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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Potential for by-product recovery in geothermal energy operations issue paper  

SciTech Connect

This document identifies and discusses the significant issues raised by the idea of recovering useful by-products from wastes (primarily spent brine) generated during geothermal power production. The physical availability of numerous valuable materials in geothermal brines has captured the interest of geothermal resource developers and other parties ever since their presence was known. The prospects for utilizing huge volumes of highly-saline geothermal brines for electricity generation in the Imperial Valley of California have served to maintain this interest in both private sector and government circles.

None

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Feeding Corn Milling Byproducts to Feedlot Cattle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Corn milling byproducts are expected to increase dramatically in supply as the ethanol industry expands. Distillers grains, corn gluten feed, or a combination of both byproducts offer many feeding options when included in feedlot rations. These byproduct feeds may effectively improve cattle performance and operation profitability. When these byproducts are fed in feedlot diets, adjustments to grain processing method and roughage level may improve cattle performance. Innovative storage methods for wet byproducts and the use of dried byproducts offer small operations flexibility when using byproducts. As new byproducts are developed by ethanol plants, they should be evaluated with performance data to determine their product-specific feeding values.

Terry J. Klopfenstein; Galen E. Erickson; Virgil R. Bremer

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Modeling the transient operation of an endothermic fuel cooling system for high Mach number vehicle missions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A computer model was developed to simulate the transient operation of a hypothetical endothermic fuel cooling system. The model simulated the performance of a cross-flow,… (more)

Williams, Mark Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Silica Scale Management: Lowering Operating Costs through Improved Scale Control, and Adding Value by Extracting Marketable By-Products  

SciTech Connect

We are using laboratory and field experiments to design modeling tools and technology that will improve silica scale management practices in geothermal plants. Our work will help to lower operating costs through improved scale prediction and add new revenue streams from sale of mineral byproducts extracted from geothermal fluids. Improving the economics and effectiveness of scale control programs and/or extraction systems in geothermal operations requires a coupled kinetic-thermodynamic model of silica behavior. Silica scale precipitation is a multi-step process, involving a nucleation-related induction period, aqueous polymerization, condensation of polymers to form colloids, and deposition onto a solid surface. Many chemical and physical variables influence the rates of these steps and their impacts must be quantified and predictable in order to optimally control silica behavior. To date, in laboratory studies, we have quantified the effects on silica polymerization of the following set of chemical variables: Na at 500 and 2000 ppm, pH values from 5 to 9, temperatures of 25 and 50 C, and silica saturation values from 1.2 to 6 at initial dissolved silica concentrations of 600 ppm. Lowering pH both increases the induction time prior to polymerization and decreases the polymerization rate. We have successfully used a multiple regression model to predict polymerization rates from these variables. Geothermal fluids contain significant dissolved concentrations of potentially valuable mineral resources such as zinc, lithium, cesium and rubidium, but silica fouling interferes with traditional extraction methods. We are developing customized and new technologies to extract the silica as a commercial-grade commodity as well as the valuable metals. We are conducting field testing of some of these techniques at a Mammoth, CA geothermal plant using a reverse osmosis unit to concentrate the fluid, adding a commercial agglomerating agent to promote silica precipitation, and then removing the silica using a tangential flow ultrafilter. The particle size, surface area and trace impurities of the silica are characterized for comparison with commercial-grade silica products. We are also testing ion exchange resins and other functionalized materials to extract potentially economic concentrations of lithium, cesium, and rubidium that are enriched in the reverse osmosis concentrate.

Burton, E A; Bourcier, W L; Wallce, A; Bruton, C J; Leif, R

2003-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

5

Decompression cooling system operation for HTS power cable in the KEPCO power grid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 3-phase 22.9 kV/50 MVA 410 m HTS power cable system was installed at power grid of KEPCO and had been operated for 20 months. In the HTS cable system an open type cooling system was constructed for cooling LN2 using as coolant for superconducting cable. The cooling capacity of the cooling system was 6 kW at 69 K. Subcooled LN2 flew thorough 410 m HTS cable maintaining 69 K of operating temperature for HTS cable. The electric load had fluctuated continuously with the load status so that the cooling state was also controlled to keep stable operating condition. The consumed LN2 used for making subcooled state was refilled periodically and the amount was 3 tons in average. During all the operating period the HTS cable system supplied electric power stably without any problem.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Proposal for the Award of a Contract for Maintenance, Operation and Minor Installation Work for CERN Cooling and HVAC Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proposal for the Award of a Contract for Maintenance, Operation and Minor Installation Work for CERN Cooling and HVAC Systems

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

The Operation Management and Energy Consumption Analysis of the District Cooling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the investigation of the district cooling system of the Zhongguancun Square in Beijing, we thoroughly analyzed the process of its operation management and the main factors that affect energy consumption. The basis was provided...

Xu, Q.; Li, D.; Xu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Effect of Cooling Flow on the Operation of a Hot Rotor-Gas Foil Bearing System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas foil bearings (GFBs) operating at high temperature rely on thermal management procedures that supply needed cooling flow streams to keep the bearing and rotor from overheating. Poor thermal management not only makes systems inefficient...

Ryu, Keun

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

9

Conservation of Energy Through The Use of a Predictive Performance Simulator of Operating Cooling Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemical treatment program for the prevention of corrosion, scale and deposit accumulations. Calgon has made available a computerized performance simulator of operating cooling water systems which reliably predicts system corrosion rates, percent scale...

Schell, C. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Operational Performance Results of an Innovative Solar Thermal Cooling and Heating Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar thermal cooling and heating plants with single-effect sorption chillers/heat pumps promise primary energy savings compared to electric vapor compression chiller systems. Yet, the need of auxiliary electric a nd fossil energy for the operation and backup of the thermal cooling system possibly worsen the primary energy balance. An auspicious approach to overcome this problem is the application of a more efficient multi -stage sorption chiller with flexible operational modes. A pilot installation of that innovative solar thermal heating and cooling plant comprising a two stage absorption chiller/heat pump is presented. Beginning with the motivation and the system concept, a detailed analysis of the 2011/2012 cooling and heating periods is shown. The influence of the different system components – especially the absorption chiller – on the overall system performance is analyzed and a comparison to data from a detailed dynamic model is carried out. Recommendations for the improvement with respect to efficiency and economic aspects are given based on the installation process and the operational experience gained in the last 1 ½ years.

Manuel Riepl; Felix Loistl; Richard Gurtner; Martin Helm; Christian Schweigler

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

A detailed MILP optimization model for combined cooling, heat and power system operation planning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A detailed optimization model is presented for planning the short-term operation of combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP) energy systems. The purpose is, given the design of a cogeneration system, to determine an operating schedule that minimizes the total operating and maintenance costs minus the revenue due to the electricity sold to the grid, while taking into account time-varying loads, tariffs and ambient conditions. The model considers the simultaneous use of different prime movers (generating electricity and heat), boilers, compression heat pumps and chillers, and absorption chillers to satisfy given electricity, heat and cooling demands. Heat and cooling load can be stored in storage tanks. Units can have one or two operative variables, highly nonlinear performance curves describing their off-design behavior, and limitations or penalizations affecting their start-up/shut-down operations. To exploit the effectiveness of state-of-the-art Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) solvers, the resulting Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) model is converted into a MILP by appropriate piecewise linear approximation of the nonlinear performance curves. The model, written in the AMPL modeling language, has been tested on several plant test cases. The computational results are discussed in terms of the quality of the solutions, the linearization accuracy and the computational time.

Aldo Bischi; Leonardo Taccari; Emanuele Martelli; Edoardo Amaldi; Giampaolo Manzolini; Paolo Silva; Stefano Campanari; Ennio Macchi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Commissioning Process and Operational Improvement in the District Heating and Cooling-APCBC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-09-25 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 18 Energy simulation In case of the variable cooling water flow system, the cooling water outlet temperature should be a parameter...,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 2012/10/072012/10/28 2012/11/18 2012/12/09 2012/12/30 2/24 ? 3/2 C o n su m ed e le ct ri ci ty p er h ea t u n it [ k W h /G J ] Variable water flow control Cooling tower fun Chilled...

Takase,T.; Takada,O; Shima,K.; Moriya, M.; Shimoda,Y.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Water-cooled pyrolytic graphite targets at LAMPF: design and operation  

SciTech Connect

Design considerations and actual operating experience are reported for water-cooled pyrolytic graphite targets at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Emphasis is placed on the use of finite element computer calculations to determine target temperatures and stresses, which can then be evaluated to judge the usefulness of a particular design. Consideration is also given to the swelling of the target following irradiation, and to the measures taken to prolong target lifetime.

Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Experimental study on the operational and the cooling performance of the APR+ passive auxiliary feedwater system  

SciTech Connect

The passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) is one of the advanced safety features adopted in the APR+ which is intended to completely replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. The PAFS cools down the steam generator secondary side and eventually removes the decay heat from the reactor core by introducing a natural driving force mechanism; i.e., condensing steam in nearly-horizontal U-tubes submerged inside the passive condensation cooling tank (PCCT). With an aim of validating the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS, the separate effect test, PASCAL (PAFS Condensing Heat Removal Assessment Loop), is being performed to experimentally investigate the condensation heat transfer and natural convection phenomena in the PAFS. A single nearly-horizontal U-tube whose dimension is same as the prototypic U-tube of the APR+ PAFS is simulated in the PASCAL test. By performing the PASCAL test, the major thermal-hydraulic parameters such as local/overall heat transfer coefficients, fluid temperature inside the tube, wall temperature of the tube, and pool temperature distribution in the PCCT were produced not only to evaluate the current condensation heat transfer model but also to present database for the safety analysis related with the PAFS. (authors)

Kang, K. H.; Bae, B. U.; Kim, S.; Cho, Y. J.; Park, Y. S.; Kim, B. D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., 150 Dukjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Energy efficient operation strategy design for the combined cooling, heating and power system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems are known as trigeneration systems, designed to provide electricity, cooling and heating simultaneously. The CCHP system has become… (more)

Liu, Mingxi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center for By-Products Utilization CLEAN COAL BY-PRODUCTS UTILIZATION IN ROADWAY, EMBANKMENTS-fueled plants, particularly use of eastern coals, has lead to the use of clean coal and using advanced sulfur dioxide control technologies. Figure 1 shows clean coal technology benefits(2) . In 1977, the concept

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

17

Stochastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Cold side thermal energy storage system for improved operation of air cooled power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air cooled power plants experience significant performance fluctuations as plant cooling capacity reduces due to higher daytime temperature than nighttime temperature. The purpose of this thesis is to simulate the detailed ...

Williams, Daniel David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

%) were used in producing the concrete mixtures. The water to cementitious materials ratio was kept with and without by-products, and soil and groundwater remediation technologies including bioremediation. ACI

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

20

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect

Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect

Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

Operating experience of the IFSMTF (International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility) vapor-cooled lead system  

SciTech Connect

The International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF) uses six pairs of vapor-cooled leads (VCLs) to introduce electric power to six test coils. Each VCL is housed in a dewar outside the 11-m vacuum vessel and is connected to the coal via a superconducting bus duct;the various VCLs are rated at 12 to 20 kA. Heat loss through the leads constitutes the single largest source of heat load to the cryogenic system. Concerns about voltage breakdown if a coil quenches have led to precautionary measures such as installation of a N/sub 2/-purged box near the top of the lead and shingles to collect water that condenses on the power buses. A few joints between power buses and VCLs were found to be inadequate during preliminary single-coil tests. This series of tests also pointed to the need for automatic control of helium flow through the leads. This was achieved by using the resistance measurements of the leads to control flow valves automatically. By the time full-array tests were started, a working scheme had developed that required little attention to the leads and that had little impact on the refrigerator between zero and full current to the coils. The operating loss of the VCLs at full current is averaging at about 7.4 gs of warm flow and 360 W of cold-gas return load. These results are compared with predictions that were based on earlier tests. 4 refs., 6 figs

Lue, J.W.; Fehling, D.T.; Fietz, W.A.; Lubell, M.S.; Luton, J.N.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Shen, S.S.; Stamps, R.E.; Thompson, D.H.; Wilson, C.T.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ECONOMICAL SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Yoon-moon Chun, Fethullah Canpolat #12;USE OF FLY ASH AND LIMESTONE QUARRY BY-PRODUCTS FOR DEVELOPING ECONOMICAL SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE material in the development of economical self-compacting concrete (SCC). Class C fly ash was also used

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

24

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, and Yoon-moon Chun Report No. CBU-2004 of Limestone Quarry By-Products for Developing Economical Self-Compacting Concrete Principle Investigator Name. For this proposed project, self-compacting concrete mixtures will be developed for prototype production that utilize

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

25

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center for By-Products Utilization SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE (SCC) OR SELF- LEVELING CONCRETE (SLC - MILWAUKEE #12;2 SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE (SCC) OR SELF ­LEVELING CONCRETE (SLC) INTRODUCTION Self-compacting as the concrete which can be placed and compacted into every corner of a form work, purely by means of its self

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

26

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Yoon-moon Chun, Fethullah Canpolat ECONOMICAL SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE by Tarun R. Naik* , Rudolph N. Kraus** , Yoon-moon Chun*** , Fethullah of limestone-quarry by-product material in the development of economical self-compacting concrete (SCC). Class

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

27

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik and Rakesh Kumar Report No. CBU-2003-15 REP-509 April 2003 CONCRETE April 2003 REP-509 #12;ii Use of Limestone Quarry By-Products for Developing Economical Self-Compacting in the production of economical self-compacting concrete. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this project

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

28

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN COAL ASH AS SETTING TIME REGULATOR IN PORTLAND OF WISCONSIN ­ MILWAUKEE #12;2 Use of Clean Coal Ash as Setting Time Regulator in Portland Cement by Zichao Wu as setting time regulator for portland cement production. In this paper a source of clean coal ash (CCA

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

29

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of coal in conventional and/ or advanced clean coal technology combustors. These include fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products from advanced clean coal technology clean coal technology combustors. Over 60% of the CCBs are generated as fly ash. An estimate

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

30

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center for By-Products Utilization HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R #12;1 HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S. Singh, and Bruce for manufacture of cement-based products using ashes generated from combustion of high-sulfur coals. A clean coal

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

31

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

shrinkage; durability; freezing and thawing; recycling; sludge; wastewater treatment; wood cellulose fibersCenter for By-Products Utilization RECYCLING OF PULP AND PAPER MILL RESIDUALS TO INCREASE FREEZING College of Engineering and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN ­ MILWAUKEE #12;Recycling of Pulp

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

32

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center for By-Products Utilization GREENER CONCRETE FROM WOOD FLY ASH AND COAL FLY ASH By Tarun R CONCRETE FROM WOOD FLY ASH AND COAL FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Shiw S. Singh, Lori-Lynn C mixtures were developed using blends of wood FA and Class C coal FA. Two levels of blended ash

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

33

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fellow at the UWM-CBU. His research interests include the use of coal fly ash, coal bottom ash, and usedCenter for By-Products Utilization USE OF UNDER-UTILIZED COAL- COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN PERMEABLE-Utilized Coal-Combustion Products in Permeable Roadway Base Construction 1 (MS #LV-R67) Use of Under

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

34

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) coal-ash and by replacing up to 9% of aggregates with wet-collected, low-lime, coarse coal-ash. Cast of coal fly ash, coal bottom ash, and used foundry sand in concrete and cast-concrete productsCenter for By-Products Utilization PROPERTIES OF CAST-CONCRETE PRODUCTS MADE WITH FBC ASH

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

35

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST Report No.CBU-1996-07 July 1996 Presented and Published at the American Coal Ash Association's Twelfth International Coal Ash Use Symposium, Orlando, FL, January 26-30, 1997. Department of Civil Engineering

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

36

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center for By-Products Utilization GREENER CONCRETE FROM WOOD FLY ASH AND COAL FLY ASH By Tarun R OF WISCONSIN­MILWAUKEE #12;1 GREENER CONCRETE FROM WOOD FLY ASH AND COAL FLY ASH Synopsis: This investigation coal FA. Two levels of blended ash of approximately 25% and 35% were used. The effect of source of wood

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

37

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center for By-Products Utilization PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE CONTAINING SCRAP TIRE RUBBER in a variety of rubber and plastic products, thermal incineration of waste tires for production of electricity rubber in asphalt mixes, (ii) thermal incineration of worn-out tires for the production of electricity

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

38

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center for By-Products Utilization APPLICATION OF SCRAP TIRE RUBBER IN ASPHALTIC MATERIALS: STATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. PRODUCING CRUMB RUBBER MODIFIER (CRM) FROM USED TIRES . . . . . 3 2.1 PRODUCTION OF CRM THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE #12;APPLICATION OF SCRAP TIRE RUBBER IN ASPHALTIC MATERIALS: STATE

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

39

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

include workability, water requirement, bleeding, segregation, air content, time of set, and temperature with and without by-products, and soil and groundwater remediation technologies including bioremediation. ACI for power production. Its combustion in electric power plants produces large amounts of fly ash and bottom

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

40

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-strength materials (CLSM); and, future research needs. The fresh concrete properties discussed are workability, water with and without by-products, and soil and groundwater remediation technologies including bioremediation. ACI for power production. Its combustion in electric power plants produces large amounts of fly ash and bottom

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a combination with a number of fuels including coal, petroleum coke, natural gas, etc. In the mid 1990s, the unit was firing a combination of coal and petroleum coke to generate energy. It has been established;1 PROJECT 1 - COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS: CHARACTERIZATION AND USE OPTIONS Introduction An AFBC system

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

42

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wood with supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke by pulp and paper mills and wood, knots, chips, etc. with other supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke to generateCenter for By-Products Utilization DEVELOPMENT OF CLSM USING COAL ASH AND WOOD ASH, A SOURCE OF NEW

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

43

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke by pulp and paper mills and wood, such as bark, twigs, knots, chips, etc. with other supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and cokeCenter for By-Products Utilization CLSM CONTAINING MIXTURES OF COAL ASH AND A NEW POZZOLANIC

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

44

Analysis of efficiency of control of operation conditions of air gas cooling devices at compressor stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Based on calculations of energy consumption by air gas cooling devices, an analysis has been made of the efficiency of the methods of control of temperature conditions of the transported gas. Two types of air ...

A. V. Krupnikov; A. D. Vanyashov; I. A. Yanvarev

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF FBC ASH AND PONDED COAL-ASH IN READY-MIXED CONCRETE #12;Naik, Kraus, Chun, & Botha Use of FBC ash and Ponded Coal-Ash in Ready-Mixed Concrete 1 MS# M8-60. FINAL. October 2005. Use of FBC Ash and Ponded Coal-Ash in Ready-Mixed Concrete by Tarun R. Naik

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

46

Delivering Tons to the Register: Energy Efficient Design and Operation of Residential Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, was used to determine the effect of several parameters on energy consumption, peak electrical demand cooling performance and lower energy consumption than houses with ducts in conventional attics. However consumption, and power demand. The effects of refrigerant charge, evaporator air flow), oversizing (relative

47

Performance of an experimental ground-coupled heat pump system for heating, cooling and domestic hot-water operation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system is a type of renewable energy technology providing space heating and cooling as well as domestic hot water. However, experimental studies on GCHP systems are still insufficient. This paper first presents an energy-operational optimisation device for a GCHP system involving insertion of a buffer tank between the heat pump unit and fan coil units and consumer supply using quantitative adjustment with a variable speed circulating pump. Then, the experimental measurements are used to test the performance of the GCHP system in different operating modes. The main performance parameters (energy efficiency and CO2 emissions) are obtained for one month of operation using both classical and optimised adjustment of the GCHP system, and a comparative analysis of these performances is performed. In addition, using TRNSYS (Transient Systems Simulation) software, two simulation models of thermal energy consumption in heating, cooling and domestic hot-water operation are developed. Finally, the simulations obtained using TRNSYS are analysed and compared to experimental data, resulting in good agreement and thus the simulation models are validated.

Calin Sebarchievici; Ioan Sarbu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

An experimental investigation of CI engine operated micro-cogeneration system for power and space cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper describes the performance and emission characteristics of a micro cogeneration system based on a single cylinder diesel engine. In this cogeneration system, in addition to the electricity generated from the genset, waste heat from hot exhaust gas of diesel engine was used to drive a combination of four units of Electrolux vapor absorption (VA) system for space cooling. The capacity and heat input of each unit of VA system was 51 l and 95 W respectively. A cabin of 900 mm width, 1500 mm length and 1800 mm height made of ply wood was fabricated as a space for air conditioning. A temperature drop of 5 °C was obtained in cabin at full engine load about 6 h after system start up. The reduction of CO2 emission in kg per kWh of useful energy output was 19.49% compared to that of single generation (power generation only) at full load. The decrease in specific fuel consumption in case of cogeneration compared to that in single generation was 2.95% at full load. The test results show that micro capacity (3.7 kW) stationary single cylinder diesel engine can be successfully modified to simultaneously produce power and space cooling.

Rahul Goyal; Dilip Sharma; S.L. Soni; Pradeep Kumar Gupta; Dheeraj Johar

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Life Cycle cost Analysis of Waste Heat Operated Absorption Cooling Systems for Building HVAC Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was used to calculate the PWC of the system for annual operating hours of 8760 and the same is compared with the electric based vapour compression chiller (VCRS) of same capacity. The life cycle cost (LCC) of waste heat operated absorption chiller...

Saravanan, R.; Murugavel, V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

NETL: IEP - Coal Utilization By-Products: Consortium Byproducts Recycling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) The mission of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing. The overall goals of CBRC are to: Increase the overall national rate of byproduct use by to ~ 50 % by 2010 Increase the number of “allowable” byproduct uses under state regulations by ~ 25% Double of the current rate of FGD byproduct use CBRC is a unique partnership that integrates the electric power industry, State and Federal regulatory agencies, and academia to form a strong, cohesive consortium to guide the national and regional research priorities of the CBRC. CBRC is managed by the West Virginia Water Research Institute at West Virginia University and is administered by regional centers at the University of Kentucky (Eastern Region), Southern Illinois University (Midwest Region) and the University of North Dakota (Western Region). Primary funding for CBRC is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL).

51

Work Domain Analysis of a Predecessor Sodium-cooled Reactor as Baseline for AdvSMR Operational Concepts  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the Work Domain Analysis for the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). This is part of the phase of the research designed to incorporate Cognitive Work Analysis in the development of a framework for the formalization of an Operational Concept (OpsCon) for Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMRs). For a new AdvSMR design, information obtained through Cognitive Work Analysis, combined with human performance criteria, can and should be used in during the operational phase of a plant to assess the crew performance aspects associated with identified AdvSMR operational concepts. The main objective of this phase was to develop an analytical and descriptive framework that will help systems and human factors engineers to understand the design and operational requirements of the emerging generation of small, advanced, multi-modular reactors. Using EBR-II as a predecessor to emerging sodium-cooled reactor designs required the application of a method suitable to the structured and systematic analysis of the plant to assist in identifying key features of the work associated with it and to clarify the operational and other constraints. The analysis included the identification and description of operating scenarios that were considered characteristic of this type of nuclear power plant. This is an invaluable aspect of Operational Concept development since it typically reveals aspects of future plant configurations that will have an impact on operations. These include, for example, the effect of core design, different coolants, reactor-to-power conversion unit ratios, modular plant layout, modular versus central control rooms, plant siting, and many more. Multi-modular plants in particular are expected to have a significant impact on overall OpsCon in general, and human performance in particular. To support unconventional modes of operation, the modern control room of a multi-module plant would typically require advanced HSIs that would provide sophisticated operational information visualization, coupled with adaptive automation schemes and operator support systems to reduce complexity. These all have to be mapped at some point to human performance requirements. The EBR-II results will be used as a baseline that will be extrapolated in the extended Cognitive Work Analysis phase to the analysis of a selected advanced sodium-cooled SMR design as a way to establish non-conventional operational concepts. The Work Domain Analysis results achieved during this phase have not only established an organizing and analytical framework for describing existing sociotechnical systems, but have also indicated that the method is particularly suited to the analysis of prospective and immature designs. The results of the EBR-II Work Domain Analysis have indicated that the methodology is scientifically sound and generalizable to any operating environment.

Ronald Farris; David Gertman; Jacques Hugo

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Integrated Modeling of Building Energy Requirements Incorporating Solar Assisted Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Incorporating Solar Assisted Cooling Ryan Firestone, Chrisevaluates the operation of solar assisted cooling at a large

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Wang, Juan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect

The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F-fly ash. Some developed technologies have similar potential in the longer term. (3) Laboratory studies have been completed that indicate that much higher amounts of fly ash could be added in cement-concrete applications under some circumstances. This could significantly increase use of fly ash in cement-concrete applications. (4) A study of the long-term environmental effects of structural fills in a surface mine in Indiana was completed. This study has provided much sought after data for permitting large-volume management options in both beneficial as well as non-beneficial use settings. (5) The impact of CBRC on CCBs utilization trends is difficult to quantify. However it is fair to say that the CBRC program had a significant positive impact on increased utilization of CCBs in every region of the USA. Today, the overall utilization of CCBs is over 43%. (6) CBRC-developed knowledge base led to a large number of other projects completed with support from other sources of funding. (7) CBRC research has also had a large impact on CCBs management across the globe. Information transfer activities and visitors from leading coal producing countries such as South Africa, Australia, England, India, China, Poland, Czech Republic and Japan are truly noteworthy. (8) Overall, the CBRC has been a truly successful, cooperative research program. It has brought together researchers, industry, government, and regulators to deal with a major problem facing the USA and other coal producing countries in the world.

Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

54

Research and Development of High Temperature Light Water Cooled Reactor Operating at Supercritical-Pressure in Japan  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the status and future plans of research and development of the high temperature light water cooled reactor operating at supercritical-pressure in Japan. It includes; the concept development; material for the fuel cladding; water chemistry under supercritical pressure; thermal hydraulics of supercritical fluid; and the conceptual design of core and plant system. Elements of concept development of the once-through coolant cycle reactor are described, which consists of fuel, core, reactor and plant system, stability and safety. Material studies include corrosion tests with supercritical water loops and simulated irradiation tests using a high-energy transmission electron microscope. Possibilities of oxide dispersion strengthening steels for the cladding material are studied. The water chemistry research includes radiolysis and kinetics of supercritical pressure water, influence of radiolysis and radiation damage on corrosion and behavior on the interface between water and material. The thermal hydraulic research includes heat transfer tests of single tube, single rod and three-rod bundles with a supercritical Freon loop and numerical simulations. The conceptual designs include core design with a three-dimensional core simulator and sub-channel analysis, and balance of plant. (authors)

Yoshiaki Oka [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112-0006 (Japan); Katsumi Yamada [Isogo Nuclear Engineering Center, Toshiba Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Resource recovery - a byproduct of hazardous waste incineration  

SciTech Connect

Three principal areas of a chlorinated hydrocarbon waste disposal system for a typical vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) facility are described: the incinerator, the energy-recovery system, and the byproduct-recovery system. The overall efficiency of the energy- and *byproduct-recovery systems is dependent on the optimization of the primary combustor. An example is presented in table form which lists typical waste quantities for the plant and operating costs, including utility requirements for the incinerator system, the quench, absorber and scrubber. Savings that can result by the addition of the energy- and acid-recovery systems can pay for the waste disposal system and return money to the plant.

Santoleri, J.J.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

A study of the operating conditions and power performance characteristics of power units upon increasing the cooling capacity of their chimney-type cooling towers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The operating conditions and power performance characteristics of the Armenian nuclear power station’s Unit 2 equipped with a ... 4.3 turbine and of the Razdan district power station’s units equipped with K-200- ...

A. K. Muradyan; D. T. Arshakyan

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Final Safety Evaluation Report to license the construction and operation of a facility to receive, store, and dispose of 11e.(2) byproduct material near Clive, Utah (Docket No. 40-8989)  

SciTech Connect

The Final Safety Evaluation Report (FSER) summarizes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff`s review of Envirocare of Utah, Inc.`s (Envirocare`s) application for a license to receive, store, and dispose of uranium and thorium byproduct material (as defined in Section 11e.(2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended) at a site near Clive, Utah. Envirocare proposes to dispose of high-volume, low-activity Section 11e.(2) byproduct material in separate earthen disposal cells on a site where the applicant currently disposes of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), low-level waste, and mixed waste under license by the Utah Department of Environmental Quality. The NRC staff review of the December 23, 1991, license application, as revised by page changes dated July 2 and August 10, 1992, April 5, 7, and 10, 1993, and May 3, 6, 7, 11, and 21, 1993, has identified open issues in geotechnical engineering, water resources protection, radon attenuation, financial assurance, and radiological safety. The NRC will not issue a license for the proposed action until Envirocare adequately resolves these open issues.

Not Available

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

STOCHASTIC COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Stochastic Cooling i n ICE, IEEE Transaction's in Nucl. SICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling

Bisognano, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Assessment of off-design performance of a small-scale combined cooling and power system using an alternative operating strategy for gas turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A small-scale combined cooling and power (CCP) system usually serves district air conditioning apart from power generation purposes. The typical system consists of a gas turbine and an exhaust gas-fired absorption refrigerator. The surplus heat of the gas turbine is recovered to generate cooling energy. In this way, the CCP system has a high overall efficiency at the design point. However, the CCP system usually runs under off-design conditions because the users’ demand varies frequently. The operating strategy of the gas turbine will affect the thermodynamic performance of itself and the entire CCP system. The operating strategies for gas turbines include the reducing turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and the compressor inlet air throttling (IAT). A CCP system, consisting of an OPRA gas turbine and a double effects absorption refrigerator, is investigated to identify the effects of different operating strategies. The CCP system is simulated based on the partial-load model of gas turbine and absorption refrigerator. The off-design performance of the CCP system is compared under different operating strategies. The results show that the IAT strategy is the better one. At 50% rated power output of the gas turbine, the IAT operating strategy can increase overall system efficiency by 10% compared with the TIT strategy. In general, the IAT operating strategy is suited for other gas turbines. However, the benefits of IAT should be investigated in the future, when different gas turbine is adopted. This study may provide a new operating strategy of small scale gas turbine to improve the off-design performance of CCP system.

Wei Han; Qiang Chen; Ru-mou Lin; Hong-guang Jin

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling (Redirected from Hybrid Cooling) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

62

Utilization of by-product gypsum in construction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as a by-product (called phosphogypsum) during acidulation of phosphate rock in the manufacture phosphoric acid. The sulfate is produced in either a dihydrate or a hemihydrate form depending on the operating conditions. Phosphogypsum produced... by Mobil Chemi- cal Company (Pasadena, Texas) is in the dihydrate form and was previously studied. Phosphogypsum produced by Occidental Chemical Company (White Springs, Florida), on the other hand, is produced in a hemihydrate form and transforms...

Stephenson, Angela Lorraine

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

63

Mechanisms for formation of organic and inorganic by-products and their control in nonthermal plasma chemical processing of VOCs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the major by-products derived from Nonthermal Plasma (NTP) chemical processing of different types of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), mechanisms for their formation, effects of reactor types and additives such as water and gaseous oxygen on by-product distribution, and safe operations of NTP reactors for the removal of VOCs.

