National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for byproducts tires agricultural

  1. Firm eyes savings from tires-to-fuel system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, J.

    1983-01-31

    A $600,000 pyrolysis system to convert tire scraps into methane will eliminate a tire retreading company's landfill and boiler fuel costs and achieve a five-year payback. The process also yields steel belts, fibers, and carbon black byproducts that can be sold for additional revenue. Heat from the hot exhaust gases will be recycled to the combustion chamber. A 10% federal energy tax credit and a 10% investment tax credit lowered the capital costs for $480,000. (DCK)

  2. Method for recycling tires and similarly compounded materials to recover usable constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letsch, W.

    1980-12-23

    A processing plant and method are described for processing scrap tires and similar materials containing a mixture of technical rubber, scrap metal and tire cord in which the plant is essentially vehicular and thus eliminates the necessity of hauling accumulated tires long distances with the accompanying costs. The plant includes means for directing mixed tire sizes to a cyrogenic section where the technical rubber is reduced to a sufficient temperature making it brittle so that initial separation of reusable technical rubber is accomplished; the plant is operated essentially on the reusable by-products of pyrolytic reduction of the tires so that hydrocarbons and heated gas are utilized and additional commercial by-products such as commercial soots, metal and tire beads are obtained.

  3. Scrap tire recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1997-03-01

    As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

  4. Burning tires for fuel and tire pyrolysis: air implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C.; Meardon, K.; Russell, D.

    1991-12-01

    The document was developed in response to increasing inquiries into the environmental impacts of burning waste tires in process equipment. The document provides information on the use of whole, scrap tires and tire-derived-fuel (TDF) as combustion fuel and on the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The use of whole tires and TDF as a primary fuel is discussed for dedicated tire-to-energy facilities. The use of whole tires and TDF as a supplemental fuel is discussed for cement manufacturing plants, electric utilities, pulp and paper mills, and other industrial processes. The focus of the document is on the impact of burning whole tires and TDF on air emissions. Test data are presented and, in most instances, compared with emissions under baseline conditions (no tires or TDF in the fuel). The control devices used in these industries are discussed and, where possible, their effectiveness in controlling emissions from the burning of whole tires or TDF is described. In addition, the report provides information on the processes themselves that use whole tires or TDF, the modifications to the processes that allowed the use of whole tires or TDF, and the operational experiences of several facilities using whole tires or TDF. The economic feasibility of using whole tires and TDF for the surveyed industries is discussed. Finally, contacts for State waste tire programs are presented.

  5. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  6. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  7. Scrap tires: a resource and technology evaluation of tire pyrolysis and other selected alternate technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, J.; Domenico, W.F.; Evans, D.R.; Fish, L.W.; Lassahn, P.L.; Toth, W.J.

    1983-11-01

    The results of a technical and economic evaluation of scrap tire pyrolysis are presented and some other alternative uses for scrap tires are discussed. A scrap tire, by definition in this report, is one for which there is no economic end use. Information is presented on the scrap tire resource, pyrolysis processes, pyrolysis products (char, oil, and gas), markets for these products, and the economics of tire pyrolysis. A discussion is presented on alternative ideas for using scrap tires as an energy resource.

  8. Agricultural

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I N P A T T E R N A NABPA'sDepositAgricultural Sign

  9. Agricultural

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I N P A T T E R N A NABPA'sDepositAgricultural

  10. Evaluation of tire pressure, tire construction, axle configuration, and axle load on flexible pavement performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamy, Ahmad Najeeb

    1991-01-01

    as to style and content by: obe L. Lytton (Ch ' of Committee) mm el G. Fernando (Member) 01 a J Pendleton (Member) J es T. P. Yao (Head of Department) August 1991 ABSTRACT Evaluation of Tire Pressure, Tire Construction, Axle Configuration, and Axle...=triple) Tire = number of tires ( 1=single, 2=dual) Es = subgrade modulus (psi) asphalt concrete thickness (inches) tire inflation pressure (psi) MODEL SELECTION NETHOD Multiple regression analysis was done on SAS. The maximum R' (squared 24...

  11. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  12. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR MANAGING ASR By Zichao Wu and Tarun R College of Engineering and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN­MILWAUKEE #12;USE OF CLEAN-COAL ASH combustion by-products (such as clean-coal ash) from power plants. Maximum recycling of such by- products

  13. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    dioxide control technologies. Figure 1 shows clean coal technology benefits(2) . In 1977, the conceptCenter for By-Products Utilization CLEAN COAL BY-PRODUCTS UTILIZATION IN ROADWAY, EMBANKMENTS electricity production is from the use of coal-based technologies(1) . This production is estimated

  14. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    combustion by-products #12;3 generated by using both conventional and clean-coal technologies. A clean-coal that obtained from clean-coal technology, are not utilized in cast-concrete masonry products (bricks, blocksCenter for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik

  15. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F-fly ash. Some developed technologies have similar potential in the longer term. (3) Laboratory studies have been completed that indicate that much higher amounts of fly ash could be added in cement-concrete applications under some circumstances. This could significantly increase use of fly ash in cement-concrete applications. (4) A study of the long-term environmental effects of structural fills in a surface mine in Indiana was completed. This study has provided much sought after data for permitting large-volume management options in both beneficial as well as non-beneficial use settings. (5) The impact of CBRC on CCBs utilization trends is difficult to quantify. However it is fair to say that the CBRC program had a significant positive impact on increased utilization of CCBs in every region of the USA. Today, the overall utilization of CCBs is over 43%. (6) CBRC-developed knowledge base led to a large number of other projects completed with support from other sources of funding. (7) CBRC research has also had a large impact on CCBs management across the globe. Information transfer activities and visitors from leading coal producing countries such as South Africa, Australia, England, India, China, Poland, Czech Republic and Japan are truly noteworthy. (8) Overall, the CBRC has been a truly successful, cooperative research program. It has brought together researchers, industry, government, and regulators to deal with a major problem facing the USA and other coal producing countries in the world.

  16. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization DRAFT REPORT CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN CEMENTITIOUS-MILWAUKEE #12;CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN CEMENTITIOUS PRODUCTS Progress Report by Tarun R. Naik, Rakesh of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Technologies

  17. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  18. Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials, and Reduced Weight Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials, and Reduced Weight 2012 DOE Hydrogen...

  19. Vacuum pyrolysis of used tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, C.; Darmstadt, H.; Benallal, B.; Chaala, A.; Schwerdtfeger, A.E.

    1995-11-01

    The vacuum pyrolysis of used tires enables the recovery of useful products, such as pyrolytic oil and pyrolytic carbon black (CB{sub P}). The light part of the pyrolytic oil contains dl-limonene which has a high price on the market. The naphtha fraction can be used as a high octane number component for gasoline. The middle distillate demonstrated mechanical and lubricating properties similar to those of the commercial aromatic oil Dutrex R 729. The heavy oil was tested as a feedstock for the production of needle coke. It was found that the surface morphology of CB{sub P} produced by vacuum pyrolysis resembles that of commercial carbon black. The CB{sub P} contains a higher concentration of inorganic compounds (especially ZnO and S) than commercial carbon black. The pyrolysis process feasibility looks promising. One old tire can generate upon vacuum pyrolysis, incomes of at least $2.25 US with a potential of up to $4.83 US/tire upon further product improvement. The process has been licensed to McDermott Marketing Servicing Inc. (Houston) for its exploitation in the US.

  20. Scrap tire utilization via surface modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauman, B.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing a novel approach to reusing scrap tire rubber, which will be described in this presentation. In addition to consuming scrap tires, this technology represents a new approach to material engineering. Furthermore, this method of rubber recycle is most efficient in terms of energy recovery. 4 figs.

  1. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, Trevor

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  2. A finite element analysis of pneumatic-tire/sand interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    A finite element analysis of pneumatic-tire/sand interactions during off-road vehicle travel M pneumatic tire and sand during off-road vehicle travel. Keywords Finite element analysis, Road vehicles and for other tire/sand combinations. Since the finite element analysis of the tire/sand interaction enables

  3. Scrap tire management in the mid south region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenthal, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC) is a North American tire manufacturer-sponsored advocacy organization, created to identify and promote environmentally and economically sound markets for scrap tires. This presentation gives a national overview of the scrap tire situation, and focuses on the Tennessee and Mid-south region. National generation rates and markets for scrap tires are discussed, and markets for scrap tires are described. The major markets identified are fuel, rubber products, and civil engineering applications. Three technologies that may have an impact on scrap tire recycling are discussed: pyrolysis, gasification, and devulcanization.

  4. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R #12;1 HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S. Singh, and Bruce for manufacture of cement-based products using ashes generated from combustion of high-sulfur coals. A clean coal

  5. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN COAL ASH AS SETTING TIME REGULATOR IN PORTLAND OF WISCONSIN ­ MILWAUKEE #12;2 Use of Clean Coal Ash as Setting Time Regulator in Portland Cement by Zichao Wu as setting time regulator for portland cement production. In this paper a source of clean coal ash (CCA

  6. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASSF FLY ASHCOAL AND CLEAN-COAL #12;-1- CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASSF FLYASHCOAL AND CLEAN-COAL ASHFOR CEMENT -Milwaukee (UWM) Daniel D.Banerjee, Project Manager,Illinois Clean Coal Institute RudolphN.Kraus, Research

  7. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST OF CLASS F FLYASHAND CLEAN-COAL ASHBLENDS FOR CAST CONCRETE PRODUCTS Authors: TarunR.Naik, Director, Center,Illinois Clean Coal Institute RudolphN.Kraus, Research Associate, UWM Center forBy-Products Utilization Shiw S

  8. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique of HVFA Concrete Containing Clean-Coal Ash and Class F Fly Ash By Tarun R. Naik Director, UWM Center for By-Products Utilization and Francois Botha Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute Synopsis

  9. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN NO-FINES CONCRETE By Tarun R;CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN NO-FINES CONCRETE ABSTRACT By Tarun, R. Naik, Yoon-moon Chun, Rudolph N. Kraus, and Fethullah Canpolat This paper presents a detailed experimental study on the sequestration

  10. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    flue gas. Detailed results are presented. Keywords: carbon dioxide sequestration, carbonation, carbonCenter for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN FOAMED CONTROLLED LOW STRENGTH MATERIALS #12;1 CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN FOAMED CONTROLLED LOW STRENGTH MATERIALS by Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus

  11. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    of coal in conventional and/ or advanced clean coal technology combustors. These include fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products from advanced clean coal technology clean coal technology combustors. Over 60% of the CCBs are generated as fly ash. An estimate

  12. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    clean coal technology, are not extensively utilized in the cast concrete masonry products (bricks both conventional and clean coal technologies. A clean coal ash is defined as the ash derived from SO2Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST

  13. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Issued to the Illinois Clean Coal Institute For Project 02-1/3.1D-2 Department of Civil Engineering of technology and market development for controlled low-strength material (CLSM) slurry using Illinois coal ashCenter for By-Products Utilization IMPLEMENTATION OF FLOWABLE SLURRY TECHNOLOGY IN ILLINOIS

  14. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    wood with supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke by pulp and paper mills and wood, knots, chips, etc. with other supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke to generateCenter for By-Products Utilization DEVELOPMENT OF CLSM USING COAL ASH AND WOOD ASH, A SOURCE OF NEW

  15. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    in a combination with a number of fuels including coal, petroleum coke, natural gas, etc. In the mid 1990s, the unit was firing a combination of coal and petroleum coke to generate energy. It has been established;1 PROJECT 1 - COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS: CHARACTERIZATION AND USE OPTIONS Introduction An AFBC system

  16. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    with supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke by pulp and paper mills and wood, such as bark, twigs, knots, chips, etc. with other supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and cokeCenter for By-Products Utilization CLSM CONTAINING MIXTURES OF COAL ASH AND A NEW POZZOLANIC

  17. Scrap tire pyrolysis: Experiment and modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napoli, A.; Soudais, Y.; Lecomte, D.; Castillo, S.

    1997-12-01

    Pyrolysis of waste, usually organic solids like tires, plastics or composite materials, is an alternative thermal waste treatment technology. Three main physical and chemical mechanisms - i.e.: chemical kinetics, internal heat transfer and external heat transfer - have to be considered when modelling the degradation of solid waste particles. Because of the lack of physical properties for wastes most of the models described in the literature use basic data obtained on the pyrolysis of coal, wood and biomass. In this work, the authors report basic information on the thermal degradation of tire samples at small scale: Thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), as well as direct and indirect measurements of thermal and physical properties (thermal conductivity of the tire and of the char, porosity, density, specific heat). Pyrolysis experiments on tire samples are performed in an imaging furnace. The experimental results are compared to theoretical values deduced from models that take into account physical property measurements.

  18. Mechanical properties of radial truck tires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wasti, Mansoor-ul-Hassan

    1992-01-01

    MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF RADIAL TRUCK TIRES A Thesis by MANSOOR-UL-HASSAN WASTI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992... Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF RADIAL TRUCK TIRES A Thesis by Mansoor-ul-Hassan Wasti Approved as to style and content by: R. . Alexander (Chair of Committee) C. . Hough (Member) Donal ayl (M mber) W. L. radley...

  19. Tire gassification and combustion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nance, D.; Towne, G.A.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a system for disposing of a material such as vehicle tires and similar substantially organic matter and generating useful heat therefrom. It comprises gasification means for holding an amount of the material to be disposed while the material is allowed to partially combust and for containing combustible gas produced thereby, the gasification means comprising a substantially air tight gasification chamber having at least one access way for inserting the material therein; inlet means for receiving a controlled amount of oxygen containing gas into the gasification means, the inlet means comprising a tuyere disposed in the air tight gasification chamber and a blower connected to the tuyere; removal means for removing the combustible gas from the gasification means, the removal means comprising a gas outlet located above the tuyere in the gasification chamber such that substantially amounts of the combustible gases produced by the partially combusted material exits through the gas outlet; primary combustion means for receiving and mixing the combustible gas removed from the gasification means with an oxygen containing gas and burning the combustible gas; and means for directing the combustion products to a heat utilizing device.

  20. Parallel Implementation of a Vehicle-Tire-Terrain Interaction Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negrut, Dan

    (VTTIM) · Three components o Vehicle o Tire o Terrain/Soil mechanics · Two interfaces o Vehicle support for ANCF `tire' 9 #12;Types of Soil Mechanics Models · Empirical Methods o WES numerics, Bekker of Tire Models · Rigid o Simple to implement in parallel o Only accurate if deformation of soil is much

  1. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because of lack of progress by the CRADA members, the agreement was not extended beyond February 2004. The work completed included the detailed design of the mobile unit, a general economic analysis of the operating the system, and outreach activities.

  2. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Williams, Robert Leslie; Waldschmidt, Robert Lee; Morgan, Catherine Hook

    2006-08-29

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  3. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant (Los Lunas, NM); Williams, Robert Leslie (Albuquerque, NM); Waldschmidt, Robert Lee (Calgary, CA); Morgan, Catherine Hook (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2007-09-04

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  4. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. ); Haefner, R. . Water Resources Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  5. An unresolved riddle: Tire chips, two roadbeds, and spontaneous reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nightingale, D.E.B.; Green, W.P.

    1997-12-31

    Experience with road fills in Washington State constructed with thick layers of tire chips spontaneously burning has led to a decrease in tire chip use nationally. The field measurements and samples taken indicate that a pyrolitic reaction occurred at two roadfill sites in Washington State based on a comparison to know pyrolytic reactions in controlled settings. Pyrolysis in roadbeds containing tire chips is a new phenomena previously only found in open piles of processed tire chips. Because water and nutrients were introduced, iron oxidation, microbial digestion, and chemical oxidation are possible factors contributing to the pyrolytic reactions at the two Washington State sites. A new heat ignition theory from Japanese experiments suggests a theoretical answer to practical design depth limits in roadbeds and tire chip piles may be climate (air temperature) and depth dependent.

  6. Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    Oklahoma Agriculture Agriculture #12;Oklahoma Agriculture 2011Oklahoma Agriculture 2011 Oklahoma well-being of our communities and the counties in which they are located. Oklahoma State University Resources Oklahoma State University #12;Farm Operations · 86,600 farms; 4th in the nation · Average age

  7. Reprocessing of used tires into activated carbon and other products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teng, H.; Serio, M.A.; Wojtowicz, M.A.; Bassilakis, R.; Solomon, P.R.

    1995-09-01

    Landfilling used tires which are generated each year in the US is increasingly becoming an unacceptable solution. A better approach, from an environmental and economic standpoint, is to thermally reprocess the tires into valuable products such as activated carbon, other solid carbon forms (carbon black, graphite, and carbon fibers), and liquid fuels. In this study, high surface area activated carbons (> 800 m{sup 2}/g solid product) were produced in relatively high yields by pyrolysis of tires at up to 900 C, followed by activation in CO{sub 2} at the same temperature. The surface areas of these materials are comparable with those of commercial activated carbons. The efficiency of the activation process (gain in specific surface area/loss in mass) was greatest (up to 138 m{sup 2}/g original tire) when large pieces of tire material were used ({approximately} 170 mg). Oxygen pretreatment of tires was found to enhance both the yield and the surface area of the carbon product. High-pressure treatment of tires at low temperatures (< 400 C) is an alternative approach if the recovery of carbon black or fuel oils is the primary objective.

  8. Fluidized-bed combustion of scrap tires: Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J.Y.; Mei, J.S.; Notestein, J.E.

    1981-10-01

    An introduction to fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is presented in Section 2.0. Based on this discussion of its technical development, FBC is then presented as a means of scrap tire disposal. In Section 3.0, scrap tire disposal is reviewed in the categories of (1) physical applications, (2) chemical applications, (3) pyrolysis, and (4) incineration for thermal energy recovery. Scrap tire disposal is reviewed on the basis of (1) environmental acceptability, (2) conservation of resources, (3) impact on existing industries, (4) operational feasibility, and (5) special features. The focus of this report is the fluidized-bed incineration of scrap tires for thermal energy recovery. The factors that affect scrap tire combustion are discussed in Section 4.0. These factors are (1) agitation, (2) temperature, (3) excess air, (4) residence time, (5) feed uniformity, (6) solid waste handling, and (7) pollutants emission control. In reviewing these incineration processes, (1) fuel flexibility, (2) environmental acceptability, (3) combustion efficiency, and (4) operational reliability are discussed. The results from a tire incineration experiment conducted at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center are presented in Section 5.0, and a conceptual fluidized-bed combustor is discussed in Section 6.0. Future considerations in the FBC of scrap tires are discussed in Section 7.0. 8 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard M. Laine

    2012-08-20

    In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it starts one step upstream from all other Sipv production efforts. Our process starts by producing high purity SiO2/C feedstocks from which Sipv can be produced in a single, chlorine free, final EAF step. Specifically, our unique technology, and the resultant SiO2/C product can serve as high purity feedstocks to existing metallurgical silicon (Simet) producers, allowing them to generate Sipv with existing US manufacturing infrastructure, reducing the overall capital and commissioning schedule. Our low energy, low CAPEX and OPEX process purifies the silica and carbon present in rice hull ash (RHA) at low temperatures (< 200C) to produce high purity (5-6 Ns) feedstock for production of Sipv using furnaces similar to those used to produce Simet. During the course of this project we partnered with Wadham Energy LP (Wadham), who burns 220k ton of rice hulls (RH)/yr generating 200 GWh of electricity/yr and >30k ton/yr RHA. The power generation step produces much more energy (42 kWh/kg of final silicon produced) than required to purify the RHA (5 kWh/kg of Sipv, compared to 65 kWh/kg noted above. Biogenic silica offers three very important foundations for producing high purity silicon. First, wastes from silica accumulating plants, such as rice, corn, many grasses, algae and grains, contain very reactive, amorphous silica from which impurities are easily removed. Second, plants take up only a limited set of, and minimal quantities of the heavy metals present in nature, meaning fewer minerals must be removed. Third, biomass combustion generates a product with intrinsic residual carbon, mixed at nanometer length scales with the SiO2. RHA is 80-90 wt% high surface area (20 m2/g), amorphous SiO2 with some simple mineral content mixed intimately with 5-15 wt% carbon. The mineral content is easily removed by low cost, acid washes using Mayaterials IP, leading to purified rice hull ash (RHAclean) at up to 6N purity. This highly reactive silica is partially extracted from RHAclean at 200 C in an environmentally benign process to adjust SiO2:C ratios to those needed in EA

  10. Tire Remanufacturing and Energy Savings Avid Boustani1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutowski, Timothy

    ;3 applications (cement industry, pulp and paper industry, industrial boilers), electricity co- generation advocates and industry officials to take critical steps towards saving energy, minimizing emissions, and commercial aviation. The tire retreading industry is reportedly the largest sector of remanufacturing

  11. Recovery of commercially valuable products from scrap tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, C.

    1993-07-20

    A process is described for producing carbon black by vacuum pyrolysis of used rubber tires, which comprises pyrolysing used rubber tire material at a temperature in the range of about 490 C to about 510 C under an absolute pressure of less than about 5 kPa, and recovering a solid carbonaceous material containing carbon black having an iodine adsorption number of about 130 to about 150 mg/g.

  12. Waste tires as auxiliary fuel for cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, J.

    1987-01-01

    The subject I have been asked to speak about is the utilization of scrap tires as an auxiliary fuel for cement kilns. My experience with scrap tires began five years ago when we performed a technical and economic evaluation for tire pyrolysis. I work for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory which is supported by the Department of Energy. My interest in scrap tires continued; in 1984 the Department of Energy and the Portland Cement Association jointly sponsored a conference on the utilization of scrap tires in cement kilns. Most of my remarks today are based upon that conference along with some current information in the US. Mr. Sladek requested that I speak on the combustion process, the progress to date, and the factors that impede or encourage implementation of using scrap tires in cement kilns. For discussion purposes it would help if we had a common understanding of the cement manufacturing process. Cement is made by heating a mixture of finely ground limestone and silica from clay or sand to about 1450/degree/C in a large rotating kiln. The heat causes the limestone to decarbonate and subsequently react with the silica to form calcium silicates. 5 figs.

  13. Recovery and evaluation of the solid products produced by thermocatalytic decomposition of tire rubber compounds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Lan

    2007-04-25

    A thermal catalytic decomposition process has been developed to recycle used tire rubber. This process enables the recovery of useful products, such as hydrocarbons and carbon blacks. During the catalytic decomposition process, the tire rubber...

  14. EERE Energy Impacts: Self-Inflating Tires Could Save You Money...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in tires so you dont have to. | Graphic courtesy of Goodyear Goodyear's new Air Maintenance Technology-also called the self-regulating tire-automatically manages...

  15. LARGE SCALE DIRECT SHEAR TESTING WITH TIRE BALES By: Christopher J. LaRocque1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    and light truck tires into a 2 cubic yard, 1-ton bale. Each bale is fastened with galvanized or stainless

  16. Disposal techniques with energy recovery for scrapped vehicle tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sladek, T.A.; Demos, E.K.

    1987-06-01

    The scrap tire disposal problem is serious and widespread. However there are a number of promising management options, especially using the rubber as a supplemental fuel for existing combustors. The most cost-effective approach to dealing with Denver's tire stockpile appears to be shredding to a coarse size range, storing the shreds in a secure area, and marketing the rubber to nearby cement kilns, lime kilns, and boilers. This interim step would greatly reduce the volume of the pile, facilitate the Superfund evaluation, reduce fire and disease hazards, and simplify subsequent materials handling. Further processing to obtain rubber chips or crumbs may also be practical. However the industry and the markets would have to emerge over time. New power plants or pyrolysis facilities would be impeded by the low energy prices in Denver and the need for elaborate pollution controls. Landfilling could be considered as a last resort. Landfilling costs would be minimized if the tires are shredded. Chapter 2 discusses the tire disposal problem and the general options for tire management. Chapter 3 describes the methodology used to analyze Denver's situation and presents the results and conclusions obtained. This includes evaluation of strategies to implement the more promising resource recovery options in the Denver area. Chapter 4 summarizes the lessons learned and identifies impediments and uncertainties that need to be addressed in any future studies. The Appendix contains additional acknowledgments, a list of references, definitions for the acronyms and units used in the text, the agenda for the tire workshop, and a brief description of a stockpile fire near Denver in June 1987. 111 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. Vacuum pyrolyzed tire oil as a coal solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, E.C.; Shi, Y.; Ji, Q.

    1995-12-31

    Coal liquefaction is highly dependent upon the type of coal liquefaction solvent used. The solvent must readily solubilize the coal and must act as an effective hydrogen donor or shuttler. Oil derived from the vacuum pyrolysis of used rubber tires has recently been used as a coal solvent with good conversion of coal to liquids in a hydrogen atmosphere. All experiments were completed in shaken tubing reactors at 450{degrees}C utilizing a bituminous coal. Results show the effectiveness of the pyrolyzed tire oil as a coal liquefaction solvent depends upon hydrogen pressure. Electron probe microanalysis data reveal good dispersion of the molybdenum catalyst in coal particles taken from liquefaction experiments.

  18. Combustion and inorganic emissions of ground waste tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Atal, A.; Steciak, J.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental study was undertaken to assess the combustion characteristics and emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} gases from ground waste tires. Results were contrasted with those obtained from burning pulverized coal. Laboratory bench-scale experiments were conducted in a drop-tube, laminar-flow furnace, in air at fuel-lean conditions, at gas temperatures ranging from 1300 K to 1600 K. Two particle size cuts were burned from both materials, 75-90 {mu}m and 180-212 {mu}m. Blends of coal and tire particles, at equal weight ratios, were also burned. Pyrometric and cinematographic observations revealed that the coal particles exhibited distinct volatile and char combustion phases, while tire particles exhibited a distinct primary volatile phase followed by a char combustion phase, which was accompanied by burning of secondary pyrolysis products. SO{sub 2} emissions of burning ground tires increased from 160 to 500 ppm as the temperature increased from 1300 K to 1600 K. Combustion of coal produced SO{sub 2} emissions in the neighborhood of 200-300 ppm (corresponding to 40 to 60 wt% of its sulfur content) independent of the gas temperature. The blend of coal and tire particles (equal mass ratios) exhibited SO{sub 2} values which fell in between the above. NO{sub x} emissions were constant at approximately 175 ppm for tire crumb (corresponding to approximately 45 wt% of its fuel nitrogen content) and 625 ppm for coal (corresponding to 55 wt% of its fuel nitrogen content) in the temperature range studied. CO{sub 2} emissions from tire were 8-9 molar %, while for coal particles they were 5-7 molar %; the upper limits corresponded to approximately 100% combustion efficiency. As a means to reduce the SO{sub 2} emissions, pulverized coal and tire crumb were fluidized together with particles of a calcium bearing sorbent - calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). CMA has been identified as an effective SO{sub 2} scrubbing agent in previous studies.

  19. An investigation of the use of tire rubber in asphalt 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koo, Heamo Lee

    1996-01-01

    , and Exxon AC-5. With respect to rubber type, the Rouse rubber was determined to improve Theological properties of the asphalt-rubber binder more than the Tire-Gator rubber. The curing process was also shown to increase the breakdown of the rubber...

