the basis on n-body simulations by Navarro, Frenk & White. The predicted core radii are a_rho=0.20 (in units of the radius where the mean interior density is 200 times the critical density) for an Omega=0.2 open CDM model, or a_rho=0.26 for a flat Omega=0.2 model, with little dependence on other cosmological parameters for simulations normalized to the observed cluster abundance. The dynamically derived local mass-to-light ratio, which has little radial variation, converts the observed light profile to a mass profile. We find that the scale radius of the mass distribution, 0.20<= a_rho <= 0.30 (depending on modeling details, with a 95% confidence range of 0.12-0.50), is completely consistent with the predicted values. Moreover, the profiles and total masses of the clusters as individuals can be acceptably predicted from the cluster RMS line-of-sight velocity dispersion alone. This is strong support of the hierarchical clustering theory for the formation of galaxy clusters in a cool, collisionless, dark matter dominated universe.

  19. the average weight of Connecticut River fish was considerably less (Table 1). The difference in average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the average weight of Connecticut River fish was considerably less (Table 1). The difference in the Connecticut River basin. Fisheries (Bethesda) 7(6): 2-11. POTTER. I. C. F. W. H. BEAMISH, AND B. G. H. Freshwater fishes of Connecticut. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Servo Conn. Dep. Environ. Prot., Bull. 101, 134 p

  20. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but prone to rapid desiccation. Bacterial adsorption onto foam padding, natural sponge, and geotextile was successful. The most important factor for success appeared to be water holding capacity. Prototype biotarps made with geotextiles plus adsorbed methane oxidizing bacteria were tested for their responses to temperature, intermittent starvation, and washing (to simulate rainfall). The prototypes were mesophilic, and methane oxidation activity remained strong after one cycle of starvation but then declined with repeated cycles. Many of the cells detached with vigorous washing, but at least 30% appeared resistant to sloughing. While laboratory landfill simulations showed that four-layer composite biotarps made with two different types of geotextile could remove up to 50% of influent methane introduced at a flux rate of 22 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, field experiments did not yield high activity levels. Tests revealed that there were high hour-to-hour flux variations in the field, which, together with frequent rainfall events, confounded the field testing. Overall, the findings suggest that a methanotroph embedded biotarp appears to be a feasible strategy to mitigate methane emission from landfill cells, although the performance of field-tested biotarps was not robust here. Tarps will likely be best suited for spring and summer use, although the methane oxidizer population may be able to shift and adapt to lower temperatures. The starvation cycling of the tarp may require the capacity for intermittent reinoculation of the cells, although it is also possible that a subpopulation will adapt to the cycling and become dominant. Rainfall is not expected to be a major factor, because a baseline biofilm will be present to repopulate the tarp. If strong performance can be achieved and documented, the biotarp concept could be extended to include interception of other compounds beyond methane, such as volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents.

  1. MEMS packaging with etching and thinning of lid wafer to form lids and expose device wafer bond pads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chanchani, Rajen; Nordquist, Christopher; Olsson, Roy H; Peterson, Tracy C; Shul, Randy J; Ahlers, Catalina; Plut, Thomas A; Patrizi, Gary A

    2013-12-03

    In wafer-level packaging of microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices a lid wafer is bonded to a MEMS wafer in a predermined aligned relationship. Portions of the lid wafer are removed to separate the lid wafer into lid portions that respectively correspond in alignment with MEMS devices on the MEMS wafer, and to expose areas of the MEMS wafer that respectively contain sets of bond pads respectively coupled to the MEMS devices.

  2. Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2011 Average Truck Speeds The Federal Highway Administration studies traffic volume and flow on major truck routes by tracking more than 500,000 trucks. The average speed of trucks...

  3. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years Fact 889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First...

  4. Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average age of household vehicles has increased from 6.6 years in 1977 to 9.2 years in 2009. Pickup trucks have the oldest average age in every year listed. Sport utility vehicles (SUVs), first...

  5. Averaging top quark results in Run 2 M. Strovink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strovink, Mark

    average (cont'd) The pie chart shows the relative weights of the five input measurements in the world

  6. Description: Lithium batteries are used daily in our work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Description: Lithium batteries are used daily in our work activities from flashlights, cell phones containing one SureFire 3-volt non-rechargeable 123 lithium battery and one Interstate 3-volt non-rechargeable 123 lithium battery. A Garage Mechanic had the SureFire flashlight in his shirt pocket with the lens

  7. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central progression, forest fires, infrared perimeter mapping, northern Rockies 1. Introduction Extreme wildfires Yellowstone Fires (Turner et al 1994), the 1997 Indonesian Forest Fires, and the Australian Black Saturday

  8. TRIP / DAILY OPERATOR CHECKLIST CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LONG BEACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorin, Eric J.

    TRIP / DAILY OPERATOR CHECKLIST CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LONG BEACH Date_____________ License Needing Attention Overheating Oil Leaking Knocks No power Oil pressure loss Noisy Slips Poor release Grabs Chatters Noisy Oil leakage Hard shifting Slips during shifts ( Shimmy-wander Free play Wheel balance Hard

  9. Gridding NCDC daily meteorological data Version 2.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    1 Gridding NCDC daily meteorological data Version 2.0 Greg O'Donnell, Bernt V. Matheussen, Alan, and 2) appending more recent data downloaded from the NCDC On-Line Web Site. The core of the gridding;3 1.1 Basin Definition Before any preprocessing is possible the basin boundary at the gridded

  10. Surviving racism: African Nova Scotian women talk about the daily

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    Surviving racism: African Nova Scotian women talk about the daily racism they've experienced a discussion Wednesday as part of Dalhousie's Global Health Rounds. Titled "Surviving Racism and its Impact Scotia #12;does not still have a history of racism and I can assure you that that history is strong

  11. Predicting Daily Net Radiation Using Minimum Climatological Data1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .1061/ ASCE 0733-9437 2003 129:4 256 CE Database subject headings: Radiation; Solar radiationPredicting Daily Net Radiation Using Minimum Climatological Data1 S. Irmak, M.ASCE2 ; A. Irmak3 ; J Abstract: Net radiation (Rn) is a key variable for computing reference evapotranspiration and is a driving

  12. An Archaeological Survey for Suemaur Exploration & Production, LLC's Hoskins Mound-Olympia and Mckinley Prospects Well Pad Sites and Access Roads in Brazoria County Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, William

    2015-07-30

    An archaeological survey of two proposed well pad sites and access roads in the Brazoria National Wildlife Refuge in south Brazoria County, Texas was performed by Brazos Valley Research Associates (BVRA) on February 5, ...

  13. An Archaeological Survey for Suemaur Exploration & Production, LLC's Hoskins Mound-Pocono Prospect Well Pad Site and Access Road in Brazoria County Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, William

    2015-07-30

    An archaeological survey of a proposed well pad site and access road in the Brazoria National Wildlife Refuge in south Brazoria County, Texas was performed by Brazos Valley Research Associates (BVRA) on February 5, 2010. The area investigated...

  14. Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging: the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging: the case of the North. (2015) Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging: the case of the North;Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging:1 the case of the North Atlantic jet

  15. Engineering Grads Earn The Most Major Average Salary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    Engineering Grads Earn The Most Table Major Average Salary Offer Petroleum Engineering $86/Aeronautical/Astronautical Engineering $57,231 Information Sciences & Systems $54,038 Source: Winter 2010 Salary Survey, National was the fourth most lucrative degree, with graduates starting at $61,205 on average. The average salary

  16. Cointegration of the Daily Electric Power System Load and the Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanov, Stefan Z

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the cointegration of the daily electric power system load and the weather by a field intelligent system. The daily load has been modelled by dynamic regressions. A "Daily Artificial Dispather" thermal intelligent system has been costructed. Time and energy tests have been obtained for this intelligent system. The improvement in the daily load forecast, achieved by this intelligent system, has been obtained. The predicted daily electricity price has been found.

  17. Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP) Daily Modeling System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurbs, R.; Hoffpauir, R.

    2012-10-01

    Modeling System TR-430 Texas Water Resources Institute College Station, Texas August 2012 by Ralph A. Wurbs and Richard J. Hoffpauir Texas A&M University Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP) Daily Modeling System...-9-89809 (2008-2011) Contract 582-12-10220 (2011-2013) Technical Report No. 430 Texas Water Resources Institute The Texas A&M University System College Station, Texas 77843-2118 August 2012 ii iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 Water...

  18. Extreme event statistics of daily rainfall: Dynamical systems approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Cigdem Yalcin; Pau Rabassa; Christian Beck

    2015-08-15

    We analyse the probability densities of daily rainfall amounts at a variety of locations on the Earth. The observed distributions of the amount of rainfall fit well to a q-exponential distribution with exponent q close to q=1.3. We discuss possible reasons for the emergence of this power law. On the contrary, the waiting time distribution between rainy days is observed to follow a near-exponential distribution. A careful investigation shows that a q-exponential with q=1.05 yields actually the best fit of the data. A Poisson process where the rate fluctuates slightly in a superstatistical way is discussed as a possible model for this. We discuss the extreme value statistics for extreme daily rainfall, which can potentially lead to flooding. This is described by Frechet distributions as the corresponding distributions of the amount of daily rainfall decay with a power law. On the other hand, looking at extreme event statistics of waiting times between rainy days (leading to droughts for very long dry periods) we obtain from the observed near-exponential decay of waiting times an extreme event statistics close to Gumbel distributions. We discuss superstatistical dynamical systems as simple models in this context.

  19. Extreme event statistics of daily rainfall: Dynamical systems approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yalcin, G Cigdem; Beck, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the probability densities of daily rainfall amounts at a variety of locations on the Earth. The observed distributions of the amount of rainfall fit well to a q-exponential distribution with exponent q close to q=1.3. We discuss possible reasons for the emergence of this power law. On the contrary, the waiting time distribution between rainy days is observed to follow a near-exponential distribution. A careful investigation shows that a q-exponential with q=1.05 yields actually the best fit of the data. A Poisson process where the rate fluctuates slightly in a superstatistical way is discussed as a possible model for this. We discuss the extreme value statistics for extreme daily rainfall, which can potentially lead to flooding. This is described by Frechet distributions as the corresponding distributions of the amount of daily rainfall decay with a power law. On the other hand, looking at extreme event statistics of waiting times between rainy days (leading to droughts for very long dry periods) w...

  20. Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brizard, A. J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Duthoit, F.-X. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France)

    2009-10-15

    A general orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator suitable for the numerical analysis of transport processes in axisymmetric magnetized plasmas is presented. The orbit-averaged guiding-center operator describes transport processes in a three-dimensional guiding-center invariant space: the orbit-averaged magnetic-flux invariant {psi}, the minimum-B pitch-angle coordinate {xi}{sub 0}, and the momentum magnitude p.

  1. "Table 2. Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary Transport Mode and Supply Region" "(2013 dollars per ton)" "Coal Supply Region",2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "Railroad"...

  2. LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION BARRELS) FILE UPDATED April 2004 Line Month Low High Number Product Name Geography...

  3. The global warming signal is the average of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    The global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes, uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signal

  4. Morgantown Slightly Exceeds National Average for Cost of Living

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    (an index value of 100 reflects the national average). The index expresses the cost of living, health care, and miscellaneous goods and services. The index is designed to reflect the cost of living Relative to National Average by Category In Figure 2, we illustrate how the cost of living index has

  5. Daily temperature and precipitation data for 223 USSR Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Apasova, E.G.; Martuganov, R.A.; Vose, R.S.; Steurer, P.M.

    1993-11-01

    On- May 23, 1972, the United States and the USSR established a bilateral initiative known as the Agreement on Protection of the Environment. Given recent interest in possible greenhouse gas-induced climate change, Working Group VIII (Influence of Environmental Changes on Climate) has become particularly useful to the scientific communities of both nations. Among its many achievements, Working Group VIII has been instrumental in the exchange of climatological information between the principal climate data centers of each country [i.e., the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina, and the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information in Obninsk, Russia]. Considering the relative lack of climate records previously available for the USSR, data obtained via this bilateral exchange are particularly valuable to researchers outside the former Soviet Union. To expedite the dissemination of these data, NOAA`s Climate and Global Change Program funded the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and NCDC to distribute one of the more useful archives acquired through this exchange: a 223-station daily data set covering the period 1881-1989. This data set contains: (1) daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature data; (2) daily precipitation data; (3) station inventory information (WMO No., name, coordinates, and elevation); (4) station history information (station relocation and rain gauge replacement dates); and (5) quality assurance information (i.e., flag codes that were assigned as a result of various data checks). The data set is available, free of charge, as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of 18 data files and a printed document which describes both the data files and the 223-station network in detail.

  6. Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load Task Force Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, C. Allan; Wagner, Kevin; Di Giovanni, George; Hauck, Larry; Mott, Joanna; Rifai, Hanadi; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Ward, George; Wythe, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    stream_source_info TR-341 Bacteria TMDL Task Force Report Draft Four 6.4.07.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 344770 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name TR-341 Bacteria TMDL Task Force Report Draft Four 6....4.07.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 TR-341 2009 Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load Task Force Final Report By C. Allan Jones and Kevin Wagner, Texas Water Resources...

  7. Branch cuts of Stokes wave on deep water. Part I: Numerical solution and Pad\\'e approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyachenko, S A; Korotkevich, A O

    2015-01-01

    Complex analytical structure of Stokes wave for two-dimensional potential flow of the ideal incompressible fluid with free surface and infinite depth is analyzed. Stokes wave is the fully nonlinear periodic gravity wave propagating with the constant velocity. Simulations with the quadruple and variable precisions are performed to find Stokes wave with high accuracy and study the Stokes wave approaching its limiting form with $2\\pi/3$ radians angle on the crest. A conformal map is used which maps a free fluid surface of Stokes wave into the real line with fluid domain mapped into the lower complex half-plane. The Stokes wave is fully characterized by the complex singularities in the upper complex half-plane. These singularities are addressed by rational (Pad\\'e) interpolation of Stokes wave in the complex plane. Convergence of Pad\\'e approximation to the density of complex poles with the increase of the numerical precision and subsequent increase of the number of approximating poles reveals that the only singu...

  8. Climbing and the daily energy cost of locomotion in wild chimpanzees: implications for hominoid locomotor evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pontzer, Herman

    in a population of wild chimpanzees and used published equations to calculate the relative daily energy costsClimbing and the daily energy cost of locomotion in wild chimpanzees: implications for hominoid, specifically whether arboreal adaptations serve to minimize daily locomotor energy costs by decreasing

  9. APPENDIX III III.1 Precipitation Daily Totals Preceding Precipitation Events-----------------------------------------III-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    APPENDIX III III.1 Precipitation Daily Totals Preceding Precipitation Events-----------------------------------------III-2 Figure III.1.1 Precipitation daily totals preceding the a) calibration and b) and c) validationPRECIPITATION DAILY TOTALS PRECEDING PRECIPITATION EVENTS 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 9/19/819/21/819/23/819/25/819/27

  10. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Progress, 1978-2014 The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is the sales-weighted harmonic mean fuel economy of a manufacturer's fleet of new cars or light trucks in a certain...

  11. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by the fleet of each manufacturer will be determined by computing the sales-weighted harmonic average of the targets applicable to each of the manufacturer's passenger cars and...

  12. On the Choice of Average Solar Zenith Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy W.

    Idealized climate modeling studies often choose to neglect spatiotemporal variations in solar radiation, but doing so comes with an important decision about how to average solar radiation in space and time. Since both ...

  13. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  14. INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score .11In class clicker score .02Lecture: Correlations with effort/curricular elements are positive but not high, indicating no individual course reform

  15. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years fotw889web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact 859 February 9, 2015 Excess Supply is the Most Recent...

  16. Bounded Parameter Markov Decision Processes with Average Reward Criterion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tewari, Ambuj

    Bounded Parameter Markov Decision Processes with Average Reward Criterion Ambuj Tewari1 and Peter L, pp. 263277, 2007. c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007 #12;264 A. Tewari and P.L. Bartlett

  17. Averaged null energy condition violation in a conformally flat spacetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-01-15

    We show that the averaged null energy condition can be violated by a conformally coupled scalar field in a conformally flat spacetime in 3+1 dimensions. The violation is dependent on the quantum state and can be made as large as desired. It does not arise from the presence of anomalies, although anomalous violations are also possible. Since all geodesics in conformally flat spacetimes are achronal, the achronal averaged null energy condition is likewise violated.

  18. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  19. AV Presentation -Dowell Hall 206 Apple iPads are being used to control the switching of AV Signals between Sources to Displays.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    to stay powered on, but may go into sleep mode. Press the "Home" button to wake up, then finger slide approximately 1 minute to completely shut down, (Flashing Orange light on Prj). Wait for "Solid Orange" Light = Projector is now powered OFF. Press "Display 1 or 2" on iPad,,, Flashing Green Light on Prj

  20. AV Presentation -Dowell Hall 225 Apple iPads are being used to control the switching of AV Signals between Sources to Displays.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    to stay powered on, but may go into sleep mode. Press the "Home" button to wake up, then finger slide approximately 1 minute to completely shut down, (Flashing Orange light on Prj). Wait for "Solid Orange" Light = Projector is now powered OFF. Press "Display 1 or 2" on iPad,,, Flashing Green Light on Prj

  1. Fan and Pad Greenhouse Evaporative Cooling Systems1 R. A. Bucklin, J. D. Leary, D. B. McConnell, and E. G. Wilkerson2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    CIR1135 Fan and Pad Greenhouse Evaporative Cooling Systems1 R. A. Bucklin, J. D. Leary, D. B. Mc systems. Such high temperatures reduce crop quality and worker productivity. Evaporative cooling temperatures are important when dealing with evaporative cooling systems dry bulb temperature and wet bulb

  2. High average power scaleable thin-disk laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Honea, Eric C. (Sunol, CA); Bibeau, Camille (Dublin, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Powell, Howard (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.

  3. The High Average Power Laser Program 15th HAPL meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 2006 #12;2 The HAPL team is developing the science, technology and architecture needed for a laser1 The High Average Power Laser Program 15th HAPL meeting Aug 8 & 9, 2006 General Atomics Scientific Inst 16. Optiswitch Technology 17. ESLI Electricity Generator Electricity Generator Reaction

  4. FOCI RESEARCH BENEFITS FISHERIES MANAGEMENT 1993 Recruitment Forecast -Average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) advises the North Pacific Fisheries Management Council using a "stock data but addresses the autocorrelation of recruitment. In addition, it directly predicts recruitment to average 1991 year class, and a strong 1992 year class. In 1993 the transfer function model predicted

  5. Parity-violating anomalies and the stationarity of stochastic averages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, M.

    1988-01-15

    Within the framework of stochastic quantization the parity-violating anomalies in odd space-time dimensions are derived from the asymptotic stationarity of the stochastic average of a certain fermion bilinear. Contrary to earlier attempts, this method yields the correct anomalies for both massive and massless fermions.

  6. Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. MCLEAN 2011, in final form 26 May 2012) ABSTRACT Probabilistic forecasts of wind vectors are becoming critical with univariate quantities, statistical approaches to wind vector forecasting must be based on bivariate

  7. Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. Mc in the context of wind power, where under- forecasting and overforecasting carry different financial penal- ties, calibrated and sharp probabilistic forecasts can help to make wind power a more financially competitive alter

  8. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    information below. Supporting Information Average Vehicle Footprint, 2008-2010 Model Year Car Light Truck All Light Vehicles 2008 45.4 53.0 49.0 2009 45.2 52.7 48.2 2010 45.2 54.0...

  9. Prediction in moving average processes Anton Schick and Wolfgang Wefelmeyer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wefelmeyer, Wolfgang

    Prediction in moving average processes Anton Schick and Wolfgang Wefelmeyer Abstract(y + (x1, . . . , xr)) dF(y) The research of A. Schick was partially supported by NSF Grant DMS0405791. 1 #12;2 ANTON SCHICK AND WOLFGANG WEFELMEYER can be estimated at the "parametric" root-n rate

  10. Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Richard M.

    Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications Eric M. Wolff Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 Email: ewolff@caltech.edu Ufuk Topcu Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125

  11. An Analysis of Air Passenger Average Trip Lengths and Fare Levels in US Domestic Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Sheng-Chen Alex

    2000-01-01

    California at Berkeley An Analysis of Air Passenger AverageCalifornia at Berkeley An Analysis of Air Passenger Average

  12. McGinness Hills Well 27A-10 Daily Drilling Report Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Knudsen, Steven

    2014-03-25

    This data should be used with the daily drilling record and other data which can be obtained from the contact listed below

  13. McGinness Hills Well 27A-10 Daily Drilling Report Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Knudsen, Steven

    This data should be used with the daily drilling record and other data which can be obtained from the contact listed below

  14. Stress begets stress: Three studies of the daily behavioral and affective mechanisms of spillover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sears, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Understanding marriage and stress: Essential questions andlongitudinal examination of stress generation in depressive2009). Assessing daily stress processes in social surveys by

  15. Relationship Between Daily Exposure to Biomass Fuel Smoke and Blood Pressure in High-Altitude Peru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Between Daily Exposure to Biomass Fuel Smoke and BloodHousehold air pollution from biomass fuel use affects 3relationship between biomass fuel use and blood pressure. We

  16. Anomalous transport and observable average in the standard map

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lydia Bouchara; Ouerdia Ourrad; Sandro Vaienti; Xavier Leoncini

    2015-09-02

    The distribution of finite time observable averages and transport in low dimensional Hamiltonian systems is studied. Finite time observable average distributions are computed, from which an exponent $\\alpha$ characteristic of how the maximum of the distributions scales with time is extracted. To link this exponent to transport properties, the characteristic exponent $\\mu(q)$ of the time evolution of the different moments of order $q$ related to transport are computed. As a testbed for our study the standard map is used. The stochasticity parameter $K$ is chosen so that either phase space is mixed with a chaotic sea and islands of stability or with only a chaotic sea. Our observations lead to a proposition of a law relating the slope in $q=0$ of the function $\\mu(q)$ with the exponent $\\alpha$.

  17. A New World Average Value for the Neutron Lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. P. Serebrov; A. K. Fomin

    2010-05-27

    The analysis of the data on measurements of the neutron lifetime is presented. A new most accurate result of the measurement of neutron lifetime [Phys. Lett. B 605 (2005) 72] 878.5 +/- 0.8 s differs from the world average value [Phys. Lett. B 667 (2008) 1] 885.7 +/- 0.8 s by 6.5 standard deviations. In this connection the analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of experiments [Phys. Lett. B 483 (2000) 15] and [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63 (1989) 593] is carried out. Systematic errors of about -6 s are found in each of the experiments. The summary table for the neutron lifetime measurements after corrections and additions is given. A new world average value for the neutron lifetime 879.9 +/- 0.9 s is presented.

  18. Average Interpolating Wavelets on Point Clouds and Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rustamov, Raif M

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new wavelet transform suitable for analyzing functions on point clouds and graphs. Our construction is based on a generalization of the average interpolating refinement scheme of Donoho. The most important ingredient of the original scheme that needs to be altered is the choice of the interpolant. Here, we define the interpolant as the minimizer of a smoothness functional, namely a generalization of the Laplacian energy, subject to the averaging constraints. In the continuous setting, we derive a formula for the optimal solution in terms of the poly-harmonic Green's function. The form of this solution is used to motivate our construction in the setting of graphs and point clouds. We highlight the empirical convergence of our refinement scheme and the potential applications of the resulting wavelet transform through experiments on a number of data stets.