Shigeru Futamura; Masami Sugasawa

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Cooling Towers- Energy Conservation Strategies Understanding Cooling Towers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers are energy conservation devices that Management, more often than not, historically overlooks in the survey of strategies for plant operating efficiencies. The utilization of the colder water off the cooling tower is the money maker!...

Smith, M.

65

Cooling energy efficiency and classroom air environment of a school building operated by the heat recovery air conditioning unit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The recently-built school buildings have adopted novel heat recovery ventilator and air conditioning system. Heat recovery efficiency of the heat recovery facility and energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit were analytically modeled, taking the ventilation networks into account. Following that, school classroom displacement ventilation and its thermal stratification and indoor air quality indicated by the CO2 concentration have been numerically modeled concerning the effects of delivering ventilation flow rate and supplying air temperature. Numerical results indicate that the promotion of mechanical ventilation rate can simultaneously boost the dilution of indoor air pollutants and the non-uniformity of indoor thermal and pollutant distributions. Subsequent energy performance analysis demonstrates that classroom energy demands for ventilation and cooling could be reduced with the promotion of heat recovery efficiency of the ventilation facility, and the energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit decreases with the increasing temperatures of supplying air. Fitting correlations of heat recovery ventilation and cooling energy conservation have been presented.

Yang Wang; Fu-Yun Zhao; Jens Kuckelkorn; Di Liu; Li-Qun Liu; Xiao-Chuan Pan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Vortex-augmented cooling tower - windmill combination  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passage to provide power as a by-product.

McAllister, J.E. Jr.

1982-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

67

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Preliminary Retro-Commissioning Study on Optimal Operation for the Heat Source System of a District Heating Cooling Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heating Water Suuply Chilled Water Return Heating Water Return To User New System ESL-IC-08-10-57 Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 2 attract attention due..., R6 450 1, 1 ESL-IC-08-10-57 Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 3 (one office building and one building with hotel rooms and leisure facilities) since November...

Shingu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Wang, F.; Ono, E.

69

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling: Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can reduce the amount of water required for a power plant as well as reduce the

70

Coal Combustion By-Products (Maryland)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of the Environment is responsible for regulating fugitive air emissions from the transportation of coal combustion by-products and the permissible beneficial uses of these by...

71

Natural Cooling Retrofit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the most important design considerations for any method of Natural Cool ing is the chil led water temperature range selected for use during Natural Cool ing. Figure VI shows that for a hypo thetical Chicago plant, the hours of operation for a Natural..." system on the Natural Cool ing cycle. As the pressures and flow rates of the condenser and chil led water systems are seldom the same, the designer must pay careful attention to the cross over system design to ensure harmonious operations on both...

Fenster, L. C.; Grantier, A. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Center for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN NON-AIR ENTRAINED CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik. Maximize environmental benefits: resource conservation, clean water, and clean air. #12;Center for By-Products, Italy, June 30, 2010. #12;Center for By-Products Utilization UWM Center for By-Products Utilization

Saldin, Dilano

73

Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems Cooling nonresidential buildings in the U.S. contributes significantly to electrical power consumption and peak power demand. Part of the electrical energy used to cool buildings is drawn by fans transporting cool air through the ducts. The typical thermal cooling peak load component for California office buildings can be divided as follows: 31% for lighting, 13% for people, 14% for air transport, and 6% for equipment (in the graph below, these account for 62.5% of the electrical peak load, labeled "chiller"). Approximately 37% of the electrical peak power is required for air transport, and the remainder is necessary to operate the compressor. DOE-2 simulations for different California climates using the California

74

Solar Desiccant Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Desiccant Cooling Solar Desiccant Cooling Speaker(s): Paul Bourdoukan Date: December 6, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Ashok Gadgil The development of HVAC systems is a real challenge regarding its environmental impact. An innovative technique operating only by means of water and solar energy, is desiccant cooling. The principle is evaporative cooling with the introduction of a dehumidification unit, the desiccant wheel to control the humidity levels. The regeneration of the desiccant wheel requires a preheated airstream. A solar installation is a very interesting option for providing the preheated airstream. In France, at the University of La Rochelle, and at the National Institute of Solar Energy (INES), the investigation of the solar desiccant cooling technique has been

75

E-Print Network 3.0 - avoiding by-product formation Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

78 By-Products Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization ECONOMICAL SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETE FOR THE WISCONSIN... production using by-product materials to...

76

Design manual for management of solid by-products from advanced coal technologies  

SciTech Connect

Developing coal conversion technologies face major obstacles in byproduct management. This project has developed several management strategies based on field trials of small-scale landfills in an earlier phase of the project, as well as on published/unpublished sources detailing regulatory issues, current industry practice, and reuse opportunities. Field testing, which forms the basis for several of the disposal alternatives presented in this design manual, was limited to byproducts from Ca-based dry SO{sub 2} control technologies, circulating fluidized bed combustion ash, and bubbling bed fluidized bed combustion ash. Data on byproducts from other advanced coal technologies and on reuse opportunities are drawn from other sources (citations following Chapter 3). Field results from the 5 test cases examined under this project, together with results from other ongoing research, provide a basis for predictive modeling of long-term performance of some advanced coal byproducts on exposure to ambient environment. This manual is intended to provide a reference database and development plan for designing, permitting, and operating facilities where advanced coal technology byproducts are managed.

NONE

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Center for By-Products Utilization Environment, Energy, and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

benefits: resource conservation, clean water, and clean air. #12;Center for By-Products Utilization Basic;Center for By-Products Utilization RESOURCE CONSERVATION CLEAN WATER and CLEAN AIR "The earth, the seaCenter for By-Products Utilization Environment, Energy, and Economic Benefits of Using Recyclable

Saldin, Dilano

78

Indoor air environment and night cooling energy efficiency of a southern German passive public school building operated by the heat recovery air conditioning unit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The recently built school building has adopted a novel heat recovery air conditioning system. Heat recovery efficiency of the heat recovery facility and energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit were analytically modeled, taking the ventilation networks into account. Following that, school classroom displacement ventilation and its thermal stratification have been numerically investigated concerning the effects of the heat flow flux of passive cooling within the ceiling concrete in the classroom due to night ventilation in summer which could result in cooling energy storage. Numerical results indicate that the promotion of passive cooling can simultaneously decrease the volume averaged indoor temperatures and the non-uniformity of indoor thermal distributions. Subsequent energy performance analysis demonstrates that classroom energy demands for ventilation and cooling could be reduced with the promotion of heat recovery efficiency of the ventilation facility, and the energy conservation ratio of the air-cooling unit decreases with the increasing temperatures of exhaust air and the heat flux value for passive cooling within the classroom ceiling concrete. Fitting correlations of heat recovery ventilation and cooling energy conservation have been presented.

Yang Wang; Fu-Yun Zhao; Jens Kuckelkorn; Xiao-Hong Li; Han-Qing Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Electron CoolingElectron Cooling Sergei Nagaitsev  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron CoolingElectron Cooling Sergei Nagaitsev FNAL - AD April 28, 2005 #12;Electron Cooling methods must "get around the theorem" e.g. by pushing phase-space around. #12;Electron Cooling - Nagaitsev 3 TodayToday''s Menus Menu What is cooling? Types of beam cooling Electron cooling Conclusions #12

Fermilab

80

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

82

Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cooling water system can be optimized by operating the cooling tower at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces, tube bundles, refrigeration equipment, overhead condensers...

Matson, J.

83

Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 1. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear byproducts are a major national resource that has yet to be incorporated into the economy. The current Defense Byproducts Program is designed to match specific military and commercial needs with the availability of valuable products which are currently treated as waste at considerable expense in waste management costs. This program plan focuses on a few specific areas with the greatest potential for near-term development and application. It also recognizes the need for a continuing effort to develop new applications for byproducts and to continue to assess the impacts on waste management. The entire program has been, and will continue to be structured so as to ensure the safety of the public and maintain the purity of the environment. Social and institutional concerns have been recognized and will be handled appropriately. A significant effort will be undertaken to inform the public of the benefits of byproduct use and of the care being taken to ensure safe, efficient operation.

None

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

FOCUS COOLING  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

www.datacenterdynamics.com www.datacenterdynamics.com FOCUS COOLING Issue 28, March/April 2013 LBNL'S NOVEL APPROACH TO COOLING Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and APC by Schneider Electric test a unique double-exchanger cooling system LBNL program manager Henry Coles says can cut energy use by half A s part of a demonstration sponsored by the California Energy Commission in support of the Silicon Valley Leadership Group's data center summit, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with APC by Schneider Electric to demonstrate a novel prototype data center cooling device. The device was installed at an LBNL data center in Berkeley, California. It included two air-to-water heat exchangers. Unlike common single-heat-exchanger configurations, one of these was supplied with

85

Dr. Cool  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...replace fossil fuels, and analyses of hydrogen fuel, natural gas...quickly "cut the average rate of global...global cooling effect of large volcanic...dollars—"the price of a Hollywood blockbuster...away from fossil fuels, he concedes...

Eli Kintisch

2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

86

Ventilative cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

Forsberg, C.W.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization  

SciTech Connect

With the passing of legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported. This contract was with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involved the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, assessment of the potential for leaching of Hg captured by the carbons, analysis of the slags for cement applications, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers. The objectives of this collaborative effort between the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute, and industry collaborators supplying gasifier char samples were to investigate the potential use of gasifier slag carbons as a source of low cost sorbent for Hg and NOX capture from combustion flue gas, concrete applications, polymer fillers and as a source of activated carbons. Primary objectives were to determine the relationship of surface area, pore size, pore size distribution, and mineral content on Hg storage of gasifier carbons and to define the site of Hg capture. The ability of gasifier slag carbon to capture NOX and the effect of NOX on Hg adsorption were goals. Secondary goals were the determination of the potential for use of the slags for cement and filler applications. Since gasifier chars have already gone through a devolatilization process in a reducing atmosphere in the gasifier, they only required to be activated to be used as activated carbons. Therefore, the principal objective of the work at PSU was to characterize and utilize gasification slag carbons for the production of activated carbons and other carbon fillers. Tests for the Hg and NOX adsorption potential of these activated gasifier carbons were performed at the CAER. During the course of this project, gasifier slag samples chemically and physically characterized at UK were supplied to PSU who also characterized the samples for sorption characteristics and independently tested for Hg-capture. At the CAER as-received slags were tested for Hg and NOX adsorption. The most promising of these were activated chemically. The PSU group applied thermal and steam activation to a representative group of the gasifier slag samples separated by particle sizes. The activated samples were tested at UK for Hg-sorption and NOX capture and the most promising Hg adsorbers were tested for Hg capture in a simulated flue gas. Both UK and PSU tested the use of the gasifier slag samples as fillers. The CAER analyzed the slags for possible use in cement applications

Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Brock Marrs; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

Producing Beneficial Materials from Biomass and Biodiesel Byproducts...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Producing Beneficial Materials from Biomass and Biodiesel Byproducts Lawrence Berkeley National...

90

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur.  

SciTech Connect

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, October 1, 1993--March 31, 1998  

SciTech Connect

The DESEVAL-TRANS program is developed for the purpose of helping the engineer to design and economically evaluate coal combustion byproduct transportation systems that will operate between the power plant and the disposal site. The objective of the research project was to explore the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of disposing coal combustion byproducts in underground mines in Illinois. The DESEVAL-TRANS (short for Design and Evaluation of Transportation Systems) was developed in the Materials Handling and Systems Economics branch of the overall project. Four types of coal combustion byproducts were targeted for transportation and handling: Conventional fly ash; Scrubber sludge; Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) fly ash; and Spent-bed ash. Several transportation and handling systems that could handle these byproducts were examined. These technologies were classified under three general categories: Truck; Rail; and Container. The purpose of design models is to determine the proper number of transport units, silo capacity, loading and unloading rates, underground placement capacity, number of shifts, etc., for a given case, defined by a distance-tonnage combination. The cost computation models were developed for the determination of the operating and capital costs. An economic evaluation model, which is common to all categories, was also developed to establish the cost-per-ton of byproduct transported.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," ",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars","RSE" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke","Waste","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste","Row"

93

CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS MADE WITH COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ash and bottom ash are produced as by-products of coal-fired electricity generation. In many countries coal ashes are by-products of the coal combustion, their properties are influenced by the nature of understanding behavior of masonry products made from coal ashes. The objective of this research program

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

94

Center for By-Products Utilization Sustainable Concrete with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

landfilling them but also leads to the reduction of the the environmental pollution. #12;Center for ByCenter for By-Products Utilization Sustainable Concrete with Industrial and Post-Consumer By Construction Materials and Technologies, Ancona, Italy, June 2010 #12;Center for By-Products Utilization Why

Saldin, Dilano

95

The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Millions of tons of waste by-products from Texas coal burning plants are produced each year. Two common byproducts are the fuel ashes and calcium sulfate… (more)

Berryman, Charles Wayne

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) in an environmentally sound manner is a major issue facing the coal and utility industries in the US today. Disposal into abandoned sections of underground coal mines may overcome many of the surface disposal problems along with added benefits such as mitigation of subsidence and acid mine drainage. However, many of the abandoned underground coal mines are located far from power plants, requiring long distance hauling of by-products which will significantly contribute to the cost of disposal. For underground disposal to be economically competitive, the transportation and handling cost must be minimized. This requires careful selection of the system and optimal design for efficient operation. The materials handling and system economics research addresses these issues. Transportation and handling technologies for CCBs were investigated from technical, environmental and economic points of view. Five technologies were found promising: (1) Pneumatic Trucks, (2) Pressure Differential Rail Cars, (3) Collapsible Intermodal Containers, (4) Cylindrical Intermodal Tanks, and (5) Coal Hopper Cars with Automatic Retractable Tarping. The first two technologies are currently being utilized in transporting by-products from power plants to disposal sites, whereas the next three are either in development or in conceptualization phases. In this research project, engineering design and cost models were developed for the first four technologies. The engineering design models are in the form of spreadsheets and serve the purpose of determining efficient operating schedules and sizing of system components.

Sevim, H.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Cab Heating and Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

Damman, Dennis

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cooling Tower Management to someone by E-mail Cooling Tower Management to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Operations & Maintenance

99

WATER AND BY-PRODUCT ISSUES IN THE ELECTRIC-UTILITY INDUSTRY  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Power Conference in conjunction with 2 and Power Conference in conjunction with 2 nd Joint U.S.-People's Republic of China Conference on Clean Energy, November 17-19, 2003, Washington, DC A DOE R&D RESPONSE TO EMERGING COAL BY-PRODUCT AND WATER ISSUES IN THE ELECTRIC-UTILITY INDUSTRY Thomas J. Feeley, III Technology Manager U.S. Department of Energy - Office of Fossil Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Pittsburgh, PA ABSTRACT While the regulation and control of air emissions will continue to be of primary concern to the electric-utility industry over the next several decades, other environmental-related issues may also impact the operation of existing and new coal-based power systems. Coal by-products are one such issue. Coal-fired power plants generate nearly 118 million tons of fly ash, flue gas

100

COORDINATING LIQUID AND FREE AIR COOLING WITH WORKLOAD ALLOCATION FOR DATA CENTER POWER MINIMIZATION.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Data centers are seeking more efficient cooling techniques to reduce their operating expenses, because cooling can account for 30-40% of the power consumption of a… (more)

Li , Li

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Fuel strategies, coal supply, dust control, and byproduct utilization  

SciTech Connect

This book contains articles presented at the 1990 International Joint Power Generation Conference. Included are the following papers: Waste management on hard coal fired power plants; Acid rain legislation FGD by-product concerns; Innovative transport modes; coal slurry pipelines.

Aananson, M.L. (Philadelphia Electric Co. (US)); Krishna, K. (Burns and McDonnell (US)); Mahr, D. (Burns and Roe Enterprises (US)); Nechvatal, T.M. (Wisconsin Electric Power Co. (US))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Cooling and Clusters: When Is Heating Needed?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are (at least) two unsolved problems concerning the current state of the thermal gas in clusters of galaxies. The first is identifying the source of the heating which offsets cooling in the centers of clusters with short cooling times (the ``cooling flow'' problem). The second is understanding the mechanism which boosts the entropy in cluster and group gas. Since both of these problems involve an unknown source of heating it is tempting to identify them with the same process, particular since AGN heating is observed to be operating at some level in a sample of well-observed ``cooling flow'' clusters. Here we show, using numerical simulations of cluster formation, that much of the gas ending up in clusters cools at high redshift and so the heating is also needed at high-redshift, well before the cluster forms. This indicates that the same process operating to solve the cooling flow problem may not also resolve the cluster entropy problem.

Greg L. Bryan; G. Mark Voit

2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

103

Fans for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fans for Cooling Fans for Cooling Fans for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 7:46pm Addthis Ceiling fans circulate air in a room to help keep occupants cool. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/jimkruger Ceiling fans circulate air in a room to help keep occupants cool. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/jimkruger What does this mean for me? You may be able to keep your home cool with energy-efficient and well-placed fans. Fans are less expensive to operate than air conditioners. Circulating fans include ceiling fans, table fans, floor fans, and fans mounted to poles or walls. These fans create a wind chill effect that will make you more comfortable in your home, even if it's also cooled by natural ventilation or air conditioning. Ceiling Fans Ceiling fans are considered the most effective of these types of fans,

104

A new cylinder cooling system using oil  

SciTech Connect

The design of engine cylinders must satisfy two conflicting requirements, good cooling performance and ease of manufacture. A cooling system was designed to permit the circulation of engine lubricating oil as a coolant at high speed through grooves provided on the external periphery of the cylinder liner. Testing in an actual operating engine confirmed that this cooling system design not only provides better heat transfer and higher cooling performance but also simplifies the manufacturing of the cylinder since external cooling fins are not required. In this paper, the authors will discuss the cylinder cooling effect of the new cylinder cooling system, referring mainly to the test results of a single-cylinder motorcycle engine with lubricating oil from the crankcase used as the coolant.

Harashina, Kenichi; Murata, Katsuhiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yasuo; Hamamura, Masahiro

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Leaching of FGD Byproducts Using a CSTX  

SciTech Connect

Leaching studies of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) are often performed to determine the compatibility of the material in a particular end-use or disposal environment. Typically, these studies are conducted using either a batch or a fixed-bed column technique. Fixed-bed columns offer the advantage of a continuous flow of effluent that provides elution profiles with changing elution volume and pH. Unfortunately, clogs can form in fixed-bed leaching columns, either because of cementitious properties of the material itself, such as is seen for fluidized bed combustion (FBC) fly ash, or because of precipitate formation, such as can occur when a high-calcium ash is subjected to sulfate-containing leachates. Also, very fine-grained materials, such as gypsum, do not provide sufficient permeability for study in a fixed-bed column. A continuous, stirred-tank extractor (CSTX) is being used as an alternative technique that can provide the elution profile of column leaching but without the low permeability problems. The CSTX has been successfully employed in the leaching of flue gas desulfurization products that would not be sufficiently permeable under traditional column leaching conditions. The results indicate that the leaching behavior depends on a number of factors, including (but not limited to) solubility and neutralization capacity of the mineral phases present, sorption properties of these phases, behavior of the solubilized material in the tank, and the type of species in solution. In addition, leaching to near-exhaustion of a wallboard produced from FGD gypsum has allowed the isolation of a highly adsorptive phase. This phase appears to be present in at least some FGD gypsums and accounts for the immobilization of trace metals such as arsenic, cobalt, lead, and mercury.

Kairies, C.L.; Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Improving the Water Efficiency of Cooling Production System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For most of the time, cooling towers (CTs) of cooling systems operate under partial load conditions and by regulating the air circulation with a variable frequency drive (VFD), significant reduction in the fan power can be achieved. In Kuwait...

Maheshwari, G.; Al-Hadban, Y.; Al-Taqi, H. H.; Alasseri, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Cooling Dry Cows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This publication discusses the effects of heat stress on dairy cows, methods of cooling cows, and research on the effects of cooling cows in the dry period....

Stokes, Sandra R.

2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

108

Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project  

SciTech Connect

Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

Steve O'Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

109

Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Coolant Concentration on Sub-Cooled Boiling and Crud Deposition on Reactor Cladding at Prototypical PWR Operating Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Increasing demand for energy necessitates nuclear power units to increase power limits. This implies significant changes in the design of the core of the nuclear power units, therefore providing better performance and safety in operations. A major hindrance to the increase of nuclear reactor performance especially in Pressurized Deionized water Reactors (PWR) is Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA)--the unexpected change in the core axial power distribution during operation from the predicted distribution. This problem is thought to be occur because of precipitation and deposition of lithiated compounds like boric acid (H{sub 2}BO{sub 3}) and lithium metaborate (LiBO{sub 2}) on the fuel rod cladding. Deposited boron absorbs neutrons thereby affecting the total power distribution inside the reactor. AOA is thought to occur when there is sufficient build-up of crud deposits on the cladding during subcooled nucleate boiling. Predicting AOA is difficult as there is very little information regarding the heat and mass transfer during subcooled nucleate boiling. An experimental investigation was conducted to study the heat transfer characteristics during subcooled nucleate boiling at prototypical PWR conditions. Pool boiling tests were conducted with varying concentrations of lithium metaborate (LiBO{sub 2}) and boric acid (H{sub 2}BO{sub 3}) solutions in deionized water. The experimental data collected includes the effect of coolant concentration, subcooling, system pressure and heat flux on pool the boiling heat transfer coefficient. The analysis of particulate deposits formed on the fuel cladding surface during subcooled nucleate boiling was also performed. The results indicate that the pool boiling heat transfer coefficient degrades in the presence of boric acid and lithium metaborate compared to pure deionized water due to lesser nucleation. The pool boiling heat transfer coefficients decreased by about 24% for 5000 ppm concentrated boric acid solution and by 27% for 5000 ppm lithium metaborate solution respectively at the saturation temperature for 1000 psi (68.9 bar) coolant pressure. Boiling tests also revealed the formation of fine deposits of boron and lithium on the cladding surface which degraded the heat transfer rates. The boron and lithium metaborate precipitates after a 5 day test at 5000 ppm concentration and 1000 psi (68.9 bar) operating pressure reduced the heat transfer rate 21% and 30%, respectively for the two solutions.

Schultis, J., Kenneth; Fenton, Donald, L.

2006-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

110

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, December 1996  

SciTech Connect

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January - March 1997  

SciTech Connect

More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

NONE

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

On thermal performance of seawater cooling towers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Seawater cooling towers have been used since the 1970s in power generation and other industries, so as to reduce the consumption of freshwater. The salts in seawater are known to create a number of operational problems, ...

Sharqawy, Mostafa H.

113

Cooling Towers, The Neglected Energy Resource  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Loving care is paid to the compressors, condensers, and computer programs of refrigeration systems. When problems arise, operator: run around in circles with expensive "fixes", but historically ignore the poor orphan, the cooling tower perched...

Burger, R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Definition: Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate.[1] References ↑ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporative_cooler Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Evaporative_Cooling&oldid=601323" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes

115

Utilization of low NO{sub x} coal combustion by-products. Quarterly report, April--June 1995  

SciTech Connect

This project is studying a beneficiation process to make power plant fly ash a more useful by-product. The tasks include: (1) Laboratory characterization: Sample collection; Material characterization; and Lab testing of ash processing operations; (2) Pilot plant testing of the separation of carbon from fly ash; (3) Product testing: Concrete testing and Plastic fillers; and (4) Market and economic analysis. Appendices present information on material characterization, laboratory testing of a flotation process, pilot runs, and concrete testing results.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Grain Sorghum By-Product Feeds for Farm Animals.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of feeding trials with farm animals from 1945 throug 1951 to determine the nutritional value and feed usage of the$ bv-products. These experiments were supported in part h grants-in-aid and gifts of by-product feeds from the Cor Products Refining Company... by grants-in-aid from the Corn Products Refining Company. GRAIN SORGHUM BY-PRODUCT FEEDS FOR FARM ANIMALS GRAIN SORGHUM 80.5 million bu. I\\ \\I 30.55% total \\ WHEAT 59.6 million bu. 27.16 % total CORN / 64.3 million bu. Figure 3. Ten-year average...

1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Keeping Cool at Fermilab INSIDE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

June 28, 1996 June 28, 1996 Number 13 Keeping Cool at Fermilab INSIDE 2 University Close-Up: The University of Minnesota 6 Summer at Fermilab by Eric Berger, Office of Public Affairs As debate heats up among lawmakers on the fate of the nation's helium reserve, Fermilab researchers prepare for a long, cold summer. How cold? Minus 450 degrees Fahrenheit-the temperature of the liquid helium that cools the Tevatron's supercon- ducting magnets. Proposed congressional changes to the 1960 Helium Act, however, could ultimately affect Fermilab's vital cooling operation, which uses 13 million cubic feet of gaseous helium annually. Electric current travels through a supercon- ductor friction-free, like skaters on smooth ice, allowing physicists to run accelerators at higher f energies, while using far less electricity than

118

Installation of Cool Roofs on Department of Energy Buildings...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Documents & Publications Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs CX-002735: Categorical Exclusion Determination 2010 Annual Planning Summary for Savannah River Operations Office (SRS)...

119

Performance Analysis of XCPC Powered Solar Cooling Demonstration Project.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A solar thermal cooling system using novel non-tracking External Compound Parabolic Concentrators (XCPC) has been built at the University of California, Merced and operated for… (more)

Widyolar, Bennett

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

condensation in winter, reduced life and reliability of ventilation equipment, and high repair bills cooling and heating systems. VENTILATION SYSTEMS The operating efficiency of a ventilation fan can be pockets of stagnant air, inadequate cooling from evaporative cooling pads, high heating expenses, heavy

Watson, Craig A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Enhanced cooling of atoms within an optical cavity  

SciTech Connect

We study enhanced cooling of atoms within an optical cavity using feedback and a time-dependent pump source. The two approaches operate on the same principle by increasing the modulation of the optical potential induced by atomic motion in the cavity. We show that cooling time can be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude over conventional cavity cooling.

Lu, W.; Barker, P.F. [Physics, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

The Origin of Ripples in Cool Cores of Galaxy Clusters: Heating by MHD Waves?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider MHD waves as a heating source of cool cores of galaxy clusters. In particular, we focus on transverse waves (Alfven waves), because they can propagate a longer distance than longitudinal waves (sound waves). Using MHD simulations, we found that the transverse waves can stably heat a cool core if the wave period is large enough (>~ 10^8 yr). Moreover, the longitudinal waves that are created as a by-product of the nonlinear evolution of the transverse waves could be observed as the 'ripples' found in cool cores.

Yutaka Fujita; Takeru K. Suzuki; Takahiro Kudoh; Takaaki Yokoyama

2007-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

123

Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. EPA has issued a final regulation for control of mercury from coal-fired power plants. An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. These adulterated by-products, both ashes and FGD material, represent the greatest challenge to the DOE goal of increased utilization of by-products. The degree of stability of capture by-products and their potential for release of mercury can have a large economic impact on material sales or the approach to disposal. One of the considerations for mercury control technology is the potential trade-off between effective but temporary mercury capture and less effective but more permanent sequestration. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed aqueous leaching procedures on a select subset of the available sample pairs. This report describes batch leaching results for mercury, arsenic, and selenium.

Hesbach, P.A.; Kachur, E.K.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Coal combustion by-products: State regulatory overview  

SciTech Connect

Coal combustion by-products (CCBs) are generated from the combustion of coal for energy production. Approximately 82 million tons of CCBs are produced each year by electric utilities. (1991 Coal Combustion By-Product Production and Use, American Coal Ash Association, 1992.) There are several common types of CCBs produced by coal combustion--fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, flue gas desulfurization material (FGD) and fluidized bed combustion byproducts (FBC). Some CCBs, such as fly ash, have pozzolanic properties and may have cementitious properties, both of which are advantageous for engineering, construction and waste remediation applications. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) in ASTM C-618 has created two classifications of useful and quality coal ash, Class F ash and Class C ash. Each class of coal ash has different pozzolanic and cementitious characteristics. Coal ash can be utilized in many manufacturing, mining, agricultural, engineering, construction and waste remediation applications. This is a review by state of regulations concerning coal combustion by-products.

Jagiella, D. [Howard and Howard Attorneys, Peoria, IL (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Environmentally Safe, Large Volume Utilization Applications for Gasification Byproducts  

SciTech Connect

Samples of gasification by-products produced at Polk Station and Eastman Chemical were obtained and characterized. Bulk samples were prepared for utilization studies by screening at the appropriate size fractions where char and vitreous frit distinctly partitioned. Vitreous frit was concentrated in the +20 mesh fraction while char predominated in the -20+100 mesh fraction. The vitreous frit component derived from each gasifier slag source was evaluated for use as a pozzolan and as aggregate. Pozzolan testing required grinding the frit to very fine sizes which required a minimum of 60 kwhr/ton. Grinding studies showed that the energy requirement for grinding the Polk slag were slightly higher than for the Eastman slag. Fine-ground slag from both gasifiers showed pozzoalnic activity in mortar cube testing and met the ASTM C618 strength requirements after only 3 days. Pozzolanic activity was further examined using British Standard 196-5, and results suggest that the Polk slag was more reactive than the Eastman slag. Neither aggregate showed significant potential for undergoing alkali-silica reactions when used as concrete aggregate with ASTM test method 1260. Testing was conducted to evaluate the use of the frit product as a component of cement kiln feed. The clinker produced was comprised primarily of the desirable components Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} and Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} after raw ingredient proportions were adjusted to reduce the amount of free lime present in the clinker. A mobile processing plant was designed to produce 100 tons of carbon from the Eastman slag to conduct evaluations for use as recycle fuel. The processing plant was mounted on a trailer and hauled to the site for use. Two product stockpiles were generated; the frit stockpile contained 5% LOI while the carbon stockpile contained 62% LOI. The products were used to conduct recycle fuel tests. A processing plant was designed to separate the slag produced at Eastman into 3 usable products. The coarse frit has been shown to be suitable for use as clinker feed for producing Portland cement. The intermediate-size product is enriched in carbon (58-62% C) and may be used as recycle fuel either in the gasifier or in a PC boiler. The fines product contains 30-40% C and may also be used as a recycle gasifier fuel, as is presently done at TECO's Polk Station, however, due to gasifier operating requirements for the production of syngas, this is not feasible at Eastman.

J.G. Groppo; R. Rathbone

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

127

Cooling system for a nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooling system for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed which includes at least one primary cooling loop adapted to pass coolant gas from the reactor core and an associated steam generator through a duct system having a main circulator therein, and at least one auxiliary cooling loop having communication with the reactor core and adapted to selectively pass coolant gas through an auxiliary heat exchanger and circulator. The main and auxiliary circulators are installed in a common vertical cavity in the reactor vessel, and a common return duct communicates with the reactor core and intersects the common cavity at a junction at which is located a flow diverter valve operative to effect coolant flow through either the primary or auxiliary cooling loops.