  20. The use of scrap tires in rotary cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenthal, M.

    1996-12-31

    The use of scrap tires as a supplemental fuel in the United States Portland cement industry has increased significantly in the past six years. In 1990, there were two kilns using tire-derived fuel (TDF), today 30 kilns use TDF. The outlook for continued and expanded use of TDF in the U.S. cement industry should be considered favorable, with 15 kilns conducting tests to determine TDF`s applicability or in the permitting process. The Council`s estimates are that by the end of 1996, the cement industry could be consuming some 75-100 million of the 253 million annually generated scrap tires in the United States. This level of TDF usage will make the cement industry the largest market segments for scrap tires in the United States. While the long-term outlook is at present positive, there are a series of factors that have, and will likely continue to adversely impact the near-term usage of TDF. These issues, as well as the factors that are likely to positively impact the cement kiln TDF market are the subject of this presentation.

  1. SIMULATION OF A TIRE INSPECTION SYSTEM W. H. GRAY1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abidi, Mongi A.

    is a key component for efficient machine vision building. A quality control system by artificial vision when designing an inspection system based upon machine vision. The tire inspection system uses thermal. For any vision system, the placement of the camera(s) determines the effectiveness of the defect detection

  2. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products, Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. It is highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the chemical composition of the FGD by-product materials were dominated by Ca, S, Al, and Si. Many of the elements regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency reside primarily in the fly ash. Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD by-product materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  3. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 2 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J.

    1996-03-01

    A study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. A Phase 1 report provided results of an extensive characterization of chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of 58 dry FGD by-product samples. The Phase 1 report concluded that high volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics related to their ability to substitute for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mine lands). Phase 2 objectives were (1) to conduct laboratory and greenhouse studies of FGD and soil (spoil) mixtures for agronomic and engineering applications, (2) to initiate field studies related to high volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) to develop the basic methodological framework for estimation of the financial and economic costs and benefits to society of several FGD reuse options and to make some preliminary runs of economic models. High volume beneficial reuses of dry FGD by-products have been successfully demonstrated. Adverse environmental impacts have been negligible. Although few sources of dry FGD by-products currently exist in Ohio and the United States there is potential for smaller coal-fired facilities to adopt S0{sub 2} scrubbing technologies that produce dry FGD material. Also much of what we have learned from studies on dry FGD by-products is applicable to the more prevalent wet FGD by-products. The adaptation of the technologies demonstrated in this project seem to be not only limited by economic constraints, but even more so, by the need to create awareness of the market potential of using these FGD by-products.

  4. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donley, Tim

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  5. Numerical model for the vacuum pyrolysis of scrap tires in batch reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, J.; Tanguy, P.A.; Roy, C.

    1995-06-01

    A quantitative model for scrap tire pyrolysis in a batch scale reactor developed comprises the following basic phenomena: conduction inside tire particles; conduction, convection, and radiation between the feedstock particles or between the fluids and the particles; tire pyrolysis reaction; exothermicity and endothermicity caused by tire decomposition and volatilization; and the variation of the composition and the thermal properties of tire particles. This model was used to predict the transient temperature and density distributions in the bed of particles, the volatile product evolution rate, the mass change, the energy consumption during the pyrolysis process, and the pressure history in a tire pyrolysis reactor with a load of 1 kg. The model predictions agree well with independent experimental data.

  6. Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

    1993-11-01

    Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

  7. Evaluation of synergy in tire rubber-coal coprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastral, A.M.; Mayoral, M.C.; Murillo, R.; Callen, M.; Garcia, T.; Tejero, M.P.; Torres, N.

    1998-09-01

    The tire rubber-coal synergy is evaluated through the different roles that rubber can have in coprocessing systems. For that, two different experimental designs were used: a swept fixed-bed reactor and tubing bomb minireactors. In this way, coal was coprocessed with rubber liquids from rubber pyrolysis and rubber hydrogenation, in a hydrogen atmosphere at 400 C. Coal was mixed as well with rubber in different proportions and hydrogenated at 375, 400, and 425 C, and oils obtained were characterized by thin-layer chromatography to obtain hydrocarbon type composition. Rubber behavior was compared to each of the main components of tires, and all the results indicated that the slight synergy found can be due to the small free radicals from vulcanized rubber decomposition, which are able to stabilize coal radicals to light products.

  8. Assessment of Tire Technologies and Practices for Potential Waste and Energy Use Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Regnier, Justin; Burke, Andy; Melaina, Marc W; Bremson, Joel; Keteltas, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Managements Life Cycle Assessments: Principles andand R. Stark, 1999. “Life Cycle Assessment of a Car Tire. ”portal/themes/esh/life_cycle_assessments_en/dow nload/life_

  9. Characterization of chars from coal-tire copyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastral, A.M.; Callen, M.S.; Murillo, R.; Alvarez, R.; Clemente, C.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this work is the characterization of the solid conversion product from coal-tire copyrolysis because, nowadays, any new process should be faced without resolving the problem of the subproducts generated. A low-rank coal and a nonspecific mixture of scrap automotive tires, 50/50 w/w, have been coprocessed at 400 C for 30 min at different H{sub 2} pressures and atmospheres. Once the most valuable conversion products, the liquids, were recovered by tetrahydrofuran extraction, a complementary battery of analytical techniques was applied to characterize the solids or chars, looking for their possible use. {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, immediate and ultimate analyses, ASA, and scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry were performed on them. By X-ray diffractometry the presence of sphalerite, pyrrhotite, and anhydrite was detected. Thermogravimetric studies demonstrated that the combustion induction temperature is 400 C. Char combustion tests at 900 C with discussion of NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions are included. Mineral matter behaves as if only coal is processed with the Zn exception, from ZnO in the tire, which is converted into ZnS. It is shown that the char organic component has a higher aromaticity than the one from coal.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office 2013 Merit Review: A System for Automatically Maintaining Pressure in a Commercial Truck Tire

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A presentation given by PPG during the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on a system for automatically maintaining tire pressure in commercial truck tires.

  11. THERMAL RESPONSE OF A TIRE SHRED-SOIL EMBANKMENT By: Hailey L. Wappett1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    THERMAL RESPONSE OF A TIRE SHRED-SOIL EMBANKMENT By: Hailey L. Wappett1 and J.G. Zornberg2 to the thermal properties of tires that can potentially trigger exothermic reactions with the structures. Despite of this research is to define design recommendations through the evaluation of the thermal response of different

  12. Pyrolysis of scrap tires: Can it be profitable?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojtowicz, M.A.; Serio, M.A.

    1996-10-01

    Pyrolysis--the thermal degradation in the absence of oxygen--is one way to reprocess scrap tires. The products are fuel gas, oils, and a solid residue (char), which contains appreciable quantities of mineral matter and low-grade carbon black. The three products have comparable yields by weight. The two most important factors affecting process economics are the tipping fees charged for tire disposal and the selling prices of the products. Selling prices of the products yield low returns because of the low market value of the fuels and the low quality of the recovered char or carbon black. Therefore, to obtain a positive cash flow, it would be desirable to develop a process based on the recovery of value-added products such as high-grade carbon black, activated carbon, or valuable chemicals (e.g., benzene, toluene, and xylene). The authors believe that significant improvement in the economics can be accomplished by upgrading the primary pyrolysis products to secondary products of higher value.

  13. Chemi-microbial processing of waste tire rubber: A project overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romine, R.A.; Snowden-Swan, L.

    1993-12-01

    PNL is developing a method to use thiophillic microorganisms to devulcanize (biodesulfurize) the surface of ground rubber particles, which will improve the bonding and adhesion of the ground tire rubber into the virgin tire rubber matrix. The Chemi-microbial processing approach, introduced in this paper, is targeted at alleviating the waste tire problem in an environmentally conscious manner; it may also be applied to improve asphaltic materials and rubber and polymeric wastes to facilite their recycling. This paper outlines the logic and technical methods that will be used.

  14. Vacuum pyrolyzed tire oil as a coal solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, E.C.; Shi, Yanlong; Ji, Qin; Anderson, L.L.; Eyring, E.M.

    1995-12-31

    Recent interest in coprocessing coal with hydrogen rich waste materials in order to produce liquid transportation fuels has given rise to interesting twists on standard coal liquefaction. In general, coprocessing coal with a waste material has been approached with the idea that the waste material would be mixed with the coal under liquefaction conditions with little or no preliminary processing of the waste material other than shredding into smaller size particles. Mixing the waste material with the coal would occur in the primary stage of liquefaction. The primary stage would accomplish the dissolution of the coal and breakdown of the waste material. The products would then be introduced into the secondary stage where upgrading of product would occur. This paper describes the usefulness of oil derived from pyrolysis of waste rubber tires as a reactant in coal coprocessing or coal liquefaction.

  15. Optimization of scrap tire pyrolysis using a continuous-feed steam environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrell, T.W.; Frank, S.R.; Rich, M.L.

    1995-12-01

    Estimates of the generation of scrap tires produced in the United States are on the order of 2 million tons per year. Although these tires contain a high percentage of useful hydrocarbons, steel and carbon black, approximately 70% are not effectively recycled. Recently, pyrolytic recycling of scrap tire (thermal decomposition in the absence of O{sub 2}) is receiving renewed interest because of its ability to produce valuable hydrocarbon products. We have developed a process which permits a continuous feed processing of scrap tires in a non-combustible stream environment. This system utilizes a soft seal system that operates at atmospheric pressures while minimizing any fugitive emissions. This process increases the efficiency and control of present approaches by lowering the energy requirements while maximizing the collection of valuable products. Initial bench-scale results will be presented.

  16. Design of a bench-scale apparatus for processing carbon black derived from scrap tires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodrow, Philip Travis

    1996-01-01

    The focus of this work is to design a bench-scale apparatus, for laboratory applications, that will perform solid processing operations for carbon black obtained through the thermal catalytic depolymerization of scrap tires. These operations...

  17. Pyrolysis of scrap tires and conversion of chars to activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merchant, A.A.; Petrich, M.A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    The primary objective of this work was to demonstrate the conversion of scrap tires to activated carbon. The authors have been successful in this endeavor, producing carbons with surface areas greater than 500 m[sup 2]/g and significant micropore volumes. Tire shreddings were pyrolyzed in batch reactors, and the pyrolysis chars activated by reaction with superheated steam. Solid products of pyrolysis and activation were studied with nitrogen adsorption techniques. They find that the porosity development during steam activation of tire pyrolysis char is similar to that reported for various other chars. A maximum in micropore volume is observed as a function of conversion, but the total surface area increases monotonically with conversion. They suggest that the activation process consists of micropore formation, followed by pore enlargement. The process conditions used in this study are a good starting point from which to optimize a process to convert tires to activated carbon.

  18. Formation of dl-limonene in used tire vacuum pyrolysis oils. [dipentene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pakdel, H.; Roy, C.; Aubin, H.; Jean, G. ); Coulombe, S. )

    1991-09-01

    Tire recycling has become an important environmental issue recently due to the huge piles of tires that threaten the environment. Thermal decomposition of tire, a synthetic rubber material, enables the recovery of carbon black and liquid hydrocarbon oils. Both have potential economic values. Pyrolysis oils obtained under vacuum conditions contain a significant portion of a volatile, naptha-like fraction with an octane number similar to petroleum naphtha fraction, in addition, contains approximately 15% limonene. Potential applications of vacuum pyrolysis oil and carbon black have been investigated. However, the process economics is greatly influenced by the quality of the oil and carbon black products. This paper discusses limonene formation during used tire vacuum pyrolysis and its postulated reaction mechanism. The limonene separation method from pyrolysis oil, as well as its purification in laboratory scale, and structural characterization are discussed. Large-scale limonene separation and purification is under investigation.

  19. Fact #763: January 21, 2013 Eighty-four Percent of Scrapped Tires...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the recycled tires were used to make fuel for industries such as pulp and paper mills, cement kilns, and electric utilities. Ground rubber, which is used for sports surfacing,...

  20. Fact #826: June 23, 2014 The Effect of Tire Pressure on Fuel Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently conducted a study that measured the effect of tire pressure on fuel economy at speeds ranging from 40 to 80 miles per hour. The figure below...

  1. Goodyear Testing Self-Inflating Tire Systems in U.S. Trucking...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in U.S. Trucking Fleets April 7, 2015 - 4:52pm Addthis This graphic shows how Goodyear's new Air Maintenance Technology -- also called the self-regulating tire -- works. | Graphic...

  2. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Xinghua; Wang Tiejun Ma Longlong; Chang Jie

    2008-11-15

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 deg. C to 600 deg. C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 deg. C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 deg. C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) {approx}205 deg. C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher.

  3. Energy Efficiency in Heavy Vehicle Tires, Drivetrains, and Braking Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter J. Blau

    2000-04-26

    This document was prepared to support the primary goals of the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. These were recently stated as follows: ''Develop by 2004 the enabling technologies for a class 7-8 truck with a fuel efficiency of 10 mpg (at 65 mph) which will meet prevailing emission standards. For Class 3-6 trucks operating on an urban driving cycle, develop by 2004 commercially viable vehicles that achieve at least double the fuel economy of comparable current vehicles (1999), and as a research goal, reduce criteria pollutants to 30% below EPA standards. Develop by 2004 the diesel engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of Class 1 and 2 trucks, achieving a 35 % fuel efficiency improvement over comparable gasoline-fueled trucks, while meeting applicable emissions standards.'' The enabling technologies for improving the fuel efficiency of trucks, include not only engine technologies but also technologies involved with lowering the rolling resistance of tires, reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag, improving thermal management, and reducing parasitic frictional losses in drive train components. Opportunities also exist for making better use of the energy that might ordinarily be dissipated during vehicle braking. Braking systems must be included in this evaluation since safety in truck operations is vital, and braking requirements are greater for vehicles having lowered resistance to rolling. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has initiated a program to improve the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles through wind tunnel testing, computational modeling, and on-road evaluations. That activity is described in a separate multi-year plan; therefore, emphasis in this document will be on tires, drive trains, and braking systems. Recent, dramatic fluctuations in diesel fuel prices have emphasized the importance of effecting savings in truck fuel economy by implementing new component designs and materials.

  4. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 1, [Annual report], December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  5. The Composition of Rice By-products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1904-01-01

    STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, President BULL -- -7 .ETIN NO. 291 FEBRUARY, 1922 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY DIGESTION EXPERIMENTS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR CO_LTJ3GE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS STATION... ......................... ................. Digestible protein : 5 Productive value ............................................ 5 Vitamines .................................................. 6 ....................................... Digestion experiments 6...

  6. Individuals Agricultural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    , with the highest density in the first year, and no obvious differences between the second and the third year. We in the first year, and the lowest in the third year Though taxa diversity was lower in the third year Yards Mesic Yards Year Yea r 321 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Agricultural Desert Parks Desert Remnants

  7. Fluosorbent injection by-products. Final report, January 1997 through December 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Sid

    2000-02-29

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology, called "Fluesorbent," was developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent was intentionally designed so that the saturated S02-sorbent materials can be used as beneficial soil amendments after they were used for FGD. A. Project Objective: The objective of this project was to demonstrate in the field that saturated Fluesorbent materials can be utilized beneficially on agricultural and grass lands. B. Project Results: The results of this project suggest that, indeed, saturated Fluesorbent has excellent potential as a commercial soil amendment for crops, such as alfalfa and soybeans, and for turf. Yields of alfalfa and turf were substantially increased in field testing on acidic soils by one-time applications of Fluesorbent FGD by-products. In the first two years of field testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGD by-products were approximately 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. In a third, drought-influenced year, the gains were smaller. Turf grass growth was fully twice that of untreated plots and more than 10% greater than with ag-lime. A small farm trial with a modified version of the Fluesorbent by-product increased soybean yield by 25%. A small trial with corn, however, indicated no significant improvement. Even though the Fluesorbent contained fly ash, the alfalfa and turf grown in FGD-treated plots contained significantly lower levels of heavy metals than that grown in untreated or lime-treated plots. In a project greenhouse experiment, the fly ashes from five different coal boilers from around Ohio produced equivalent yields when mixed with Fluesorbent, indicating wide potential applicability of the new technology. The Fluesorbent materials were also found to be easy to extrude into pellets for use with mixed fertilizers. The by-product FGD materials also showed good potential as a granular substrate for turning volatile liquid herbicides into a dry, spreadable form. It was also shown that a significant amount of other fertilizer compounds, such as elemental sulfur, could be successfully incorporated into the pelleted products, if desired.

  8. Coprocessing of 4-(1-napthylmethyl)bibenzyl with waste tires using finely dispersed iron and molybdenum catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Y.; Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ, AL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Coliquefaction of waste tires with coal is a feasible method for upgrading both materials. To evaluate the effect of waste tires on reactions that occur during liquefaction, waste tire and carbon black, a component of tires, were reacted in the presence of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NMBB), a model coal compound known to hydrocrack at liquefaction conditions. Waste tires promoted NMBB hydrocracking compared to no additive although carbon black, introduced at the level present in waste tires increased hydrocracking more. Combining Mo naphthenate with waste tire or carbon black had a higher activity for hydrocracking than the corresponding combinations with Fe naphthenate. Selectivity for NMBB cleavage was also different with the two different catalysts. The addition of S increased the activity of Fe naphthenate with waste tire but decreased that of Mo naphthenate. Increased NMBB hydrocracking of 79.9% was obtained by combining Mo naphthenate and carbon black. Combining Fe naphthenate with carbon black or Mo naphthenate did not increase NMBB hydrocracking compared to the values obtained with the individual materials.

  9. Factors affecting agricultural journalists and agricultural communicators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chenault, Edith Anne

    2009-05-15

    Agricultural journalism and agricultural communication have been researched in depth, identifying job skills, job satisfaction, educational backgrounds, and curriculum issues. However, a study examining the spheres ...

  10. Pyrolysis kinetics of scrap tire rubbers. 1: Using DTG and TGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.; Park, J.K.; Chun, H.D.

    1995-07-01

    Tire pyrolysis kinetics was investigated to explore an economically viable design for the pyrolysis process. Derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were found to provide valuable information on pyrolysis kinetics and mechanisms of a heterogeneous compound like scrap tire rubbers. Kinetic parameters of each compositional compound were obtained by analyzing DTG and TGA results with a series of mathematical methods proposed in this study. The pyrolysis kinetics of the scrap tire rubbers tested was well accounted for by the first-order irreversible independent reactions of three compositional compounds. The sidewall and tread rubber exhibited different thermal degradation patterns, suggesting a compositional difference between them. Isothermal pyrolysis results showed that the sidewall rubber would hardly be degraded at low temperature regions (<600 K), whereas it would be more rapidly degraded than the tread rubber at higher temperatures ({>=}746 K). Because of the shorter pyrolysis time, the higher isothermal pyrolysis temperature appeared to be more economically favorable.

  11. Evaluation of products recovered from scrap tires for use as asphalt modifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKay, J.

    1992-05-01

    Western Research Institute performed rheological tests and water sensitivity tests on asphalt cements that had been modified with carbonous residues obtained from the pyrolysis of scrap tires and waste motor oil. These tests are part of an ongoing program at the University of Wyoming Chemical Engineering Department to evaluate, as asphalt additives, solid carbonous products recovered from the scrap tire and waste motor oil pyrolysis experiments conducted at the University. The tests showed that carbonous residues increased the viscosity and decreased the elasticity of AC-10 and AC-20 asphalts. The tests also indicatedthat asphalt cements modified with carbonous residues were less sensitive to water damage and age embrittlement than unmodified asphalt cements.

  12. Extraction and identification of fillers and pigments from pyrolyzed rubber and tire samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadhukhan, P.; Zimmerman, J.B.

    1996-12-31

    Rubber stocks, specially tires, are composed of natural rubber and synthetic polymers and also of several compounding ingredients, such as carbon black, silica, zinc oxide etc. These are generally mixed and vulcanized with additional curing agents, mainly organic in nature, to achieve certain {open_quotes}designing properties{close_quotes} including wear, traction, rolling resistance and handling of tires. Considerable importance is, therefore, attached both by the manufacturers and their competitors to be able to extract, identify and characterize various types of fillers and pigments. Several analytical procedures have been in use to extract, preferentially, these fillers and pigments and subsequently identify and characterize them under a transmission electron microscope.

  13. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Brock Marrs; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2006-08-31

    With the passing of legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported. This contract was with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involved the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, assessment of the potential for leaching of Hg captured by the carbons, analysis of the slags for cement applications, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers. The objectives of this collaborative effort between the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute, and industry collaborators supplying gasifier char samples were to investigate the potential use of gasifier slag carbons as a source of low cost sorbent for Hg and NOX capture from combustion flue gas, concrete applications, polymer fillers and as a source of activated carbons. Primary objectives were to determine the relationship of surface area, pore size, pore size distribution, and mineral content on Hg storage of gasifier carbons and to define the site of Hg capture. The ability of gasifier slag carbon to capture NOX and the effect of NOX on Hg adsorption were goals. Secondary goals were the determination of the potential for use of the slags for cement and filler applications. Since gasifier chars have already gone through a devolatilization process in a reducing atmosphere in the gasifier, they only required to be activated to be used as activated carbons. Therefore, the principal objective of the work at PSU was to characterize and utilize gasification slag carbons for the production of activated carbons and other carbon fillers. Tests for the Hg and NOX adsorption potential of these activated gasifier carbons were performed at the CAER. During the course of this project, gasifier slag samples chemically and physically characterized at UK were supplied to PSU who also characterized the samples for sorption characteristics and independently tested for Hg-capture. At the CAER as-received slags were tested for Hg and NOX adsorption. The most promising of these were activated chemically. The PSU group applied thermal and steam activation to a representative group of the gasifier slag samples separated by particle sizes. The activated samples were tested at UK for Hg-sorption and NOX capture and the most promising Hg adsorbers were tested for Hg capture in a simulated flue gas. Both UK and PSU tested the use of the gasifier slag samples as fillers. The CAER analyzed the slags for possible use in cement applications

  14. Tailored Recovery of Carbons from Waste Tires for Enhanced Performance as Anodes in Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naskar, Amit K; Bi,; Saha, Dipendu; Chi, Miaofang; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2014-01-01

    Morphologically tailored pyrolysis-recovered carbon black is utilized in lithium-ion batteries as a potential solution for adding value to waste tire-rubber-derived materials. Micronized tire rubber was digested in a hot oleum bath to yield a sulfonated rubber slurry that was then filtered, washed, and compressed into a solid cake. Carbon was recovered from the modified rubber cake by pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere. The chemical pretreatment of rubber produced a carbon monolith with higher yield than that from the control (a fluffy tire-rubber-derived carbon black). The carbon monolith showed a very small volume fraction of pores of widths 3 4 nm, reduced specific surface area, and an ordered assembly of graphitic domains. Electrochemical studies on the recovered-carbon-based anode revealed an improved Li-ion battery performance with higher reversible capacity than that of commercial carbon materials. Anodes made with a sulfonated tire-rubber-derived carbon and a control tire-rubber-derived carbon, respectively, exhibited an initial coulombic efficiency of 80% and 45%, respectively. The reversible capacity of the cell with the sulfonated carbon as anode was 400 mAh/g after 100 cycles, with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency. Our success in producing higher performance carbon material from waste tire rubber for potential use in energy storage applications adds a new avenue to tire rubber recycling.

  15. Security and Privacy Vulnerabilities of In-Car Wireless Networks: A Tire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Wenyuan

    Security and Privacy Vulnerabilities of In-Car Wireless Networks: A Tire Pressure Monitoring System companies to collect data ­ "iChange" controls the car via an iPhone ­ More in-car wireless sensor networks. Virtually, all new cars sold or manufactured after 2007 in US are equipped with wireless TPMS. Computer

  16. Clogging Potential of Tire Shred-Drainage Layer in Landfill Cover Systems Krishna R. Reddy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    systems. Tests were also conducted by placing a geotextile filter between the soil and the shredded tire and weighed. If a geotextile was used, it was also removed, dried and weighed. The mass of the soil from 4 to 15%, depending on the presence of a geotextile and the thickness of the soil layer. Despite

  17. On bicycle tire tracks geometry, hatchet planimeter, Menzin's conjecture and oscillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabachnikov, Sergei

    On bicycle tire tracks geometry, hatchet planimeter, Menzin's conjecture and oscillation of unicycle tracks Mark Levi and Serge Tabachnikov April 13, 2008 Abstract The model of a bicycle is a unit wheel is fixed on the bicycle frame); the same model describes the hatchet planimeter. The trajectory

  18. Tractrices, Bicycle Tire Tracks, Hatchet Planimeters, and a 100-year-old Conjecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foote, Robert L.

    Tractrices, Bicycle Tire Tracks, Hatchet Planimeters, and a 100-year-old Conjecture Robert Foote, Mark Levi, and Serge Tabachnikov Abstract. We study a simple model of bicycle motion: A bicycle measuring area of plane domains. The trajectory of the front wheel and the initial position of the bicycle

  19. Tractrices, Bicycle Tire Tracks, Hatchet Planimeters, and a 100-year-old Conjecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabachnikov, Sergei

    Tractrices, Bicycle Tire Tracks, Hatchet Planimeters, and a 100-year-old Conjecture R. L. Foote M. Levi S. Tabachnikov 1 Introduction The geometry of the tracks left by a bicycle has received much of a bicycle and that of a curious device known as a hatchet planimeter, and we will prove a conjecture about

  20. Tiree Energy Pulse: Exploring Renewable Energy Forecasts on the Edge of the Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Mark

    Tiree Energy Pulse: Exploring Renewable Energy Forecasts on the Edge of the Grid Will Simm1 , Maria energy consumption with supply, and together built a prototype renewable energy forecast display. A num local renewable energy was expected to be available, despite having no financial in- centive to do so

  1. Product formulations using recycled tire crumb rubber. Final report/project accomplishments summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this project was to combine crumb rubber and synthetic fiber obtained from scrap tires with thermoplastic polymers and convert these materials into commercially useful, high-value products. A specific goal was to use these materials for roofing, while remaining cognizance of other potential applications.

  2. Agricultural and Food Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences (FAFS) #12;86 Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences (FAFS) Undergraduate Catalogue 2014­15 Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences (FAFS) Officers in agriculture was initiated in 1956. #12;87Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences (FAFS) Undergraduate

  3. Agriculture, technology, and conflict 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zilverberg, Cody John

    2009-05-15

    Conflict and agriculture have a long, shared history. The purpose of this research is to look at the relationships between agriculture, agricultural technologies, and conflict during current and recent conflicts, large scale and localized...

