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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Research issues on closed-loop PLM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study introduces the research issues on closed-loop product lifecycle management (PLM) where product information flow is closed due to emerging technologies. PLM is a new strategic approach to manage the product lifecycle information efficiently ... Keywords: PLM, Product identification technologies, Product lifecycle, Research issues

Hong-Bae Jun; Dimitris Kiritsis; Paul Xirouchakis

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Cascading Closed Loop Cycle Power Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WOW Energies was issued Patent 6,857,268 B2 on Feb 22, 2005 titled “CASCADING CLOSED LOOP CYCLE (CCLC) and Patent 7,096,665 B2 on August 29, 2006 titled “CASCADING CLOSED LOOP CYCLE POWER GENERATION”. These patented technologies are collectively marketed as WOWGen®. The WOW Energies patents represent the production of efficient power from low, medium and high temperature heat generated from the combustion of fuels; heat from renewable energy sources such as solar and geothermal heat; or waste heat sources. Waste heat sources can be in the form of exhaust stack flue gases; waste heat from vented steam or steam discharged from steam turbines; hot water; hot oils or combined waste heat sources. A major advantage of the WOWGen® power plant is the ability to produce power without the use, consumption or contamination of valuable water resources. Production of power from waste heat and renewable energy sources is the most viable path to energy independence from foreign oil and reduced emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. The WOWGen® power plant inherently reduces emissions and Greenhouse Gases (GHG) by producing power from waste heat without consuming fuel, thus increasing the overall energy efficiency of any industrial plant or power generation facility. The presentation will focus on the technology and provide case studies of its application.

Romero, M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

The HTGR Closed - Loop Energy System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper summarizes some of the studies performed during the past several years on the application of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to the U.S. industrial energy market. The specific concept utilizes a closed-loop thermo chemical pipe (TCP), combined with the HTGR to serve dispersed industrial heat and electrical loads. Heat in various forms can be supplied at temperatures up to about 1700 F. The system substitutes nuclear energy for fluid fuels, conserves energy compared to many alternatives, and features zero emissions at the user site. Potential U.S. market size for the HTGR/TCP system appears to be approximately 8 quads per year (300 GWT to 400 GWT) in the 2000 to 2020 time period. The current U.S. HTGR development program is focused on industrial heat applications.

Leeth, G. G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Open versus closed loop capacity equilibria in electricity markets ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

May 7, 2012 ... Open versus closed loop capacity equilibria in electricity markets under ... We also present and analyze alternative conjectured price response ...

5

Direct-contact closed-loop heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature heat exchanger with a closed loop and a heat transfer liquid within the loop, the closed loop having a first horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a first fluid at a first temperature with the heat transfer liquid, a second horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a second fluid at a second temperature with the heat transfer liquid, and means for circulating the heat transfer liquid.

Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL); Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL); Petrick, Michael (Joliet, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Direct-contact closed-loop heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature heat exchanger is disclosed which has a closed loop and a heat transfer liquid within the loop, the closed loop having a first horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a first fluid at a first temperature with the heat transfer liquid, a second horizontal channel with inlet and outlet means for providing direct contact of a second fluid at a second temperature with the heat transfer liquid, and means for circulating the heat transfer liquid.

Berry, G.F.; Minkov, V.; Petrick, M.

1981-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

7

On-line parameter estimation of PMSM in open loop and closed loop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper discusses the multi-models approach for on-line parameter estimation of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The study is focused on a PMSM with non sinusoidal electromotive force (emf) in open loop and closed loop conditions. The electrical ...

Makara Khov; Jeremi Regnier; Jean Faucher

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Energy Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only Energy Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only October 8, 2013 - 2:23pm Addthis This cost calculator is a screening tool that estimates a product's lifetime energy cost savings at various efficiency levels. Learn more about the base model and other assumptions. Project Type Is this a new installation or a replacement? New Replacement What is the deliverable fluid type? Water Steam What fuel is used? Gas Oil How many boilers will you purchase? unit(s) Performance Factors Existing What is the capacity of the existing boiler? MBtu/hr* What is the thermal efficiency of the existing boiler? % Et New What is the capacity of the new boiler?

9

Closed Loop Test Facility for hot dirty gas valves  

SciTech Connect

A design study of a closed loop test facility for eight-inch hot dirty gas valves is presented. The objective of the facility is to quality valves for use in coal gasifiers, combined cycle plants, and pressurized fluid bed combustors. Outline sketches and estimated costs are presented for the selected design.

Not Available

1980-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

10

Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

North, William Edward (Winter Springs, FL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Integrated Framework toward a Closed Loop Measurement and Verification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Framework toward a Closed Loop Measurement and Verification Integrated Framework toward a Closed Loop Measurement and Verification Approach Title Integrated Framework toward a Closed Loop Measurement and Verification Approach Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2011 Authors Earni, Shankar, Philip Coleman, and Mark D. Sanders Conference Name ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry Volume 1 Pagination 68-79 Date Published 1/2011 Abstract This study reviews a sample set of measurement and verification (M&V) plans from federal ESPC projects to understand and assess the overall status of M&V practices. The review identifies some of the key issues that need to be addressed to improve the rigor and transparency of M&V practices. To mitigate some of the identified M&V issues, this work also reviews existing M&V protocols, guidelines and other pertinent literature to identify strategies that can augment traditional M&V approaches. The authors provide a framework to identify ways to integrate M&V and commissioning activities into the ESPC process, combining M&V activities and advanced meter data into a monitoring-based commissioning approach that reduces the uncertainty of savings while ensuring their persistence.

12

Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

13

Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

Huber, David John (North Canton, OH); Briesch, Michael Scot (Orlando, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Particle sorter comprising a fluid displacer in a closed-loop fluid circuit  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein are methods and devices utilizing a fluid displacer in a closed-loop fluid circuit.

Perroud, Thomas D. (San Jose, CA); Patel, Kamlesh D. (Dublin, CA); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

15

Model Free Closed-Loop Flow Control ERCAN ATAM, LIONEL MATHELIN, LAURENT CORDIER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Model Free Closed-Loop Flow Control ERCAN ATAM, LIONEL MATHELIN, LAURENT CORDIER *CNRS- Mathelin-Cordier (LIMSI-CNRS,IP') Model Free Closed-Loop Flow Control ECCOMAS'12 1 / 21 #12;Outline 1 and some future work Atam- Mathelin-Cordier (LIMSI-CNRS,IP') Model Free Closed-Loop Flow Control ECCOMAS'12

Mathelin, Lionel

16

SunShot Initiative: Heliostat System with Wireless Closed-Loop Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heliostat System with Wireless Heliostat System with Wireless Closed-Loop Control to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Heliostat System with Wireless Closed-Loop Control on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Heliostat System with Wireless Closed-Loop Control on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Heliostat System with Wireless Closed-Loop Control on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Heliostat System with Wireless Closed-Loop Control on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Heliostat System with Wireless Closed-Loop Control on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Heliostat System with Wireless Closed-Loop Control on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards CSP Research & Development Thermal Storage CSP Recovery Act Baseload

17

Study of Transients in an Enrichment Closed Loop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present thesis a mathematic model is presented in order to describe the dynamic behavior inside a closed enrichment loop, the latter representing a single stage of an uranium gaseous diffusion enrichment cascade.The analytical model is turned into a numerical model, and implemented through a computational code.For the verification of the model, measurements were taken in an experimental circuit using air as the process fluid.This circuit was instrumented so as to register its characteristic thermohydraulic variables.The measured transients were simulated, comparing the numerical results with the experimental measurements.A good agreement between the characteristic setting times and the thermohydraulic parameters evolution was observed.Besides, other transients of two species separation were numerically analyzed, including setting times of each magnitude, behavior of each one of them during different transients, and redistribution of concentrations.

Fernandino, M

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Closed loop computer control for an automatic transmission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an automotive vehicle having an automatic transmission that driveably connects a power source to the driving wheels, a method to control the application of hydraulic pressure to a clutch, whose engagement produces an upshift and whose disengagement produces a downshift, the speed of the power source, and the output torque of the transmission. The transmission output shaft torque and the power source speed are the controlled variables. The commanded power source torque and commanded hydraulic pressure supplied to the clutch are the control variables. A mathematical model is formulated that describes the kinematics and dynamics of the powertrain before, during and after a gear shift. The model represents the operating characteristics of each component and the structural arrangement of the components within the transmission being controlled. Next, a close loop feedback control is developed to determine the proper control law or compensation strategy to achieve an acceptably smooth gear ratio change, one in which the output torque disturbance is kept to a minimum and the duration of the shift is minimized. Then a computer algorithm simulating the shift dynamics employing the mathematical model is used to study the effects of changes in the values of the parameters established from a closed loop control of the clutch hydraulic and the power source torque on the shift quality. This computer simulation is used also to establish possible shift control strategies. The shift strategies determined from the prior step are reduced to an algorithm executed by a computer to control the operation of the power source and the transmission.

Patil, Prabhakar B. (Detroit, MI)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

A possibilistic approach to the modeling and resolution of uncertain closed-loop logistics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Closed-loop logistics planning is an important tactic for the achievement of sustainable development. However, the correlation among the demand, recovery, and landfilling makes the estimation of their rates uncertain and difficult. Although the fuzzy ... Keywords: Closed-loop logistics, Fuzzy number, Genetic algorithms, Possibilistic mean, Shortage and surplus

Hsiao-Fan Wang; Hsin-Wei Hsu

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

The economics of hybrid manufacturing systems in a closed-loop supply chain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with the economics of a closed-loop supply chain and the decision-making in a hybrid manufacturing system. We develop analytic models and quantify the potential profits gain generated by such a hybrid system that collects, remanufactures, ... Keywords: Closed-loop supply chain, Competition, Newsvendor, Remanufacturing, Reverse logistics

Jen-Ming Chen; Chia-I Chang

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Closed-loop, variable-valve-timing control of a controlled-auto-ignition engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to develop a closed-loop controller for use on a Controlled-Auto- Ignition (CAI) / Spark-Ignition (SI) mixed mode engine equipped with a variable-valve-timing (VVT) mechanism. The controller ...

Matthews, Jeffrey A., 1970-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

CNCC Craig Campus Geothermal Program: 82-well closed loop GHP well field to  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CNCC Craig Campus Geothermal Program: 82-well closed loop GHP well field to CNCC Craig Campus Geothermal Program: 82-well closed loop GHP well field to provide geothermal energy as a common utility for a new community college campus. Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title CNCC Craig Campus Geothermal Program: 82-well closed loop GHP well field to provide geothermal energy as a common utility for a new community college campus. Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Project Type / Topic 2 Topic Area 1: Technology Demonstration Projects Project Description This "geothermal central plant" concept will provide ground source loop energy as a utility to be shared by the academic and residential buildings on the soon-to-be-constructed campus.