Amtmann, Hans H. (Rancho Santa Fe, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Succinic Acid as a Byproduct in a Corn-based Ethanol Biorefinery  

SciTech Connect

MBI endeavored to develop a process for succinic acid production suitable for integration into a corn-based ethanol biorefinery. The project investigated the fermentative production of succinic acid using byproducts of corn mill operations. The fermentation process was attuned to include raw starch, endosperm, as the sugar source. A clean-not-sterile process was established to treat the endosperm and release the monomeric sugars. We developed the fermentation process to utilize a byproduct of corn ethanol fermentations, thin stillage, as the source of complex nitrogen and vitamin components needed to support succinic acid production in A. succinogenes. Further supplementations were eliminated without lowering titers and yields and a productivity above 0.6 g l-1 hr-1was achieved. Strain development was accomplished through generation of a recombinant strain that increased yields of succinic acid production. Isolation of additional strains with improved features was also pursued and frozen stocks were prepared from enriched, characterized cultures. Two recovery processes were evaluated at pilot scale and data obtained was incorporated into our economic analyses.

MBI International

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

129

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) Place Livermore, California Zip 94550 Product CoolEarth is a concentrated PV developer using inflatable concentrators to focus light onto triple-junction cells. References CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) is a company located in Livermore, California . References ↑ "CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=CoolEarth_formerly_Cool_Earth_Solar&oldid=343892" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

130

Rapid Batch Characterization of Coal Utilization By-Products  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Batch Characterization Batch Characterization of Coal Utilization By-Products Peter A. Hesbach 1 *, Alexander S. P. Abel 2 Ann G. Kim 3 , and Steven C. Lamey 4 1 U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 USA; 2 NETL Site Support Contractor, Parsons, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, Morgantown, WV 26505 USA; 3 U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory Post-Doctoral Fellow, 626 Cochrans Mill Road, P.O. Box 10940, Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 USA; 4 retired, U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV USA (* author for correspondence, phone: 304-285-4443, fax: 304-285-4487, e-mail: peter.hesbach@netl.doe.gov) KEYWORDS: leaching methods, ash characterization, coal utilization by-products

131

Mineral Sequestration Utilizing Industrial By-Products, Residues, and Minerals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

J. Fauth and Yee Soong J. Fauth and Yee Soong U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Pittsburgh PA, 15236-0940 Mineral Sequestration Workshop National Energy Technology Laboratory August 8, 2001 Mineral Sequestration Utilizing Industrial By-Products, Residues, and Minerals Mineral Sequestration Workshop, U.S. Department of Energy, NETL, August 8, 2001 Overview * Introduction - Objective - Goals - NETL Facilities * Effect of Solution Chemistry on Carbonation Efficiency - Buffered Solution + NaCl - Buffered Solution + MEA * Effect of Pretreatment on Carbonation Efficiency - Thermal Treatments - Chemical Treatments * Carbonation Reaction with Ultramafic Minerals - Serpentine - Olivine Mineral Sequestration Workshop, U.S. Department of Energy, NETL, August 8, 2001 Overview * Carbonation Reaction with Industrial By-products

132

Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010; 5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Blast Pulping Liquor NAICS Furnace/Coke Petroleum or Wood Chips, Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total Oven Gases Waste Gas Coke Black Liquor Bark Total United States 311 Food 11 0 7 0 0 1 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 5 0 2 0 0 * 311221 Wet Corn Milling * 0 * 0 0 0 31131 Sugar Manufacturing * 0 * 0 0 * 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 1 0 1 0 0 0 3115 Dairy Products 1 0 1 0 0 0 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing 4 0 4 0 0 * 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 3 0 2 0 0 1 3121 Beverages 3 0 2 0 0 1 3122 Tobacco 0 0 0 0 0 0 313 Textile Mills 0 0 0 0 0 0 314 Textile Product Mills

133

Psychrometric Bin Analysis for Alternative Cooling Strategies in Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

Data centers are significant energy users and require continuous cooling to maintain high levels of computing performance. The majority of data centers have direct-expansion cooling which typically accounts for approximately 50% of the energy usage of data centers. However, using typical meteorological year 3 (TMY3) weather data and a simple psychometric bin analysis, alternative cooling strategies using a combination of economizer, evaporative, and supplemental DX cooling have been shown to be applicable in all climate zones in the United States. Average data center cooling energy savings across the U.S. was approximately 80%. Analysis of cooling energy savings is presented for various ASHRAE climate zones. The psychometric bin analysis is conducted for the ASHRAE recommended and allowable operating environment zones, as well as, a modified allowable operating environment. Control strategies are discussed. Finally, examples of energy efficient data centers using alternative cooling strategies are presented.

Metzger, I.; VanGeet, O.; Rockenbaugh, C.; Dean, J.; Kurnik, C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Gas turbine cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

District cooling gets hot  

SciTech Connect

Utilities across the country are adopting cool storage methods, such as ice-storage and chilled-water tanks, as an economical and environmentally safe way to provide cooling for cities and towns. The use of district cooling, in which cold water or steam is pumped to absorption chillers and then to buildings via a central community chiller plant, is growing strongly in the US. In Chicago, San Diego, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and elsewhere, independent district-energy companies and utilities are refurbishing neglected district-heating systems and adding district cooling, a technology first developed approximately 35 years ago.

Seeley, R.S.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Logistics: Keeping cool  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. 10.1038/507S8aLogistics: Keeping cool NeilSavageN

Neil Savage

2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

137

Cooling System Analysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ABSTRACT This master thesis report describes the behavior of a cooling system based on the power consumption and power losses during the velocity range. The… (more)

Cruz, João Pedro Brás da

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Title Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBL-19734 Year of Publication 1985 Authors Arasteh, Dariush K., Russell Johnson, Stephen E. Selkowitz, and Deborah J. Connell Conference Name 2nd Annual Symposium on Improving Building Energy Efficiency in Hot and Humid Climates Date Published 09/1985 Conference Location Texas A&M University Call Number LBL-19734 Abstract Fenestration performance in nonresidentialsbuildings in hot climates is often a large coolingsload liability. Proper fenestration design andsthe use of daylight-responsive dimming controls onselectric lights can, in addition to drasticallysreducing lighting energy, lower cooling loads,speak electrical demand, operating costs, chillerssizes, and first costs. Using the building energyssimulation programs DOE-2.1B and DOE-2.1C , wesfirst discuss lighting energy savings from daylighting.sThe effects of fenestration parametersson cooling loads, total energy use, peak demand,schiller sizes, and initial and operating costs aresalso discussed. The impact of daylighting, asscompared to electric lighting, on cooling requirementssis discussed as a function of glazingscharacteristics, location, and shading systems.

139

Cool Earth Solar  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

140

Very Cool Close Binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present new observations of cool <6000K and low mass <1Msun binary systems that have been discovered by searching several modern stellar photometric databases. The search has led to a factor of 10 increase in the number of known cool close eclipsing binary systems.

J. Scott Shaw; Mercedes Lopez-Morales

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Secondary condenser Cooling water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Receiver Secondary condenser LC LC Reboiler TC PC Cooling water PC FCPC Condenser LC XC Throttling valve ¨ mx my l© ª y s § y m «¬ ly my wx l n® ® x np © ¯ Condenser Column Compressor Receiver Super-heater Decanter Secondary condenser Reboiler Throttling valve Expansion valve Cooling water

Skogestad, Sigurd

142

Elastic Metal Alloy Refrigerants: Thermoelastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: UMD is developing an energy-efficient cooling system that eliminates the need for synthetic refrigerants that harm the environment. More than 90% of the cooling and refrigeration systems in the U.S. today use vapor compression systems which rely on liquid to vapor phase transformation of synthetic refrigerants to absorb or release heat. Thermoelastic cooling systems, however, use a solid-state material—an elastic shape memory metal alloy—as a refrigerant and a solid to solid phase transformation to absorb or release heat. UMD is developing and testing shape memory alloys and a cooling device that alternately absorbs or creates heat in much the same way as a vapor compression system, but with significantly less energy and a smaller operational footprint.

None

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Home Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Cooling Home Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Learn how to avoid heat buildup and keep your home cool with ventilation. Read more Cooling with a Whole House Fan A whole-house fan, in combination with other cooling systems, can meet all or most of your home cooling needs year round. Read more Although your first thought for cooling may be air conditioning, there are many alternatives that provide cooling with less energy use. You might also consider fans, evaporative coolers, or heat pumps as your primary means of cooling. In addition, a combination of proper insulation, energy-efficient windows and doors, daylighting, shading, and ventilation will usually keep homes cool with a low amount of energy use in all but the hottest climates. Although ventilation is not an effective cooling strategy in hot, humid

144

Cool Roof Colored Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Roof Colored Materials Cool Roof Colored Materials Speaker(s): Hashem Akbari Date: May 29, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% can reduce cooling-energy use in buildings in excess of 20%. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning and retards smog formation. Reflective roofing products currently available in the market are typically used for low-sloped roofs. For the residential buildings with steep-sloped roofs, non-white (colored) cool roofing products are generally not available and most consumers prefer colors other than white. In this collaborative project LBNL and ORNL are working with the roofing industry to develop and produce reflective, colored roofing products and make yhrm a market reality within three to

145

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

146

Cooling of neutron stars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On the basis of current physical understanding, it is impossible to predict with confidence the interior constitution of neutron stars. Cooling of neutron stars provides a possible way of discriminating among possible states of matter within them. In the standard picture of cooling by neutrino emission developed over the past quarter of a century, neutron stars are expected to cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and to cool faster if matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been called into question by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

C. J. Pethick

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a trade-off between cooling power and faster reaction time,a trade-off between cooling power and faster reaction time,derived potential peak cooling power of 77 W/m 2 (24 Btu/hr-

Moore, Timothy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

DOE/EA-1498: Advanced Coal Utilization Byproduct Beneficiation Processing Plant Ghent Power Station, Carroll County, Kentucky (01/05)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EA-1498 EA-1498 Advanced Coal Utilization Byproduct Beneficiation Processing Plant Ghent Power Station, Carroll County, Kentucky Final Environmental Assessment January 2005 Note: No comments were received during the public comment period from September 25 to October 25, 2004. Therefore, no changes to the Draft Environmental Assessment were necessary. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Cover Sheet Proposed Action: The proposed Federal action is to provide funding, through a cooperative agreement with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation (UKRF), Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), for the design, construction, and operation of an advanced coal ash beneficiation processing plant at Kentucky Utilities (KU) Ghent Power Station in Carroll County, Kentucky.

149

RHIC stochastic cooling motion control  

SciTech Connect

Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beams are subject to Intra-Beam Scattering (IBS) that causes an emittance growth in all three-phase space planes. The only way to increase integrated luminosity is to counteract IBS with cooling during RHIC stores. A stochastic cooling system for this purpose has been developed, it includes moveable pick-ups and kickers in the collider that require precise motion control mechanics, drives and controllers. Since these moving parts can limit the beam path aperture, accuracy and reliability is important. Servo, stepper, and DC motors are used to provide actuation solutions for position control. The choice of motion stage, drive motor type, and controls are based on needs defined by the variety of mechanical specifications, the unique performance requirements, and the special needs required for remote operations in an accelerator environment. In this report we will describe the remote motion control related beam line hardware, position transducers, rack electronics, and software developed for the RHIC stochastic cooling pick-ups and kickers.

Gassner, D.; DeSanto, L.; Olsen, R.H.; Fu, W.; Brennan, J.M.; Liaw, CJ; Bellavia, S.; Brodowski, J.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

150

SPL RF Coupler Cooling Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy saving is an important challenge in accelerator design. In this framework, reduction of heat loads in a cryomodule is of fundamental importance due to the small thermodynamic efficiency of cooling at low temperatures. In particular, care must be taken during the design of its critical components (e.g. RF couplers, coldwarm transitions). In this framework, the main RF coupler of the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) cryomodule at CERN will not only be used for RF powering but also as the main mechanical support of the superconducting cavities. These two functions have to be accomplished while ensuring the lowest heat in-leak to the helium bath at 2 K. In the SPL design, the RF coupler outer conductor is composed of two walls and cooled by forced convection with helium gas at 4.5 K. Analytical, semi-analytical and numerical analyses are presented in order to defend the choice of gas cooling. Temperature profiles and thermal performance have been evaluated for different operating conditions; a sensitivit...

Bonomi, R; Montesinos, E; Parma, V; Vande Craen, A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Energy Star Building Upgrade Manual Heating and Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9. Heating and 9. Heating and Cooling Revised January 2008 9.1 Overview 2 9.2 Central Cooling Systems 3 Chiller Plant Operations and Maintenance 4 Chiller Plant Retrofits 6 9.3 Central Heating Systems 10 Boiler System Operations and Maintenance 11 Boiler System Retrofits 11 Improving Furnace Efficiency 13 9.4 Unitary Systems 14 Packaged Rooftop Units 16 Split-System Packaged Units 18 Air-Source Heat Pumps 18 Ground-Source, Closed-Loop Heat Pumps 19 9.5 Additional Strategies 20 Air-Side Economizer 20 Energy Recovery 20 Desiccant Dehumidification 20 Night Precooling 21 Cool Storage 22 Evaporative Cooling 22 9.6 Summary 22 Bibliography 23 Glossary G-1 1 ENERGY STAR ® Building Manual ENERGY STAR ® Building Manual 9. Heating and Cooling 9.1 Overview Although heating and cooling systems provide a useful service by keeping occupants comfort-

152

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: CBE UFAD Cooling Design Tool  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CBE UFAD Cooling Design Tool CBE UFAD Cooling Design Tool CBE UFAD Cooling Design Tool logo The Center for the Built Environment's research team has developed a simplified, practical design procedure and associated software tool to determine cooling load requirements of underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems. These are provided to improve the accuracy of airflow, thermal decay data, thermal comfort calculations, system design, and the operation of UFAD buildings. Screen Shots Keywords UFAD, underfloor, Cooling load calculator, cooling, stratification, thermal comfort Validation/Testing N/A Expertise Required Knowledge about cooling load calculation and UFAD. Users N/A Audience Practicing architects and engineers involved in the design, specification, and analysis of UFADs. Instructional tool in colleges and universities.

153

Best Management Practice: Single-Pass Cooling Equipment | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Single-Pass Cooling Equipment Single-Pass Cooling Equipment Best Management Practice: Single-Pass Cooling Equipment October 8, 2013 - 9:37am Addthis Single-pass or once-through cooling systems provide an opportunity for significant water savings. In these systems, water is circulated once through a piece of equipment and is then disposed down the drain. Types of equipment that typically use single-pass cooling include CAT scanners, degreasers, hydraulic equipment, condensers, air compressors, welding machines, vacuum pumps, ice machines, x-ray equipment, and air conditioners. To remove the same heat load, single-pass systems use 40 times more water than a cooling tower operated at five cycles of concentration. To maximize water savings, single-pass cooling equipment should be either modified to

154

E-Print Network 3.0 - arc-induced toxic by-products Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

as by-products and thus be affected by an allocation coefficient. Indeed, in LCA when a produc- tion Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection:...

155

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced byproduct recovery Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dryer Wastes", EPRI CS-5782, May 1988. (5) ICF... Center for By-Products Utilization CLEAN COAL ... Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department of Civil Engineering and...

156

Gas-cooled nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-cooled nuclear reactor includes a central core located in the lower portion of a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Primary coolant gas flows upward through the core and into four overlying heat-exchangers wherein stream is generated. During normal operation, the return flow of coolant is between the core and the vessel sidewall to a pair of motor-driven circulators located at about the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel. The circulators repressurize the gas coolant and return it back to the core through passageways in the underlying core structure. If during emergency conditions the primary circulators are no longer functioning, the decay heat is effectively removed from the core by means of natural convection circulation. The hot gas rising through the core exits the top of the shroud of the heat-exchangers and flows radially outward to the sidewall of the concrete pressure vessel. A metal liner covers the entire inside concrete surfaces of the concrete pressure vessel, and cooling tubes are welded to the exterior or concrete side of the metal liner. The gas coolant is in direct contact with the interior surface of the metal liner and transfers its heat through the metal liner to the liquid coolant flowing through the cooling tubes. The cooler gas is more dense and creates a downward convection flow in the region between the core and the sidewall until it reaches the bottom of the concrete pressure vessel when it flows radially inward and up into the core for another pass. Water is forced to flow through the cooling tubes to absorb heat from the core at a sufficient rate to remove enough of the decay heat created in the core to prevent overheating of the core or the vessel.

Peinado, Charles O. (La Jolla, CA); Koutz, Stanley L. (San Diego, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Electronic Cooling in Graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy transfer to acoustic phonons is the dominant low-temperature cooling channel of electrons in a crystal. For cold neutral graphene we find that the weak cooling power of its acoustic modes relative to their heat capacity leads to a power-law decay of the electronic temperature when far from equilibrium. For heavily doped graphene a high electronic temperature is shown to initially decrease linearly with time at a rate proportional to n3/2 with n being the electronic density. The temperature at which cooling via optical phonon emission begins to dominate depends on graphene carrier density.

R. Bistritzer and A. H. MacDonald

2009-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

158

Multiphase cooling flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I discuss the multiphase nature of the intracluster medium whose neglect can lead to overestimates of the baryon fraction of clusters by up to a factor of two. The multiphase form of the cooling flow equations are derived and reduced to a simple form for a wide class of self-similar density distributions. It is shown that steady-state cooling flows are \\emph{not} consistent with all possible emissivity profiles which can therefore be used as a test of the theory. In combination, they provide strong constraints on the mass distribution within the cooling radius.

Peter A. Thomas

1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

159

NETL: IEP - Coal Utilization By-Products : Regulatory Drivers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regulatory Drivers Regulatory Drivers Since 1993, Federal Regulations have treated the four major large-volume CUB's -- fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts -- as solid wastes that do not warrant regulation as hazardous wastes under Subtitle C of RCRA, as long as these CUBÂ’s were not co-managed with other waste materials. On May 22, 2000, EPA published a final Regulatory Determination [PDF-320KB] that retained the hazardous waste exemption for coal utilization by-products. EPA has concluded that fossil fuel combustion wastes do not warrant regulation as hazardous under Subtitle C of RCRA and is retaining the hazardous waste exemption for these wastes. However, the Agency has determined that national non-hazardous waste regulations under RCRA Subtitle D are needed for coal combustion wastes disposed in surface impoundments and landfills and used as minefilling. EPA also concluded beneficial uses of these wastes, other than for minefilling, pose no significant risk and no additional national regulations are needed. This determination affects more than 110 million tons of fossil fuel combustion wastes that are generated each year, virtually all from burning coal.

160

Radiant Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

hours, reducing the electrical demand on electric utilities. Learn More Home Cooling Systems References Final Report Compilation for Residential Hydronic Radiant Cooling and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

162

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

163

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

164

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

165

Sisyphus Cooling of Lithium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser cooling to sub-Doppler temperatures by optical molasses is thought to be inhibited in atoms with unresolved, near-degenerate hyperfine structure in the excited state. We demonstrate that such cooling is possible in one to three dimensions, not only near the standard D2 line for laser cooling, but over a range extending to the D1 line. Via a combination of Sisyphus cooling followed by adiabatic expansion, we reach temperatures as low as 40 \\mu K, which corresponds to atomic velocities a factor of 2.6 above the limit imposed by a single photon recoil. Our method requires modest laser power at a frequency within reach of standard frequency locking methods. It is largely insensitive to laser power, polarization and detuning, magnetic fields, and initial hyperfine populations. Our results suggest that optical molasses should be possible with all alkali species.

Paul Hamilton; Geena Kim; Trinity Joshi; Biswaroop Mukherjee; Daniel Tiarks; Holger Müller

2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

166

HomeCooling101  

Energy Savers (EERE)

openings to prevent warm air from leaking into your home. Insulate and seal ducts -- air loss through ducts accounts for about 30 percent of a cooling system's energy consumption....

167

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

168

Laser cooling of solids  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

170

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

Pendergrass, J.C.

1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

171

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Methods and apparatus for cooling electronics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus are provided for choosing an energy-efficient coolant temperature for electronics by considering the temperature dependence of the electronics' power dissipation. This dependence is explicitly considered in selecting the coolant temperature T.sub.0 that is sent to the equipment. To minimize power consumption P.sub.Total for the entire system, where P.sub.Total=P.sub.0+P.sub.Cool is the sum of the electronic equipment's power consumption P.sub.0 plus the cooling equipment's power consumption P.sub.Cool, P.sub.Total is obtained experimentally, by measuring P.sub.0 and P.sub.Cool, as a function of three parameters: coolant temperature T.sub.0; weather-related temperature T.sub.3 that affects the performance of free-cooling equipment; and computational state C of the electronic equipment, which affects the temperature dependence of its power consumption. This experiment provides, for each possible combination of T.sub.3 and C, the value T.sub.0* of T.sub.0 that minimizes P.sub.Total. During operation, for any combination of T.sub.3 and C that occurs, the corresponding optimal coolant temperature T.sub.0* is selected, and the cooling equipment is commanded to produce it.

Hall, Shawn Anthony; Kopcsay, Gerard Vincent

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

173

Table N5.1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," ",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars","RSE" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste","Row"

174

The staged cooling process: A practical approach to zero wastewater discharge  

SciTech Connect

Staged cooling is an established, low cost zero wastewater discharge technology that maximizes water reuse and recycle in industrial water cooling applications by extending the evaporative cooling process. Water usage is minimized and 200 to 300 cycles of concentration are possible while protecting the primary process cooling systems from the perils of excessive conductivity and/or hardness. The process is currently operating in eight power plants and has over 200,000 accumulative operating hours with excellent results. A ninth plant is due to begin operation in early 1996. Staged cooling uses two or three hydraulically isolated evaporative cooling loops. Primary, secondary and waste water (brine) cooling loops are characterized by low, intermediate, and high (brine) mineral concentrations. Depending on the water chemistry and the power plant configuration, staged cooling systems have primary/secondary, primary/brine, or primary/secondary/brine configurations.

Sanderson, W.G.; Lancaster, R.L. [Eautech, Redmond, WA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

175

NETL: IEP - Coal Utilization By-Products - Utilization Projects -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

University of North Dakota, EERC - Table of Contents University of North Dakota, EERC - Table of Contents Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Stabilizing Feedlots Using Coal Ash Environmental Evaluation for Utilization of Ash in Soil Stabilization Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Background CAEEC is a cooperation among industry, government, and the research community to work together to solve CCB- related problems and promote the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically viable utilization and disposal of CCBs. Objectives To improve the technical and economic aspects of coal combustion by-product (CCB) management. Description CARRC tasks fall into three general categories: Member-prioritized research tasks, Technical and administrative tasks, and Special projects that support CARRC objectives and strengthen and increase the availability of sound technical data for CARRC use.

176

Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products  

SciTech Connect

The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

NONE

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

177

Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use  

SciTech Connect

Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Numerical Simulation of Transpiration Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

University, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen SUMMARY Transpiration cooling using ceramic matrix composite (CMC

179

Air Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Air Cooling: Air cooling is commonly defined as rejecting heat from an object by flowing air over the surface of the object, through means of convection. Air cooling requires that the air must be cooler than the object or surface from which it is expected to remove heat. This is due to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that heat will only move spontaneously from a hot reservoir (the heat sink) to a cold reservoir (the air). Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Air Cooling Air Cooling Diagram of Air Cooled Condenser designed by GEA Heat Exchangers Ltd. (http://www.gea-btt.com.cn/opencms/opencms/bttc/en/Products/Air_Cooled_Condenser.html) Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a

180

Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling: Cooling: Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Water Cooling Typical water cooled condenser used for condensing steam Water or liquid cooling is the most efficient cooling method and requires the smallest footprint when cold water is readily available. When used in power generation the steam/vapor that exits the turbine is condensed back into water and reused by means of a heat exchanger. Water cooling requires a water resource that is cold enough to bring steam, typically

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Removal of selected heavy metals from aqueous solutions using a solid by-product from the Jordanian oil shale refining  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...?The potential use of treated solid by-product of oil shale to treat aqueous solutions containing several heavy ... Results indicate that the solid by-product of oil shale removes Cd(II), Cu(II),...

W. Y. Abu-El-Sha'r; S. H. Gharaibeh; M. M. Al-Kofahi

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

cooling | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

183

Optimal operation of simple vapour compression cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to a high temperature level. The first application, in 1834, was cooling to produce ice for storage of food for heating and cooling are widely used in many applications and their power ranges from less than 1 k to operate in both heating and cooling mode. A schematic drawing of a simple cycle is shown in Figure 1

Skogestad, Sigurd

184

Monolithically Peltier-cooled laser diodes  

SciTech Connect

A new method of cooling a GaAs/GaAlAs laser in an optical integrated circuit or on a discrete chip, by adding an integral thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling and heat spreading device to the laser, is presented. This cooling both reduces and stabilizes the laser junction temperature to minimize such deleterious effects as wavelength drift due to heating. A unified description of the electrical and thermal properties of a monolithic semiconductor mesa structure is given. Here it is shown that an improvement in thermal characteristics is obtained by depositing a relatively thick metallic layer, and by using this layer as a part of an active Peltier structure. Experimental results reveal a 14-percent increase in emitted power (external quantum efficiency) due to passive heat spreading and a further 8-percent if its Peltier cooler is operated. Fabrication techniques used to obtain devices exhibiting the above performance characteristics are given. 21 references.

Hava, S.; Hunsperger, R.G.; Sequeira, H.B.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Cooling Towers Make Money  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was hired and wrote specifications for a four cell induced draft counterflow cooling tower to cool 10,000 GPM entering at 95 0 F leaving at 85 0 F during an 80 0 F ambient wet bulb temperature. The specifications required that the bidders project a... F during an ambient wet bulb temperature of 7] OF could not be met The SuperCellular film fill, style] 3] 62 Illustration 3 was selected by the consultant because of its previous highly satisfactory service in sewage treatment trickling filter...

Burger, R.

186

Combustor liner cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

187

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Palao, J P; Gordon, J M; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Jose P. Palao; Ronnie Kosloff; Jeffrey M. Gordon

2001-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

189

A comparison of biologically active filters for the removal of ozone by-products, turbidity, and particles  

SciTech Connect

Biofiltration tests were performed at the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California`s 5.5-mgd (21,000 m{sup 3}d) demonstration plant using two 400 ft{sup 2} (37 m{sup 2}) anthracite/sand filters and a 6 ft{sup 2} (0.56 m{sup 2}) granular activated carbon (GAC)/sand filter operated in parallel. The empty-bed contact time (EBCT) within the GAC and anthracite ranged from 2.1-3.1 min. The filters were evaluated based on (1) conventional filtration performance (turbidity, particle removal, and headloss); (2) removal of biodegradable ozone by-products (assimilable organic carbon [AOC], aldehydes, and aldoketoacids) after startup; (3) removal of biodegradable ozone by-products at steady state; and (4) resistance to short-term process upsets such as intermittent chlorination or filter out-of-service time. Approximately 80 percent formaldehyde removal was achieved by the anthracite/sand filter operated at a 2.1-min EBCT (6 gpm/ft{sup 2} [15 m/h]) within 8 days of ozone operation. The GAC/sand filter operated at the same rate achieved 80 percent removal within 1 day, possibly as an additive effect of adsorption and biological removal. In-depth aldehyde monitoring at four depths (0.5-min EBCT intervals) provided additional insight into the removal kinetics. During periods of warmer water temperature, from 20 to 48 percent of the AOC was removed in the flocculation/sedimentation basins by 40-75 percent. This percentage removal typically resulted in AOC concentrations within 40 {mu}g C/L of the raw, unozonated water levels.

Coffey, B.M.; Krasner, S.W.; Sclimenti, M.J.; Hacker, P.A.; Gramith, J.T. [Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, La Verne, CA (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

191

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

Hultgren, Kent Goran (Winter Park, FL); McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Bertsch, Oran Leroy (Titusville, FL); Lowe, Perry Eugene (Oviedo, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Cooling system for internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

A cooling system for an internal combustion engine is described comprising: a head-side water jacket and a block-side water jacket made independent of each other; and a radiator and a cooling fan shared between the two water jackets. The improvement comprises: a first cooling water conduit for connecting the outlet of the head-side water jacket and the inlet of the radiator; a mixing valve having two water inlets and one water outlet; a second cooling water conduit for connecting one of the water inlets of the mixing valve and the outlet of the radiator; a third conduit for connecting the water outlet of the block-side water jacket and the remaining one of the water inlets of the mixing valve; a water pump, a fourth conduit branched midway from the second conduit and connected with the water inlet of the head-side water jacket; an auxiliary water pump; a fifth conduit branched midway from the third conduit and connected with the first conduit; one-way valve; and a control unit for controlling the mixing ratio of the mixing valve, the displacement of the auxiliary water pump and the operation of the cooling fan.

Itakura, M.

1988-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

193

Muon Beam Helical Cooling Channel Design  

SciTech Connect

The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) achieves effective ionization cooling of the six-dimensional (6d) phase space of a muon beam by means of a series of 21st century inventions. In the HCC, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities enable high RF gradients in strong external magnetic fields. The theory of the HCC, which requires a magnetic field with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components, demonstrates that dispersion in the gaseous hydrogen energy absorber provides effective emittance exchange to enable longitudinal ionization cooling. The 10-year development of a practical implementation of a muon-beam cooling device has involved a series of technical innovations and experiments that imply that an HCC of less than 300 m length can cool the 6d emittance of a muon beam by six orders of magnitude. We describe the design and construction plans for a prototype HCC module based on oxygen-doped hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities that are loaded with dielectric, fed by magnetrons, and operate in a superconducting helical solenoid magnet.

Johnson, Rolland; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Flanagan, G.; Kazakevich, G.M.; Marhauser, Frank; Neubauer, Michael; Roberts, T.; Yoshikawa, C.; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Morozov, Vasiliy; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lopes, Mattlock; Tollestrup, A.; Yonehara, Katsuya; Zloblin, A.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Hydrogen-filled RF Cavities for Muon Beam Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Ionization cooling requires low-Z energy absorbers immersed in a strong magnetic field and high-gradient, large-aperture RF cavities to be able to cool a muon beam as quickly as the short muon lifetime requires. RF cavities that operate in vacuum are vulnerable to dark-current- generated breakdown, which is exacerbated by strong magnetic fields, and they require extra safety windows that degrade cooling, to separate RF regions from hydrogen energy absorbers. RF cavities pressurized with dense hydrogen gas will be developed that use the same gas volume to provide the energy absorber and the RF acceleration needed for ionization cooling. The breakdown suppression by the dense gas will allow the cavities to operate in strong magnetic fields. Measurements of the operation of such a cavity will be made as functions of external magnetic field and charged particle beam intensity and compared with models to understand the characteristics of this technology and to develop mitigating strategies if necessary.