  4. 1. AGRICULTURE BUILDING 2. AGRICULTURE GREENHOUSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Keith

    1. AGRICULTURE BUILDING 2. AGRICULTURE GREENHOUSE 3. AGRICULTURE MECHANICS SHOP 4. ALUMNI ASSOCIATION (TRACIE D. PEARMAN) 5. APARTMENTS (UNIVERSITY WOODS) 6. ART BUILDING 7. ART STUDIO 8. AUSTIN BUILDING 9. BIOLOGY GREENHOUSE 10. BOYNTON BUILDING 11. BUSINESS BUILDING (R. E. MCGEE) 12. CHEMISTRY

  5. Center for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    climate change, reduced GHGs, improved air quality, CO2 reduction & sequestration, and carbon offsets. #12 for the development of a technology for the carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in non-air entrained concreteCenter for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN NON-AIR ENTRAINED CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik

  6. Center for By-Products Utilization CARBONATION: AN EFFICIENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    -based materials. #12;Center for By-Products Utilization Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cement-based Materials Early age carbonation curing for the sequestration of CO2 in cement-based products is most adopted. Recently a practical and easy way of carbon dioxide sequestration in cement-based materials has been

  7. Grain Sorghum By-Product Feeds for Farm Animals. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1951-01-01

    . GRAIN SORGHUM BY-PRODUCT FEEDS FOR FARM ANIMALS 15 SORGHUJI GLUTEN FEED Sorghum gluten feed was used in three different combi- nations in experimental rations for fattening steers. In the first ration, it was fed as the only concentrate received... .................................................................................................. 18 Sorghum gluten meal .................................................................................. 18 experimental ration ............................................................................. 18...

  8. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  9. Subsurface flow constructed wetland: treatment of domestic wastewater by gravel and tire chip media and ultraviolet disinfection of effluent 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Amanda Yvette

    2002-01-01

    spray application, wetland effluent must be disinfected (traditionally by chlorine). This study determines the treatment efficiency of SFCWs filled with gravel or tire chip media to treat domestic wastewater and the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials, and Reduced Weight

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Cooper Tire at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about improving vehicle fuel efficiency...

  11. The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berryman, Charles Wayne

    1992-01-01

    Millions of tons of waste by-products from Texas coal burning plants are produced each year. Two common byproducts are the fuel ashes and calcium sulfate (gypsum). Fuel ashes result from the burning of coal. Gypsum is a byproduct of the air...

  12. Wave transmission and mooring-force characteristics of pipe-tire floating breakwaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harms, Volker W.; Westerink, Joannes J.

    1980-10-01

    The results are presented of a series of prototype scale tests of a floating breakwater that incorporates massive cylindrical members (steel or concrete pipes, telephone poles, etc.) in a matrix of scrap truck or automobile tires, referred to as the Pipe-Tire Breakwater (PT-Breakwater). Tests were conducted in the large wave tank at the US Army Coastal Engineering Research Center (CERC). Breakwater modules were preassembled at SUNY in Buffalo, New York, and then transported to CERC by truck, where final assembly on location was again performed by SUNY personnel. Wave-tank tests were conducted jointly by CERC and SUNY personnel. A series of wave-tank experiments and mooring system load-deflection tests were performed, and are described. Wave-transmission and mooring-load characteristics, based on 402 separate tests, were established and are reported. (LCL)

  13. Roadmap for Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckel, Jeffrey A.

    A Science Roadmap for Food and Agriculture A Science Roadmap for Food and Agriculture Prepared and Policy (ESCOP)-- Science and Technology Committee November 2010 #12;2 pA Science Roadmap for Food and Agriculture #12;A Science Roadmap for Food and Agriculture p i About this Publication To reference

  14. Thermal plasma pyrolysis of used old tires for production of syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, J.S.; Gu, B.W.; Looy, P.C.; Chu, F.Y.; Simpson, C.J.

    1996-08-01

    Thermal plasma pyrolysis of used tires for the production of syngaswas investigated experimentally and the following conclusions wereobtained: 1. A series of experiments have shown that tire waste can bepyrolyzed in a plasma reactor to produce combustible gas, such asC{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, CO. The combustion heat value of the produced gas is about 4-7 MJ/m{sup 3}, which is higher than that of blast furnace gas and reforming gas from coals. 2. Zinc oxidecan be captured during pyrolysis by both high temperature filters andlow temperature filters in the quenching chamber. The pollution gases,such as SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, are at relatively low levels, about 100-300ppm. 3. Increasing the tire injection quantity will increase theconcentration of hydrocarbons, increase the combustion heat of thepyrolysis product, and decrease the concentration of metal oxide. Withsteam injection, it produced a large quantity of hydrogen and carbonmonoxide with lower concentrations of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. The combustion heatis slightly lower with steam injection than that without it. 4. Neitherpolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) nor p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) weredetected in the ashes. 8 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Roadmap for Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    A Science Roadmap for Agriculture Prepared by the National Association of State Universities Force on Building a Science Roadmap #12;#12;A Science Roadmap for Agriculture Prepared by the National on Organization and Policy (ESCOP) Task Force on Building a Science Roadmap for Agriculture NOVEMBER 2001 #12

  16. USDA Agricultural Conservation Easement Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) provides financial and technical assistance to help conserve agricultural lands, wetlands, and their related benefits.

  17. Passive tire pressure sensor and method (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding access to(Conference)Connect Passivation EffectsPassive tire

  18. The fate of mercury in coal utilization byproducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Aljoe; Thomas Feeley; James Murphy; Lynn Brickett [US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), Pittsburgh, PA (US)

    2005-05-01

    The US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's (DOE/NETL's) research has helped to further scientific understanding of the environmental characteristics of coal-utilization by-products (CUBs) in both disposal and beneficial utilization applications. The following general observations can be drawn from results of the research that has been carried out to date: There appears to be only minimal mercury release to the environment in typical disposal or utilization applications for CUBs generated using activated carbon injection (ACI) control technologies; There appears to be only minimal mercury release to the environment in typical disposal and utilization applications for CUBs generated using wet FGD control technologies. The potential release of mercury from wet FGD gypsum during the manufacture of wallboard is still under evaluation; The amount of mercury leached from CUB samples tested by DOE/NETL is significantly lower than the federal drinking water standards and water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life; in many cases, leachate concentrations were below the standard test method detection limits. DOE/NETL will continue to partner with industry and other key stakeholders in carrying out research to better understand the fate of mercury and other trace elements in the byproducts from coal combustion. 16 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Pyrolysis of tire rubber: Porosity and adsorption characteristics of the pyrolytic chars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguel, G.S.; Fowler, G.D.; Sollars, C.J.

    1998-06-01

    Tire rubber has been pyrolyzed at various temperatures under a nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting chars have been analyzed for their porosity using nitrogen gas adsorption and for their aqueous adsorption characteristics using phenol, methylene blue, and the reactive dyes Procion Turquoise H-A and Procion Red H-E3B. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were modeled to the BET and Dubinin-Astakhov (DA) equations to determine effective surface areas, mesopore volumes, and micropore volumes. Results showed that pyrolysis of tire rubber was essentially complete at 500 C and resulted in a char yield of approximately 42 wt%. Pyrolytic chars exhibited BET surface areas up to 85 m{sup 2}/g and micropore volumes up to 0.04 mL/g. Owing to their poorly developed micropore structure, the pyrolytic chars exhibited limited aqueous adsorption capacity for compounds of small molecular weight, such as phenol. However, the chars possessed significantly greater adsorption capacity for species of large molecular weight which was attributed to the presence of large mesopore volumes (up to 0.19 mL/g).

  20. Reduction of carbon content in waste-tire combustion ashes by bio-thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.C.; Lee, W.J.; Shih, S.I.; Mou, J.L.

    2009-07-01

    Application of bio-catalyst (NOE-7F) in thermal treatment can adequately dispose dark-black fly ashes from co-combustion of both waste tires and coal. After thermal treatment of fly ashes by adding 10% NOE-7F, the carbon contents reduced by 37.6% and the weight losses increased by 405%, compared with the fly ashes without mixing with NOE-7F. The combustion behaviors of wasted tires combustion fly ashes with NOE-7F were also investigated by both thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results verify that NOE-7F has positive effects on the combustion of residual carbon and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enhance the energy release and reduce the toxicity during the process of thermal treatment. Furthermore, using NOE-7F to dispose high-carbon content fly ashes did improve the compressive strength of fly ashes and concrete mixtures. Therefore, NOE-7F is a promising additive which could decrease treatment cost of high-carbon content fly ashes and reduce the amount of survival toxic PAHs.

  1. United States of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General scientist with the Station's Wildland Recreation and Urban Cultures Research Unit, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive

  2. Tired of changing light bulbs AND want to save money? Still using 100 year-old technology?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    Tired of changing light bulbs AND want to save money? Still using 100 year-old technology? TAKE THE COMPACT FLUORESCENT LIGHT BULB CHALLENGE! · A 23 W Compact bulb gives the same light as a 100W regular?) ·Fine print: You will also reduce Global Warming pollution. Over its lifetime, a "100W" Compact

  3. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  4. Oxidation and characterization of FGD byproduct calcium sulfite and oxidized product 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Anurag

    1993-01-01

    . . . . . Production of Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate. . . , . Utilization of FGD Byproduct Gypsum. . . . . . . . . . . 5 6 8 9 11 12 12 18 19 20 22 EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES. . . . . 23 Characterization of the FGD Byproduct. . . . . . 23 Thermal Analysis.... . . . . X-ray Diffraction Results. Infrared Spectroscopy Results. . . . . Thermal Analysis Results. . . . . . . . . . . Particles Morphology Characterization and Stability of the Sulfite Phase. . . . . . Oxidation of Calcium Sulfite Slurries...

  5. Production of precipitated calcium carbonate from industrial by-product slags (Slag2PCC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Production of precipitated calcium carbonate from industrial by-product slags (Slag2PCC) Saostetun silicates, can be found in industrial waste materials and by-products besides its natural sources (Huijgen this makes iron- 304 #12;and steelmaking slags attractive raw materials for carbonation. The product from

  6. Biofuels and Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Biofuels and Agriculture Biofuels and Agriculture A Factsheet for Farmers American farmers have "biofuels" like ethanol and biodiesel mean that new markets are opening up. These can provide extra farm as growing markets for other biofuels like biodiesel. What are biofuels? Biofuels (short for "biomass fuels

  7. Feasibility study for thermal treatment of solid tire wastes in Bangladesh by using pyrolysis technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, M.R.; Joardder, M.U.H.; Hasan, S.M.; Takai, K.; Haniu, H.

    2011-09-15

    In this study on the basis of lab data and available resources in Bangladesh, feasibility study has been carried out for pyrolysis process converting solid tire wastes into pyrolysis oils, solid char and gases. The process considered for detailed analysis was fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis reactor system. The comparative techno-economic assessment was carried out in US$ for three different sizes plants: medium commercial scale (144 tons/day), small commercial scale (36 tons/day), pilot scale (3.6 tons/day). The assessment showed that medium commercial scale plant was economically feasible, with the lowest unit production cost than small commercial and pilot scale plants for the production of crude pyrolysis oil that could be used as boiler fuel oil and for the production of upgraded liquid-products.

  8. Development of statistical wet weather model to evaluate frictional properties at the pavement-tire interface on hot mix asphalt concrete 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bedi, Harpreet

    2001-01-01

    Skid resistance on wet pavements is influenced by friction at the tire-pavement interface as well as overall hot mix asphalt (HMA) performance. It is important to control aggregate, asphalt, and mix properties to achieve desirable frictional...

  9. CORNELL QUARTERLY Agricultural Wastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    on fossil fuels, points out Donald R. Price, associate professor of agricultural engineering. Natural petroleum, and for the use of ethanol as liquid fuel, are discussed by Robert K. Finn, professor of chemical

  10. United States of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture DESIGN: A Program to Create Data Forest Service Entry Research Work Unit at the Station's Forest Fire Laboratory, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507

  11. United States of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General Observatory in Stinson Beach, Calif. Thomas E. Martin is Assistant Unit Leader--Wildlife at the U.S. Fish

  12. Overshooting of agricultural prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stamoulis, Kostas G.; Rausser, Gordon C.

    1987-01-01

    Rotenberg, Julio J. , "Sticky Prices in the United States,"Monetary Policy on United States Agriculture. A Fix-Price,Flex-Price Approach," Unpublished Ph.D. Disser- tation,

  13. Observations on European Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1911-01-01

    AS ACKICUL-I-uRAL EXPE RIMENT STATIONS bLLETIN No. 14-1 DECEMBER, 1911 Division of Chemistry Observations on European Agriculture BY G. S. FRAPS, Chemist 0 Postoffice : CULLEGE STATION; TEXAS AUSTIN. TEXAS I AUSTIN PRINTING CO:. PRINTERS... ............................................... and Conclusions 35 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] rrvations on European Agriculture By C. S. FRAPS ie object of this Bulletin is to present such abservadons on :ulture in Europe as may offer suggestions of value to Texas - :ulturists. The writer...

  14. UTILIZATION OF LOW NOx COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.Y. Hwang; X. Huang; M.G. McKimpson; R.E. Tieder; A.M. Hein; J.M. Gillis; D.C. Popko; K.L. Paxton; Z. Li; X. Liu; X. Song; R.I. Kramer

    1998-12-01

    Low NO{sub x} combustion practices are critical for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from power plants. These low NO{sub x} combustion practices, however, generate high residual carbon contents in the fly ash produced. These high carbon contents threaten utilization of this combustion by-product. This research has successfully developed a separation technology to render fly ash into useful, quality-controlled materials. This technology offers great flexibility and has been shown to be applicable to all of the fly ashes tested (more than 10). The separated materials can be utilized in traditional fly ash applications, such as cement and concrete, as well as in nontraditional applications such as plastic fillers, metal matrix composites, refractories, and carbon adsorbents. Technologies to use beneficiated fly ash in these applications are being successfully developed. In the future, we will continue to refine the separation and utilization technologies to expand the utilization of fly ash. The disposal of more than 31 million tons of fly ash per year is an important environmental issue. With continued development, it will be possible to increase economic, energy and environmental benefits by re-directing more of this fly ash into useful materials.

  15. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences Department of Agricultural Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivobokova, Tatyana

    Faculty of Agricultural Sciences Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development Platz-4823 Doctoral researcher in Agricultural and Experimental Economics The Collaborative Research Center (CRC to join the Chair of International Agricultural Economics (Jun.Prof. Dr. M. Wollni) of the University

  16. TEM study of PM2.5 emitted from coal and tire combustion in a thermal power station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reto Giere; Mark Blackford; Katherine Smith

    2006-10-15

    The research presented here was conducted within the scope of an experiment investigating technical feasibility and environmental impacts of tire combustion in a coal-fired power station. Previous work has shown that combustion of a coal + tire blend rather than pure coal increased bulk emissions of various elements (e.g., Zn, As, Sb, Pb). The aim of this study is to characterize the chemical and structural properties of emitted single particles with dimensions <2.5 {mu}m (PM2.5). This transmission electron microscope (TEM)-based study revealed that, in addition to phases typical of coal fly ash (e.g., aluminum-silicate glass, mullite), the emitted PM2.5 contains amorphous selenium particles and three types of crystalline metal sulfates never reported before from stack emissions. Anglesite, PbSO{sub 4}, is ubiquitous in the PM2.5 derived from both fuels and contains nearly all Pb present in the PM. Gunningite, ZnSO{sub 4}H{sub 2}O, is the main host for Zn and only occurs in the PM derived from the coal + tire blend, whereas yavapaiite, KFe{sup 3+}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}, is present only when pure coal was combusted. It is concluded that these metal sulfates precipitated from the flue gas may be globally abundant aerosols and have, through hydration or dissolution, a major environmental and health impact. 66 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Applications developed for byproduct /sup 85/Kr and tritium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remini, W.C.; Case, F.N.; Haff, K.W.; Tiegs, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radionuclides, krypton-85 and tritium, both of which are gases under ordinary conditions, are used in many applications in industries and by the military forces. Krypton-85 is produced during the fissioning of uranium and is released during the dissolution of spent-fuel elements. It is a chemically inert gas that emits 0.695-MeV beta rays and a small yield of 0.54-MeV gammas over a half life of 10.3 years. Much of the /sup 85/Kr currently produced is released to the atmosphere; however, large-scale reprocessing of fuel will require collection of the gas and storage as a waste product. An alternative to storage is utilization, and since the chemical and radiation characteristics of /sup 85/Kr make this radionuclide a relatively low hazard from the standpoint of contamination and biological significance, a number of uses have been developed. Tritium is produced as a byproduct of the nuclear-weapons program, and it has a half life of 12.33 years. It has a 0.01861-MeV beta emission and no gamma emission. The absence of a gamma-ray energy eliminates the need for external shielding of the devices utilizing tritium, thus making them easily transportable. Many of the applications require only small quantities of /sup 85/Kr or tritium; however, these uses are important to the technology base of the nation. A significant development that has the potential for beneficial utilization of large quantities of /sup 85/Kr and of tritium involves their use in the production of low-level lighting devices. Since these lights are free from external fuel supplies, have a long half life (> 10 years), are maintenance-free, reliable, and easily deployed, both military and civilian airfield-lighting applications are being studied.

  18. Environmentally Safe, Large Volume Utilization Applications for Gasification Byproducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.G. Groppo; R. Rathbone

    2008-06-30

    Samples of gasification by-products produced at Polk Station and Eastman Chemical were obtained and characterized. Bulk samples were prepared for utilization studies by screening at the appropriate size fractions where char and vitreous frit distinctly partitioned. Vitreous frit was concentrated in the +20 mesh fraction while char predominated in the -20+100 mesh fraction. The vitreous frit component derived from each gasifier slag source was evaluated for use as a pozzolan and as aggregate. Pozzolan testing required grinding the frit to very fine sizes which required a minimum of 60 kwhr/ton. Grinding studies showed that the energy requirement for grinding the Polk slag were slightly higher than for the Eastman slag. Fine-ground slag from both gasifiers showed pozzoalnic activity in mortar cube testing and met the ASTM C618 strength requirements after only 3 days. Pozzolanic activity was further examined using British Standard 196-5, and results suggest that the Polk slag was more reactive than the Eastman slag. Neither aggregate showed significant potential for undergoing alkali-silica reactions when used as concrete aggregate with ASTM test method 1260. Testing was conducted to evaluate the use of the frit product as a component of cement kiln feed. The clinker produced was comprised primarily of the desirable components Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} and Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} after raw ingredient proportions were adjusted to reduce the amount of free lime present in the clinker. A mobile processing plant was designed to produce 100 tons of carbon from the Eastman slag to conduct evaluations for use as recycle fuel. The processing plant was mounted on a trailer and hauled to the site for use. Two product stockpiles were generated; the frit stockpile contained 5% LOI while the carbon stockpile contained 62% LOI. The products were used to conduct recycle fuel tests. A processing plant was designed to separate the slag produced at Eastman into 3 usable products. The coarse frit has been shown to be suitable for use as clinker feed for producing Portland cement. The intermediate-size product is enriched in carbon (58-62% C) and may be used as recycle fuel either in the gasifier or in a PC boiler. The fines product contains 30-40% C and may also be used as a recycle gasifier fuel, as is presently done at TECO's Polk Station, however, due to gasifier operating requirements for the production of syngas, this is not feasible at Eastman.

  19. United States of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , evaluation, monitoring, point counts, sampling of populations, standards of censusing Technical Editors: C Technical Report PSW-GTR-149 #12;Publisher: Albany, California Mailing address: PO Box 245. Berkeley CA 9470 of Agriculture Abstract Ralph, C. John; Sauer, John R.; Droege, Sam, technical editors. 1995. Monitoring Bird

  20. Agriculture and Environmental Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    and organic wastes, bioenergy, pesticides, and wetlands. Course Description and Statement of General Education to minimize agricultural pollution and sustain food production adequate for the world's population topics include point and nonpoint source pollution, the Clean Water Act, wetlands, bioenergy, food waste

  1. ADDRESS SERVICE REQUESTED AGRICULTURAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    much of the state's manufacturing, shipping and tourism offerings. Water is necessary for life -- every Endowed Chair in Water Research, said that access to safe drinking water is one of the most serious public is a vital component of so many industries -- agriculture, manufac- turing and tourism, just to name a few

  2. United States of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Intermountain Research Station Research Research Station's Riparian-Stream Ecology and Management Research Work Unit at Boise, ID. He re- ceived with the Intermountain Research Station's Riparian-Stream Ecology and Man- agement Research Work Unit at the Forestry

  3. United States of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General,000 xylem resin samples of pine (Pinus) species and hybrids--largely from the western United States locations in the eastern and southern United States. Cover Image: Chapter 6, Figure 6-2. #12;Xylem

  4. AGRICULTURAL SUMMER 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MICHIGAN AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION SUMMER 2005 VOL. 23 NO. 2 futures #12;2 | FUTURES Asthma, cystic fibrosis, Lyme disease, pre- mature birth, campylobacteriosis and dis- eases caused by West Nile research projects is searching for the genes responsi- ble for human asthma. Her long-term goal

  5. Agriculture and Life Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Responsibility 7 Virginia Tech Principles of Community 7 STUDENTS ARE ~ 8 University/College Policy and Procedures 9 Absences 9 Personal Illness: 9 Death/Illness in the Family 9 Attendance of a Professional of Agriculture and Life Sciences that advising is a collaborative effort between the student and faculty advisor

  6. Curvature pressure in a cosmology with a tired-light redshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David F. Crawford

    1999-09-06

    A hypothesis of curvature pressure is used to derive a static and stable cosmology with a tired-light redshift. The idea is that the high energy particles in the inter-galactic medium do not travel along geodesics because of the strong electrostatic forces. The result is a reaction back on the medium that is seen as an additional pressure. Combined with the explanation of the Hubble redshift as a gravitational interaction results in a static and stable cosmology. The predicted Hubble constant is 60.2 km/s/Mpc, the predicted background microwave temperature is 3 degrees and quasar luminosity functions and angular size distributions are shown to be consistent with the model. Since most observations that imply dark matter rely on redshift data it is argued that there is no dark matter. Observations of quasar absorption lines, supernovae light curves and the Butcher-Oemler effect are discussed. The curvature pressure is important for stellar structure and may explain the solar neutrino deficiency.

  7. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Rhinehart Tire Fire Dump, Operable Unit 2, Winchester, VA. (Second remedial action), September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-29

    The Rhinehart Tire Fire Dump site is located in a 22-acre drainage area of a sparsely populated rural area in western Frederick County, Virginia. Surface water runoff flows into a north-south tributary that discharges to Hogue Creek, which is 4,000 feet downstream. Bedrock is noted to be highly fractured, and the ground water flow in the overburden aquifer is toward Massey Run. From 1972 to 1983, the site owner conducted a tire disposal operation, which consisted of transporting discarded tires from various locations and storing them on a 5-acre wooded slope behind his home. An estimated 5 to 7 million tires that had been accumulated caught on fire in October 1983 and burned until July 1984. As a result of the fire, a free-flowing oily-tar, which contained anthracene, benzene, cadmium, chromium, ethylbenzene, napthalene, nickel, pyrene, toluene, and zinc, began to seep out of the tire pile into Massey Run and on to Hogue Creek.

  8. Design manual for management of solid by-products from advanced coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-10-01

    Developing coal conversion technologies face major obstacles in byproduct management. This project has developed several management strategies based on field trials of small-scale landfills in an earlier phase of the project, as well as on published/unpublished sources detailing regulatory issues, current industry practice, and reuse opportunities. Field testing, which forms the basis for several of the disposal alternatives presented in this design manual, was limited to byproducts from Ca-based dry SO{sub 2} control technologies, circulating fluidized bed combustion ash, and bubbling bed fluidized bed combustion ash. Data on byproducts from other advanced coal technologies and on reuse opportunities are drawn from other sources (citations following Chapter 3). Field results from the 5 test cases examined under this project, together with results from other ongoing research, provide a basis for predictive modeling of long-term performance of some advanced coal byproducts on exposure to ambient environment. This manual is intended to provide a reference database and development plan for designing, permitting, and operating facilities where advanced coal technology byproducts are managed.

  9. Agricultural biotechnology and Indian newspapers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sivakumar, Gayathri

    2004-11-15

    This study is designed to look into how agricultural biotechnology is covered by Indian newspapers. A through study of the literature showed that agricultural biotechnology is a much debated topic and there is a vast difference between the concerns...

  10. Technical support for the Ohio Coal Technology Program. Volume 1, Baseline of knowledge concerning by-product characteristics: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L.

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LRl and comprises two volumes. Volume I presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume II consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  11. Health assessment for Rhinehart (Aka Winchester) Tire Fire National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Frederick County, Virginia, Region 3. CERCLIS No. VAD980831796. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-17

    The Rhinehart (aka Winchester) Tire Fire Site is located near the town of Winchester in Frederick County, Virginia. In October 1983, a fire was started in the tires disposed of on the site. Hot oil was released from the melting and pyrolysis of the tires. This oil made its way to Massey Run, a nearby surface water body. The fire was brought under control within a few days, but continued to smolder for six months. The migration of the oil and the residue from the fire have contaminated the site. The site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse human health effects. Human exposure to heavy metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds may occur via ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption of contaminated groundwater, surface water, sediments and soils.

  12. United States Department of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    United States Department of Agriculture Keys to Soil Taxonomy Ninth Edition, 2003 #12;#12;Keys to Soil Taxonomy By Soil Survey Staff United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service Ninth Edition, 2003 #12;The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits

  13. AGRICULTURAL INVENTORY LOWER FRASER VALLEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inventory Estimates 8 #12;- ii - LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Agricultural Waste Management Zones 2 Figure 2 4 Livestock Mass Distribution by Waste Management Zone 10 Figure 5 Agricultural Land Distribution by Waste Management Zone 10 Figure 6 Livestock Mass to Agricultural Land Ratio by Waste Management Zone 11

  14. Formation of carbon black as a byproduct of pyrolysis of light hydrocarbons in plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.G.; Zhang, X.B.; Li, F.; Xie, K.C.; Dai, B.; Fan, Y.S.

    1997-12-31

    The light hydrocarbons undergo a complex reaction of flash hydropyrolysis in a DC arc H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet at atmospheric pressure and average temperatures between 1,500 K and 4,000 K. The raw material was LPG. Acetylene is the major product. Carbon black is a byproduct. Carbon black is characterized with XRD, TEM, and adsorption-and-desorption of liquid nitrogen, respectively. The present work proposes to use the plasma process to replace the classical thermal process in order to produce acetylene directly from LPG with carbon black being a byproduct.

  15. Agricultural Biomass and Landfill Diversion Incentive (Texas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Landfill Diversion Incentive (Texas) Agricultural Biomass and Landfill Diversion Incentive (Texas) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor...

  16. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  17. Optimization of Jatropha Oil Extraction and Its By-Product Utilization by Pyrolysis Method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kongkasawan, Jinjuta 1987-

    2012-08-20

    crisis. The purpose of this research is to investigate the optimum condition of Jatropha seed extraction via a screw press and its by-product utilization by a pyrolysis method for achieving the maximum mass conversion and energy recovery. In this study...