23

Film cooling air pocket in a closed loop cooled airfoil  

SciTech Connect

Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending between them. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. To provide for air film cooing of select portions of the airfoil outer surface, at least one air pocket is defined on a wall of at least one of the cavities. Each air pocket is substantially closed with respect to the cooling medium in the cavity and cooling air pumped to the air pocket flows through outlet apertures in the wall of the airfoil to cool the same.

Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC); Osgood, Sarah Jane (East Thetford, VT); Bagepalli, Radhakrishna (Schenectady, NY); Webbon, Waylon Willard (Greenville, SC); Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Charge Detection in a Closed-Loop Aharonov-Bohm Interferometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a study of complementarity in a two-terminal "closed-loop" Aharonov-Bohm interferometer. In this interferometer, the simple picture of two-path interference cannot be applied. We introduce a nearby quantum point contact to detect the electron in a quantum dot inserted in the interferometer. We found that charge detection reduces but does not completely suppress the interference even in the limit of perfect detection. We attribute this phenomenon to the unique nature of the closed-loop interferometer. That is, the closed-loop interferometer cannot be simply regarded as a two-path interferometer because of multiple reflections of electrons. As a result, there exist indistinguishable paths of the electron in the interferometer and the interference survives even in the limit of perfect charge detection. This implies that charge detection is not equivalent to path detection in a closed-loop interferometer. We also discuss the phase rigidity of the transmission probability for a two-terminal conductor in the presence of a detector.

Gyong Luck Khym; Kicheon Kang

2006-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

25

Distributed digital processing and closed loop computer control of wastewater treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The application of digital computer control to municipal wastewater treatment processes is steadily gaining popularity. Within the next few years this mode of control is expected to become a standard feature of larger wastewater treatment plants. The ... Keywords: Closed loop systems, PID control, computer application, computer control, digital control, direct digital control, ecology, feedback, feedforward, water pollution

Bipin Mishra

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Pollution Reduction System that Generates Profits (Cascading Closed Loop Cycle - CCLC)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WOW Energy Inc. (WOW) recently received notification from the patent office that its patent claims for the Cascading Closed Loop Cycle (CCLC) were valid for converting waste heat to electricity in a process using standard off-the-shelf components. These c

Stinger, D. H.; Mian, F.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Motor Modeling and Position Control Lab Week 3: Closed Loop Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Motor Modeling and Position Control Lab Week 3: Closed Loop Control 1. Review In the first week of motor modeling lab, a mathematical model of a DC motor from first principles was derived to obtain specifically for this motor model. In the second week, a physical DC motor (Quanser SRV-02) was used for open

Krovi, Venkat

28

Forced flow supercritical helium in a closed heat transfer loop subjected to pulsed heat loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The superconducting magnets of the tokamak JT-60SA are cooled by means of forced flows of supercritical helium at 4.4 K and 0.5 MPa. The closed loops transfer heat from the magnets to the refrigerator through heat exchangers immersed into a saturated liquid helium bath. An experimental loop was designed to represent a 1/20 scaled down mock-up of JT-60SA central solenoid cooling circuits. This design for keeping the same transit times in the helium circuits

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Closed-loop flow test Miravalles Geothermal Field well log results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) conducted a closed-loop flow test in the Miravalles Geothermal Field. The closed-loop test was started in May and ran through August of 1990. The effluent from the production well PG-11 was carried by a pipeline through a monitor station to the injection well PG-2. Before starting the long-term flow test in May, cold-water injection experiments were performed in each well to determine the pressure and temperature response. A series of downhole measurements were made in each well to obtain background information. The downhole measurements were repeated in August just before terminating the flow test to evaluate the results.

Dennis, B.; Eden, G.; Lawton, R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Program on Technology Innovation: Modeling of Single-Well Closed-Loop Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conventional enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) include one production well and one injection well to use hydrothermal resources to generate electricity. However, the high initial cost of drilling EGS wells is one of the main factors that hurt its competitiveness with other energy sources. The single-well closed-loop EGS (SWCLEGS) is a new type of geothermal power generation technology that aims to eliminate the need for natural hydrothermal resources with a relatively low drilling cost. The objective of...

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

31

AB Method of Irrigation without Water (Closed-loop water cycle)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Author suggests and researches a new revolutionary idea for a closed-loop irrigation method. He offers to cover a given site by a thin closed film with controlled heat conductivity and clarity located at an altitude of 50 300 m. The film is supported at altitude by small additional atmospheric overpressure and connected to the ground by thin cables. Authors show that this closed dome allows full control of the weather in a given region (the day is always fine, the rain is only at night, no strong winds). The dome (having control of the clarity of film and heat conductivity) converts the cold regions to subtropics, hot deserts and desolate wildernesses to prosperous regions with a temperate climate. This is a realistic and cheap method of evaporation economical irrigation and virtual weather control on Earth at the current time.

Alexander Bolonkin

2007-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

32

Integrated dynamic and simulation model on coupled closed-loop workstation capacity controls in a multi-workstation production system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a dynamic model coupled with a simulation model is introduced to control a multi-workstation production system such that a given performance measure is achieved. In particular, we consider closed loop capacity controls for regulating WIP ...

Tao Wu; Leyuan Shi; Benjamin Quirt; N. A. Duffie

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Closed loop chemical systems for energy storage and transmission (chemical heat pipe). Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work documents the anlaysis of closed loop chemical systems for energy storage and transmission, commonly referred to as the Chemical Heat Pipe (CHP). Among the various chemical reaction systems and sources investigated, the two best systems were determined to be the high temperature methane/steam reforming reaction (HTCHP) coupled to a Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (VHTR) and the lower temperature, cyclohexane dehydrogenation reaction (LTCHP) coupled to existing sources such as coal or light water reactors. Solar and other developing technologies can best be coupled to the LTCHP. The preliminary economic and technical analyses show that both systems could transport heat at an incremental cost of approximately $1.50/GJ/160 km (in excess of the primary heat cost of $2.50/GJ), at system efficiencies above 80%. Solar heat can be transported at an incremental cost of $3/GJ/160 km. The use of the mixed feed evaporator concept developed in this work contributes significantly to reducing the transportation cost and increasing the efficiency of the system. The LTCHP shows the most promise of the two systems if the technical feasibility of the cyclic closed loop chemical reaction system can be established. An experimental program for establishing this feasibility is recommended. Since the VHTR is several years away from commercial demonstration and the HTCHP chemical technology is well developed, future HTCHP programs should be aimed at VHTR and interface problems.

Vakil, H.B.; Flock, J.W.

1978-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

ICFT: An initial closed-loop flow test of the Fenton Hill Phase II HDR reservoir  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 30-day closed-loop circulation test of the Phase II Hot Dry Rock reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, was conducted to determine the thermal, hydraulic, chemical, and seismic characteristics of the reservoir in preparation for a long-term energy-extraction test. The Phase II heat-extraction loop was successfully tested with the injection of 37,000 m/sup 3/ of cold water and production of 23,300 m/sup 3/ of hot water. Up to 10 MW/sub t/ was extracted when the production flow rate reached 0.0139 m/sup 3//s at 192/degree/C. By the end of the test, the water-loss rate had decreased to 26% and a significant portion of the injected water was recovered; 66% during the test and an additional 20% during subsequent venting. Analysis of thermal, hydraulic, geochemical, tracer, and seismic data suggests the fractured volume of the reservoir was growing throughout the test. 19 refs., 64 figs., 19 tabs.

Dash, Z.V. (ed.); Aguilar, R.G.; Dennis, B.R.; Dreesen, D.S.; Fehler, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; House, L.S.; Ito, H.; Kelkar, S.M.; Malzahn, M.V.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Development of a closed-loop, lean-burn natural gas engine control system. Final report, February 1993-December 1995  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project was to develop a closed-loop, lean-burn control system for medium and heavy duty, lean-burn, gaseous fueled engines. The closed-loop F/A ratio control system was designed to provide diesel engine-like performance and fuel economy, and take advantage of the emissions benefits of a gaseous fueled engine. The control system was designed to have the processing power and I/O capacity to accommodate the engine Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM`s).

Morris, D.A.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Steelcase's Closed-Loop Energy Recovery System Results in $250,000 Savings Annually  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steelcase Inc. put a closed-loop energy recovery system into operation in August, 1980, with the installation of a $1.1 million waste incinerator. The system provides steam for process applications in the company's main complex. Processable waste includes wood, cardboard, paper, fabrics, paint sludge, and solvent sludge. Incineration reduces waste volume, cutting landfill and hauling charges substantially. Heat recovery has lowered natural gas bills by 10%. Net annual savings average more than $250,000, and a payback period of 3.4 years is projected for the system. The energy recovery program at Steelcase Inc. is based on the premise that there is a very important relationship between money and trash. For years, Steelcase not only threw its trash away, but, in fact, incurred the expense of transporting accumulated waste from the plant complex in Grand Rapids, Michigan, to public landfill sites in other parts of the state. In other words, we were wasting money by ignoring a perfectly good energy source, and wasting additional money by hiring contract haulers to take that energy source to the dump. Steelcase is the world's largest manufacturer of office furniture. More than 5,000 people work at our main complex, where facilities cover 6,000,000 square feet. We pioneered the movement toward systems furniture ten years ago. And now, with the same innovative spirit, we're tackling the problem of energy recovery. When the cost of fossil fuels began soaring in the mid-1970's, company engineers took a long, hard look at our disposal methods and our energy situation and started laying the groundwork for a closed loop system. In 1979, after years of study, a local engineering firm was hired to help us design and install the equipment for a steam-generating waste incinerator in the Michigan center of the Steelcase complex. The result is the new Energy Recovery Plant, completed in August, 1980, at a cost of $1.1 million. The plant has been in operation approximately eight months, and it is already running at a rate of efficiency that exceeds our expectations. We had an estimated savings of more than $280,000 in 1980 alone; and our projections for the next few years indicate that the amount of our savings will grow each year, in keeping with predicted increases in the price of fuel. We estimate a payback period for the plant of less than three years. Steelcase chose incineration as the method of energy recovery for a variety of reasons. Feasibility studies showed that incineration would be a relatively low-cost investment. The waste stream going into an incinerator requires little or no preparation, so we realized an immediate savings in the purchase and operation of processing equipment. Incineration reduces the volume of our waste stream by approximately 90% which means that hauling costs and landfill charges are substantially reduced. Furthermore, an incinerator system can be installed on a modular basis. A modular approach appealed to us because it gave us an extra measure of flexibility and enabled us to commit corporate funds in a step-by-step manner.