CHARLES, Ankenbrandt

2009-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

195

Disinfection byproducts in swimming pool: Occurrences, implications and future needs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Disinfection of swimming pool water is essential to deactivate pathogenic microorganisms. Many swimming pools apply chlorine or bromine based disinfectants to prevent microbial growth. The chlorinated swimming pool water contains higher chlorine residual and is maintained at a higher temperature than a typical drinking water distribution system. It constitutes environments with high levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in water and air as a consequence of continuous disinfection and constant organic loading from the bathers. Exposure to those \\{DBPs\\} is inevitable for any bather or trainer, while such exposures can have elevated risks to human health. To date, over 70 peer-reviewed publications have reported various aspects of swimming pool, including types and quantities of DBPs, organic loads from bathers, factors affecting \\{DBPs\\} formation in swimming pool, human exposure and their potential risks. This paper aims to review the state of research on swimming pool including with the focus of \\{DBPs\\} in swimming pools, understand their types and variability, possible health effects and analyze the factors responsible for the formation of various \\{DBPs\\} in a swimming pool. The study identifies the current challenges and future research needs to minimize \\{DBPs\\} formation in a swimming pool and their consequent negative effects to bathers and trainers.

Shakhawat Chowdhury; Khalid Alhooshani; Tanju Karanfil

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

FGD Additives to Segregate and Sequester Mercury in Solid Byproducts - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Many mercury control strategies for U.S. coal-fired power generating plants involve co-benefit capture of oxidized mercury from flue gases treated by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. For these processes to be effective at overall mercury control, the captured mercury must not be re-emitted to the atmosphere or into surface or ground water. The project sought to identify scrubber additives and FGD operating conditions under which mercury re-emissions would decrease and mercury would remain in the liquor and be blown down from the system in the chloride purge stream. After exiting the FGD system, mercury would react with precipitating agents to form stable solid byproducts and would be removed in a dewatering step. The FGD gypsum solids, free of most of the mercury, could then be disposed or processed for reuse as wallboard or in other beneficial reuse. The project comprised extensive bench-scale FGD scrubber tests in Phases I and II. During Phase II, the approaches developed at the bench scale were tested at the pilot scale. Laboratory wastewater treatment tests measured the performance of precipitating agents in removing mercury from the chloride purge stream. Finally, the economic viability of the approaches tested was evaluated.

Searcy, K.; Bltyhe, G.M.; Steen, W.A.

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

197

Solar cooling systems for climate change mitigation: A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The impact of global warming and an increase in the indoor cooling equipments using energy sources other than conventional energy have become very attractive because they can reduce consumption of fossil fuels as well as harmful emissions in to the environment. The solar energy is one of the readily available forms of renewable energy which can be used to operate the cooling equipments depending on the geographical location of the area where solar cooling system needs to be installed. The effectiveness of solar cooling also needs to be evaluated based on various performance indicating parameters. However, different types of solar collectors also need to be evaluated in order to find out their feasibility for cooling applications. Thus in this article review of different types of solar cooling technologies have been carried out. The study reveals that evacuated tube collectors are best option for solar cooling where as desiccant cooling helps in improving the indoor air quality. Also, thermal energy storage and ejector based solar cooling efficiently improves the performance besides energy saving.

S. Anand; A. Gupta; S.K. Tyagi

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR BUNCHED BEAMS.  

SciTech Connect

Problems associated with bunched beam stochastic cooling are reviewed. A longitudinal stochastic cooling system for RHIC is under construction and has been partially commissioned. The state of the system and future plans are discussed.

BLASKIEWICZ, M.

2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

199

Cooling Tower Inspection with Scuba  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A serious problem of scale and other solid material settling in heat transfer equipment was threatening to shut down our ethylene plant. All evidence pointed to the cooling tower as the source of the contamination. Visual inspection of the cooling...

Brenner, W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Cooling power of quenching oils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Industrial oils 20 and 20V have the best cooling powers of all quenching oils (used in the USSR). They secure high cooling rates at low temperatures, have a satisfactory...

L. V. Petrash

1959-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by  the  power  distribution  and  cooling  systems.  The  the  power   distribution  and  cooling  infrastructure  IT  power  consumed  along  with   the  cooling  required  

Coles, Henry

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Evaluation of the cooling fan efficiency index.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Figure 3. Fan power versus cooling fan the computer fanparameters (cooling effect, fan power and CFE) involved inthat the typical power consumption of cooling fans is lower

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

NETL: IEP - Coal Utilization By-Products Current Regulations Governing Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Products Products Current Regulations Governing Coal Combustion By-Products - Database of State Regulations Database of State Regulations Affecting Disposal and Utilization of Coal Combustion By-Products A Summary Provided by the National Energy Technology Laboratory and the American Coal Ash Association Coal Combustion By-Products (CCBs) are generated when coal is used to generate electricity and power industrial processes. Tens of millions of tons of these materials are produced each year. Many uses of these byproducts are possible, but currently most of them wind up in landfills. Previous work at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) identified regulatory issues as one factor preventing more widespread reuse of CCBs. CCBs are generally regulated by state authorities, and the various states have developed widely differing rules. This web site was developed as one way to help CCB generators, users, and regulators share information across state boundaries.

204

Case Study of Optimal Byproduct Gas Distribution in Integrated Steel Mill Using Multi-Period Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

? ? ? Case Study of Optimal Byproduct Gas Distribution in Integrated Steel Mill Using Multi-Period Optimization KIMMO M?KINEN BUSINESS MANAGER TONI KYM?L?INEN PRODUCT MANAGER JAAKKO JUNTTILA SALES MANAGER ABB OY HELSINKI FINLAND...

Makinen, K.; Kymalainen, T.; Junttila, J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

PRODUCTION OF LOW-ENERGY, 100% BY-PRODUCT CEMENT UTILIZING COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The ever-increasing quantity of by-products generated from burning coal in the production of electricity has brought about the need for new areas of utilization. This… (more)

Rust, David E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Structure of aluminum hydroxide powders obtained as a byproduct of hydrogen fuel production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The structure of aluminum hydroxide powders obtained as byproducts of hydrogen fuel production was investigated. One of the main initial components comprised aluminum-magnesium chips with 0.6, 6 and 12 wt.% ma...

A. D. Shlyapin; A. Yu. Omarov; V. P. Tarasovskii; Yu. G. Trifonov

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Optimization of compost fermentation of glycerol by-product discharged from biodiesel fuel production process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Development of a cheap system for reuse of glycerol by-product discharged from the biodiesel fuel (BDF) production process is needed in parallel with development of ... in the compost. Finally, a material cost evaluation

Yuta Sadano; Ryota Toshimitsu; Jiro Kohda…

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Cooling by heating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce the idea of actually cooling quantum systems by means of incoherent thermal light, hence giving rise to a counter-intuitive mechanism of "cooling by heating". In this effect, the mere incoherent occupation of a quantum mechanical mode serves as a trigger to enhance the coupling between other modes. This notion of effectively rendering states more coherent by driving with incoherent thermal quantum noise is applied here to the opto-mechanical setting, where this effect occurs most naturally. We discuss two ways of describing this situation, one of them making use of stochastic sampling of Gaussian quantum states with respect to stationary classical stochastic processes. The potential of experimentally demonstrating this counter-intuitive effect in opto-mechanical systems with present technology is sketched.

A. Mari; J. Eisert

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Heating and cooling system  

SciTech Connect

Heating and cooling of dwelling houses and other confined spaces is facilitated by a system in which thermal energy is transported between an air heating and cooling system in the dwelling and a water heat storage sink or source, preferably in the form of a swimming pool or swimming pool and spa combination. Special reversing valve circuitry and the use of solar collectors and liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers on the liquid side of the system , and special air valves and air modules on the air side of the system, enhance the system's efficiency and make it practical in the sense that systems employing the invention can utilize existing craft skills and building financing arrangements and building codes, and the like, without major modification.

Krumhansl, M.U.

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

210

Conduction cooled tube supports  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Turbine cooling waxy oil  

SciTech Connect

A process for pipelining a waxy oil to essentially eliminate deposition of wax on the pipeline wall is described comprising: providing a pressurized mixture of the waxy oil and a gas; effecting a sudden pressure drop of the mixture of the oil and the gas through an expansion turbine, thereby expanding the gas and quickly cooling the oil to below its cloud point in the substantial absence of wax deposition and forming a slurry of wax particles and oil; and pipelining the slurry.

Geer, J.S.

1987-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

212

Optimum energy and by-product recovery in chlorinated hydrocarbon disposal systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper covers the three principal areas of a chlorinated hydrocarbon waste disposal system for a typical vinyl chloride monomer facility. These are the incineration, the energy recovery system, and the by-product recovery system. It is shown that the overall efficiency of the energy and by-product recovery systems is dependent on the optimization of the primary combustor (incineration system). 11 refs.

Santoleri, J.J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Direct-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Direct-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate project is to reduce the size and weight of the heat sink for power electronics used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The concept proposed in this project was to develop an innovative power electronics mounting structure, model it, and perform both thermal and mechanical finite-element analysis (FEA). This concept involved integrating cooling channels within the direct-bonded copper (DBC) substrate and strategically locating these channels underneath the power electronic devices. This arrangement would then be directly cooled by water-ethylene glycol (WEG), essentially eliminating the conventional heat sink and associated heat flow path. The concept was evaluated to determine its manufacturability, its compatibility with WEG, and the potential to reduce size and weight while directly cooling the DBC and associated electronics with a coolant temperature of 105 C. This concept does not provide direct cooling to the electronics, only direct cooling inside the DBC substrate itself. These designs will take into account issues such as containment of the fluid (separation from the electronics) and synergy with the whole power inverter design architecture. In FY 2008, mechanical modeling of substrate and inverter core designs as well as thermal and mechanical stress FEA modeling of the substrate designs was performed, along with research into manufacturing capabilities and methods that will support the substrate designs. In FY 2009, a preferred design(s) will be fabricated and laboratory validation testing will be completed. In FY 2010, based on the previous years laboratory testing, the mechanical design will be modified and the next generation will be built and tested in an operating inverter prototype.

Wiles, R.; Ayers, C.; Wereszczak, A.

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

214

TEST PLAN FOR MONITORING COOLING COILS IN A LABORATORY SETTING  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project is to understand and quantify the moisture removal performance of cooling coils at part-load conditions. The project will include a comprehensive literature review, detailed measurement of cooling coil performance in a laboratory facility, monitoring cooling systems at several field test sites, and development/validation of engineering models that can be used in energy calculations and building simulations. This document contains the detailed test plan for monitoring cooling coil performance in a laboratory setting. Detailed measurements will be taken on up to 10 direct expansion (DX) and chilled water cooling coils in various configurations to understand the impact of coil geometry and operating conditions on transient moisture condensation and evaporation.

Don B. Shirey, III

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

The Integration of Cogeneration and Space Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

associated space cool- ing is essentially cost free. FIGURE B In hot and humid climates, both air conditioning and humidity control are required. The thermal out- put of a cogeneration unit provides the heat neces- sary to power an absorption chiller... absorption chiller/heaters are in operation within the U.S.; 10,000 tons are oper- ating in the Gulf Coast, a hot and humid climate area. Cogeneration saw a resurgence in the early 1980s, but its growth was limited mostly to in- dustrial plants...

Phillips, J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Process study and exergy analysis of a novel air separation process cooled by LNG cold energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to resolve the problems of the current air separation process such as the complex process, cumbersome operation and high operating costs, a novel air separation process cooled by LNG cold energy is propo...

Wendong Xu; Jiao Duan; Wenjun Mao

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device H.C. Coles, S.prototype computer equipment rack-level cooling device withIT equipment cooling, server rack cooling, server cooling,

Greenberg, Steve

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Introduction of a Cooling Fan Efficiency Index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling Effect, Fan Power, and Cooling-Fan Efficiency Index?t eq ) °C °F Fan Power, W (P f ) Cooling-Fan Efficiency (The measured cooling effect and fan power and the determined

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

District Cooling Using Central Tower Power Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract During the operation of solar power towers there are occasions, commonly in the summer season, where some of the heliostats have to stop focusing at the central receiver, located at the top of the tower, because the maximum temperature that the receiver can withstand has been reached. The highest demands of cooling for air conditioning take place at these same occasions. In the present paper, we have analyzed the possibility of focusing the exceeding heliostats to the receiver increasing the mass flow rate of the heat transfer fluid over the nominal value and using the extra heat as a source of an absorption chiller. The chilled water would be used to cool buildings and offices, using a district cooling network. Using the extra heat of the solar power tower plant would greatly reduce the electricity usage. In this work we have analyzed the case of a circular field of heliostats focusing at a circular receiver, such as the case of Gemasolar plant. We have quantified the thermal power that can be obtained from the unused heliostats, the cooling capacity of the absorption system as well as the heat losses through the insulated pipes that distribute the chilled water to the buildings of the network.

C. Marugán-Cruz; S. Sánchez-Delgado; M.R. Rodríguez-Sánchez; M. Venegas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Experimental Study of A Solar-Powered Adsorption Cooling Tube  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The operating principle of this solar cooling tube, which consists of four major components, a solar collector, an adsorbent bed, a condenser, and an evaporator all in one glass tube, is also presented. ... Inserted into the chilling water tank, the evaporator of the solar cooling tube was used to collect the refrigeration capacity produced by the evaporation of the refrigerant at night. ... The experimental setup was mounted facing south at an angle of 30° from the horizontal on a steel shelf. ...

Xiaodong Ma; Zhenyan Liu; Huizhong Zhao

2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Alternative cooling resource for removing the residual heat of reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Recirculated Cooling Water (RCW) system of a Candu reactor is a closed cooling system which delivers demineralized water to coolers and components in the Service Building, the Reactor Building, and the Turbine Building and the recirculated cooling water is designed to be cooled by the Raw Service Water (RSW). During the period of scheduled outage, the RCW system provides cooling water to the heat exchangers of the Shutdown Cooling System (SDCS) in order to remove the residual heat of the reactor, so the RCW heat exchangers have to operate at all times. This makes it very hard to replace the inlet and outlet valves of the RCW heat exchangers because the replacement work requires the isolation of the RCW. A task force was formed to prepare a plan to substitute the recirculated water with the chilled water system in order to cool the SDCS heat exchangers. A verification test conducted in 2007 proved that alternative cooling was possible for the removal of the residual heat of the reactor and in 2008 the replacement of inlet and outlet valves of the RCW heat exchangers for both Wolsong unit 3 and 4 were successfully completed. (authors)

Park, H. C.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, D. S.; Jung, C. Y.; Choi, K. Y. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 260 Naa-ri Yangnam-myeon Gyeongju-si, Gyeonasangbuk-do, 780-815 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Marketing Cool Storage Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

storage has been substantiated. bv research conducted by Electric Power Research Institute, and by numerous installations, it has become acknowledged that cool stora~e can provide substantial benefits to utilities and end-users alike. A need was reco...~ned to improve utility load factors, reduce peak electric demands, and other-wise mana~e the demand-side use of electricity. As a result of these many pro~rams, it became apparent that the storage of coolin~, in the form of chilled water, ice, or other phase...

McCannon, L.

223

Two-Phase Cooling Method Using R134a Refrigerant to Cool Power Electronic Devices  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a two-phase cooling method using R134a refrigerant to dissipate the heat energy (loss) generated by power electronics (PE) such as those associated with rectifiers, converters, and inverters for a specific application in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). The cooling method involves submerging PE devices in an R134a bath, which limits the junction temperature of PE devices while conserving weight and volume of the heat sink without sacrificing equipment reliability. First, experimental tests that included an extended soak for more than 300 days were performed on a submerged IGBT and gate-controller card to study dielectric characteristics, deterioration effects, and heat flux capability of R134a. Results from these tests illustrate that R134a has high dielectric characteristics, no deterioration on electrical components, and a heat flux of 114 W/cm 2 for the experimental configuration. Second, experimental tests that included simultaneous operation with a mock automotive air-conditioner (A/C) system were performed on the same IGBT and gate controller card. Data extrapolation from these tests determined that a typical automotive A/C system has more than sufficient cooling capacity to cool a typical 30 kW traction inverter. Last, a discussion and simulation of active cooling of the IGBT junction layer with R134a refrigerant is given. This technique will drastically increase the forward current ratings and reliability of the PE device

Lowe, Kirk T [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Campbell, Jeremy B [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Laser Cooled High-Power Fiber Amplifier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A theoretical model for laser cooled continuous-wave fiber amplifier is presented. The amplification process takes place in the Tm3+-doped core of the fluoride ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) glass fiber. The cooling process takes place in the Yb3+:ZBLAN fiber cladding. It is shown that for each value of the pump power and the amplified signal there is a distribution of the concentration of the Tm3+ along the length of the fiber amplifier, which provides its athermal operation. The influence of a small deviation in the value of the amplified signal on the temperature of the fiber with the fixed distribution of the Tm3+ions in the fiber cladding is investigated.

Nemova, Galina

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Geothermal Heat Pumps- Cooling Mode  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In summer, the fluid removes heat from the building and transfers it to the relatively cooler ground in order to cool the building.

227

Direct cooled power electronics substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN) [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

228

Technical support for the Ohio Coal Technology Program. Volume 1, Baseline of knowledge concerning by-product characteristics: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LRl and comprises two volumes. Volume I presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume II consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

1989-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

229

Predicting the yield of coking byproducts on the basis of elementary and petrographic analysis of the coal batch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mathematical models are developed for predicting the yield of coking byproducts on the basis of elementary and petrographic analysis of the coal batch.

M. B. Golovko; I. D. Drozdnik; D. V. Miroshnichenko; Yu. S. Kaftan

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

The MuCool Test Area and RF Program  

SciTech Connect

The MuCool RF Program focuses on the study of normal conducting RF structures operating in high magnetic field for applications in muon ionization cooling for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders. This paper will give an overview of the program, which will include a description of the test facility and its capabilities, the current test program, and the status of a cavity that can be rotated in the magnetic field which allows for a more detailed study of the maximum stable operating gradient vs. magnetic field strength and angle.

Bross, A D; Jansson, A; Moretti, A; Yonehara, K; Huang, D; Torun, Y; Li, D; Norem, J; Palmer, R B; Stratakis, D

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

IGCC and PFBC By-Products: Generation, Characteristics, and Management Practices  

SciTech Connect

The following report is a compilation of data on by-products/wastes from clean coal technologies, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC). DOE had two objectives in providing this information to EPA: (1) to familiarize EPA with the DOE CCT program, CCT by-products, and the associated efforts by DOE contractors in the area of CCT by-product management and (2) to provide information that will facilitate EPA's effort by complementing similar reports from industry groups, including CIBO (Council of Industrial Boiler Owners) and EEI USWAG (Edison Electric Institute Utility Solid Waste Activities Group). The EERC cooperated and coordinated with DOE CCT contractors and industry groups to provide the most accurate and complete data on IGCC and PFBC by-products, although these technologies are only now being demonstrated on the commercial scale through the DOE CCT program.

Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Passive Two-Phase Cooling of Automotive Power Electronics: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated, and tests were conducted using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator design that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce size was conceived. Simulation results indicate its thermal resistance can be 37% to 48% lower than automotive dual side cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers--plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Method of, and apparatus for, killing marine life in and about the cooling system of a marine vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of killing marine life in the cooling system of a marine vehicle having a water-cooled internal combustion engine. It comprises: providing an enclosure about the inlet and outlet ports such that water circulated through the cooling system will be drawn from, and discharged back into, the enclosure; and operating the engine so as to cause the temperature of the water within the enclosure and the cooling system to increase to a predetermined minimum temperature; thereby to cause marine life in the enclosure and cooling system to be killed by the increased temperature of water within the cooling system and enclosure.

Brockhurst, J.V.

1992-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

234

Cool, Dry, Quiet Dehumidification with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Representative dehumidification increase using Trane CDQ dehumidification system Standard HVAC coil - 20% latent dehumidification system as the best new HVAC dehumidification product for 2006. #12;Trane CDQTM (Cool Dry Quiet, supply fan, cooling coil, optional reheat coil, optional final filters. A CDQ system in a Custom Climate

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

235

Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system  

SciTech Connect

This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

Clifton, F.T.

1997-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

236

Inorganic by-products in waters disinfected with chlorine dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The continuing diminishing sources of fresh waters has stimulated the search for unconventional water resources, such as effluents from municipal sewage treatment plants, which can be reused for purposes of irrigation in agriculture, cooling water in industry, groundwater aquifer recharge and in the long term even for drinking water. The main problem of using effluents is the presence of pathogenic bacteria and viruses that can affect human and animal health. Therefore, disinfection has been used for many years to control and reduce waterborne diseases. At the moment, most water treatment plants use sodium hypochlorite as their primary biocide. However, the toxicity of chlorinated organic compounds produced during the treatment has led to increased interest in the use of alternative agents. One possible candidate as viable substitute of free chlorine is chlorine dioxide. Before this disinfectant can be recommended for routine use, it is imperative that its safety be assessed. In this research we have investigated the presence of chlorite and chlorate in sewage disinfected with chlorine dioxide. The effect of initial concentration of biocide and contact time was evaluated using a pilot plant fed with the effluent of a municipal treatment plant. Moreover, the influence of ClO2 generator performance was analyzed and discussed.

E. Veschetti; B. Cittadini; D. Maresca; G. Citti; M. Ottaviani

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Cool Roofs July 26, 2013 - 10:36am Addthis White painted roofs have been popular since ancient times in places like Greece. Similar technology can be easy to adapt to modern homes and other buildings. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/PhotoTalk White painted roofs have been popular since ancient times in places like Greece. Similar technology can be easy to adapt to modern homes and other buildings. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/PhotoTalk If you live in a hot climate, a cool roof can: Save you money on air conditioning Make your home more comfortable in hot weather How does it work? By making your roof more reflective, you reduce heat gain into your home. Check out these resources for more information. A cool roof is one that has been designed to reflect more sunlight and

238

Laser cooling to quantum degeneracy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in a gas of strontium atoms, using laser cooling as the only cooling mechanism. The condensate is formed within a sample that is continuously Doppler cooled to below 1\\muK on a narrow-linewidth transition. The critical phase-space density for BEC is reached in a central region of the sample, in which atoms are rendered transparent for laser cooling photons. The density in this region is enhanced by an additional dipole trap potential. Thermal equilibrium between the gas in this central region and the surrounding laser cooled part of the cloud is established by elastic collisions. Condensates of up to 10^5 atoms can be repeatedly formed on a timescale of 100ms, with prospects for the generation of a continuous atom laser.

Stellmer, Simon; Grimm, Rudolf; Schreck, Florian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Steam Plant Operator (2nd Shift) | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Systems, Chemical Feed Systems, High Pressure Compressed Air Systems and Central Chiller Cooling Systems. Operates the central boilers in accordance to the safety rules and...

240

ADVANCED BYPRODUCT RECOVERY: DIRECT CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF SO2 TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR  

SciTech Connect

Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its commercialization partner, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner Tufts, investigated a single-step process for direct, catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide from regenerable flue gas desulfurization processes to the more valuable elemental sulfur by-product. This development built on recently demonstrated SO{sub 2}-reduction catalyst performance at Tufts University on a DOE-sponsored program and is, in principle, applicable to processing of regenerator off-gases from all regenerable SO{sub 2}-control processes. In this program, laboratory-scale catalyst optimization work at Tufts was combined with supported catalyst formulation work at Engelhard, bench-scale supported catalyst testing at Arthur D. Little and market assessments, also by Arthur D. Little. Objectives included identification and performance evaluation of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. The catalyst formulation was improved significantly over the course of this work owing to the identification of a number of underlying phenomena that tended to reduce catalyst selectivity. The most promising catalysts discovered in the bench-scale tests at Tufts were transformed into monolith-supported catalysts at Engelhard. These catalyst samples were tested at larger scale at Arthur D. Little, where the laboratory-scale results were confirmed, namely that the catalysts do effectively reduce sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur when operated under appropriate levels of conversion and in conditions that do not contain too much water or hydrogen. Ways to overcome those limitations were suggested by the laboratory results. Nonetheless, at the end of Phase I, the catalysts did not exhibit the very stringent levels of activity or selectivity that would have permitted ready scale-up to pilot or commercial operation. Therefore, we chose not to pursue Phase II of this work which would have included further bench-scale testing, scale-up, pilot-scale (0.5 MW{sub e}) testing at conditions representative of various regenerable SO{sub 2}-control systems, preparation of a commercial process design, and development of a utility-scale demonstration plan.

Robert S. Weber

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Cool Roof Coatings and New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak Ridge National Laboratory chengmd@ornl.gov; 865-241-5918 April 4, 2013 PM: Andre Desjarlais PI: Meng-Dawn Cheng, Ph.D. David Graham, Ph.D. Sue Carroll Steve Allman Dawn Klingeman Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. (FY12) Karen Cheng (FY12) Partner: Joe Rokowski (Dow) Roof Testing Facility at ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Building accounted for 41% of the US energy consumption in 2010 greater than either transportation (28%) or industry (31%).

242

New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Cool Roof Coatings and New Cool Roof Coatings and Affordable Cool Color Asphalt Shingles Meng-Dawn Cheng Oak Ridge National Laboratory chengmd@ornl.gov; 865-241-5918 April 4, 2013 PM: Andre Desjarlais PI: Meng-Dawn Cheng, Ph.D. David Graham, Ph.D. Sue Carroll Steve Allman Dawn Klingeman Susan Pfiffner, Ph.D. (FY12) Karen Cheng (FY12) Partner: Joe Rokowski (Dow) Roof Testing Facility at ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Building accounted for 41% of the US energy consumption in 2010 greater than either transportation (28%) or industry (31%).

243

NightCool: An Innovative Residential Nocturnal Radiation Cooling Concept  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

building’s roof to take advantage of long-wave radiation to the night sky has been long identified as a potentially productive means to reduce building space cooling. A typical roof at 75?F will radiate at about 55-60 W/m 2 to clear night sky... and about 25 W/m 2 to a cloudy sky. For a typical roof (250 square meters), this represents a cooling potential of 6,000 - 14,000 Watts or about 1.5 - 4.0 tons of cooling potential each summer night. However, various physical constraints (differential...

Parker, D. S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Operational Demonstration Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Operational Demonstration Program Operational Demonstration Program Operational Demonstration Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Energy Sources Solar Water Heating Wind Maximum Rebate $500,000 Program Info Funding Source CEFIA Start Date 2005 State Connecticut Program Type Industry Recruitment/Support Rebate Amount $150,000 - $500,000 Provider Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority This program is currently closed. Applications were due in February 2012.

245

Acoustic cooling engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Solar Heating and Cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...radiation during good weather are not very high, and...Atmospheric Administration weather ser-vice measures total...largely to experi-mental operation of 3-ton LiBr-H2O...a million solar water heaters are in use in these countries...air House heating load Cold air return 'S T~rgeo...

John A. Duffie; William A. Beckman

1976-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

247

Demonstration of Energy Savings of Cool Roofs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

et al. 1997. Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of High-et al. 1997. Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of High-Hanford, J. 1997. "Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of

Konopacki, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Cool Cities, Cool Planet (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Science at the Theater: Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how cool roofs can cool your building, your city ... and our planet. Arthur Rosenfeld, Professor of Physics Emeritus at UC Berkeley, founded the Berkeley Lab Center for Building Science in 1974. He served on the California Energy Commission from 2000 to 2010 and is commonly referred to as California's godfather of energy efficiency. Melvin Pomerantz is a member of the Heat Island Group at Berkeley Lab. Trained as a physicist at UC Berkeley, he specializes in research on making cooler pavements and evaluating their effects. Ronnen Levinson is a staff scientist at Berkeley Lab and the acting leader of its Heat Island Group. He has developed cool roofing and paving materials and helped bring cool roof requirements into building energy efficiency standards.

Rosenfeld, Arthur; Pomerantz, Melvin; Levinson, Ronnen

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

249

Evaporative Roof Cooling- A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the “Energy Crisis” Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retro-fit installations show direct energy savings...

Abernethy, D.

250

Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

integrated control resets for supply air temperature and75.2°F) Cooling supply air temperature control Minimum AHUvary the VAV supply-air-temperature reset control mid-bands

Moore, Timothy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Stochastic cooling of bunched beams  

SciTech Connect

Numerical simulation studies are presented for transverse and longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched particle beams. Radio frequency buckets of various shapes (e.g. rectangular, parabolic well, single sinusoidal waveform) are used to investigate the enhancement of phase space cooling by nonlinearities of synchrotron motion. The connection between the notions of Landau damping for instabilities and mixing for stochastic cooling are discussed. In particular, the need for synchrotron frequency spread for both Landau damping and good mixing is seen to be comparable for bunched beams.

Bisognano, J.J.; Chattopadhyay, S.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

A review of solar photovoltaic panel cooling systems with special reference to Ground coupled central panel cooling system (GC-CPCS)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The efficiency of wafer-based crystalline as well as Thin film Solar photovoltaic cells get reduced with increase of panel temperature. It is noted that the efficiency drops by about 0.5% for increase of 1 °C of panel temperature. It is necessary to operate them at low temperatures in order to keep the PV module electrical efficiency at acceptable level. Therefore need for a low-cost cooling system for the Solar panels is felt. The cooling of Solar PV panels is a problem of great practical significance. It has the potential to reduce the cost of solar energy in three ways. First, cooling can improve the electrical production of standard flat plate PV modules. Second, cooling makes possible the use of concentrating PV systems. Finally, the heat removed by the PV cooling system can be used for domestic or industrial use. Various Solar PV panel cooling systems have been developed in past. A new system for cooling of Solar PV panels called the Ground-Coupled Central Panel Cooling System (GC-CPCS) is installed and operational at the Energy Park of Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya (RGPV), Bhopal, India. This paper discusses various Solar PV panel cooling technologies and the testing and performance of the newly developed Ground-Coupled Central Panel Cooling System (GC-CPCS). This study is unique in three ways. First, it introduces the concept of Central cooling of Solar PV panels. Second, Ground Coupled Heat Exchanger is used for the first time in any Solar PV Panel Cooling System. Third, the testing is done on site under actual solar irradiance.

Amit Sahay; V.K. Sethi; A.C. Tiwari; Mukesh Pandey

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Best Management Practice #10: Cooling Tower Management  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Cooling towers regulate temperature by dissipating heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air-conditioning equipment, or other process equipment. Heat is rejected from the tower...

254

Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

255

Direct-Cooled Power Electronic Substrate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Energy 3 Barriers VTP Activities Related Challenges Conventional cooling methods for power electronics are typically based on conduction cooling through solids directly adjacent...

256

RF cavity using liquid dielectric for tuning and cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for accelerating particles includes an RF cavity that contains a ferrite core and a liquid dielectric. Characteristics of the ferrite core and the liquid dielectric, among other factors, determine the resonant frequency of the RF cavity. The liquid dielectric is circulated to cool the ferrite core during the operation of the system.

Popovic, Milorad (Warrenville, IL); Johnson, Rolland P. (Newport News, VA)

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

257

Designing a 'Near Optimum' Cooling-Water System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling water is expensive to circulate. Reducing its flow - i.e., hiking exchanger outlet temperatures - can cut tower, pump and piping investment as much as one-third and operating cost almost in half. Heat-exchanger-network optimization has been...