  19. Average dynamics of a finite set of coupled phase oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dima, Germn C. Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-06-15

    We study the solutions of a dynamical system describing the average activity of an infinitely large set of driven coupled excitable units. We compared their topological organization with that reconstructed from the numerical integration of finite sets. In this way, we present a strategy to establish the pertinence of approximating the dynamics of finite sets of coupled nonlinear units by the dynamics of its infinitely large surrogate.

  20. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  1. Averaged equilibrium and stability in low-aspect-ratio stellarators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, L.; Carreras, B.A.; Dominguez, N.

    1989-01-01

    The MHD equilibrium and stability calculations or stellarators are complex because of the intrinsic three-dimensional (3-D) character of these configurations. The stellarators expansion simplifies the equilibrium calculation by reducing it to a two-dimensional (2-D) problem. The classical stellarator expansion includes terms up to order epsilon/sup 2/, and the vacuum magnetic field is also included up to this order. For large-aspect-ratio configurations, the results of the stellarator expansion agree well with 3-D numerical equilibrium results. But for low-aspect-ratio configurations, these are significant discrepancies with 3-D equilibrium calculations. The main reason for these discrepancies is the approximation in the vacuum field contributions. This problem can be avoided by applying the average method in a vacuum flux coordinate system. In this way, the exact vacuum magnetic field contribution is included and the results agree well with 3-D equilibrium calculations even for low-aspect-ratio configurations. Using the average method in a vacuum flux coordinate system also permit the accurate calculation of local stability properties with the Mercier criterion. The main improvement is in the accurate calculation of the geodesic curvature term. In this paper, we discuss the application of the average method in flux coordinates to the calculation of the Mercier criterion for low-aspect-ratio stellarator configurations. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Changes to Sub-daily Rainfall Patterns in a Future Climate Seth Westra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    -daily rainfall `fragments' (continuous fine-resolution rainfall sequences whose total depth sums to the daily the fraction of the day with no rainfall increased by a median of 1.5%. This highlights that a large proportion resulting from anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases remains an important and continuing area

  3. Ecological Modelling 143 (2001) 227243 A globally applicable model of daily solar irradiance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt Jr., E. Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Ecological Modelling 143 (2001) 227243 A globally applicable model of daily solar irradiance at many ground stations, the total daily solar irradiance (Rs) received at the earth's surface to measured solar irradiance. In a global comparison for the year 1987, VP-RAD-estimated and satellite

  4. Modeling and Generating Daily Changes in Market Variables Using A Multivariate Mixture of Normal Distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jin

    Modeling and Generating Daily Changes in Market Variables Using A Multivariate Mixture of Normal of the normal distribution for modeling of daily changes in market variables with fatter-than-normal tails is to transform (linearly) a multivariate normalwith an input covariance matrix into the desired multivariate

  5. A knearest-neighbor simulator for daily precipitation and other weather variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balaji, Rajagopalan

    A knearest-neighbor simulator for daily precipitation and other weather variables Balaji simulation method is provided to generate random sequences of daily weather variables that "honor" the statistical properties of the historical data of the same weather variables at the site. A vector of weather

  6. Areal-averaged and Spectrally-resolved Surface Albedo from Ground-based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-08-22

    We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE?0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.

  7. Retrieval of Areal-averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Transmission Data Alone: Computationally Simple and Fast Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-10-25

    We introduce and evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673 and 870nm), under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line semi-analytical equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties, such as cloud optical depth and asymmetry parameter, in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we use as input measurements of spectral atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). These MFRSR data are collected at two well-established continental sites in the United States supported by the U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo. In particular, these comparisons are made at four MFRSR wavelengths (500, 615, 673 and 870nm) and for four seasons (winter, spring, summer and fall) at the ARM site using multi-year (2008-2013) MFRSR and MODIS data. Good agreement, on average, for these wavelengths results in small values (?0.01) of the corresponding root mean square errors (RMSEs) for these two sites. The obtained RMSEs are comparable with those obtained previously for the shortwave albedos (MODIS-derived versus tower-measured) for these sites during growing seasons. We also demonstrate good agreement between tower-based daily-averaged surface albedos measured for nearby overcast and non-overcast days. Thus, our retrieval originally developed for overcast conditions likely can be extended for non-overcast days by interpolating between overcast retrievals.

  8. Setting up @MyHunter (Office365) -Apple iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch: 1. Tap Settings > Mail, Contacts, Calendars > Add Account.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Weigang

    Setting up @MyHunter (Office365) - Apple iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch: 1. Tap Settings > Mail.cuny.edu). 4. Tap Next on the upper-right corner of the screen. Your Apple device will try to find the settings it needs to set up your account. 5. If your Apple device can't find your settings automatically, you

  9. (Approximate) Low-Mode Averaging with a new Multigrid Eigensolver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunnar Bali; Sara Collins; Andreas Frommer; Karsten Kahl; Issaku Kanamori; Benjamin Mller; Matthias Rottmann; Jakob Simeth

    2015-09-23

    We present a multigrid based eigensolver for computing low-modes of the Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator. For the non-Hermitian case multigrid methods have already replaced conventional Krylov subspace solvers in many lattice QCD computations. Since the $\\gamma_5$-preserving aggregation based interpolation used in our multigrid method is valid for both, the Hermitian and the non-Hermitian case, inversions of very ill-conditioned shifted systems with the Hermitian operator become feasible. This enables the use of multigrid within shift-and-invert type eigensolvers. We show numerical results from our MPI-C implementation of a Rayleigh quotient iteration with multigrid. For state-of-the-art lattice sizes and moderate numbers of desired low-modes we achieve speed-ups of an order of magnitude and more over PARPACK. We show results and develop strategies how to make use of our eigensolver for calculating disconnected contributions to hadronic quantities that are noisy and still computationally challenging. Here, we explore the possible benefits, using our eigensolver for low-mode averaging and related methods with high and low accuracy eigenvectors. We develop a low-mode averaging type method using only a few of the smallest eigenvectors with low accuracy. This allows us to avoid expensive exact eigensolves, still benefitting from reduced statistical errors.

  10. Averaged null energy condition and quantum inequalities in curved spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eleni-Alexandra Kontou

    2015-07-22

    The Averaged Null Energy Condition (ANEC) states that the integral along a complete null geodesic of the projection of the stress-energy tensor onto the tangent vector to the geodesic cannot be negative. ANEC can be used to rule out spacetimes with exotic phenomena, such as closed timelike curves, superluminal travel and wormholes. We prove that ANEC is obeyed by a minimally-coupled, free quantum scalar field on any achronal null geodesic (not two points can be connected with a timelike curve) surrounded by a tubular neighborhood whose curvature is produced by a classical source. To prove ANEC we use a null-projected quantum inequality, which provides constraints on how negative the weighted average of the renormalized stress-energy tensor of a quantum field can be. Starting with a general result of Fewster and Smith, we first derive a timelike projected quantum inequality for a minimally-coupled scalar field on flat spacetime with a background potential. Using that result we proceed to find the bound of a quantum inequality on a geodesic in a spacetime with small curvature, working to first order in the Ricci tensor and its derivatives. The last step is to derive a bound for the null-projected quantum inequality on a general timelike path. Finally we use that result to prove achronal ANEC in spacetimes with small curvature.

  11. Averaged null energy condition and quantum inequalities in curved spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kontou, Eleni-Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The Averaged Null Energy Condition (ANEC) states that the integral along a complete null geodesic of the projection of the stress-energy tensor onto the tangent vector to the geodesic cannot be negative. ANEC can be used to rule out spacetimes with exotic phenomena, such as closed timelike curves, superluminal travel and wormholes. We prove that ANEC is obeyed by a minimally-coupled, free quantum scalar field on any achronal null geodesic (not two points can be connected with a timelike curve) surrounded by a tubular neighborhood whose curvature is produced by a classical source. To prove ANEC we use a null-projected quantum inequality, which provides constraints on how negative the weighted average of the renormalized stress-energy tensor of a quantum field can be. Starting with a general result of Fewster and Smith, we first derive a timelike projected quantum inequality for a minimally-coupled scalar field on flat spacetime with a background potential. Using that result we proceed to find the bound of a qu...

  12. Plasma dynamics and a significant error of macroscopic averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek A. Szalek

    2005-05-22

    The methods of macroscopic averaging used to derive the macroscopic Maxwell equations from electron theory are methodologically incorrect and lead in some cases to a substantial error. For instance, these methods do not take into account the existence of a macroscopic electromagnetic field EB, HB generated by carriers of electric charge moving in a thin layer adjacent to the boundary of the physical region containing these carriers. If this boundary is impenetrable for charged particles, then in its immediate vicinity all carriers are accelerated towards the inside of the region. The existence of the privileged direction of acceleration results in the generation of the macroscopic field EB, HB. The contributions to this field from individual accelerated particles are described with a sufficient accuracy by the Lienard-Wiechert formulas. In some cases the intensity of the field EB, HB is significant not only for deuteron plasma prepared for a controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction but also for electron plasma in conductors at room temperatures. The corrected procedures of macroscopic averaging will induce some changes in the present form of plasma dynamics equations. The modified equations will help to design improved systems of plasma confinement.

  13. Average vertical and zonal F region plasma drifts over Jicamarca

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fejer, B.G.; Gonzalez, S.A. (Utah State Univ., Logan (United States)); de Paula, E.R. (Inst. de Pesquisas Espaciais-INPE, Sao Paulo (Brazil) Utah State Univ., Logan (United States)); Woodman, R.F. (Inst. Geofisico del Peru, Lima (Peru))

    1991-08-01

    The seasonal averages of the equatorial F region vertical and zonal plasma drifts are determined using extensive incoherent scatter radar observations from Jicamarca during 1968-1988. The late afternoon and nighttime vertical and zonal drifts are strongly dependent on the 10.7-cm solar flux. The authors show that the evening prereversal enhancement of vertical drifts increases linearly with solar flux during equinox but tends to saturate for large fluxes during southern hemisphere winter. They examine in detail, for the first time, the seasonal variation of the zonal plasma drifts and their dependence on solar flux and magnetic activity. The seasonal effects on the zonal drifts are most pronounced in the midnight-morning sector. The nighttime eastward drifts increase with solar flux for all seasons but decrease slightly with magnetic activity. The daytime westward drifts are essentially independent of season, solar cycle, and magnetic activity.

  14. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  15. Modified Force-Directed Scheduling for Peak and Average Power Optimization using Multiple Supply-Voltages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramanujam, J. "Ram"

    - and a is the average number of transitions per clock phase heuristic for peak and average power cycle at the gate

  16. Cakewalking into representation : Gabriele Mnter's America travels (1898-1900) and art of dailiness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bible, Ann Vollmann

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the fashioning of Gabriele Mnter as a German modernist with a focus on the eclipse of her struggles in coming to representation, the rich complexity of her processes, and the importance of dailiness ...

  17. Nanotechnology in our Daily Life Iridescent car paint: Based on interference colors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himpsel, Franz J.

    Nanotechnology in our Daily Life Iridescent car paint: Based on interference colors (like a butterly, no bleaching after 5 years Miami) #12;Nanotechnology on our Desktops Hard Disk Sensor Medium

  18. A resampling procedure for generating conditioned daily weather Martyn P. Clark,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balaji, Rajagopalan

    A resampling procedure for generating conditioned daily weather sequences Martyn P. Clark,1 the observed spatial (intersite) and temporal correlation statistics. The weather generator model is applied weather sequence. The weather generator model is extended to produce sequences of weather

  19. LCA comparison of windrow composting of yard wastes with use as alternative daily cover (ADC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    LCA comparison of windrow composting of yard wastes with use as alternative daily cover (ADC) Rob Assessment was made using the SimaPro LCA software and showed that the ADC scenario is more beneficial

  20. Daily HD TV News: Helping to Turn You On | Home | News | Blog | Reviews |

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Search Daily HD TV News: Helping to Turn You On | Home | News | Blog | Reviews | Sunday 30th of August 2009 Main: Home HDTV News HDTV Blog HDTV Reviews HDTV Categories: General HDTV HDTV Receivers

  1. Daily digestible protein and energy requirements for growth and maintenance of sub-adult Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siccardi, Anthony Joseph, III

    2009-06-02

    This study utilized two diets (25 and 35% crude protein) fed at 10 different rates to produce differences in shrimp specific growth rate which were regressed against daily digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE) intake to estimate daily...

  2. Early Clinical Outcomes Demonstrate Preserved Cognitive Function in Children With Average-Risk Medulloblastoma When Treated With Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Tejpal; Jalali, Rakesh; Goswami, Savita; Nair, Vimoj; Moiyadi, Aliasgar; Epari, Sridhar; Sarin, Rajiv

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report on acute toxicity, longitudinal cognitive function, and early clinical outcomes in children with average-risk medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty children {>=}5 years of age classified as having average-risk medulloblastoma were accrued on a prospective protocol of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) alone. Radiotherapy was delivered with two daily fractions (1 Gy/fraction, 6 to 8 hours apart, 5 days/week), initially to the neuraxis (36 Gy/36 fractions), followed by conformal tumor bed boost (32 Gy/32 fractions) for a total tumor bed dose of 68 Gy/68 fractions over 6 to 7 weeks. Cognitive function was prospectively assessed longitudinally (pretreatment and at specified posttreatment follow-up visits) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to give verbal quotient, performance quotient, and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). Results: The median age of the study cohort was 8 years (range, 5-14 years), representing a slightly older cohort. Acute hematologic toxicity was mild and self-limiting. Eight (40%) children had subnormal intelligence (FSIQ <85), including 3 (15%) with mild mental retardation (FSIQ 56-70) even before radiotherapy. Cognitive functioning for all tested domains was preserved in children evaluable at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after completion of HFRT, with no significant decline over time. Age at diagnosis or baseline FSIQ did not have a significant impact on longitudinal cognitive function. At a median follow-up time of 33 months (range, 16-58 months), 3 patients had died (2 of relapse and 1 of accidental burns), resulting in 3-year relapse-free survival and overall survival of 83.5% and 83.2%, respectively. Conclusion: HFRT without upfront chemotherapy has an acceptable acute toxicity profile, without an unduly increased risk of relapse, with preserved cognitive functioning in children with average-risk medulloblastoma.

  3. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benevides, Luis A. [Naval Sea Systems Command,1333 Isaac Hull Avenue, Washington Navy Yard, DC 20376 (United States); Hintenlang, David E. [University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Sciences Center, P.O. Box 1183, Gainesville Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-05-05

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  4. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  5. Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Diks, Cees G H; Clark, Martyn P

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

  6. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in daily global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrang, M.A.; Assareh, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Dezful Branch (Iran); Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran)

    2010-08-15

    The main objective of present study is to predict daily global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface, based on meteorological variables, using different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, and wind speed values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32 16'N, 48 25'E), are used in this study. In order to consider the effect of each meteorological variable on daily GSR prediction, six following combinations of input variables are considered: (I)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and relative humidity as inputs and daily GSR as output. (II)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (III)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (IV)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and evaporation as inputs and daily GSR as output. (V)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. (VI)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are applied for daily GSR modeling based on six proposed combinations. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data. The comparison of obtained results from ANNs and different conventional GSR prediction (CGSRP) models shows very good improvements (i.e. the predicted values of best ANN model (MLP-V) has a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) about 5.21% versus 10.02% for best CGSRP model (CGSRP 5)). (author)

  8. A Simple Intervention Increases Retention Rates of Medical Student Daily Evaluations During a Fourth Year Elective Rotation in Emergency Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, A; Wasserman, J; Bania, T; Stratton, J

    2014-01-01

    Daily Evaluations During a Fourth Year Elective Rotation inNY Background: The majority of fourth year medical students

  9. Padding with Compressed Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beals, C.

    2004-01-01

    , while the plant air pressure drops 9 psi to 79 psi. Four psi of the pressure drop is due to compressor setpoints, while the remaining fall in pressure is due to the increased airflow through the cleanup equipment and piping. Figure 3... pressure variations. Figure 3, depicts the proper application of dedicated storage with metered recovery. In this arrangement, the metering valve paces the airflow into the dedicated storage and prevents pressure variations from having Tanks Chemical...

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0, with ROTC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Strand

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 224 is comprised of the nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: 02-04-01, Septic Tank (Buried); 03-05-01, Leachfield; 05-04-01, Septic Tanks (4)/Discharge Area; 06-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (3); 06-05-01, Leachfield; 06-17-04, Decon Pad and Wastewater Catch; 06-23-01, Decon Pad Discharge Piping; 11-04-01, Sewage Lagoon; and 23-05-02, Leachfield. Corrective Action Sites 06-05-01, 06-23-01, and 23-05-02 were identified in the 1991 Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc. (REECo) inventory (1991). The remaining sites were identified during review of various historical documents. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating and selecting a corrective action alternative for each CAS. The CAI will include field inspections, radiological and geological surveys, and sample collection. Data will also be obtained to support investigation-derived waste (IDW) disposal and potential future waste management decisions.

  11. Class 1 Permit Modification Notification Addition of Structures within Technical Area 54, Area G, Pad 11, Dome 375 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, July 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.; Lechel, Robert A.

    2012-08-31

    The purpose of this letter is to notify the New Mexico Environment Department-Hazardous Waste Bureau (NMED-HWB) of a Class 1 Permit Modification to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit issued to the Department of Energy (DOE) and Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS) in November 2010. The modification adds structures to the container storage unit at Technical Area (TA) 54 Area G, Pad 11. Permit Section 3.1(3) requires that changes to the location of a structure that does not manage hazardous waste shall be changed within the Permit as a Class 1 modification without prior approval in accordance with Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 (40 CFR), {section}270.42(a)(1). Structures have been added within Dome 375 located at TA-54, Area G, Pad 11 that will be used in support of waste management operations within Dome 375 and the modular panel containment structure located within Dome 375, but will not be used as waste management structures. The Class 1 Permit Modification revises Figure 36 in Attachment N, Figures; and Figure G.12-1 in Attachment G.12, Technical Area 54, Area G, Pad 11 Outdoor Container Storage Unit Closure Plan. Descriptions of the structures have also been added to Section A.4.2.9 in Attachment A, TA - Unit Descriptions; and Section 2.0 in Attachment G.12, Technical Area 54, Area G, Pad 11 Outdoor Container Storage Unit Closure Plan. Full description of the permit modification and the necessary changes are included in Enclosure 1. The modification has been prepared in accordance with 40 CFR {section}270.42(a)(l). This package includes this letter and an enclosure containing a description of the permit modification, text edits of the Permit sections, and the revised figures (collectively LA-UR-12-22808). Accordingly, a signed certification page is also enclosed. Three hard copies and one electronic copy of this submittal will be delivered to the NMED-HWB.

  12. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

  13. Average Stumpage Prices Measured in Price per Ton for Forest Products Large Pine Sawtimber Small Pine Sawtimber Hardwood Sawtimber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Average Stumpage Prices Measured in Price per Ton for Forest Products Large Pine Sawtimber Small Pine Sawtimber Hardwood Sawtimber Year Unweighte d Average Prices Weighted Average Prices Average of Unweighted and Weighted Prices Unweighted Average Prices Weighted Average Prices Average of Unweighted

  14. Average Stumpage Prices Measured in Price per Ton for Forest Products Large Pine Sawtimber Small Pine Sawtimber Hardwood Sawtimber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Average Stumpage Prices Measured in Price per Ton for Forest Products Large Pine Sawtimber Small Pine Sawtimber Hardwood Sawtimber Year Unweighted Average Prices Weighted Average Prices Average of Unweighted and Weighted Prices Unweighted Average Prices Weighted Average Prices Average of Unweighted

  15. Average Stumpage Prices Measured in Price per Ton for Forest Products Large Pine Sawtimber Small Pine Sawtimber Hardwood Sawtimber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Average Stumpage Prices Measured in Price per Ton for Forest Products Large Pine Sawtimber Small Pine Sawtimber Hardwood Sawtimber Year Unweighted Average Prices Weighted Average Prices Simple average of Unweighted and Weighted Prices Unweighted Average Prices Weighted Average Prices Simple average of Unweighted

  16. LTB universes as alternatives to dark energy: does positive averaged acceleration imply positive cosmic acceleration?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Enea Romano

    2007-01-27

    We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.

  17. LTB universes as alternatives to dark energy: does positive averaged acceleration imply positive cosmic acceleration?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romano, A E

    2006-01-01

    We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.

  18. Fact #794: August 26, 2013 How Much Does an Average Vehicle Owner...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Each Year? Fact 794: August 26, 2013 How Much Does an Average Vehicle Owner Pay in Fuel Taxes Each Year? According to the Federal Highway Administration, the average fuel economy...

  19. Model comparison for automatic characterization and classification of average ERPs using visual oddball paradigm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polikar, Robi

    Model comparison for automatic characterization and classification of average ERPs using visual December 2008 Keywords: EEG ERP Attention P300 N200 Oddball Pattern recognition Linear discriminant responses from averaged event-related potentials (ERPs) along with identifying appropriate features

  20. Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings Fact 638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to...

  1. Fact #715: February 20, 2012 The Average Age of Light Vehicles Continues to Rise

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average age for cars and light trucks continues to rise as consumers hold onto their vehicles longer. Between 1995 and 2011, the average age for cars increased by 32% from 8.4 years to 11.1...

  2. Relationship between morphologies and orientations of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} grains in Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder joints on different Cu pads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Yanhong, E-mail: tianyh@hit.edu.cn; Zhang, Rui; Hang, Chunjin; Niu, Lina; Wang, Chunqing

    2014-02-15

    The morphologies and orientations of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic compounds in the Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder joints both on polycrystalline and single crystal Cu pads under different peak reflow temperatures and times above liquids were investigated. The relationship between Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} grain orientations and morphologies was clarified. At the interface of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/polycrystalline Cu pad, scalloped Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic compounds formed at 250 C and roof shape Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} formed at 300 C. Both scalloped Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and roof shape Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} had a preferred orientation of (0001) plane being parallel to polycrystalline Cu pad surface. Besides, the percentage of large angle grain boundaries increased as the peak reflow temperature rose. At the interface of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/(111) single crystal Cu pad, the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic compounds were mainly scallop-type at 250 C and were prism type at 300 C. The prismatic Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} grains grew along the three preferred directions with the inter-angles of 60 on (111) single crystal Cu pad while along two perpendicular directions on (100) single crystal Cu pad. The orientation relationship between Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} grains and the single crystal Cu pads was investigated by electron backscatter diffraction technology. In addition, two types of hollowed Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic compounds were found inside the joints of polycrystalline Cu pads. The long hexagonal Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} strips were observed in the joints reflowing at 250 C while the hollowed Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} strips with the ? shape cross-sections appeared at 300 C, which was attributed to the different grain growth rates of different Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} crystal faces. - Highlights: The orientation of interfacial Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} grains was obtained by EBSD technology. Two types of hollowed Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} strips were found at different temperatures. The formation mechanism of hollowed Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} was elaborated based on Bravais law. The relationship between Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} grain orientations and morphologies was clarified.