Wege, P. M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Optimal Planning of a Load Transfer Substation Pair between Two Normally Closed-Loop Feeders Considering Minimization of System Power Losses Using a Genetic Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes an effective approach for planning a load transfer substation pair(LTSP) between two normally closed-loop feeders considering minimization of system power losses. Firstly, the annual equivalent load of each load point is calculated. ... Keywords: distribution feeder, normally closed-loop feeder, distribution substation, genetic algorithm, power losses

Wei-Tzer Huang; Kai-chao Yao; Shiuan-Tai Chen; Hsiau-Hsian Nien; Deng-Chung Lin; Po-Tung Huang

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Performance of MEMS-based visible-light adaptive optics at Lick Observatory: Closed- and open-loop control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At the University of California's Lick Observatory, we have implemented an on-sky testbed for next-generation adaptive optics (AO) technologies. The Visible-Light Laser Guidestar Experiments instrument (ViLLaGEs) includes visible-light AO, a micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) deformable mirror, and open-loop control of said MEMS on the 1-meter Nickel telescope at Mt. Hamilton. In this paper we evaluate the performance of ViLLaGEs in open- and closed-loop control, finding that both control methods give equivalent Strehl ratios of up to ~ 7% in I-band and similar rejection of temporal power. Therefore, we find that open-loop control of MEMS on-sky is as effective as closed-loop control. Furthermore, after operating the system for three years, we find MEMS technology to function well in the observatory environment. We construct an error budget for the system, accounting for 130 nm of wavefront error out of 190 nm error in the science-camera PSFs. We find that the dominant known term is internal static error...

Morzinski, Katie; Gavel, Donald T; Grigsby, Bryant; Dillon, Daren; Reinig, Marc; Macintosh, Bruce A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Diagnosis and Isolation of Air Gap Eccentricities in Closed-loop Controlled Doubly-Fed Induction Generators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the widespread use of doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) in wind energy conversion systems, condition monitoring is being given importance. Non-intrusive techniques like motor current signature analysis (MCSA), which involves looking for specific frequency components in the current spectrum, are preferred over analysis of magnetic field, temperature, vibrations or acoustic noise which require additional sensors. The major difficulty in MCSA is isolation of the fault, as multiple faults produce similar signatures. Moreover, closed-loop control makes diagnostics more complicated due to inherent compensation by the controller. This thesis presents a method to diagnose static and dynamic air gap eccentricities in doubly-fed induction generators operated for closed-loop stator power control by using a modified control technique to enable detection and isolation of this fault from electrical unbalances in the stator and rotor and load torque oscillations that produce similar effects. The effectiveness of the proposed control is verified using simulations and preliminary experiments performed on a healthy machine.

Meenakshi Sundaram, Vivek

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Modeling of decentralized linear observer and tracker for a class of unknown interconnected large-scale sampled-data nonlinear systems with closed-loop decoupling property  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel low-order modeling of decentralized linear observer-based tracker is presented in this paper for a class of unknown interconnected large-scale sampled-data nonlinear systems with closed-loop decoupling property. The appropriate (low-)order decentralized ... Keywords: Digital redesign, Large-scale system, Observer, Observer/Kalman filter identification, Tracker

Jason Sheng-Hong Tsai; Nien-Tsu Hu; Po-Chuan Yang; Shu-Mei Guo; Leang-San Shieh

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as sodium bicarbonate, soda ash, trona, or nahcalite (ICF Northwest, 1988). By-products generated

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

42

Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL); Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL); Petrick, Michael (Joliet, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Yosemite Closing the Loop Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A summary of the properties of the pure biodiesel fuel, thepreparing the biodiesel blend. Table 1. Fuel Properties Fuel

Durbin, T

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was produced by Wisconsin Electric's coal-fired power plants. The criteria for selecting these mixtures was to utilize minimal cost materials, such as coal combustion by-products (fly ash, bottom ash, etc of sufficient strength to withstand handling, transfer and long term exposure. The final phase (4) was designed

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

45

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

investigation. Two additional ash samples were prepared by blending these selected conventional and clean coalCenter for By-Products Utilization HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R #12;1 HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S. Singh, and Bruce

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

46

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST by blending these selected conventional and clean coal ashes. Using these sixdifferent ash samples, eleven of 0 and60 percent by high-sulfurcoal ashes (Class F and clean-coal ashes) andcoal ash blends (Class F

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

47

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST CONCRETE PRODUCTS Authors: Tarun R. Naik, Director investigation. Two additional ash samples were prepared by blending these selected conventional and clean coal

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

48

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as the coal ash derived from SOx control technology. Up to 80% of CCA was blended with ground portland cement: blended cement, clean coal ash, sulfate resistance, time of setting #12;3 Zichao Wu is Structural EngineerCenter for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN COAL ASH AS SETTING TIME REGULATOR IN PORTLAND

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

49

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and clean-coal ashes) andcoal ash blends (Class F plus clean-coal ash blends) in the range of 0 to 60Center for By-Products Utilization CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASSF FLY ASHCOAL AND CLEAN-COAL,and Bruce W. Ramme CBU-1996-08 REP-283 July 1996 Presented andPublished at the American Coal Ash Association

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

50

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Test results indicated that all the blends with coal ash had lower expansion than the control mixtureCenter for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR MANAGING ASR By Zichao Wu and Tarun R College of Engineering and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN­MILWAUKEE #12;USE OF CLEAN-COAL ASH

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

51

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mixtures were developed using blends of wood FA and Class C coal FA. Two levels of blended ash of concrete. Blending of wood FA with Class C coal FA improved performance of wood FA to a significant extentCenter for By-Products Utilization GREENER CONCRETE FROM WOOD FLY ASH AND COAL FLY ASH By Tarun R

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

52

CNCC Craig Campus Geothermal Project: 82-well closed loop GHP well field to provide geothermal energy as a common utilitiy for a new community college campus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Colorado Northwestern Community College (CNCC) is working collaboratively with recipient vendor Chevron Energy Solutions, an energy services company (ESCO), to develop an innovative GHP project at the new CNCC Campus constructed in 2010/2011 in Craig, Colorado. The purpose of the CNCC Craig Campus Geothermal Program scope was to utilize an energy performance contracting approach to develop a geothermal system with a shared closed-loop field providing geothermal energy to each building's GHP mechanical system. Additional benefits to the project include promoting good jobs and clean energy while reducing operating costs for the college. The project has demonstrated that GHP technology is viable for new construction using the energy performance contracting model. The project also enabled the project team to evaluate several options to give the College a best value proposition for not only the initial design and construction costs but build high performance facilities that will save the College for many years to come. The design involved comparing the economic feasibility of GHP by comparing its cost to that of traditional HVAC systems via energy model, financial life cycle cost analysis of energy savings and capital cost, and finally by evaluating the compatibility of the mechanical design for GHP compared to traditional HVAC design. The project shows that GHP system design can be incorporated into the design of new commercial buildings if the design teams, architect, contractor, and owner coordinate carefully during the early phases of design. The public also benefits because the new CNCC campus is a center of education for the much of Northwestern Colorado, and students in K-12 programs (Science Spree 2010) through the CNCC two-year degree programs are already integrating geothermal and GHP technology. One of the greatest challenges met during this program was coordination of multiple engineering and development stakeholders. The leadership of Principle Investigator Pres. John Boyd of CNCC met this challenge by showing clear leadership in setting common goals and resolving conflicts early in the program.

Chevron Energy Solutions; Matt Rush; Scott Shulda

2011-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

53

Internal flow patterns on heat transfer characteristics of a closed-loop oscillating heat-pipe with check valves using ethanol and a silver nano-ethanol mixture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this research was to investigate the internal flow patterns and heat transfer characteristics of a closed-loop oscillating heat-pipe with check valves (CLOHP/CV). The ratio of number of check valves to meandering turns was 0.2. Ethanol and a silver nano-ethanol mixture were used as working fluids with a filling ratio of 50% by total volume of tube. The CLOHP/CV was made of a glass tube with an inside diameter of 2.4 mm. The evaporator section was 50 mm and 100 mm in length and there were 10 meandering turns. An inclination angle of 90 from horizontal axis was established. The evaporator section was heated by an electric heater and the condenser section was cooled by distilled water. Temperature at the evaporator section was controlled at 85 C, 105 C and 125 C. The inlet and outlet temperatures were measured. A digital camera and video camera were used to observe the flow patterns at the evaporator. The silver nano-ethanol mixture gave higher heat flux than ethanol. When the temperature at the evaporator section was increased from 85 C to 105 C and 125 C. It was found that, the flow patterns occurred as annular flow + slug flow, slug flow + bubble flow and dispersed bubble flow + bubble flow respectively. The main regime of each flow pattern can be determined from the flow pattern map ethanol and a silver nano-ethanol mixture. Each of the two working fluids gave corresponding flow patterns. (author)

Bhuwakietkumjohn, N.; Rittidech, S. [Heat Pipe and Thermal Tools Design Research Laboratory (HTDR), Faculty of Engineering, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150 (Thailand)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

Mathematical Analysis of High-Temperature Co-electrolysis of CO2 and O2 Production in a Closed-Loop Atmosphere Revitalization System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NASA has been evaluating two closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures based on Sabatier and Bosch carbon dioxide, CO2, reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam, H2O, co-electrolysis process is another option that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide, CO and hydrogen, H2 mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. A number of process models have been developed and analyzed to determine the theoretical power required to recover oxygen, O2, in each case. These models include the current Sabatier and Bosch technologies and combinations of those processes with high-temperature co-electrolysis. The cases of constant CO2 supply and constant O2 production were evaluated. In addition, a process model of the hydrogenation process with co-electrolysis was developed and compared. Sabatier processes require the least amount of energy input per kg of oxygen produced. If co-electrolysis replaces solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrolysis within the Sabatier architecture, the power requirement is reduced by over 10%, but only if heat recuperation is used. Sabatier processes, however, require external water to achieve the lower power results. Under conditions of constant incoming carbon dioxide flow, the Sabatier architectures require more power than the other architectures. The Bosch, Boudouard with co-electrolysis, and the hydrogenation with co-electrolysis processes require little or no external water. The Bosch and hydrogenation processes produce water within their reactors, which aids in reducing the power requirement for electrolysis. The Boudouard with co-electrolysis process has a higher electrolysis power requirement because carbon dioxide is split instead of water, which has a lower heat of formation. Hydrogenation with co-electrolysis offers the best overall power performance for two reasons: it requires no external water, and it produces its own water, which reduces the power requirement for co-electrolysis.

Michael G. McKellar; Manohar S. Sohal; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna; Morgan B. Abney

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

NETL: IEP - Coal Utilization By-Products: Consortium Byproducts Recycling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) The mission of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing. The overall goals of CBRC are to: Increase the overall national rate of byproduct use by to ~ 50 % by 2010 Increase the number of “allowable” byproduct uses under state regulations by ~ 25% Double of the current rate of FGD byproduct use CBRC is a unique partnership that integrates the electric power industry, State and Federal regulatory agencies, and academia to form a strong, cohesive consortium to guide the national and regional research priorities of the CBRC. CBRC is managed by the West Virginia Water Research Institute at West Virginia University and is administered by regional centers at the University of Kentucky (Eastern Region), Southern Illinois University (Midwest Region) and the University of North Dakota (Western Region). Primary funding for CBRC is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL).