  18. LOW-COST, HIGH-PERFORMANCE MATERIALS USING ILLINOIS COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    conventional and clean coal technologies. This project was primarily directed toward developing concrete technologies. Based on these properties, two sources of both conventional and clean coal ashes were selected technology for high-volume applications of Illinois coal combustion by-products generated by using both

  19. College of Agricultural Sciences College of Agricultural Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horticulture Environmental Horticulture Organic Agriculture Plant Health Soil Resources and Conservation Soil and applied research; production and utilization of food and related products; resource use and conservation

  20. IRRIGATION WATER QUALITY FOR AGRICULTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radcliffe, David

    IRRIGATION WATER QUALITY FOR AGRICULTURE Irrigation Water Background In the past, there were minor of irrigation water in Georgia. This is because only a small amount of acreage under irrigated agriculture utilized potable (suitable for drinking) quality water. Thus, quality of irrigation water was not closely

  1. AGRICULTURAL WINTER/SPRING 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    animal agriculture and the impact of air and water quality on human health. Powers also heads the new MSU agriculture on air quality through a number of projects. "The manure won't go away," Powers says regulations to ensure that air and water quality are preserved." In her air quality research, Powers

  2. Naturally occurring radionuclides in agricultural products: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanlon, E.A.

    1994-07-01

    Low levels of naturally occurring radionuclides exist in phosphatic clays, a by-product of phosphatic mining and beneficiation processes. Concerns about these radionuclides entering the human food chain were an immediate research priority before the phosphate clays could be reclaimed for intensive agricultural purposes. Efforts included the assembly of a large body of data from both sons and plants, part of which were produced by the Polk County (Florida) Mined Lands Agricultural Research/Demonstration Project MLAR/DP. Additional detailed studies involving dairy and beef cattle (Bos taurus) were conducted by researchers working with the MLAR/DP. A national symposium was conducted in which data concerning the MLAR/DP work and other research projects also dealing with naturally occurring radionuclides in agriculture could be discussed. The symposium included invited review papers dealing with the identification of radionuclide geological origins, the geochemistry and movement of radionuclides within the environment, mechanisms of plant uptake, entry points into the food chain, and evaluation of dose and risk assessment to the consumer of low levels of radionuclides. The risk to human health of an individual obtaining 0.1 of his or her dietary intake from crops produced on phosphatic clays increased by 1 in 5 x 10{sup 6}/yr above a control individual consuming no food grown on phosphatic clays. Leaf tissues were found to be generally higher than fruit, grain, or root tissues. The natural range in radionuclide content among various food types was greater than the difference in radionuclides content between the same food produced on phosphatic clays vs. natural soils. 19 refs.

  3. Agricultural pathogen decontamination technology-reducing the threat of infectious agent spread.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betty, Rita G.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David

    2005-10-01

    Outbreaks of infectious agricultural diseases, whether natural occurring or introduced intentionally, could have catastrophic impacts on the U.S. economy. Examples of such agricultural pathogens include foot and mouth disease (FMD), avian influenza (AI), citrus canker, wheat and soy rust, etc. Current approaches to mitigate the spread of agricultural pathogens include quarantine, development of vaccines for animal diseases, and development of pathogen resistant crop strains in the case of plant diseases. None of these approaches is rapid, and none address the potential persistence of the pathogen in the environment, which could lead to further spread of the agent and damage after quarantine is lifted. Pathogen spread in agricultural environments commonly occurs via transfer on agricultural equipment (transportation trailers, tractors, trucks, combines, etc.), having components made from a broad range of materials (galvanized and painted steel, rubber tires, glass and Plexiglas shields, etc), and under conditions of heavy organic load (mud, soil, feces, litter, etc). A key element of stemming the spread of an outbreak is to ensure complete inactivation of the pathogens in the agricultural environment and on the equipment used in those environments. Through the combination of enhanced agricultural pathogen decontamination chemistry and a validated inactivation verification methodology, important technologies for incorporation as components of a robust response capability will be enabled. Because of the potentially devastating economic impact that could result from the spread of infectious agricultural diseases, the proposed capability components will promote critical infrastructure protection and greater border and food supply security. We investigated and developed agricultural pathogen decontamination technologies to reduce the threat of infectious-agent spread, and thus enhance agricultural biosecurity. Specifically, enhanced detergency versions of the patented Sandia decontamination chemistry were developed and tested against a few surrogate pathogens under conditions of relatively heavy organic load. Tests were conducted on surfaces commonly found in agricultural environments. Wide spectrum decontamination efficacy, low corrosivity, and biodegradability issues were addressed in developing an enhanced detergency formulation. A method for rapid assessment of loss of pathogenic activity (inactivation) was also assessed. This enhanced technology will enable rapid assessment of contamination following an intentional event, and will also be extremely useful in routine assessment of agricultural environments. The primary effort during the second year was progress towards a demonstration of both decontamination and viral inactivation technologies of Foot and Mouth virus (FMDv) using the modified SNL chemistry developed through this project. Lab studies using a surrogate virus (bovine enterovirus) were conducted using DF200, modified DF200 chemistry, and decontaminants currently recommended for use in heavily loaded organic, agricultural environments (VirkonS, 10% bleach, sodium hydroxide and citric acid). Tests using actual FMD virus will be performed at the Department of Homeland Security's Plum Island facilities in the fall of 2005. Success and the insight gained from this project will lead to enhanced response capability, which will benefit agencies such as USDA, DHS, DOD, and the agricultural industry.

  4. Agricultural Waste Management System Component Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Agricultural Waste Management System Component Design Chapter 10 Part 651 Agricultural Waste Management Field Handbook 10­1(210-vi-AWMFH, rev. 1, July 1996) Chapter 10 Agricultural Waste Management....................................................................................................10­70 10­i #12;Chapter 10 Agricultural Waste Management System Component Design Part 651 Agricultural

  5. Students' Perceptions of International Agriculture After an International Agricultural Experience 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Kasey Lynn

    2012-02-14

    Study abroad and internship experiences are the best ways for students to globalize their education. The purpose of this study was to identify students' perceptions of international agriculture before and after they ...

  6. Utilizing the heat content of gas-to-liquids by-product streams for commercial power generation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adegoke, Adesola Ayodeji

    2006-10-30

    provides middle distillates to an unsaturated global market and offers opportunities to generate power for commercial purposes from waste by-product streams, which normally are associated with increased expenses incurred from additional...

  7. The concept of a sustainable agriculture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kriewaldt, David Mark

    1993-01-01

    The concept of a sustainable agriculture varies much with writers: some see it as the preservation of agricultural resources or as the reduction of agricultural contamination of the environment or both. Other authors focus on economic viability...

  8. Adding Value to Agricultural Products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, David P.; Hanselka, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    You can significantly increase farm income by adding value to agricultural products and marketing those products effectively. This publication explains how to design a value-added product based on consumer preferences and how to build a business...

  9. Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBride, Mary Teresa (Brentwood, CA); Slezak, Thomas Richard (Livermore, CA); Messenger, Sharon Lee (Kensington, CA)

    2010-09-14

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of seven agricultural pathogens (BPSV; BHV; BVD; FMDV; BTV; SVD; and VESV) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from 7 agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  10. Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siezak, Thomas R.; Gardner, Shea; Torres, Clinton; Vitalis, Elizabeth; Lenhoff, Raymond J.

    2013-01-15

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of agricultural pathogens in a sample. Genomic sequence information from agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay and/or an array assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  11. Press Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Press Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack and Energy Secretary Chu to Discuss Efforts to Reduce U.S. Oil Dependence Press Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture...

  12. Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

  13. Acetylene from the co-pyrolysis of biomass and waste tires or coal in the H{sub 2}/Ar plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, W.; Cao, Q.; Lv, Y.; Chang, L.

    2008-07-01

    Acetylene from carbon-containing materials via plasma pyrolysis is not only simple but also environmentally friendly. In this article, the acetylene produced from co-pyrolyzing biomass with waste tire or coal under the conditions of H{sub 2}/Ar DC arc plasma jet was investigated. The experimental results showed that the co-pyrolysis of mixture with biomass and waste tire or coal can improve largely the acetylene relative volume fraction (RVF) in gaseous products and the corresponding yield of acetylene. The change trends for the acetylene yield of plasma pyrolysis from mixture with raw sample properties were the same as relevant RVF. But the yield change trend with feeding rate is different from its RVF. The effects of the feeding rate of raw materials and the electric current of plasmatron on acetylene formation are also discussed.

  14. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J. [Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, (Russian Federation); Gross, M. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  15. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  16. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini; Wiles Elder

    1999-04-05

    This eleventh quarterly report describes work done during the eleventh three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  17. Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

  18. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-06-01

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  19. Agricultural and Biological Engineering College of Agricultural Sciences Cooperative Extension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    solar energy or "green sunshine" derived from the solar- powered photosynthesis process during the growth and development phases of plant materials. Utilizing Biomass Energy The four methods in which, and Pennsylvania Counties Cooperating Biomass Energy Dennis E. Buffington, Professor, Agricultural and Biological

  20. Pulmonary function and symptoms of Nigerian workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire factories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleru, U.G.; Elegbeleye, O.O.; Enu, C.C.; Olumide, Y.M.

    1983-02-01

    The pulmonary function and symptoms of 125 workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire manufacturing plants were investigated. There was no significant difference in the pulmonary function of the subjects in the two plants. There was good agreement in the symptoms reported in the two different factories: cough with phlegm production, tiredness, chest pain, catarrh, headache, and skin irritation. The symptoms also corroborate those reported in the few studies on the pulmonary effects of carbon black. The suspended particulate levels in the dry cell battery plant ranged from 25 to 34 mg/m/sup 3/ and the subjects with the highest probable exposure level had the most impaired pulmonary function. The pulmonary function of the exposed subjects was significantly lower than that of a control, nonindustrially exposed population. The drop in the lung function from the expected value per year of age was relatively constant for all the study subgroups but the drop per year of duration of employment was more severe in the earlier years of employment. This study has underscored the need for occupational health regulations in the industries of developing countries.

  1. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  2. UnitedStates of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of tropical forests for products and energy; forest and wildlife management, the South Pacific Forestry, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; 88 p. The 17 of the USDA Forest Service's tropical forestry research, forestry research in Asia and the Pacific, management

  3. FISHING PERMIT Eastern Shore Agricultural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FISHING PERMIT Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center If all fields are not filled out, you do NOT have permission to fish! Name: ____________________________________________ Fishing Permit is valid for ONE YEAR. In return for this privilege, I agree to: 1. ABSOLVE the Eastern

  4. Genetic Engineering for Modern Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumwald, Eduardo

    reserved 1543-5008/10/0602-0443$20.00 Key Words abiotic stress, climate change, field conditions, global warming, stress combination, stress tolerance, transgenic crops Abstract Abiotic stress conditions such as drought, heat, or salinity cause exten- sive losses to agricultural production worldwide. Progress

  5. Clean-coal technology by-products used in a highway embankment stabilization demonstration project. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nodjomian, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Clean-coal technology by-products are used in a highway embankment demonstration project. This research chronicles the procedures used in the process and analyzes the stability of a repaired highway embankment. The reconstructed slope is analyzed using an Intelligent Discussion Support System that was developed from a slope stability program. Water quality studies are performed and an instrumentation plan is suggested. The calculated factors of safety and the observed embankment performance give indications that the field demonstration project was a success. Long-term monitoring will be the best barometer for determining embankment gross movement and the future of FGD by-products as a stabilizing material.

  6. University College Dublin Agriculture, Food Science and Human Nutrition AgriculturAl Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    250 Agricultural Science Dn250AeS Agri-environmental Sciences Dn250AcP Animal and crop Production DnAES Agri-Environmental Sciences DN250ACP Animal and Crop Production DN250ASC Animal Science DN250ENT Agri-Environmental Sciences DN250 AES 2 Animal and Crop Production DN250 ACP 3 Animal Science DN250 ASC

  7. Recent Agricultural Ergonomics Research at UC Davis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Davis, Berkeley and San Francisco · Focus on labor-intensive agriculture Agricultural Ergonomics effects of prolonged exposure to musculoskeletal disorders risk factors- Manual weeding Focus on basic exposure to musculoskeletal disorders risk factors- Manual weeding Recent Research Projects Fatigue

  8. Randolph EMC- Agricultural Efficient Lighting Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agricultural members of Randolph EMC (REMC) who upgrade to energy-efficient CFL bulbs in agricultural facilities are eligible for an incentive to help cover the initial cost of installation. The...

  9. Global trends in agriculture and food systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    development * Corresponding author: Danish Research Centre for Organic Food and Farming (DARCOF), P.O. Box 501 Global trends in agriculture and food systems Marie Trydeman Knudsen*, Niels Halberg, Jørgen E .................................................................................16 Global trends in organic agriculture

  10. Child Labor in Texas Agriculture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, David

    2005-04-28

    percent of all work fatalities. Farm hazards include machinery, confined spaces, animals and live- stock, chemicals, respiratory irritants, toxic gases and extreme environmental conditions. Children working in agriculture may be hired employees, labor... contractor employees or farm family members. Child labor laws exist to ensure that a child is not employed in an occupation or manner that can harm him or her. However, these laws do not cover workers under age 16 who work on their parent?s or guardian?s...

  11. Current regulatory and licensing status for byproduct sources, facilities and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tingey, G.L.; Jensen, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1985-02-01

    Public use of nuclear byproducts, especially radioactive isotopes, will require approval by various regulatory agencies. Use of cesium-137 as an irradiation source for sterilizing medical products will require US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval. Two applications have been filed with NRC, and approval is expected soon. Widespread use of irradiation for food products depends on a favorable ruling by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A ruling is pending that would permit irradiation of fruits and vegetables up to 100 krad. NRC also controls the use of isotopes in remote power generators, but little regulatory action has been required in recent years. Recent development of radioluminescent (RL) lighting for runway lights has led to interest by commercial manufacturers. At the present time, a license has been issued to at least one manufacturer for sale of tritium-powered runway lights. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, Natalie J.; Martello, Donald; Schroeder, Karl; Granite, Evan

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7- day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m(2) h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m(2) h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  13. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, N.J.; Martello, D.V.; Schroeder, K.T.; Granite, E.J.

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7-day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m2 h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m2 h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  14. OTEC- Agricultural Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Oregon Trail Electric Consumers Cooperative (OTEC) offers programs to agricultural customers.  Interested customers should contact a local OTEC office.

  15. Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

  16. Proinflammatory adipokine leptin mediates disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane-induced early steatohepatitic injury in obesity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Suvarthi; Kumar, Ashutosh; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Tokar, Erik J.; Kadiiska, Maria B.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Mason, Ronald P.; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2013-06-15

    Today's developed world faces a major public health challenge in the rise in the obese population and the increased incidence in fatty liver disease. There is a strong association among diet induced obesity, fatty liver disease and development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis but the environmental link to disease progression remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that in obesity, early steatohepatitic lesions induced by the water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane are mediated by increased oxidative stress and leptin which act in synchrony to potentiate disease progression. Low acute exposure to bromodichloromethane (BDCM), in diet-induced obesity produced oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation, protein free radical and nitrotyrosine formation and elevated leptin levels. Exposed obese mice showed histopathological signs of early steatohepatitic injury and necrosis. Spontaneous knockout mice for leptin or systemic leptin receptor knockout mice had significantly decreased oxidative stress and TNF-? levels. Co-incubation of leptin and BDCM caused Kupffer cell activation as shown by increased MCP-1 release and NADPH oxidase membrane assembly, a phenomenon that was decreased in Kupffer cells isolated from leptin receptor knockout mice. In obese mice that were BDCM-exposed, livers showed a significant increase in Kupffer cell activation marker CD68 and, increased necrosis as assessed by levels of isocitrate dehydrogenase, events that were decreased in the absence of leptin or its receptor. In conclusion, our results show that exposure to the disinfection byproduct BDCM in diet-induced obesity augments steatohepatitic injury by potentiating the effects of leptin on oxidative stress, Kupffer cell activation and cell death in the liver. - Highlights: ? BDCM acute exposure sensitizes liver to increased free radical stress in obesity. ? BDCM-induced higher leptin contributes to early steatohepatitic lesions. ? Increased leptin mediates protein radical and 3-nitrotyrosine formation. ? BDCM exposure in obesity activates Kupffer cells and NADPH oxidase. ? BDCM/leptin synergy promotes necrotic cell-death and augments steatohepatitis.

  17. UF in Brazil Urban, Medical, & Agricultural Entomology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    UF in Brazil Urban, Medical, & Agricultural Entomology Summer B: August 9 - 21, 2015 Explore aspects in Brazil and the United States. Course Information College of Agricultural and Life Sciences: Urban, Medical and Agricultural Entomology in Brazil Total Number of Credits Offered: 3 About

  18. Agricultural & Environmental Sciences eap.ucop.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernes, Peter J.

    Agricultural & Environmental Sciences eap.ucop.edu #12;UC Education Abroad Program Special Focus Pilot Program in Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Wageningen University and Research Centre This special-focus pilot program is available only to UC Davis College of Agricultural and Environmental

  19. MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL WASTES LOWER FRASER VALLEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL WASTES IN THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY SUMMARY REPORT - A WORKING DOCUMENT Presented on Behalf of: The Management of Agricultural Wastes in the Lower Fraser Valley Program of the Agricultural Nutrient Management in the Lower Fraser Valley program. The ideas and opinions expressed herein do

  20. Task 1.13 - Data Collection and Database Development for Clean Coal Technology By-Product Characteristics and Management Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett

    1998-02-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center-Morgantown (DOE FETC) efforts in the areas of fossil fuels and clean coal technology (CCT) have included involvement with both conventional and advanced process coal conversion by-products. In 1993, DOE submitted a Report to Congress on "Barriers to the Increased Utilization of Coal Combustion Desulfurization Byproducts by Governmental and Commercial Sectors" that provided an outline of activities to remove the barriers identified in the report. DOE charged itself with participation in this process, and the work proposed in this document facilitates DOE's response to its own recommendations for action. The work reflects DOE's commitment to the coal combustion by-product (CCB) industry, to the advancement of clean coal technology, and to cooperation with other government agencies. Information from DOE projects and commercial endeavors in fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) and coal gasification is the focus of this task. The primary goal is to provide an easily accessible compilation of characterization information on the by-products from these processes to government agencies and industry to facilitate sound regulatory and management decisions. Additional written documentation will facilitate the preparation of an updated final version of background information collected for DOE in preparation of the Report to Congress on barriers to CCB utilization.

  1. Evaluation of fisheries by-catch and by-product meals in diets for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whiteman, Kasey

    2006-04-12

    , are increasingly in short supply for the manufacture of animal feeds, including feeds for farmed fish. Therefore, in this study, various by-catch and by-product meals of marine origin were evaluated with red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), a carnivorous fish species...

  2. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  3. FAO Global Inventory of Agricultural Mitigation Projects in Developing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agricultural Mitigation Projects in Developing Countries AgencyCompany Organization: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture...

  4. Utilization of Agricultural WasteUtilization of Agricultural Waste for Composite Panelsfor Composite Panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utilization of Agricultural WasteUtilization of Agricultural Waste for Composite Panelsfor. The benefits of utilizing agricultural residues for woodbenefits of utilizing agricultural residues for wood a fiber source that is currentlyadded product from a fiber source that is currently not well utilized

  5. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

  6. RESIDUES FROM COAL CONVERSION AND UTILIZATION: ADVANCED MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND DISPOSED BYPRODUCT DIAGENESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory J. McCarthy; Dean G. Grier

    2001-01-01

    Prior to the initiation of this study, understanding of the long-term behavior of environmentally-exposed Coal Combustion By-Products (CCBs) was lacking in (among others) two primary areas addressed in this work. First, no method had been successfully applied to achieve full quantitative analysis of the partitioning of chemical constituents into reactive or passive crystalline or noncrystalline compounds. Rather, only semi-quantitative methods were available, with large associated errors. Second, our understanding of the long-term behavior of various CCBs in contact with the natural environment was based on a relatively limited set of study materials. This study addressed these areas with two objectives, producing (1) a set of protocols for fully quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld Quantitative X-ray Diffraction (RQXRD) method and (2) greater understanding of the hydrologic and geochemical nature of the long-term behavior of disposed and utilized CCBs. The RQXRD technique was initially tested using (1) mixtures of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) crystalline standards, and (2) mixtures of synthetic reagents simulating various CCBs, to determine accuracy and precision of the method, and to determine the most favorable protocols to follow in order to efficiently quantify multi-phase mixtures. Four sets of borehole samples of disposed or utilized CCBs were retrieved and analyzed by RQXRD according to the protocols developed under the first objective. The first set of samples, from a Class F ash settling pond in Kentucky disposed for up to 20 years, showed little mineralogical alteration, as expected. The second set of samples, from an embankment in Indiana containing a mixture of chain-grate (stoker) furnace ash and fluidized bed combustion (FBC) residues, showed formation of the mineral thaumasite, as observed in previously studied exposed FBC materials. Two high-calcium CCBs studied, including a dry-process flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product disposed in the Midwest, and a mixture of Class C fly ash and wet process FGD by-product codisposed in North Dakota, appeared relatively unchanged mineralogically over the up to 5 and 17 years of emplacement, respectively. Each of these two materials contained mineralogies consistent with short-term hydration products of their respective starting (dry) materials. The hydration product ettringite persisted throughout the duration of emplacement at each site, and the diagenetic ash alteration product thaumasite did not form at either site. Explanations for the absence of thaumasite in these two sites include a lack of significant carbonate, sulfate, and alkalinity sources in the case of the North Dakota site, and a lack of sulfate, alkalinity, and sufficient moisture in the Midwest site. Potential for future thaumasite formation in these materials may exist if placed in contact with cold, wet materials containing the missing components listed above. In the presence of the sulfite scrubber mineral hannebachite, the ettringites formed had crystallographic unit cell dimensions smaller than those of pure sulfate ettringite, suggesting either incorporation of sulfite ions into the ettringite structure, or incorporation of silicon and carbonate ions, forming a solid solution towards thaumasite.

  7. United States based agricultural {open_quotes}waste products{close_quotes} as fillers in a polypropylene homopolymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, R.E.; Rowell, R.M.; Caulfield, D.F. [Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    With the advent of modern coupling agents (MAPP or maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene), the potential use of various types of renewable, sustainable agricultural byproducts as fillers in thermoplastics is explored. Over 7.7 billion pounds of fillers were used in the plastics industry in 1993. With sharp price increases in commodity thermoplastics (i.e. approximately 25% in 94`), the amount of fillers in thermoplastic materials will increase throughout the 90`s. Various types of agricultural fibers are evaluated for mechanical properties vs. 50% wood flour and 40% talc filled polypropylene (PP). The fibers included in this study are: kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, oat hulls, wood flour (pine), corncob, hard corncob, rice hulls, peanut hulls, corn fiber, soybean hull, residue, and jojoba seed meal. Composite interfaces were modified with MAPP to improve the mechanical properties through increased adhesion between the hydrophilic and polar fibers with the hydrophobic and non-polar matrix. The agro-waste composites had compositions of 50% agro-waste/48% PP/2% MAPP. All of the agricultural waste by-products were granulated through a Wiley mill with a 30 mesh screen and compounded in a high intensity shear-thermo kinetic mixer. The resultant blends were injection molded into ASTM standard samples and tested for tensile, flexural, and impact properties. This paper reports on the mechanical properties of the twelve resultant composites and compares them to wood flour and talc-filled polypropylene composites. The mechanical properties of kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, and oat hulls compare favorably to the wood flour and talc-filled PP, which are both commercially available and used in the automotive and furniture markets.

  8. Feasibility of operating a solideliquid bioreactor with used automobile tires as the sequestering phase for the biodegradation of inhibitory compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    has opened the door to the identification of other waste plastics suitable for use in TPPBs agricultural wastes (char carbons, coconut husk carbons) and biosorbents (microbial biomass) were employed-treatment and steel and fiber separation, as the sequestering phase in a Two Phase Partitioning Bioreactor (TPPB

  9. FGD Additives to Segregate and Sequester Mercury in Solid Byproducts - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, K; Bltyhe, G M; Steen, W A

    2012-02-28

    Many mercury control strategies for U.S. coal-fired power generating plants involve co-benefit capture of oxidized mercury from flue gases treated by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. For these processes to be effective at overall mercury control, the captured mercury must not be re-emitted to the atmosphere or into surface or ground water. The project sought to identify scrubber additives and FGD operating conditions under which mercury re-emissions would decrease and mercury would remain in the liquor and be blown down from the system in the chloride purge stream. After exiting the FGD system, mercury would react with precipitating agents to form stable solid byproducts and would be removed in a dewatering step. The FGD gypsum solids, free of most of the mercury, could then be disposed or processed for reuse as wallboard or in other beneficial reuse. The project comprised extensive bench-scale FGD scrubber tests in Phases I and II. During Phase II, the approaches developed at the bench scale were tested at the pilot scale. Laboratory wastewater treatment tests measured the performance of precipitating agents in removing mercury from the chloride purge stream. Finally, the economic viability of the approaches tested was evaluated.

  10. Electrolysis byproduct D2O provides a third way to mitigate CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenewerk, William Ernest

    2009-09-01

    Rapid atomic power deployment may be possible without using fast breeder reactors or making undue demands on uranium resource. Using by-product D2O and thorium-U233 in CANDU and RBMK piles may circumvent need for either fast breeder reactors or seawater uranium. Atmospheric CO2 is presently increasing 2.25%/year in proportion to 2.25%/year exponential fossil fuel consumption increase. Roughly 1/3 anthropologic CO2 is removed by various CO2 sinks. CO2 removal is modelled as being proportional to 45-year-earlier CO2 amount above 280 ppm-C Water electrolysis produces roughly 0.1 kg-D20/kWe-y. Material balance assumes each electrolysis stage increases D2O bottoms concentration times 3. Except for first two electrolysis stages, all water from hydrogen consumption is returned to electrolysis. The unique characteristic of this process is the ability to economically burn all deuterium-enriched H2 in vehicles. Condensate from vehicles returns to appropriate electrolysis stage. Fuel cell condensate originally from reformed natural gas may augment second-sage feed. Atomic power expansion is 5%/year, giving 55000 GWe by 2100. World primary energy increases 2.25%/y, exceeding 4000 EJ/y by 2100. CO2 maximum is roughly 600 ppm-C around year 2085. CO2 declines back below 300 ppm-C by 2145 if the 45-year-delay seawater sink remains effective.

  11. Global Climate Change and Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 °C by the end of the 21st century.

  12. ORISE: Multiple research appointments available through Agricultural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multiple research appointments available through Agricultural Research Service Postdoctoral Research Program Selected candidates participate in USDA research for one to four years...

  13. Estimating Mitigation Potential of Agricultural Projects: an...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tool (EX-ACT) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Brazil-Estimating Mitigation Potential of Agricultural Projects: an Application of the...