  3. TIME-AVERAGING IN THE MARINE FOSSIL RECORD: OVERVIEW OF STRATEGIES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , PALEOECOLOGY, BENTHIC, MARINE, TIME-AVERAGING. Rl~SUM]~ - Le raisonnement pal~ontologique qui a conduit ~ la

  4. A structural analysis of vehicle design responses to Corporate Average Fuel Economy policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    A structural analysis of vehicle design responses to Corporate Average Fuel Economy policy Ching 2009 Accepted 29 August 2009 Keywords: Corporate Average Fuel Economy Energy policy Oligopolistic market Game theory Vehicle design a b s t r a c t The US Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE

  5. Abstract--Using a bioenergetics model, we estimated daily ration and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    332 Abstract--Using a bioenergetics model, we estimated daily ration and seasonal prey consumption sandbar sharks (Carcharhinus plumbeus) in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, using a bioenergetics model* W. Wesley used in error analyses of the sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) bioenergetics model. See text

  6. Regression Model for Daily Maximum Stream Temperature David W. Neumann1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balaji, Rajagopalan

    Regression Model for Daily Maximum Stream Temperature David W. Neumann1 ; Balaji Rajagopalan2 for the summer period. The model is created using a stepwise linear regression procedure to select significant-9372 2003 129:7 667 CE Database subject headings: Decision support systems; Regression models; California

  7. Abstract Daily weather generators are used in many applications and risk analyses. The present paper ex-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segura, Enrique Carlos

    de Computacion, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Airesanos, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Clim Dyn;scribe four classes of daily rainfall stochastic models: two-part model (e.g. Richardson 1981

  8. Automatic Assessment of Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesias in Daily Life by Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gielen, C.C.A.M.

    Automatic Assessment of Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesias in Daily Life by Neural Networks Noe¨l L on the body. A neural network was trained to assess the severity of LID using various variables of the accelerometer signals. Neural network scores were compared with the assessment by physicians, who evaluated

  9. Some Basic Ideas Migration is a long-term (> daily) movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Christopher A.

    1 Migration Humpbacked Whales Some Basic Ideas Migration is a long-term (> daily) movement from one migrate yearly to find suitable substrate/water level/water temperature Costs and Benefits of Migration of breeding individuals Costs of migration include: Increased risk of predation or death from natural events

  10. Application of Flow Battery in Marine Current Turbine System for Daily Power Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Universit de

    Application of Flow Battery in Marine Current Turbine System for Daily Power Management Zhibin Zhou focuses on a grid-connected MCT system and proposes using vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) energy storage and to guarantee the expected power injection to the local grid. Keywords--Marine current turbine, flow battery

  11. The Daily Princetonian -International fusion project will use Princeton physics lab Summer Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to determine the viability of exploiting cold fusion as an energy source around the world. Much of the researchThe Daily Princetonian - International fusion project will use Princeton physics lab Summer Program | Previous | Next | Calendar International fusion project will use Princeton physics lab By ABBY WILLIAMS

  12. Communication and Media Studies Communicating is something we all do on a daily basis. An

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miles, Will

    Communication and Media Studies Communicating is something we all do on a daily basis. An understanding of human communication, and the ability to communicate well, is key to a successful career. Communication and media studies offers courses that help students learn how to be effective creators and critics

  13. Gastric Evacuation and Daily Ration of Naturally Produced Age-0 Chinook Salmon in Lake Ontario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Clifford E.

    Gastric Evacuation and Daily Ration of Naturally Produced Age-0 Chinook Salmon in Lake Ontario was discovered in Lake Ontario tributaries, little is known about the feeding dynamics of these fish after the nearshore region of Lake Ontario after emigrating from the Salmon River, New York, a major U.S. tributary

  14. Measuring 3D Arm Movements for Activities of Daily Living Thomas Haslwanter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haslwanter, Thomas

    - 1 - Measuring 3D Arm Movements for Activities of Daily Living Thomas Haslwanter Upper Austria in everyday life show a large variability between different, healthy subjects. In order to find reference arm movements for monitoring the progress of rehabilitation after stroke, we investigated the similarity of arm

  15. Jacksonville Daily Record Amendments 5 and 6: Redistricting changes also a party fight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Jacksonville Daily Record Amendments 5 and 6: Redistricting changes also a party fight 10 political boundaries has always proved a fierce partisan fight. But this fall, the struggle has intensified fight." Amendments 5 and 6, if approved by at least 60 percent of Florida voters, would guide the 2012

  16. Home Science One fish, two fish, dumb fish, dead fish DAILY SECTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernald, Russell

    Home Science One fish, two fish, dumb fish, dead fish Home DAILY SECTIONS News Sports Opinion Arts America! Study Spanish & Volunteer ONE FISH, TWO FISH, DUMB FISH, DEAD FISH | Print | E- mail Written scientists say fish are capable of deducing how they stack up against the competition by simply watching

  17. Daily air pollution effects on children's respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedal, S.; Schenker, M.B.; Munoz, A.; Samet, J.M.; Batterman, S.; Speizer, F.E.

    1987-06-01

    To identify acute respiratory health effects associated with air pollution due to coal combustion, a subgroup of elementary school-aged children was selected from a large cross-sectional study and followed daily for eight months. Children were selected to obtain three equal-sized groups: one without respiratory symptoms, one with symptoms of persistent wheeze, and one with cough or phlegm production but without persistent wheeze. Parents completed a daily diary of symptoms from which illness constellations of upper respiratory illness (URI) and lower respiratory illness (LRI) and the symptom of wheeze were derived. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured daily for nine consecutive weeks during the eight-month study period. Maximum hourly concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and coefficient of haze for each 24-hour period, as well as minimum hourly temperature, were correlated with daily URI, LRI, wheeze, and PEFR using multiple regression models adjusting for illness occurrence or level of PEFR on the immediately preceding day. Respiratory illness on the preceding day was the most important predictor of current illness. A drop in temperature was associated with increased URI and LRI but not with increased wheeze or with a decrease in level of PEFR. No air pollutant was strongly associated with respiratory illness or with level of PEFR, either in the group of children as a whole, or in either of the symptomatic subgroups; the pollutant concentrations observed, however, were uniformly lower than current ambient air quality standards.

  18. Rainfall Generator for the Rhine Basin Nearest-neighbour resampling of daily

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beersma, Jules

    Rainfall Generator for the Rhine Basin Nearest-neighbour resampling of daily circulation indices and conditional generation of weather variables Jules J. Beersma T. Adri Buishand KNMI publication 186III Work) Telephone: +31.320.298411; Telefax: +31.320.249218 #12;2 Rainfall Generator for the Rhine Basin #12

  19. Information technology has clearly had an impact on our daily lives. It has also altered the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Information technology has clearly had an impact on our daily lives. It has also altered the global organization -- where people are sup- ported by technology, rather than the other way around. Open information-mail: gilbey@bcs.org.uk Wired for Innovation: How Information Technology is Reshaping the Economy Erik

  20. Detrending Daily Natural Gas Consumption Series to Improve Short-Term Forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Povinelli, Richard J.

    Detrending Daily Natural Gas Consumption Series to Improve Short-Term Forecasts Ronald H. Brown1 that allows long-term natural gas demand signals to be used effect- ively to generate high quality short-term natural gas demand forecasting models. Short data sets in natural gas forecasting inadequately represent

  1. DAILY FLOW ROUTING WITH THE MUSKINGUM-CUNGE METHOD IN THE PECOS RIVER RIVERWARE MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that is a general river basin modeling tool that runs in an object-oriented modeling environment. While for each river reach must also run one model timestep at a time. The resulting routing method in RiverDAILY FLOW ROUTING WITH THE MUSKINGUM-CUNGE METHOD IN THE PECOS RIVER RIVERWARE MODEL Craig B

  2. Biomass burning emission inventory with daily resolution: Application to aircraft observations of Asian outflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Biomass burning emission inventory with daily resolution: Application to aircraft observations for biomass burning using AVHRR satellite observations of fire activity corrected for data gaps and scan angle biomass burning in SE Asia was a major contributor to the outflow of Asian pollution observed in TRACE

  3. A nonparametric wet/dry spell model for resampling daily precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    A nonparametric wet/dry spell model for resampling daily precipitation Upmanu Lall Department precipitation at a site. The model considers alternating sequences of wet and dry days in a given season, wet spell length, precipitation amount, and wet spell length given prior to dry spell length

  4. Deriving a light use efficiency model from eddy covariance flux data for predicting daily gross primary production across biomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    biome comparison of daily light-use efficiency for grossNPP): analysis of differences in light absorptionand light-use efficiency. Global Change Biol. 5, Ruimy, A. ,

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 559: T Tunnel Compressor/Blower Pad, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 559, T-Tunnel Compressor/Blower Pad. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 559 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): 12-25-13, Oil Stained Soil and Concrete The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure in place with use restrictions for CAU 559.

  6. Evaluation of the MODIS (MOD10A1) daily snow albedo product over the Greenland ice sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Box, Jason E.

    Evaluation of the MODIS (MOD10A1) daily snow albedo product over the Greenland ice sheet Julienne C Abstract This study evaluates the performance of the beta-test MODIS (MOD10A1) daily albedo product using with the launch of the first Landsat. Since then, a wide range of optical-wavelength sensors have been launched

  7. Langerhans Lab Protocols LiveFishCareDailyChecklistBRF.docx revised 10/3/2014 Page 1 of 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langerhans, Brian

    Langerhans Lab Protocols LiveFishCareDailyChecklistBRF.docx revised 10/3/2014 Page 1 of 3 Daily Steps for Live Fish Care in BRF 221 and 223 Morning Feeding: Summary: Monday-Friday (7:00am - 10:00am disturbance to the fish after introducing the food). c. During the feeding process, make note of any dead fish

  8. A cyclic time-dependent Markov process to model daily patterns in wind turbine power production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scholz, Teresa; Estanqueiro, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Wind energy is becoming a top contributor to the renewable energy mix, which raises potential reliability issues for the grid due to the fluctuating nature of its source. To achieve adequate reserve commitment and to promote market participation, it is necessary to provide models that can capture daily patterns in wind power production. This paper presents a cyclic inhomogeneous Markov process, which is based on a three-dimensional state-space (wind power, speed and direction). Each time-dependent transition probability is expressed as a Bernstein polynomial. The model parameters are estimated by solving a constrained optimization problem: The objective function combines two maximum likelihood estimators, one to ensure that the Markov process long-term behavior reproduces the data accurately and another to capture daily fluctuations. A convex formulation for the overall optimization problem is presented and its applicability demonstrated through the analysis of a case-study. The proposed model is capable of r...

  9. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Thornton, Michele M [ORNL; Mayer, Benjamin W [ORNL; Wilhelmi, Nate [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; Devarakonda, Ranjeet [ORNL; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    More information: http://daymet.ornl.gov Presenter: Ranjeet Devarakonda Environmental Sciences Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data and Climatological Summaries provides gridded estimates of daily weather parameters for North America, including daily continuous surfaces of minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation occurrence and amount, humidity, shortwave radiation, snow water equivalent, and day length. The current data product (Version 2) covers the period January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2013 [1]. The prior product (Version 1) only covered from 1980-2008. Data are available on a daily time step at a 1-km x 1-km spatial resolution in Lambert Conformal Conic projection with a spatial extent that covers the conterminous United States, Mexico, and Southern Canada as meteorological station density allows. Daymet data can be downloaded from 1) the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) search and order tools (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/cart/add2cart.pl?add=1219) or directly from the DAAC FTP site (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1219) and 2) the Single Pixel Tool [2] and THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Data Services) Data Server [3]. The Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool allows users to enter a single geographic point by latitude and longitude in decimal degrees. A routine is executed that translates the (lon, lat) coordinates into projected Daymet (x,y) coordinates. These coordinates are used to access the Daymet database of daily-interpolated surface weather variables. Daily data from the nearest 1 km x 1 km Daymet grid cell are extracted from the database and formatted as a table with one column for each Daymet variable and one row for each day. All daily data for selected years are returned as a single (long) table, formatted for display in the browser window. At the top of this table is a link to the same data in a simple comma-separated text format, suitable for import into a spreadsheet or other data analysis software. The Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool also provides the option to download multiple coordinates programmatically. A multiple extractor script is freely available to download at http://daymet.ornl.gov/files/daymet.zip. The ORNL DAAC s THREDDS data server (TDS) provides customized visualization and access to Daymet time series of North American mosaics. Users can subset and download Daymet data via a variety of community standards, including OPeNDAP, NetCDF Subset service, and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map/Coverage Service. The ORNL DAAC TDS also exposes Daymet metadata through its ncISO service to facilitate harvesting Daymet metadata records into 3rd party catalogs. References: [1] Thornton, P.E., M.M. Thornton, B.W. Mayer, N. Wilhelmi, Y. Wei, R. Devarakonda, and R.B. Cook. 2014. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. [2] Devarakonda R., et al. 2012. Daymet: Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool. Available on-line [http://daymet.ornl.go/singlepixel.html]. [3] Wei Y., et al. 2014. Daymet: Thematic Real-time Environmental Data Services. Available on-line [http://daymet.ornl.gov/thredds_tiles.html].

  10. Infectious Disease Updates To minimize the risk of any infectious disease, practice these daily preventive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    these daily preventive measures: Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw seconds), especially after you cough or sneeze. Alcohol-based hand cleaners are an alternative://www.sjsu.edu/studenthealth/cold_flu/index.html http://www.cdph.ca.gov/healthinfo/discond/pages/influenza(flu).aspx 2) Pertussis (Whooping Cough) http://www.sjsu.edu/studenthealth/docs/whooping_cough

  11. DAILY CRIME LOG This Information Is Posted In Compliance With The Student Right To Know Act.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 DAILY CRIME LOG This Information Is Posted In Compliance With The Student Right To Know Act. DATE. of Bolivar St. A-005-10 Slip and Fall 1-18-10 Signal 21 425 S. Roman St. A-006-10 Keep Off Property 1 1100 Florida Ave. A-010-10 Vehicle Damage 1-25-10 Signal 21 425 S. Roman St. A-011-10 Power Outage 1

  12. DAILY CRIME LOG This Information Is Posted In Compliance With The Student Right To Know Act.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DAILY CRIME LOG This Information Is Posted In Compliance With The Student Right To Know Act. DATEB 425 S. Roman St. A-016-13 Theft of bicycle 1/23/13 Signal 21 1900 Perdido St. A-017-13 Medical With The Student Right To Know Act. DATE OFFENSE LOCATION ITEM NUMBER COMMENTS 2/1/13 Signal 21 1100 Florida Ave. B

  13. DAILY CRIME LOG This Information Is Posted In Compliance With The Student Right To Know Act.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 DAILY CRIME LOG This Information Is Posted In Compliance With The Student Right To Know Act. DATE. Roman St. A-008-09 Parked car rolls back into another parked car 1-23-09 Signal 21L 1100 Florida Ave. A With The Student Right To Know Act. DATE OFFENSE LOCATION ITEM NUMBER COMMENTS 2-27-09 Signal 21 1100 Florida Ave

  14. DAILY CRIME LOG This Information Is Posted In Compliance With The Student Right To Know Act.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DAILY CRIME LOG This Information Is Posted In Compliance With The Student Right To Know Act. DATE-12 Stolen Bike 1/17/12 Signal 21 425 S. Roman St. A-009-12 Damage to Vehicle 1/18/12 Signal 21 1100 Florida/25/12 Signal 24 1900 Gravier St. A-016-12 Medical Emergency 1/30/12 Signal 20 425 S. Roman St. A-017-12 Vehicle

  15. DAILY CRIME LOG This Information Is Posted In Compliance With The Student Right To Know Act.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 DAILY CRIME LOG This Information Is Posted In Compliance With The Student Right To Know Act. DATE Gravier St. A-008-11 Subject allegedly stalking employee 1-19-11 Signal 20 Tulane and Roman Sts. A-009 (Perdido Lot) A-012-11 Auto accident 1/25/11 Signal 21L 136 S. Roman St. A-013-11 Lost or stolen internet

  16. DAILY CRIME LOG This Information Is Posted In Compliance With The Student Right To Know Act.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 DAILY CRIME LOG This Information Is Posted In Compliance With The Student Right To Know Act. DATE-08 Student hit parked vehicles 3-6-08 Signal 21 425 S. Roman St. C-001-08 Damage to parked vehicle 3-7-08 Signal 21 1900 Perdido St. C-002-08 Damage to vehicle 3-7-08 Signal 21 425 S. Roman St. C-003-08 Damage

  17. Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    develop a technique for finding the dynamical evolution in time of an averaged density matrix. The result is an equation of evolution that includes an effective Hamiltonian, as...

  18. DISTRIBUTED POSE AVERAGING IN CAMERA NETWORKS VIA CONSENSUS ON SE(3) Roberto Tron, Rene Vidal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DISTRIBUTED POSE AVERAGING IN CAMERA NETWORKS VIA CONSENSUS ON SE(3) Roberto Tron, Rene Vidal distributed algorithms for esti- mating the average pose of an object viewed by a localized network of camera networks; pose estimation; consensus; optimization on manifolds. 1. INTRODUCTION Recent hardware

  19. Pipeline for the Creation of Surface-based Averaged Brain Atlases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut fr Biologie

    Pipeline for the Creation of Surface-based Averaged Brain Atlases Anja Ku Hans-Christian Hege from different image modalities and experiments. In this paper we describe a standardized pipeline of individuals. The pipeline consists of the major steps imaging and preprocessing, segmentation, averaging

  20. Measuring second-order time-average pressure B. L. Smith and G. W. Swift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barton L.

    , 43.25.Zx, 43.25.Gf MFH I. INTRODUCTION In thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators, streaming can , generate both harmonics such as p2,2 and time- averaged phenomena such as streaming and the time- averaged and p1 . The nature and magnitude of p2,0 have generated activity and controversy in the acoustics

  1. A comparison of spatial averaging and Cadzow's method for array wavenumber estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, D.B.; Clark, G.A.

    1989-10-31

    We are concerned with resolving superimposed, correlated seismic waves with small-aperture arrays. The limited time-bandwidth product of transient seismic signals complicates the task. We examine the use of MUSIC and Cadzow's ML estimator with and without subarray averaging for resolution potential. A case study with real data favors the MUSIC algorithm and a multiple event covariance averaging scheme.

  2. Allowed mesoscopic point group symmetries in domain average engineering of perovskite ferroelectric crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    Allowed mesoscopic point group symmetries in domain average engineering of perovskite ferroelectric average engineering in proper ferroelectric systems arising from the cubic Pm3m symmetry perovskite4 Both solid solution systems have a perovskite structure. Poling along one of the pseudocubic axes

  3. StructuralHammingDistance Average SHD Results -Child -Sample Size 500

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Laura E.

    , and Hailfinder10 Networks. C22_complete_shd_results.tex; 5/08/2005; 16:24; p.2 #12;0 500 1000 1500 x MMHC OR1k=5 GES StructuralHammingDistance Average SHD Results - Child - Sample Size 500 Error Bars = +/- Std TPDA GES StructuralHammingDistance Average SHD Results - Child3 - Sample Size 500 Error Bars = +/- Std

  4. A Structural Analysis of Vehicle Design Responses to Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    09-0588 A Structural Analysis of Vehicle Design Responses to Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy, Michalek, and Hendrickson 1 ABSTRACT The U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations, which aim fuel economy; Energy policy; Oligopolistic market; Mixed logit #12;Shiau, Michalek, and Hendrickson 2 1

  5. Surface-based display of volume-averaged cerebellar imaging data Jrn Diedrichsen & Ewa Zotow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diedrichsen, Jrn

    Surface-based display of volume-averaged cerebellar imaging data Jrn Diedrichsen & Ewa Zotow representation of the cerebellum as a visualization tool for volume-averaged cerebellar data. Volume-based) Data projected onto a surface- based representation based on a single anatomy [2] displays single

  6. ON THE SELF-AVERAGING OF WAVE ENERGY IN RANDOM GUILLAUME BAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bal, Guillaume

    ON THE SELF-AVERAGING OF WAVE ENERGY IN RANDOM MEDIA GUILLAUME BAL Abstract. We consider the stabilization (self-averaging) and destabilization of the energy of waves propagating in random media transport equations for arbitrary statistical moments of the wave field is used to show that wave energy

  7. Statewide average major timber product prices started the year on a decline except

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Statewide average major timber product prices started the year on a decline except for a slight rise in hardwood pulpwood price. Pine sawlog price continued to fall during the January/February 2008 period. State- wide pine sawlog averaged $35.20/ton, the lowest price since January 2006. This was a 5

  8. Timber prices remained sluggish during May/June 2009. Statewide average stump-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timber prices remained sluggish during May/June 2009. Statewide average stump- age prices of all on hous- ing starts and lumber prices nationally at the end of the period. Statewide pine sawlog prices. The average pine sawlog price was $20.41 per ton for Northeast Texas and $22.60 per ton for Southeast Texas

  9. Reaction-time binning: A simple method for increasing the resolving power of ERP averages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poli, Riccardo

    Reaction-time binning: A simple method for increasing the resolving power of ERP averages RICCARDO-locked, response-locked, and ERP-locked averaging are effective methods for reducing artifacts in ERP analysis. However, they suffer from a magnifying-glass effect: they increase the resolution of specific ERPs

  10. Ordinary kriging for on-demand average wind interpolation of in-situ wind sensor data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Middleton, Stuart E.

    1 Ordinary kriging for on-demand average wind interpolation of in-situ wind sensor data Zlatko comes from wind in-situ observation stations in an area approximately 200km by 125km. We provide on-demand average wind interpolation maps. These spatial estimates can then be compared with the results of other

  11. Tradeoffs and Average-Case Equilibria in Selfish Routing Martin Hoefer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiterer, Harald

    the expected price of anarchy of the game for various social cost functions. For total latency social cost cost in polyno- mial time. Furthermore, our analyses of the expected prices are average-case analyses, 2007 Abstract We consider the price of selfish routing in terms of tradeoffs and from an average

  12. A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasbey, Chris

    A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation C.A. Glasbey and D 1). Solar radiation, averaged over ten minute intervals, was recorded at each site for two years otherwise there are too many parameters to be estimated. As we wish to simulate solar radiation on a network

  13. Quantum spatial-periodic harmonic model for daily price-limited stock markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Xiangyi; Xu, Jingjing; Guo, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of stocks in daily price-limited stock markets by purposing a quantum spatial-periodic harmonic model. The stock price is presumed to oscillate and damp in a quantum spatial-periodic harmonic oscillator potential well. Complicated non-linear relations including inter-band positive correlation and intra-band negative correlation between the volatility and the trading volume of stocks are derived by considering the energy band structure of the model. The validity of price limitation is then examined and abnormal phenomena of a price-limited stock market (Shanghai Stock Exchange) of China are studied by applying our quantum model.