Crozier, R. A., Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Hospital chilled water loop assessment Miami District Cooling project  

SciTech Connect

This document is a progress report on a Miami District cooling project for Civic Center Hospitals. An underground distribution system to link the hospitals was devised to minimize capital cost and the maximize savings on operating costs. This study develops a technical and economic analysis and a proposal management structure to provide an equitable distribution of costs and savings. 11 figs., 19 tabs. (FSD)

Not Available

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Guide to Minimizing Compress-based Cooling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Guide to Minimizing Guide to Minimizing Compressor-based Cooling in Data Centers Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program By: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Author: William Tschudi May 2013 2 Contacts William Tschudi Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory One Cyclotron Road, 90R3111 Berkeley, California 94720 510-495-2417 wftschudi@lbl.gov For more information on FEMP, please contact: Will Lintner, P.E. Federal Energy Management Program U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave. S.W. Washington, D. C. 20585-0121 202.586.3120 william.lintner@ee.doe.gov Cover photo: Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Arlen Specter Headquarters and Operations Center reached LEED Silver rating through sustainable design and operations that decrease energy consumption by 20%

260

Cooling Technologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Technologies Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Power Plant Cooling Technologies Cooling Technologies Cooling tower at Steamboat Springs geothermal power plant in Steamboat Springs, NV. Power generation facilities that rely on thermal sources as their energy inputs such as Coal, Natural Gas, Geothermal, Concentrates Solar Power, and Nuclear require cooling technologies to reject the heat that is created. The second law of thermodynamics states: "No process can convert heat absorbed from a reservoir at one temperature directly into work without also rejecting heat to a cooler reservoir. That is, no heat engine is 100% efficient"[1] In the context of power generation from thermal energy, this means that any heat that is created must be rejected. Heat is most commonly rejected in

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Advance in MEIC cooling studies  

SciTech Connect

Cooling of ion beams is essential for achieving a high luminosity for MEIC at Jefferson Lab. In this paper, we present the design concept of the electron cooling system for MEIC. In the design, two facilities are required for supporting a multi-staged cooling scheme; one is a 2 MeV DC cooler in the ion pre-booster; the other is a high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) ERL-circulator cooler in the collider ring. The simulation studies of beam dynamics in an ERL-circulator cooler are summarized and followed by a report on technology development for this cooler. We also discuss two proposed experiments for demonstrating high energy cooling with a bunched electron beam and the ERL-circulator cooler.

Zhang, Yuhong [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Ya. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, D. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Hutton, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Kimber, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Li, R. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Nissen, E. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, H. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Cooling molecules in optical cavities  

SciTech Connect

We have studied theoretically and numerically the cooling of CN molecules in a high-finesse optical cavity and show that these molecules can be cooled from 100 mK temperatures to submillikelvin temperatures in less than 1 ms. We establish that the cooling time does not change significantly with molecular numbers and initial temperatures over a wide range. We have further studied the scaling of the system for extending the current results for hundreds of molecules to a very large molecular ensemble. The results indicate that a gas of 10{sup 9} molecules can be cooled in the cavity by use of a far-off-resonant and high-intensity pump source.

Lu Weiping; Zhao Yongkai; Barker, P. F. [Physics, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

A Successful Cool Storage Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Houston Lighting & Power (HL&P) initiated design and development of its commercial cool storage program as part of an integrated resource planning process with a targeted 225 MW of demand reduction through DSM. Houston's extensive commercial air...

Ahrens, A. C.; Sobey, T. M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Desiccant Cooling Systems - A Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Desiccant cooling systems have been investigated extensively during the past decade as alternatives to electrically driven vapor compression systems because regeneration temperatures of the desiccant - about 160°F, can be achieved using natural gas...

Kettleborough, C. F.; Ullah, M. R.; Waugaman, D. G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Field test of liquid nitrogen cooled cryogenic power cable  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A liquid nitrogen cooled cryogenic cable, 66 kV, 100 MVA, 30 m was constructed and tested with loads simulating actual operating loads from October 1970 to December 1971. The successful operation of the cable makes us hopeful it can be used for large capacity transmission. Our test line is composed of aluminium stranded hollow conductor, liquid-nitrogen impregnated polyethylene paper electrical insulation, and polyurethane foam thermal insulation.

H. Nagano; M. Fukasawa; S. Kuma; K. Sugiyama

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Cryogenic cooling system of HTS transformers by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cryogenic cooling system of HTS transformers by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen Ho-793, South Korea Abstract Heat transfer analysis on a newly proposed cryogenic cooling system is performed, and over-load operation. One of the key techniques to realize these advantages in practice is the cryogenic

Chang, Ho-Myung

267

Simulation study of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling coupled to buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulation study of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling coupled to buildings Redouane) 141-149" DOI : 10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.12.047 #12;ABSTRACT In several situations, a heat pump occur. Unlike a reversible heat pump that works alternatively in heating or cooling, a HPS operates

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

268

A liquid-helium cooled large-area silicon PIN photodiode x-ray detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An x-ray detector using a liquid-helium cooled large-area silicon PIN photodiode has been developed along with a tailor-made charge sensitive preamplifier whose first-stage JFET has been cooled. The operating temperature of the JFET has been varied separately and optimized. The x- and $\\gamma$-ray energy spectra for an \

Yoshizumi Inoue; Shigetaka Moriyama; Hideyuki Hara; Makoto Minowa; Fumio Shimokoshi

1995-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

269

Electron cooling for positron sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electron cooling of positrons should make possible a large increase in the luminosity of future high-energy linear colliders, leading to greatly enhanced event rates at these machines. An evaluation of the electron-cooling-time requirement indicates that a positron-source repetition rate of 100 Hz is possible. Final positron-beam normalized emittances of 10-7 m rad should result, implying a tremendous increase in positron-beam density over that currently obtained.

D. J. Larson

1988-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

270

An Improved Simple Chilled Water Cooling Coil Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Improved Simple Chilled Water Cooling Coil Model An Improved Simple Chilled Water Cooling Coil Model Title An Improved Simple Chilled Water Cooling Coil Model Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-6031E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Wang, Liping, Philip Haves, and Walter F. Buhl Conference Name SimBuild 2012 IBPSA Conference Date Published 08/2012 Abstract The accurate prediction of cooling and dehumidification coil performance is important in model-based fault detection and in the prediction of HVAC system energy consumption for support of both design and operations. It is frequently desirable to use a simple cooling coil model that does not require detailed specification of coil geometry and material properties. The approach adopted is to match the overall UA of the coil to the rating conditions and to estimate the air-side and water-side components of the UA using correlations developed by Holmes (1982). This approach requires some geometrical information about the coil and the paper investigates the sensitivity of the overall performance prediction to uncertainties in this information, including assuming a fixed ratio of air-side to water-side UA at the rating condition. Finally, simulation results from different coil models are compared, and experimental data are used to validate the improved cooling coil model.

271

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

273

Definition: Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Cooling Water Cooling Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Water cooling is a method of heat removal from components and industrial equipment. As opposed to air cooling, water is used as the heat conductor. Water cooling is commonly used for cooling automobile internal combustion engines and large industrial facilities such as steam electric power plants, hydroelectric generators, petroleum refineries and chemical plants. Other uses include cooling the barrels of machine guns, cooling of

274

Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton  

SciTech Connect

The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being sorbed onto the CCB when exposed to ambient-temperature air. The environmental performance of the mercury captured on AC used as a sorbent for mercury emission control technologies indicated that current CCB management options will continue to be sufficiently protective of the environment, with the potential exception of exposure to elevated temperatures. The environmental performance of the other ATEs investigated indicated that current management options will be appropriate to the CCBs produced using AC in mercury emission controls.

David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

275

Model Predictive Control for the Operation of Building Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

predictive control of thermal energy storage in buildingpredictive control of thermal energy storage in buildingsystems which use thermal energy storage. In particular the

Ma, Yudong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Improved water-cooled cyclone constructions in CFBs  

SciTech Connect

The construction of CFB boilers has advanced in comparison with early designs. One improvement has been the use of water or steam cooled cyclones, which allows the use of thin refractories and minimizes maintenance needs. Cooled cyclones are also tolerant of wide load variations when the main fuel is biologically based, and coal or some other fuel is used as a back-up. With uncooled cyclones, load changes with high volatile fuels can mean significant temperature transients in the refractory, due to post-combustion phenomena in the cyclone. Kvaerner's development of water-cooled cyclones for CFBs began in the early 1980s. The first boiler with this design was delivered in 1985 in Sweden. Since then, Kvaerner Pulping has delivered over twenty units with cooled cyclones, in capacity ranging from small units up to 400 MW{sub th}. Among these units, Kvaerner has developed unconventional solutions for CFBs, in order to simplify the constructions and to increase the reliability for different applications. The first of them was CYMIC{reg{underscore}sign}, which has its water-cooled cyclone built inside the boiler furnace. There are two commercial CYMIC boilers in operation and one in project stages. The largest CYMIC in operation is a 185 MW{sub th} industrial boiler burning various fuels. For even larger scale units Kvaerner developed the Integrated Cylindrical Cyclone and Loopseal (ICCL) assembly. One of these installations is in operation in USA, having steaming capacity of over 500 t/h. The design bases of these new solutions are quite different in comparison with conventional cyclones. Therefore, an important part of the development has been cold model testing and mathematical modeling of the cyclones. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in water-cooled cyclone construction. The new solutions, their full-scale experience, and a comparison of the actual experience with the preliminary modeling work are introduced.

Alliston, M.G.; Luomaharju, T.; Kokko, A.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

The EPRI state-of-the-art cooling water treatment research project: A tailored collaboration program  

SciTech Connect

The EPRI Tailored Collaboration State-of-the-Art Cooling Water Treatment Research Program has been initiated with several electric utility participants. Started in January 1995, the program provides O&M cost reduction through improved cooling water system reliability and operation,. This effort is discussed along with the objectives and goals, the participants and project timetable. The program will provide three (3) main results to the participating utilities: cost effective optimization of cooling water treatment, production of a new Cooling Water Treatment Manual and updating of two (2) EPRI software products - SEQUIL and COOLADD. A review of the specific objectives, project timetable and results to date will be presented. 1 tab.

Zammitt, K. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Selby, K.A. [Puckorius & Associates, Inc., Evergreen, CO (United States); Brice, T. [Entergy Operations - River Bend Station, St. Francisville, LA (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Measures against the adverse impact of natural wind on air-cooled condensers in power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The natural wind plays disadvantageous roles in the operation of air-cooled steam condensers in power plant. It is of use to take various measures against the adverse effect of wind for the performance improvemen...

LiJun Yang; XiaoZe Du; YongPing Yang

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced gas-cooled nuclear Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy 9 UNM engineering s p r i N g 2 0 0 6 Summary: Re); the gas cooled Submersion-Subcritical Safe Space reactor (S4) designed to operate with multiple Closed... for reducing...

280

Retro-Commissioning and Improvement for District Heating and Cooling System Using Simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to improve the energy performance of a district heating and cooling (DHC) system, retro-commissioning was analyzed using visualization method and simulation based on mathematical models, and improved operation schemes were proposed...

Shingu, H.; Nakajima, R.; Yoshida, H.; Wang, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Economic performance of modularized hot-aisle contained datacenter PODs utilizing horizontal airflow cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evolutionary and revolutionary advances in computational and storage systems have driven electronic circuit densities to unprecedented levels. These high-density systems must be adequately cooled for proper operation and ...

Rabassa, Albert O., III (Albert Oscar)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

On-chip solid-state cooling for integrated circuits using thin-film microrefrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cascade laser operating on a Peltier cooled element,” IEEETE) coolers are based on the Peltier effect at the metal/semiconductor junction [5]. The Peltier effect is a reverse

Shakouri, A; Zhang, Y

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Non-linear Dynamical Reliability Analysis in the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A dynamic safety assessment has been developed for the passive system in the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR), where the operational data are deficient. It is needed to make use of the character...

Taeho Woo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Device for cooling the vertical walls of a power engineering unit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Construction and operation is described for a water cooling device for the hot walls of a heating unit. Calculation of the technical parameters of the proposed device are presented.

S. Ya. Davydov; I. D. Kashcheev; A. E. Zamurayev…

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Cryogenic Intracavity Laser Cooling Using High Power Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSELs)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Yb:YLF crystal is laser cooled to 150 K from room temperature in an intracavity geometry using a high power InGaAs/GaAs MQW VECSEL operating at 1020 nm with <0.5 nm linewidth.

Ghasemkhani, Mohammadreza; Albrecht, Alexander R; Melgaard, Seth; Seletskiy, Denis V; Cederberg, Jeffrey G; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

286

Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Numerical Simulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical Simulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using Adaptive Multiscale Techniques Wolfgang Dahmen: finite volume method, film cooling, cooling gas injection, multiscale techniques, grid adaptation AMS@igpm.rwth-aachen.de (Thomas Gotzen) #12;Numerical simulation of cooling gas injection using adaptive multiscale techniques

288

Supercritical Helium Cooling of the LHC Beam Screens  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cold mass of the LHC superconducting magnets, operating in pressurised superfluid helium at 1.9 K, must be shielded from the dynamic heat loads induced by the circulating particle beams, by means of beam screens maintained at higher temperature. The beam screens are cooled between 5 and 20 K by forced flow of weakly supercritical helium, a solution which avoids two-phase flow in the long, narr ow cooling channels, but still presents a potential risk of thermohydraulic instabilities. This problem has been studied by theoretical modelling and experiments performed on a full-scale dedicated te st loop.

Hatchadourian, E; Tavian, L

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Performance of Liquid Metals in Natural Circulation Cooled Nuclear Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The inherent safety capability of natural circulation makes reactor design more reliable. Additionally, the construction and operation of a nuclear power plant with natural circulation in the primary cooling circuit is an interesting alternative for nuclear plant designers, due to their lower operational and investment costs obtained by simplifying systems and controls. This paper deals with the feasibility of application of natural circulation in the primary cooling circuit of a liquid metal fast reactor. The methodology employed is a non-dimensional analysis, which describes the relationship between the physical properties and system variables. The performance criterion is bounded by a safety argument, referring to the maximum cladding temperature allowed during operation. The study considers several coolants, which can play a part in reactor cooling systems, such as lead, lead-bismuth and sodium. Bismuth and gallium are included in this analysis, in order to extend the range of properties for reference purposes. The results present a characterization of natural circulation flow in a reactor and compare the cooling capabilities from different liquid metals coolants. (authors)

Ceballos, Carlos; Lathouwers, Danny; Verkooijen, Adrian [Interfacultair Reactor Instituut, Technische Universiteit Delft, Mekelweg 15, Delft (Netherlands)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Bartholomew Heating and Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heating and Cooling Heating and Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Name Bartholomew Heating and Cooling Place Linwood, NJ Website http://bartholomewheatingandco References Bartholomew Heating and Cooling[1] Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building Systems Integration LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! Bartholomew Heating and Cooling is a company located in Linwood, NJ. References ↑ "Bartholomew Heating and Cooling" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Bartholomew_Heating_and_Cooling&oldid=381585" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations

291

On-chip high speed localized cooling using superlattice microrefrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Semenyuk, “Thermoelectric Micro Modules for Spot Cooling ofthermoelectric module is still too large for spot cooling.

Zhang, Y; Christofferson, J; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H; Bowers, J E; Croke, E T

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Thermoelectric and thermal properties of GaAlAs Peltier-cooled laser diodes  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of heat spreading, temperature distribution, and resultant cooling effects in a monolithically Peltier-cooled laser (MPCL) structure are presented. The analyses were obtained by using Laplace's equation and were made under steady-state conditions, assuming constant thermal conductivity. In this MPCL structure a metal surface layer surrounds a heat-generating p-n laser junction. It is shown that by depositing relatively thick metallic cooling plates a 15% temperature reduction and 25% thermal spreading can be achieved. This heat spreading due to the passive cooling is added to the cooling obtained when the Peltier cooler is operated. Experimental measurements of the effect of Peltier cooling reveal a 6.8 /sup 0/C reduction in junction temperature corresponding to a wavelength shift of as much as 20 A.

Hava, S.; Sequeira, H.B.; Hunsperger, R.G.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Laser cooling with ultrafast pulse trains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a new laser cooling method for atomic species whose level structure makes traditional laser cooling difficult. For instance, laser cooling of hydrogen requires vacuum-ultraviolet laser light, while multielectron atoms need laser light at many widely separated frequencies. These restrictions can be eased by laser cooling on two-photon transitions with ultrafast pulse trains. Laser cooling of hydrogen, antihydrogen, and carbon appears feasible, and extension of the technique to molecules may be possible.

David Kielpinski

2003-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

294

Management of dry flue gas dsulfurization by-products in underground mines - an update  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, the U.S. produced about 100 million tons of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) primarily from conventional coal-fired boilers. The requirement to reduce SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions to comply with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) force utilities to adopt advanced combustion and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies, such as wet scrubbers, fluidized bed combustion (FBC), dry sorbent duct or furnace injection. These technologies will double to triple the amount of FGD by-products while only slightly increasing the amounts of conventional combustion residues, such as fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag. This paper describes a program concerned with the underground disposal of combustion products in abandoned underground coal mines.

Chugh, Y.P.; Thomasson, E.M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

cooling | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Home Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(15) Member 15 November, 2013 - 13:26 Living Walls ancient building system architect biomimicry building technology cooling cu daylight design problem energy use engineer fred andreas geothermal green building heat transfer heating living walls metabolic adjustment net zero pre-electricity Renewable Energy Solar university of colorado utility grid Wind Much of the discussion surrounding green buildings centers around reducing energy use. The term net zero is the platinum standard for green buildings, meaning the building in question does not take any more energy from the utility grid than it produces using renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, or geothermal installations (and sometimes these renewable energy resources actually feed energy back to the utility grid).

296

Operations Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Standards BPA Operations Information (OPI) Transmission Services operates and plans for regional and national system needs. Transmission Services coordinates system operation and...

297

Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money July 2, 2010 - 2:25pm Addthis The Orlando Science Center has installed a new energy efficient HVAC unit. | Photo courtesy of Orlando Science Center The Orlando Science Center has installed a new energy efficient HVAC unit. | Photo courtesy of Orlando Science Center In the summer of 2009, the Orlando Science Center (OSC) was full of hot air, literally. The museum's heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system - which had been an operational challenge for several years - was running at 30 percent capacity. That meant the building's interior temperature was often at a toasty 80 degrees, subjecting patrons to miserable conditions. "To keep visitors happy, the museum had to reduce admission prices and

298

Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool, Saving Water and Money Cool, Saving Water and Money Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money July 2, 2010 - 2:25pm Addthis The Orlando Science Center has installed a new energy efficient HVAC unit. | Photo courtesy of Orlando Science Center The Orlando Science Center has installed a new energy efficient HVAC unit. | Photo courtesy of Orlando Science Center In the summer of 2009, the Orlando Science Center (OSC) was full of hot air, literally. The museum's heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system - which had been an operational challenge for several years - was running at 30 percent capacity. That meant the building's interior temperature was often at a toasty 80 degrees, subjecting patrons to miserable conditions. "To keep visitors happy, the museum had to reduce admission prices and

299

Free-cooling: A total HVAC design concept  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a total ''free cooling'' HVAC design concept in which mechanical refrigeration is practically obviated via the refined application of existing technological strategies and a new diffuser terminal. The principles being applied are as follows; Thermal Swing: This is the active contribution of programmed heat storage to overall HVAC system performance. Reverse Diffuser: This is a new air terminal design that facilitates manifesting the thermal storage gains. Developing the thermal storage equation system into a generalized simulation model, optimizing the thermal storage and operating strategies with a computer program and developing related algorithms are subsequently illustrated. Luminair Aspiration: This feature provides for exhausting all luminair heat totally out of the building envelope, via an exhaust duct system and insulated boots. Two/Three-Stage Evaporative Cooling: This concept comprises a system of air conditioning that entails a combination of closed and open loop evaporative cooling with standby refrigeration only.

Janeke, C.E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs July 2010 V. 1.2 Prepared by the Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Additional technical support provided by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Federal Energy Management Program. Authors: Bryan Urban and Kurt Roth, Ph.D. ii Table of Contents Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 3 Why Use Cool Roofs .............................................................................................................. 3

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Improving Process Cooling Tower Eddiciency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 7 Improving Cooling Tower Efficiency ? Two Improvements in Capacity/Performance 1. Filtration for water quality control Side stream filtration Make up water quality...-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 2 Types of Cooling Towers Forced Draft Towers ESL-IE-13-05-08 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 3 Types...

Turpish, W.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Lamination cooling system formation method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E. (Altadena, CA); Kobayashi, Daryl M. (Monrovia, CA)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

303

Lamination cooling system formation method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

Rippel, Wally E [Altadena, CA; Kobayashi, Daryl M [Monrovia, CA

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

304

Long-Term Column Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products  

SciTech Connect

An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. The stability of mercury and any co-captured elements in the by-products could have a large economic impact if it reduced by-product sales or increasing their disposal costs. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed continuous leaching of a select subset of the available sample pairs using four leachants: water (pH=5.7), dilute sulfuric acid (pH=1.2), dilute acetic acid (pH=2.9), and sodium carbonate (pH=11.1). This report describes results obtained for mercury, arsenic, and selenium during the 5-month leaching experiments.

Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; White, Fredrick; Rohar, P.C.; Kim, A.G

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Fighting Fire with Fire: Superlattice Cooling of Silicon Hotspots to Reduce Global Cooling Requirements  

SciTech Connect

The running costs of data centers are dominated by the need to dissipate heat generated by thousands of server machines. Higher temperatures are undesirable as they lead to premature silicon wear-out; in fact, mean time to failure has been shown to decrease exponentially with temperature (Black's law). Although other server components also generate heat, microprocessors still dominate in most server configurations and are also the most vulnerable to wearout as the feature sizes shrink. Even as processor complexity and technology scaling have increased the average energy density inside a processor to maximally tolerable levels, modern microprocessors make extensive use of hardware structures such as the load-store queue and other CAM-based units, and the peak temperatures on chip can be much worse than even the average temperature of the chip. In recent studies, it has been shown that hot-spots inside a processor can generate {approx} 800W/cm{sup 2} heat flux whereas the average heat flux is only 10-50W/cm{sup 2}, and due to this disparity in heat generation, the temperature in hot spots may be up to 30 C more than average chip temperature. The key problem processor hot-spots create is that in order to prevent some critical hardware structures from wearing out faster, the air conditioners in a data center have to be provisioned for worst case requirements. Worse yet, air conditioner efficiencies decrease exponentially as the desired ambient temperature decreases relative to the air outside. As a result, the global cooling costs in data centers, which nearly equals the IT equipment power consumption, are directly correlated with the maximum hot spot temperatures of processors, and there is a distinct requirement for a cooling technique to mitigate hot-spots selectively so that the global air conditioners can operate at higher, more efficient, temperatures. We observe that localized cooling via superlattice microrefrigeration presents exactly this opportunity whereby hot-spots can be cooled selectively and allow global coolers to operate at much more efficient temperatures. Recent advances in processor cooling technologies have demonstrated that thermoelectric coolers (TEC), which use a Peltier effect to form heat pumps, can be used to reduce the temperature of hot spots. By applying a thermoelectric cooler between the heat spreader and the processor die and applying current selectively at the hot spots, heat from the hot-spots can be spread much more efficiently. The ability to implement such thermoelectric coolers on a real silicon device has been demonstrated recently, albeit for small prototype chips. The key question then, that needs to be answered before such thermoelectric coolers can be integrated in commodity server processors, is 'What is the potential for superlattice microrefrigeration to reduce global cooling costs in data centers?'. In order to answer this question, we present a comprehensive analysis of the impact of thermoelectric coolers on global cooling costs. Our thermal analysis covers all aspects of cooling a server in a data center, and integrates on-chip dynamic and leakage power sources with a detailed heat diffusion model of a processor (that models the silicon to the thermoelectric cooler to the heat spreader and the heat sink) and finally the computer room air conditioner (CRAC) efficiency, as shown in Figure 1. In Section II, we present the components of the system model.

Biswas, S; Tiwari, M; Sherwood, T; Theogarajan, L; Chong, F T

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

306

Case-Control Study of Colon and Rectal Cancers and Chlorination By-Products in Treated Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Articles Case-Control Study of Colon and Rectal Cancers and Chlorination By-Products in Treated Water 1 Will D. King 2 Loraine D. Marrett Christy G. Woolcott Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario...

Will D. King; Loraine D. Marrett; Christy G. Woolcott

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Reactor operation safety information document  

SciTech Connect

The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Part 1: Basic concepts and performance verification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

manufacturer. The operation of the high pressure control system, the transitions between heating, cooling, heating and cooling energies using the same electric energy input at the compressor. Chua et al. [31 Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling ­ Part 1

Boyer, Edmond

309

Heating & Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Cooling Heating & Cooling Heating and cooling account for about 56% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes. Learn more about the principles of heating and cooling. Heating and cooling account for about 56% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes. Learn more about the principles of heating and cooling. Did you know that heating and cooling accounts for more than half of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes? Energy Saver shares tips and advice on ways you can reduce your heating and cooling costs, putting more money in your wallet.

310

Global Cool Cities Alliance | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Global Cool Cities Alliance Global Cool Cities Alliance Global Cool Cities Alliance The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently supporting the Global Cool Cities Alliance (GCCA), a non-profit organization that works with cities, regions, and national governments to speed the worldwide installation of cool roofs, pavements, and other surfaces. GCCA is dedicated to advancing policies and actions that increase the solar reflectance of our buildings and pavements as a cost-effective way to promote cool buildings, cool cities, and to mitigate the effects of climate change through global cooling. The alliance was launched in June of 2011. Cool reflective surfaces are an important near-term strategy for improving city sustainability by delivering significant benefits such as increased building efficiency and comfort, improved urban health, and heat

311

Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products  

SciTech Connect

In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it starts one step upstream from all other Sipv production efforts. Our process starts by producing high purity SiO2/C feedstocks from which Sipv can be produced in a single, chlorine free, final EAF step. Specifically, our unique technology, and the resultant SiO2/C product can serve as high purity feedstocks to existing metallurgical silicon (Simet) producers, allowing them to generate Sipv with existing US manufacturing infrastructure, reducing the overall capital and commissioning schedule. Our low energy, low CAPEX and OPEX process purifies the silica and carbon present in rice hull ash (RHA) at low temperatures (< 200C) to produce high purity (5-6 Ns) feedstock for production of Sipv using furnaces similar to those used to produce Simet. During the course of this project we partnered with Wadham Energy LP (Wadham), who burns 220k ton of rice hulls (RH)/yr generating 200 GWh of electricity/yr and >30k ton/yr RHA. The power generation step produces much more energy (42 kWh/kg of final silicon produced) than required to purify the RHA (5 kWh/kg of Sipv, compared to 65 kWh/kg noted above. Biogenic silica offers three very important foundations for producing high purity silicon. First, wastes from silica accumulating plants, such as rice, corn, many grasses, algae and grains, contain very reactive, amorphous silica from which impurities are easily removed. Second, plants take up only a limited set of, and minimal quantities of the heavy metals present in nature, meaning fewer minerals must be removed. Third, biomass combustion generates a product with intrinsic residual carbon, mixed at nanometer length scales with the SiO2. RHA is 80-90 wt% high surface area (20 m2/g), amorphous SiO2 with some simple mineral content mixed intimately with 5-15 wt% carbon. The mineral content is easily removed by low cost, acid washes using Mayaterials IP, leading to purified rice hull ash (RHAclean) at up to 6N purity. This highly reactive silica is partially extracted from RHAclean at 200 C in an environmentally benign process to adjust SiO2:C ratios to those needed in EA

Richard M. Laine

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

312

Flywheel Cooling: A Cooling Solution for Non Air-Conditioned Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Flywheel Cooling" utillzes the natural cooling processes of evaporation, ventilation and air circulation. These systems are providing low-cost cooling for distribution centers, warehouses, and other non air-conditioned industrial assembly plants...

Abernethy, D.

313

CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

314

Laser diode package with enhanced cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser diode package assembly includes a reservoir filled with a fusible metal in close proximity to a laser diode. The fusible metal absorbs heat from the laser diode and undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid during the operation of the laser. The metal absorbs heat during the phase transition. Once the laser diode is turned off, the liquid metal cools off and resolidifies. The reservoir is designed such that that the liquid metal does not leave the reservoir even when in liquid state. The laser diode assembly further includes a lid with one or more fin structures that extend into the reservoir and are in contact with the metal in the reservoir.

Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); Kotovsky, Jack (Oakland, CA); Spadaccini, Christopher M. (Oakland, CA)

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

315

Laser diode package with enhanced cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser diode package assembly includes a reservoir filled with a fusible metal in close proximity to a laser diode. The fusible metal absorbs heat from the laser diode and undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid during the operation of the laser. The metal absorbs heat during the phase transition. Once the laser diode is turned off, the liquid metal cools off and resolidifies. The reservoir is designed such that that the liquid metal does not leave the reservoir even when in liquid state. The laser diode assembly further includes a lid with one or more fin structures that extend into the reservoir and are in contact with the metal in the reservoir.

Deri, Robert J.; Kotovsky, Jack; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

316

Laser diode package with enhanced cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser diode package assembly includes a reservoir filled with a fusible metal in close proximity to a laser diode. The fusible metal absorbs heat from the laser diode and undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid during the operation of the laser. The metal absorbs heat during the phase transition. Once the laser diode is turned off, the liquid metal cools off and resolidifies. The reservoir is designed such that that the liquid metal does not leave the reservoir even when in liquid state. The laser diode assembly further includes a lid with one or more fin structures that extend into the reservoir and are in contact with the metal in the reservoir.

Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); Kotovsky, Jack (Oakland, CA); Spadaccini, Christopher M. (Oakland, CA)

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

317

Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is generally recognized that as much as 60% of the air conditioning load in a building is generated by solar heat from the roof. This paper on SOLAR ROOF COOLING BY EVAPORATION is presented in slide form, tracing the history of 'nature's way...

Patterson, G. V.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Solar-powered cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

Farmer, Joseph C

2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

319

Powder River Basin coalbed methane: The USGS role in investigating this ultimate clean coal by-product  

SciTech Connect

For the past few decades, the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin has supplied the Nation with comparatively clean low ash and low sulfur coal. However, within the past few years, coalbed methane from the same Fort Union coal has become an important energy by-product. The recently completed US Geological Survey coal resource assessment of the Fort Union coal beds and zones in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains (Fort Union Coal Assessment Team, 1999) has added useful information to coalbed methane exploration and development in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana. Coalbed methane exploration and development in the Powder River Basin has rapidly accelerated in the past three years. During this time more than 800 wells have been drilled and recent operator forecasts projected more than 5,000 additional wells to be drilled over the next few years. Development of shallow (less than 1,000 ft. deep) Fort Union coal-bed methane is confined to Campbell and Sheridan Counties, Wyoming, and Big Horn County, Montana. The purpose of this paper is to report on the US Geological Survey's role on a cooperative coalbed methane project with the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Wyoming Reservoir Management Group and several gas operators. This paper will also discuss the methodology that the USGS and the BLM will be utilizing for analysis and evaluation of coalbed methane reservoirs in the Powder River Basin. The USGS and BLM need additional information of coalbed methane reservoirs to accomplish their respective resource evaluation and management missions.