  14. ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES PRODUCTION, MANAGEMENT & MARKETING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES PRODUCTION, MANAGEMENT & MARKETING Cooperative Extension directly. Otherwise, backtrack to their suppliers, in person or by telephone. For the first few years

  15. WINDExchange: Agricultural and Rural Resources and Tools

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Rural Communities Printable Version Bookmark and Share Wind for Homeowners, Farmers, & Businesses Resources & Tools Agricultural and Rural Resources and Tools This page lists...

  16. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J.

    1998-12-31

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  17. Perceptions Of Texas Agricultural Education Teachers Regarding Diversity Inclusion In Secondary Agricultural Education Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavergne, Douglas D.

    2010-01-14

    of this study was to explore and analyze Texas secondary agricultural education teachers' attitudes toward diversity inclusion in Texas secondary agricultural education programs. Using a web-based questionnaire, the researcher employed a nonproportional...

  18. Changing Regroved Tires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    ppb and 140ppb. In order to understand the basic process of formulation of HgCl2 and Hg0 a numerical model is developed in the current work to simulate in the detail i) heating ii) transient pyrolysis of coal and evolution of mercury and chlorine, iii...

  19. Agricultural Management, Water Quality and Phosphorus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agricultural Management, Water Quality and Phosphorus: The Long and Winding Road Andrew Sharpley #12;In the beginning Agriculture and water quality Targeted watershed P management Linking ecosystem Adaptive management How can our research help farmers ? #12;Discovery Farms concept Core farms

  20. Agriculture, Forest Products and Commercial Fishing ECONOMICENGINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Agriculture, Forest Products and Commercial Fishing ECONOMICENGINE NORTHEAST #12;Dear Reader, We and Commercial Fishing. This report confirms what we all know, but sometimes take for granted. Agriculture, commercial fishing and the forest products industries are all important contributors to the Northeast economy

  1. Public Parking Lots > Agriculture Building Parkade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Farm Residences Crop Science Seed Barn Rayner Dairy Research & Teaching Facility Poultry Centre Engineering Poultry Science Kirk Hall Agriculture Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada SCIENCE PLACE VETERINARY PerformanceCentre Environment Canada Canadian Wildlife Service CANADIANWILDLIFECRT Field #9 Field #10 Tennis

  2. Public Parking Lots > Agriculture Building Parkade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Farm Residences Crop Science Seed Barn Rayner Dairy Research & Teaching Facility Poultry Centre Spinks Engineering Poultry Science Kirk Hall Agriculture Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada SCIENCE PLACE PerformanceCentre Environment Canada Canadian Wildlife Service CANADIANWILDLIFECRT Field #9 Field #10 Tennis

  3. Agricultural Opportunities in the Pacific Rim

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd, Brian

    Agricultural Opportunities in the Pacific Rim American Society of Farm Managers and Rural and objectives · Objective: Better understand how agricultural export opportunities in the Pacific Rim and Mexico) are top export destinations and they count as Pacific Rim · Of course, we also import from Canada

  4. Climate Change and Agriculture in Vermont INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Climate Change and Agriculture in Vermont INTRODUCTION Climate change is impacting Northeastern trends in Vermont, 2) the most up-to-date modeled projections available, and 3) potential impacts on Vermont agriculture. OBSERVED It is getting wetter. There has been a 9" increase in average annual

  5. Strontium Isotope Study of Coal Untilization By-products Interacting with Environmental Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2011-09-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elements—including alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zinc—during sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-{sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUB–water interaction.

  6. Report on Abatement Activities Related to Agriculture and Waste Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Report on Abatement Activities Related to Agriculture and Waste Management in the Lower Fraser Guidelines for Producers 9 2.3 Best Agricultural Waste Management Plans (BAWMPs) 9 3.0 AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES Agricultural Waste management Zones Used in the management of Agricultural Wastes in the Lower Fraser Valley

  7. Removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution and nickel plating industry wastewater using an agricultural waste: Peanut hulls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Periasamy, K.; Namasivayam, C. [Bharathair Univ. Tamil Nadu (India)] [Bharathair Univ. Tamil Nadu (India)

    1995-07-01

    Activated carbon prepared from peanut hulls (PHC), an agricultural waste by-product, has been used for the adsorption of Ni(II) from aqueous solution. The process of uptake obeys both Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The applicability of Lagergren kinetic model has also been investigated. Quantitative removal of Ni(II) from 100 mL aqueous solution containing 20 mg/L Ni(II) by 85 mg PHC was observed over a pH range of 4.0 to 10.0. The suitability of PHC for treating nickel plating industry wastewater was also tested. A comparative study with a commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) showed that PHC is 36 times more efficient compared to GAC based on Langmuir adsorption capacity (Q{sub O}).

  8. ADVANCED BYPRODUCT RECOVERY: DIRECT CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF SO2 TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S. Weber

    1999-05-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its commercialization partner, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner Tufts, investigated a single-step process for direct, catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide from regenerable flue gas desulfurization processes to the more valuable elemental sulfur by-product. This development built on recently demonstrated SO{sub 2}-reduction catalyst performance at Tufts University on a DOE-sponsored program and is, in principle, applicable to processing of regenerator off-gases from all regenerable SO{sub 2}-control processes. In this program, laboratory-scale catalyst optimization work at Tufts was combined with supported catalyst formulation work at Engelhard, bench-scale supported catalyst testing at Arthur D. Little and market assessments, also by Arthur D. Little. Objectives included identification and performance evaluation of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. The catalyst formulation was improved significantly over the course of this work owing to the identification of a number of underlying phenomena that tended to reduce catalyst selectivity. The most promising catalysts discovered in the bench-scale tests at Tufts were transformed into monolith-supported catalysts at Engelhard. These catalyst samples were tested at larger scale at Arthur D. Little, where the laboratory-scale results were confirmed, namely that the catalysts do effectively reduce sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur when operated under appropriate levels of conversion and in conditions that do not contain too much water or hydrogen. Ways to overcome those limitations were suggested by the laboratory results. Nonetheless, at the end of Phase I, the catalysts did not exhibit the very stringent levels of activity or selectivity that would have permitted ready scale-up to pilot or commercial operation. Therefore, we chose not to pursue Phase II of this work which would have included further bench-scale testing, scale-up, pilot-scale (0.5 MW{sub e}) testing at conditions representative of various regenerable SO{sub 2}-control systems, preparation of a commercial process design, and development of a utility-scale demonstration plan.

  9. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being sorbed onto the CCB when exposed to ambient-temperature air. The environmental performance of the mercury captured on AC used as a sorbent for mercury emission control technologies indicated that current CCB management options will continue to be sufficiently protective of the environment, with the potential exception of exposure to elevated temperatures. The environmental performance of the other ATEs investigated indicated that current management options will be appropriate to the CCBs produced using AC in mercury emission controls.

  10. Communication among Agricultural Policy Influencers: A Delphi Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salazar, Victor Kingsley

    2015-05-12

    Agricultural policy affects the agricultural industry in its entirety. It affects everything from the type of food that is grown to how it is processed and distributed. Agricultural policy influencers impact the development of the policy...

  11. Elementary School Teachers' Perception of Agricultural-Related Literature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leventini, Alexa Marie

    2013-04-24

    and a need was established for accurate, realistic and representative materials of American agriculture for the classroom. This issue of agricultural literacy has become an imminent concern in today’s agricultural industry. With these rising concerns...

  12. Land application uses of dry FGD by-products. [Quarterly] report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, W.A.; Beeghly, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    Reclamation of mine-sites with acid overburden requires the use of alkaline amendments and represents a potential high-volume use of alkaline dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by products. In a greenhouse study, 25-cm columns of acid mine spoil were amended with two FGD by-products; lime injection multistage burners (LIMB) fly ash or pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC) fly ash at rates of 0, 4, 8, 16, and 32% by weight (0, 40, 80, 160, and 320 tons/acre). Amended spoil was covered with 20 cm of acid topsoil amended with the corresponding FGD by-product to pH 7. Column leachate pH increased with FGD amendment rate while leachate Fe, Mn, and Zn decreased, Leachate Ca, S, and Mg decreased with LIMB amendment rate and increased with PFBC amendment. Leachate concentrations of regulated metals were decreased or unaffected by FGD amendment except for Se which was increased by PFBC. Spoil pH was increased up to 8.9 by PFBC, and up to 9.2 by LIMB amendment. Spoil pH also increased with depth with FGD amendments of 16 and 32%, Yield of fescue was increased by FGD amendment of 4 to 8%. Plant tissue content of most elements was unaffected by FGD amendment rate, and no toxicity symptoms were observed. Plant Ca and Mg were increased by LIMB and PFBC respectively, while plant S, Mn and Sr were decreased. Plant Ca and B was increased by LIMB, and plant Mg and S by PFBC amendment. These results indicate dry FGD by-products are effective in ameliorating acid, spoils and have a low potential for creating adverse environmental impacts.

  13. Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU)- Agricultural Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Delaware Sustainable Energy Utility (DESEU) offers customized loans for agricultural customer as a part of DESEU’s revolving loan program. Program applications are accepted on a rolling basis, and...

  14. Quantifying the parameters of successful agricultural producers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaase, Gregory Herman

    2006-08-16

    The primary purpose of the study was to quantify the parameters of successful agricultural producers. Through the use of the Financial and Risk Management (FARM) Assistance database, this study evaluated economic measures ...

  15. Irrigation Training Program For Texas Agricultural Producers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, B.L.

    2010-01-01

    The Irrigation Training Program, funded by the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) through an Agricultural Water Conservation Grant, began in 2006. Administered by the Texas Water Resources Institute (TWRI), the Texas State ...

  16. U.S. Agriculture and International Trade 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCorkle, Dean; Benson, Geoffrey A.; Marchant, Mary; Rosson, C. Parr

    1999-06-23

    International markets are important for many U.S. farm products and greatly affect U.S. agriculture. This publication discusses the causes of import change, the export product mix, major markets, and markets of the future....

  17. An Analysis on Agricultural Market Behavior 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Chul

    2010-10-12

    This dissertation is concerned with (i) how to model an agricultural market, (ii) how to analyze the impacts of a certain event (i.e. animal disease outbreak) on the market, and (iii) what are the relationships between ...

  18. Impacts of Tighter Credit in Agriculture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klose, Steven; Klinefelter, Danny A.; Hogan, Robert J.

    2009-03-26

    The availability of credit is critical to agricultural production. In the current tight credit situation, it is important for borrowers to understand the sources of credit and the nature of credit markets. This publications examines various sources...

  19. Three Essays In Environmental And Agricultural Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poudel, Biswo Nath

    2010-01-01

    Environmental and Re- source Economics 32(2005):495-508.Journal of Agricultural Economics 86(2004):1315–1321. Barro,Quarterly Journal of Economics 106 (1991):407-443. Barro,

  20. The Greening of Capitalist Agriculture in Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunmoye, R. Ayo

    1982-01-01

    Shehu Shagari to the U. S. /Nigeria Joint Agricultural1975, pp. 245-261. 25 Nigeria: lJ'he 'l'hird NationalP. Olinger, "The World Bank in Nigeria," RAPE, No. 13, 1978,

  1. Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    on Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act was developed in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture....

  2. Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management Before the...

  3. Identification of Low Emissions Agricultural Pathways and Priorities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Identification of Low Emissions Agricultural Pathways and Priorities for Mitigation in Agricultural Landscapes using Integrated Assessment Modeling and Scenarios Jump to:...

  4. USDA Agricultural Conservation Easement Program Webinar for Tribes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the American Indian Higher Education Consortium, this webinar will cover details on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) new Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP)...

  5. Climate Change and China's Agricultural Sector: An Overview of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change and China's Agricultural Sector: An Overview of Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation Jump to: navigation, search Name Climate Change and China's Agricultural Sector:...

  6. Argentina-Climate Change Mitigation and Agriculture in Latin...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Organization Inter-American Development Bank, The Regional Fund for Agricultural Technology, Government of New Zealand Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture Topics...

  7. Modelling Agricultural Trade and Policy Impacts in Less Developed...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Modelling Agricultural Trade and Policy Impacts in Less Developed Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Modelling Agricultural Trade and Policy...

  8. Department of Agriculture and Energy Department Announce Up to...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Agriculture and Energy Department Announce Up to 8.7 Million through the Interagency Biomass Research and Development Initiative Department of Agriculture and Energy Department...

  9. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L.

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  10. Plant genetics, sustainable agriculture and global food security.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronald, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    effects have resulted from commercialization of ge- netically engineered crops (Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,

  11. Title: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Agriculture Data Creator /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan Keywords (Subject): Land Use, Soils, Agriculture

  12. A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolokolnikov, Theodore

    A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture S. Adl a, , D. Iron b , T. Kolokolnikov b a Department of Biology, Dalhousie 2011 Available online 21 March 2011 Keywords: Allodeposition Diffusive logistic equations Food security

  13. This article was downloaded by:[Danish Veterinary and Agricultural Library] [Danish Veterinary and Agricultural Library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for anyThis article was downloaded by:[Danish Veterinary and Agricultural Library] [Danish Veterinary and Agricultural Library] On: 10 May 2007 Access Details: [subscription number 773444395] Publisher: Taylor

  14. This article was downloaded by:[Danish Veterinary and Agricultural Library] [Danish Veterinary and Agricultural Library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    , formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shallThis article was downloaded by:[Danish Veterinary and Agricultural Library] [Danish Veterinary and Agricultural Library] On: 25 April 2007 Access Details: [subscription number 773444395] Publisher: Taylor

  15. Field demonstration of coal combustion by-products based road sub-base in Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Mohanty, S.; Bryant, M.

    2006-07-01

    Development and demonstration of large-volume beneficial use applications for ponded fly ash are considered very important as a cost reduction strategy for the generation industry and value enhancement for the coal mining industry. One such application described is the road sub-base fo the Industry Access Truck Route in Meredosia, Illinois, which used approximately 77,000 cubic yard of compacted high loss-on-ignition (LOI) Class-F ponded fly ash. The Truck Route is a 24-feet wide road built on a 0 to 7 feet thick compacted fly ash sub-base. Illinois Department of Transportation estimated that the use of fly ash in this project saved more than $100,000 to the State of Illinois. Furthermore, natural resources in the form of relatively fertile soil were preserved by substituting fly ash for the available borrow in the area; quality agricultural topsoil is limited in the area. The article gives details of the project and reports favourable results on monitoring ground water quality. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quarterly report, September 30--December 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Neufeld, R.D.; Blachere, J.R.; Clifford, B.V.; Pritts, J.; Bender, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon microscopic evaluation of sandblast residue treated with two by-products, completing scholarly work, seeking a subcontractor to replace Mill Service, Inc. (MSI) for the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving a poster, and making and responding to several outside contacts. The main part of this report is found in an appendix entitled, ``Chemistry and microstructure of sand blast waste and its residue when treated with by-products from clean coal technologies.``

  17. DESIGNING AND OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-06-01

    During the period July 1, 2000-March 31, 2004, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) conducted an extensive demonstration of woody biomass cofiring at its Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. This demonstration, cofunded by USDOE and Allegheny, and supported by the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of EPRI, evaluated the impacts of sawdust cofiring in both cyclone boilers and tangentially-fired pulverized coal boilers. The cofiring in the cyclone boiler--Willow Island Generating Station Unit No.2--evaluated the impacts of sawdust alone, and sawdust blended with tire-derived fuel. The biomass was blended with the coal on its way to the combustion system. The cofiring in the pulverized coal boiler--Albright Generating Station--evaluated the impact of cofiring on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) when the sawdust was injected separately into the furnace. The demonstration of woody biomass cofiring involved design, construction, and testing at each site. The results addressed impacts associated with operational issues--capacity, efficiency, and operability--as well as formation and control of airborne emissions such as NO{sub x}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}2), opacity, and mercury. The results of this extensive program are detailed in this report.

  18. Analysis of a secondary mortgage market for agricultural real estate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewandrowski, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Record of Study ANALYSIS OF A SECONDARY MORTGAGE MARKET FOR AGRICULTURAL REAL ESTATE A PROFESSIONAL PAPER by David J, Letrandrotrskt Submitted to the College of Agriculture of Texas Aadf University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OP AGRICULTURE MAY, 1988 Major Subject: Agrl-Banking Department of Agricultural Economics ANALYSIS OF A SECONDARY MORTGAGE MARKET FOR AGRICULTURAL REAL ESTATE A Professional Paper by David J. Lewandrowski...

  19. Environmental release of mercury from coal utilization by-products: will new mercury controls at power plants make a difference?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aljoe, W.W.; Feeley, T.J., III; Brickett, L.A.; Schroeder, K.T.; Murphy, J.T. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (US)

    2005-09-30

    The US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) uses the term coal utilization by-products (CUBs) to describe the solid materials produced by the combustion or gasification of coal. The following general observations can be drawn from results of field tests that have been carried out thus far to determine whether new technologies for mercury emission control at coal power plants will affect the release of mercury from CUBs. There appears to be only minimal potential mercury release to the environment in typical disposal or utilization application for CUBs generated using ACI control technologies. There appears to be only minimal mercury release to the environment for CUBs generated using wet FGD control technologies. The amount of mercury leached from CUBs samples tested is significantly lower than the federal drinking water standards and water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  1. Rehabilitation of semi-arid coal mine spoil bank soils with mine residues and farm organic by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar, M.; Bosch-Serra, A.; Estudillos, G.; Poch, R.M. [University of Lleida, Lleida (Spain). Dept. of Environmental & Soil Science

    2009-07-01

    A method of rehabilitating coal mine soils was studied under the conditions of a semi-arid climate, lack of topsoil but availability of farm by-products in NE Spain. The objectives of the research were to assess a new method in order to achieve a suitable substrate for the establishment of native vegetation, to evaluate environmental impacts associated with the reclamation process, and to determine the time necessary to integrate the treated area into the surrounding environment. Eight plots (10 x 35 m{sup 2}) were established in September 1997. Substrate combinations of two types of mine spoil (coal dust and coarse-sized material), two levels of pig slurry (39 and 94 Mg ha{sup -1}dry-wt), and cereal straw (0 and 15 Mg ha{sup -1}) were applied. Monitoring of select physical and chemical soil properties and vegetation characteristics was performed from 1997 until 2005. The bulk density and the saturated hydraulic conductivity measured did not limit plant development and water availability. Initial substrate salinity (1.37 S m{sup -1}) decreased with time and in the long term did not limit plant colonization to salinity-adapted species. Initial nitrate concentration was 298 mg kg{sup -1}, but was reduced significantly to acceptable values in 3 years (55 mg kg{sup -1}) and the measured pH (7.6) was maintained at the level of initial spoil values. Vegetation cover reached up to 90%. In the treated area, spontaneous vegetation cover (15 to 70%) colonized the nonsown areas widely. In the medium term, vegetation cover tended to be higher in plots with a thicker layer of coal dust material and the higher slurry rate. Soil rehabilitation and environmental reintegration, taking into account soil and vegetation indicators, was possible in the studied area with low cost inputs using residual materials from mining activities and animal husbandry by-products.

  2. Public Parking Lots > Agriculture Building Parkade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    A R M L A N E F A R M L A N E Stone Barn Livestock Research Animal Science Farm Residences Rayner Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada SCIENCE PLACE VETERINARY CRE SCENT Western College of Veterinary Medicine Teaching Unit Reproduction Centre Ryan-Dubé Equine PerformanceCentre Environment Canada Canadian Wildlife

  3. Agriculture,Environmental RestorationandEcosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    , Environment and Planning #12;2 Abstract Agricultural lands in Florida are being explored for increased water by the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, calls for more water storage on lands south of Lake Okeechobee to restore the natural water flows of the Everglades Watershed. Modifying traditional farming systems

  4. Discounts, Fungibility and Agricultural GHG Offset projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    in MMT of Carbon Equivalents Soil Carbon Sequestration Discount for Saturating Sinks No Sink Discounting of Carbon Equivalents Carbon Sequestration from Trees Discount for Saturating Sinks No Sink Discounting 0.S. Agricultural and Forest Carbon Sequestration," 2003. #12;FungibilityFungibility A number of concepts have

  5. Montana State University 1 College of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barge, Marcy

    , livestock production, and soil and water conservation. Soil Science Minor (http://catalog-majors with fundamental soils courses in preparation for natural resource careers. Water Resources Minor (http://catalog for professional training in veterinary medicine. · B.S. in Agricultural Business (http://catalog

  6. Cole Museum/AMS New Agriculture Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandler-Wilde, Simon N.

    Agriculture, Policy & Development 38 Cybernetics E5 School of Systems Engineering N15 Dental Centre C2 Computer Science E5 School of Systems Engineering 33 Construction Management and Engineering D4 URS Engineering E5 School of Systems Engineering 25 Engineering C5 Engineering Building 1 English and Ameri- can

  7. Dr. Carlo Fezzi Valuing production: the agricultural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    impact of adaptation 2040 Changes #12;Adaptation and environmental policy 2040 Changes Woodland planting) The environmental impact of climate change adaptation on land use and water quality, Nature Climate Change, vol. 5 Climate change impacts Climate change #12;Agriculture Climate change impacts Climate change Environment

  8. The Story of The Department of Agricultural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    ............................................................................................................ 59 THE TAYLOR-HIBBARD CLUB of Wisconsin Press, 1949. Taylor, H. C. and Anne Dewees Taylor The Story of Agricultural Economics in the United States, 1840-1932. Ames IA: The Iowa State College Press, 1952. McIntyre, E.R. Fifty Years

  9. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quarterly report, March 30, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Neufeld, R.D.; Blachere, J.R. [and others

    1998-04-01

    Progress is described on the use of by-products form clean coal technologies for the treatment of hazardous wastes. During the third quarter of Phase 2, work continued on evaluating Phase 1 samples (including evaluation of a seventh waste), conducting scholarly work, preparing for field work, preparing and delivering presentations, and making additional outside contacts.

  10. Modification of the EIC hydrogen sulfide abatement process to produce valuable by-products. Final report, May 4, 1981-May 4, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Offenhartz, P. O'D.

    1982-06-01

    A program of analytical and experimental studies has been carried out to develop modifications of the CUPROSUL process for the desulfurization of geothermal steam. The objective of the program was to devise practical means to manipulate the chemistry of the process so that the consumption of raw materials could be controlled and a variety of valuable by-products could be produced. The process had been demonstrated, at one-tenth commercial scale, for steam of the Geysers' average composition in a configuration which resulted in essentially complete oxidation of sulfide to sulfate. The ability to control the extent of oxidation would increase process flexibility and extend its range of applicability to steams of widely varying composition. Preliminary market surveys of raw materials required for the process and by-products which could be produced indicated that controlling the oxidation of sulfides to produce elemental sulfur would probably be the preferred process option. Use of lime to treat sulfate-containing purge streams to produce by-product gypsum and ammonia for recycle or sale could also be justified for certain steam compositions. Recovery of ammonium sulfate alone from the purge stream would not normally be justified unless corecovery of other valuable by-products, such as boric acid, was possible at incremental cost. It was found that ferric sulfate was a highly effective, selective oxidant for the controlled oxidation of copper sulfide solids to produce elemental sulfur for sale and copper sulfate for recycle.

  11. Introduction to Nuclear Waste Management Nuclear Waste is a type of radioactive waste that is usually the by-product of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auerbach, Scott M.

    that is usually the by-product of a nuclear technology. -Nuclear Technology includes: -Nuclear ReactorsIntroduction to Nuclear Waste Management Nuclear Waste is a type of radioactive waste -Nuclear Medicine Chemicals Nuclear reactors -Radioactive materials are placed in a reactor vessel

  12. A HUMAN RELIABILITY-CENTERED APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF JOB AIDS FOR REVIEWERS OF MEDICAL DEVICES THAT USE RADIOLOGICAL BYPRODUCT MATERIALS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOPER, S.E.; BROWN, W.S.; WREATHALL, J.

    2005-02-02

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is engaged in an initiative to risk-inform the regulation of byproduct materials. Operating experience indicates that human actions play a dominant role in most of the activities involving byproduct materials, which are radioactive materials other than those used in nuclear power plants or in weapons production, primarily for medical or industrial purposes. The overall risk of these activities is strongly influenced by human performance. Hence, an improved understanding of human error, its causes and contexts, and human reliability analysis (HRA) is important in risk-informing the regulation of these activities. The development of the human performance job aids was undertaken by stages, with frequent interaction with the prospective users. First, potentially risk significant human actions were identified based on reviews of available risk studies for byproduct material applications and of descriptions of events for byproduct materials applications that involved potentially significant human actions. Applications from the medical and the industrial domains were sampled. Next, the specific needs of the expected users of the human performance-related capabilities were determined. To do this, NRC headquarters and region staff were interviewed to identify the types of activities (e.g., license reviews, inspections, event assessments) that need HRA support and the form in which such support might best be offered. Because the range of byproduct uses regulated by NRC is so broad, it was decided that initial development of knowledge and tools would be undertaken in the context of a specific use of byproduct material, which was selected in consultation with NRC staff. Based on needs of NRC staff and the human performance related characteristics of the context chosen, knowledge resources were then compiled to support consideration of human performance issues related to the regulation of byproduct materials. Finally, with information sources and an application context identified, a set of strawman job aids was developed, which was then presented to prospective users for critique and comment. Work is currently under way to develop training materials and refine the job aids in preparation for a pilot evaluation.

  13. Is the Texas Agricultural Extension Service succeeding at educating and satisfying Texas agricultural producers? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huett, Buffy K.

    1999-01-01

    of satisfaction with TAEX. The survey was mailed to 3200 Texas landowner and TAEX clientele across the state (excluding the Piney Woods) and most likely reflected the Texas agricultural operator population; 1058 surveys (33%) were returned usable for analysis...

  14. Agricultural Science Teachers' Perceptions of Online Curriculum Resources in Agricultural Education 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutherford, Vanessa

    2014-10-14

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of agricultural science teachers’ use of online curriculum resources in regard to planning time, time management, classroom management, content knowledge, home and work life balance...

  15. Organic agriculture and ecological justice: Ethics and practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    : Danish Research Centre for Organic Food and Farming, Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20. P.O. Box3 Organic agriculture and ecological justice: Ethics and practice Hugo F. Alrøe*, John Byrne.......................................................................79 Sustainability, globalisation and organic agriculture ..........................................79

  16. Agricultural soil and its conservation in Mexico as percei 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Revello, Valerie Ann

    1995-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of agricultural college students in Mexico toward agricultural soil and its conservation in their country. The study also determined relationships between ...

  17. ROBERTA COOK Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    ROBERTA COOK Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics University of California Davis, CA and Resource Economics, UC Davis. Applied research and extension program focusing on fresh produce marketing State University, East Lansing, Michigan Major: Agricultural Economics Areas of Concentration

  18. Using big data for decisions in agricultural supply chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Derik Lafayette

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is an industry where historical and current data abound. This paper investigates the numerous data sources available in the agricultural field and analyzes them for usage in supply chain improvement. We identified ...