  14. The heritability of daily ranges in rectal temperature, respiration rate, and pulse rate in lactating cows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vega C., Eduardo Humberto

    1957-01-01

    GMV 'KLl% NOIXVEIdSZH ZHflLVKEcBCiU 'IVLVK ar SZONVK ZrZVa n urrISVZIXe SSX THE HERITABILITY QF DAILT RANGES IR RECTAL TRAPE3ATCRE y HE V IRATI CR RATE & AHD PULSE RATE IR LACTATIlgl CCHH A Thesis Muardo Susbarto Vega C Appreved as to style... for the Daily Ranges of Tem- perature, Pulse Rate? snd Respiration Rate of Holsteins and Jerseys Prior to Adjustmsnt . ~ ~ ~ 13 IXX, Beans? Standard Errors, and Nunber of Observations for the Three Chax'aeter istics Beasuxed, After Adjustment ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 13...

  15. Daily Modulation as a Smoking Gun of Dark Matter with Significant Stopping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chris Kouvaris; Ian M. Shoemaker

    2015-04-01

    We point out that for a range of parameters, the flux of DM may be stopped significantly by its interactions with the Earth. This can significantly degrade the sensitivity of direct detection experiments to DM candidates with large interactions with terrestrial nuclei. We find that a significant region of parameter space remains unconstrained for DM $\\lesssim $ a few GeV. For DM candidates with moderate levels of stopping power, the flux of DM may be blocked from below but not above a detector thereby producing a novel daily modulation. This can be explored by low threshold detectors placed on the surface or in shallow sites in the south hemisphere.

  16. Behaviour of ambient temperature on daily basis in Italian climate V. Cuomo, F. Fontana and C. Serio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , such as the design and performances calculations of renewable energy tech- nologies (e.g. solar energy systems for modelling daily global solar irradiance Article published online by EDP Sciences and available at http

  17. New Zealand Forestry sector looks to $20bn industry by 2025 08 October 2003/Lumber and Building materials Daily

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , it also suffered from having small processing capacity to turn raw materials into remanufactured products materials Daily New Zealand's forestry sector is still confident it can expand into a $20 billion dollar

  18. INCLEMENT WEATHER Residents/fellows are essential to the daily operation of each hospital and are expected to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page 140 ` INCLEMENT WEATHER Residents/fellows are essential to the daily operation of each hospital and are expected to report to work when scheduled. In the event of a severe weather condition

  19. Real-Time Study of Prostate Intrafraction Motion During External Beam Radiotherapy With Daily Endorectal Balloon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Both, Stefan, E-mail: Stefan.Both@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Plastaras, John P.; Deville, Curtiland; Bar Ad, Voika; Tochner, Zelig; Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate intrafraction prostate motion during radiofrequency-guided prostate radiotherapy with implanted electromagnetic transponders when daily endorectal balloon (ERB) is used. Methods and Materials: Intrafraction prostate motion from 24 patients in 787 treatment sessions was evaluated based on three-dimensional (3D), lateral, cranial-caudal (CC), and anterior-posterior (AP) displacements. The mean percentage of time with 3D, lateral, CC, and AP prostate displacements >2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 mm in 1 minute intervals was calculated for up to 6 minutes of treatment time. Correlation between the mean percentage time with 3D prostate displacement >3 mm vs. treatment week was investigated. Results: The percentage of time with 3D prostate movement >2, 3, and 4 mm increased with elapsed treatment time (p < 0.05). Prostate movement >5 mm was independent of elapsed treatment time (p = 0.11). The overall mean time with prostate excursions >3 mm was 5%. Directional analysis showed negligible lateral prostate motion; AP and CC motion were comparable. The fraction of time with 3D prostate movement >3 mm did not depend on treatment week of (p > 0.05) over a 4-minute mean treatment time. Conclusions: Daily endorectal balloon consistently stabilizes the prostate, preventing clinically significant displacement (>5 mm). A 3-mm internal margin may sufficiently account for 95% of intrafraction prostate movement for up to 6 minutes of treatment time. Directional analysis suggests that the lateral internal margin could be further reduced to 2 mm.

  20. Daily diaries of respiratory symptoms and air pollution: Methodological issues and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, J. ); Wypij, D.; Dockery D.; Ware, J.; Spengler, J.; Ferris, B. Jr. ); Zeger, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Daily diaries of respiratory symptoms are a powerful technique for detecting acute effects of air pollution exposure. While conceptually simple, these diary studies can be difficult to analyze. The daily symptom rates are highly correlated, even after adjustment for covariates, and this lack of independence must be considered in the analysis. Possible approaches include the use of incidence instead of prevalence rates and autoregressive models. Heterogeneity among subjects also induces dependencies in the data. These can be addressed by stratification and by two-stage models such as those developed by Korn and Whittemore. These approaches have been applied to two data sets: a cohort of school children participating in the Harvard Six Cities Study and a cohort of student nurses in Los Angeles. Both data sets provide evidence of autocorrelation and heterogeneity. Controlling for autocorrelation corrects the precision estimates, and because diary data are usually positively autocorrelated, this leads to larger variance estimates. Controlling for heterogeneity among subjects appears to increase the effect sizes for air pollution exposure. Preliminary results indicate associations between sulfur dioxide and cough incidence in children and between nitrogen dioxide and phlegm incidence in student nurses.

  1. Daily movements of female white-tailed deer relative to parturition and breeding.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gino J. D'Angelo; Christopher E. Comer; John C. Kilgo; Cory D. Drennan; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller

    2005-10-01

    Abstract: To assess how white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd demographics influence reproductive behaviors, we examined 24-h diel movements of female whitetailed deer relative to parturition and breeding in a low-density population with a near even sex ratio at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. We conducted a series of intensive, 24-h radio-tracking periods of 13 females during spring and fall 2002. We compared daily range (ha), rate of travel (m/h), and distance between extreme daily locations (m), among the periods of pre-parturition and post-parturition and pre-, peak-, and post-rut. From pre-parturition to post-parturition, we observed decreases in diel range size (?¢????38.2%), distance between extreme diel locations (?¢????17.0%), and diel rate of travel (?¢????18.2%). Diel range size, distance between extreme diel locations, and diel rate of travel during the pre-rut and rut exceeded those observed during post-rut. We further identified substantial increases in mobility during 12 24-h diel periods for eight females during our fall monitoring. Our data suggest that female white-tailed deer reduce mobility post-fawning following exaggerated movements during pre-parturition. Furthermore, despite a near equal sex ratio, estrous does may be required to actively seek potential mates due to low population density.

  2. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is the sales-weighted harmonic mean fuel economy of a manufacturers fleet of new cars or light trucks in a certain model year (MY). First enacted by...

  3. Giant aeolian dune size determined by the average depth of the atmospheric boundary layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tlemcen, Algeria. 3 Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Center for Nonlinear be related to statistically averaged quantities. The detailed modelling of the atmospheric processes is very

  4. The averaging process in permeability estimation from well-test data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, D.S. (Saudi Aramco (SA))

    1990-09-01

    Permeability estimates from the pressure derivative or the slope of the semilog plot usually are considered to be averages of some large ill-defined reservoir volume. This paper presents results of a study of the averaging process, including identification of the region of the reservoir that influences permeability estimates, and a specification of the relative contribution of the permeability of various regions to the estimate of average permeability. The diffusion equation for the pressure response of a well situated in an infinite reservoir where permeability is an arbitrary function of position was solved for the case of small variations from a mean value. Permeability estimates from the slope of the plot of pressure vs. the logarithm of drawdown time are shown to be weighted averages of the permeabilities within an inner and outer radius of investigation.

  5. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars and Light Trucks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vehicle footprint is the area defined by the four points where the tires touch the ground. It is calculated as the product of the wheelbase and the average track width of the vehicle. The...

  6. System average rates of U.S. investor-owned electric utilities : a statistical benchmark study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berndt, Ernst R.

    1995-01-01

    Using multiple regression methods, we have undertaken a statistical "benchmark" study comparing system average electricity rates charged by three California utilities with 96 other US utilities over the 1984-93 time period. ...

  7. AVERAGES ALONG POLYNOMIAL SEQUENCES IN DISCRETE NILPOTENT GROUPS: SINGULAR RADON TRANSFORMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magyar, Akos

    AVERAGES ALONG POLYNOMIAL SEQUENCES IN DISCRETE NILPOTENT GROUPS: SINGULAR RADON TRANSFORMS can consider discrete maximal Radon transforms, which have applications to pointwise ergodic theo- rems, and discrete singular Radon transforms. In this paper we prove L2 boundedness of discrete

  8. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in March 2010. Under this rule, each light vehicle model produced for sale in the United States will have a fuel...

  9. Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average trip length (one-way) is 9.7 miles according to the 2009 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey. Trip lengths vary by the purpose of the trip. Shopping and family/personal business...

  10. Advancing the Theoretical Foundation of the Partially-averaged Navier-Stokes Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyes, Dasia Ann

    2013-05-06

    computational technologies. Low-fidelity approaches such as Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), although widely used, are inherently inadequate for turbulent flows with complex flow features. VR bridging methods fill the gap between DNS and RANS by allowing...

  11. Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Experiments with a time-dependent, zonally averaged, seasonal, enery balance climatic model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Starley Lee

    1977-01-01

    EXPERIMENTS WITH A TI&E-DEPENDENT, ZONALLY AVERAGED, SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the decree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology EXPERIMENTS WITH A TIME DEPENDENT~ ZONALLY AVERAGED~ SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

  13. k=10 GS PC TPDA GES Average SHD Results -Child -Sample Size 500

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Laura E.

    TPDA GES Structural Hamming Distance Average SHD Results - Child - Sample Size 500 Error Bars = +/- Std GS PC TPDA GES Structural Hamming Distance Average SHD Results - Child3 - Sample Size 500 Error Bars = +/- Std.Dev. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 MMHC OR1 k=5 OR1 k=10 OR1 k=20 OR2 k=5 OR2 k=10 OR2 k=20 SC k=5 SC

  14. Revision of the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation - 12510

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Maurice; Kennedy, James E.; Ridge, Christianne; Lowman, Donald [U.S. NRC, Washington, DC, 20555-0001 (United States); Cochran, John [Sandia National Laboratory (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulation governing low-level waste (LLW) disposal, 'Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste', 10 CFR Part 61, establishes a waste classification system based on the concentration of specific radionuclides contained in the waste. The regulation also states, at 10 CFR 61.55(a)(8), that, 'the concentration of a radionuclide (in waste) may be averaged over the volume of the waste, or weight of the waste if the units are expressed as nanocuries per gram'. The NRC's Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation provides guidance on averaging radionuclide concentrations in waste under 10 CFR 61.55(a)(8) when classifying waste for disposal. In 2007, the NRC staff proposed to revise the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation. The Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation is an NRC guidance document for averaging and classifying wastes under 10 CFR 61. The Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation is used by nuclear power plants (NPPs) licensees and sealed source users, among others. In addition, three of the four U.S. LLW disposal facility operators are required to honor the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation as a licensing condition. In 2010, the Commission directed the staff to develop guidance regarding large scale blending of similar homogenous waste types, as described in SECY-10-0043 as part of its Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation revision. The Commission is improving the regulatory approach used in the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation by moving towards a making it more risk-informed and performance-based approach, which is more consistent with the agency's regulatory policies. Among the improvements to the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation are more risk-informed limits for the sizes of sealed sources for safe disposal. Using more realistic intruder exposure scenarios, the suggested limits for Class B and C waste disposal of sealed sources, particularly Cs-137 and Co-60, have been increased. These suggested changes, and others in the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation, if adopted by Agreement States, have the potential to eliminate numerous orphan sources (i.e., sources that currently have no disposal pathway) that are now being stored. Permanent disposal of these sources, rather than temporary storage, will help reduce safety and security risks. The revised Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation has an alternative approach section which provides flexibility to generators and processors, while also ensuring that intruder protection will be maintained. Alternative approaches provide flexibility by allowing for consideration of likelihood of intrusion, the possibility of averaging over larger volumes and allowing for disposal of large activity sources. The revision has improved the organization of the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation, improved its clarity, better documented the bases for positions, and made the positions more risk informed while also maintaining protection for intruder as required by 10 CFR Part 61. (authors)

  15. Forecasting of preprocessed daily solar radiation time series using neural networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paoli, Christophe; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie-Laure [University of Corsica, CNRS UMR SPE, Corte (France); Voyant, Cyril [University of Corsica, CNRS UMR SPE, Corte (France); Hospital of Castelluccio, Radiotherapy Unit, Ajaccio (France)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, we present an application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in the renewable energy domain. We particularly look at the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) network which has been the most used of ANNs architectures both in the renewable energy domain and in the time series forecasting. We have used a MLP and an ad hoc time series pre-processing to develop a methodology for the daily prediction of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. First results are promising with nRMSE {proportional_to} 21% and RMSE {proportional_to} 3.59 MJ/m{sup 2}. The optimized MLP presents predictions similar to or even better than conventional and reference methods such as ARIMA techniques, Bayesian inference, Markov chains and k-Nearest-Neighbors. Moreover we found that the data pre-processing approach proposed can reduce significantly forecasting errors of about 6% compared to conventional prediction methods such as Markov chains or Bayesian inference. The simulator proposed has been obtained using 19 years of available data from the meteorological station of Ajaccio (Corsica Island, France, 41 55'N, 8 44'E, 4 m above mean sea level). The predicted whole methodology has been validated on a 1.175 kWc mono-Si PV power grid. Six prediction methods (ANN, clear sky model, combination..) allow to predict the best daily DC PV power production at horizon d + 1. The cumulated DC PV energy on a 6-months period shows a great agreement between simulated and measured data (R{sup 2} > 0.99 and nRMSE < 2%). (author)

  16. SU-D-BRF-04: Digital Tomosynthesis for Improved Daily Setup in Treatment of Liver Lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, H; Jones, B; Miften, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Daily localization of liver lesions with cone-beam CT (CBCT) is difficult due to poor image quality caused by scatter, respiratory motion, and the lack of radiographic contrast between the liver parenchyma and the lesion(s). Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is investigated as a modality to improve liver visualization and lesion/parenchyma contrast for daily setup. Methods: An in-house tool was developed to generate DTS images using a point-by-point filtered back-projection method from on-board CBCT projection data. DTS image planes are generated in a user defined orientation to visualize the anatomy at various depths. Reference DTS images are obtained from forward projection of the planning CT dataset at each projection angle. The CBCT DTS image set can then be registered to the reference DTS image set as a means for localization. Contour data from the planning CT's associate RT Structure file and forward projected similarly to the planning CT data. DTS images are created for each contoured structure, which can then be overlaid onto the DTS images for organ volume visualization. Results: High resolution DTS images generated from CBCT projections show fine anatomical detail, including small blood vessels, within the patient. However, the reference DTS images generated from forward projection of the planning CT lacks this level of detail due to the low resolution of the CT voxels as compared to the pixel size in the projection images; typically 1mm-by-1mm-by-3mm (lat, vrt, lng) for the planning CT vs. 0.4mm-by-0.4mm for CBCT projections. Overlaying of the contours onto the DTS image allows for visualization of structures of interest. Conclusion: The ability to generate DTS images over a limited range of projection angles allows for reduction in the amount of respiratory motion within each acquisition. DTS may provide improved visualization of structures and lesions as compared to CBCT for highly mobile tumors.

  17. Average M shell fluorescence yields for elements with 70?Z?92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahoul, A.; Deghfel, B.; Aylikci, V.; Aylikci, N. K.; Nekkab, M.

    2015-03-30

    The theoretical, experimental and analytical methods for the calculation of average M-shell fluorescence yield (?{sup }{sub M}) of different elements are very important because of the large number of their applications in various areas of physical chemistry and medical research. In this paper, the bulk of the average M-shell fluorescence yield measurements reported in the literature, covering the period 1955 to 2005 are interpolated by using an analytical function to deduce the empirical average M-shell fluorescence yield in the atomic range of 70?Z?92. The results were compared with the theoretical and fitted values reported by other authors. Reasonable agreement was typically obtained between our result and other works.

  18. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2010-07-15

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call this technique a multiphoton expansion (MPE). The MPE formalism was verified with an exactly solvable inversion problem in two dimensions, and probabilities in the postsaturation region, where the intensity-selective scanning approach breaks down, were recovered. In three dimensions, ionization probabilities of Xe were successfully recovered with MPE from simulated (using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunneling theory) ion yields. Finally, we tested our approach with intensity-resolved benzene-ion yields, which show a resonant multiphoton ionization process. By applying MPE to this data (which were artificially averaged), the resonant structure was recovered, which suggests that the resonance in benzene may have been observed in spatially averaged data taken elsewhere.

  19. Comparison of average and point capillary pressure-saturation functions determined by steady-state centrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropper, Clark; Perfect, Edmund; van den Berg, Dr. Elmer; Mayes, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    The capillary pressure-saturation function can be determined from centrifuge drainage experiments. In soil physics, the data resulting from such experiments are usually analyzed by the 'averaging method.' In this approach, average relative saturation, , is expressed as a function of average capillary pressure, <{psi}>, i.e., (<{psi}>). In contrast, the capillary pressure-saturation function at a physical point, i.e., S({psi}), has been extracted from similar experiments in petrophysics using the 'integral method.' The purpose of this study was to introduce the integral method applied to centrifuge experiments to a soil physics audience and to compare S({psi}) and (<{psi}>) functions, as parameterized by the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten equations, for 18 samples drawn from a range of porous media (i.e., Berea sandstone, glass beads, and Hanford sediments). Steady-state centrifuge experiments were performed on preconsolidated samples with a URC-628 Ultra-Rock Core centrifuge. The angular velocity and outflow data sets were then analyzed using both the averaging and integral methods. The results show that the averaging method smoothes out the drainage process, yielding less steep capillary pressure-saturation functions relative to the corresponding point-based curves. Maximum deviations in saturation between the two methods ranged from 0.08 to 0.28 and generally occurred at low suctions. These discrepancies can lead to inaccurate predictions of other hydraulic properties such as the relative permeability function. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of the integral method instead of the averaging method when determining the capillary pressure-saturation function by steady-state centrifugation. This method can be successfully implemented using either the van Genuchten or Brooks-Corey functions, although the latter provides a more physically precise description of air entry at a physical point.

  20. Note on an integral expression for the average lifetime of the bound state in 2D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorsten Prustel; Martin Meier-Schellersheim

    2012-10-04

    Recently, an exact Green's function of the diffusion equation for a pair of spherical interacting particles in two dimensions subject to a backreaction boundary condition was used to derive an exact expression for the average lifetime of the bound state. Here, we show that the corresponding divergent integral may be considered as the formal limit of a Stieltjes transform. Upon analytically calculating the Stieltjes transform one can obtain an exact expression for the finite part of the divergent integral and hence for the average lifetime.

  1. Performance and production requirements for the optical components in a high-average-power laser system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R.; Doss, F.W.; Taylor, J.R.; Wong, J.N.

    1999-07-02

    Optical components needed for high-average-power lasers, such as those developed for Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), require high levels of performance and reliability. Over the past two decades, optical component requirements for this purpose have been optimized and performance and reliability have been demonstrated. Many of the optical components that are exposed to the high power laser light affect the quality of the beam as it is transported through the system. The specifications for these optics are described including a few parameters not previously reported and some component manufacturing and testing experience. Key words: High-average-power laser, coating efficiency, absorption, optical components

  2. Assessing the U.S. Senate Vote on the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preston, Scott

    classify cars as light trucks to "bend" the restrictions set by the standard. (Vehicles classified as light reclassified as a light truck, Subaru was able to add weight to the vehicle without making expenditures Kerry proposed raising the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard for cars and trucks. On March

  3. Modeling tidal flow in the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire, using a depth averaged

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling tidal flow in the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire, using a depth averaged flooding, University of New Hampshire, USA. 2 Numerical Methods Lab., Dartmouth College, USA. 3 Ocean Process Analysis Lab., University of New Hampshire, USA. Abstract Current, sea level and bed load transport

  4. High Average Power Operation of a Scraper-Outcoupled Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michelle D. Shinn; Chris Behre; Stephen Vincent Benson; Michael Bevins; Don Bullard; James Coleman; L. Dillon-Townes; Tom Elliott; Joe Gubeli; David Hardy; Kevin Jordan; Ronald Lassiter; George Neil; Shukui Zhang

    2004-08-01

    We describe the design, construction, and operation of a high average power free-electron laser using scraper outcoupling. Using the FEL in this all-reflective configuration, we achieved approximately 2 kW of stable output at 10 um. Measurements of gain, loss, and output mode will be compared with our models.

  5. Average-case analysis of perfect sorting by reversals Mathilde Bouvel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    genomics, is the process of sorting a signed permutation to either the identity or to the reversed identity example here: we perform an average case analysis of a sorting algorithm from computational genomics by generating function analysis of a family of trees. Motivation: a computational genomics problem

  6. POLYMER END-GROUP ANALYSIS: THE DETERMINATION OF AVERAGE MOLECULAR WEIGHT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    POLYMER END-GROUP ANALYSIS: THE DETERMINATION OF AVERAGE MOLECULAR WEIGHT Background reading. 11. Skoog, West, Holler and Crouch, 7th ed., Chap. 14. Introduction Polymers Polymers are a special in this experiment, or may be of different types. Polymers are very important in biological systems. For example

  7. Climate Projections Using Bayesian Model Averaging and Space-Time Dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haran, Murali

    Climate Projections Using Bayesian Model Averaging and Space-Time Dependence K. Sham Bhat, Murali Haran, Adam Terando, and Klaus Keller. Abstract Projections of future climatic changes are a key input to the design of climate change mitiga- tion and adaptation strategies. Current climate change projections

  8. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  9. Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Averaging method for nonlinear laminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lautrup, Benny

    Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Averaging method for nonlinear laminar Copenhagen ?, Denmark (Received October 10, 2002) We study laminar Ekman boundary layers in rotating systems method to describe laminar and turbulent boundary layers in rotating fluids. They used a self

  10. Power dissipation and time-averaged pressure in oscillating flow through a sudden area change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barton L.

    that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Barton L. Smith Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322-averaged pressure gradient has been used to counteract streaming flows in a thermoacoustic Stirling refrigerator1

  11. Self-guided enhanced sampling methods for thermodynamic averages Ioan Andricioaeia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinner, Aaron

    such systems have energetic and entropic barriers that are higher than the thermal energy at tempera- turesSelf-guided enhanced sampling methods for thermodynamic averages Ioan Andricioaeia) Department 2002; accepted 22 October 2002 In the self-guided molecular dynamics SGMD simulation method

  12. Averaging out Inhomogeneous Newtonian Cosmologies: I. Fluid Mechanics and the Navier-Stokes Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roustam Zalaletdinov

    2002-12-18

    The basic concepts and equations of classical fluid mechanics are presented in the form necessary for the formulation of Newtonian cosmology and for derivation and analysis of a system of the averaged Navier-Stokes-Poisson equations. A special attention is paid to the analytic formulation of the definitions and equations of moving fluids and to their physical content.