Stricker, G.D.; Flores, R.M.; Ochs, A.M.; Stanton, R.W.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water  

SciTech Connect

This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

Michael Corradini; Mark Anderson; Yassin Hassan; Akira Tokuhiro

2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

Coleman, John H. (Salem Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Parametric Optimization of Vapor Power and Cooling Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The proposed solar thermal based combined power and cooling cycle can be operated from low grade energy such as heat and well suited for domestic and industrial needs. The hybridization of vapour absorption refrigeration (VAR) and Kalina cycle system (KCS) results power in addition to cooling. The proposed plant has two turbines with super heater and reheater to recover more heat from the solar thermal collectors. The refrigerant vapour from the high pressure turbine is reheated for low pressure turbine which gives 9.3 kW of extra power. The total power and cooling are 14.05 kW and 73.58 kW respectively at 0.42 absorber concentration and 99% of turbine concentration and 150 °C of solar collector temperature. The invention also highlights the flexibility in the operation of system on only power mode or on only cooling mode. Thermodynamic analysis has been carried out with a focus on separator temperature and turbine concentration.

R. Shankar; T. Srinivas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Solar cooling in the food industry in Mexico: A case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Mexico efforts are being made to promote the use of solar energy for cooling in the Agro-Food Industries (AFI), 120 industries were contacted in order to assess the solar cooling potential application in the sector. One case study was selected among the visited potential end users according to the size of the facility, the information available and their willingness to collaborate in the present project. Data from the industry was used to select the appropriate solar cooling concept and therefore the collector’s typology, and the absorption cooling system. Moreover, the operation of the system was simulated in order to define the optimal size of the collector field required. The proposed cooling system was composed by a Fresnel concentrating collector field to activate a series of air cooled single-effect ammonia–water absorption chillers. The cooling system simulation was carried out with the Transient Systems Simulation Programme (TRNSYS) which allowed to model the collector system that fulfill the required load. The calculated saved electricity was around 19% of the total consumption, this small fraction is due to the fact that the selected facility is operating continuously with very large refrigeration capacities. The specifications of the simulated solar cooling system are presented.

Roberto Best B.; Juan M. Aceves H.; Jorge M. Islas S.; Fabio L. Manzini P.; Isaac Pilatowsky F.; Rossano Scoccia; Mario Motta

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Evaporative Roof Cooling - A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

basis. Since that humble beginning, literally millions of square feet of roof cooling systems have been installed in industrial and commercial buildings. A "mini-boom" for roof sprays existed following World War 11, when air conditioning was new.... All supply piping and spray laterals are supported at 5 ft. inter- vals by cementing redwood blocks to the surface. No roof penetrations are necessary with the excep- tion of very large roof areas, and this is done by a competent roofing...

Abernethy, D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling Geothermal Lab Call Project | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Advanced Air Cooling Geothermal Lab Call Project and Advanced Air Cooling Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling Project Type / Topic 1 Laboratory Call for Submission of Applications for Research, Development and Analysis of Geothermal Technologies Project Type / Topic 2 Air-Cooling Project Description Many geothermal power plants in the U.S. are air-cooled because of water limitations. NREL has worked with industry to explore various strategies for boosting the performance of air coolers in hot weather. Computer modeling and experimental measurements have been done on the use of evaporative media upstream of the air-cooled condensers at the Mammoth Lakes Power Plant. NREL has also analyzed the use of an air-cooled condenser in series with (i.e., upstream of) a water-cooled condenser and found that this can be beneficial for power cycles requiring desuperheating of the turbine exhaust vapor. Recently, the conventional power industry has developed an interest in operating water- and air-cooled condensers in parallel. This arrangement allows a small water cooler to reduce the heat transfer duty on the air cooler on hot summer days thereby allowing the condensing working fluid to make a much closer approach to the air dry bulb temperature.

326

Comparison of advanced cooling technologies efficiency depending on outside temperature  

SciTech Connect

In some areas, water availability is a serious problem during the summer and could disrupt the normal operation of thermal power plants which needs large amount of water to operate. Moreover, when water quantities are sufficient, there can still be problem created by the waste heat rejected into the water which is regulated in order to limit the impact of thermal pollution on the environment. All these factors can lead to a decrease of electricity production during the summer and during peak hours, when electricity is the most needed. In order to deal with these problems, advanced cooling technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce water consumption and withdrawals but with an effect in the plant efficiency. This report aims at analyzing the efficiency of several cooling technologies with a fixed power plant design and so to produce a reference to be able to compare them.

Blaise Hamanaka; Haihua Zhao; Phil Sharpe

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Cool Roofs: An Introduction | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction August 9, 2010 - 4:43pm Addthis Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Lately, I've been hearing a lot about cool roof technologies, so I welcomed the chance to learn more at a recent seminar. Cool roofs, also referred to as white roofs, have special coatings that reflect sunlight and emit heat more efficiently than traditional roofs, keeping them cooler in the sun. Cool roofing technologies can be implemented quickly and at a relatively low cost, making it the fastest growing sector of the building industry. U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu is among the many cool roof enthusiasts. The Secretary recently announced plans to install cool roofs

328

Absorption Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Basics Cooling Basics Absorption Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:26pm Addthis Absorption coolers use heat rather than electricity as their energy source. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption cooling, it is also referred to as gas-fired cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption coolers are commercially available for large residential homes. How Absorption Cooling Works An absorption cooling cycle relies on three basic principles: When a liquid is heated it boils (vaporizes) and when a gas is cooled it condenses Lowering the pressure above a liquid reduces its boiling point Heat flows from warmer to cooler surfaces.

329

Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has long been recognized that evaporative cooling is an effective and logical substitute for mechanical cooling in hot-arid climates. This paper explores the application of evaporative coolers to the hot-humid climates using a controlled...

Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Global cooling updates: Reflective roofs and pavements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With increasing the solar reflectance of urban surfaces, the outflow of short-wave solar radiation increases, less solar heat energy is absorbed leading to lower surface temperatures and reduced outflow of thermal radiation into the atmosphere. This process of “negative radiative forcing” effectively counters global warming. Cool roofs also reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win–win–win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO2 emissions. We review the status of cool roof and cool pavements technologies, policies, and programs in the U.S., Europe, and Asia. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

Hashem Akbari; H. Damon Matthews

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Introduction of a Cooling Fan Efficiency Index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

F Fan Power, W (P f ) Cooling-Fan Efficiency (CFE) °C/W °F/WSun et al. 2007). Thus, the CFE is defined by Equation 1.?t eq CFE = Cooling effect = ( – 1 ) --------- P f Fan power

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Evaluation of the cooling fan efficiency index.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

named Cooling Fan Efficiency (CFE) that is the ratio betweenthe Cooling Fan Efficiency (CFE) is defined by Equation 1. ?t CFE ? ( ? 1 ) eq P f where P f is fan power, i.e the input

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Addthis Description This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. Duration 2:17 Topic Tax Credits, Rebates, Savings Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Credit Energy Department Video MR. : Maybe you've never given much thought about what color your roof is or what it's made of, but your roof could be costing you more money than you know to cool your home or office building, especially if you live in a warmer climate. Think about it this way: In the summertime, we wear light-colored clothes because they keep us cooler. Lighter clothes reflect rather than absorb the heat of the sun. It's the same with your roof. A cool roof is

334

Guide to Minimizing Compress-based Cooling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Guide describes best practices for reducing energy use and total-cost-of-ownership for data center cooling systems.

335

Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ratio of time between Fan Coil Units Perimeter Zone Linearand underfloor fan coil units. cooling contribution of

Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I) | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I) BSU GHP District Heating and Cooling System (Phase I) Project objectives: Create a campus geothermal heating and cooling...

337

Performance Analysis of XCPC Powered Solar Cooling Demonstration Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

available Efficiency solar power Cooling power per capturedavailable Efficiency solar power Cooling power per capturedEq. (3) by integrating the cooling power and dividing by the

Widyolar, Bennett

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Demonstration of Rack-Mounted Computer Equipment Cooling Solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

F. Calculations of room power balance and cooling providedrequired for all other cooling power related componentscooling provided is the cooling power remaining after the

Coles, Henry

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado....

340

What's so cool about Curiosity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What's so cool about Curiosity? What's so cool about Curiosity? Curiosity, the Mars Science Laboratory, is the largest and most complicated device we have ever landed on a planet other than Earth. ï‚· About the size of a small SUV -- ten feet long (not including the arm), nine feet wide and seven feet tall ï‚· 900 kilograms (2,000 pounds) (Spirit and Opportunity, earlier research vehicles sent to Mars were 384 pounds) ï‚· Uses aerobraking, parachute, retro rockets and skycrane concepts to land gently (Spirit and Opportunity used aerobraking, parachutes and airbags that bounced them to the surface) Curiosity carries three instruments from Los Alamos National Laboratory. ï‚· The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator supplies electricity and heat to the rover

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Optomechanical laser cooling with mechanical modulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We theoretically study the laser cooling of cavity optomechanics when the mechanical resonance frequency and damping depend on time. In the regime of weak optomechanical coupling we extend the theory of laser cooling using an adiabatic approximation. We discuss the modifications of the cooling dynamics and compare it with numerical simulations in a wide range of modulation frequencies.

Marc Bienert; Pablo Barberis-Blostein

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

342

Berkeley Lab's Cool Your School Program  

SciTech Connect

Cool Your School is a series of 6th-grade, classroom-based, science activities rooted in Berkeley Lab's cool-surface and cool materials research and aligned with California science content standards. The activities are designed to build knowledge, stimulate curiosity, and carry the conversation about human-induced climate change, and what can be done about it, into the community.

Ivan Berry

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

343

Muon Cooling via Ionization Andrea Kay Forget  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Muon Cooling via Ionization Andrea Kay Forget Department of Physics, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 Dated: August 7, 2006 Muons only live a few microseconds before they ultimately, and laser cooling) cannot be used to properly cool muons that are being used in proposed accelerators

Cinabro, David

344

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF COOLING WATER MANAGEMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF COOLING WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM GUIDELINES for Wet and Hybrid Cooling Towers at Power Plants May 17, 2004 A and needs, and may vary from the examples cited here. Staff recommend that such a cooling water management

345

Gas cooled traction drive inverter  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides a modular circuit card configuration for distributing heat among a plurality of circuit cards. Each circuit card includes a housing adapted to dissipate heat in response to gas flow over the housing. In one aspect, a gas-cooled inverter includes a plurality of inverter circuit cards, and a plurality of circuit card housings, each of which encloses one of the plurality of inverter cards.

Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

346

Gas hydrate cool storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

1984-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

347

Cooling system for superconducting magnet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir. 3 figs.

Gamble, B.B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

350

An assessment of desiccant cooling and dehumidification technology  

SciTech Connect

Desiccant systems are heat-actuated cooling and dehumidification technology. With the recent advances in this technology, desiccant systems can now achieve a primary energy coefficient of performance (COP) between 1.3 and 1.5, with potential to go to 1.7 and higher. It is becoming one of the most promising alternatives to conventional cooling systems. Two important and well-known advantages of desiccant cooling systems are that they are CFC free and they can reduce the electricity peak load. Another important but lesser-known advantage of desiccant technology is its potential for energy conservation. The energy impact study in this report indicated that a possible 13% energy saving in residential cooling and 8% in commercial cooling is possible. Great energy saving potential also exists in the industrial sector if industrial waste heat can be used for desiccant regeneration. The latest study on desiccant-integrated building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems indicated that the initial cost for the conventional cooling equipment was greatly reduced by using desiccant technology because of downsized compressors, fans, and ductworks. This cost reduction was more than enough to offset the cost of desiccant equipment. Besides, the system operation cost was also reduced. All these indicate that desiccant systems are also cost effective. This study provides an updated state-of-the-art assessment forsiccant technology in the field of desiccant materials, systems, computer models, and theoretical analyses. From this information the technology options were derived and the future research and development needs were identified. Because desiccant technology has already been applied in the commercial building sector with very encouraging results, it is expected that future market breakthroughs will probably start in this sector. A market analysis for the commercial building application is therefore included.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Lavan, Z. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States)); Collier, R.K. Jr. (Collier Engineering Services, Merritt Island, FL (United States)); Meckler, G. (Gershon Meckler Associates, P.C., Herndon, VA (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products  

SciTech Connect

Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

Demirbas, A. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMULATION CODE FOR A COOL-DOWN PROCESS OF THE CRYOGENIC HYDROGEN SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical hydrogen with a pressure of 1.5 MPa and a temperature of 20 K has been selected as a moderator material in an intense spallation neutron source (JSNS), which is one of main experimental facilities in J-PARC. The cryogenic hydrogen system, in which a hydrogen circulation system is cooled by a helium refrigerator with the refrigeration power of 6.45 kW at 15.5 K, has been designed to provide the supercritical hydrogen to the moderator and to remove the nuclear heating generated there. In this study, we have developed a simulation code that predicts temperature behaviors in the hydrogen circulation system during its cool-down process. Cool-down process analyses have been performed, and an operational method for the cool-down process has been studied. The analytical results indicate that the hydrogen circulation system would be able to be cooled down to 18 K within 19 hours.

Tatsumoto, H.; Aso, T.; Ohtsu, K.; Kato, T.; Futakawa, M. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

353

Miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump  

SciTech Connect

A miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump is described for removing residual water molecules from an inlet sample prior to sample analysis in a mass spectroscopy system, such as ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectroscopy. The cryogenic pump is a battery operated, low power (<1.6 watts) pump with a {Delta}T=100 C characteristic. The pump operates under vacuum pressures of 5{times}10{sup {minus}4} Torr to ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions in the range of 1{times}10{sup {minus}7} to 3{times}10{sup {minus}9} Torr and will typically remove partial pressure, 2{times}10{sup {minus}7} Torr, residual water vapor. The cryogenic pump basically consists of an inlet flange piece, a copper heat sink with a square internal bore, four two tier Peltier (TEC) chips, a copper low temperature square cross sectional tubulation, an electronic receptacle, and an exit flange piece, with the low temperature tubulation being retained in the heat sink at a bias angle of 5{degree}, and with the TECs being positioned in parallel to each other with a positive potential being applied to the top tier thereof. 2 figs.

Keville, R.F.

1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

354

Miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump  

SciTech Connect

A miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump for removing residual water molecules from an inlet sample prior to sample analysis in a mass spectroscopy system, such as ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectroscopy. The cryogenic pump is a battery operated, low power (<1.6 watts) pump with a .DELTA.T=100.degree. C. characteristic. The pump operates under vacuum pressures of 5.times.10.sup.-4 Torr to ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions in the range of 1.times.10.sup.-7 to 3.times.10.sup.-9 Torr and will typically remove partial pressure, 2.times.10.sup.-7 Torr, residual water vapor. The cryogenic pump basically consists of an inlet flange piece, a copper heat sink with a square internal bore, four two tier Peltier (TEC) chips, a copper low temperature square cross sectional tubulation, an electronic receptacle, and an exit flange piece, with the low temperature tubulation being retained in the heat sink at a bias angle of 5.degree., and with the TECs being positioned in parallel to each other with a positive potential being applied to the top tier thereof.

Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Western Cooling Efficiency Center | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Efficiency Center Efficiency Center Jump to: navigation, search Name Western Cooling Efficiency Center Place Davis, CA Website http://http://wcec.ucdavis.edu References Western Cooling Efficiency Center [1] Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building Systems Integration LinkedIn Connections Western Cooling Efficiency Center is a research institution located in Davis, CA, at the University of California at Davis (UC Davis). References ↑ "Western Cooling Efficiency Center" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Western_Cooling_Efficiency_Center&oldid=382319" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

356

Algorithmic Cooling in Liquid State NMR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Algorithmic cooling is a method that employs thermalization to increase the qubits' purification level, namely it reduces the qubit-system's entropy. We utilized gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE), an optimal control algorithm, to implement algorithmic cooling in liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance. Various cooling algorithms were applied onto the three qubits of 13C2-trichloroethylene, cooling the system beyond Shannon's entropy bound in several different ways. For example, in one experiment a carbon qubit was cooled by a factor of 4.61. This work is a step towards potentially integrating tools of NMR quantum computing into in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Yosi Atia; Yuval Elias; Tal Mor; Yossi Weinstein

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

357

POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION FOR DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONTROL IN WATER TREATMENT PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

New federal drinking water regulations have been promulgated to restrict the levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in finished public water supplies. DBPs are suspected carcinogens and are formed when organic material is partially oxidized by disinfectants commonly used in the water treatment industry. Additional federal mandates are expected in the near future that will further affect public water suppliers with respect to DBPs. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated DBPs. Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. This project, a cooperative effort between the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Grand Forks Water Treatment Plant, and the University of North Dakota Department of Civil Engineering, consists of several interrelated tasks. The objective of the research was to evaluate a cost-effective PAC produced from North Dakota lignite for removing NOM from water and reducing trihalomethane formation potential. The research approach was to develop a statistically valid testing protocol that can be used to compare dose-response relationships between North Dakota lignite-derived PAC and commercially available PAC products. A statistical analysis was performed to determine whether significant correlations exist between operating conditions, water properties, PAC properties, and dose-response behavior. Pertinent physical and chemical properties were also measured for each of the waters and each of the PACs.

Daniel J. Stepan; Thomas A. Moe; Melanie D. Hetland; Margaret L. Laumb

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and dissolved solids. Makeup water is withdrawn, usually from surface water bodies, to replace the lost water. The volume of makeup water is many times smaller than the volume needed to operate a once-through system. Although neither the final new facility rule nor the proposed existing facility rule require dry cooling towers as the national best technology available, the environmental community and several States have supported the use of dry-cooling technology as the appropriate technology for addressing adverse environmental impacts. It is possible that the requirements included in the new facility rule and the ongoing push for dry cooling systems by some stakeholders may have a role in shaping the rule for existing facilities. The temperature of the cooling water entering the condenser affects the performance of the turbine--the cooler the temperature, the better the performance. This is because the cooling water temperature affects the level of vacuum at the discharge of the steam turbine. As cooling water temperatures decrease, a higher vacuum can be produced and additional energy can be extracted. On an annual average, once-through cooling water has a lower temperature than recirculated water from a cooling tower. By switching a once-through cooling system to a cooling tower, less energy can be generated by the power plant from the same amount of fuel. This reduction in energy output is known as the energy penalty. If a switch away from once-through cooling is broadly implemented through a final 316(b) rule or other regulatory initiatives, the energy penalty could result in adverse effects on energy supplies. Therefore, in accordance with the recommendations of the Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group (better known as the May 2001 National Energy Policy), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), has studied the energy penalty resulting from converting plants with once-through cooling to wet towers or indirect-dry towers. Five l

Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

359

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Addthis Below is the text version for the Energy 101: Cool Roofs video. The video opens with "Energy 101: Cool Roofs." This is followed by images of residential rooftops. Maybe you've never given much thought about what color your roof is, or what it's made of. But your roof could be costing you more money than you know to cool your home or office building, especially if you live in a warmer climate. The video shows pedestrians walking on a city street. Think about it this way... in the summertime we wear light-colored clothes because they keep us cooler. Lighter colors reflect - rather than absorb - the heat of the sun. The video shows images of a white roof. It's the same with your roof. A cool roof is often light in color and made

360

Why Cool Roofs? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Why Cool Roofs? Why Cool Roofs? Why Cool Roofs? Addthis Description By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills. Speakers Secretary Steven Chu Duration 1:46 Topic Tax Credits, Rebates, Savings Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Fossil Oil Credit Energy Department Video SECRETARY OF ENERGY STEVEN CHU: The reason we wanted the Department of Energy to take the lead in cool roofs is to demonstrate that this really saves money. If you have a roof and it's black, it's absorbing energy from the sun

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Photometric Identification of Cool White Dwarfs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the use of a narrow-band DDO51 filter for photometric identification of cool white dwarfs. We report photometric observations of 30 known cool white dwarfs with temperatures ranging from 10,000 K down to very cool temperatures (<3500 K). Follow-up spectroscopic observations of a sample of objects selected using this filter and our photometric observations show that DDO51 filter photometry can help select cool white dwarf candidates for follow-up multi--object spectroscopy by rejecting 65% of main sequence stars with the same broad--band colors as the cool white dwarfs. This technique is not selective enough to efficiently feed single--object spectrographs. We present the white dwarf cooling sequence using this filter. Our observations show that very cool white dwarfs form a sequence in the r-DDO vs. r-z color--color diagram and demonstrate that significant improvements are needed in white dwarf model atmospheres.

M. Kilic; D. E. Winget; Ted von Hippel; C. F. Claver

2004-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

362

On-chip high speed localized cooling using superlattice microrefrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and J. E. Bowers, “High cooling power density SiGe/Si microDevice area, m . Maximum cooling power density, W/cm . I. Ibest cooling performance. C. Cooling Power Measurements For

Zhang, Y; Christofferson, J; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H; Bowers, J E; Croke, E T

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Radiant heating and cooling, displacement ventilation with heat recovery and storm water cooling: An environmentally responsible HVAC system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design, operation, and performance of an HVAC system installed as part of a project to demonstrate energy efficiency and environmental responsibility in commercial buildings. The systems installed in the 2180 m{sup 2} office building provide superior air quality and thermal comfort while requiring only half the electrical energy of conventional systems primarily because of the hydronic heating and cooling system. Gas use for the building is higher than expected because of longer operating hours and poor performance of the boiler/absorption chiller.

Carpenter, S.C.; Kokko, J.P. [Enermodal Engineering Ltd., Kitchener, Ontario (Canada)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

364

PEPCO - Commissioning and Operations Incentive Programs | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PEPCO - Commissioning and Operations Incentive Programs PEPCO - Commissioning and Operations Incentive Programs PEPCO - Commissioning and Operations Incentive Programs < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Other Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Maximum Rebate Commissioning: 50% of cost Enhanced Commissioning: $20,000 Energy Savings Study Incentive: $20,000 All Incentives: $250,000/account/year for custom, prescriptive, commissioning and O&M Program Info State Maryland Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Retro-Commissioning: $12,000 or $0.06/sq. ft.

365

NETL: Hg Control – The Effects on By-products: What Do We Know and Where  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hg Control – The Effects on By-products: Hg Control – The Effects on By-products: What Do We Know and Where Do We Go? Table of Contents Foreword Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Introductions Field Demonstrations Laboratory Studies Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

366

Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant  

SciTech Connect

Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

Reuse of coal combustion by-products: A new profit center  

SciTech Connect

Coal combustion by-products (CCBs) are generated from the combustion of coal for energy production. Approximately 82 million tons of CCBs are produced each year by electric utilities. There are several common types of CCBs produced by coal combustion--fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, flue gas desulfurization material (FGD) and fluidized bed combustion byproducts (FBC). Some CCBs such as fly ash, have pozzolanic properties and may have cementitious properties, both of which are advantageous for engineering, construction and waste remediation applications. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) in ASTM C-618 has created two classifications of useful and quality coal ash, Class F ash and Class C ash. Each class of coal ash has different pozzolanic and cementitious characteristics. Coal ash can be utilized in many manufacturing, mining, agricultural, engineering, construction and waste remediation applications. These potential applications may provide a new revenue source for utilities. The profitability of these applications can, however, be limited by applicable state regulations. Prior to initiating any reuse application, a utility should ensure regulatory approval of the proposed use. Approval may be apparent from a review of state law and regulations. Often times, further regulatory analysis and consultations may be necessary.

Jagiella, D. [Howard and Howard Attorneys, Peoria, IL (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Two-Phase Spray Cooling of Hybrid Vehicle Electronics: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Spray cooling is a feasible cooling technology for hybrid vehicle electronics; HFE 7100 is a promising coolant.

Mudawar, I.; Bharathan, D.; Kelly, K.; Narumanchi, S.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Cooling Fusion in a Flash | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cooling Fusion in a Flash American Fusion News Category: U.S. Universities Link: Cooling Fusion in a Flash...

370

Solar heating and cooling system installed at RKL Controls Company, Lumberton, New Jersey. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Solar heating and cooling of a 40,000 square foot manufacturing building, sales offices and the solar computer control center/display room are described. Information on system description, test data, major problems and resolutions, performance, operation and maintenance manual, manufacturer's literature and as-built drawings are provided also. The solar system is composed of 6000 square feet of Sunworks double glazed flat plate collectors, external above ground storage subsystem, controls, ARKLA absorption chiller, heat recovery and a cooling tower.

None

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 7. GPGP jet-fuels production program. Evaluation of technical uncertainties for producing jet fuels from liquid by-products of the Great Plains gasification plant. Interim report, 2 October 1987-30 September 1988  

SciTech Connect

In September 1986, the Fuels Branch of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, began an investigation of the potential of jet-fuel production from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota. Funding was provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to administer the experimental portion of this effort. This document reports the results of the effort by Burns and Roe Services Corporation/Science Applications International Corporation (BRSC/SAIC) to analyze GPGP operations and develop correlations for the liquid by-products and plant operating factors such as coal feed rate and coal characteristics.

Fraser, M.D.; Rossi, R.J.; Wan, E.I.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

CFD Model Development and validation for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) Applications  

SciTech Connect

The Reactor Cavity Cooling Systems (RCCS) is a passive safety system that will be incorporated in the VTHR design. The system was designed to remove the heat from the reactor cavity and maintain the temperature of structures and concrete walls under desired limits during normal operation (steady-state) and accident scenarios. A small scale (1:23) water-cooled experimental facility was scaled, designed, and constructed in order to study the complex thermohydraulic phenomena taking place in the RCCS during stead-state and transient conditions. The facility represents a portion of the reactor vessel with nine stainless steel coolant risers and utilizes water as coolant. The facility was equipped with instrumentation to measure temperatures and flow rates and a general verification was completed during the shakedown. A model of the experimental facility was prepared using RELAP5-3D and simulations were performed to validate the scaling procedure. The experimental data produced during the stead-state run were compared with the simulation results obtained using RELAP5-3D. The overall behavior of the facility met the expectations. The facility capabilities were confirmed to be very promising in performing additional experimental tests, including flow visualization, and produce data for code validation.

Hassan, Yassin; Corradini, Michael; Tokuhiro, Akira; Wei, Thomas Y.C.

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

373

Information technology equipment cooling system  

SciTech Connect

According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

Schultz, Mark D.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

374

Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

undersized due to the low bidder syndrome (1). 4. New plant expansion needs colder temperatures off the tower. State of the Art Upgrading Users of cooling towers are not par ticularly concerned with the thermal analysis involving calculus, or delving... HISTORY I Anhydrous Ammonia Plant The Hawkeye Chemical Corporation, a subsidiary of the Getty Oil Company, pro jected a 50% expansion of their anhydroug ammonia output from 120,000 tons (1.09 Kg) per year to ~ production level of 225,000 tons (2...

Burger, R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Qualitative thermal characterization and cooling of lithium batteries for electric vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper deals with the cooling of batteries. The first step was the thermal characterization of a single cell of the module, which consists in the detection of the thermal field by means of thermographic tests during electric charging and discharging. The purpose was to identify possible critical hot points and to evaluate the cooling demand during the normal operation of an electric car. After that, a study on the optimal configuration to obtain the flattening of the temperature profile and to avoid hot points was executed. An experimental plant for cooling capacity evaluation of the batteries, using air as cooling fluid, was realized in our laboratory in ENEA Casaccia. The plant is designed to allow testing at different flow rate and temperatures of the cooling air, useful for the assessment of operative thermal limits in different working conditions. Another experimental facility was built to evaluate the thermal behaviour changes with water as cooling fluid. Experimental tests were carried out on the LiFePO4 batteries, under different electric working conditions using the two loops. In the future, different type of batteries will be tested and the influence of various parameters on the heat transfer will be assessed for possible optimal operative solutions.

A Mariani; F D'Annibale; G Boccardi; G P Celata; C Menale; R Bubbico; F Vellucci

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

DOE Science Showcase - Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE | OSTI, US Dept of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE Science Accelerator returns cool roof documents from 6 DOE Databases Executive Order on Sustainability Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement One Cool Roof Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs DOE Cool Roof Calculator Visit the Science Showcase homepage. OSTI Homepage Mobile Gallery Subscribe to RSS OSTI Blog Get Widgets Get Alert Services OSTI Facebook OSTI Twitter OSTI Google+ Bookmark and Share (Link will open in a new window) Go to Videos Loading... Stop news scroll Most Visited Adopt-A-Doc DOE Data Explorer DOE Green Energy DOepatents DOE R&D Accomplishments .EDUconnections Energy Science and Technology Software Center E-print Network National Library of Energy OSTIblog Science.gov Science Accelerator

377

Air Cooling R&D  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

operation condition - Conservative power factor * Applied 1.5 safety factor to MOSFET heat loss for heat load target * Used heat load target for all devices Generating Power...

378

Radiometric Modeling of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers to Assist in the Extraction of their Absolute Temperature from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY, USA; bSavannah River National Laboratory, Building 735-A, Office B at the Savannah River National Laboratory. A MDCT operates on the concept of evaporative cooling. Heated water

Salvaggio, Carl

379

Empirical Modeling of a Rolling-Piston Compressor Heat Pump for Predictive Control in Low-Lift Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inverter-driven variable-capacity air conditioners, heat pumps, and chillers can provide energy-efficient cooling, particularly at part-load capacity. Varying the capacity of vapor compression systems enables operation at ...

Gayeski, Nicholas

380

Thermal calculation of combined transpiration-liquid cooling of discharge-chamber walls of an electric-arc heater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The article presents a theoretical calculation of the temperature profiles and optimal thicknesses of porous and solid cooled walls, which provide a steady-state operation of an electric-arc heater with transpira...

G. L. Dobroedov; V. I. Krylovich

1970-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Tritium production analysis and management strategies for a Fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature test reactor (FHTR)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Fluoride-salt-cooled High-temperature Test Reactor (FHTR) is a test reactor concept that aims to demonstrate the neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, materials, tritium management, and to address other reactor operational ...

Rodriguez, Judy N

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Cavity cooling of an atomic array  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While cavity cooling of a single trapped emitter was demonstrated, cooling of many particles in an array of harmonic traps needs investigation and poses a question of scalability. This work investigates the cooling of a one dimensional atomic array to the ground state of motion via the interaction with the single mode field of a high-finesse cavity. The key factor ensuring the cooling is found to be the mechanical inhomogeneity of the traps. Furthermore it is shown that the pumped cavity mode does not only mediate the cooling but also provides the necessary inhomogeneity if its periodicity differs from the one of the array. This configuration results in the ground state cooling of several tens of atoms within a few milliseconds, a timescale compatible with current experimental conditions. Moreover, the cooling rate scaling with the atom number reveals a drastic change of the dynamics with the size of the array: atoms are either cooled independently, or via collective modes. In the latter case the cavity mediated atom interaction destructively slows down the cooling as well as increases the mean occupation number, quadratically with the atom number. Finally, an order of magnitude speed up of the cooling is predicted as an outcome the optimization scheme based on the adjustment of the array versus the cavity mode periodicity.