  19. Taiwan International Graduate Program --Molecular and Biological Agricultural Sciences Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taiwan International Graduate Program -- Molecular and Biological Agricultural Sciences Introduction Taiwan's academic interest in agricultural sciences began in earnest about 40 years ago with a breeding program in Taiwan's local rice varieties. Since then, various life science research institutes

  20. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Faculty Tenure and Promotion Evaluation Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermúdez, José Luis

    DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Faculty Tenure and Promotion Evaluation Procedures Revised............................................20 2 #12;DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Faculty Tenure and Promotion Evaluation Procedures November 2013 #12;Table of Contents I. The Evaluation Process

  1. Agricultural Outlook Forum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3AUDITLeslie PezzulloAgenda Agenda AgendaAgricultural Outlook

  2. Agricultural Productivity and Mortality: Evidence from Kagera, Tanzania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ikegami, Munenobu

    2009-01-01

    and seminar participants at “Agriculture for Development in Sub-Saharan Africa” or- ganized by African Economic Research

  3. Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Director Principal Investigator: Fred Circle, President Project Title: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for...

  4. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 1, Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Kevin; Beeghly, Joel H.

    2000-11-30

    About 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the solids for compaction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable. This Executive Summary describes efforts to dewater the magnesium hydroxide and gypsum slurries and then process the solids into a more user friendly and higher value form. To eliminate the cost of solids disposal in its first generation Thiosorbic® system, the Dravo Lime Company developed the ThioClear® process that utilizes a magnesium based absorber liquor to remove S02 with minimal suspended solids. Magnesium enhanced lime is added to an oxidized bleed stream of thickener overflow (TOF) to produce magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] and gypsum (CaS04 • 2H20), as by-products. This process was demonstrated at the 3 to 5 MW closed loop FGD system pilot plant at the Miami Fort Station of Cinergy, near Cincinnati, Ohio with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-91-6. A similar process strictly for'recovery and reuse of Mg(OH)2 began operation at the Zimmer Station of Cinergy in late 1994 that can produce 900 pounds of Mg(OH)2 per hour and 2,600 pounds of gypsum per hour. This by-product plant, called the Zimmer Slipstream Magnesium Hydroxide Recovery Project Demonstration, was conducted with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-921-004. Full scale ThioClear® plants began operating in 1997 at the 130 MW Applied Energy Services plant, in Monaca, PA, and in year 2000 at the 1,330 MW Allegheny Energy Pleasants Station at St. Marys, WV.

  5. AARON SMITH Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    AARON SMITH Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics One Shields Ave, University.ucdavis.edu Employment Professor, 2014-present, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, UC Davis. Associate Professor, 2007-2014, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, UC Davis. Assistant Professor, 2001

  6. Guide to Using Wood Ash as an Agricultural Soil Amendment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Guide to Using Wood Ash as an Agricultural Soil Amendment OLIVIA SAUNDERS, Extension Field Specialist "Wood ash contains significant amounts of potassium and calcium, while providing smaller amounts.unh.edu Spring 2014 UNH EXTENSION AGRICULTURE FACT SHEET Food & Agriculture Introduction Wood ash has a long

  7. Richard C. Ready Department of Agricultural Economics and Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Richard C. Ready Department of Agricultural Economics and Economics Montana State University, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Agricultural Economics Major Field: Environmental and Resource Economics 2. M.A. - 1985, University of Wisconsin, Madison: Agricultural Economics 3. B.S - 1981, Cornell

  8. The Economic Impacts of Agriculture in Wisconsin Counties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohnhoff, David

    The Economic Impacts of Agriculture in Wisconsin Counties Steven Deller Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics University of Wisconsin­Madison/Extension David Williams Agricultural and Natural and Economic Development provided support for this work. Published March, 2011. Cooperative Extension #12

  9. Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration: Economic Issues and Research Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration: Economic Issues and Research Needs Draft paper Bruce A Mc............................................................................................................. 5 2 Why Consider Promoting Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration?...................... 6 2 Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration....... 11 3.1 What is the cost of GHGE offsets arising from large

  10. Agriculture and Environmental Quality ALS 3133 Spring 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    treatment process and the use of biosolids and reclaimed water in agriculture. Students will scrutinize for using agricultural systems for disposal of other wastes and the effects of pollution on the agricultural environment. Topics covered include: Soil characterization and erosion/leaching, non-point source pollution

  11. Preparation to teach agricultural mechanics: a qualitative case study of expert agricultural science and technology teachers in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Richard Kirby

    2006-04-12

    Since federal legislation in 1917 and the widespread program growth in the 1930?s, agricultural mechanics has been a major part of the high school agricultural science and technology curriculum. Local programs integrated ...

  12. Agriculture, Farm Labor, and Rural Communities in California in the 21st Century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palerm, Juan Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture, Farm Labor, and Rural Communities in CaliforniaAgriculture, Farm Labor, and Rural Communities in CaliforniaCalifornia's rural/agricultural communities located within

  13. AERC Conference on Agriculture for Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Introduction.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Janvry, Alain

    2009-01-01

    0900 Issued in July 2009 AERC Conference on Agriculture forpresented at the May 2009 Conference on “Agriculture forAlain de Janvry. (2009). AERC Conference on Agriculture for

  14. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Fourth quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

  15. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume I. Introduction and background. [Storage losses of 28 products and by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1982-01-01

    The proposed plant site consists of 1594 acres along the Ohio River in Breckinridge County, Kentucky. An option to purchase the site has been secured on behalf of the Breckinridge Project by the Commonwealth of Kentucky Department of Energy. Figure 1 is an area map locating the site with respect to area cities and towns. The nearest communities to the site are the hamlet of Stephensport, Kentucky, about 3-1/2 miles northeast and Cloverport, Kentucky, which is 6 miles to the southwest. The nearest major cities are Owensboro, Kentucky, 45 road miles to the west and Louisville, Kentucky, 65 miles to the northeast. The Breckinridge facility will convert about 23,000 TPD of run-of-mine (ROM) coal into a nominal 50,000 BPD of hydrocarbon liquids including a significant quantity of transportation fuels. Major products refined for marketing include pipeline gas, propane, butane, 105 RONC gasoline reformate, middle distillate and heavy distillate. By-products include sulfur, anhydrous ammonia, and commercial-grade phenol. Care is being taken to minimize the impact of the facility operations on the environment. Water and wastewater treatment systems have been designed to achieve zero discharge. Waste solids will be disposed of in a carefully designed and well-monitored landfill operation. Also, special design features have been included to minimize air emissions.

  16. Using HEM surveys to evaluate disposal of by-product water from CBNG development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipinski, B.A.; Sams, J.I.; Smith, B.D. (USGS, Denver, CO); Harbert, W.P.

    2008-05-01

    Production of methane from thick, extensive coal beds in the Powder River Basin ofWyoming has created water management issues. Since development began in 1997, more than 650 billion liters of water have been produced from approximately 22,000 wells. Infiltration impoundments are used widely to dispose of by-product water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production, but their hydrogeologic effects are poorly understood. Helicopter electromagnetic surveys (HEM) were completed in July 2003 and July 2004 to characterize the hydrogeology of an alluvial aquifer along the Powder River. The aquifer is receiving CBNG produced water discharge from infiltration impoundments. HEM data were subjected to Occam’s inversion algorithms to determine the aquifer bulk conductivity, which was then correlated to water salinity using site-specific sampling results. The HEM data provided high-resolution images of salinity levels in the aquifer, a result not attainable using traditional sampling methods. Interpretation of these images reveals clearly the produced water influence on aquifer water quality. Potential shortfalls to this method occur where there is no significant contrast in aquifer salinity and infiltrating produced water salinity and where there might be significant changes in aquifer lithology. Despite these limitations, airborne geophysical methods can provide a broadscale (watershed-scale) tool to evaluate CBNG water disposal, especially in areas where field-based investigations are logistically prohibitive. This research has implications for design and location strategies of future CBNG water surface disposal facilities within the Powder River Basin.

  17. Using HEM surveys to evaluate disposal of by-product water from CBNG development in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipinski, Brian A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sams, James I. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Smith, Bruce D. [U.S. Geological Survey. Denver, CO (United States); Harbert, William [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Production of methane from thick, extensive coal beds in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming has created water management issues. Since development began in 1997, more than 650 billion liters of water have been produced from approximately 22,000 wells. Infiltration impoundments are used widely to dispose of by-product water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production, but their hydrogeologic effects are poorly understood. Helicopter electromagnetic surveys (HEM) were completed in July 2003 and July 2004 to characterize the hydrogeology of an alluvial aquifer along the Powder River. The aquifer is receiving CBNG produced water discharge from infiltration impoundments. HEM data were subjected to Occam's inversion algorithms to determine the aquifer bulk conductivity, which was then correlated to water salinity using site-specific sampling results. The HEM data provided high-resolution images of salinity levels in the aquifer, a result not attainable using traditional sampling methods. Interpretation of these images reveals clearly the produced water influence on aquifer water quality. Potential shortfalls to this method occur where there is no significant contrast in aquifer salinity and infiltrating produced water salinity and where there might be significant changes in aquifer lithology. Despite these limitations, airborne geophysical methods can provide a broadscale (watershed-scale) tool to evaluate CBNG water disposal, especially in areas where field-based investigations are logistically prohibitive. This research has implications for design and location strategies of future CBNG water surface disposal facilities within the Powder River Basin.

  18. Evaluation of agricultural residues for paper manufacture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alcaide, L.J.; Baldovin, F.L.; Herranz, J.L.F. (Univ. of Cordoba (Spain))

    1993-03-01

    Five agricultural residues-olive tree fellings, wheat straw, sunflower stalks, vine shoots, and cotton stalks-were evaluated for use as raw materials for paper manufacture. The untreated raw materials and their pulps were tested for hot-water solubles, 1%-NaOH solubles, alcohol-benzene extractables, ash, holocellulose, lignin, [alpha]-cellulose, and pentosans. Handsheets were tested for breaking length, stretch, burst index, and tear index. The results showed wheat straw to be the most promising material. Vine shoots showed the least promise.

  19. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-28

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved water delivery and irrigation system efficiencies. These could potentially reduce demands substantially. However, overall demands remained high under our fossil-fuel-only tax policy. In contrast, when all carbon was priced, increases in agricultural water demands were smaller than under the fossil-fuel-only policy and were driven primarily by increased demands for water by non-biomass crops such as rice. Finally we estimate the geospatial pattern of water demands and find that regions such as China, India and other countries in south and east Asia might be expected to experience greatest increases in water demands.?

  20. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Research Participation Program -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I N P A T T E R N AManaged by ORAU Agricultural

  1. Wyoming Department of Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (UtilityMichigan) Jump to: navigation,InformationZhongcaiAgriculture

  2. Oregon Department of Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly Smart Grid Data availableInformationOptonyAgriculture Jump to:

  3. Preliminary evaluation of the use of the greater confinement disposal concept for the disposal of Fernald 11e(2) byproduct material at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.R.; Brown, T.J.; Stockman, H.W.; Gallegos, D.P.; Conrad, S.H.; Price, L.L.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents a preliminary evaluation of the ability of the greater confinement disposal boreholes at the Nevada Test Site to provide long-term isolation of radionuclides from the disposal of vitrified byproduct material. The byproduct material is essentially concentrated residue from processing uranium ore that contains a complex mixture of radionuclides, many of which are long-lived and present in concentrations greater than 100,000 picoCuries per gram. This material has been stored in three silos at the fernald Environmental Management Project since the early 1950s and will be vitrified into 6,000 yd{sup 3} (4,580 m{sup 3}) of glass gems prior to disposal. This report documents Sandia National Laboratories` preliminary evaluation for disposal of the byproduct material and includes: the selection of quantitative performance objectives; a conceptual model of the disposal system and the waste; results of the modeling; identified issues, and activities necessary to complete a full performance assessment.

  4. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quarterly report, November 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    This second quarterly report describes work during the second three months of the University of Pittsburgh`s (Pitt`s) project on the {open_quotes}Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.{close_quotes} Participating with Pitt on this project are Dravo Lime Company (DLC), Mill Service, Inc. (MSI) and the Center for Hazardous Materials Research (CHMR). The report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focussed upon the acquisition of by-product samples and their initial analysis. Other efforts during the second quarter have been directed toward identifying the first hazardous waste samples and preparing for their treatment and analysis. Relatively little data has yet been collected. Major presentation of technical details and data will appear for the first time in the third quarterly report. The activity on the project during the second quarter of Phase One, as presented in the following sections, has fallen into seven areas: (1) Acquiring by-products, (2) Analyzing by-products, (3) Identifying, analyzing and treating suitable hazardous wastes, (4) Carrying out the quality assurance/quality control program, (5) Developing background, and (6) Initiating public relations

  5. Agricultural, industrial and municipal waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    It is right that consideration of the environment is of prime importance when agricultural and industrial processes are being developed. This book compiles the papers presented at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers conference. The contents include: The use of wastes for land reclamation and restoration; landfill, an environmentally acceptable method of waste disposal and an economic source of energy; control of leachate from waste disposal landfill sites using bentonite; landfill gas migration from operational landfill sites, monitoring and prevention; monitoring of emissions from hazardous waste incineration; hazardous wastes management in Hong Kong, a summary of a report and recommendations; the techniques and problems of chemical analysis of waste waters and leachate from waste tips; a small scale waste burning combustor; energy recovery from municipal waste by incineration; anaerobic treatment of industrial waste; a review of developments in the acid hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes; reduction of slag deposits by magnesium hydroxide injection; integrated rural energy centres (for agriculture-based economies); resource recovery; straw as a fuel in the UK; the computer as a tool for predicting the financial implications of future municipal waste disposal and recycling projects; solid wastes as a cement kiln fuel; monitoring and control of landfill gas; the utilization of waste derived fuels; the economics of energy recovery from municipal and industrial wastes; the development and construction of a municipal waste reclamation plant by a local authority.

  6. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.

  7. Authenticated writing assessments of agricultural education graduate students 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Kimberly Dawn

    2004-11-15

    -1 AUTHENTICATED WRITING ASSESSMENTS OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION GRADUATE STUDENTS A Thesis by KIMBERLY DAWN WRIGHT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2004 Major Subject: Agricultural Education AUTHENTICATED WRITING ASSESSMENTS OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION GRADUATE STUDENTS A Thesis by KIMBERLY DAWN WRIGHT Submitted to Texas A...

  8. Risk management in the financing of Texas agricultural exports 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kratz, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE FINANCING OF TEXAS AGRICULTURE EXPORTS A PROFESSIONAL PAPER ROBERT J. KRATZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF AGRICULTLRE... August, 1985 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS RISK iNANAGEiVENT IN THE FINANCING OF TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS A Professional Paper ROBERT J. KRATZ Approved as to style and content by: John A. Hop in Chairman, Advisory Committee C M Ai I Mechel S. Paggi...

  9. Agriculture, Free Trade, and Global Development: Some Personal Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Head, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Agriculture, Free Trade, and Global Development: Some Personal Observations John W. Head* I am very pleased to have been invited to offer some luncheon remarks for the Law School's Symposium on Agriculture, Free Trade, and Global Development. My..., or at least a light break from the weighty papers being presented at the symposium, if I were to offer some of my own personal observations about the three subject areas that combine to give this symposium its title: agriculture, free trade, and global...

  10. Ecological, Economic and Policy Alternatives for Texas Rice Agriculture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alston, Letitia T.; Lacher, Thomas E.; Slack, R. Douglas; Vedlitz, Arnold; Woodward, Richard T.; Franklin, James C.; Canzoneri, Nicole; Conkey, April Ann Torres; Cowman, Deborah F.; Harris, Jeanine; Henry, April; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Krohn, Michelle R.; Mizell, Kelly; Nicholson, Jill; Tierce, Kelly; Wui, Yong-Sukh

    2000-01-01

    RESOURCES INSTITUTE Report by the INSTITUTE FOR SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY George Bush School of Government and Public Service Funded by TR-181 ECOLOGICAL, ECONOMIC AND POLICY ALTERNATIVES FOR TEXAS RICE AGRICULTURE September 25, 2000..., economic, and policy alternatives for Texas rice agriculture. A report by the Institute for Science, Technology and Public Policy in the George Bush School of Government and Public Service to the Texas Water Resources Institute/Agricultural Program...

  11. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

  12. Organic Carbon and Disinfection Byproduct Precursor Loads from a Constructed, Non-Tidal Wetland in California's Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleck, Jacob A.; Fram, Miranda S.; Fujii, Roger

    2007-01-01

    California District Sacramento Laboratory - Determination offrom agricultural peat soils, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta,wetland on Twitchell Island, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta,

  13. Climate-Smart Agriculture: Policies, Practices and Financing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and responding to climate change. Projections based on population growth and food consumption patterns indicate that agricultural production will need to increase by at...

  14. Cultivation, Capital, and Contamination: Urban Agriculture in Oakland, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClintock, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    flatlands urban agriculture. The rolling range and orchardsurban areas, Pb arsenate (PbHAsO 4 ) was commonly applied as a pesticide in orchards (

  15. Applying Innovation System Concept in Agricultural Research for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Applying Innovation System Concept in Agricultural Research for Development: A learning module Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Applying Innovation System...

  16. Agricultural Progress in Cameroon, Mali and Ghana: Why it Happened...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development (IFAD). The purpose was to identify constraints to agricultural growth and poverty reduction that might be eased through better policy, both domestically and...

  17. Agricultural Productivity Growth in China: Farm Level versus National Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Colin A.; Chen, Jing; Chu, Baojin

    1999-01-01

    bias any measurement of agricultural productivity, becauseProductivity Growth in China: Farm Level versus National MeasurementProductivity Growth in China: Farm Level versus National Measurement

  18. Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department of Agriculture...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Commission of the People's Republic of China on Cooperation in the Development of Biofuels Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department of Agriculture and the Department...

  19. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. INTRODUCTION Increasing cost of construction has-situ concrete strength can reduce construction time and cost by efficient movement of forms. Furthermore it also Milwaukee, WI 53201 Synopsis: The maturity method computes maturity of the concrete as an index to predict

  20. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    ­ Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI and Ronald H. Carty Director Illinois Clean Coal Institute Carterville, IL ABSTRACT, Naik and Singh [16] summarized various applications of fly ash generated from conventional and clean coal technologies. Uses of coal combustion by- products can be categorized into three classes: high-volum

  1. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -Products Utilization E-mail: ymchun@uwm.edu and F. D. Botha Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute 5776 Coal, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA. 4 Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute

  2. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    .4 April 2000 A Mid-Year Project Management Report Issued to the Illinois Clean Coal Institute for Project for evaluation. Clean coal fly ash was obtained from Southern Illinois University and a wet collected Class F fly and Quarters Cumulative$ Cumulative Project Budget Total Illinois Clean Coal Institute Award $ 86,095 Estimated

  3. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -Milwaukee, P.O. Box 784, Milwaukee, WI 53201 d Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute * Director UWM products containing clean coal ash compared to conventional coal ash. Utilization of clean coal ash is much products that utilize clean coal ash. With increasing federal regulations on power plant emissions, finding

  4. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    to remove any residual ammonia contained in the fly ash from advanced NOx reduction systems ash, and presented challenges for many of it's conventional uses. For example, low NOx burner systems such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR), and Amine Enhanced Fuel Lean

  5. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Presented at Residue-to-Revenue: Residual Wood Conference, Richmond, BC, CANADA November 2001 Department properties of wood ash derived from various sources in the USA and Canada; and, to determine its potential C 618 [13] developed for volcanic ash and coal fly ash for use in concrete, was used to determine

  6. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Convention, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, April 1, 2003. Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics 53201, Ph: (414) 229-6696, Fax: (414) 229-6958, e-mail: tarun@uwm.edu 2 Research Assistant, UWM Center of cellulose fibers and papermaking fillers (kaolinitic clay, calcium carbonate, and/or titanium dioxide

  7. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    ), at 28 days, using various sources of ASTM Class F and clean coal fly ashes. For each reference mixture

  8. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -28 REP-482 November 2002 Final Technical Report Issued to the Illinois Clean Coal Institute For Project

  9. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -19 REP-443 November 2001 Final Technical Report Issued to the Illinois Clean Coal Institute For Project

  10. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    with the combination of Class C fly ash and clean coal ash. Two percent to four percent sodium sulfate anhydrite

  11. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    , hexane and performance enhancing additives. A brief description of various petroleum hydrocarbon classes and performance-enhancing additives for its use as a fuel. The petroleum compounds are categorized as either, hexane and octane. Aromatic compounds are composed of carbon molecular ring structures. These compounds

  12. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    technologies. A clean-coal ash is defined as the ash derived from SOxand NOxcontrol technologies, and FBC that obtained from clean-coal technology, are not utilized in cast-concrete masonry products (bricks, blocks conventional and clean-coal technologies. Fifteen high-sulfur coal ash samples were obtained from eight

  13. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    is defined as the ash derived from thermal power plants using clean-coal technologies such as SO2 Control of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 784, Milwaukee, WI 53201. 4 Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute Systems, NOx Control Technology, Fluidized Bed Combustion, and Gasification Combined Cycle for reducing

  14. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    clean-coal technologies such as SO2 Control Systems, NOx Control Technology, Fluidized Bed Combustion Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute, 5776 Coal Drive, Suite 200, Carterville, IL 62918-sulfur coal. Ponded ash is usually a mixture of fly ash and bottom ash or boiler slag. Concrete was made

  15. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    after combustion of coal in conventional and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. These include and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. Although 560 million tonnes (Mt) of fly ash, bottom ash use either pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology

  16. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    combustion of coal in conventional and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. These include fly ash clean-coal technology combustors. Although 560 million tonnes (Mt) of fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces

  17. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The overall objective of this research effort was to provide a potentially commercial thermal treatment of fly ash to decrease the interaction between fly ash and the surfactants used to entrain air in concrete when fly ash replaces a portion of the Portland cement in oncrete. The thermal treatment resulting from this research effort, and described in this report, fulfill the above objective. This report describes the thermal treatment developed and applies the treatment to six different fly ashes subsequently used to prepare concrete test cylinders hat show little or no difference in compressibility when compared to concrete test cylinders prepared using untreated fly ash.

  18. Kicking the Tires | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    been doing and would like to do on superconducting radiofrequency cavities, on electron guns and on cryogenic engineering for the ILC. The team also provided a tour, which was...

  19. U.S. Agriculture's Role Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    U.S. Agriculture's Role in a Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World: An Economic Perspective the IMPAC project. #12;Abstract International agreements are likely to stimulate greenhouse gas mitigation Words Agricultural Sinks, Emissions Trading, Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions, Kyoto Protocol #12

  20. USDA Agricultural Conservation Easement Program Webinar for Tribes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the American Indian Higher Education Consortium, this webinar will cover details on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) new Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) established in the 2014 Farm Bill. It will specifically discuss the implications of ACEP for Tribes and tribal owners.

  1. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability David R. Montgomery*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability David R. Montgomery* Department of Earth and Space conventionally plowed agricultural fields average 1­2 orders of magnitude greater than rates of soil production indicates that, considered globally, hill- slope soil production and erosion evolve to balance geologic

  2. United States Department of Agriculture Research, Education and Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiblen, George D

    basic process engineering background, knowledge of engineering unit operations and cost analysisUnited States Department of Agriculture Research, Education and Economics Agricultural Research will also be expected to construct accurate mass balances and conduct first-order techno-economic

  3. LINKING WATER QUALITY WITH AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION IN A RURAL WATERSHED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    , agricultural pollution, animal waste, land-water interactions, nitrate, nitrogen surplus, nonpoint source pollution, water pollution, watershed management 1. Background Agriculture is rapidly emerging not require extra nutrients. Animal waste is primarily applied to soils, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 127

  4. DISCUSSION: ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE IN AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foltz, Jeremy D.

    incentives for research, new avenues of rents for firms and the public sector in agriculture, and new types and applied research or product development) as well as between dif- ferent types of research organizationsDISCUSSION: ECONOMIES OF SCALE AND SCOPE IN AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH JEREMY D. FOLTZ

  5. UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT AND STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE BOARD OF TRUSTEES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT AND STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE BOARD OF TRUSTEES UNIVERSITY BYLAWS ARTICLE I: Name Section 1.1. Name: The name of the corporation is the University of Vermont and State Agricultural.1. Purpose: The University shall be recognized and utilized as an instrumentality of the State of Vermont

  6. For additional information, contact: Department of Agricultural Economics & Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barge, Marcy

    For additional information, contact: Department of Agricultural Economics & Economics Montana State.montana.edu/econ agecon@montana.edu 1 2 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS & ECONOMICS KELLY GORHAM 1 Austin Owens traveled to Greece as mentors for students in Economics 101 4 Chris Stoddard was the recipient of a MSU Cox Family Faculty

  7. REVIEW ARTICLE Polyethylene and biodegradable mulches for agricultural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of plastic mulch in agriculture has increased dramatically in the last 10 years throughout the world- able and biodegradable mulches. Here we review the use of plastic mulches in agriculture, with special reference to biode- gradable mulches. Major topics discussed are (1) history of plastic mulch and impact

  8. Agriculture-related radiation dose calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furr, J.M.; Mayberry, J.J.; Waite, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    Estimates of radiation dose to the public must be made at each stage in the identification and qualification process leading to siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Specifically considering the ingestion pathway, this paper examines questions of reliability and adequacy of dose calculations in relation to five stages of data availability (geologic province, region, area, location, and mass balance) and three methods of calculation (population, population/food production, and food production driven). Calculations were done using the model PABLM with data for the Permian and Palo Duro Basins and the Deaf Smith County area. Extra effort expended in gathering agricultural data at succeeding environmental characterization levels does not appear justified, since dose estimates do not differ greatly; that effort would be better spent determining usage of food types that contribute most to the total dose; and that consumption rate and the air dispersion factor are critical to assessment of radiation dose via the ingestion pathway. 17 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  9. Fuel alcohol production from agricultural lignocellulosic feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farina, G.E.; Barrier, J.W.; Forsythe, M.L. )

    1988-01-01

    A two-stage, low-temperature, ambient pressure, acid hydrolysis process that utilizes separate unit operations to convert hemicellulose and cellulose in agricultural residues and crops to fermentable sugars is being developed and tested. Based on the results of the bench-scale tests, an acid hydrolysis experimental plant to demonstrate the concepts of low-temperature acid hydrolysis on a much larger scale was built. Plant tests using corn stover have been conducted for more that a year and conversion efficiences have equaled those achieved in the laboratory. Laboratory tests to determine the potential for low-temperature acid hydrolysis of other feedstocks - including red clover, alfalfa, kobe lespedeza, winter rape, and rye grass - are being conducted. Where applicable, process modifications to include extraction before or after hydrolysis also are being studied. This paper describes the experimental plant and process, results obtained in the plant, results of alternative feedstocks testing in the laboratory, and a plan for an integrated system that will produce other fuels, feed, and food from crops grown on marginal land.

  10. Industrial and agricultural process heat information user study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar industrial and agricultural process heat (IAPH) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 10 IAPH groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: IPH Researchers; APH Researchers; Representatives of Manufacturers of Concentrating and Nonconcentrating Collectors; Plant, Industrial, and Agricultural Engineers; Educators; Representatives of State Agricultural Offices; and County Extension Agents.