56

Loop Equation in Turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The incompressible fluid dynamics is reformulated as dynamics of closed loops $C$ in coordinate space. This formulation allows to derive explicit functional equation for the generating functional $\\Psi[C]$ in inertial range of spatial scales, which allows the scaling solutions. The requirement of finite energy dissipation rate leads then to the Kolmogorov index. We find an exact steady solution of the loop equation in inertial range of the loop sizes. The generating functional decreases as $\\EXP{-A^{\\tt}}$ where $A=\\oint_C r \\wedge dr$ is the area inside the loop. The pdf for the velocity circulation $\\Gamma$ is Lorentzian, with the width $\\bar{\\Gamma} \\propto A^{\\tt} $.

Alexander A. Migdal

1993-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

57

Mercury Stability in FGD Byproducts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A significant fraction of the mercury in coals fired for power generation currently is removed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems and incorporated in the byproducts from those systems. This report summarizes the results of an EPRI-sponsored project to measure the stability of mercury in FGD byproducts from coal-fired generating plants under simulated landfill and reuse conditions. The current effort repeated portions of a 2003 project, documented in EPRI report 1004254, to determine whether th...

2004-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

58

NETL: Coal Utilization By-Products (CUB)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Coal Utilization Byproducts Innovations for Existing Plants Solid Waste (Coal Utilization...

59

Turning Waste into By-Product  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper studies how a firm can create and capture value by converting a waste stream into a useful and saleable by-product (i.e., implementing by-product synergy (BPS)). We show that BPS creates an operational synergy between two products that are ... Keywords: by-product synergy, environment, operations management, sustainability

Deishin Lee

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

By-products from DU Storage (Fluorine and Empty Cylinders)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

By-products from DU Storage By-products from DU Storage (Fluorine and Empty Cylinders) Potential applications involving by-products from DUF6 storage include fluorine applications...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Pages that link to "Coal Combustion By-Products (Maryland)" ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edit History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Pages that link to "Coal Combustion By-Products (Maryland)" Coal Combustion By-Products (Maryland) Jump to:...

62

Changes related to "Coal Combustion By-Products (Maryland)" ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Special page Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Changes related to "Coal Combustion By-Products (Maryland)" Coal Combustion By-Products (Maryland) Jump to:...

63

Window-closing safety system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only an inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window. 5 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

64

Window-closing safety system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only and inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Loop-to-loop coupling.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report estimates inductively-coupled energy to a low-impedance load in a loop-to-loop arrangement. Both analytical models and full-wave numerical simulations are used and the resulting fields, coupled powers and energies are compared. The energies are simply estimated from the coupled powers through approximations to the energy theorem. The transmitter loop is taken to be either a circular geometry or a rectangular-loop (stripline-type) geometry that was used in an experimental setup. Simple magnetic field models are constructed and used to estimate the mutual inductance to the receiving loop, which is taken to be circular with one or several turns. Circuit elements are estimated and used to determine the coupled current and power (an equivalent antenna picture is also given). These results are compared to an electromagnetic simulation of the transmitter geometry. Simple approximate relations are also given to estimate coupled energy from the power. The effect of additional loads in the form of attached leads, forming transmission lines, are considered. The results are summarized in a set of susceptibility-type curves. Finally, we also consider drives to the cables themselves and the resulting common-to-differential mode currents in the load.

Warne, Larry Kevin; Lucero, Larry Martin; Langston, William L.; Salazar, Robert Austin; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Basilio, Lorena I.; Bacon, Larry Donald

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Coal Combustion By-Products (Maryland)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of the Environment is responsible for regulating fugitive air emissions from the transportation of coal combustion by-products and the permissible beneficial uses of these by...

67

High-temperature helium-loop facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high-temperature helium loop is a facility for materials testing in ultrapure helium gas at high temperatures. The closed loop system is capable of recirculating high-purity helium or helium with controlled impurities. The gas loop maximum operating conditions are as follows: 300 psi pressure, 500 lb/h flow rate, and 2100/sup 0/F temperature. The two test sections can accept samples up to 3.5 in. diameter and 5 ft long. The gas loop is fully instrumented to continuously monitor all parameters of loop operation as well as helium impurities. The loop is fully automated to operate continuously and requires only a daily servicing by a qualified operator to replenish recorder charts and helium makeup gas. Because of its versatility and high degree of parameter control, the helium loop is applicable to many types of materials research. This report describes the test apparatus, operating parameters, peripheral systems, and instrumentation system.

Tokarz, R.D.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Covariant Closed String Coherent States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We give the first construction of covariant coherent closed string states, which may be identified with fundamental cosmic strings. We outline the requirements for a string state to describe a cosmic string, and provide an explicit and simple map that relates three different descriptions: classical strings, light cone gauge quantum states, and covariant vertex operators. The resulting coherent state vertex operators have a classical interpretation and are in one-to-one correspondence with arbitrary classical closed string loops.

Hindmarsh, Mark; Skliros, Dimitri [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

69

Fast flux locked loop  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A flux locked loop for providing an electrical feedback signal, the flux locked loop employing radio-frequency components and technology to extend the flux modulation frequency and tracking loop bandwidth. The flux locked loop of the present invention has particularly useful application in read-out electronics for DC SQUID magnetic measurement systems, in which case the electrical signal output by the flux locked loop represents an unknown magnetic flux applied to the DC SQUID.

Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Independence, MO)

2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

70

New Method for Calculating the Absolute Free Energy of Binding: The Effect of a Mobile Loop on the Avidin/Biotin Complex  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New Method for Calculating the Absolute Free Energy of Binding: The Effect of a Mobile Loop Hypothetical scanning molecular dynamics (HSMD) is a relatively new method for calculating the absolute free as a byproduct of the simulation. The binding mechanism of biotin to avidin involves a mobile loop

Meirovitch, Hagai

71

ADVANCED GASIFICATION BY-PRODUCT UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect

The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2003 to August 31, 2004. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," ",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars","RSE" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke","Waste","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste","Row"

73

Center for By-Products Utilization Sustainable Concrete with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Products Utilization Geopolymer Concrete (GPC) · Proposed by Devidovits (1994) is an upcoming technology-friendly and sustainable. #12;Center for By-Products Utilization Geopolymer Concrete (cont'd) · Industrial byCenter for By-Products Utilization Sustainable Concrete with Industrial and Post-Consumer By

Saldin, Dilano

74

The Lattice Free Energy with Overlap Fermions: A Two-Loop Result  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the 2-loop partition function of QCD on the lattice, using the Wilson formulation for gluons and the overlap-Dirac operator for fermions. Direct by-products of our result are the 2-loop free energy and average plaquette. Our calculation serves also as a prototype for further higher loop calculations in the overlap formalism. We present our results as a function of a free parameter $M_0$ entering the overlap action; the dependence on the number of colors $N$ and fermionic flavors $N_f$ is shown explicitly.

A. Athenodorou; H. Panagopoulos

2004-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

75

NETL: IEP - Coal Utilization By-Products : In-House R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

research within its Office of Science and Technology. Research pertaining to IEP - Coal Utilization By-Products (CUB) is conducted within the By-Product Utilization Team of...

76

PGM Recycling from Catalysts in a Closed Hydrometallurgical Loop ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ISASMELT™ for Recycling of Valuable Elements Contributing to a More Sustainable Society · Leaching of Uranium and Vanadium from Korean Domestic Ore.

77

Closed-Loop Manufacturing of Complex Micro Optics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... quality aluminum test cylinders for the new calculable capacitor being developed ... sensors and confocal pens integrated with ultra-precision turning ...

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

78

Closed Loop Control Techniques for the Growth of Single Crystal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

through the use of the heat of fusion as an internal ..... furnace, the predominant heat transfer mode is emissive. .... The cubic structure is apparent in the cross-.

79

Open versus closed loop capacity equilibria in electricity markets ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

first used to represent short-run bidding and production games among power ...... capacity is dispatchable thermal plant and there is no significant storage (e.g.,.

80

Closed loop pulsating heat pipes Part A: parametric experimental investigations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(constant vol- ume), two-phase, bubble­liquid slug system formed inside the tube-bundle due to the dominance of surface tension forces. This tube-bundle receives heat at one end and is cooled at the other. Temperature-hydrodynamic coupling of pressure/temperature fluctuations with the void fraction (mal-) distribution. This causes heat

Khandekar, Sameer

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Energy Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

purchase? unit(s) Performance Factors Existing What is the capacity of the existing boiler? MBtuhr* What is the thermal efficiency of the existing boiler? % Et New What is the...

82

Film cooling for a closed loop cooled airfoil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. At least one film cooling hole is defined through a wall of at least one of the cavities for flow communication between an interior of the cavity and an exterior of the vane. The film cooling hole(s) are defined adjacent a potential low LCF life region, so that cooling medium that bleeds out through the film cooling hole(s) reduces a thermal gradient in a vicinity thereof, thereby the increase the LCF life of that region.

Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

CNCC Craig Campus Geothermal Program: 82-well closed loop GHP...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

campus. The primary component in this campus approach is the common GHP well field ground heat exchanger (GHEX). The innovative design of the shared well field will demonstrate...

84

Heliostat System with Wireless Closed-Loop Control (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Thermata is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their advanced collectors. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

In situ conversion process utilizing a closed loop heating system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An in situ conversion system for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a plurality of u-shaped wellbores in the formation. Piping is positioned in at least two of the u-shaped wellbores. A fluid circulation system is coupled to the piping. The fluid circulation system is configured to circulate hot heat transfer fluid through at least a portion of the piping to form at least one heated portion of the formation. An electrical power supply is configured to provide electrical current to at least a portion of the piping located below an overburden in the formation to resistively heat at least a portion of the piping. Heat transfers from the piping to the formation.

Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA); Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Schoeber, Willen Jan Antoon Henri (Houston, TX)

2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

86

Isotropic Sequence Order Learning in a Closed Loop Behavioural System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

¥ and ¥ S shown in a). Weights increase for V`Yba and decrease for Vdcda (which means that a sequence of events §eSgf

Porr, Bernd

87

Software: LoopDA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The method employed is based largely upon the Loop Equation Design Method that provides for sizing of openings to utilize driving wind and stack ...

2013-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

88

Coal Combustion By-Products (Maryland) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Data Page Edit with form History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Coal Combustion By-Products (Maryland) This is the approved revision of this page, as well...

89

Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

coAl utilizAtion By-Product Processing PlAnt (withdrAwn) Project Description The University of Kentucky Research Foundation (UKRF) of Lexington, Kentucky, in partnership...