Oxana Mishina

2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

383

Cryogenics for the MuCool Test Area (MTA)  

SciTech Connect

MuCool Test Area (MTA) is a complex of buildings at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, which are dedicated to operate components of a cooling cell to be used for Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory R and D. The long-term goal of this facility is to test ionization cooling principles by operating a 25-liter liquid hydrogen (LH2) absorber embedded in a 5 Tesla superconducting solenoid magnet. The MTA solenoid magnet will be used with RF cavities exposed to a high intensity beam. Cryogens used at the MTA include LHe, LN2 and LH2. The latter dictates stringent system design for hazardous locations. The cryogenic plant is a modified Tevatron refrigerator based on the Claude cycle. The implementation of an in-house refrigerator system and two 300 kilowatt screw compressors is under development. The helium refrigeration capacity is 500 W at 14 K. In addition the MTA solenoid magnet will be batch-filled with LHe every 2 days using the same cryo-plant. This paper reviews cryogenic systems used to support the Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory R and D programs and emphasizes the feasibility of handling cryogenic equipment at MTA in a safe manner.

Darve, Christine; Norris, Barry; Pei, Liujin [Fermilab, Cryogenics department, MS347 Batavia, Illinois, 60510 (United States)

2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

384

Simulation and analysis of district-heating and -cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

A computer simulation model, GEOCITY, was developed to study the design and economics of district heating and cooling systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating based on climate, population, energy source, and financing conditions. The principal input variables are minimum temperature, heating degree-days, population size and density, energy supply temperature and distance from load center, and the interest rate. For district cooling, maximum temperature and cooling degree-hours are required. From this input data the model designs the fluid transport and district heating systems. From this design, GEOCITY calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY was originally developed to simulate geothermal district heating systems and thus, in addition to the fluid transport and distribution models, it includes a reservoir model to simulate the production of geothermal energy from geothermal reservoirs. The reservoir model can be adapted to simulate the supply of hot water from any other energy source. GEOCITY has been used extensively and has been validated against other design and cost studies. GEOCITY designs the fluid transport and distribution facilities and then calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY can simulate nearly any financial and tax structure through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratios, and tax rates. Both private and municipal utility systems can be simulated.

Bloomster, C.H.; Fassbender, L.L.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Cool Farm Tool | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool Farm Tool Cool Farm Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Cool Farm Tool Agency/Company /Organization: Unilever Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture Topics: Co-benefits assessment, Resource assessment Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.unilever.com/aboutus/supplier/sustainablesourcing/tools/?WT.LHNAV= Cost: Free Language: English Cool Farm Tool Screenshot References: Cool Farm Tool [1] Overview "The Cool Farm Tool is a new greenhouse gas calculator for farming. It's easy to use and gives instant results that invite users to try out alternatives and ask 'what if' questions. The tool was commissioned by Unilever from the University of Aberdeen The tool is ideal for farmers, supply chain managers and companies interested in quantifying their

386

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

387

Microsoft PowerPoint - Cool Roofs_090804  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for: for: Quarterly Facilities and Infrastructure Meeting Presented by: The Office of Engineering and Construction Management Content Excerpted From Presentation of: Bob Schmidt - NNSA Kansas City Plant Cool Roofs - An Overview August 4, 2009 2 *The terms "white roof" and "cool roof" are often mistakenly used interchangeably. A white roof is not necessarily a cool roof and a cool roof is not necessarily white. *"Cool Roofs" come in many style as defined by industry standard and can include: Metal Single ply Modified bitumen Acrylic coated White Roof vs. Cool Roof 3 Solar reflectance alone can significantly influence surface temperature, with the white stripe on the brick wall about 5 to 10° F (3-5° C) cooler than the surrounding, darker

388

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs February 1, 2011 - 10:50am Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from DOE's Energy Blog. In this edition of Energy 101 we take a look at one of Secretary Chu's favorite energy efficiency techniques, cool roofs. Traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which in turn transfers heat to a building. Cool roofs use light-colored, highly reflective materials to regulate building temperatures without increasing electricity demand, which can result in energy savings of up to 10 to 15 percent. Cool roofs can also reduce the "heat island" effect in cities and suburbs, a phenomenon that produces higher temperatures in densely populated areas

389

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

390

Hot gas path component cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

391

Cool Roofs: An Introduction | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Roofs: An Introduction Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction August 9, 2010 - 4:43pm Addthis Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Lately, I've been hearing a lot about cool roof technologies, so I welcomed the chance to learn more at a recent seminar. Cool roofs, also referred to as white roofs, have special coatings that reflect sunlight and emit heat more efficiently than traditional roofs, keeping them cooler in the sun. Cool roofing technologies can be implemented quickly and at a relatively low cost, making it the fastest growing sector of the building industry. U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu is among the many cool roof enthusiasts. The Secretary recently announced plans to install cool roofs

392

Acidic soil amendment with a magnesium-containing fluidized bed combustion by-product  

SciTech Connect

Removal of SO{sub 2} from the emissions of coal-fired boilers produces by-products that often consist of CaSO{sub 4}, residual alkalinity, and coal ash. These by-products could be beneficial to acidic soils because of their alkalinity and the ability of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center{underscore}dot}2H{sub 2}O) to reduce Al toxicity in acidic subsoils. A 3-yr field experiment was conducted to determine the liming efficacy of a fluidized bed combustion boiler by-product (FBC) that contained 129 g Mg kg{sup {minus}1} as CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} and MgO and its effects on surface and subsurface soil chemistry. The FBC was mixed in the surface 10 cm of two acidic soils (Wooster silt loam, an Oxyaquic Fragiudalf, and Coshocton silt loam, an Aquultic Hapludalf) at rates of 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 times each soil's lime requirement (LR). Soils were sampled in 10-cm increments to depths ranging from 20 to 110 cm, and corn (Zea mays L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were grown. Application of Mg-FBC increased alfalfa yields in all six site-years, whereas it had no effect on corn grain yield in five site-years and decreased grain yield in one site-year. Plant tissue concentrations of Mg, S, and Mo were increased by Mg-FBC, while most trace elements were either unaffected or decreased. Application of Mg-FBC at one or two times LR increased surface soil pH to near 7 within 1 wk. Although surface soil pH remained near 7 for 2 yr, there was minimal effect on subjacent soil pH. Application of Mg-FBC increased surface soil concentrations of Ca, Mg, and S, which promoted downward movement of Mg and SO{sub 4}. This had different effects on subsoil chemistry in the two soils: in the high-Ca-status Wooster subsoil, exchangeable Ca was decreased and exchangeable Al was increased, whereas in the high-Al-status Coshocton subsoil, exchangeable Al was decreased and exchangeable Mg was increased. The Mg-FBC was an effective liming material and, because of the presence of both Mg and SO{sub 4}, may be more effective than gypsum in ameliorating subsoil Al phytotoxicity.

Stehouwer, R.C.; Dick, W.A.; Sutton, P.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Peltier Junction heats and cools car seat  

SciTech Connect

Electrically heated seats may soon become heated and cooled seats. The design called the CCS module exploits the heat-pump capability of a class of semiconductor thermoelectric devices (TEDs) known as Peltier Junction. Every CCS module contain two TEDs. Heating and cooling occurs through convection and conduction. The heart of the system is the thermoelectric heat pump. This is originally conceived as the sole heating/cooling options for a prototype electric vehicle.

Gottschalk, M.A.

1994-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

395

Complete Muon Cooling Channel Design and Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Considerable progress has been made in developing promising subsystems for muon beam cooling channels to provide the extraordinary reduction of emittances required for an energy-frontier muon collider. However, it has not yet been demonstrated that the various proposed cooling subsystems can be consolidated into an integrated end-to-end design. Presented here are concepts to address the matching of transverse emittances between subsystems through an extension of the theoretical framework of the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), which allows a general analytical approach to guide the transition from one set of cooling channel parameters to another.

C. Y. Yoshikawa, C.M. Ankenbrandt, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov, D.V. Neuffer, K. Yonehara

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Complete Muon Cooling Channel Design and Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Considerable progress has been made in developing promising subsystems for muon beam cooling channels to provide the extraordinary reduction of emittances required for an energy-frontier muon collider. However, it has not yet been demonstrated that the various proposed cooling subsystems can be consolidated into an integrated end-to-end design. Presented here are concepts to address the matching of transverse emittances between subsystems through an extension of the theoretical framework of the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), which allows a general analytical approach to guide the transition from one set of cooling channel parameters to another.

Neuffer, D.V.; /Fermilab; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Johnson, R.P.; Yoshikawa, C.Y.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia; Derbenev, Y.S.; Morozov, V.S.; /Jefferson Lab

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Bee Cool Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

North Ferrisburg, Vermont Zip: Vt 05473 Sector: Solar Product: Producer of polysilicon solar panels and solar trackers, and solar battery chargers. References: Bee Cool Inc1...

398

Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a demonstration of an electronic--equipment cooling system in the engineering prototype development stage that can be applied in data centers. The technology provides cooling by bringing a water--based cooling fluid into direct contact with high--heat--generating electronic components. This direct cooling system improves overall data center energy efficiency in three ways: High--heat--generating electronic components are more efficiently cooled directly using water, capturing a large portion of the total electronic equipment heat generated. This captured heat reduces the load on the less--efficient air--based data center room cooling systems. The combination contributes to the overall savings. The power consumption of the electronic equipment internal fans is significantly reduced when equipped with this cooling system. The temperature of the cooling water supplied to the direct cooling system can be much higher than that commonly provided by facility chilled water loops, and therefore can be produced with lower cooling infrastructure energy consumption and possibly compressor-free cooling. Providing opportunities for heat reuse is an additional benefit of this technology. The cooling system can be controlled to produce high return water temperatures while providing adequate component cooling. The demonstration was conducted in a data center located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Thirty--eight servers equipped with the liquid cooling system and instrumented for energy measurements were placed in a single rack. Two unmodified servers of the same configuration, located in an adjacent rack, were used to provide a baseline. The demonstration characterized the fraction of heat removed by the direct cooling technology, quantified the energy savings for a number of cooling infrastructure scenarios, and provided information that could be used to investigate heat reuse opportunities. Thermal measurement data were used with data center energy use modeling software to estimate overall site energy use. These estimates show that an overall data center energy savings of approximately 20 percent can be expected if a center is retrofitted as specified in the models used. Increasing the portion of heat captured by this technology is an area suggested for further development.

Coles, Henry; Greenberg, Steve

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Therapeutic Hypothermia: Protective Cooling Using Medical Ice Slurry Technology available for licensing: Proprietary method and equipment for making an ice slurry coolant to induce...

400

X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Cluster  

SciTech Connect

We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

Peterson, J.R.; /SLAC; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide. Atlanta:Load Design Tool for Underfloor Air Distribution Systems. ”for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (

Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Depolarisation cooling of an atomic cloud  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a cooling scheme based on depolarisation of a polarised cloud of trapped atoms. Similar to adiabatic demagnetisation, we suggest to use the coupling between the internal spin reservoir of the cloud and the external kinetic reservoir via dipolar relaxation to reduce the temperature of the cloud. By optical pumping one can cool the spin reservoir and force the cooling process. In case of a trapped gas of dipolar chromium atoms, we show that this cooling technique can be performed continuously and used to approach the critical phase space density for BEC

S. Hensler; A. Greiner; J. Stuhler; T. Pfau

2005-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

403

Cavity cooling of an optically trapped nanoparticle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the cooling of a dielectric nanoscale particle trapped in an optical cavity. We derive the frictional force for motion in the cavity field and show that the cooling rate is proportional to the square of oscillation amplitude and frequency. Both the radial and axial components of the center-of-mass motion of the trapped particle, which are coupled by the cavity field, are cooled. This motion is analogous to two coupled but damped pendulums. Our simulations show that the nanosphere can be cooled to e-1 of its initial momentum over time scales of hundredths of milliseconds.

P. F. Barker and M. N. Shneider

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

404

Laser cooling by collisional redistribution of radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... in aqueous solutions. Nature 406, 611–614 (2000) Adams, C. S. &Riis, E. Laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms. Prog. Quantum Electron. 21, ...

Ulrich Vogl; Martin Weitz

2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

405

X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

J. R. Peterson; A. C. Fabian

2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

406

Refueling Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR), also called the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR), is a new reactor concept that combines in a novel way four established technologies: (1) coated-particle graphite-matrix nuclear fuels, (2) Brayton power cycles, (3) passive safety systems and plant designs previously developed for liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors, and (4) low-pressure liquid-salt coolants. Depending upon goals, the peak coolant operating temperatures are between 700 and 1000 deg. C, with reactor outputs between 2400 and 4000 MW(t). Several fluoride salt coolants that are being evaluated have melting points between 350 and 500 deg. C, values that imply minimum refueling temperatures between 400 and 550 deg. C. At operating conditions, the liquid salts are transparent and have physical properties similar to those of water. A series of refueling studies have been initiated to (1) confirm the viability of refueling, (2) define methods for safe rapid refueling, and (3) aid the selection of the preferred AHTR design. Three reactor cores with different fuel element designs (prismatic, pebble bed, and pin-type fuel assembly) are being evaluated. Each is a liquid-salt-cooled variant of a graphite-moderated high-temperature reactor. The refueling studies examined applicable refueling experience from high-temperature reactors (similar fuel element designs) and sodium-cooled fast reactors (similar plant design with liquid coolant, high temperatures, and low pressures). The findings indicate that refueling is viable, and several approaches have been identified. The study results are described in this paper. (authors)

Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Peterson, Per F. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California at Berkeley, 6124a Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cahalan, James E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Enneking, Jeffrey A. [Areva NP (United States); Phil MacDonald [Consultant, Cedar Hill, TX (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Management of Power Demand through Operations of Building Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

included utilizing the thermal mass to reduce cooling production and distribution during the last hour of occupancy, time-of-day control of chillers and auxiliaries, and de-lamping. The implemented operational changes led to significant reductions...

ElSherbini, A. I.; Maheshwari, G.; Al-Naqib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.

408

Thermoelectric cooling container for medical applications  

SciTech Connect

In this work the thermoelectric cooling container for storing and transportation of the medicine, particularly for insulin, is discussed. In the working volume the temperature is supported on the level of +4 C. The container can work in two operating conditions: with the power supply and without the power supply. Two removable blocks are used for this purpose. One block (thermoelectric) is used for the work with the power supply and another (passive)-for the work without power supply. The thermoelectric block has a 12V power supply, which is used in the automobiles, yachts and other kinds of transport. The temperature in the working volume is supported by the use of the Peltier effect. An electronic device is used in this block and stabilizes temperature on the level of +4 C and indicates information about working conditions. The thermoelectric container has a power supply block for work at 220(110)V. The working temperature in the container can be maintained in the absence of the power supply. In this case the necessary temperature conditions are supported by melting of the crystallized salt. For this purpose the container has a hermetic volume containing this salt and contacting with the working volume.

Aivazov, A.A.; Shtern, Y.I.; Budaguan, B.G.; Makhrachev, K.B.; Pastor, M.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products  

SciTech Connect

An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7-day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m2 h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m2 h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

Pekney, N.J.; Martello, D.V.; Schroeder, K.T.; Granite, E.J.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Green Cooling: Improving Chiller Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Green Cooling: Improving Chiller Efficiency This new chiller simulation module being developed by Building Performance Assurance Project members will help building managers compare optimal and actual chiller efficiency. Chillers are the single largest energy consumers in commercial buildings. These machines create peaks in electric power consumption, typically during summer afternoons. In fact, 23% of electricity generation is associated with powering chillers that use CFCs and HCFCs, ozone-depleting refrigerants. Satisfying the peak demand caused by chillers forces utilities to build new power plants. However, because chiller plants run the most when the weather is hot and very little at other times, their load factors - and hence the utilities' load factors (the percentage of time the

411

Cooled turbine vane with endcaps  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine vane assembly which includes an outer endcap having a plurality of generally straight passages and passage segments therethrough, an inner endcap having a plurality of passages and passage segments therethrough, and a vane assembly having an outer shroud, an airfoil body, and an inner shroud. The outer shroud, airfoil body and inner shroud each have a plurality of generally straight passages and passage segments therethrough as well. The outer endcap is coupled to the outer shroud so that outer endcap passages and said outer shroud passages form a fluid circuit. The inner endcap is coupled to the inner shroud so that the inner end cap passages and the inner shroud passages from a fluid circuit. Passages in the vane casting are in fluid communication with both the outer shroud passages and the inner shroud passages. Passages in the outer endcap may be coupled to a cooling system that supplies a coolant and takes away the heated exhaust.

Cunha, Frank J. (Avon, CT); Schiavo, Jr., Anthony L. (Ovideo, FL); Nordlund, Raymond Scott (Orlando, FL); Malow, Thomas (Oviedo, FL); McKinley, Barry L. (Chuluota, FL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Integrating district cooling with cogeneration  

SciTech Connect

Chillers can be driven with cogenerated thermal energy, thereby offering the potential to increase utilization of cogeneration throughout the year. However, cogeneration decreases electric output compared to condensing power generation in power plants using a steam cycle (steam turbine or gas turbine combined cycle plants). The foregone electric production increases with increasing temperature of heat recovery. Given a range of conditions for key variables (such as cogeneration utilization, chiller utilization, cost of fuel, value of electricity, value of heat and temperature of heat recovered), how do technology alternatives for combining district cooling with cogeneration compare? This paper summarizes key findings from a report recently published by the International Energy Agency which examines the energy efficiency and economics of alternatives for combining cogeneration technology options (gas turbine simple cycle, diesel engine, steam turbine, gas turbine combined cycle) with chiller options (electric centrifugal, steam turbine centrifugal one-stage steam absorption, two-stage steam absorption, hot water absorption).

Spurr, M.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Cool CAVEs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CAVEs CAVEs Cool CAVEs January 5, 2011 - 6:18pm Addthis Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What are the key facts? The Idaho National Laboratory's "CAVE" -- 3-D Computer-Assisted Virtual Environment -- allows scientists to literally walk into their data and look at it from multiple perspectives. Projectors, mounted behind the walls and on the ceiling, are manipulated by researchers using 3-D goggles and a handheld controller -- and allow them to study everything from terrain to applied nuclear research, to active sites of proteins. To escape the holiday chaos, many folks found refuge in caves - dark places with sticky floors, lumpy seating and Jeff Bridges playing scenes against a computer-enhanced younger version of himself . . . at least if

414

GAS COOLED ELECTRICAL LEADS FOR USE ON FORCED COOLED SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

11-14, 1981 GAS COOLED ELECTRICAL LEADS FOR USE ON FORCEDim mumii P mm GAS COOLED ELECTRICAL LEADS FOR USE ON FORCEDD. Henning, "Cryogenic Electrical Leads," Proceedings of the

Smits, R.G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility  

SciTech Connect

The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Emergency cooling system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved emergency cooling system and method are disclosed that may be adapted for incorporation into or use with a nuclear BWR wherein a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) containing a nuclear core and a heat transfer fluid for circulation in a heat transfer relationship with the core is housed within an annular sealed drywell and is fluid communicable therewith for passage thereto in an emergency situation the heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and any noncondensibles present in the RPV, an annular sealed wetwell houses the drywell, and a pressure suppression pool of liquid is disposed in the wetwell and is connected to the drywell by submerged vents. The improved emergency cooling system and method has a containment condenser for receiving condensible heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and noncondensibles for condensing at least a portion of the heat transfer fluid. The containment condenser has an inlet in fluid communication with the drywell for receiving heat transfer fluid and noncondensibles, a first outlet in fluid communication with the RPV for the return to the RPV of the condensed portion of the heat transfer fluid and a second outlet in fluid communication with the drywell for passage of the noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles. The noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles passed to the drywell from the containment condenser are mixed with the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles from the RPV for passage into the containment condenser. A water pool is provided in heat transfer relationship with the containment condenser and is thermally communicable in an emergency situation with an environment outside of the drywell and the wetwell for conducting heat transferred from the containment condenser away from the wetwell and the drywell. 5 figs.

Oosterkamp, W.J.; Cheung, Y.K.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

417

HEATING AND COOLING PROTOSTELLAR DISKS  

SciTech Connect

We examine heating and cooling in protostellar disks using three-dimensional radiation-MHD calculations of a patch of the Solar nebula at 1 AU, employing the shearing-box and flux-limited radiation diffusion approximations. The disk atmosphere is ionized by stellar X-rays, well coupled to magnetic fields, and sustains a turbulent accretion flow driven by magnetorotational instability, while the interior is resistive and magnetically dead. The turbulent layers are heated by absorbing the light from the central star and by dissipating the magnetic fields. They are optically thin to their own radiation and cool inefficiently. The optically thick interior in contrast is heated only weakly, by re-emission from the atmosphere. The interior is colder than a classical viscous model and isothermal. The magnetic fields support an extended atmosphere that absorbs the starlight 1.5 times higher than the hydrostatic viscous model. The disk thickness thus measures not the internal temperature, but the magnetic field strength. Fluctuations in the fields move the starlight-absorbing surface up and down. The height ranges between 13% and 24% of the radius over timescales of several orbits, with implications for infrared variability. The fields are buoyant, so the accretion heating occurs higher in the atmosphere than the stresses. The heating is localized around current sheets, caused by magnetorotational instability at lower elevations and by Parker instability at higher elevations. Gas in the sheets is heated above the stellar irradiation temperature, even though accretion is much less than irradiation power when volume averaged. The hot optically thin current sheets might be detectable through their line emission.

Hirose, S. [Institute for Research on Earth Evolution, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25 Showamachi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan); Turner, N. J., E-mail: shirose@jamstec.go.jp, E-mail: neal.turner@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

418

OPERATIONS (OPS)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

OPS) OPS) OBJECTIVE OPS.1 The formality and discipline of operations is adequate to conduct work safely and programs are in place to maintain this formality and discipline. (CR 13) Scope: The Conduct of Operations Program was evaluated during the recent KE Basin FTS ORR and was found to be adequately implemented. Based on this result and the subsequent program enhancements, the scope of the review is to be limited to the SWS operating and maintenance evolutions. Criteria * Programmatic elements of conduct of operations are in place for SWS operations. (DOE Order 5480.19) * The SWS operations personnel adequately demonstrate the principles of conduct of operations requirements during the shift performance period. (DOE Order 5480.19)

419

Management of dry gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry coal combustion by-products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of combustion by-products with about 70% solids. Phase 2 of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase 2 is to develop and fabricate the equipment for both the pneumatic and hydraulic placement technologies, and to conduct a limited, small-scale shakedown test of the pneumatic and hydraulic placement equipment. The shakedown test originally was to take place on the surface, in trenches dug for the tests. However, after a thorough study it was decided, with the concurrence of DOE-METC, to drill additional injection wells and conduct the shakedown tests underground. This will allow a more thorough test of the placement equipment.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

420

Task 1.13 - Data Collection and Database Development for Clean Coal Technology By-Product Characteristics and Management Practices  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center-Morgantown (DOE FETC) efforts in the areas of fossil fuels and clean coal technology (CCT) have included involvement with both conventional and advanced process coal conversion by-products. In 1993, DOE submitted a Report to Congress on "Barriers to the Increased Utilization of Coal Combustion Desulfurization Byproducts by Governmental and Commercial Sectors" that provided an outline of activities to remove the barriers identified in the report. DOE charged itself with participation in this process, and the work proposed in this document facilitates DOE's response to its own recommendations for action. The work reflects DOE's commitment to the coal combustion by-product (CCB) industry, to the advancement of clean coal technology, and to cooperation with other government agencies. Information from DOE projects and commercial endeavors in fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) and coal gasification is the focus of this task. The primary goal is to provide an easily accessible compilation of characterization information on the by-products from these processes to government agencies and industry to facilitate sound regulatory and management decisions. Additional written documentation will facilitate the preparation of an updated final version of background information collected for DOE in preparation of the Report to Congress on barriers to CCB utilization.

Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Laser cooling and sympathetic cooling in a linear quadrupole rf trap  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LASER COOLING AND SYMPATHETIC COOLING IN A LINEAR QUADRUPOLE RF TRAP A Dissertation by VLADIMIR LEONIDOVICH RYJKOV Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2003 Major Subject: Physics LASER COOLING AND SYMPATHETIC COOLING IN A LINEAR QUADRUPOLE RF TRAP A Dissertation by VLADIMIR LEONIDOVICH RYJKOV Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Ryjkov, Vladimir Leonidovich

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

422

Method for passive cooling liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, and system thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Busboom, Herbert J. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Cooling and Trapping Atoms Atoms are slowed and cooled by radiation pressure from laser light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling and Trapping Atoms Atoms are slowed and cooled by radiation pressure from laser light and then trapped in a bottle whose "walls" are magnetic fields. Cooled atoms are ideal for exploring basic. research has traditionally been the study of the intrinsic prop erties of isolated atoms. In the early part

Johannesson, Henrik

424

Performance evaluation of an active solar cooling system utilizing low cost plastic collectors and an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. Final report  

SciTech Connect

During the summer of 1982, air conditioning in Solar House III at Colorado State University was provided by an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. The single-effect lithium bromide chiller provided by Arkla Industries is an experimental three-ton unit from which heat is rejected by direct evaporative cooling of the condenser and absorber walls, thereby eliminating the need for a separate cooling tower. Domestic hot water was also provided by use of a double-walled heat exchanger and 300-l (80-gal) hot water tank. For solar heat supply to the cooling system, plastic thin film collectors developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory were installed on the roof of Solar House III. Failure to withstand stagnation temperatures forced replacement of solar energy with an electric heat source. Objectives of the project were: (1) evaluation of system performance over the course of one cooling season in Fort collins, Colorado; (2) optimization of system operation and control; (3) development of a TRNSYS compatible model of the chiller; and (4) determination of cooling system performance in several US climates by use of the model.

Lof, G.O.G.; Westhoff, M.A.; Karaki, S.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

System and method of active vibration control for an electro-mechanically cooled device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method of active vibration control of an electro-mechanically cooled device is disclosed. A cryogenic cooling system is located within an environment. The cooling system is characterized by a vibration transfer function, which requires vibration transfer function coefficients. A vibration controller generates the vibration transfer function coefficients in response to various triggering events. The environments may differ by mounting apparatus, by proximity to vibration generating devices, or by temperature. The triggering event may be powering on the cooling system, reaching an operating temperature, or a reset action. A counterbalance responds to a drive signal generated by the vibration controller, based on the vibration signal and the vibration transfer function, which adjusts vibrations. The method first places a cryogenic cooling system within a first environment and then generates a first set of vibration transfer function coefficients, for a vibration transfer function of the cooling system. Next, the cryogenic cooling system is placed within a second environment and a second set of vibration transfer function coefficients are generated. Then, a counterbalance is driven, based on the vibration transfer function, to reduce vibrations received by a vibration sensitive element.

Lavietes, Anthony D. (Hayward, CA); Mauger, Joseph (Livermore, CA); Anderson, Eric H. (Mountain View, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

The Cool Flame Combustion of Ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The Cool Flame Combustion of Ethanol J. Brown C. F. H. Tipper The kinetics...products of the cool flame combustion of ethanol between about 280 and 330 C have been...much less for a 1 : 2 than for a 1 : 1 ethanol/oxygen mixture at constant T and varied...

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

PROJECT REPORT WESTERN COOLING CHALLENGE LABORATORY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that reduce energy, water consumption and peak electricity demand associated with cooling in the Western-cool- er to reduce the refrigerant condensing temperature of a vapor compression system, then cycles Davis Energy Efficiency Center in 2007 through a grant from the California Clean Energy Fund

California at Davis, University of

428

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Theresa Pistochini May 23rd, 2012 ResearchAirCapacity,tons Gallons of Water Continuous Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F Cyclic Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F #12 AverageWaterHardness(ppm) Cooling Degree Days (60°F Reference) 20% Population 70% Population 10

California at Davis, University of

429

Effect of scattered radiation on sub-Doppler cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we discuss the effect of scattered radiation generated by a gas of cold atoms on the temperature of the gas. We show that by treating the reradiated field of the atoms as a fluctuating background field we can derive a master equation for a single atom where the effect of the surrounding medium is included in an effective relaxation operator. This relaxation operator is of second order in the interaction with the medium and in the binary-collision approximation can be written as the sum of two-body interactions with a correlation time equal to the natural lifetime of the atomic transition. The effect of the medium on the two most important sub-Doppler cooling mechanisms, Sisyphus and motion-induced orientation cooling, is investigated analytically in a one-dimensional model. In this we restrict ourselves to the limit of low saturation, weak background field and take the rate-equation limit for the collision operator. We find that both mechanisms are very sensitive to such a background field and that the temperature increases approximately as the number of atoms to the one-third power.

G. Hillenbrand; K. Burnett; C. J. Foot

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-11-002 DOE Direct cooling system [1].doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 SECTION A. Project Title: Cooling System for Substation Bldg CPP-613 SECTION B. Project Description The scope of work includes the purchase and installation of an Energy Star compliant 208V three phase staged cooling system capable of maintaining CPP-613 at a temperature below 85 degrees F. The system shall be designed to operate at an elevation of 5000 feet with outside environmental temperatures ranging from -20°F to 100°F. The cooling system shall be pad mounted on the east side of the building between the two cable feeds. The concrete pad will be provided by DOE. The scope of work includes purchasing an appropriately sized cooling system, placing the unit on the concrete pad, making all necessary wall penetrations into the building, installing ductwork and air handlers inside the building, and installing a

431

T-609: Adobe Acrobat/Reader Memory Corruption Error in CoolType Library  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

T-609: Adobe Acrobat/Reader Memory Corruption Error in CoolType T-609: Adobe Acrobat/Reader Memory Corruption Error in CoolType Library Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code T-609: Adobe Acrobat/Reader Memory Corruption Error in CoolType Library Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code April 25, 2011 - 7:00am Addthis PROBLEM: A vulnerability was reported in Adobe Acrobat and Adobe Reader. A remote user can cause arbitrary code to be executed on the target user's system. PLATFORM: Adobe Reader and Acrobat X (10.0.2) and earlier 10.x and 9.x versions for Windows and Macintosh operating systems ABSTRACT: A remote user can create a specially crafted PDF file that, when loaded by the target user, will trigger a memory corruption error in the CoolType library and execute arbitrary code on the target system. The code will run

432

Recycler Electron Cooling Project: Mechanical vibrations in the Pelletron and their effect on the beam  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab's Recycler ring will employ an electron cooler to cool stored 8.9 GeV antiprotons [1]. The cooler is based on an electrostatic accelerator, Pelletron [2], working in an energy-recovery regime. A full-scale prototype of the cooler has been assembled and commissioned in a separate building [3]. The main goal of the experiments with the prototype was to demonstrate stable operation with a 3.5 MeV, 0.5 A DC electron beam while preserving a high beam quality in the cooling section. The quality is characterized, first of all, by a spread of electron velocities in the cooling section, which may be significantly affected by mechanical vibration of the Pelletron elements. This paper describes the results of vibration measurements in the Pelletron terminal and correlates them with the beam motion in the cooling section.