  11. Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food, and Forestry -Forestry Service Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    E-988 Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food, and Forestry - Forestry Service Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service United States Department of Agriculture - Forestry Service Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation Natural Resources Conservation Service Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food

  12. Teaching Organic Farming and Gardening: Resources for Instructors, 3rd Edition. Part 3 - Social and Environmental Issues in Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Food & Agriculture System b) Climate change i. AgriculturalAgricul- ture, Climate Change and Carbon Sequestration.agriculture, climate change and carbon sequestration.

  13. The relationship between perseverance and academic attainment in agricultural education 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, James Frank

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the perseverance level of agricultural education educators nationwide. The study design was descriptive-correlational with data collected using a written questionnaire that was mailed to stratified, systemic...

  14. Control of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in Kranji Catchment, Singapore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoff, Margaret A. (Margaret Ann)

    2013-01-01

    Singapore's Kranji Reservoir is highly sensitive to nutrient and bacterial pollution, both of which can be directly traced to agricultural runoff. Water quality samples were collected along the main drainage channel in the ...

  15. Incorporation of Agricultural Risk into Water Resource Planning Models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conner, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    , domestic, municipal, agricultural and industrial uses of water, ... and all relevant means (including nonstructural as well as structural measures) singly, in combination, or in alternative combinations reflecting different choice patterns for providing...

  16. Robert M. Goodman Executive Dean, Agriculture & Natural Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Robert M.

    Robert M. Goodman Executive Dean, Agriculture & Natural Resources Executive Dean, School. Thomas Leustek Assoc. Dean Academic Administration Robert Hills Assoc. Dean Academic Programs Rebecca and Business Administration Barbara Turpin Campus Dean G. H. Cook Campus School of Environmental and Biological

  17. The Current Water and Agriculture Context, Challenges, and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Winston

    Surveys the current policy environment for addressing water and agricultural issues in a changing climate, which is shaped by economic development plans at the national and provincial levels, sector plans for water and ...

  18. Kevin Novan Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    , Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics University of California, Davis Education Ph.D., Economics of Bulk Electricity Storage," (with Richard Carson), Journal of Environmental Economics and Management Efficiency and Behavior: Electricity Savings from Residential Weatherization Programs," (with Joshua Graff

  19. Weather Effects on European Agricultural Output 1850-1913

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solomou, Solomos; Wu, Weike

    2004-06-16

    This paper compares the effects of weather shocks on agricultural production in Britain, France and Germany during the late nineteenth century. Using semi- parametric models to estimate the non-linear agro-weather relationship, we find...

  20. Evaluation of pre-packaged agricultural drip irrigation kits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Shen, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to conduct user testing and performance evaluation of two different agricultural pre-packaged drip irrigation kit (PDIK) systems: Chapin Bucket Kit and International Design Enterprises (IDE) ...

  1. Missouri Agricultural and Energy Saving Team- A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Note: Rates listed below are for farmers who signed up for the program by January 1, 2011; however, the Missouri Agricultural and Small Business Development Authority still has some funding...

  2. Potential Role of Biochar in Water Management in Rainfed Agriculture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flavia, Namagembe

    2012-08-16

    employed to help manage agricultural water sustainably. Previous studies indicate that incorporation of biochar into sandy soil improves its water retention capacity. This study demonstrates how addition of biochar produced from different feedstock biomass...

  3. Is Florida's Growth Management Act protecting agricultural lands?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lloyd, Stephen (Stephen Charles Rhys)

    2011-01-01

    Florida has experienced more population growth over the past half century than any other state, which has led to some of the most extensive urban development on valuable agricultural lands. To address this and other impacts ...

  4. Evaluating the utility of dynamical downscaling in agricultural impacts projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluating the utility of dynamical downscaling in agricultural impacts projections Michael evaluate here whether this computationally intensive approach significantly alters projections circulation model (GCM) output--to produce fine-spatial-scale climate projections for impacts assessments. We

  5. Three Essays on Climate Variability, Water and Agricultural Production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Jinxiu

    2014-07-23

    examine the implications of increasing drought frequency in the Edwards Aquifer (EA) region of Texas on municipal, industrial, and agricultural water; land allocation; environmental flows; and welfare. To carry out this study we expand a regional...

  6. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    | Photo courtesy of U.S. Navy. Energy Department Joins Agriculture and Navy in the Fight for Clean Energy Transportation Photo courtesy of U.S. Navy Energy Department Joins...

  7. Communication Factors Affecting African Policymakers' Decisions about Agricultural Biotechnology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Begashaw, Belay Ejigu

    2010-10-12

    The purpose of this study was to develop a model for impacting decisions on agricultural biotechnology practices in food production among African policymakers. The research focused on three African countries, namely, South Africa, Malawi and Ghana...

  8. Rapid Recolonisation of Agricultural Soil by Microarthropods After Steam Disinfestation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cucco, Marco

    sterilisation. This research was supported by ACNA and MURST grants. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Vol. 27 to methyl bromide. Indeed, steam sterilisation presents several obvious advantages, such as the lack

  9. EVALUATING TRADEOFFS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL FLOW PROTECTIONS AND AGRICULTURAL WATER SECURITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merenlender, Adina

    environmental policy associated with the greatest impacts to water users. Surprisingly, the moderate environmental flow policy had larger impacts to bypass flows than the unregulated management scenarioEVALUATING TRADEOFFS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL FLOW PROTECTIONS AND AGRICULTURAL WATER SECURITY T. E

  10. Optimal Operation of Large Agricultural Watersheds with Water Quality Restraints 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, J. R.; Hann, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Improved technology is needed for use in properly managing large agricultural watersheds. Proper watershed management means selecting land uses that are appropriate for each subarea, using erosion control measures where ...

  11. Energy efficiency of Pacific Northwest agriculture irrigation pumping systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.

    1987-03-01

    This document addresses the energy use and efficiency characteristics of pumping plants used to irrigate agricultural cropland in the Pacific Northwest. The principal focus of this document is on field information obtained from tests of irrigation pumping plants.

  12. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    E-1010 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Oklahoma Prescribed Burning Handbook Oklahoma Prescribed Burning Research Associate, Natural Resource Ecology and Management Oklahoma Prescribed Burning Handbook Oklahoma

  13. Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department of Agriculture...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    between the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy and the National Department and Reform Commission of the People's Republic of China. It outlines an agreement between the two...

  14. Undergraduate Retention Initiatives College of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    Undergraduate Retention Initiatives College of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources Office and Natural Resources. Current Structure/Approach The college generally provides retention services. Practically speaking, the evidence of effective programs is clear, namely that the route to successful

  15. The economic potential of producing energy from agricultural biomass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerko, Christine

    1996-01-01

    fuels; hence, are largely unable to be supplied at a competitive price. This study examined how forcing increased biomass energy generation, along with improvements in biomass production technology, will impact agricultural feedstock prices...

  16. Comparative toxicities of two common agricultural chemicals to toads 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cowman, Deborah Fay

    1997-01-01

    species, Bufo valliceps Wiegmann, 1833, and B. velatus Bragg & Sanders, 1951, in relation to two major agricultural pesticides, carbofuran and trifluralin, that are widely used and applied directly to the soil. Toads of both species were collected at a...

  17. Net Benefits to Agriculture from the Trinity River Project, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish, B.; Williford, G.; Elling, H.; Lacewell, R. D.; Hosch, P.; Griffin, W.; Reddell, D. L.; Hiler, E. A.; Bausch, W.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the agricultural benefits due to flood protection provided by the proposed Trinity River Project. The area examined was the land located between the 100-year flood plain with the project and without...

  18. Trends in agricultural lending by commercial banks 1964-1984 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeBerry, David Kendall

    1986-01-01

    to this larger asset size category added banks from lower ag-lending groups. A reason- able conclusion based on that observation, then, is that the management of some of these larger institutions has made a commitment to become more involved in agricultural... sttee Member May, 1986 TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT Introduction Trends in Agricultural Lending By All Banks Banks Grouped By Asset Size , Current Dollars Banks Grouped By Asset Size , Constant Dollars Page 1 Banks Grouped According...

  19. Food & Agriculture Policy Issues for the 1980s. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous

    1980-01-01

    to urban development, highways and other nonfarm uses. This conversion of 2.5 to 3.0 million acres annually is reducing this basic resource for food pro duction and may also have environmental effects in local areas. Policy questions raised by the land... conversion issue include: Should federal, state and local government policies be developed to preserve agri cultural land for food and fiber production? If so, what type of policies are needed? Energy and Agriculture American agriculture production...

  20. Agricultural Sector Analysis on Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation in the United States 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Uwe A.

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the economic potential of agriculture to participate in greenhouse gas emission mitigation efforts. Major agricultural mitigation strategies are included simultaneously to capture interactions. ...

  1. New Chemical Aerosol Characterization Methods- Examples Using Agricultural and Urban Airborne Particulate Matter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Lijun

    2010-10-12

    This study explored different chemical characterization methods of agricultural and urban airborne particulate matter. Three different field campaigns are discussed. For the agricultural aerosols, measurement of the chemical ...

  2. Essays on U.S. agricultural policy : subsidies, crop insurance, and environmental auctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirwan, Barrett E., 1974-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis investigates the unintended consequences of government policy, specifically policy meant to benefit agricultural producers. The first chapter asks how agricultural subsidies affect farmland rental rates. Chapter ...

  3. Assistant Professor Agricultural Machine Systems Engineering The School of Agricultural, Forest, and Environmental Sciences (SAFES), within the College of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohnhoff, David

    design, field machinery automation, post-harvest handling and processing, sustainable practices and systems, rotary power and fluid power transfer, bulk material handling, machinery automation mentoring and advising; preparing students for careers in the agricultural and machinery industries

  4. Barriers to the increased utilization of coal combustion/desulfurization by-products by government and commercial sectors - Update 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Sondreal, E.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A.

    1999-07-01

    The following conclusions are drawn from the information presented in this report: (1) Joint efforts by industry and government focused on meeting RTC recommendations for reduction/removal of barriers have met with some success. The most notable of these are the changes in regulations related to CCB utilization by individual states. Regionally or nationally consistent state regulation of CCB utilization would further reduce regulatory barriers. (2) Technology changes will continue to be driven by the CAAA, and emission control technologies are expected to continue to impact the type and properties of CCBs generated. As a result, continued RD and D will be needed to learn how to utilize new and changing CCBs in environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically advantageous ways. Clean coal technology CCBs offer a new challenge because of the high volumes expected to be generated and the different characteristics of these CCBs compared to those of conventional CCBs. (3) Industry and government have developed the RD and D infrastructure to address the technical aspects of developing and testing new CCB utilization applications, but this work as well as constant quality control/quality assurance testing needs to be continued to address both industry wide issues and issues related to specific materials, regions, or users. (4) Concerns raised by environmental groups and the public will continue to provide environmental and technical challenges to the CCB industry. It is anticipated that the use of CCBs in mining applications, agriculture, structural fills, and other land applications will continue to be controversial and will require case-by-case technical and environmental information to be developed. The best use of this information will be in the development of generic regulations specifically addressing the use of CCBs in these different types of CCB applications. (5) The development of federal procurement guidelines under Executive Order 12873 titled ''Federal Acquisition, Recycling and Waste Prevention,'' in October 1993 was a positive step toward getting CCBs accepted in the marketplace. Industry needs to continue to work with EPA to develop additional procurement guidelines for products containing CCBs--and to take advantage of existing guidelines to encourage the use of CCBs in high-profile projects. (6) Accelerated progress toward increased utilization of CCBs can be made only if there is an increased financial commitment and technical effort by industry and government. The framework for this has been set by the successful cooperation of industry and government under DOE leadership. Cooperation should continue, with DOE fulfilling its lead role established in the RTC. It is clear that the RTC recommendations continue to have validity with respect to increasing CCB utilization and continue to provide guidance to industry and government agencies.

  5. GEOC: Division of Geochemistry 162 -Organo-mineral associations in agricultural soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    practice to neutralize soil acidity after the conversion of land from forest to agriculture. However

  6. Clean Development Mechanism agricultural methodologies could help California to achieve AB 32 goals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinar, Ariel; Larson, Donald F; Frisbie, J. Aapris

    2012-01-01

    Biogas from manure or composting ACM006‡ Biomass residue from agriculture used for electricity generation

  7. How Important Is Economic Geography for Rural Non-agricultural Employment? Lessons from Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivobokova, Tatyana

    How Important Is Economic Geography for Rural Non-agricultural Employment? Lessons from Brazil ERIK-agricultural employment prospects and earnings. Key words: Rural non-agricultural employment, economic geography, Latin to assess the importance of economic geography for rural non-agricultural employment. To reach a deeper

  8. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Webb, Erin; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  9. Agriculture intensifies soil moisture decline in Northern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; Zhuang, Qianlai; Miralles, Diego; Teuling, Adriann; Zhang, Tonglin; An, Pingli; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; He, Di; Wang, Liwei; Pan, Xuebiao; Bai, Wei; Niyogi, Dev

    2015-07-09

    Northern China is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Agricultural activities have intensified since the 1980s to provide food security to the country. However, this intensification has likely contributed to an increasing scarcity in water resources, which may in turn be endangering food security. Based on in-situ measurements of soil moisture collected in agricultural plots during 1983–2012, we find that topsoil (0–50 cm) volumetric water content during the growing season has declined significantly (p<0.01), with a trend of -0.011 to -0.015 m3 m-3 per decade. Observed discharge declines for the three large river basins are consistent with the effects of agricultural intensification, although other factors (e.g. dam constructions) likely have contributed to these trends. Practices like fertilizer application have favoured biomass growth and increased transpiration rates, thus reducing available soil water. In addition, the rapid proliferation of water-expensive crops (e.g., maize) and the expansion of the area dedicated to food production have also contributed to soil drying. Adoption of alternative agricultural practices that can meet the immediate food demand without compromising future water resources seem critical for the sustainability of the food production system.

  10. Important driving forces in livestock production and agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Steven R.

    global shifts in consumption, marketing, production and trade: Rising incomes. Demographic shifts#12;Important driving forces in livestock production and agriculture are responsible for major the past four decades, but increasing trends due to changes in land use and crop production shifting from

  11. Stephen R. Boucher Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    -Naude, "Immigration and the US Farm Labor Supply," Migration Letters, 2012, 9(1): 87 ­ 99. · Stephen R. Boucher Experiments in Development Economics: Risk Valuation in Morocco, Kenya, and Peru," Agricultural and Resource-308. · Steve Boucher, Michael Carter and Catherine Guirkinger, "Risk Rationing and Wealth Effects in Credit

  12. OSU Agricultural Composting Workshop Day 1 Title Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    OSU Agricultural Composting Workshop Day 1 Title Description 8:30 Registration 9:00 Welcome; provide handouts; form work groups 9:30 The composting process Stages of composting; composting methods; composting parameters (temperature, moisture, C/N ratio, pH, micro-organisms, etc.); what should I compost

  13. Laser a Controlled Assistant in Agriculture Stoyan Dinoev

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borissova, Daniela

    86 Laser a Controlled Assistant in Agriculture Stoyan Dinoev Institute of Information Technologies, 1113 Sofia Introduction The results achieved in the application of laser irradiation of plant organisms still continue to attract the scientific interest ­ in the past realized by He-Ne lasers, and nowadays

  14. AGRICULTURAL BMP PLACEMENT FOR COST-EFFECTIVE POLLUTION CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    AGRICULTURAL BMP PLACEMENT FOR COST-EFFECTIVE POLLUTION CONTROL AT THE WATERSHED LEVEL Tamie Lynne-EFFECTIVE POLLUTION CONTROL AT THE WATERSHED LEVEL Tamie Lynne Veith Abstract The overall goal of this research was to increase, relative to targeting recommendations, the cost-effectiveness of pollution reduction measures

  15. Fundamental Mass Flow Measurement of Solid Department of Agricultural Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA A generic mass flow measurement device formation and direct counting of individual particles is impossible. If a method could be available correspondence to Tony Grift, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana

  16. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station Vehicle Rental Request Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, David

    Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station Vehicle Rental Request Form Driver Name Date: Travel Destination: Account #: Vehicle Information 1995 Crown Victoria 1995 Crown Victoria 1995 with the MSU Authorized Vehicle Use Policy. You further acknowledge that you have executed the Mississippi

  17. Insights from Agricultural GHG Offset studies that might

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    (agriculture only) Pacific Northwest - West Side Pacific Northwest - East Side South Central Southern Plains Livestock Herd Size Emission X X Livestock System Change Emission X X Manure Management Emission X X Rice supply and demand Regression ­ Pesticide usage, Non Ag water use Extreme event effects Adaptation obs

  18. Survey of Agricultural Practices in the Thompson Basin -1994

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    helicopter fly-overs. These fly-overs identified 103 sites of potential environmental impact from agriculture practices to coincide with the development of an educational proactive program will promote a sustainable Environmental Protection Pacific and Yukon Region North Vancouver, B.C. by Barbara John Monika Geier Regional

  19. Recommended Academic Plan for Agricultural Systems Management (ASM) University Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    Recommended Academic Plan for Agricultural Systems Management (ASM) University Park Effective requirements. GWS, GHA, GQ, GN, GA, GH, and GS are codes used to identify General Education requirements. US, IL, and US;IL are codes used to designate courses that satisfy University United States

  20. Recommended Academic Plan for Agricultural Systems Management (ASM) Commonwealth Campuses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    Recommended Academic Plan for Agricultural Systems Management (ASM) Commonwealth Campuses Effective Education requirements. GWS, GHA, GQ, GN, GA, GH, and GS are codes used to identify General Education requirements. US, IL, and US;IL are codes used to designate courses that satisfy University United States

  1. The embarrassment of riches: agricultural food subsidies, high

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockwell, Robert F.

    of Natural History, Central Park West, New York, N.Y. 10024, USA. K.F.Abraham. Ontario Ministry of Natural of agricultural foods allows the birds to meet much of their energy demand for migration and reproduction Arctic. Foraging has produced alternative stable states characterized by sward destruction and near

  2. CLASSIFYING AGRICULTURAL LAND IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE WITH APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    difference vegetation index (60.6 ± 1.8), second modified soil adjusted vegetation index (60.6 ± 1 software and reduced the financial cost by 25%. A classified agricultural map was combined with a species than the normalized difference vegetation index, second modified soil adjusted vegetation index

  3. Minor in Plant Breeding College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Minor in Plant Breeding College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Cornell University Description of the Minor The Minor Program of Study in Plant Breeding will provide a basic understanding of crop improvement, a historical perspective of the discipline, and a sense of how plant breeding contributes

  4. Emergency Water Assistance During Drought: Federal Non-Agricultural Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    of Agriculture's RUS provides grants and loans for rural water systems in communities with less than 10.3 billion in loans and $370 million in grants are available for rural community water and waste systems and Water Assistance Grants program $3 million for California's rural communities. Bureau of Reclamation

  5. Alan a. Blggs Agriculture Canada, Research Station, Vineland Station, Ontario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biggs, Alan R.

    Alan a. Blggs Agriculture Canada, Research Station, Vineland Station, Ontario IntegratedApproach to Controlling LeucostomaCankerof Peachin Ontario Peach (Prunuspersica (L.) Batsch) is the third most valuable fruit crop in Ontario, Canada, following appIes (Matus domestica Barkh.) and grapes (Vizisspp.). In 1988

  6. Montana State University 1 Department of Agricultural Economics &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana State University 1 Economics Department of Agricultural Economics & Economics The Bachelor of Science degree in economics stresses the use of economics as a means of understanding current economic activities and problems and their relationship to our social environment. Economics is the study

  7. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Range Cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Range Cattle Research and Education Center Field Day at the Range Cattle Research and Education Center in Ona, Florida. The laboratory provides forage testing digestible nutrients (TDN). Mail samples to Forage Extension Laboratory, UF/IFAS, Range Cattle REC, 3401

  8. Agriculture intensifies soil moisture decline in Northern China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; Zhuang, Qianlai; Miralles, Diego; Teuling, Adriann; Zhang, Tonglin; An, Pingli; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; He, Di; et al

    2015-07-09

    Northern China is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Agricultural activities have intensified since the 1980s to provide food security to the country. However, this intensification has likely contributed to an increasing scarcity in water resources, which may in turn be endangering food security. Based on in-situ measurements of soil moisture collected in agricultural plots during 1983–2012, we find that topsoil (0–50 cm) volumetric water content during the growing season has declined significantly (pmore »with the effects of agricultural intensification, although other factors (e.g. dam constructions) likely have contributed to these trends. Practices like fertilizer application have favoured biomass growth and increased transpiration rates, thus reducing available soil water. In addition, the rapid proliferation of water-expensive crops (e.g., maize) and the expansion of the area dedicated to food production have also contributed to soil drying. Adoption of alternative agricultural practices that can meet the immediate food demand without compromising future water resources seem critical for the sustainability of the food production system.« less

  9. April, 1999 (Revised) 1 TENNESSEE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    in Retail Markets which are not Produced and Marketed Under the Tennessee Fancy Fresh Egg Marketing ProgramApril, 1999 (Revised) 1 RULES OF TENNESSEE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIVISION OF MARKETS CHAPTER 0080-5-4-.12 Eggs Offered for Sale at Retail 0080-5-4-.02 Inedible Eggs 0080-5-4-.13 Out

  10. Nematode Communities in Organically and Conventionally Managed Agricultural Soils1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    Nematode Communities in Organically and Conventionally Managed Agricultural Soils1 Deborah A. Neher organically and conventionally managed soils in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. Available nitrogen availability. Soils were sampled six times yearly in 1993 and 1994 to determine the best time of year to sample

  11. Facilities Management & Construction Agriculture and Life Sciences Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , etc.). Unit/Floor Proctor ­ Individual identified as the first point of contact with building drills, leaking faucet, water leaks, air conditioning and heating issues, etc.). #12;2 Agriculture Unit/Floor Proctor Before: a. Removing furniture from any room. b. Hanging anything (art, clocks

  12. The structure of agriculture in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan America 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Michelle L

    2003-01-01

    the following questions: (1) What was the structure of U.S. agricultural production systems in 1992 and had this structure changed by 1997? (2) What was the relationship between metropolitan proximity and U.S. agristructure and its changes from 1992 to 1997...

  13. 94 Department of Agricultural Sciences (AGSC) Graduate Catalogue 201415

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , evaluation, and selection of pressurized irrigation systems; pipeline economics, pump hydraulics, and pumping in the following areas: Plant Science, Plant Protection, Irrigation, and Agricultural Economics. The department Exam 0 cr. AGSC 399 MS Thesis 9 cr. MS Degree in Irrigation Core Courses AGSC 301 Statistical Methods

  14. Outlook for Energy and Implications for Irrigated Agriculture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patton, W. P.; Lacewell, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    that could have significant impacts on the future cost and availability of energy, and to show what the implications of those trends are for irrigated agriculture. The primary focus of this study will be on trends in natural gas, since natural gas...

  15. Oklahoma State University Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    E-979 Oklahoma State University Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma. Bartholomew Big Game Biologist Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation White-tailed Deer Habitat-Soil Conservation Service (now NRCS) in Oklahoma. The authors greatly appreciate Dr. Teels' efforts in initiating

  16. CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Changes A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC-needed technical assistance, and Mary Tyree at Scripps was extremely helpful in formatting the climate data

  17. Agricultural Engineering and Socio-Economics Division Field Contents Member

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    Agricultural Engineering and Socio-Economics Division Field Contents Member Environmental Engineering for Water The main subjects in this research and educational field are as follows: hydrological cycle of river basin, characteristics of water environment with regard to water quantity and quality

  18. ECONOMICS OF AGRICULTURE AND WILDLIFE A Background Report on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instruments for the Conservation and Preservation of Wildlife Habitat in the Lower Fraser River Estuary), Brian Fairley (B.C. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food), Kelly Fink (Canadian Forest Service, Fisheries and Food), and Bill Wareham (Ducks' Unlimited). The Forest Economics and Policy Analysis Research

  19. Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6108E Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study was sponsored in part by the Demand Response Research Center which is funded by the California .................................. 2 Best Opportunities for Demand Response and Permanent Load Shifting Programs.............. 3

  20. Biomass for the Dutch Chemical Opportunities for agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Biomass for the Dutch Chemical Industry Opportunities for agriculture R. Blaauw J. van Haveren E. L International Certification Services EESV according to ISO 9001:2000. Title Biomass for the Dutch Chemical for biomass 18 3.1 General developments 18 3.2 Developments of the Dutch chemical industry towards a bio

  1. Identifying, examining, and validating a description of the agriculture industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romero, Edward Wayne

    2009-05-15

    of fundamental knowledge in mathematics and sciences, 11 percent; and sixth, peer pressure/family against agricultural sciences studies, 7 percent. These disturbing data are indicative of some of the challenges faced by many colleges and land... .................................................................. 20 Occupational Outlook Handbook ................................................... 22 Career Guide to Industries .............................................................. 24 National FFA Organization Career Explorer...

  2. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report, 10/1/96 – 3/31/00

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, William E.; Butalia, Tarunjit S.; Whitlach, Jr., E. Earl; Mitsch, William

    2000-12-31

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from October 1, 1996 to March 31, 2000 to investigate the use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners. The objective of the research program was to establish field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD by-products generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, medium-scale wetland mesocosms, and a full-scale pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications including design of daily cover and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small scale laboratory tests, medium scale mesocosm wetland experiments, and construction and monitoring of a full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds, and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Actual permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by properly compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. Constructed FGD-lined wetlands offer the opportunity for increased phosphorous retention giving rise to the potential use of these materials as a liners for wastewater treatment wetlands. While plant growth was observed to be less vigorous for FGD lined wetland mesocosms compared to the control, the above and below ground biomass were not significantly different. Cost estimates for FGD liners compared favorably with clay liners for varying haul distances.