  13. Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems is developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power reactor with a solid first wall chamber. The first is a coordinated effort to develop laser inertial fusion energy [1]. The first stage of the HAPL program

  14. Bias Correction and Bayesian Model Averaging for Ensemble Forecasts of Surface Wind Direction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    Bias Correction and Bayesian Model Averaging for Ensemble Forecasts of Surface Wind Direction LE proposes an effective bias correction technique for wind direction forecasts from numerical weather forecasts. These techniques are applied to 48-h forecasts of surface wind direction over the Pacific

  15. Real-valued average consensus over noisy quantized channels Andrea Censi Richard M. Murray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Richard M.

    mechanism which can be interpreted as a self-inhibitory action. The result is that the average of the nodes of the graph and can be proved by employing elementary techniques of LTI systems analysis. I. INTRODUCTION. Yet we do not have, in our control-systems toolbox, design methods that can work on this computational

  16. Averages along polynomial sequences in discrete nilpotent groups: singular Radon transforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ionescu, Alexandru D; Wainger, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We consider a class of operators defined by taking averages along polynomial sequences in discrete nilpotent groups. In this paper we prove $L^2$ boundedness of discrete singular Radon transforms along general polynomial sequences in discrete nilpotent groups of step 2.

  17. Seasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Ren Rydhof

    of indoor air pollution sources. Concurrently, great efforts are made to make buildings energy efficient 1970s, while less attention has been paid to IAQ. Insufficient venting of indoor air pollutantsSeasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements Marie

  18. Efficient computation of robust average in wireless sensor networks using compressive sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    compressive sensing. Instead of sending a block of sensor readings to the data fusion centre, each sensor of the projections (which we will refer to as the compressed data) to the data fusion centre. At the data fusion of the robust average of the original sensor readings. This means that the data fusion centre will only need

  19. Enhanced interleaved partitioning PTS for peak-to-average power ratio reduction in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -PTS is proposed that can be used to produce fully independent candidates so that IP-PTS can achieve similar perforEnhanced interleaved partitioning PTS for peak-to-average power ratio reduction in OFDM systems G. Lu, P. Wu and C. Carlemalm-Logothetis The independence of the candidates generated in the existing

  20. Impacts of different data averaging times on statistical analysis of distributed domestic photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgaard, Ewa; Paatero, Jukka; Lund, Peter

    2010-03-15

    The trend of increasing application of distributed generation with solar photovoltaics (PV-DG) suggests that a widespread integration in existing low-voltage (LV) grids is possible in the future. With massive integration in LV grids, a major concern is the possible negative impacts of excess power injection from on-site generation. For power-flow simulations of such grid impacts, an important consideration is the time resolution of demand and generation data. This paper investigates the impact of time averaging on high-resolution data series of domestic electricity demand and PV-DG output and on voltages in a simulated LV grid. Effects of 10-minutely and hourly averaging on descriptive statistics and duration curves were determined. Although time averaging has a considerable impact on statistical properties of the demand in individual households, the impact is smaller on aggregate demand, already smoothed from random coincidence, and on PV-DG output. Consequently, the statistical distribution of simulated grid voltages was also robust against time averaging. The overall judgement is that statistical investigation of voltage variations in the presence of PV-DG does not require higher resolution than hourly. (author)

  1. Functional convergence and optimality of plug-in estimators for stationary densities of moving average processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wefelmeyer, Wolfgang

    average processes By Anton Schick1 and Wolfgang Wefelmeyer Binghamton University and University of CologneSupported in part by NSF Grant DMS 0072174 1 #12;2 ANTON SCHICK AND WOLFGANG WEFELMEYER first-order moving of functions ui(X1) + + um(Xm) at a point. Schick and Wefelmeyer (2004b) obtain functional central limit

  2. Estimation of Average Switching Activity in Combinational Logic Circuits Using Symbolic Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devadas, Srinivas

    held mobile telephones, lowpower dissipation may be the tightest con straint in the design. More generally of power estimation methods the reader is referred to [?]. Our work on switching activity estimationEstimation of Average Switching Activity in Combinational Logic Circuits Using Symbolic Simulation

  3. Averaged dynamics of two-phase media in a vibration field Arthur V. Straubea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Straube, Arthur V.

    to astronomic scales. Vibration is a mechanical oscillatory process with an amplitude that is small compared of the system is much larger than the period of the oscillation. Vibration mechanics has been studied for a longAveraged dynamics of two-phase media in a vibration field Arthur V. Straubea Department of Physics

  4. Seminario de Estadstica e Investigacin Operativa "Tree, web and average web value for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tradacete, Pedro

    Seminario de Estadstica e Investigacin Operativa "Tree, web and average web value for cycle solution concepts, called web values, are introduced axiomatically, each one with respect to some specific recursive algorithms to calculate them. Additionally the efficiency and stability of web values are studied

  5. Asymptotic scaling corrections in QCD with Wilson fermions from the 3-loop average plaquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Alles; A. Feo; H. Panagopoulos

    1998-01-23

    We calculate the 3-loop perturbative expansion of the average plaquette in lattice QCD with N_f massive Wilson fermions and gauge group SU(N). The corrections to asymptotic scaling in the corresponding energy scheme are also evaluated. We have also improved the accuracy of the already known pure gluonic results at 2 and 3 loops.

  6. Effects of nuclear structure on average angular momentum in subbarrier fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Balantekin; J. R. Bennett; S. Kuyucak

    1994-07-21

    We investigate the effects of nuclear quadrupole and hexadecapole couplings on the average angular momentum in sub-barrier fusion reactions. This quantity could provide a probe for nuclear shapes, distinguishing between prolate vs. oblate quadrupole and positive vs. negative hexadecapole couplings. We describe the data in the O + Sm system and discuss heavier systems where shape effects become more pronounced.

  7. Eugene, Or. 1998 Daily Global Irradiance 1 31 61 91 121 151 181 211 241 271 301 331 361

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Eugene, Or. 1998 Daily Global Irradiance 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 1 31 61 91 121 151 181 211 241 271 301 331 361 Year Day GlobalIrradianceWhr/m2 perDay Eugene, Or. 1998 Daily Beam Irradiance 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 1 31 61 91 121 151 181 211 241 271 301 331 361 Year

  8. New determination of the D0?K??+?0 and D0?K??+?+?? coherence factors and average strong-phase differences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libby, J.; Malde, S.; Powell, A.; Wilkinson, G.; Asner, David M.; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Briere, R. A.; Gershon, T.; Naik, P.; Pedlar, Todd K.; Rademacker, J.; Ricciardi, S.; Thomas, C.

    2014-07-14

    New determination of the D0!K?!+!0 and D0!K?!+!+!? coherence factors and average strong-phase differences

  9. Sub-daily Statistical Downscaling of Meteorological Variables Using Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Jitendra [ORNL] [ORNL; Brooks, Bjrn-Gustaf J. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign] [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL] [ORNL; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign] [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

    2012-01-01

    A new open source neural network temporal downscaling model is described and tested using CRU-NCEP reanal ysis and CCSM3 climate model output. We downscaled multiple meteorological variables in tandem from monthly to sub-daily time steps while also retaining consistent correlations between variables. We found that our feed forward, error backpropagation approach produced synthetic 6 hourly meteorology with biases no greater than 0.6% across all variables and variance that was accurate within 1% for all variables except atmospheric pressure, wind speed, and precipitation. Correlations between downscaled output and the expected (original) monthly means exceeded 0.99 for all variables, which indicates that this approach would work well for generating atmospheric forcing data consistent with mass and energy conserved GCM output. Our neural network approach performed well for variables that had correlations to other variables of about 0.3 and better and its skill was increased by downscaling multiple correlated variables together. Poor replication of precipitation intensity however required further post-processing in order to obtain the expected probability distribution. The concurrence of precipitation events with expected changes in sub ordinate variables (e.g., less incident shortwave radiation during precipitation events) were nearly as consistent in the downscaled data as in the training data with probabilities that differed by no more than 6%. Our downscaling approach requires training data at the target time step and relies on a weak assumption that climate variability in the extrapolated data is similar to variability in the training data.

  10. Comparison of the prediction accuracy of daily and monthly regression models for energy consumption in commercial buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jinrong

    1996-01-01

    -retrofit weather is generally different from the weather used for model development, the prediction error of the baseline model may be different from the fitting error. Daily and monthly baseline models were developed for a midsize commercial building with (i) dual...

  11. ITALY DAILY, WEDNESDAY, JULY 25, 2001 PAGE 3 temp min c/f max c/f

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frischer, Bernard

    Hunting for Horace's Humble Home Did the Poet Live as Modestly as He Said He Did? An Archaeological TeamDISCOVER ITALY DAILY, WEDNESDAY, JULY 25, 2001 PAGE 3 Weather temp min c/f max c/f SUNNY PARTLY in his writing than many of his contemporaries, he left clues as to where he made his home. He wrote

  12. Assessing the Degree of Spot Market Integration For U.S. Natural Gas: Evidence from Daily Price Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessing the Degree of Spot Market Integration For U.S. Natural Gas: Evidence from Daily Price Economics Abstract: This paper assesses the degree of market integration in the U.S. natural gas market: Zhongmin.wang@BusEco.monash.edu.au #12;Assessing the Degree of Spot Market Integration For U.S. Natural Gas

  13. Listen-to-Nose: A low-cost system to record nasal symp-toms in daily life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Hao-hua

    Listen-to-Nose: A low-cost system to record nasal symp- toms in daily life Nan-Chen Chen National, such as sneezing and runny nose, occur in everyday settings. It is hoped that this system can be used to collect the function of other systems by absorbing oxygen and emitting carbon dioxide. In the process of exchanging air

  14. PRECIPITATION The images above use daily precipitation statistics from NWS COOP, CoCoRaHS, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    PRECIPITATION The images above use daily precipitation statistics from NWS COOP, CoCoRaHS, and CoAgMet stations. From top to bottom, and left to right: most recent 7-days of accumulated precipitation in inches; current month-to-date accumulated precipitation in inches; last month's precipitation as a percent

  15. Renormalization, averaging, conservation laws and AdS (in)stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben Craps; Oleg Evnin; Joris Vanhoof

    2015-01-19

    We continue our analytic investigations of non-linear spherically symmetric perturbations around the anti-de Sitter background in gravity-scalar field systems, and focus on conservation laws restricting the (perturbatively) slow drift of energy between the different normal modes due to non-linearities. We discover two conservation laws in addition to the energy conservation previously discussed in relation to AdS instability. A similar set of three conservation laws was previously noted for a self-interacting scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, and we highlight the similarities of this system to the fully dynamical case of gravitational instability. The nature of these conservation laws is best understood through an appeal to averaging methods which allow one to derive an effective Lagrangian or Hamiltonian description of the slow energy transfer between the normal modes. The conservation laws in question then follow from explicit symmetries of this averaged effective theory.

  16. Gatling gun: high average polarized current injector for eRHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-01-01

    This idea was originally developed in 2001 for, at that time, an ERL-based (and later recirculating-ring) electron-ion collider at JLab. Naturally the same idea is applicable for any gun requiring current exceeding capability of a single cathode. ERL-based eRHIC is one of such cases. This note related to eRHIC was prepared at Duke University in February 2003. In many case photo-injectors can have a limited average current - it is especially true about polarized photo-guns. It is know that e-RHIC requires average polarized electron current well above currently demonstrated by photo-injectors - hence combining currents from multiple guns is can be useful option for eRHIC.

  17. Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator for numerical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Duthoit, F.-X. [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Brizard, A. J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    A guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator is derived in a coordinate system that is well suited for the implementation in a numerical code. This differential operator is transformed such that it can commute with the orbit-averaging operation. Thus, in the low-collisionality approximation, a three-dimensional Fokker-Planck evolution equation for the orbit-averaged distribution function in a space of invariants is obtained. This transformation is applied to a collision operator with nonuniform isotropic field particles. Explicit neoclassical collisional transport diffusion and convection coefficients are derived, and analytical expressions are obtained in the thin orbit approximation. To illustrate this formalism and validate our results, the bootstrap current is analytically calculated in the Lorentz limit.

  18. Ick! The average person sheds 1.5 lbs of skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    . Be nice to your head.Be nice to your head.Be nice to your head.Be nice to your head. Fight Frizz: Tame dry; pale, whitish nails could be a sign of anemia (low iron level in the blood). Ingrown toenails may or her head! Most people lose 50-100 hairs per day. - Hair grows an average of 9 inches per year. - Hair

  19. Coupling of an average-atom model with a collisional-radiative equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Coss, P.

    2014-11-15

    We present a method to combine a collisional-radiative equilibrium model and an average-atom model to calculate bound and free electron wavefunctions in hot dense plasmas by taking into account screening. This approach allows us to calculate electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity as well as pressure in non local thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas. Illustrations of the method are presented for dilute titanium plasma.

  20. Near-UV to near-IR disk-averaged Earth's reflectance spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Hamdani; L. Arnold; C. Foellmi; J. Berthier; D. Briot; P. Francois; P. Riaud; J. Schneider

    2005-10-20

    We report 320 to 1020nm disk-averaged Earth reflectance spectra obtained from Moon's Earthshine observations with the EMMI spectrograph on the NTT at ESO La Silla (Chile). The spectral signatures of Earth atmosphere and ground vegetation are observed. A vegetation red-edge of up to 9% is observed on Europe and Africa and ~2% upon Pacific Ocean. The spectra also show that Earth is a blue planet when Rayleigh scattering dominates, or totally white when the cloud cover is large.

  1. Average balance equations, scale dependence, and energy cascade for granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riccardo Artoni; Patrick Richard

    2015-03-09

    A new averaging method linking discrete to continuum variables of granular materials is developed and used to derive average balance equations. Its novelty lies in the choice of the decomposition between mean values and fluctuations of properties which takes into account the effect of gradients. Thanks to a local homogeneity hypothesis, whose validity is discussed, simplified balance equations are obtained. This original approach solves the problem of dependence of some variables on the size of the averaging domain obtained in previous approaches which can lead to huge relative errors (several hundred percentages). It also clearly separates affine and nonaffine fields in the balance equations. The resulting energy cascade picture is discussed, with a particular focus on unidirectional steady and fully developed flows for which it appears that the contact terms are dissipated locally unlike the kinetic terms which contribute to a nonlocal balance. Application of the method is demonstrated in the determination of the macroscopic properties such as volume fraction, velocity, stress, and energy of a simple shear flow, where the discrete results are generated by means of discrete particle simulation.

  2. Pitch Angle Distributions of 0.6-1.8 MeV Protons Observed by Voyager 1 at 85-87 AU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, R.B.; Krimigis, S.M.; Roelof, E.C. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins Rd, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Burlaga, L.F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ness, N.F. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2004-09-15

    We combined daily averages of magnetic field vector data and 0.6-1.8 MeV proton angular intensity data to construct 32 pitch angle distributions (PADs) for measurements made by Voyager 1 (V1) at 85-87 AU. The PADs were observed during the period 2002.6-2003.1, when energetic particle instruments on V1 measured unusually high intensities. The angular data show large, mainly unidirectional beaming of protons most often in the -T direction, i.e., away from the sun in the sense of a spiral magnetic field. The mean anisotropy amplitude based on the 32 samples is 0.55{+-}0.21.

  3. A Bivariate Mixed Distribution with a Heavy-tailed Component and its Application to Single-site Daily Rainfall Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Chao .; Singh, Vijay P.; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2013-02-06

    This paper presents an improved brivariate mixed distribution, which is capable of modeling the dependence of daily rainfall from two distinct sources (e.g., rainfall from two stations, two consecutive days, or two instruments such as satellite and rain gauge). The distribution couples an existing framework for building a bivariate mixed distribution, the theory of copulae and a hybrid marginal distribution. Contributions of the improved distribution are twofold. One is the appropriate selection of the bivariate dependence structure from a wider admissible choice (10 candidate copula families). The other is the introduction of a marginal distribution capable of better representing low to moderate values as well as extremes of daily rainfall. Among several applications of the improved distribution, particularly presented here is its utility for single-site daily rainfall simulation. Rather than simulating rainfall occurrences and amounts separately, the developed generator unifies the two processes by generalizing daily rainfall as a Markov process with autocorrelation described by the improved bivariate mixed distribution. The generator is first tested on a sample station in Texas. Results reveal that the simulated and observed sequences are in good agreement with respect to essential characteristics. Then, extensive simulation experiments are carried out to compare the developed generator with three other alternative models: the conventional two-state Markov chain generator, the transition probability matrix model and the semi-parametric Markov chain model with kernel density estimation for rainfall amounts. Analyses establish that overall the developed generator is capable of reproducing characteristics of historical extreme rainfall events and is apt at extrapolating rare values beyond the upper range of available observed data. Moreover, it automatically captures the persistence of rainfall amounts on consecutive wet days in a relatively natural and easy way. Another interesting observation is that the recognized overdispersion problem in daily rainfall simulation ascribes more to the loss of rainfall extremes than the under-representation of first-order persistence. The developed generator appears to be a sound option for daily rainfall simulation, especially in particular hydrologic planning situations when rare rainfall events are of great importance.

  4. Effect of vitrification temperature upon the solar average absorptance properties of Pyromark Series 2500 black paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, C.; Mahoney, A.R.

    1986-06-01

    A significant drop in production efficiency has occurred over time at the Solar One facility at Barstow, California, primarily as a result of the degradation of the Pyromark Series 2500 black paint used as the absorptive coating on the receiver panels. As part of the investigation of the problem, the solar-averaged adsorptance properties of the paint were determined as a function of vitrification temperature, since it is known that a significant amount of the panel surface area at Solar One was vitrified at temperatures below those recommended by the paint manufacturer (540/sup 0/C, 1000/sup 0/F). Painted samples initially vitrified at 230/sup 0/C (450/sup 0/F), 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F), 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), and 480/sup 0/C (900/sup 0/F) exhibited significantly lower solar-averaged absorptance values (0.02 absorptance units) compared to samples vitrified at 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F). Thus, Solar One began its service life below optimal levels. After 140 h of thermal aging at 370/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F) and 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F), all samples regardless of their initial vitrification temperatures, attained the same solar-averaged absorptance value (..cap alpha../sub s/ = 0.973). Therefore, both the long-term low-temperature vitrification and the short-term high-temperature vitrification can be used to obtain optimal or near-optimal absorptance of solar flux. Futher thermal aging of vitrified samples did not result in paint degradation, clearly indicating that high solar flux is required to produce this phenomenon. The panels at Solar One never achieved optimal absorptance because their exposure to high solar flux negated the effect of long-term low-temperature vitrification during operation. On future central receiver projects, every effort should be made to properly vitrify the Pyromark coating before its exposure to high flux conditions.

  5. Average Price (Cents/kilowatthour) by State by Provider, 1990-2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall toUranium MarketingYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan0064772Average

  6. Compact formulas for bounce/transit averaging in axisymmetric tokamak geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duthoit, F -X; Hahm, T S

    2014-01-01

    Compact formulas for bounce and transit orbit averaging of the fluctuation-amplitude eikonal factor in axisymmetric tokamak geometry, which is frequently encountered in bounce-gyrokinetic description of microturbulence, are given in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions and elliptic integrals. These formulas are readily applicable to the calculation of the neoclassical susceptibility in the framework of modern bounce-gyrokinetic theory. In the long-wavelength limit, we recover the expression for the Rosenbluth-Hinton residual zonal flow [Rosenbluth and Hinton, Phys.~Rev.~Lett.~{\\bf 80}, 724 (1998)] accurately.

  7. Method and system for modulation of gain suppression in high average power laser systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andrew James (Manteca, CA)

    2012-07-31

    A high average power laser system with modulated gain suppression includes an input aperture associated with a first laser beam extraction path and an output aperture associated with the first laser beam extraction path. The system also includes a pinhole creation laser having an optical output directed along a pinhole creation path and an absorbing material positioned along both the first laser beam extraction path and the pinhole creation path. The system further includes a mechanism operable to translate the absorbing material in a direction crossing the first laser beam extraction laser path and a controller operable to modulate the second laser beam.

  8. Properties of a new average power Nd-doped phosphate laser glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, S.A.; Marshall, C.D.; Bayramian, A.J.; Wilke, G.D.; Hayden, J.S.

    1995-03-09

    The Nd-doped phosphate laser glass described herein can withstand 2.3 times greater thermal loading without fracture, compared to APG-1 (commercially-available average-power glass from Schott Glass Technologies). The enhanced thermal loading capability is established on the basis of the intrinsic thermomechanical properties and by direct thermally-induced fracture experiments using Ar-ion laser heating of the samples. This Nd-doped phosphate glass (referred to as APG-t) is found to be characterized by a 29% lower gain cross section and a 25% longer low-concentration emission lifetime.

  9. Laser properties of an improved average-power Nd-doped phosphate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, S.A.; Marshall, C.D.; Bayramian, A.J.

    1995-03-15

    The Nd-doped phosphate laser glass described herein can withstand 2.3 times greater thermal loading without fracture, compared to APG-1 (commercially-available average-power glass from Schott Glass Technologies). The enhanced thermal loading capability is established on the basis of the intrinsic thermomechanical properties (expansion, conduction, fracture toughness, and Young`s modulus), and by direct thermally-induced fracture experiments using Ar-ion laser heating of the samples. This Nd-doped phosphate glass (referred to as APG-t) is found to be characterized by a 29% lower gain cross section and a 25% longer low-concentration emission lifetime.

  10. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: upgrade'05

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Barabash

    2006-02-17

    All existing ``positive'' results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{150}$Nd, $^{150}$Nd - $^{150}$Sm ($0^+_1$) and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te, $^{130}$Te and $^{130}$Ba are proposed. We recommend the use of these results as presently the most precise and reliable values for half-lives.

  11. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: upgrade-09

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Barabash

    2009-08-28

    All existing ``positive'' results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{130}$Te, $^{150}$Nd, $^{150}$Nd - $^{150}$Sm ($0^+_1$) and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te, $^{130}$Te and $^{130}$Ba are proposed. We recommend the use of these results as presently the most precise and reliable values for half-lives.

  12. Average (RECOMMENDED) Half-Life Values for Two Neutrino Double Beta Decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Barabash

    2002-03-01

    All existing "positive" results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using procedure recommended by Particle Data Group weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{150}$Nd and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te and $^{130}$Te are proposed. We recommend to use these results as most precise and reliable values for half-lives at this moment.

  13. A Complete Cosmological Solution to the Averaged Einstein Field Equations as found in Macroscopic Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. van den Hoogen

    2009-09-01

    A formalism for analyzing the complete set of field equations describing Macroscopic Gravity is presented. Using this formalism, a cosmological solution to the Macroscopic Gravity equations is determined. It is found that if a particular segment of the connection correlation tensor is zero and if the macroscopic geometry is described by a flat Robertson-Walker metric, then the effective correction to the averaged Einstein Field equations of General Relativity i.e., the backreaction, is equivalent to a positive spatial curvature term. This investigation completes the analysis of [Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 95, 151102, (2005)] and the formalism developed provides a possible basis for future studies.

  14. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    2005-07-05

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  15. Specification of optical components for a high average-power laser environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, J.R.; Chow, R.; Rinmdahl, K.A.; Willis, J.B.; Wong, J.N.