Kazakevich, Grigory M.; Burov, A.; Boffo, C.; Joireman, P.; Saewert, G.; Schmidt, C.W.; Shemyakin, A.; /Fermilab

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Thermal performance upgrade of the Arkansas Nuclear One cooling tower: A ``root cause`` analysis approach  

SciTech Connect

The thermal performance efficiency of the natural draft cooling tower at Entergy Operations` 858 MWe Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 2 was successfully upgraded to 101% of design performance capability in April 1994 as the end result of a unique root-cause analysis of the cooling tower`s long-standing performance deficiencies. Through application of state-of-the-art diagnostic testing methods and computer modeling techniques, Entergy was able to identify and correct air/water maldistribution problems in the 447 foot tall counterflow cooling tower at minimal cost. Entergy estimates that the savings realized, as a result of the 1.2 F reduction in cooling tower outlet water temperature, will pay for the thermal upgrade project in approximately 14 months.

Liffick, G.W. [Entergy Operations, Inc., Russellville, AR (United States); Cooper, J.W. Jr. [John Cooper and Associates, Tampa, FL (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs January 31, 2011 - 12:38pm Addthis This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which transfers heat into a building. This can also cause the "heat island" effect in cities and suburbs, a phenomenon that produces higher temperatures in densely populated areas due to extensive changes in the landscape. Cool roofs use light-colored, highly reflective materials to regulate building temperatures without increasing electricity demand, which can result in energy savings of up to 10 to 15 percent.

435

Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:19pm Addthis Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to avoid heat buildup in your home. In some cases, natural ventilation will suffice for cooling, although it usually needs to be supplemented with spot ventilation, ceiling fans, and window fans. For large homes, homeowners might want to investigate whole house fans. Interior ventilation is ineffective in hot, humid climates where

436

Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:19pm Addthis Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to avoid heat buildup in your home. In some cases, natural ventilation will suffice for cooling, although it usually needs to be supplemented with spot ventilation, ceiling fans, and window fans. For large homes, homeowners might want to investigate whole house fans. Interior ventilation is ineffective in hot, humid climates where

437

One Cool Roof | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

One Cool Roof One Cool Roof One Cool Roof November 9, 2010 - 10:28am Addthis Deputy Director Salmon Deputy Director, Resource Management The Office of Science occupies many buildings around the country, but it owns only two of them. One of them is making some news. The 134,629 sq. ft. (about 3 acres) roof of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) building in Oak Ridge, Tennessee is now officially a "Cool Roof" -- making it energy efficient in ways that darker roofs are not. Cool roofs are light in color, and therefore, reflect rather than absorb sunlight. The previous roof was black, but worse, it was leaky and those leaks, controlled for years in some very innovative ways by the OSTI staff, were going to cause significant problems if not addressed. OSTI needed to invest

438

Solar space cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Jump to: navigation, search Solarcooling.jpg Contents 1 Introduction 2 Solar Absorption Technology 3 Solar Desiccant Technology 4 Passive Solar Cooling 5 References Introduction There are many benefits to Solar Cooling systems. For one the sun is a clean energy resource that we should be using more often. It also produces no emissions and is replenished naturally, it reduces greenhouse gases, it saves the release of 1.6 lbs. of carbon dioxide (CO2) for each kilowatt-hour (kWh) produced, it saves the use of one-half gallon of water for each kWh of solar energy produced, it saves the release of other emissions that result from the burning of fossil fuels such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide or mercury and it provides customers with options to reduce their electric bills. But up to this point Solar Cooling systems are

439

Sisyphus Cooling of Electrically Trapped Polyatomic Molecules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rich internal structure and long-range dipole-dipole interactions establish polar molecules as unique instruments for quantum-controlled applications and fundamental investigations. Their potential fully unfolds at ultracold temperatures, where a plethora of effects is predicted in many-body physics, quantum information science, ultracold chemistry, and physics beyond the standard model. These objectives have inspired the development of a wide range of methods to produce cold molecular ensembles. However, cooling polyatomic molecules to ultracold temperatures has until now seemed intractable. Here we report on the experimental realization of opto-electrical cooling, a paradigm-changing cooling and accumulation method for polar molecules. Its key attribute is the removal of a large fraction of a molecule's kinetic energy in each step of the cooling cycle via a Sisyphus effect, allowing cooling with only few dissipative decay processes. We demonstrate its potential by reducing the temperature of about 10^6 ...

Zeppenfeld, M; Glöckner, R; Prehn, A; Mielenz, M; Sommer, C; van Buuren, L D; Motsch, M; Rempe, G

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

SPEAR Operations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Interface 1113 N. Kurita J. Langton Vacuum TSP's 1120 J. Corbett A. Terebilo MATLAB Applications - Basics 1121 F. Rafael Booster Kicker Upgrade, Operation Manual 1121...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

operations center  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

1%2A en Operations Center http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsemergencyoperationscounterterrorismoperationscenter

...

442

Testability of a heat pipe cooled thermionic reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As part of the Air Force Phillips Laboratory thermionics program Rocketdyne performed a design study for an in?core thermionic fuel element (TFE) heat pipe cooled reactor power system. This effort involved a testability evaluation that was performed starting with testing of individual components followed by testing at various stages of fabrication and concluding with full system acceptance and qualification testing. It was determined that the system could be thoroughly tested to ensure a high probability of successful operation in space after launch.

Richard E. Durand

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Theoretical study on a novel ammonia–water cogeneration system with adjustable cooling to power ratios  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel ammonia–water cogeneration system with adjustable cooling to power ratios is proposed and investigated. In the combined system, a modified Kalina subcycle and an ammonia absorption cooling subcycle are interconnected by mixers, splitters, absorbers and heat exchangers. The proposed system can adjust its cooling to power ratios from the separate mode without splitting/mixing processes in the two subcycles to the combined operation modes which can produce different ratios of cooling and power. Simulation analysis is conducted to investigate the effects of operation parameter on system performance. The results indicate that the combined system efficiency can reach the maximum values of 37.79% as SR1 (split ratio 1) is equal to 1. Compared with the separate system, the combined efficiency and COP values of the proposed system can increase by 6.6% and 100% with the same heat input, respectively. In addition, the cooling to power ratios of the proposed system can be adjusted in the range of 1.8–3.6 under the given operating conditions.

Zeting Yu; Jitian Han; Hai Liu; Hongxia Zhao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Mechanical Operations and Maintenance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Holiday Work Status Holiday Work Status Mechanical Operations & Maintenance Group APS Storage Ring Magnets The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory is a national synchrotron-radiation research facility funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Using high-brilliance x-ray beams from the APS, an international community of scientists conducts forefront basic and applied research in the fields of material science, biological science, physics, chemistry, environmental, geophysical and planetary science. The 1.1-km circumference APS facility consists of several major subsystems including magnets, vacuum chambers, radio-frequency cavities, diagnostics instrumentation, x-ray absorbers and apertures, and cooling water subsystems. Each of these subsystems contains hundreds of mechanical

445

Replacement inhibitors for high level waste tank cooling coils  

SciTech Connect

Sodium chromate has been an effective corrosion inhibitor for the cooling coil systems in Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks for over 40 years. Due to age and operating history, cooling coils occasionally fail allowing chromated water to leak into the environment. The costs of reporting and cleaning up chromate spills became significant enough for SRS to consider alternate inhibitors. Confirmatory tests were performed to assess the effectiveness of three alternative corrosion inhibitor systems for the waste tank cooling water systems: (1) sodium molybdate (250 ppm as Mo)/sodium hydroxide (pH 10), (2) sodium molybdate (50 ppm as Mo)/sodium silicate (50 ppm as Si), and (3) sodium nitrite (500 ppm)/ sodium hydroxide (0.01 M). The tests were conducted under stagnant conditions to simulate a worst-case scenario. The results showed that these inhibitors were as effective as chromate at minimizing general corrosion at solution temperatures between 30--70 C. However, the initiation of localized attack in crevice regions, in solutions containing the alternative inhibitors at 70 C, was observed. Also, for the nitrite and the molybdate systems to be effective, suitable biocide is needed. On the other hand, interval coupon tests showed that the molybdate inhibitor systems prevented significant propagation of the localized attack.

Wiersma, B.J.; Hsu, T.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Small LBE-Cooled Fast Reactor for Expanding Market  

SciTech Connect

A long-life safe simple small portable proliferation-resistant reactor is expected to solve many problems associating future energy and globally environmental problems. From discussions on mainly neutronics and safety points it has been shown that the heavy liquid metal cooled fast reactor is the best candidate to satisfy the above requirements. A lead-bismuth-eutectic (LBE) cooled fast reactor LSPR (LBE-Cooled Long-Life Safe Simple Small Portable Proliferation-Resistant Reactor) has been designed and continues to be improved. In the present paper a recent version of LSPR is presented. The total power of the present design is 150 MWt (53 MWe). During whole reactor life of 12 years the excess reactivity required for burnup is very low, and negative coolant dilatation coefficient is confirmed. This characteristic together with some other characteristics makes unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) accident inherently safe. It can survive even simultaneous rod run-out transient over power (UTOP), ULOF and unprotected loss of heat sink (ULOHS) accident without the help of an operator or active device. (authors)

Hiroshi Sekimoto [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Shinichi Makino [Nissan Motor Company Ltd. (Japan); Kunihiko Nakamura; Yoshio Kamishima [Advanced Reactor Technology Company Ltd. (Japan); Takashi Kawakita [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (Japan)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Radiant cooling in US office buildings: Towards eliminating the perception of climate-imposed barriers  

SciTech Connect

Much attention is being given to improving the efficiency of air-conditioning systems through the promotion of more efficient cooling technologies. One such alternative, radiant cooling, is the subject of this thesis. Performance information from Western European buildings equipped with radiant cooling systems indicates that these systems not only reduce the building energy consumption but also provide additional economic and comfort-related benefits. Their potential in other markets such as the US has been largely overlooked due to lack of practical demonstration, and to the absence of simulation tools capable of predicting system performance in different climates. This thesis describes the development of RADCOOL, a simulation tool that models thermal and moisture-related effects in spaces equipped with radiant cooling systems. The thesis then conducts the first in-depth investigation of the climate-related aspects of the performance of radiant cooling systems in office buildings. The results of the investigation show that a building equipped with a radiant cooling system can be operated in any US climate with small risk of condensation. For the office space examined in the thesis, employing a radiant cooling system instead of a traditional all-air system can save on average 30% of the energy consumption and 27% of the peak power demand due to space conditioning. The savings potential is climate-dependent, and is larger in retrofitted buildings than in new construction. This thesis demonstrates the high performance potential of radiant cooling systems across a broad range of US climates. It further discusses the economics governing the US air-conditioning market and identifies the type of policy interventions and other measures that could encourage the adoption of radiant cooling in this market.

Stetiu, C.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

RESIDUES FROM COAL CONVERSION AND UTILIZATION: ADVANCED MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND DISPOSED BYPRODUCT DIAGENESIS  

SciTech Connect

Prior to the initiation of this study, understanding of the long-term behavior of environmentally-exposed Coal Combustion By-Products (CCBs) was lacking in (among others) two primary areas addressed in this work. First, no method had been successfully applied to achieve full quantitative analysis of the partitioning of chemical constituents into reactive or passive crystalline or noncrystalline compounds. Rather, only semi-quantitative methods were available, with large associated errors. Second, our understanding of the long-term behavior of various CCBs in contact with the natural environment was based on a relatively limited set of study materials. This study addressed these areas with two objectives, producing (1) a set of protocols for fully quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld Quantitative X-ray Diffraction (RQXRD) method and (2) greater understanding of the hydrologic and geochemical nature of the long-term behavior of disposed and utilized CCBs. The RQXRD technique was initially tested using (1) mixtures of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) crystalline standards, and (2) mixtures of synthetic reagents simulating various CCBs, to determine accuracy and precision of the method, and to determine the most favorable protocols to follow in order to efficiently quantify multi-phase mixtures. Four sets of borehole samples of disposed or utilized CCBs were retrieved and analyzed by RQXRD according to the protocols developed under the first objective. The first set of samples, from a Class F ash settling pond in Kentucky disposed for up to 20 years, showed little mineralogical alteration, as expected. The second set of samples, from an embankment in Indiana containing a mixture of chain-grate (stoker) furnace ash and fluidized bed combustion (FBC) residues, showed formation of the mineral thaumasite, as observed in previously studied exposed FBC materials. Two high-calcium CCBs studied, including a dry-process flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product disposed in the Midwest, and a mixture of Class C fly ash and wet process FGD by-product codisposed in North Dakota, appeared relatively unchanged mineralogically over the up to 5 and 17 years of emplacement, respectively. Each of these two materials contained mineralogies consistent with short-term hydration products of their respective starting (dry) materials. The hydration product ettringite persisted throughout the duration of emplacement at each site, and the diagenetic ash alteration product thaumasite did not form at either site. Explanations for the absence of thaumasite in these two sites include a lack of significant carbonate, sulfate, and alkalinity sources in the case of the North Dakota site, and a lack of sulfate, alkalinity, and sufficient moisture in the Midwest site. Potential for future thaumasite formation in these materials may exist if placed in contact with cold, wet materials containing the missing components listed above. In the presence of the sulfite scrubber mineral hannebachite, the ettringites formed had crystallographic unit cell dimensions smaller than those of pure sulfate ettringite, suggesting either incorporation of sulfite ions into the ettringite structure, or incorporation of silicon and carbonate ions, forming a solid solution towards thaumasite.

Gregory J. McCarthy; Dean G. Grier

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants  

SciTech Connect

A process simulation model has been developed using Aspen Plus(R) with the OLI (OLI System, Inc.) water chemistry model to predict water quality in the recirculating cooling loop utilizing secondary- and tertiary-treated municipal wastewater as the source of makeup water. Simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experimental data on makeup water alkalinity, loop pH, and ammonia evaporation. The effects of various parameters including makeup water quality, salt formation, NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} evaporation mass transfer coefficients, heat load, and operating temperatures were investigated. The results indicate that, although the simulation model can capture the general trends in the loop pH, experimental data on the rates of salt precipitation in the system are needed for more accurate prediction of the loop pH. It was also found that stripping of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the cooling tower can influence the cooling loop pH significantly. The effects of the NH{sub 3} mass transfer coefficient on cooling loop pH appear to be more significant at lower values (e.g., k{sub NH3}< 4×10{sup -3} m/s) when the makeup water alkalinity is low (e.g., <90 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}). The effect of the CO{sub 2} mass transfer coefficient was found to be significant only at lower alkalinity values (e.g., k{sub CO2}<4×10{{sup -6} m/s).

Safari, Iman; Walker, Michael E.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Dzombak, David A.; Liu, Wenshi; Vidic, Radisav D.; Miller, David C.; Abbasian, Javad

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance- Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants all Have A Resource Quietly Awaiting Exploitation-Cold Water!!  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OPTIMIZING COOLING TOWER PERFORMANCE REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS, CHEMICAL PLANTS, AND POWER PLANTS ALL HAVE A RESOURCE QUIETLY AWAITING EXPLOITATION - COLD WATER!! ROBERT BURGER President Burger and Associates, Inc. Dallas, Texas Cooling... towers, because of their seeming simplicity, are usually orphans of the facilities operation. We are all aware that cooling towers are the step-children of the chemical process plant, electric power generating station, and refrigeration system...

Burger, R.

451

Analysis of combined cooling, heating, and power systems based on source primary energy consumption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) is a cogeneration technology that integrates an absorption chiller to produce cooling, which is sometimes referred to as trigeneration. For building applications, CCHP systems have the advantage to maintain high overall energy efficiency throughout the year. Design and operation of CCHP systems must consider the type and quality of the energy being consumed. Type and magnitude of the on-site energy consumed by a building having separated heating and cooling systems is different than a building having CCHP. Therefore, building energy consumption must be compared using the same reference which is usually the primary energy measured at the source. Site-to-source energy conversion factors can be used to estimate the equivalent source energy from site energy consumption. However, building energy consumption depends on multiple parameters. In this study, mathematical relations are derived to define conditions a CCHP system should operate in order to guarantee primary energy savings.

Nelson Fumo; Louay M. Chamra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PGE. 2007. Pacific Gas & Electric cool-roof rebate program.at http://www.pge.com/res/rebates/cool_roof/ . ROH. 2001.California Edison cool-roof rebate program. Online at

Akbari, Hashem

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Application of Cooling Concepts to European Office Buildings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plant Model and Cooling Concepts.... Five different cooling concepts are applied in order to cool the office building (Fig. 7.3). All of them allow for free ventilation by opening windows. Four con...

Doreen E. Kalz; Jens Pfafferott

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

The integration of cryogenic cooling systems with superconducting electronic systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SCMAG-SIO The Integration of Cryogenic Cooling Systems With76SF0009S. The Integration of Cryogenic Cooling Systems WithAbstract- The need for cryogenic cooling has been critical

Green, Michael A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Improving the Efficiency of Your Process Cooling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many industries require process cooling to achieve desired outcomes of specific processes. This cooling may come from cooling towers, once-through water, mechanical refrigeration, or cryogenic sources such as liquid nitrogen or dry ice. This paper...

Baker, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

High-power-density spot cooling using bulk thermoelectrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3D electrothermal model, the cooling power densities of themax , and increasing the cooling power densities 2–24 times.the advantages of high cooling power densities and is less

Zhang, Y; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Cool Colored Roofs to Save Energy and Improve Air Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. Hanford. 1997. “Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings ofJ. Hanford. 1997. "Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of1997) monitored peak-power and cooling-energy savings from

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William; Berdahl, Paul

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the application of evaporative cooling to clouds of trapped antiprotons, resulting in plasmas with measured temperature as low as 9~K. We have modeled the evaporation process for charged particles using appropriate rate equations. Good agreement between experiment and theory is observed, permitting prediction of cooling efficiency in future experiments. The technique opens up new possibilities for cooling of trapped ions and is of particular interest in antiproton physics, where a precise \\emph{CPT} test on trapped antihydrogen is a long-standing goal.

ALPHA Collaboration; G. B. Andresen; M. D. Ashkezari; M. Baquero-Ruiz; W. Bertsche; P. D. Bowe; E. Butler; C. L. Cesar; S. Chapman; M. Charlton; J. Fajans; T. Friesen; M. C. Fujiwara; D. R. Gill; J. S. Hangst; W. N. Hardy; R. S. Hayano; M. E. Hayden; A. Humphries; R. Hydomako; S. Jonsell; L. Kurchaninov; R. Lambo; N. Madsen; S. Menary; P. Nolan; K. Olchanski; A. Olin; A. Povilus; P. Pusa; F. Robicheaux; E. Sarid; D. M. Silveira; C. So; J. W. Storey; R. I. Thompson; D. P. van der Werf; D. Wilding; J. S. Wurtele; Y. Yamazaki

2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

459

Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

Jones, Russel B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

460

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Cooling Systems with Hot Aisle Containment in Data Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MSE): ratio of total cooling power to cooling provided, inGenerally, total modular cooling power demand was somewhathigher server loads. The cooling power demand decreased when

Adams, Barbara J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MSE): ratio of total cooling power to cooling transported,Generally, total modular cooling power demand stabilized atrack) in this study. The cooling power demand decreased when

Xu, TengFang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Performance Evaluation for a Modular, Scalable Passive Cooling System in Data Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of total hydraulic power for cooling to cooling delivered,temperatures, and cooling output power. 6 Test proceduresefficiency defined as power demand per cooling transferred.

Xu, TengFang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume (~570 cm3, ~3 kg, 140% or larger) germanium detectors for field applications. We are using a new generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers for operating the very largest volume germanium detectors with absolutely no maintenance or liquid nitrogen requirements. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The flip of a switch will bring a system to life in ~1 hour for measurements. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed five years. These features are necessary for remote long-duration liquid-nitrogen free deployment of large-volume germanium gamma-ray detector systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (NEM). The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) will greatly benefit from the availability of such detectors by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen at RASA sites while still allowing the very largest available germanium detectors to be utilized. These mechanically cooled germanium detector systems being developed here will provide the largest, most sensitive detectors possible for use with the RASA. To provide such systems, the appropriate technical fundamentals are being researched. Mechanical cooling of germanium detectors has historically been a difficult endeavor. The success or failure of mechanically cooled germanium detectors stems from three main technical issues: temperature, vacuum, and vibration. These factors affect one another. There is a particularly crucial relationship between vacuum and temperature. These factors will be experimentally studied both separately and together to insure a solid understanding of the physical limitations each factor places on a practical mechanically cooled germanium detector system for field use. Using this knowledge, a series of mechanically cooled germanium detector prototype systems are being designed and fabricated. Our collaborators at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will evaluate these detector systems on the bench top and eventually in RASA systems to insure reliable and practical operation.

Hull, Ethan L.; Pehl, Richard H.; Lathrop, James R.; Martin, Gregory N.; Mashburn, R. B.; Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Bowyer, Ted W.

2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

464

Design operators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design operators is a thesis that investigates the nature and characteristics of the design process by examining the interaction of computation with architectural design. The effects of the introduction of these media in ...

Dritsas, Stylianos, 1978-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Business Operations  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

The Office of Business Operations is the central organization for all Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) business products, processes, and systems. The three main offices of...

466

Operating Costs  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

467

Potential of air-side economizers for data center cooling: A case study for key Australian cities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The provision of low cost cooling is challenging due to high energy costs and increasing heat dissipation volumes from data centers. In Australia, with the introduction of emissions trading scheme, the cost of energy with carbon origin is expected to increase. In order to reduce cooling costs, alternative low cost cooling methods for data centers are highly sought after. In this study, we investigated using air-side economizers to introduce outside air with desired supply air conditions, by exploiting the cool and dry Australian climate conditions. Our approach was based on analyzing the hourly temperature and humidity data gathered over past 12 years for 20 weather monitoring stations across Australia representing all geographical regions and determining the potential of using air-side economizers for those locations. As the result, we demonstrated that there is a sizable potential for using air-side economizers in some states that could lead to significant savings on cooling costs to data center operators.

Jayantha Siriwardana; Saliya Jayasekara; Saman K. Halgamuge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Direct Cooled Power Electronics Substrate | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Direct Cooled Power Electronics Substrate 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

469

Two-Phase Cooling Technology for Power Electronics with Novel...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Two-Phase Cooling Technology for Power Electronics with Novel Coolants Two-Phase Cooling Technology for Power Electronics with Novel Coolants 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

470

Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling of Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Commercial Building Thermal Energy _Storage in ASEANGas Electric Company, "Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling,"LBL--25393 DE91 ,THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR COOLING OF

Akbari, H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui High Performance Computing Center Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui High Performance...

472

Thermal Energy Storage for Cooling of Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the ice storage system, during direct cooling, thethe building cooling load. In dynamic systems, ice is formedcooling/demand-limited storage / electric load management / full storage / ice

Akbari, H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual...

474

Cooling Tower Report, October 2008 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2008 Electricity Reliability Impacts of a Mandatory Cooling Tower Rule for Existing Steam Generation Units Cooling Tower Report, October 2008 More Documents & Publications...

475

Air Cooling Technology for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Cooling Technology for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Air Cooling Technology for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program...

476

Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

and implement cool roof technologies. coolroofguide.pdf More Documents & Publications Green Roofs - Federal Technology Alert Microsoft PowerPoint - Cool Roofs090804 Accelerated...

477

Direct Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Direct Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging Direct Water-Cooled Power Electronics Substrate Packaging 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit...

478

UVM Central Heating & Cooling Plant Annual Maintenance Shutdown 2013 Affected Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UVM Central Heating & Cooling Plant Annual Maintenance Shutdown 2013 Affected Buildings Sunday 19 heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES > Given Boiler Plant will be in operation to provide heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES

Hayden, Nancy J.

479

192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research Ground-source heat pumps for cooling-dominated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research ABSTRACT Ground-source heat pumps for cooling- tion of the heat pump performance is avoided by offsetting the annual load imbalance in the borefield operating and control strategies in a hybrid ground-source heat pump application using an hourly system

Ghajar, Afshin J.

480

User-friendly and intuitive graphical approach to the design of thermoelectric cooling systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to examine and choose a thermo- electric module from catalogues to meet a specific cooling problem. To start Simon Lineykin*, Sam Ben-Yaakov Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Power Electronics-friendly graphical method for calculating the steady-state operational point of a thermoelectric cooler (TEC

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts operational cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Heterogeneous distribution of trace elements and fluorine in phosphogypsum by-product  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phosphogypsum (PG), a by-product from phosphate fertilizer production, is composed mainly of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) but also contains minor quantities of trace elements (TE), rare earth elements (REE) and F. Some elements may be elevated in quantities to be of environmental concern. This study determined the distribution of TE, REE and F among three size fractions (53 ?m) in \\{PGs\\} derived from three different phosphate rock sources. Fine fraction PG (<20 ?m) composed of <10% of total PG mass but was highly enriched in TE, REE and F compared to unfractionated PG. For PG derived from Idaho rock, Se in the fine fraction was enriched 830 times over soil and 415 times over shale while Cd was enriched in the fine fraction 70-fold over shale and soil. Fluorine was elevated 37 times in the fine fraction compared to shale. The same trends were observed for PG derived from Togo and Florida rocks. Elevated elemental concentrations in fine particles and particle sorting during PG deposition may contribute to chemical heterogeneity of PG repositories, and make elements more susceptible to mobilization processes, such as leaching and erosion. Removal of fines will improve the utilization of PG in other industries, such as for use as an amendment to agricultural soils.

J.M. Arocena; P.M. Rutherford; M.J. Dudas

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Variability of chlorination by-product occurrence in water of indoor and outdoor swimming pools  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Swimming is one of the most popular aquatic activities. Just like natural water, public pool water may contain microbiological and chemical contaminants. The purpose of this study was to study the presence of chemical contaminants in swimming pools, in particular the presence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and inorganic chloramines (CAMi). Fifty-four outdoor and indoor swimming pools were investigated over a period of one year (monthly or bi-weekly sampling, according to the type of pool) for the occurrence of DBPs. The results showed that DBP levels in swimming pools were greater than DBP levels found in drinking water, especially for HAAs. Measured concentrations of \\{THMs\\} (97.9 vs 63.7 ?g/L in average) and \\{HAAs\\} (807.6 vs 412.9 ?g/L in average) were higher in outdoor pools, whereas measured concentrations of \\{CAMi\\} (0.1 vs 0.8 mg/L in average) were higher in indoor pools. Moreover, outdoor pools with heated water contained more \\{DBPs\\} than unheated pools. Finally, there was significant variability in tTHM, HAA9 and \\{CAMi\\} levels in pools supplied by the same municipal drinking water network, suggesting that individual pool characteristics (number of swimmers) and management strategies play a major role in DBP formation.

Sabrina Simard; Robert Tardif; Manuel J. Rodriguez

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

James T. Cobb, Jr.

2003-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

484

POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous radiological monitoring of the pool water. The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System, Site-Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Waste Handling Building Electrical System, Site Water System, and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System.

V. King

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

485

Tips: Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tips: Heating and Cooling Tips: Heating and Cooling Tips: Heating and Cooling May 30, 2012 - 7:38pm Addthis Household Heating Systems: Although several different types of fuels are available to heat our homes, more than half of us use natural gas. | Source: Buildings Energy Data Book 2010, 2.1.1 Residential Primary Energy Consumption, by Year and Fuel Type (Quadrillion Btu and Percent of Total). Household Heating Systems: Although several different types of fuels are available to heat our homes, more than half of us use natural gas. | Source: Buildings Energy Data Book 2010, 2.1.1 Residential Primary Energy Consumption, by Year and Fuel Type (Quadrillion Btu and Percent of Total). Heating and cooling your home uses more energy and costs more money than any other system in your home -- typically making up about 54% of your

486

MUCOOL: Ionization Cooling R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory Laboratory MUCOOL Muon Ionization Cooling R&D Welcome to the muon ionization cooling experimental R&D page. The MuCool collaboration has been formed to pursue the development of a muon ionization cooling channel for a high luminosity muon collider. For more information please contact Alan Bross (Spokesperson: bross@fnal.gov), Rick Fernow (BNL Contact person: fernow1@bnl.gov), or Mike Zisman (LBNL Contact person: mszisman@lbl.gov). General MUCOOL Telephone Book MUCOOL Notes MUCOOL Collaborating Institutes and Interests Useful Links Link to IIT MUCOOL page Meetings Muon Collaboration Friday Meetings Fermilab Muon Group Monday Meetings MTA RF Workshop (August 22, 2007 - Fermilab) Low Emittance Muon Collider Workshop (February 12-16, 2007, Fermilab) Low Emittance Muon Collider Workshop (February 6-10, 2006, Fermilab)

487

Hydraulic Cooling Tower Driver- The Innovation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the weaknesses of present day cooling tower drives are fan wrecks caused by shaft couplings breaking, gear box malfunctions due to inadequate lubrication, gear tooth wear, and inaccessibility for inspection and routine maintenance. The hydro...

Dickerson, J. A.

488

Alternate Cooling Methods for Industrial Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling in industrial facilities has traditionally been performed by mechanical vapor compression units. While it remains the standard, recent concerns with the rising cost of electricity and environmental legislation restricting or outlawing CFC...

Brown, M.; Moore, D.

489

An analysis of electrothermodynamic heating and cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Bhattacharyya, et al. 1995; Rowe 1995; Goodfellow 1994). First, the results for a positive J when heat is absorbed at the interface, i. e. , when the interface cools (initially), is reported. An examination of various product catalogs (for example, Melcor...

Honea, Mark Stephen

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Advanced Open-Cycle Desiccant Cooling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The concept of staged regeneration as means of improving the desiccant cooling system performance is the subject of investigation in this study. In the staged regeneration, the regeneration section of desiccant dehumidifier is divided into two parts...

Ko, Y. J.; Charoensupaya, D.; Lavan, Z.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Analysis of oscillating flow cooled SMA actuator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

literature, most of the cooling mechanisms involve unidirectional forced convection. This may not be the most effective method. Oscillating flow in a channel can sometimes enhance heat transfer over a unidirectional flow. One possible explanation...

Pachalla Seshadri, Rajagopal

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Polymer-based electrocaloric cooling devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Cooling devices (i.e., refrigerators or heat pumps) based on polymers which exhibit a temperature change upon application or removal of an electrical field or voltage, (e.g., fluoropolymers or crosslinked fluoropolymers that exhibit electrocaloric effect).

Zhang, Qiming; Lu, Sheng-Guo; Li, Xinyu; Gorny, Lee; Cheng, Jiping; Neese, Bret P; Chu, Baojin

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

493

Advanced wet-dry cooling tower concept  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this years' work has been