90

Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the recent passing of new legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2004 to August 31, 2005. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Harold Schobert

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

flow_loop.indd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FLOW ASSURANCE TEST LOOP FLOW ASSURANCE TEST LOOP Objective O ver a decade ago, RMOTC began cooperatively building a full-scale facility to test new fl ow assurance technology, mainly in the areas of hydrates and paraffi ns. Today, RMOTC's test facility consists of fi ve individual loop sections, including chilling and heated pipe-in-pipe water sections, bare lines, and a mixing section. The facility was designed to represent typical deepwater production systems in order to simulate full-scale tests and apply the results to fl ow assurance fi eld applications and technology. The current facility design consists of a 6" x 3,600 maximum allowable operating pressure test pipeline in fi ve separate loops. The test loops begin and ter- minate at a central location just north

92

Loose Loops Sink Chips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper explores the concept of micro-architectural loops and discusses their impact on processor pipelines. In particular, we establish the relationship between loose loops and pipeline length and configuration, and show their impact on performance. We then evaluate the load resolution loop in detail and propose the distributed register algorithm (DRA) as a way of reducing this loop. It decreases the performance loss due to load mis-speculations by reducing the issue-to-execute latency in the pipeline. A new loose loop is introduced into the pipeline by the DRA, but the frequency of mis-speculations is very low. The reduction in latency from issue to execute, along with a low mis-speculation rate in the DRA result in up to a 4% to 15% improvement in performance using a detailed architectural simulator.

Eric Borch Intel; Eric Borch; Eric Tune; Srilatha Manne; Joel Emer

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Loose loops sink chips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper explores the concept of micro-architectural loops and discusses their impact on processor pipelines. In particular, we establish the relationship between loose loops and pipeline length and configuration, and show their impact on performance. We then evaluate the load resolution loop in detail and propose the distributed register algorithm (DRA) as a way of reducing this loop. It decreases the performance loss due to load mis-speculations by reducing the issue-to-execute latency in the pipeline. A new loose loop is introduced into the pipeline by the DRA, but the frequency of mis-speculations is very low. The reduction in latency from issue to execute, along with a low mis-speculation rate in the DRA result in up to a 4 % to 15% improvement in performance using a detailed architectural simulator. 1

Eric Borch; Eric Tune; Srilatha Manne; Joel Emer; Stage N

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Off-Criticality and the Massive Brownian Loop Soup  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Brownian loop soup is a conformally invariant Poissonian ensemble of loops in the plane recently introduced by Lawler and Werner. It has attracted significant attention for its connection to the Schramm-Loewner Evolution and Conformal Loop Ensembles and its consequent ability to describe the critical scaling limit of two-dimensional statistical mechanical models. In this paper, we introduce a natural "massive" (non-scale-invariant) version of the Brownian loop soup as a candidate to describe near-critical scaling limits, and study some of its properties, such as conformal covariance, exponential decay of correlations, and Hausdorff dimension. We also show that the massive Brownian loop soup arises as the near-critical scaling limit of a "gas" of random walk loops which is closely related to the discrete Gaussian free field.

Federico Camia

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

95

Wireless Local Loop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wireless local loop systems are available to provide both broadband and narrowband services to customers. Narrowband systems are generally either based on cordless or mobile standards, or a manufacturer‘s proprietary technology. They are generally ...

R. P. Merrett; P. V. E. Beastall; S. J. Buttery

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the passing of legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported. This contract was with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involved the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, assessment of the potential for leaching of Hg captured by the carbons, analysis of the slags for cement applications, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers. The objectives of this collaborative effort between the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute, and industry collaborators supplying gasifier char samples were to investigate the potential use of gasifier slag carbons as a source of low cost sorbent for Hg and NOX capture from combustion flue gas, concrete applications, polymer fillers and as a source of activated carbons. Primary objectives were to determine the relationship of surface area, pore size, pore size distribution, and mineral content on Hg storage of gasifier carbons and to define the site of Hg capture. The ability of gasifier slag carbon to capture NOX and the effect of NOX on Hg adsorption were goals. Secondary goals were the determination of the potential for use of the slags for cement and filler applications. Since gasifier chars have already gone through a devolatilization process in a reducing atmosphere in the gasifier, they only required to be activated to be used as activated carbons. Therefore, the principal objective of the work at PSU was to characterize and utilize gasification slag carbons for the production of activated carbons and other carbon fillers. Tests for the Hg and NOX adsorption potential of these activated gasifier carbons were performed at the CAER. During the course of this project, gasifier slag samples chemically and physically characterized at UK were supplied to PSU who also characterized the samples for sorption characteristics and independently tested for Hg-capture. At the CAER as-received slags were tested for Hg and NOX adsorption. The most promising of these were activated chemically. The PSU group applied thermal and steam activation to a representative group of the gasifier slag samples separated by particle sizes. The activated samples were tested at UK for Hg-sorption and NOX capture and the most promising Hg adsorbers were tested for Hg capture in a simulated flue gas. Both UK and PSU tested the use of the gasifier slag samples as fillers. The CAER analyzed the slags for possible use in cement applications

Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Brock Marrs; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

97

Closed orbit feedback with digital signal processing  

SciTech Connect

The closed orbit feedback experiment conducted on the SPEAR using the singular value decomposition (SVD) technique and digital signal processing (DSP) is presented. The beam response matrix, defined as beam motion at beam position monitor (BPM) locations per unit kick by corrector magnets, was measured and then analyzed using SVD. Ten BPMs, sixteen correctors, and the eight largest SVD eigenvalues were used for closed orbit correction. The maximum sampling frequency for the closed loop feedback was measured at 37 Hz. Using the proportional and integral (PI) control algorithm with the gains Kp = 3 and K{sub I} = 0.05 and the open-loop bandwidth corresponding to 1% of the sampling frequency, a correction bandwidth ({minus}3 dB) of approximately 0.8 Hz was achieved. Time domain measurements showed that the response time of the closed loop feedback system for 1/e decay was approximately 0.25 second. This result implies {approximately} 100 Hz correction bandwidth for the planned beam position feedback system for the Advanced Photon Source storage ring with the projected 4-kHz sampling frequency.

Chung, Y.; Kirchman, J.; Lenkszus, F. [and others

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Feasibility of producing jet fuel from GPGP (Great Plains Gasification Plant) by-products  

SciTech Connect

The Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota, is in close proximity to several Air Force bases along our northern tier. This plant is producing over 137 million cubic feet per day high-Btu SNG from North Dakota lignite. In addition, the plant generates three liquid streams, naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil. The naphtha may be directly marketable because of its low boiling point and high aromatic content. The other two streams, totalling about 4300 barrels per day, are available as potential sources of aviation jet fuel for the Air Force. The overall objective of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing aviation turbine fuel from the by-product streams of GPGP. These streams, as well as fractions thereof, will be characterized and subsequently processed over a wide range of process conditions. The resulting turbine fuel products will be analyzed to determine their chemical and physical characteristics as compared to petroleum-based fuels to meet the military specification requirements. A second objective is to assess the conversion of the by-product streams into a new, higher-density aviation fuel. Since no performance specifications currently exist for a high-density jet fuel, reaction products and intermediates will only be characterized to indicate the feasibility of producing such a fuel. This report describes results on feedstock characterization. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Willson, W.G.; Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Feasibility of producing jet fuel from GPGP (Great Plains Gasification Plant) by-products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota, is in close proximity to several Air Force bases along our northern tier. This plant is producing over 137 million cubic feet per day of high-Btu Natural Gas from North Dakota lignite. In addition, the plant generates three liquid streams, naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil. The naphtha may be directly marketable because of its low boiling point and high aromatic content. The other two streams, totalling about 4300 barrels per day, are available as potential sources of aviation fuel jet fuel for the Air Force. The overall objective of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing aviation turbine fuel from the by-product streams of GPGP. These streams, as well as fractions, thereof, will be characterized and subsequently processed over a wide range of process conditions. The resulting turbine fuel products will be analyzed to determine their chemical and physical characteristics as compared to petroleum-based fuels to meet the military specification requirements. A second objective is to assess the conversion of the by-product streams into a new, higher-density aviation fuel. Since no performance specifications currently exist for a high-density jet fuel, reaction products and intermediates will only be characterized to indicate the feasibility of producing such a fuel. This report discusses the suitability of the tar oil stream. 5 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

Willson, W.G.; Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Remediation of Abandoned Mines Using Coal Combustion By-Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Remediation of Abandoned Mines Using Coal Combustion By-Products Sowmya Bulusu1 ; Ahmet H. Aydilek that occurs when pyrite that is present in abandoned coal mines comes in contact with oxygen and water, which subject headings: Remedial action; Acid mine water; Mines; Coals; Recycling; Maryland; Fly ash

Aydilek, Ahmet

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Orimulsion Combustion By-Products: Chemical Composition and Leaching Characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Orimulsion (R) is a synthetic fuel derived by mixing heavy bitumen with water to produce an emulsion that can be burned as a primary fuel in electric utility boilers. It can be used for generation of electricity in modified oil-fired utility boilers. This report presents the results of a study on by-products generated from the combustion of Orimulsion.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

103

Water-Loop Heat Pump Systems: Assessment Study Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water-loop heat pump systems, composed of multiple water-source heat pumps, a boiler, and a cooling tower operating in a closed water loop are a key segment of the commercial building heat pump market. This type of system provides a low-first-cost, versatile, and energy-efficient approach to space conditioning commercial buildings that have simultaneous heating and cooling loads.

1991-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

104

Compatibility of Admix and Synthetic Liner Materials With Clean Coal Technology By-Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When designing effective liner systems for clean coal technology by-products, utilities need information on the liner materials most suitable for each type of waste by-product. This study has developed data on twenty admix and synthetic liner types for seven different by-product combinations.

1991-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

105

COLD TEST LOOP INTEGRATED TEST LOOP RESULTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A testing facility (Cold Test Loop) was constructed and operated to demonstrate the efficacy of the Accelerated Waste Retrieval (AWR) Project's planned sluicing approach to the remediation of Silos 1 and 2 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, Ohio. The two silos contain almost 10,000 tons of radium-bearing low-level waste, which consists primarily of solids of raffinates from processing performed on ores from the Democratic Republic of Congo (commonly referred to as ''Belgium Congo ores'') for the recovery of uranium. These silos are 80 ft in diameter, 36 ft high to the center of the dome, and 26.75 ft to the top of the vertical side walls. The test facility contained two test systems, each designed for a specific purpose. The first system, the Integrated Test Loop (ITL), a near-full-scale plant including the actual equipment to be installed at the Fernald Site, was designed to demonstrate the sluicing operation and confirm the selection of a slurry pump, the optimal sluicing nozzle operation, and the preliminary design material balance. The second system, the Component Test Loop (CTL), was designed to evaluate many of the key individual components of the waste retrieval system over an extended run. The major results of the initial testing performed during July and August 2002 confirmed that the AWR approach to sluicing was feasible. The ITL testing confirmed the following: (1) The selected slurry pump (Hazleton 3-20 type SHW) performed well and is suitable for AWR application. However, the pump's motor should be upgraded to a 200-hp model and be driven by a 150-hp variable-frequency drive (VFD). A 200-hp VFD is not much more expensive and would allow the pump to operate at full speed. (2) The best nozzle performance was achieved by using 15/16-in. nozzles operated alternately. This configuration appeared to most effectively mine the surrogate. (3) The Solartron densitometer, which was tested as an alternative mass flow measurement device, did not operate effectively. Consequently, it is not suitable for application to the AWR process. (4) Initially, the spray ring (operated at approximately 2300 psi) and the nozzles provided by the pump vendor did not perform acceptably. The nozzles were replaced with a more robust model, and the performance was then acceptable. (5) The average solids concentration achieved in the slurry before Bentogrout addition was approximately 16% by weight. The solids concentration of the slurry after Bentogrout addition ranged from 26% to approximately 40%. The slurry pump and ITL system performed well at every concentration. No line plugging or other problems were noted. The results of the CTL runs and later ITL testing are summarized in an appendix to this report.