    1997-06-25

    Optical component specifications for the high-average-power lasers and transport system used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant must address demanding system performance requirements. The need for high performance optics has to be balanced against the practical desire to reduce the supply risks of cost and schedule. This is addressed in optical system design, careful planning with the optical industry, demonstration of plant quality parts, qualification of optical suppliers and processes, comprehensive procedures for evaluation and test, and a plan for corrective action.

  16. Near-UV to near-IR disk-averaged Earth's spectra from Moon's Earthshine observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Hamdani; L. Arnold; C. Foellmi; J. Berthier; D. Briot; P. Francois; P. Riaud; J. Schneider

    2005-10-13

    We discuss a series of Earthshine spectra obtained with the NTT/EMMI instrument between 320nm and 1020nm with a resolution of R~450 in the blue and R~250 in the red. These ascending and descending Moon's Earthshine spectra taken from Chile give disk-averaged spectra for two different Earth's phases. The spectra show the ozone (Huggins and Chappuis bands), oxygen and water vapour absorption bands, and also the stronger Rayleigh scattering in the blue. Removing the known telluric absorptions reveals a spectral feature around 700nm which is attributed to the vegetation stronger reflectivity in the near-IR, so-called vegetation red-edge.

  17. Table 7.5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7CubicthroughtheSeptember 24,4,630.22 Consumption Ratios of4 Average5

  18. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand7,Year Jan995 1555.3 End Uses Average

  19. Table 10. Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil Prices Brent396,013 34,4670. Average

  20. Table 5.12. U.S. Average Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Household Composition,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearbyWithdrawalsHome6,672 7,2060 0 1 02. U.S. Average

  1. Table 5.13. U.S. Average Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Vehicle Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearbyWithdrawalsHome6,672 7,2060 0 1 02. U.S. Average3.

  2. Table 5.15. U.S. Average Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Vehicle

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearbyWithdrawalsHome6,672 7,2060 0 1 02. U.S. Average3.4.5.

  3. Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas ReservesAlabamaAboutTotal Energy GlossaryDepth ofAverage

  4. Alignment Focus of Daily Image Guidance for Concurrent Treatment of Prostate and Pelvic Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferjani, Samah; Huang, Guangshun; Shang, Qingyang; Stephans, Kevin L.; Zhong, Yahua; Qi, Peng; Tendulkar, Rahul D.; Xia, Ping, E-mail: xiap@ccf.org

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the dosimetric impact of daily imaging alignment focus on the prostate soft tissue versus the pelvic bones for the concurrent treatment of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes (PLN) and to assess whether multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking or adaptive planning (ART) is necessary with the current clinical planning margins of 8 mm/6 mm posterior to the prostate and 5 mm to the PLN. Methods and Materials: A total of 124 kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) images from 6 patients were studied. For each KV-CBCT, 4 plans were retrospectively created using an isocenter shifting method with 2 different alignment focuses (prostate, PLN), an MLC shifting method, and the ART method. The selected dosimetric endpoints were compared among these plans. Results: For the isoshift contour, isoshift bone, MLC shift, and ART plans, D99 of the prostate was ?97% of the prescription dose in 97.6%, 73.4%, 98.4%, and 96.8% of 124 fractions, respectively. Accordingly, D99 of the PLN was ?97% of the prescription dose in 98.4%, 98.4%, 98.4%, and 100% of 124 fractions, respectively. For the rectum, D5 exceeded 105% of the planned D5 (and D5 of ART plans) in 11% (4%), 10% (2%), and 13% (5%) of 124 fractions, respectively. For the bladder, D5 exceeded 105% of the planned D5 (and D5 of ART) plans in 0% (2%), 0% (2%), and 0% (1%) of 124 fractions, respectively. Conclusion: For concurrent treatment of the prostate and PLN, with a planning margin to the prostate of 8 mm/6 mm posterior and a planning margin of 5 mm to the PLN, aligning to the prostate soft tissue can achieve adequate dose coverage to the both target volumes; aligning to the pelvic bone would result in underdosing to the prostate in one-third of fractions. With these planning margins, MLC tracking and ART methods have no dosimetric advantages.

  5. 10/11/2014 -: DailyTechInfo -, . http://www.dailytechinfo.org/nanotech/5542-mashiny-monstry-samyy-malenkiy-v-mire-vetryanoy-generator.html 1/5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    10/11/2014 -: DailyTechInfo - , . http://www.dailytechinfo.org/nanotech/5542-mashiny-monstry-samyy-malenkiy-v-mire-vetryanoy-generator.html-mashiny-monstry-samyy-malenkiy-v-mire-vetryanoy-generator.html 2;10/11/2014 -: DailyTechInfo - , . http://www.dailytechinfo.org/nanotech/5542-mashiny-monstry-samyy-malenkiy-v-mire-vetryanoy-generator.html

  6. Averages of B-Hadron, C-Hadron, and tau-lepton properties as of early 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amhis, Y.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    This article reports world averages of measurements of b-hadron, c-hadron, and tau-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through the end of 2011. In some cases results available in the early part of 2012 are included. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, CP violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.

  7. Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise

  8. Conditional averaging on volumetric velocity fields for analysis of the pseudo-periodic organization of jet-in-crossflow vortices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambonie, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    Volumetric velocimetry measurements have been performed on a round jet in crossflow (JICF). Two kind of conditional averaging process are presented : a global conditional average (GCA) and a local conditional average (LCA). Vortices crossing the JICF symmetry plane are used to quantify the jet pseudo-periodicity leading to the GCA and LCA definitions. Because they make possible to improve the velocity field resolution as well as to significantly reduce the experimental noise, these conditional averages are an interesting and efficient way to study the instantaneous swirling structures of this instantaneous flow.

  9. Pulsed laser deposition with a high average power free electron laser: Benefits of subpicosecond pulses with high repetition rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, Anne

    Pulsed laser deposition with a high average power free electron laser: Benefits of subpicosecond 2002 We have conducted experiments exploring pulsed laser deposition of thin films using the high average power Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Free Electron Laser. The combination

  10. Study of the relationship between indoor daylight environments and patient average length of stay (ALOS) in healthcare facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Joon Ho

    2007-04-25

    of indoor daylight variables in type A from 8:00 AM to 6:00 PM. ...........................................................97 xiii TABLE Page 36 Summary of the average values of indoor... daylight variables in type B from 8:00 AM to 6:00 PM.............................................................98 37 Significant ALOS comparisons and average illuminance between SE and NW...

  11. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  12. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: Upgrade-2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-30

    All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 100}Mo?{sup 100}Ru (0{sub 1}{sup +}), {sup 116}Cd, {sup 130}Te, {sup 136}Xe, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150}Nd?{sup 150}Sm (0{sub 1}{sup +}) and {sup 238}U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of {sup 128}Te and {sup 130}Ba are proposed. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for half-lives.

  13. The impact of NRC guidance on concentration averaging on low level waste sealed source disposal - 11424

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitworth, Julia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stewart, Bill [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuthbertson, Abigail [DOE

    2011-01-20

    As part of its ongoing efforts to revise the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) current position on blending to be risk-informed and performance based and its current review of the low-level waste classification codified in 10 CFR 61.55, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has stated that it may review the 1995 'Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation' (BTP), which is still commonly used today. Such a review will have timely advantages, given the lack of commercial disposal availability within the United States for radioactive sealed sources that are in wide beneficial use across the country. The current application of the BTP guidance has resulted in an effective cap on commercial disposal for sources larger than 1.1 TBq (30 Ci). This paper will analyze how the BTP has been implemented with respect to sealed sources, what the implications have been for commercial disposal availability, and whether alternative packaging configurations could be considered for disposal.

  14. ARECIBO MULTI-FREQUENCY TIME-ALIGNED PULSAR AVERAGE-PROFILE AND POLARIZATION DATABASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hankins, Timothy H. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Rankin, Joanna M. [Physics Department, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401 (United States)], E-mail: thankins@nrao.edu, E-mail: Joanna.Rankin@uvm.edu

    2010-01-15

    We present Arecibo time-aligned, total intensity profiles for 46 pulsars over an unusually wide range of radio frequencies and multi-frequency, polarization-angle density diagrams, and/or polarization profiles for 57 pulsars at some or all of the frequencies 50, 111/130, 430, and 1400 MHz. The frequency-dependent dispersion delay has been removed in order to align the profiles for study of their spectral evolution, and wherever possible the profiles of each pulsar are displayed on the same longitude scale. Most of the pulsars within Arecibo's declination range that are sufficiently bright for such spectral or single pulse analysis are included in this survey. The calibrated single pulse sequences and average profiles are available by web download for further study.

  15. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sreepada, Sastry R. (Clifton Park, NY); Rippel, Robert R. (late of Scotia, NY)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  16. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  17. Angular Averaged Profiling of the Radial Electric Field in Compensated FTICR Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Robinson, Errol W.; Wu, Si; Smith, Richard D.; Futrell, Jean H.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2012-05-08

    A recent publication from this laboratory (1) reported a theoretical analysis comparing approaches for creating harmonic ICR cells. We considered two examples of static segmented cells - namely, a seven segment cell developed in this laboratory (2) and one described by Rempel et al (3), along with a recently described dynamically harmonized cell (4). This conceptual design for a dynamically harmonized cell has now been reduced to practice and first experimental results obtained with this cell were recently reported in this journal (5). This publication reports details of cell construction and describes its performance in a 7 Tesla Fourier Transform mass spectrometer. Herein, we describe the extension of theoretical analysis presented in (1) to include angular-averaged radial electric field calculations and a discussion of the influence of trapping plates.

  18. Bacterial total maximum daily load (TMDL): development and evaluation of a new classification scheme for impaired waterbodies of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul, Sabu

    2005-02-17

    with the impaired waterbodies. The main characteristics considered for the classification of waterbodies were designated use of the waterbody, land use distribution, density of stream network, average distance of a land of a particular use to the closest stream...

  19. How to Measure Specific Heat Using Event-by-Event Average $p_T$ Fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. J. Tannenbaum; for the PHENIX Collaboration

    2005-12-01

    A simple way to visualize event-by-event average $p_T$ fluctuations is by assuming that each collision has a different temperature parameter (inverse $p_T$ slope) and that the ensemble of events has a temperature distribution about the mean, $$, with standard deviation $\\sigma_T$. PHENIX characterizes the non-random fluctuation of $M_{p_T}$, the event-by-event average $p_T$, by $F_{p_T}$, the fractional difference of the standard deviation of the data from that of a random sample obtained with mixed events. This can be related to the temperature fluctuation: \\[ F_{p_T}=\\sigma^{\\rm data}_{M_{p_T}}/\\sigma^{\\rm random}_{M_{p_T}}-1\\simeq( -1) \\sigma^2_{T}/^2 \\] Combining this with the Gavai, {\\it et al.},\\cite{Gavai05} and Korus, {\\it et al.},\\cite{Korus} definitions of the specific heat per particle, a simple relationship is obtained: \\[ c_v/T^3={\\mean{n}\\over \\mean{N_{tot}}} {1\\over F_{p_T}} \\] $F_{p_T}$ is measured with a fraction $\\mean{n}/\\mean{N_{tot}}$ of the total particles produced, a purely geometrical factor representing the fractional acceptance, $\\sim 1/33$ in PHENIX. Gavai, {\\it et al.} predict that $c_v/T^3=15$, which corresponds to $F_{p_T}\\sim 0.20$% in PHENIX, which may be accessible by measurements of $M_{p_T}$ in the range $0.2\\leq p_T\\leq 0.6$ GeV/c. In order to test the Gavai, {\\it et al.} prediction that $c_v/T^3$ is reduced in a QGP compared to the ideal gas value (15 compared to 21), precision measurements of $F_{p_T}$ in the range 0.20% for $0.2\\leq p_T\\leq 0.6$ GeV/c may be practical.

  20. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, John M. (Knoxville, TN); Lindner, Gordon M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowe, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  1. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1981-04-30

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  2. Does the orbit-averaged theory require a scale separation between periodic orbit size and perturbation correlation length?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wenlu; Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 ; Lin, Zhihong; Fusion Simulation Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871

    2013-10-15

    Using the canonical perturbation theory, we show that the orbit-averaged theory only requires a time-scale separation between equilibrium and perturbed motions and verifies the widely accepted notion that orbit averaging effects greatly reduce the microturbulent transport of energetic particles in a tokamak. Therefore, a recent claim [Hauff and Jenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 075004 (2009); Jenko et al., ibid. 107, 239502 (2011)] stating that the orbit-averaged theory requires a scale separation between equilibrium orbit size and perturbation correlation length is erroneous.

  3. Inclusion of Building Envelope Thermal Lag Effects in Linear Regression Models of Daily Basis Building Energy Use Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masuda, H.; Claridge, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    Inclusion?of?Building?Envelope?Thermal?Lag? Effects?in?Linear?Regression?Models?of?Daily? Basis?Building?Energy?Use?Data The?12th International?Conference?for?Enhanced?Building?Operations October?22nd?26th,?2012 Manchester,?UK Hiroko...?enhanced?building?operations. October?18?20,?2011,? Brooklyn,?NY. Rabl,?A.?and?Rialhe,?A.?(1992).?Energy?Signature?Models?for?Commercial?Buildings:?Test?with?Measured?Data?and?Interpretation. Energy?and?Buildings,?19,?143?154. Shao,?X.?and?Claridge,?D.E.?(2006).?Use?of?first?law?energy?balance?as?a?screening?tool?for?building?energy...

  4. Fe K Line Profile in Low-redshift Quasars: Average Shape and Eddington Ratio Dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirohiko Inoue; Yuichi Terashima; Luis C. Ho

    2007-03-14

    We analyze X-ray spectra of 43 Palomar-Green quasars observed with {\\it XMM-Newton} in order to investigate their mean Fe K line profile and its dependence on physical properties. The continuum spectra of 39 objects are well reproduced by a model consisting of a power law and a blackbody modified by Galactic absorption. The spectra of the remaining four objects require an additional power-law component absorbed with a column density of $\\sim 10^{23} {\\rm cm}^{-2}$. We fit the entire sample simultaneously to derive average Fe line parameters by assuming a common Fe line shape. The Fe line is relatively narrow ($\\sigma=0.36$ keV), with a center energy of 6.48 keV and a mean equivalent width (EW) of 248 eV. By combining black hole masses estimated from the virial method and bolometric luminosities derived from full spectral energy distributions, we examine the dependence of the Fe K line profile on Eddington ratio. As the Eddington ratio increases, the line becomes systematically stronger (EW = 130 to 280 eV), broader ($\\sigma=0.1$ to 0.7 keV), and peaks at higher energies (6.4 to 6.8 keV). This result suggests that the accretion rate onto the black hole directly influences the geometrical structure and ionization state of the accretion disk.

  5. Room temperature quantum memory and scalable single photon source based on motional averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Borregaard; M. Zugenmaier; J. M. Petersen; H. Shen; G. Vasilakis; K. Jensen; E. S. Polzik; A. S. Srensen

    2015-01-16

    Quantum interfaces between photons and ensembles of atoms have emerged as powerful tools for quantum technologies. High fidelity storage and retrieval of a photon in a collective quantum state of many atoms requires long-lived collective superposition states typically achieved with immobilized atoms. Thermal atomic vapors, which present a simple and scalable resource, have been so far only used for continuous variable processing or for discrete variable processing on short time scales where atomic motion is negligible. We develop a theory based on the concept of motional averaging to enable room temperature discrete variable quantum memories and coherent single photon sources. We show that by choosing the interaction so that atoms can cross the light beam several times during the interaction and by suitable spectral filtering, we erase the "which atom" information and obtain an efficient and homogenous coupling between all atoms and the light. Heralded single excitations can thus be created and stored as collective spinwaves, which can later be read out to produce coherent single photons in a scalable fashion. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach to scalable quantum memories with a proof of principle experiment with room temperature atoms contained in microcells with spin protecting coating, placed inside an optical cavity.

  6. Dynamical interpretation of average fission-fragment kinetic energy systematics and nuclear scission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadtochy, P.N. [GSI, Plankstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation); Adeev, G.D. [Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-11-01

    A dynamical interpretation of the well-known systematics for average total kinetic energy of fission fragments over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter (600 on the Coulomb parameter. The results of dynamical calculations of within three-dimensional Langevin dynamics show that the mean distance between the centers of mass of nascent fragments at the scission configuration increases linearly with the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}. This distance changes approximately from 2.35R{sub 0} for {sup 119}Xe to 2.6R{sub 0} for {sup 256}Fm. In spite of this increase in mean distance between future fragments at scission, the linear dependence of on the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3} remains approximately valid over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}.

  7. Twist-averaged boundary conditions for nuclear pasta Hartree-Fock calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-10-21

    Nuclear pasta phases, present in the inner crust of neutron stars, are associated with nucleonic matter at subsaturation densities arranged in regular shapes. Those complex phases, residing in a layer which is approximately 100-m thick, impact many features of neutron stars. Theoretical quantum-mechanical simulations of nuclear pasta are usually carried out in finite threedimensional boxes assuming periodic boundary conditions. The resulting solutions are affected by spurious finite-size effects. To remove spurious finite-size effects, it is convenient to employ twist-averaged boundary conditions (TABC) used in condensed matter, nuclear matter, and lattice quantum chromodynamics applications. In this work, we study the effectivenessmoreof TABC in the context of pasta phase simulations within nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrated that by applying TABC reliable results can be obtained from calculations performed in relatively small volumes. By studying various contributions to the total energy, we gain insights into pasta phases in mid-density range. Future applications will include the TABC extension of the adaptive multiresolution 3D Hartree-Fock solver and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov TABC applications to superfluid pasta phases and complex nucleonic topologies as in fission.less

  8. Measuring the Average Evolution of Luminous Galaxies at zEnergy Distribution, and Stellar Mass Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory Rudnick; Ivo Labbe; Natascha M. Foerster Schreiber; Stijn Wuyts; Marijn Franx; Kristian Finlator; Mariska Kriek; Alan Moorwood; Hans-Walter Rix; Huub Roettgering; Ignacio Trujillo; Arjen van der Wel; Paul van der Werf; Pieter G. van Dokkum

    2006-06-21

    (Abridged) We present the evolution of the volume averaged properties of the rest-frame optically luminous galaxy population to z~3, determined from four disjoint deep fields with optical to near-infrared wavelength coverage. We select galaxies above a rest-frame V-band luminosity of 3x10^10 Lsol and characterize their rest-frame UV through optical properties via the mean spectral energy distribution (SED). To measure evolution we apply the same selection criteria to a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and COMBO-17. The mean rest-frame 2200Ang through V-band SED becomes steadily bluer with increasing redshift but at zluminous galaxies has increased by a factor of 3.5-7.9 from z=3 to z=0.1, including field-to-field variance uncertainties. After correcting to total, the measured mass densities at z2.3) in our LV selected samples contribute 30% and 64% of the stellar mass budget at z~2 and z~ 2.8 respectively. These galaxies are largely absent from UV surveys and this result highlights the need for mass selection of high redshift galaxies.

  9. Method for the evaluation of a average glandular dose in mammography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe [Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State (Nigeria)

    2006-04-15

    This paper concerns a method for accurate evaluation of average glandular dose (AGD) in mammography. At different energies, the interactions of photons with tissue are not uniform. Thus, optimal accuracy in the estimation of AGD is achievable when the evaluation is carried out using the normalized glandular dose values, g(x,E), that are determined for each (monoenergetic) x-ray photon energy, E, compressed breast thickness (CBT), x, breast glandular composition, and data on photon energy distribution of the exact x-ray beam used in breast imaging. A generalized model for the values of g(x,E) that is for any arbitrary CBT ranging from 2 to 9 cm (with values that are not whole numbers inclusive, say, 4.2 cm) was developed. Along with other dosimetry formulations, this was integrated into a computer software program, GDOSE.FOR, that was developed for the evaluation of AGD received from any x-ray tube/equipment (irrespective of target-filter combination) of up to 50 kVp. Results are presented which show that the implementation of GDOSE.FOR yields values of normalized glandular dose that are in good agreement with values obtained from methodologies reported earlier in the literature. With the availability of a portable device for real-time acquisition of spectra, the model and computer software reported in this work provide for the routine evaluation of AGD received by a specific woman of known age and CBT.

  10. Cylinder-averaged histories of nitrogen oxide in a D.I. diesel with simulated turbocharging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donahue, R.J.; Borman, G.L.; Bower, G.R.

    1994-10-20

    An experimental study was conducted using the dumping technique (total cylinder sampling) to produce cylinder mass-averaged nitric oxide histories. Data were taken using a four stroke diesel research engine employing a quiescent chamber, high pressure direct ijection fuel system, and simulated turbocharging. Two fuels were used to determine fuel cetane number effects. Two loads were run, one at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the other at a ratio of 0.3. The engine speed was held constant at 1500 rpm. Under the turbocharged and retarded timing conditions of this study, nitric oxide was produced up to the point of about 85% mass burned. Two different models were used to simulate the engine mn conditions: the phenomenological Hiroyasu spray-combustion model, and the three dimensional, U.W.-ERO modified KIVA-lI computational fluid dynamic code. Both of the models predicted the correct nitric oxide trend. Although the modified KIVA-lI combustion model using Zeldovich kinetics correctly predicted the shapes of the nitric oxide histories, it did not predict the exhaust concentrations without arbitrary adjustment based on experimental values.

  11. Comparison of Two Gas Selection Methodologies: An Application of Bayesian Model Averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renholds, Andrea S.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Chilton, Lawrence K.

    2006-03-31

    One goal of hyperspectral imagery analysis is the detection and characterization of plumes. Characterization includes identifying the gases in the plumes, which is a model selection problem. Two gas selection methods compared in this report are Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) stepwise regression (SR). Simulated spectral data from a three-layer radiance transfer model were used to compare the two methods. Test gases were chosen to span the types of spectra observed, which exhibit peaks ranging from broad to sharp. The size and complexity of the search libraries were varied. Background materials were chosen to either replicate a remote area of eastern Washington or feature many common background materials. For many cases, BMA and SR performed the detection task comparably in terms of the receiver operating characteristic curves. For some gases, BMA performed better than SR when the size and complexity of the search library increased. This is encouraging because we expect improved BMA performance upon incorporation of prior information on background materials and gases.

  12. Tougher than Kevlar: Researchers create new high-performance fiber Posted In: Editors Picks | R&D Daily | Carbon Nanotubes & Graphene | Materials Science |

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    Tougher than Kevlar: Researchers create new high-performance fiber Posted In: Editors Picks | R&D Daily | Carbon Nanotubes & Graphene | Materials Science | Nanotechnology | Engineering | Material Science | Nanotechnology | Northwestern University | Materials | University Monday, December 6, 2010

  13. 1 Be merciful unto me O God for man goeth a | bout to de | vour me : he is | daily | fighting and | troubling me.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flynn, E. Victor

    | fighting and | troubling me. 2 Mine enemies are daily in hand to | swallow me | up : for they be many that | fight against me | O thou most | Highest. 3 Nevertheless though I am | sometime a | fraid : yet

  14. A high-order, adaptive, discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Todd A., 1980-

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents high-order, discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretizations of the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and an output-based error estimation and mesh adaptation algorithm for these discretizations. ...