  3. Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, Jane; Schumacher, Leon

    2014-10-23

    The Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO) program brought together a team of representatives from government, academia, and private industry to enhance the availability of energy efficiency services for small livestock producers in the State of Missouri. The Missouri Department of Agriculture (MDA) managed the project via a subcontract with the University of Missouri (MU), College of Agriculture Food and Natural Resources, MU Extension, the MU College of Human Environmental Sciences, the MU College of Engineering, and the Missouri Agricultural and Small Business Development Authority (MASBDA). MU teamed with EnSave, Inc, a nationally-recognized expert in agricultural energy efficiency to assist with marketing, outreach, provision of farm energy audits and customer service. MU also teamed with independent home contractors to facilitate energy audits of the farm buildings and homes of these livestock producers. The goals of the project were to: (1) improve the environment by reducing fossil fuel emissions and reducing the total energy used on small animal farms; (2) stimulate the economy of local and regional communities by creating or retaining jobs; and (3) improve the profitability of Missouri livestock producers by reducing their energy expenditures. Historically, Missouri scientists/engineers conducted programs on energy use in agriculture, such as in equipment, grain handling and tillage practices. The MAESTRO program was the first to focus strictly on energy efficiency associated with livestock production systems in Missouri and to investigate the applicability and potential of addressing energy efficiency in animal production from a building efficiency perspective. A. Project Objectives The goal of the MAESTRO program was to strengthen the financial viability and environmental soundness of Missouri's small animal farms by helping them implement energy efficient technologies for the production facility, farm buildings, and the homes on these farms. The expected measurable outcomes of the project were to improve the environment and stimulate the economy by: • Reducing annual fossil fuel emissions by 1,942 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, reducing the total annual energy use on at least 323 small animal farms and 100 farm homes by at least 8,000 kWh and 2,343 therms per farm. • Stimulating the economy by creating or retaining at least 69 jobs, and saving small animal farmers an average of $2,071 per farm in annual energy expenditures. B. Project Scope The MAESTRO team chose the target population of small farms because while all agriculture is traditionally underserved in energy efficiency programs, small farms were particularly underserved because they lack the financial resources and access to energy efficiency technologies that larger farms deploy. The MAESTRO team reasoned that energy conservation, financial and educational programs developed while serving the agricultural community could serve as a national model for other states and their agricultural sectors. The target population was approximately 2,365 small animal farm operations in Missouri, specifically those farms that were not by definition a confined animal feeding operation (CAFO). The program was designed to create jobs by training Missouri contractors and Missouri University Extension staff how to conduct farm audits. The local economy would be stimulated by an increase in construction activity and an increasing demand for energy efficient farm equipment. Additionally, the energy savings were deemed critical in keeping Missouri farms in business. This project leveraged funds using a combination of funds from the Missouri Department of Natural Resources’ Missouri Energy Center and its Soil and Water Conservation Program, from the state's Linked Deposits, MASBDA's agricultural loan guarantee programs, and through the in-kind contribution of faculty and staff time to the project from these agencies and MU. Several hundred Missouri livestock producers were contacted during the MAESTRO project. Of the

  4. Living on the Edge: Agriculture in Periurban Mexico City Andy Wanning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , rather than having to pay for 1) someone to truck out animal waste, 2) natural gas, and 3) chemical fertilizer, farmers can convert the waste to methane gas ­ and use the byproduct, organic fertilizer. Methane all of IU & SB's projects to date, as well as likely marketing targets for the future based

  5. Home Composting William T. Hlubik, Middlesex County Agricultural Agent; Jonathan Forsell, Former Essex County Agricultural Agent (deceased);

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainforth, Emma C.

    Home Composting William T. Hlubik, Middlesex County Agricultural Agent; Jonathan Forsell, Former; and Mark Winokur, Former Program Assistant Fact sheet FS811 www.rce.rutgers.edu H H H H What is Composting? Composting is a natural process where organic materials decompose and are recycled into a dark, crumbly

  6. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review 39/2 (April 2010) iiivi Copyright 2010 Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, James J.

    techniques and to showcase examples of high quality re- search that addressed environmental, natural re, Natural Resource, and Agricultural Economics Kent D. Messer and James J. Murphy Nearly two decades ago Greenhouse Gas Initiative (Shobe et al. 2010) to managing a multispecies fishery (Anderson 2010), and use

  7. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur. First quarterly technical progress report, [October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benedek, K. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation will be conducting Phase I of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. this catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria or zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an ongoing DOE-sponsored University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicates that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. the performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

  8. Impacts of Livestock at Fairs on Public Perception of Animal Agriculture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Jessica Nichole

    2015-06-02

    Due to increased removal from the agricultural industry, the non-farming publics’ ability to gain firsthand experiences with agriculture may be limited. The knowledge gained from firsthand experiences may be restricted to ...

  9. A follow-up study of Non-teacher certified Agricultural Education Department graduates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dailey, Amber Lynn

    1999-01-01

    graduation. The objectives for the thesis include an opportunity to describe the post graduate career environment of Non-teaching Agricultural Education graduates. Ascertaining postgraduate satisfaction of Non-teaching Agricultural Education graduates is also...

  10. A profit maximization approach to modeling U.S. agricultural trade 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porras, Juan Jose

    1995-01-01

    Accurate understanding of domestic policy effects on agricultural trade is essential because of the importance of agricultural exports to the country's economic health. This thesis presents the results of a profit maximization (or GNP function...

  11. The economic impacts of climate change : evidence from agricultural profits and random fluctuations in weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deschênes, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    This paper measures the economic impact of climate change on US agricultural land by estimating the effect of the presumably random year-to-year variation in temperature and precipitation on agricultural profits. Using ...

  12. The Economic Impacts of Climate Change: Evidence from Agricultural Profits and Random Fluctuations of Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deschenes, Olivier.

    This paper measures the economic impact of climate change on agricultural land in the United States by estimating the effect of the presumably random year-to-year variation in temperature and precipitation on agricultural ...

  13. The gift of good, vacant land : urban agriculture and redevelopment in the city of Baltimore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Andrew (Andrew John)

    2014-01-01

    Urban agriculture in US cities has historically been treated as an interim land use, deemed only appropriate when real estate markets do not support the development of vacant land. However, urban agriculture in the 21st ...

  14. Soil community composition and ecosystem processes Comparing agricultural ecosystems with natural ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    Soil community composition and ecosystem processes Comparing agricultural ecosystems with natural, nitrogen, pesticides Abstract. Soil organisms play principal roles in several ecosystem functions, i decomposition, and acting as an environmental buffer. Agricultural soils would more closely resemble soils

  15. A Philosophical, Qualitative, and Quantitative Examination of Transformational Leadership in Secondary Agricultural Education 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Johnathan Lewis

    2011-08-08

    style of a random sample of agricultural educators across the nation who taught secondary agriculture during the 2008-2009 school year. Data were collected online using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). Descriptive statistics were used...

  16. Accumulation of Toxic Trace Elements in Evaporites in Agricultural Evaporation Ponds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanji, Kenneth K; Dahlgren, Randy A; Ong, Colin; Herbel, Mitchell; Quek, Ann; Gao, Suduan

    1994-01-01

    1988. Investigation of Evaporation Ponds for the Disposal ofAgricultural Evaporation Ponds. P h . D . diss. U n i v e rfor Agricultural Evaporation Ponds and Other Hyper saline

  17. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Community-based tree and forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS ROME, 2011 Community-based tree of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development

  18. Solar radiation management impacts on agriculture in China: A case study in the Geoengineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Solar radiation management impacts on agriculture in China: A case study in the Geoengineering-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, Japan Abstract Geoengineering via solar radiation management could affect agricultural productivity due to changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation

  19. Climate change and agriculture : global and regional effects using an economic model of international trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Empirical estimates of the economic welfare implications of the impact of climate change on global agricultural production are made. Agricultural yield changes resulting from climate scenarios associated with a doubling ...

  20. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    E-1014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University E-1014 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Habitat Evaluation Guide for the Lesser Prairie

  1. GroBot : an open-source model for controlled environment agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feshbach, Emma (Emma Elizabeth)

    2015-01-01

    The growing demand for food challenges our current farming methods, motivating the search for new paradigms for agricultural production. In this work, the GroBot is presented as an open-source model for the fourth agricultural ...

  2. Constraints and potentials of future irrigation water availability on agricultural production under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    | hydrology | uncertainty Alack of available water for agricultural production, energy projects, other formsConstraints and potentials of future irrigation water availability on agricultural production under, United Kingdom; e Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 14473 Potsdam, Germany; f Department

  3. Brazos River Bottom cotton producers' knowledge, attitudes and practices of sustainable agriculture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thigpen, Laura Langham

    1994-01-01

    the production of agricultural commodities and the natural environment is undergoing profound changes. Due to an increase in environmental and food safety concerns, many changes in United States agricultural policy are taking place. The objective of the study...

  4. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2015 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting will be held in New Orleans, Louisiana on July 26–29, 2015, and will examine industry trends and innovations, with a focus on the focus on the economic, political and social factors influencing the industry. Bioenergy Technologies Office Director Jonathan Male, Program Manager Alison Goss Eng, and Technology Managers Sam Tagore, Mark Elless, and Steve Thomas will be in attendance.

  5. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Gerald; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Mueller, C.; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, E.; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2013-12-16

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and will thus be directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the IPCC’s Representative Concentration Pathway that result in end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 watts per square meter. The mean biophysical impact on crop yield with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17 percent reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11 percent, increase area of major crops by 12 percent, and reduce consumption by 2 percent. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences includes model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  6. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briassoulis, D. Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Technical specifications for agricultural plastic wastes (APWs) recycling proposed. • Specifications are the base for best economical and environmental APW valorisation. • Analysis of APW reveals inherent characteristics and constraints of APW streams. • Thorough survey on mechanical recycling processes and industry as it applies to APW. • Specifications for APW recycling tested, adjusted and verified through pilot trials. - Abstract: Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project “LabelAgriWaste” revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process (“Quality I”) and another one for plastic profile production process (“Quality II”). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities in protected cultivations in Europe. The adoption of the proposed specifications could transform this waste stream into a labelled commodity traded freely in the market and will constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW.

  7. Utilizing A.R.I.E.L., Agricultural Resources Intelligent Educational Lecturer, in the Formational Study of Understanding Before and After Perceptions of Agricultural Industry Leaders and Representational Consumers in an Applied Convenience Sampling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins, Colton Allen

    2014-05-30

    This thesis aimed to determine where agricultural information was acquired by individuals in an agriculturally-related occupation in Texas and individuals 18 years of age or older involved with or within Texas agricultural ...

  8. Bibliography of Texas State and Local Agricultural Literature From 1820-1945. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandall, Sharon K.; McGeachin, Robert B.

    1998-09-15

    pp. 6. Anon. 1926. Economic Data on Agricultural Situation for West South Central States, Consisting of Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma and Arkansas. 36 pp. 7. Anon. 1899. Galveston Cotton Exchange and Board of Trade, 1872-1899. Galveston: Knapp Bros. 101... by Counties. Final Figures . . . Washington: Govt. Print. Off. 161 pp. 99. UNITED STATES. DEPT. OF AGRICULTURE. INTERBUREAU COORDINATING COMMITTEE ON POST-WAR PROGRAMS. 1944. Agricultural Atlas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas. Agricultural Post...

  9. !ncredible Kerala? A Political Ecological Analysis of Organic Agriculture in the "Model for Development"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thottathil, Sapna

    2012-01-01

    began to appear. The permaculture (permanent agriculture)the world over. The permaculture wave had its impact in

  10. Training agricultural scientists at the International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cote?, Michael E.

    1986-01-01

    agricultural production" (World Food Conference, 1974). At a meeting of the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) held at CIMMYT in Mexico during October, 1975, the consensus of those...TRAINING AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS AT THE INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF MAIZE AND WHEAT A PROFESSIONAL PAPER by Michael E. Cote Submitted to the College of Agriculture of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  11. iscoverD COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES The department strives to be the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    in agriculture is another high priority. www.plpnem.ucdavis.edu http://caes.ucdavis.edu/News/Discover Department

  12. Restoring birds, bats, and dispersal mutualisms in a tropical, agricultural landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, John Leighton

    2013-01-01

    sulfur powder to cattle food supplements Consult the MAG (Ministry of Agriculture and Cattle) Inject cattle with Ivermectin Capture

  13. An assessment of biofuel use and burning of agricultural waste in the developing world Rosemarie Yevich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    -- -- An assessment of biofuel use and burning of agricultural waste in the developing world an assessment of biofuel use and agricultural field burning in the developing world. We used information from and Latin America, respectively. Agricultural waste supplies about 33% of total biofuel use, providing 39

  14. Agricultural Robot Turning in the Headland of Corn Fields Jinlin Xue1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agricultural Robot Turning in the Headland of Corn Fields Jinlin Xue1,a and Tony E.Grift2,b 1@illinois.edu Key words: Machine vision, Agricultural robot, Turning, Field of view Abstract. This article discusses the development of variable field of view (FOV) of camera to realize headland turning of an agricultural robot

  15. Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauzerall, Denise

    Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3 degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3) has a significant

  16. January 3, 2013 THE UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT AND STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, Jon D.

    January 3, 2013 THE UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT AND STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE RETIREE HEALTH SAVINGS COMPANY ACT OF 1940. Employer/Sponsor: The University of Vermont and State Agricultural College, 85 Vehicle: THE UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT AND STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE RETIREE HEALTH SAVINGS PLAN TRUST, dated

  17. GARY W. BRESTER January 2014 Department of Agricultural Economics and Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    1 GARY W. BRESTER January 2014 Department of Agricultural Economics and Economics Montana State@montana.edu EDUCATION: Ph.D. in Economics, Minor in Statistics, Specialization in Agricultural Economics, North Carolina State University, 1990 M.S. in Applied Economics, Montana State University, 1982 B.S. in Agricultural

  18. EU BIOFUEL USE AND AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY PRICES: A REVIEW OF THE EVIDENCE BASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EU BIOFUEL USE AND AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY PRICES: A REVIEW OF THE EVIDENCE BASE Report prepared: Kretschmer, B, Bowyer, C and Buckwell, A (2012) EU Biofuel Use and Agricultural Commodity Prices: A Review ....................................................................................................... 20 4 THE ROLE OF VARIOUS KEY FACTORS IN DETERMINING AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY PRICES

  19. Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Injuries in Agriculture: Recognizing and Preventing the Industry's Most Widespread Health and Safety Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Injuries in Agriculture: Recognizing and Preventing the Industry demonstrated that these potentially permanently disabling injuries are readily prevented using ergonomics that agricultural work is diverse and so agricultural ergonomics must bridge many specific problems with a flexible

  20. Assessing Youth Perceptions and Knowledge of Agriculture: The Impact of Participating in an AgVenture Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luckey, Alisa

    2012-07-16

    Agriculture touches the lives of individuals every day, and some do not even realize it. As a means to educate society, agricultural education programs, such as "AgVenture," have been established to educate youth about the importance of agriculture...

  1. Will U.S. Agriculture Really Benefit from Global Warming? Accounting for Irrigation in the Hedonic Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlenker, Wolfram; Hanemann, W. Michael; Fisher, Anthony C.

    2004-01-01

    Really Benefit from Global Warming? Accounting forR. , “The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture: Comment,”371–411. , “The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture: A

  2. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI VenturesNewSt. Louis,EnergyOctillion CorporationOgleAgricultural Research

  3. United States Department of Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (Utility Company) JumpGTZ ClimateFeed Jump to:Foods JumpAgriculture Jump

  4. FAO Climate-Smart Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdisto Electric Coop,Erosion FlumeEventFAO Climate-Smart Agriculture Jump

  5. FAO Global Inventory of Agricultural Mitigation Projects in Developing

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdisto Electric Coop,Erosion FlumeEventFAO Climate-Smart Agriculture

  6. International Fund for Agricultural Development | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:on OpeneiAlbanian CentreHoldingsFund for Agricultural

  7. List of Agricultural Equipment Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWinds JumpOxiranchemRemodelersList of Agricultural

  8. Before the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p uBUS SERVICEonScience andEnergy Agriculture, Nutrition,

  9. Benton PUD - Commercial and Agricultural Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p uBUSEnergy| Department of Energy Agricultural Savings

  10. Chapter 7 -Rotary Agricultural Mower An accident with a rotary mower can cost you your life! A rotary agricultural mower can

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    138 Chapter 7 - Rotary Agricultural Mower Safety An accident with a rotary mower can cost you your life! A rotary agricultural mower can also injure innocent bystanders, so it is also important and following safety practices are the best ways to prevent accidents. Safety Practices for Rotary Mowers Use

  11. Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Svoboda, John M.; Hess, J. Richard

    2003-07-08

    Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery such as a grain combine. The operation components of a combine that function to harvest the grain have characteristics that are measured by sensors. For example, the combine speed, the fan speed, and the like can be measured. An important sensor is the grain loss sensor, which may be used to quantify the amount of grain expelled out of the combine. The grain loss sensor utilizes the fluorescence properties of the grain kernels and the plant residue to identify when the expelled plant material contains grain kernels. The sensor data, in combination with historical and current data stored in a database, is used to identify optimum operating conditions that will result in increased crop yield. After the optimum operating conditions are identified, an on-board computer can generate control signals that will adjust the operation of the components identified in the optimum operating conditions. The changes result in less grain loss and improved grain yield. Also, because new data is continually generated by the sensor, the system has the ability to continually learn such that the efficiency of the agricultural machinery is continually improved.

  12. Biomass Support for the China Renewable Energy Law: Feasibility Report -- Agricultural and Forestry Solid Wastes Power Generation Demonstration, December 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-10-01

    Subcontractor report on feasibility of using agricultural and forestry wastes for power generation in China

  13. Resolving the agriculture-petroleum conflict: the experience of cacao smallholders in Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scherr, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    In 1972, PEMEX, the Mexican national oil company, discovered huge reserves of oil and natural gas along the Gulf Coast, and began intensive exploitation in Tabasco and northern Chiapas states. Severe conflict between PEMEX and the agricultural economy of Tabasco seemed certain. But despite problems of labor scarcity, inflation, migration, pollution, agricultural production 1974 to 1979 increased for the state's major products - cacao, coconut, beef, and bananas. This study analyzes how agriculture-petroleum conflicts have been resolved in Tabasco, and how relevant its experience is to other agricultural areas undergoing rapid large-scale industrial development. Cacao farming was chosen as a case study. Detailed farm budget, family employment, and technical production data were used to document farm production strategies. Research results suggest that resolution of agriculture-petroleum conflicts depends on: demographic conditions, employment conditions, agricultural prices, petroleum company flexibility, government development policy, and farmer political strength. Support for the campesino sector is critical.

  14. Women: the key to successful development policies for subsistence agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Kathie Elaine

    1971-01-01

    fulfillment of the requirement for the deSree of IIASTER OF SCIERCE December 1971 Major Subject: Economics NOMEN: THE KEY TO SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT POLICIES FOR SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA A Thesis KATHIE ELAINE RYAN Approved... Africa 10 Western. Afric- Southern Africa 12 Need for Fzpanded Stu. dy Overall Economic Efficiency 13 18 II. THE SITUAT ON IN AGRICULTURE 21 Nature of Subsistence Agriculture Traditional Production Practices 21 23 Traditional Roles 26...

  15. Preservation of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin in the Digital Repository 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGeachin, Robert B.

    2010-04-23

    ), relation.isPartOf (table of contents), subject (keywords), subject.NALT (National 6 Agricultural Library Thesaurus terms), description (notes about the physical item, e.g., number of pages), language (English_US), type (article), and coverage... into the spreadsheet records but only covered through 1982, the upper end of the microfilming project. For each bulletin, the subject content was examined and appropriate National Agricultural Library Thesaurus terms were assigned (National Agricultural Library...

  16. Measuring the impact of an intensive commodity price risk management education program on agricultural producers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCorkle, Dean Alexander

    2005-08-29

    -1 MEASURING THE IMPACT OF AN INTENSIVE COMMODITY PRICE RISK MANAGEMENT EDUCATION PROGRAM ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS A Dissertation by DEAN ALEXANDER MCCORKLE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2005 Major Subject: Agricultural Education MEASURING THE IMPACT OF AN INTENSIVE COMMODITY PRICE RISK MANAGEMENT EDUCATION PROGRAM ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS A Dissertation by DEAN ALEXANDER MCCORKLE...

  17. Economic effect on agricultural production of alternative energy input prices: Texas High Plains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Benjamin Michael

    1975-01-01

    ECONOMIC EFFECT ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIYE ENERGy INPUT PRICES: TEXAS HIGH PLAlNS A Thesis by BENJAMIN MICHAEL ADAMS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1975 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics ECONOMIC EFFECT ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY INPUT PRICES: TEXAS HIGH PLAINS A Thesis by BENJAMIN MICHAEL ADAMS Approved as to style and content...

  18. Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Rasmuson; K. Rautenstrauch

    2004-09-14

    This analysis is one of 10 technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) (i.e., the biosphere model). It documents development of agricultural and environmental input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the repository at Yucca Mountain. The ERMYN provides the TSPA with the capability to perform dose assessments. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships between the major activities and their products (the analysis and model reports) that were planned in ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the ERMYN and its input parameters.

  19. Observation of a German farm family: their culture and values, and aspects of beginning a career in agriculture in Germany 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bianchi, Beverly Ann

    1993-01-01

    OBSERVATION OF A GERMAN FARM FAMILY, THEIR CULTURE AND VALUFS, AND ASPECTS OF BEGINNING A CARFER IN AGRICULTURE IN GERMANY A PROFESSIONAL PAPER BEVERLY ANN BIANCI 11 Submitted to the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences of Texas ASM... University in partial fulfillmen of ihe requirements for the degree of MASTER OF AGRICULTURE December 1903 Department of Agricultural Education Agricultural Development OBSERVATION OF A GERMAN FARM FAMILY, THEIR CULTURE AND VALUES, AND ASPECTS...

  20. A statistical analysis of tire tread wear 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperberg, Ronald Leigh

    1965-01-01

    S Tea'Ds. . . . . . SS The hyyiieability ef Statistiea1 hna1gsis te the Tive Xn4nntry. . . ' ~. . . '. . . . SS Sane ' ef Ce88tVnQtken o e o':e ?. e ' o e o e Meaning ef the "f" Seexes. Xapertn@ee ef the Reeegaitien ef the ' VnxiahXISISe' ' e' o e...' ehich can enlight ata and 'saoaet nightie On Same nea "Xn'in%ice~ Of "4at yxeeentation. wee data analysis and'pxeeentation technIL@des xxi3. l, of nenessitj, be dev'sloyd if the moxd eoyhisticated technixlues-yx'oynsed in this thesis a'ie m...

  1. For Immediate Release --Thursday, June 19, 2014 Cor Van Raay's $5-million gift to support agricultural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Joy

    of agricultural professions for future generations." Van Raay and his late wife focus to a new farming operation he's establishing in Saskatchewan. The $5

  2. U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy Announce Funding for...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the President has clearly articulated the goal to ensure a cleaner, safer and more secure energy future," said Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack. "These projects will contribute...

  3. Risk in agriculture : a study of crop yield distributions and crop insurance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gayam, Narsi Reddy

    2006-01-01

    Agriculture is a business fraught with risk. Crop production depends on climatic, geographical, biological, political, and economic factors, which introduce risks that are quantifiable given the appropriate mathematical ...

  4. Local diffusion networks act as pathways?to sustainable agriculture in the Sacramento River Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubell, Mark; Fulton, Allan

    2007-01-01

    agriculture in the Sacramento River Valley by Mark Lubellquality management in the Sacramento River Valley. Data fromencourage growers in the Sacramento River Valley to

  5. Valuing Groundwater Services and Water Portfolio in Irrigated Agriculture with a Hedonic Pricing Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukherjee, Monobina

    2013-01-01

    2647-2668. Surface and Groundwater. 2012. U.S. EnvironmentalEstimating the Value of Groundwater in Irrigation, SelectedAgricultural adaptation to groundwater and climate. NBER

  6. Climate Change Mitigation Through Land-Use Measures in the Agriculture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change Mitigation Through Land-Use Measures in the Agriculture and Forestry Sectors Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Climate Change Mitigation...

  7. U.S. Baseline Briefing Book Projections for Agricultural and Biofuel Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, James S.

    U.S. Baseline Briefing Book Projections for Agricultural and Biofuel, biofuel, government cost and farm income projections in this report were prepared by the team at FAPRIMU

  8. Cultivating Civilized Subjects: British Agricultural "Improvement" in Eighteenth-Century Ireland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webber, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    discipline of the (native) subject. This becomes evident notCultivating Civilized Subjects contends that it is only byCultivating Civilized Subjects: British Agricultural

  9. Journal of Agricultural & Food Information, 10:102112, 2009 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Robert K. D.

    .e., genetically modified plants or genetically engineered plants). Plants derived from biotechnology containJournal of Agricultural & Food Information, 10:102­112, 2009 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group

  10. Agriculture, Forestry expand outreach programs UBC's two renewable-resources fac-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    Agriculture, Forestry expand outreach programs UBC's two renewable-resources fac- ulties by providing ad- ministrative services and classroom spaceforanexpandedagricultural sciences

  11. The Internationalization of Alternative Food Networks: Farmers' Markets, Community Gardens, and Agricultural Exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cody, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    M. Kneafsey (Eds. ), Alternative Food Geographies:markets. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 18(1),Goldstein L. (2011). Alternative food in the global south:

  12. Solanaceae Coordinated Agricultural Project Dedicated to the Improvement of Potato and Tomato

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douches, David S.

    SolCAP Solanaceae Coordinated Agricultural Project Dedicated to the Improvement of Potato are dedicated to the improvement of the Solanaceae crops: potato and tomato. Through innovative research

  13. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report formed the basis for much of the subsequent work under the grant. An explanation of the process is presented as well as the completed work on the four tasks.

  14. Robotics in Crop Production Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Illinois at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robotics in Crop Production Tony Grift Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering such as harvesting of citrus fruits, grapes, and raisins. An important part of Automation is the use of robots. Robotics in agriculture is not a new concept; in controlled environments (green houses), it has a his- tory

  15. Agriculture and Trade Opportunities for Tanzania: Past Volatility and Future Climate Changerode_672 429..447

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agriculture and Trade Opportunities for Tanzania: Past Volatility and Future Climate Changerode_672 global heterogeneity in climate-induced agricultural variability,Tanzania has the potential to substan owing to supply shocks in major exporting regions, Tanzania may be able to export more maize at higher

  16. What is Different About Ag-Biotech? An Investigation of University Agricultural Patenting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foltz, Jeremy D.

    What is Different About Ag-Biotech? An Investigation of University Agricultural Patenting Jeremy D the question: is ag- biotech different from other agricultural research in terms of patent production or patent quality? It does so by estimating count data models of the difference (if any) between ag- biotech patents

  17. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems http://journals.cambridge.org/RAF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems http://journals.cambridge.org/RAF Additional services for Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems: Email alerts: Click here Subscriptions: Click here Commercial reprints: Click here Terms of use : Click here Effects of Fair Trade and organic certifications

  18. Agricultural Water Management 146 (2014) 7583 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural Water Management 146 (2014) 75­83 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Agricultural Water Management journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/agwat Interactive effects of water January 2014 Accepted 13 July 2014 Available online 13 August 2014 Keywords: Water-table Maize Sowing date

  19. Price elasticity reconsidered: Panel estimation of an agricultural water demand function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Price elasticity reconsidered: Panel estimation of an agricultural water demand function Karina: Panel estimation of an agricultural water demand function, Water Resour. Res., 42, W09411, doi:10 to the data improvements, we use a novel approach to estimate land allocation (defined as the joint choice

  20. An assessment of biofuel use and burning of agricultural waste in the developing world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    An assessment of biofuel use and burning of agricultural waste in the developing world Rosemarie 2003. [1] We present an assessment of biofuel use and agricultural field burning in the developing% of total biofuel use, providing 39%, 29%, and 13% of biofuel use in Asia, Latin America, and Africa, and 41