Abraham, TJ

2003-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

106

Time-Constrained Loop Pipelining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper addresses the problem of Time-Constrained Loop Pipelining, i.e. given a fixed throughput, finding a schedule of a loop which minimizes resource requirements. This paper proposes a methodology, called TCLP, based on dividing the problem into ... Keywords: loop pipelining, scheduling, timing and resource contraints, register optimization

Fermin Sanchez

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Rapid Batch Characterization of Coal Utilization By-Products  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Batch Characterization Batch Characterization of Coal Utilization By-Products Peter A. Hesbach 1 *, Alexander S. P. Abel 2 Ann G. Kim 3 , and Steven C. Lamey 4 1 U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 USA; 2 NETL Site Support Contractor, Parsons, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, Morgantown, WV 26505 USA; 3 U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory Post-Doctoral Fellow, 626 Cochrans Mill Road, P.O. Box 10940, Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 USA; 4 retired, U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV USA (* author for correspondence, phone: 304-285-4443, fax: 304-285-4487, e-mail: peter.hesbach@netl.doe.gov) KEYWORDS: leaching methods, ash characterization, coal utilization by-products

108

Mineral Sequestration Utilizing Industrial By-Products, Residues, and Minerals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

J. Fauth and Yee Soong J. Fauth and Yee Soong U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Pittsburgh PA, 15236-0940 Mineral Sequestration Workshop National Energy Technology Laboratory August 8, 2001 Mineral Sequestration Utilizing Industrial By-Products, Residues, and Minerals Mineral Sequestration Workshop, U.S. Department of Energy, NETL, August 8, 2001 Overview * Introduction - Objective - Goals - NETL Facilities * Effect of Solution Chemistry on Carbonation Efficiency - Buffered Solution + NaCl - Buffered Solution + MEA * Effect of Pretreatment on Carbonation Efficiency - Thermal Treatments - Chemical Treatments * Carbonation Reaction with Ultramafic Minerals - Serpentine - Olivine Mineral Sequestration Workshop, U.S. Department of Energy, NETL, August 8, 2001 Overview * Carbonation Reaction with Industrial By-products

109

Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010; 5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Blast Pulping Liquor NAICS Furnace/Coke Petroleum or Wood Chips, Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total Oven Gases Waste Gas Coke Black Liquor Bark Total United States 311 Food 11 0 7 0 0 1 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 5 0 2 0 0 * 311221 Wet Corn Milling * 0 * 0 0 0 31131 Sugar Manufacturing * 0 * 0 0 * 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 1 0 1 0 0 0 3115 Dairy Products 1 0 1 0 0 0 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing 4 0 4 0 0 * 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 3 0 2 0 0 1 3121 Beverages 3 0 2 0 0 1 3122 Tobacco 0 0 0 0 0 0 313 Textile Mills 0 0 0 0 0 0 314 Textile Product Mills

110

Lectures on loop gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is the first version of the introductory lectures on loop quantum gravity that I will give at the quantum gravity school in Zakopane. The theory is presented in self-contained form, without emphasis on its derivation from classical general relativity. Dynamics is given in the covariant form. The approximations needed to compute physical quantities are discussed. Some applications are described, including the recent derivation of de Sitter cosmology from full quantum gravity.

Rovelli, Carlo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Phenylnaphthalene Derivatives as Heat Transfer Fluids for Concentrating Solar Power: Loop Experiments and Final Report  

SciTech Connect

ORNL and subcontractor Cool Energy completed an investigation of higher-temperature, organic thermal fluids for solar thermal applications. Although static thermal tests showed promising results for 1-phenylnaphthalene, loop testing at temperatures to 450 C showed that the material isomerized at a slow rate. In a loop with a temperature high enough to drive the isomerization, the higher melting point byproducts tended to condense onto cooler surfaces. So, as experienced in loop operation, eventually the internal channels of cooler components such as the waste heat rejection exchanger may become coated or clogged and loop performance will decrease. Thus, pure 1-phenylnaphthalene does not appear to be a fluid that would have a sufficiently long lifetime (years to decades) to be used in a loop at the increased temperatures of interest. Hence a decision was made not to test the ORNL fluid in the loop at Cool Energy Inc. Instead, Cool Energy tested and modeled power conversion from a moderate-temperature solar loop using coupled Stirling engines. Cool Energy analyzed data collected on third and fourth generation SolarHeart Stirling engines operating on a rooftop solar field with a lower temperature (Marlotherm) heat transfer fluid. The operating efficiencies of the Stirling engines were determined at multiple, typical solar conditions, based on data from actual cycle operation. Results highlighted the advantages of inherent thermal energy storage in the power conversion system.

McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Bell, Jason R [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL; Joseph III, Robert Anthony [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Weaver, Samuel P [ORNL

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Molten salt test loop  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the Molten Salt Test Loop Project was to design, construct, and demonstrate operation of an outdoor high temperature molten salt test facility. This facility is operational, and can now be used to evaluate materials and components, and the design features and operating procedures required for molten salt heat transport systems. The initial application of the loop was to demonstrate the feasibility of using molten salt as the heat transport medium for a high temperature distributed collector system. A commercially available eutectic salt blend is used as the heat transfer fluid. This salt has a composition of 40% NaNO/sub 2/, 7% NaNO/sub 3/, and 53% KNO/sub 3/ and is marketed under the trade name Hitec. It has a freezing (solidifying) point of 142/sup 0/C (288/sup 0/F) and has been satisfactorily used at temperatures as high as 594/sup 0/C (1100/sup 0/F). General Atomic (GA) installed a row of Fixed Mirror Solar Concentrators (FMSC's) in the loop. The system was started up and a test program conducted. Startup went smoothly, with the exception of some burned-out trace heaters. Salt temperatures as high as 571/sup 0/C (1060/sup 0/F) were achieved.

Schuster, J.R.; Eggers, G.H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

NIST Gaithersburg: Closed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Gaithersburg Closed Due to Inclement Weather. For Immediate Release: March 6, 2013. *. Bookmark and Share. Contact ...

2013-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

114

Powers of Elements in Jordan Loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Jordan loop is a commutative loop satisfying the Jordan identity $(x^2 y) x = x^2 (y x)$. We establish several identities involving powers in Jordan loops and show that there is no nonassociative Jordan loop of order $9$.

Pula, Kyle

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Economical Recovery of By-products in the Mining Industry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies, Mining Industry of the Future Program, works with the mining industry to further the industry's advances toward environmental and economic goals. Two of these goals are (1) responsible emission and by-product management and (2) low-cost and efficient production (DOE 1998). DOE formed an alliance with the National Mining Association (NMA) to strengthen the basis for research projects conducted to benefit the mining industry. NMA and industry representatives actively participate in this alliance by evaluating project proposals and by recommending research project selection to DOE. Similarly, the National Research Council (NRC) has recently and independently recommended research and technology development opportunities in the mining industry (NRC 2001). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Colorado School of Mines engineers conducted one such project for DOE regarding by -product recovery from mining process residue. The results of this project include this report on mining industry process residue and waste with opportunity for by-product recovery. The U.S. mineral processing industry produces over 30,000,000 metric tons per year of process residue and waste that may contain hazardous species as well as valuable by-products. This study evaluates the copper, lead, and zinc commodity sectors which generate between 23,300,000 and 24,000,000 metric tons per year. The distribution of residual elements in process residues and wastes varies over wide ranges* because of variations in the original ore content as it is extracted from the earth's crust. In the earth's crust, the elements of interest to mining fall into two general geochemical classifications, lithophiles and chalcophiles** (Cox 1997). Groups of elements are almost always present together in a given geochemical classification, but the relative amounts of each element are unique to a particular ore body. This paper generally describes copper, lead, and zinc mining operations and their associated process wastes and residues. This description can serve as a basis for identifying those process residues and waste that contain both impurities and products which currently cannot be economically recovered. This information could be used to develop a market-based approach to by-product recovery by evaluating potential revenue generated from the sale of by-products along with innovative recovery techniques.

Berry, J.B.

2001-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

116

Coupled dual loop absorption heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coupled dual loop absorption system which utilizes two separate complete loops. Each individual loop operates at three temperatures and two pressures. This low temperature loop absorber and condenser are thermally coupled to the high temperature loop evaporator, and the high temperature loop condenser and absorber are thermally coupled to the low temperature generator.

Sarkisian, Paul H. (Watertown, MA); Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Topological interactions between ring polymers: Implications for chromatin loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chromatin looping is a major epigenetic regulatory mechanism in higher eukaryotes. Besides its role in transcriptional regulation, chromatin loops have been proposed to play a pivotal role in the segregation of entire chromosomes. The detailed topological and entropic forces between loops still remain elusive. Here, we quantitatively determine the potential of mean force between the centers of mass of two ring polymers, i.e. loops. We find that the transition from a linear to a ring polymer induces a strong increase in the entropic repulsion between these two polymers. On top, topological interactions such as the non-catenation constraint further reduce the number of accessible conformations of close-by ring polymers by about 50%, resulting in an additional effective repulsion. Furthermore, the transition from linear to ring polymers displays changes in the conformational and structural properties of the system. In fact, ring polymers adopt a markedly more ordered and aligned state than linear ones. The force...

Bohn, Manfred

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

REACTOR MAIN COOLANT LOOP  

SciTech Connect

A parametric study was made for the POPR with temperature gradients of 610 to 670 deg F and 6l0 to 684.5 deg F at organic flow rates of 17.8 x l0/sup 6/ and l4.4 x l0/sup 6/ lbs/hr, respectively; and steam turbine conditions at the throttle of 600 and 650 deg F at 800 to l200 psig. The study was made to obtain the most economical layout of the main heat transfer loop system. (B.O.G.)

Terpe, G.R.; Katz, B.

1961-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

On the Green's function and iterative solutions of Loop Quantum Cosmology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Here we shall find the green's function of the difference equation of loop quantum cosmology. To illustrate how to use it, we shall obtain an iterative solution for closed model and evaluate its corresponding Bohmian trajectory.

Fatimah Shojai; Ali Shojai

2006-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

120

Guidelines for the Beneficial Use of Advanced SO2 Control By-Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This design guide describes the use of the by-products produced from advanced SO2 control processes as construction materials in high-volume applications such as road base stabilization, structural fills, manufactured aggregates, soil amendments, and concrete applications. The engineering data, major design parameters, standard specifications, and construction procedures in the report should help utility by-product managers and power plant managers incorporate these applications in their by-product manag...