  15. Trade in Washington State Since 2001, the value of Washington exports has averaged more than $44 billion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Volkenburgh, Elizabeth

    Trade in Washington State Since 2001, the value of Washington exports has averaged more than $44 billion annually, making Washington the most trade, Washington has the largest locally controlled public port system in the world

  16. Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Although the average expenditure for a new car has increased from 1967 to 2009, family earnings have also been on the rise. For this period, new car expenditures went from $3,216 to $23,186, while...

  17. PARTIALLY AVERAGED NAVIER-STOKES METHOD FOR TURBULENCE CLOSURES: CHARACTERIZATION OF FLUCTUATIONS AND EXTENSION TO WALL BOUNDED FLOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakshmipathy, Sunil

    2010-07-14

    The work presented in this dissertation concerns continued development, validation and verification of the partially averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) method - a variable resolution closure model for turbulence. Linear eddy viscosity models (LEVM...

  18. Improved Average-Voice-based Speech Synthesis Using Gender-Mixed Modeling and a Parameter Generation Algorithm Considering GV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamagishi, Junichi; Kobayashi, Takao; Renals, Steve; King, Simon; Zen, Heiga; Toda, Tomoki; Tokuda, Keiichi

    For constructing a speech synthesis system which can achieve diverse voices, we have been developing a speaker independent approach of HMM-based speech synthesis in which statistical average voice models are adapted to ...

  19. A quantitative approach to the characterization of cumulative and average solvent exposure in paint manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, D.P.; Schwartz, B.S.; Powell, S.; Nelson, T.; Keller, L.; Sides, S.; Agnew, J.; Bolla, K.; Bleecker, M. )

    1991-06-01

    Previous reports have attributed a range of neurobehavioral effects to low-level, occupational solvent exposure. These studies have generally been limited in their exposure assessments and have specifically lacked good estimates of exposure intensity. In the present study, the authors describe the development of two exposure variables that quantitatively integrate industrial hygiene sampling data with estimates of exposure duration--a cumulative exposure (CE) estimate and a lifetime weighted average exposure (LWAE) estimate. Detailed occupational histories were obtained from 187 workers at two paint manufacturing plants. Historic industrial hygiene sampling data for total hydrocarbons (a composite variable of the major neurotoxic solvents present) were grouped according to 20 uniform, temporally stable exposure zones, which had been defined during plant walk-through surveys. Sampling at the time of the study was used to characterize the few zones for which historic data were limited or unavailable. For each participant, the geometric mean total hydrocarbon level for each exposure zone worked in was multiplied by the duration of employment in that zone; the resulting products were summed over the working lifetime to create the CE variable. The CE variable was divided by the total duration of employment in solvent-exposed jobs to create the LWAE variable. The explanatory value of each participant's LWAE estimate in the regression of simple visual reaction time (a neurobehavioral test previously shown to be affected by chronic solvent exposure) on exposure was compared with that of several other exposure variables, including exposure duration and an exposure variable based on an ordinal ranking of the exposure zones.

  20. Improved volume-averaged model for steady and pulsed-power electronegative discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sungjin; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Gudmundsson, J. T.

    2006-11-15

    An improved volume-averaged global model is developed for a cylindrical (radius R, length L) electronegative (EN) plasma that is applicable over a wide range of electron densities, electronegativities, and pressures. It is applied to steady and pulsed-power oxygen discharges. The model incorporates effective volume and surface loss factors for positive ions, negative ions, and electrons combining three electronegative discharge regimes: a two-region regime with a parabolic EN core surrounded by an electropositive edge, a one-region parabolic EN plasma, and a one-region flat-topped EN plasma, spanning the plasma parameters and gas pressures of interest for low pressure processing (below a few hundred millitorr). Pressure-dependent effective volume and surface loss factors are also used for the neutral species. A set of reaction rate coefficients, updated from previous model calculations, is developed for oxygen for the species O{sub 2}, O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}{sub g}), O, O{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sup +}, and O{sup -}, based on the latest published cross-section sets and measurements. The model solutions yield all of the quantities above together with such important processing quantities such as the neutral/ion flux ratio {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}, with the discharge aspect ratio 2R/L and pulsed-power period and duty ratio (pulse on-time/pulse period) as parameters. The steady discharge results are compared to an experiment, giving good agreement. For steady discharges, increasing 2R/L from 1 to 6 leads to a factor of 0.45 reduction in {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}. For pulsed discharges with a fixed duty ratio, {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} is found to have a minimum with respect to pulse period. A 25% duty ratio pulse reduces {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} by a factor of 0.75 compared to the steady-state case.

  1. SU-E-T-86: Comparison of Two Commercially Available Programs for the Evaluation of Delivered Daily Dose Using Cone Beam CT (CBCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuohy, R; Bosse, C; Mavroidis, P; Shi, Z; Crownover, R; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In this study, two commercially available programs were compared for the evaluation of delivered daily dose using cone beam CT (CBCT). Methods: Thirty (n=30) patients previously treated in our clinic (10 prostate, 10 SBRT lung and 10 abdomen) were used in this study. The patients' plans were optimized and calculated using the Pinnacle treatment planning system. The daily CBCT scans were imported into Velocity and RayStation along with the corresponding planning CTs, structure sets and 3D dose distributions for each patient. The organs at risk (OAR) were contoured on each CBCT by the prescribing physician and were included in the evaluation of the daily delivered dose. Each CBCT was registered to the planning CT, once with rigid registration and then again, separately, with deformable registration. After registering each CBCT, the dose distribution from the planning CT was overlaid and the dose volume histograms (DVH) for the OAR and the planning target volumes (PTV) were calculated. Results: For prostate patients, we observed daily volume changes for the OARs. The DVH analysis for those patients showed variation in the sparing of the OARs while PTV coverage remained virtually unchanged using both Velocity and RayStation systems. Similar results were observed for abdominal patients. In contrast, for SBRT lung patients, the DVH for the OARs and target were comparable to those from the initial treatment plan. Differences in organ volume and organ doses were also observed when comparing the daily fractions using deformable and rigid registrations. Conclusion: By using daily CBCT dose reconstruction, we proved PTV coverage for prostate and abdominal targets is adequate. However, there is significant dosimetric change for the OARs. For lung SBRT patients, the delivered daily dose for both PTV and OAR is comparable to the planned dose with no significant differences.

  2. Combined Daily Monitoring of Aerosol Optical Depths and Water Vapour Column Content during LACE 98 and LITFASS 98 Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novikov, V V; Alekseeva, G A; Galkin, V D; Gldner, J; Naebert, T; Service, German Weather; Observatory, Meteorological; Lindenberg,; Germany,; Sciences, Russian Academy of; Observatory, Pulkovo; Petersburg, St; Russia,

    2010-01-01

    During summer of 1998 two large-scale complex campaigns, LITFASS98 (May 25th to June 22nd) and LACE98 (July 13th to August 14th), took place at the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg (MOL). The aim of both experiments focus on the intensive daily observations of atmospheric conditions and the determination of their fundamental meteorological parameters in the vertical column over Lindenberg (Lindenberg's Column). About 20 German research institutions and addition one from the Netherlands, Austria and Russia participated at the experiments. A wide variety of ground-based instruments was operated in Lindenberg and Falkenberg, including LIDARs, microwave radiometer and radiosondes complemented by tethered balloons and aircraft measurements. For the first time the star- and sunphotometer of MOL were used together with other geophysical tools. The observations with both photometers were carried out practically every day and night except during absolutely overcast conditions. The observed data were processed imm...

  3. Warming of the arctic ice-ocean system is faster than the global average since the 1960s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jinlun

    Warming of the arctic ice-ocean system is faster than the global average since the 1960s Jinlun.203C. The warming of the world ocean is associated with an increase in global surface air temperature heat flux. Citation: Zhang, J. (2005), Warming of the arctic ice-ocean system is faster than the global

  4. A > 89% Efficient LED Driver with 0.5V Supply Voltage for Applications Requiring Low Average Current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perrott, Michael

    and that it lowers power consumption of the primarily digital architecture of the sensor [3]. However, red LEDs monitoring system [3] Since the LED driver is the dominant source of power consumption in this system [4A > 89% Efficient LED Driver with 0.5V Supply Voltage for Applications Requiring Low Average

  5. Long-term-average, solar cycle, and seasonal response of magnetospheric energetic electrons to the solar wind speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . [1] Among the interplanetary activity parameters the solar wind speed is the one best correlatedLong-term-average, solar cycle, and seasonal response of magnetospheric energetic electrons to the solar wind speed D. Vassiliadis,1 A. J. Klimas,2 S. G. Kanekal,3 D. N. Baker,3 and R. S. Weigel4

  6. Solar Energy With an average of over 300 sunny days a year, Israel is an ideal labo-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maoz, Shahar

    35 Solar Energy With an average of over 300 sunny days a year, Israel is an ideal labo- ratory for testing one particularly promising alternative to fossil fuels: solar energy. In contrast to fossil fuels as much energy strikes the earth in the form of solar radiation as is used in a whole year throughout

  7. 712 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 1, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2002 Average-Rate Optimal PSAM Transmissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannakis, Georgios

    , the insertion of pilot symbols reduces the information rate and, thus, reduces the utilization of the channel712 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 1, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2002 Average-Rate Optimal. Giannakis, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--Enabling linear minimum-mean square error (LMMSE)-based estimation

  8. NATCOR -Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    NATCOR - Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average octane levels must be at least 8.5 for gasoline, 7 for jet fuel, and 4.5 for heating oil. To produce these products, Margaret can purchase two types of crude oil: crude 1 (at 12 per

  9. A Local Ensemble Prediction System for Fog and Low Clouds: Construction, Bayesian Model Averaging Calibration, and Validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Local Ensemble Prediction System for Fog and Low Clouds: Construction, Bayesian Model Averaging. Meteorologists face the challenge of supplying airport authorities with accurate forecasts of fog and cloud during their life cycle. To obtain accurate forecasts of fog and low clouds, the Code de Brouillard l

  10. Space Utilization 1:44PM Average Weekly Utilization for Sections Only by Room Type and Size with Primetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oviedo, Nstor J.

    Space Utilization 1:44PM 5/22/2015 Average Weekly Utilization for Sections Only by Room Type and Size with Primetime Dates: 1/20/2015 - 5/8/2015 # of Rooms Room Hrs. Room Hr. Util.Room Type - Capacity Prime Room Hrs. Prime Room Hr. Util Prime Ratio Hours in Standard week: 70.00 hoursTerm Weeks: 16

  11. Space Utilization 8:39AM Average Weekly Utilization for Sections Only by Room Type and Size with Primetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oviedo, Nstor J.

    Space Utilization 8:39AM 12/4/2014 Average Weekly Utilization for Sections Only by Room Type and Size with Primetime Dates: 8/28/2014 - 12/12/2014 # of Rooms Room Hrs. Room Hr. Util.Room Type - Capacity Prime Room Hrs. Prime Room Hr. Util Prime Ratio Hours in Standard week: 70.00 hoursTerm Weeks: 16

  12. Unit Detection in American Football TV Broadcasts Using Average Energy of Audio Mei-Ling Shyu, Guy Ravitz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    Unit Detection in American Football TV Broadcasts Using Average Energy of Audio Track Mei-Ling Shyu@cs.fiu.edu Abstract In this paper, we explore the domain of American Football TV broadcasting with respect or scene level in the American Football domain. The big amount of camera movement, such as tilting, zooming

  13. The average detection probability of the quantum dialogue protocol under the disturbance attack is 3/4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen Ba An

    2004-06-24

    We prove explicitly that the detection probability of the disturbance attack in the recently proposed quantum dialogue protocol is 3/4 in average. The purpose is not only to reply a comment but also to provide a deeper understanding of a kind of tampering in an unauthorized communication.

  14. Average Rate Speed Scaling # Nikhil Bansal 1 , David P. Bunde 2 , HoLeung Chan 3 , and Kirk Pruhs 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bunde, David

    Average Rate Speed Scaling # Nikhil Bansal 1 , David P. Bunde 2 , Ho­Leung Chan 3 , and Kirk Pruhs dbunde@knox.edu 3 Computer Science Department, University of Pittsburgh {hlchan,kirk in part by Howard Hughes Medical Institute grant 52005130. Ho­Leung Chan and Kirk Pruhs were supported

  15. DIFFERENCE OF THE AVERAGE SINGLE-PARTICLE ENERGY SUMS OBTAINED BY SMOOTHING IN ENERGY AND PARTICLE-NUMBER SPACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pomorska, Bozena

    .p. energy space (e-folding). An alternative way of obtaining of the smooth energy by folding of the singleDIFFERENCE OF THE AVERAGE SINGLE-PARTICLE ENERGY SUMS OBTAINED BY SMOOTHING IN ENERGY AND PARTICLE the smooth energy of nucleus is obtained by folding of the single-particle (s.p.) energy density in the s

  16. Implementation Shortfall One Objective, Many Algorithms VWAP (Volume Weighted Average Price) has ruled the algorithmic trading world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kearns, Michael

    in the fact that it does not require such cost predictions. VWAP vs. Arrival Price So how does arrival priceImplementation Shortfall ­ One Objective, Many Algorithms VWAP (Volume Weighted Average Price) has year toward using decision price, or implementation shortfall, algorithms. ITG®'s Hitesh Mittal

  17. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For the 2014 model year, midsize hybrid cars averaged 43.4 miles per gallon (mpg) while midsize non-hybrid cars averaged 28.7 mpg; the difference between the two has narrowed due to the rising...

  18. Particle-In-Cell/Monte Carlo Simulation of Ion Back BomBardment in a High Average Current RF Photo-Gun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiang, J.

    2010-01-01

    High Average Current RF Photo-Gun J. Qiang Lawrence Berkeleycurrent radio-frequency (RF) photo-gun using a particle-in-of high average current RF photo-guns have been proposed or

  19. DAILY WEEKLY email address

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, Thomas

    skeptics and the IPCC: "Well, it's in the nature of truth that sometimes you hate it." Scientists speaking) Energy policy (564) The what, when and where of global greenhouse gas emissions: A visual summary of the IPCC's climate mitigation report This week's top six rebuttals to David Rose's "warming has stopped

  20. Ichetucknee Daily Activities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sin, Peter

    . Tuesday 6:30pm Soccer& Frisbee (Ross) Flavet Field Free Wednesday 6:00pm CoffeeTalk (Clark) Starbucks

  1. Daily Temperatures - August 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    110 115 120 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Degrees F Day of the Month Hanford Meteorological Station Record Max Record Min...

  2. NIAMEY DAILY RAINFALL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact: Janet Lambert4

  3. ARM - Daily Report Archive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us agovInstrumentswrf-chemMeetingsCover

  4. ORLIB: a computer code that produces one-energy group, time- and spatially-averaged neutron cross sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blink, J.A.; Dye, R.E.; Kimlinger, J.R.

    1981-12-01

    Calculation of neutron activation of proposed fusion reactors requires a library of neutron-activation cross sections. One such library is ACTL, which is being updated and expanded by Howerton. If the energy-dependent neutron flux is also known as a function of location and time, the buildup and decay of activation products can be calculated. In practice, hand calculation is impractical without energy-averaged cross sections because of the large number of energy groups. A widely used activation computer code, ORIGEN2, also requires energy-averaged cross sections. Accordingly, we wrote the ORLIB code to collapse the ACTL library, using the flux as a weighting function. The ORLIB code runs on the LLNL Cray computer network. We have also modified ORIGEN2 to accept the expanded activation libraries produced by ORLIB.

  5. Computing the partition function, ensemble averages, and density of states for lattice spin systems by sampling the mean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, Dirk

    2013-10-01

    An algorithm to approximately calculate the partition function (and subsequently ensemble averages) and density of states of lattice spin systems through non-Monte-Carlo random sampling is developed. This algorithm (called the sampling-the-mean algorithm) can be applied to models where the up or down spins at lattice nodes interact to change the spin states of other lattice nodes, especially non-Ising-like models with long-range interactions such as the biological model considered here. Because it is based on the Central Limit Theorem of probability, the sampling-the-mean algorithm also gives estimates of the error in the partition function, ensemble averages, and density of states. Easily implemented parallelization strategies and error minimizing sampling strategies are discussed. The sampling-the-mean method works especially well for relatively small systems, systems with a density of energy states that contains sharp spikes or oscillations, or systems with little a priori knowledge of the density of states.

  6. Leading particle effect, inelasticity and the connection between average multiplicities in {\\bf $e^+e^-$} and {\\bf $pp$} processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Batista; R. J. M. Covolan

    1998-11-20

    The Regge-Mueller formalism is used to describe the inclusive spectrum of the proton in $p p$ collisions. From such a description the energy dependences of both average inelasticity and leading proton multiplicity are calculated. These quantities are then used to establish the connection between the average charged particle multiplicities measured in {\\bf $e^+e^-$} and {\\bf $pp/{\\bar p}p$} processes. The description obtained for the leading proton cross section implies that Feynman scaling is strongly violated only at the extreme values of $x_F$, that is at the central region ($x_F \\approx 0$) and at the diffraction region ($x_F \\approx 1$), while it is approximately observed in the intermediate region of the spectrum.

  7. Edge-facet pumped, multi-aperture, thin-disk laser geometry for very high average power output scaling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E.

    2004-12-21

    The average power output of a laser is scaled, to first order, by increasing the transverse dimension of the gain medium while increasing the thickness of an index matched light guide proportionately. Strategic facets cut at the edges of the laminated gain medium provide a method by which the pump light introduced through edges of the composite structure is trapped and passes through the gain medium repeatedly. Spontaneous emission escapes the laser volume via these facets. A multi-faceted disk geometry with grooves cut into the thickness of the gain medium is optimized to passively reject spontaneous emission generated within the laser material, which would otherwise be trapped and amplified within the high index composite disk. Such geometry allows the useful size of the laser aperture to be increased, enabling the average laser output power to be scaled.

  8. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SPEECH AND AUDIO PROCESSING, SPECIAL ISSUE ON DATA MINING OF SPEECH, AUDIO AND DIALOG 1 Mining Customer Care Dialogs for ``Daily News''

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Chris

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SPEECH AND AUDIO PROCESSING, SPECIAL ISSUE ON DATA MINING OF SPEECH, AUDIO describes the ``VoiceTone Daily News'' data mining tool for analyzing this information and presenting turns. Index Terms--- speech mining, data mining, spoken dialog systems, dialog success, business

  9. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SPEECH AND AUDIO PROCESSING, SPECIAL ISSUE ON DATA MINING OF SPEECH, AUDIO AND DIALOG 1 Mining Customer Care Dialogs for "Daily News"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Chris

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SPEECH AND AUDIO PROCESSING, SPECIAL ISSUE ON DATA MINING OF SPEECH, AUDIO describes the "VoiceTone Daily News" data mining tool for analyzing this information and presenting turns. Index Terms-- speech mining, data mining, spoken dialog systems, dialog success, business

  10. Ecosystem Services in Decision Making: Time to Deliver Author(s): Gretchen C. Daily, Stephen Polasky, Joshua Goldstein, Peter M. Kareiva, Harold A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    Ecosystem Services in Decision Making: Time to Deliver Author(s): Gretchen C. Daily, Stephen. 7, No. 1, The Role of Ecosystem Services in Conservation and Resource Management (Feb., 2009), pp of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity

  11. Development and analysis of a 12-year daily 1-km forest fire dataset across North America from NOAA/AVHRR data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    Development and analysis of a 12-year daily 1-km forest fire dataset across North America from NOAA Forest Service, Fire Sciences Laboratory, P.O. Box 8089, Missoula, MT 59807, United States g NOAA forests play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. While forest fires in North America (NA) have

  12. Professors using blogs, podcasts as teaching to... http://www.tucsoncitizen.com/daily/local/41737.php 1 of 3 2/13/2007 9:26 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    the technology had to overcome reservations. Some worried that they lacked the time to devote to a blogProfessors using blogs, podcasts as teaching to... http://www.tucsoncitizen.com/daily/local/41737.php 1 of 3 2/13/2007 9:26 AM Published: 02.13.2007 Professors using blogs, podcasts as teaching tools

  13. PRECIPITATION The images above use daily precipitation statistics fromNWS COOP, CoCoRaHS, and CoAgMet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    PRECIPITATION The images above use daily precipitation statistics fromNWS COOP, CoCoRaHS, and CoAgMet stations. Fromtop to bottom, and left to right: most recent 7-days of accumulated precipitation in inches; current month-to-date accumulated precipitation in inches; last month's precipitation as a percent

  14. Space Utilization 8:45AM Average Weekly Utilization for Sections Only by Room Type and Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oviedo, Nstor J.

    Space Utilization 8:45AM 12/4/2014 Average Weekly Utilization for Sections Only by Room Type. Util.Room Type - Capacity Hours in Standard week: 70.00 hours Term weeks: 16.00 Standard Week: Monday.00 66.28%249.86 / 268.30 71.17% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 100+ Room Hr. Util Seat Fill (Actual

  15. Space Utilization 1:58PM Average Weekly Utilization for Sections Only by Room Type and Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oviedo, Nstor J.

    Space Utilization 1:58PM 5/22/2015 Average Weekly Utilization for Sections Only by Room Type. Util.Room Type - Capacity Hours in Standard week: 70.00 hours Term weeks: 16.00 Standard Week: Monday.00 64.17%241.93 / 290.97 77.18% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 100+ Room Hr. Util Seat Fill (Actual

  16. An algorithm for the solution of a traveling salesman problem to minimize the average time to demand satisfaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, James Patrick

    1992-01-01

    AN ALGORITHM FOR THE SOLUTION OF A TRAVELING SALESMAN PROBLEM TO MINIMIZE THE AVERAGE TIME TO DEMAND SATISFACTION A Thesis by JAMES PATRICK RYAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject: Industrial Engineering AN ALGORITHM FOR THB SOLUTION OF A TRAVBLING SALESMAN PROBLEM TO MINIMIBB THE AVBRAGE TIME TO DEMAND SATISFACTION A Thesis by JAMES PATRICK RYAN...

  17. Coarse-grained transport of a turbulent flow via moments of the Reynolds-averaged Boltzmann equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abramov, Rafail V

    2015-01-01

    Here we introduce new coarse-grained variables for a turbulent flow in the form of moments of its Reynolds-averaged Boltzmann equation. With the exception of the collision moments, the transport equations for the new variables are identical to the usual moment equations, and thus naturally lend themselves to the variety of already existing closure methods. Under the anelastic turbulence approximation, we derive equations for the Reynolds-averaged turbulent fluctuations around the coarse-grained state. We show that the global relative entropy of the coarse-grained state is bounded from above by the Reynolds average of the fine-grained global relative entropy, and thus obeys the time decay bound of Desvillettes and Villani. This is similar to what is observed in the rarefied gas dynamics, which makes the Grad moment closure a good candidate for truncating the hierarchy of the coarse-grained moment equations. We also show that, under additional assumptions on the form of the coarse-grained collision terms, one a...

  18. The Business Logic of Sustainability: Merging Economic Growth with Social Responsibility--The explosion of organic and eco-friendly products on retail store shelves and in our daily lives is more

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ullrich, Paul

    -- The explosion of organic and eco-friendly products on retail store shelves and in our daily lives is more than

  19. Spatial and Quantitative Approach to Incorporating Stakeholder Values into Total Maximum Daily Loads: Dominguez Channel Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, J S; Baginski, T A; Greene, K G; Smith, A; Sicherman, A

    2006-06-23

    The Federal Clean Water Act (CWA) Section 303(d)(1)(A) requires each state to identify those waters that are not achieving water quality standards. The result of this assessment is called the 303(d) list. The CWA also requires states to develop and implement Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for these waters on the 303(d) list. A TMDL specifies the maximum amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and still meet water quality standards, and allocates the pollutant loadings to point and non-point sources. Nationwide, over 34,900 segments of waterways have been listed as impaired by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 2006). The EPA enlists state agencies and local communities to submit TMDL plans to reduce discharges by specified dates or have them developed by the EPA. The Department of Energy requested Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop appropriate tools to assist in improving the TMDL process. An investigation of this process by LLNL found that plans to reduce discharges were being developed based on a wide range of site investigation methods. Our investigation found that given the resources available to the interested and responsible parties, developing a quantitative stakeholder input process and using visualization tools to display quantitative information could improve the acceptability of TMDL plans. We developed a stakeholder allocation model (SAM) which uses multi-attribute utility theory to quantitatively structure the preferences of the major stakeholder groups. We then applied GIS to display allocation options in maps representing economic activity, community groups, and city agencies. This allows allocation options and stakeholder concerns to be represented in both space and time. The primary goal of this tool is to provide a quantitative and visual display of stakeholder concerns over possible TMDL options.

  20. Examining the Impact of Pad Flexibility on the Rotordynamic Coefficients of Rocker-Pivot-Pad Tilting-Pad Journal Bearings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaines, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2014-12-03

    direction. The measured attitude angles were as high as approximately 10. The attitude angles remained fairly constant at low rotational speeds for tp = 8.5 mm and tp = 10 mm and decreased as unit load increased for tp = 11.5 mm. XL_TPJB predicted attitude...

  1. The Fallacy of Averages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welsh, A. H.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Altmann, Stuart A.

    1988-08-01

    are uncorrelated, but that the converse need not be true.) Now, suppose that the component variables can be measured on the same individual; if measurements are made on n individuals, the data can then be written as (Xl,Y,), (X2Y1), . . ., (Xn,Yj. It is usual...(a,b2)" means "is normally distributed with mean a and variance b2." If X and Y are independent, ,ux,iy has a smaller variance than uixy and hence is a more efficient estimator. However, if X and Y have nonzero covariance, [3x,uy is biased and A3 y...

  2. Elastically averaged precision alignment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willoughby, Patrick (Patrick John), 1978-

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important steps in designing a machine is the consideration of the effect of interfaces between components. A badly designed interface can vary from costly difficulties such as additional control or calibration ...

  3. DOE Average Results

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    relative to total eligible PBA 's (applicable to actions >25K) (Note: Use FPDS-NG PBA Report) 96 80 Streamlined Processes: PALT for Acquisition: -'% of new competitive...

  4. Beating the Averages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-04-12

    sets have been designed for compilers rather than human programmers. Everyone knows ... As long as our hypothetical Blub programmer is looking down the power ... When we switch to the point of view of a programmer using any of the lan-.

  5. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"OmahaEnergy Sources and End Uses Topics: Energy Sources and End Uses End-UseA 6 JWithdrawalsYear Jan A Look at2.993.92

  6. Average Commercial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfile of0.06 9.47 8.91

  7. Average Commercial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfile of0.06 9.47

  8. Average Commercial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfile of0.06 9.47Citygate

  9. Average Residential Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfile of0.06

  10. Average Residential Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfile of0.06Pipeline and

  11. Average Residential Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfile of0.06Pipeline

  12. Average Residential Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal4 Arizona - NaturalYear JanProfile of0.06Pipeline

  13. Average Commercial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade2,948 2,724per ThousandLease Separation A Look at

  14. Average Commercial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade2,948 2,724per ThousandLease Separation A Look

  15. Average Residential Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade2,948 2,724per ThousandLease Separation A4.98 17.37

  16. Average Commercial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101 (Million Short6 Macroeconomic88.04 8.50

  17. Average Residential Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101 (Million Short6 Macroeconomic88.04

  18. Multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ALICE Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    The average transverse momentum $\\langle p_{\\rm T}\\rangle$ versus the charged-particle multiplicity $N_{\\rm ch}$ was measured in p-Pb collisions at a collision energy per nucleon-nucleon pair $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV and in pp collisions at collision energies of $\\sqrt{s}=0.9$, 2.76, and 7 TeV in the kinematic range $0.15mechanism. The data in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions cannot be described by an incoherent superposition of nucleon-nucleon collisions and pose a challenge to most of the event generators.

  19. Determination of the Average Aromatic Cluster Size of Fossil Fuels by Solid-State NMR at High Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Kanmi; Kennedy, Gordon J.; Althaus, Stacey M.; Pruski, Marek

    2013-01-07

    We show that the average aromatic cluster size in complex carbonaceous materials can be accurately determined using fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR at a high magnetic field. To accurately quantify the nonprotonated aromatic carbon, we edited the 13C spectra using the recently reported MAS-synchronized spinecho, which alleviated the problem of rotational recoupling of 1H-13C dipolar interactions associated with traditional dipolar dephasing experiments. The dependability of this approach was demonstrated on selected Argonne Premium coal standards, for which full sets of basic structural parameters were determined with high accuracy.

  20. Hit time and hit position reconstruction in the J-PET detector based on a library of averaged model signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Moskal; N. G. Sharma; M. Silarski; T. Bednarski; P. Bia?as; J. Bu?ka; E. Czerwi?ski; A. Gajos; D. Kami?ska; L. Kap?on; A. Kochanowski; G. Korcyl; J. Kowal; P. Kowalski; T. Kozik; W. Krzemie?; E. Kubicz; Sz. Nied?wiecki; M. Pa?ka; L. Raczy?ski; Z. Rudy; O. Rundel; P. Salabura; A. S?omski; J. Smyrski; A. Strzelecki; A. Wieczorek; W. Wi?licki; I. Wochlik; M. Zieli?ski; N. Zo?

    2015-02-27

    In this article we present a novel method of hit time and hit position reconstruction in long scintillator detectors. We take advantage of the fact that for this kind of detectors amplitude and shape of registered signals depends strongly on the position where particle hit the detector. The reconstruction is based on determination of the degree of similarity between measured and averaged signals stored in a library for a set of well-defined positions along the scintillator. Preliminary results of validation of the introduced method with experimental data obtained by means of the double strip prototype of the J-PET detector are presented.

  1. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014

  2. Determination of the Number of Tube Rows to Obtain Closure for Volume Averaging Theory Based Model of Fin-and-Tube Heat Exchangers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Feng; Hansen, Nicholas E; Geb, David J; Catton, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    heat exchanger, representative elementary volume Introduction Volume averaging theory (VAT) is an approach that can be applied to many different types

  3. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenzel, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    on occupant safety than fuel economy standards that arethe automobile fuel economy standards program, NHTSA docketCorporate Average Fuel Economy Standards Docket No. NHTSA

  4. Average and local crystal structures of (Ga1xZnx)(N1xOx) solid solution nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Neuefeind, Joerg C.; Tyson, Trevor A.; Schieber, Natalie; Han, Wei -Qiang

    2015-11-06

    We report the comprehensive study of the crystal structure of (Ga1xZnx)(N1xOx) solid solution nanoparticles by means of neutron and synchrotron x-ray scattering. In our study we used four different types of (Ga1xZnx)(N1xOx) nanoparticles, with diameters of 1027 nm and x = 0.0750.51, which show the narrow energy-band gaps from 2.21 to 2.61 eV. The Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction data revealed that the average crystal structure is the hexagonal wurtzite (space group P63mc), in agreement with previous reports on similar bulk materials. The pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis of the same data found that the local structure is more disorderedmorethan the average one. It is best described by the model with a lower symmetry space group P1, where atoms are quasirandomly distorted from their nominal positions in the hexagonal wurtzite lattice.less

  5. Klein, L.C., Bennett, J.M., Whetzel, C.A., & Ritter, F.E. (2008). Daily caffeine use impacts neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses to laboratory stress in healthy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritter, Frank

    2008-01-01

    amylase responses to the challenge. Daily caffeine use was verified by salivary caffeine levels (ng-reported daily caffeine use significantly predicted baseline heart rate and salivary alpha amylase, a surrogate.e., cortisol, DHEA-S, alpha amylase) but not cardiovascular (i.e., blood pressure, heart rate) responses

  6. 7/3/13 3:44 PMThe Elusive Protein, Found | The Daily Scan | GenomeWeb Page 1 of 3http://www.genomeweb.com/blog/elusive-protein-found

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    7/3/13 3:44 PMThe Elusive Protein, Found | The Daily Scan | GenomeWeb Page 1 of 3http://www.genomeweb.com/blog | The Daily Scan | GenomeWeb Page 2 of 3http://www.genomeweb.com/blog/elusive-protein-found Genome Technology

  7. IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN APPLIED EARTH OBSERVATIONS AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 7, NO. 5, MAY 2014 1745 The HelioClim-1 Database of Daily Solar Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , MAY 2014 1745 The HelioClim-1 Database of Daily Solar Radiation at Earth Surface: An Example Abstract--The HelioClim-1 database contains daily values of the solar radiation reaching the ground-CORE) covers Europe, Africa and the Atlantic Ocean, from 1985 to 2005. It is freely accessible at no cost

  8. Prospective Trial of High-Dose Reirradiation Using Daily Image Guidance With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Recurrent and Second Primary Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Cheng, Suzan; Donald, Paul J.; Purdy, James A.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To report a single-institutional experience using intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image-guided radiotherapy for the reirradiation of recurrent and second cancers of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one consecutive patients were prospectively treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy from February 2006 to March 2009 to a median dose of 66 Gy (range, 60-70 Gy). None of these patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Daily helical megavoltage CT scans were obtained before each fraction as part of an image-guided radiotherapy registration protocol for patient alignment. Results: The 1- and 2-year estimates of in-field control were 72% and 65%, respectively. A total of 651 daily megavoltage CT scans were obtained. The mean systematic shift to account for interfraction motion was 1.38 {+-} 1.25 mm, 1.79 {+-} 1.45 mm, and 1.98 {+-} 1.75 mm for the medial-lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. Pretreatment shifts of >3 mm occurred in 19% of setups in the medial-lateral, 27% in the superior-inferior, and 33% in the anterior-posterior directions, respectively. There were no treatment-related fatalities or hospitalizations. Complications included skin desquamation, odynophagia, otitis externa, keratitis, naso-lacrimal duct stenosis, and brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image guidance results in effective disease control with relatively low morbidity and should be considered for selected patients with recurrent and second primary cancers of the head and neck.

  9. Plasma wakefields driven by an incoherent combination of laser pulses: A path towards high-average power laser-plasma acceleratorsa)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    -average power laser-plasma acceleratorsa) C. Benedetti,b) C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans Lawrence enable a technologically simpler path to high-repetition rate, high-average power laserPlasma wakefields driven by an incoherent combination of laser pulses: A path towards high

  10. Reconstruction of a time-averaged midposition CT scan for radiotherapy planning of lung cancer patients using deformable registration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolthaus, J. W. H.; Sonke, J.-J.; Herk, M. van; Damen, E. M. F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    Purpose: lower lobe lung tumors move with amplitudes of up to 2 cm due to respiration. To reduce respiration imaging artifacts in planning CT scans, 4D imaging techniques are used. Currently, we use a single (midventilation) frame of the 4D data set for clinical delineation of structures and radiotherapy planning. A single frame, however, often contains artifacts due to breathing irregularities, and is noisier than a conventional CT scan since the exposure per frame is lower. Moreover, the tumor may be displaced from the mean tumor position due to hysteresis. The aim of this work is to develop a framework for the acquisition of a good quality scan representing all scanned anatomy in the mean position by averaging transformed (deformed) CT frames, i.e., canceling out motion. A nonrigid registration method is necessary since motion varies over the lung. Methods and Materials: 4D and inspiration breath-hold (BH) CT scans were acquired for 13 patients. An iterative multiscale motion estimation technique was applied to the 4D CT scan, similar to optical flow but using image phase (gray-value transitions from bright to dark and vice versa) instead. From the (4D) deformation vector field (DVF) derived, the local mean position in the respiratory cycle was computed and the 4D DVF was modified to deform all structures of the original 4D CT scan to this mean position. A 3D midposition (MidP) CT scan was then obtained by (arithmetic or median) averaging of the deformed 4D CT scan. Image registration accuracy, tumor shape deviation with respect to the BH CT scan, and noise were determined to evaluate the image fidelity of the MidP CT scan and the performance of the technique. Results: Accuracy of the used deformable image registration method was comparable to established automated locally rigid registration and to manual landmark registration (average difference to both methods <0.5 mm for all directions) for the tumor region. From visual assessment, the registration was good for the clearly visible features (e.g., tumor and diaphragm). The shape of the tumor, with respect to that of the BH CT scan, was better represented by the MidP reconstructions than any of the 4D CT frames (including MidV; reduction of 'shape differences' was 66%). The MidP scans contained about one-third the noise of individual 4D CT scan frames. Conclusions: We implemented an accurate method to estimate the motion of structures in a 4D CT scan. Subsequently, a novel method to create a midposition CT scan (time-weighted average of the anatomy) for treatment planning with reduced noise and artifacts was introduced. Tumor shape and position in the MidP CT scan represents that of the BH CT scan better than MidV CT scan and, therefore, was found to be appropriate for treatment planning.

  11. A correlation between intrinsic brightness and average decay rate of Swift UVOT GRB optical/UV light curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oates, S R; De Pasquale, M; Schady, P; Breeveld, A A; Holland, S T; Kuin, N P M; Marshall, F E

    2012-01-01

    We examine a sample of 48 Swift/UVOT long Gamma-ray Burst light curves and find a correlation between the logarithmic luminosity at 200s and average decay rate determined from 200s onwards, with a Spearman rank coefficient of -0.58 at a significance of 99.998% (4.2 sigma). We discuss the causes of the log L_200s - alpha_>200s correlation, finding it to be an intrinsic property of long GRBs, and not resulting from the selection criteria. We find two ways to produce the correlation. One possibility is that there is some property of the central engine, outflow or external medium that affects the rate of energy release so that the bright afterglows release their energy more quickly and decay faster than the fainter afterglows. Alternatively, the correlation may be produced by variation of the observers viewing angle, with observers at large viewing angles observing fainter and slower decaying light curves.

  12. Design and development of a 6 MW peak, 24 kW average power S-band klystron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, L.M.; Meena, Rakesh; Nangru, Subhash; Kant, Deepender; Pal, Debashis; Lamba, O.S.; Jindal, Vishnu; Jangid, Sushil Kumar, E-mail: joslm@rediffmail.com [Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Pilani (India); Chakravarthy, D.P.; Dixit, Kavita [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2011-07-01

    A 6 MW peak, 24 kW average power S-band Klystron is under development at CEERI, Pilani under an MoU between BARC and CEERI. The design of the klystron has been completed. The electron gun has been designed using TRAK and MAGIC codes. RF cavities have been designed using HFSS and CST Microwave Studio while the complete beam wave interaction simulation has been done using MAGIC code. The thermal design of collector and RF window has been done using ANSYS code. A Gun Collector Test Module (GCTM) was developed before making actual klystron to validate gun perveance and thermal design of collector. A high voltage solid state pulsed modulator has been installed for performance valuation of the tube. The paper will cover the design aspects of the tube and experimental test results of GCTM and klystron. (author)

  13. Application of a generalized matrix averaging method for the calculation of the effective properties of thin multiferroic layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starkov, A. S. [St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnology (Russian Federation); Starkov, I. A., E-mail: ferroelectrics@ya.ru [Brno University of Technology, SIX Research Centre (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-15

    It is proposed to use a generalized matrix averaging (GMA) method for calculating the parameters of an effective medium with physical properties equivalent to those of a set of thin multiferroic layers. This approach obviates the need to solve a complex system of magnetoelectroelasticity equations. The required effective characteristics of a system of multiferroic layers are obtained using only operations with matrices, which significantly simplifies calculations and allows multilayer systems to be described. The proposed approach is applicable to thin-layer systems, in which the total thickness is much less than the system length, radius of curvature, and wavelengths of waves that can propagate in the system (long-wave approximation). Using the GMA method, it is also possible to obtain the effective characteristics of a periodic structure with each period comprising a number of thin multiferroic layers.

  14. Biomarkers in disk-averaged near-UV to near-IR Earth spectra using Earthshine observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slim Hamdani; Luc Arnold; C. Foellmi; J. Berthier; M. Billeres; D. Briot; P. Franois; P. Riaud; J. Schneider

    2006-09-07

    We analyse the detectability of vegetation on a global scale on Earth's surface. Considering its specific reflectance spectrum showing a sharp edge around 700 nm, vegetation can be considered as a potential global biomarker. This work, based on observational data, aims to characterise and to quantify this signature in the disk-averaged Earth's spectrum. Earthshine spectra have been used to test the detectability of the "Vegetation Red Edge" (VRE) in the Earth spectrum. We obtained reflectance spectra from near UV (320 nm) to near IR (1020 nm) for different Earth phases (continents or oceans seen from the Moon) with EMMI on the NTT at ESO/La Silla, Chile. We accurately correct the sky background and take into account the phase-dependent colour of the Moon. VRE measurements require a correction of the ozone Chappuis absorption band and Rayleigh plus aerosol scattering. Results : The near-UV spectrum shows a dark Earth below 350 nm due to the ozone absorption. The Vegetation Red Edge is observed when forests are present (4.0% for Africa and Europe), and is lower when clouds and oceans are mainly visible (1.3% for the Pacific Ocean). Errors are typically $\\pm0.5$, and $\\pm1.5$ in the worst case. We discuss the different sources of errors and bias and suggest possible improvements. We showed that measuring the VRE or an analog on an Earth-like planet remains very difficult (photometric relative accuracy of 1% or better). It remains a small feature compared to atmospheric absorption lines. A direct monitoring from space of the global (disk-averaged) Earth's spectrum would provide the best VRE follow-up.

  15. Scheme to increase the output average spectral flux of the European XFEL at $14.4$ keV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2015-01-01

    Techniques like inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and nuclear resonance scattering (NRS) are currently limited by the photon flux available at X-ray sources. At $14.4$ keV, third generation synchrotron radiation sources produce a maximum of $10^{10}$ photons per second in a meV bandwidth. In this work we discuss about the possibility of increasing this flux a thousand-fold by exploiting high repetition rate self-seeded pulses at the European XFEL. Here we report on a feasibility study for an optimized configuration of the SASE2 beamline at the European XFEL which combines self-seeding and undulator tapering techniques in order to increase the average spectral flux at $14.4$ keV. In particular, we propose to perform monochromatization at $7.2$ keV with the help of self-seeding, and amplify the seed in the first part of output undulator. The amplification process can be stopped at a position well before saturation, where the electron beam gets considerable bunching at the 2nd harmonic of the coherent radiation. ...

  16. Heat-flux measurements for the rotor of a full-stage turbine: Part I - Time-averaged results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, M.G.

    1986-07-01

    This paper describes time-average heat-flux distributions obtained for the blade of a Garrett TFE 731-2 hp full stage rotating turbine. Blade measurements were obtained both with and without injection. The injected gas was supplied from a separate reservoir and was directed into the turbine gas path via nozzle guide vane (NGV) pressure surface slots located at approximately 63 percent of the wetted distance. Blade heat-flux measurements were performed fro two different injection gas temperatures, T/sub c/T/sub o/ = 0.53 and T/sub c/T/sub o/ - 0.82. A shock tube is used as a short-duration source of heated air to which the turbine is subjected and thin-film gages are used to obtain the heat-flux measurements. Results are presented along the blade in the flow direction at 10, 50, and 90 percent span for both the pressure and suction surfaces. A sufficient number of measurements were obtained to also present spanwise distributions. At approximately the 50 percent span location, two contoured inserts containing closely spaced gages were installed in the blade so that the leading-edge region distribution could be resolved in detail. The blade results are compared with predictions obtained using a flat-plate technique and with predictions obtained using a version of STAN 5.

  17. Development of a 33 kV, 20 A long pulse converter modulator for high average power klystron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reghu, T.; Mandloi, V.; Shrivastava, Purushottam [Pulsed High Power Microwave Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, M.P. (India)] [Pulsed High Power Microwave Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, M.P. (India)

    2014-05-15

    Research, design, and development of high average power, long pulse modulators for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source are underway at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. With this objective, a prototype of long pulse modulator capable of delivering 33 kV, 20 A at 5 Hz repetition rate has been designed and developed. Three Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) based switching modules driving high frequency, high voltage transformers have been used to generate high voltage output. The IGBT based switching modules are shifted in phase by 120 with respect to each other. The switching frequency is 25 kHz. Pulses of 1.6 ms pulse width, 80 ?s rise time, and 70 ?s fall time have been achieved at the modulator output. A droop of 0.6% is achieved using a simple segmented digital droop correction technique. The total fault energy transferred to the load during fault has been measured by conducting wire burn tests and is found to be within 3.5 J.

  18. Combining multi-objective optimization and bayesian model averaging to calibrate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Wohling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Most studies in vadose zone hydrology use a single conceptual model for predictive inference and analysis. Focusing on the outcome of a single model is prone to statistical bias and underestimation of uncertainty. In this study, we combine multi-objective optimization and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models. To illustrate our method, we use observed tensiometric pressure head data at three different depths in a layered vadose zone of volcanic origin in New Zealand. A set of seven different soil hydraulic models is calibrated using a multi-objective formulation with three different objective functions that each measure the mismatch between observed and predicted soil water pressure head at one specific depth. The Pareto solution space corresponding to these three objectives is estimated with AMALGAM, and used to generate four different model ensembles. These ensembles are post-processed with BMA and used for predictive analysis and uncertainty estimation. Our most important conclusions for the vadose zone under consideration are: (1) the mean BMA forecast exhibits similar predictive capabilities as the best individual performing soil hydraulic model, (2) the size of the BMA uncertainty ranges increase with increasing depth and dryness in the soil profile, (3) the best performing ensemble corresponds to the compromise (or balanced) solution of the three-objective Pareto surface, and (4) the combined multi-objective optimization and BMA framework proposed in this paper is very useful to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models.

  19. Particle-In-Cell/Monte Carlo Simulation of Ion Back BomBardment in a High Average Current RF Photo-Gun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiang, J.

    2010-01-01

    High Average Current RF Photo-Gun J. Qiang Lawrence Berkeleyradio-frequency (RF) photo-gun using a particle-in-cell/ion motion inside the gun so that the ion power deposition

  20. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 91, NO. D1, PAGES 1103-1116, JANUARY 20, 1986 Two-Dimensional Monthly Average Ozone BalanceFrom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    -Dimensional Monthly Average Ozone BalanceFrom Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphereand Stratosphericand consistency.We computethe diurnal averagephotochemicalproductionand lossterms of ozone usingmonthly ozone,whichisthelossrate by thechlorinefamily,iscalculatedfroma two