1997-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New sulfur dioxide removal technologies produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products that contain sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. The scarcity of landfill disposal sites for such flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products has led to a long-term study on possible large-volume beneficial applications. To date, FGD by-products have been successfully used in agriculture, construction, and strip mine reclamation.

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

122

Uranyl Nitrate Flow Loop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of the work discussed in this report were to: (1) develop a flow loop that would simulate the purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP); (2) develop a test plan that would simulate normal operation and disturbances that could be anticipated in an NUCP; (3) use the flow loop to test commercially available flowmeters for use as safeguards monitors; and (4) recommend a flowmeter for production-scale testing at an NUCP. There has been interest in safeguarding conversion plants because the intermediate products [uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}), uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}), and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6})] are all suitable uranium feedstocks for producing special nuclear materials. Furthermore, if safeguards are not applied virtually any nuclear weapons program can obtain these feedstocks without detection by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Historically, IAEA had not implemented safeguards until the purified UF{sub 6} product was declared as feedstock for enrichment plants. H. A. Elayat et al. provide a basic definition of a safeguards system: 'The function of a safeguards system on a chemical conversion plant is in general terms to verify that no useful nuclear material is being diverted to use in a nuclear weapons program'. The IAEA now considers all highly purified uranium compounds as candidates for safeguarding. DOE is currently interested in 'developing instruments, tools, strategies, and methods that could be of use to the IAEA in the application of safeguards' for materials found in the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle-prior to the production of the uranium hexafluoride or oxides that have been the traditional starting point for IAEA safeguards. Several national laboratories, including Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Brookhaven, have been involved in developing tools or techniques for safeguarding conversion plants. This study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) NA-241, Office of Dismantlement and Transparency.

Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L [ORNL

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

NETL: CCPI - Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant - Project Brief PDF-78KB University of Kentucky Research Foundation, Ghent, Kentucky PROJECT FACT SHEET Advanced...

124

Evaluation of Leaching Protocols for the Testing of Coal Combustion Byproducts.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Beneficial reuse of coal combustion byproducts requires an evaluation of metal leaching potential. Reuse of high carbon fly ash in highway embankment construction was evaluated… (more)

Becker, Jason Louis

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

NETL: IEP - Coal Utilization By-Products : Regulatory Drivers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regulatory Drivers Regulatory Drivers Since 1993, Federal Regulations have treated the four major large-volume CUB's -- fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts -- as solid wastes that do not warrant regulation as hazardous wastes under Subtitle C of RCRA, as long as these CUBÂ’s were not co-managed with other waste materials. On May 22, 2000, EPA published a final Regulatory Determination [PDF-320KB] that retained the hazardous waste exemption for coal utilization by-products. EPA has concluded that fossil fuel combustion wastes do not warrant regulation as hazardous under Subtitle C of RCRA and is retaining the hazardous waste exemption for these wastes. However, the Agency has determined that national non-hazardous waste regulations under RCRA Subtitle D are needed for coal combustion wastes disposed in surface impoundments and landfills and used as minefilling. EPA also concluded beneficial uses of these wastes, other than for minefilling, pose no significant risk and no additional national regulations are needed. This determination affects more than 110 million tons of fossil fuel combustion wastes that are generated each year, virtually all from burning coal.

126

Toxic combustion by-products: Generation, separation, cleansing, containment  

SciTech Connect

Focus of this paper is on diagnosis, control, and containment of potentially toxic combustion byproducts when mixed wastes are treated at elevated temperatures. Such byproducts fall into several categories: acid gases, particulates, metals, organics. Radionuclides are treated as a subset of metals, while organics are divided into two subclasses: products of incomplete combustion, and principal organic hazardous constituents. An extended flue gas cleaning system is described which can be used to contain potentially toxic organic emissions and recycle the hazrdous materials for further treatment; it uses oxygen rather than air to reduce total quantities of emissions, improve efficiency of oxidation, and minimize NOx emissions. Flue gas recycling is used for cooling and for containing all potentially toxic emissions. Three thermal treatment unit operations are used in series for more effective process control; three emission separation and containment unit operations are also used in series in the toxic emission containment system. Real time diagnostic hardware/software are used. Provision is made for automatic storage, separation of hazardous materials, commodity regeneration, and recycling of potentially harmful constituents. The greenhouse gas CO2 is recovered and not emitted to the atmosphere.

Kephart, W.; Eger, K. [Foster-Wheeler Environmental Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Angelo, F. [Resource Energy Corp., Fort Smith, AR (United States); Clemens, M.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

127

Fusion of Loops for Parallelism and Locality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract¿Loop fusion improves data locality and reduces synchronization in data-parallel applications. However, loop fusion is not always legal. Even when legal, fusion may introduce loop-carried dependences which prevent parallelism. In addition, performance ... Keywords: Locality enhancement, loop fusion, cache conflicts, loop transformations, data-parallel applications, scalable shared-memory multiprocessors.

Naraig Manjikian; Tarek S. Abdelrahman

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Chemical Looping | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Looping Looping Jump to: navigation, search Contents 1 Introduction 2 Process Description 3 Benefits 4 Oxygen Carriers 5 Multimedia 6 Patents 7 References 8 External Links Introduction Chemical looping or chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a novel technology that could provide the means to convert fossil fuels to electricity and provide carbon capture without significant efficiency or cost penalties. Chemical looping combustion is very similar to oxy-fuel combustion where there is no direct contact between air and fuel.[1] Oxygen is extracted from air, then the oxygen is reacted with the hydrocarbon fuel producing an exhaust gas composed of carbon dioxide and water vapor.[2] The water vapor is condensed out of the gas resulting in near 100% carbon dioxide stream that could be sequestered in the ground.

129

NETL: IEP - Coal Utilization By-Products - Utilization Projects -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

University of North Dakota, EERC - Table of Contents University of North Dakota, EERC - Table of Contents Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Stabilizing Feedlots Using Coal Ash Environmental Evaluation for Utilization of Ash in Soil Stabilization Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Background CAEEC is a cooperation among industry, government, and the research community to work together to solve CCB- related problems and promote the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically viable utilization and disposal of CCBs. Objectives To improve the technical and economic aspects of coal combustion by-product (CCB) management. Description CARRC tasks fall into three general categories: Member-prioritized research tasks, Technical and administrative tasks, and Special projects that support CARRC objectives and strengthen and increase the availability of sound technical data for CARRC use.

130

Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Refinery byproduct emerges as a viable powerplant fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Petroleum coke, the solid residue left after all valuable liquid and gaseous components have been extracted from crude oil, is the major byproduct from the petroleum refining industry. In the past few years, pet coke has become an attractive fuel for utility, independent power, and industrial cogeneration applications. Reasons: (1) trends in the petroleum refining industry and elsewhere have increases the supply, significantly decreasing the price; (2) recent technological advances permit the clean and efficient combustion of coke; and (3) coke has been classified as a waste fuel by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which means independent power producers (IPPs) burning coke do not require a steam host. This article is an in-depth analysis of where coke comes from, what factors influence its supply and demand, and how to successfully utilize it as a powerplant fuel.

Rossi, R.A. (Combustion Power Co., Menlo Park, CA (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Table N5.1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," ",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars","RSE" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste","Row"

133

ENHANCING CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND RECLAMATION OF DEGRADED LANDS WITH FOSSIL-FUEL COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

represents an opportunity to couple carbon sequestration with the utilization of fossil fuel #12;and energy of fossil energy byproducts to stimulate carbon sequestration in those terrestrial ecosystems. GOALS C sequestration through optimal utilization of fossil energy byproducts and management of degraded

134

LOW-COST, HIGH-PERFORMANCE MATERIALS USING ILLINOIS COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be manufactured having cement replacement with Illinois coal ashes and their blends in the range of 0 to 60LOW-COST, HIGH-PERFORMANCE MATERIALS USING ILLINOIS COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS Investigators technology for high-volume applications of Illinois coal combustion by-products generated by using both

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

135

Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products: Phase 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The utility industry currently generates about 20 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products annually, and the quantity is expected to increase as utilities institute further controls to comply with Clean Air Act requirements. This report presents the results of the second phase of a large-scale study of beneficial land-use applications of these by-products.

1998-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

136

Oil Combustion By-Products: Chemical Characteristics, Management Practices, and Groundwater Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a study of combustion by-products generated and collected at oil-fired utility power plants. The study was conducted by EPRI in order to assemble and evaluate information on the chemical characteristics, management practices, and groundwater effects associated with the combustion by-products.

1998-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

137

Loop-deformed Poincaré algebra  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this essay we present evidence suggesting that loop quantum gravity leads to deformation of the local Poincar\\'e algebra within the limit of high energies. This deformation is a consequence of quantum modification of effective off-shell hypersurface deformation algebra. Surprisingly, the form of deformation suggests that the signature of space-time changes from Lorentzian to Euclidean at large curvatures. We construct particular realization of the loop-deformed Poincar\\'e algebra and find that it can be related to curved momentum space, which indicates the relationship with recently introduced notion of relative locality. The presented findings open a new way of testing loop quantum gravity effects.

Jakub Mielczarek

2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

138

Geometric and Electronic Structure of Closed Graphene Edges  

SciTech Connect

We report theoretical and experimental results on single and multiple looped graphene sheets. Experimental images of stable closed-edge structures in few-layer graphene samples obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) are compared with first- principles density functional theory calculations. We demonstrate that the electronic structure of a graphene nanoribbon is not significantly perturbed upon closing. By contrast, a significant modulation of the electronic structure is observed for closed-edge graphene structures deposited on a planar graphene substrate. This effect is due to an enhanced reactivity of the looped (coalesced) edges observed experimentally. The coexistence of different degrees of curvature in the graphene sheet induced by folding indicates that these materials could be used for surface chemistry engineering.

Lopez-Benzanilla, Alejandro [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Campos-Delgado, Jessica [IPICyT; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Baptista, Daniel [National Institute of Metrology, Duque de Caxias, Brazil; Hayashi, Takuya [Institute of Carbon Science and Technology, Shinshu Unversity; Kim, Y A [Shinshu University; Muramatsu, H [Shinshu University; Endo, M [Shinshu University; Achete, Carlos [National Institute of Metrology, Duque de Caxias, Brazil; Terrones, M. [Universidad Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

The calculus of looping sequences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe the Calculus of Looping Sequences (CLS) which is suitable for modeling microbiological systems and their evolution. We present two extensions, CLS with links (LCLS) and Stochastic CLS. LCLS simplifies the description of protein interaction ...

Roberto Barbuti; Giulio Caravagna; Andrea Maggiolo-Schettini; Paolo Milazzo; Giovanni Pardini

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Time-Constrained Loop Pipelining  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper addresses the problem of Time-Constrained Loop Pipelining, i.e. given a fixed throughput, finding a schedule of a loop which minimizes resource requirements. We propose a methodology, called TCLP, based on dividing the problem into two simpler and independent tasks: retiming and scheduling. TCLP explores different sets of resources, searchingfor a maximum resource utilization. This reduces area requirements. After a minimum set of resourceshas been found, the execution throughput is increased and the number of registers required by the loop schedule is reduced. TCLP attempts to generate a schedule which minimizes cost in time and area (resources and registers). The results show that TCLP obtains optimal schedules in most cases. 1 Introduction This paper presents TCLP, a methodology to solve TimeConstrained Loop Pipelining. TCLP is NP-complete [3]. Two types of timing constraints (TCs) have been considered in the literature: local TCs to specify minimum and/or maximum TCs ...

Fermn Sanchez; Jordi Cortadella

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Introduction to Loop Quantum Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The questions I have been asked during the 5th International School on Field Theory and Gravitation, have compelled me to give an account of the premises that I consider important for a beginner's approach to Loop Quantum Gravity. After a description of some general arguments and an introduction to the canonical theory of gravity, I review the background independent approach to quantum gravity, giving only a brief survey of Loop Quantum Gravity.

Mercuri, Simone

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Introduction to Loop Quantum Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The questions I have been asked during the 5th International School on Field Theory and Gravitation, have compelled me to give an account of the premises that I consider important for a beginner's approach to Loop Quantum Gravity. After a description of some general arguments and an introduction to the canonical theory of gravity, I review the background independent approach to quantum gravity, giving only a brief survey of Loop Quantum Gravity.

Simone Mercuri

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

143

Wilson loops in warped resolved deformed conifolds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We calculate quark-antiquark potentials using the relationship between the expectation value of the Wilson loop and the action of a probe string in the string dual. We review and categorise the possible forms of the dependence of the energy on the separation between the quarks. In particular, we examine the possibility of there being a minimum separation for probe strings which do not penetrate close to the origin of the bulk space, and derive a condition which determines whether this is the case. We then apply these considerations to the flavoured resolved deformed conifold background of Gaillard et al. (2010) . We suggest that the unusual behaviour that we observe in this solution is likely to be related to the IR singularity which is not present in the unflavoured case. - Highlights: > We calculate quark-antiquark potentials using the Wilson loop and the action of a probe string in the string dual. > We review and categorise the possible forms of the dependence of the energy on the separation between the quarks. > We look in particular at the flavoured resolved deformed conifold. > There appears to be unusual behaviour which seems likely to be related to the IR singularity introduced by flavours.

Bennett, Stephen, E-mail: pystephen@swansea.ac.uk

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

144

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Topological interactions between ring polymers: Implications for chromatin loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chromatin looping is a major epigenetic regulatory mechanism in higher eukaryotes. Besides its role in transcriptional regulation, chromatin loops have been proposed to play a pivotal role in the segregation of entire chromosomes. The detailed topological and entropic forces between loops still remain elusive. Here, we quantitatively determine the potential of mean force between the centers of mass of two ring polymers, i.e. loops. We find that the transition from a linear to a ring polymer induces a strong increase in the entropic repulsion between these two polymers. On top, topological interactions such as the non-catenation constraint further reduce the number of accessible conformations of close-by ring polymers by about 50%, resulting in an additional effective repulsion. Furthermore, the transition from linear to ring polymers displays changes in the conformational and structural properties of the system. In fact, ring polymers adopt a markedly more ordered and aligned state than linear ones. The forces and accompanying changes in shape and alignment between ring polymers suggest an important regulatory function of such a topology in biopolymers. We conjecture that dynamic loop formation in chromatin might act as a versatile control mechanism regulating and maintaining different local states of compaction and order.

Manfred Bohn; Dieter W. Heermann

2010-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

146

Free loop spaces in topology and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Free loop spaces in topology and physics Kathryn Hess What is the space of free loops? Enumeration of geodesics Hochschild and cyclic homology Homological conformal field theories Free loop spaces in topology Meeting of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society Glasgow, 14 November 2008 #12;Free loop spaces in topology

Thévenaz, Jacques

147

Pomona Loop Baseline Performance Testing.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pomona Loop Baseline Performance Testing Summary Pomona Loop Baseline Performance Testing Summary The U.S. Department of Energy's Field Operations Program sponsors the Urban and Freeway Pomona Loop range testing in Southern California. The testing is performed by one of the Program's testing partners, Southern California Edison. The vehicles are tested on local city streets (Urban Loop) and four highways (Freeway Loop). The Urban Loop is 19.3 miles long, ranging in elevation from 900 to 1500 feet, with approximately 50 stop signs and traffic lights. The Freeway Loop is 37.2 miles long, ranging in elevation from 700 to 1150 feet, and consists of four connected freeways shaped like a rectangle. When a vehicle is Pomona Loop tested, eight range tests are performed, with four tests on the Urban Loop and four on the Freeway Loop. The range tests are performed

148

UTILIZATION OF LOW NOx COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

Low NO{sub x} combustion practices are critical for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from power plants. These low NO{sub x} combustion practices, however, generate high residual carbon contents in the fly ash produced. These high carbon contents threaten utilization of this combustion by-product. This research has successfully developed a separation technology to render fly ash into useful, quality-controlled materials. This technology offers great flexibility and has been shown to be applicable to all of the fly ashes tested (more than 10). The separated materials can be utilized in traditional fly ash applications, such as cement and concrete, as well as in nontraditional applications such as plastic fillers, metal matrix composites, refractories, and carbon adsorbents. Technologies to use beneficiated fly ash in these applications are being successfully developed. In the future, we will continue to refine the separation and utilization technologies to expand the utilization of fly ash. The disposal of more than 31 million tons of fly ash per year is an important environmental issue. With continued development, it will be possible to increase economic, energy and environmental benefits by re-directing more of this fly ash into useful materials.

J.Y. Hwang; X. Huang; M.G. McKimpson; R.E. Tieder; A.M. Hein; J.M. Gillis; D.C. Popko; K.L. Paxton; Z. Li; X. Liu; X. Song; R.I. Kramer

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

NETL: IEP - Coal Utilization By-Products Current Regulations Governing Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Products Products Current Regulations Governing Coal Combustion By-Products - Database of State Regulations Database of State Regulations Affecting Disposal and Utilization of Coal Combustion By-Products A Summary Provided by the National Energy Technology Laboratory and the American Coal Ash Association Coal Combustion By-Products (CCBs) are generated when coal is used to generate electricity and power industrial processes. Tens of millions of tons of these materials are produced each year. Many uses of these byproducts are possible, but currently most of them wind up in landfills. Previous work at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) identified regulatory issues as one factor preventing more widespread reuse of CCBs. CCBs are generally regulated by state authorities, and the various states have developed widely differing rules. This web site was developed as one way to help CCB generators, users, and regulators share information across state boundaries.

150

The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Millions of tons of waste by-products from Texas coal burning plants are produced each year. Two common byproducts are the fuel ashes and calcium sulfate (gypsum). Fuel ashes result from the burning of coal. Gypsum is a byproduct of the air purification system, called Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD). Abatement of these waste products is a growing concern, not only for the industry, but the environment as well. It is possible to produce a gypsum brick unit that can meet the engineering properties required by the Americans Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) standards by using these by-products. This can be accomplished at a cost less than the least expensive common fired clay brick that is used in construction operations. The gypsum brick can be manufactured using established methods that are currently in operation.

Berryman, Charles Wayne

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Coal Combustion and Organic By-Product Blends as Soil Substitutes / Amendments for Horticulture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a field assessment of the use of blends of coal combustion by-products with biosolids in horticultural applications such as potting mixes for ornamentals and turf production.

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

152

Similarities and Differences between Coronal Holes and the Quiet Sun: Are Loop Statistics the Key?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coronal holes (CH) emit significantly less at coronal temperatures than quiet-Sun regions (QS), but can hardly be distinguished in most chromospheric and lower transition region lines. A key quantity for the understanding of this phenomenon is the magnetic field. We use data from SOHO/MDI to reconstruct the magnetic field in coronal holes and the quiet Sun with the help of a potential magnetic model. Starting from a regular grid on the solar surface we then trace field lines, which provide the overall geometry of the 3D magnetic field structure. We distinguish between open and closed field lines, with the closed field lines being assumed to represent magnetic loops. We then try to compute some properties of coronal loops. The loops in the coronal holes (CH) are found to be on average flatter than in the QS. High and long closed loops are extremely rare, whereas short and low-lying loops are almost as abundant in coronal holes as in the quiet Sun. When interpreted in the light of loop scaling laws this result suggests an explanation for the relatively strong chromospheric and transition region emission (many low-lying, short loops), but the weak coronal emission (few high and long loops) in coronal holes. In spite of this contrast our calculations also suggest that a significant fraction of the cool emission in CHs comes from the open flux regions. Despite these insights provided by the magnetic field line statistics further work is needed to obtain a definite answer to the question if loop statistics explain the differences between coronal holes and the quiet Sun.

T. Wiegelmann; S. K. Solanki

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Low-Volume Wastes With High-Volume Coal Combustion By-Products: P4 Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historically, utilities have comanaged some or all of their low-volume wastes with their high-volume by-products in disposal facilities. This report presents the results of a field study of comanagement of coal combustion by-products at a utility-owned dry landfill in the midwestern United States. The findings from this research provide technical information for use in an ongoing study of comanagement by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

1998-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

154

Comanagement of Coal Combustion By-Products and Low-Volume Wastes: A Midwestern Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An insufficient database on the environmental effects of comanagement of power plant by-products and wastes could hamper regulatory decisions regarding this practice. This report presents an environmental assessment of comanagement of high-volume coal combustion by-products with low-volume wastes at a steam electric power plant in the midwestern United States. It complements a similar assessment at a southeastern site.

1992-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

155

Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products: Phase 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The utility industry currently generates about 25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products annually in the United States -- a quantity that is expected to increase as utilities apply new controls to comply with Clean Air Act Amendments. This report presents results of the third and final phase of a large-scale study of beneficial land-use applications for these by-products.

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

156

Organic and Inorganic Hazardous Waste Stabilization Using Coal Combustion By-Product Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a laboratory investigation of four clean-coal by-products to stabilize organic and inorganic constituents of hazardous waste stream materials. The wastes included API separator sludge, metal oxide-hydroxide waste, metal plating sludge, and creosote-contaminated soil. Overall, the investigation showed that the high alkalinity of the by-products may cost-effectively stabilize the acidic components of hazardous waste.

1994-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

157

Loop Current and Deep Eddies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In contrast to the Loop Current and rings, much less is known about deep eddies (deeper than 1000 m) of the Gulf of Mexico. In this paper, results from a high-resolution numerical model of the Gulf are analyzed to explain their origin and how ...

L-Y. Oey

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Ideal kink instability of a magnetic loop equilibrium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The force-free coronal loop model by Titov & D\\'emoulin (1999} is found to be unstable with respect to the ideal kink mode, which suggests this instability as a mechanism for the initiation of flares. The long-wavelength ($m=1$) mode grows for average twists $\\Phi\\ga3.5\\pi$ (at a loop aspect ratio of $\\approx$ 5). The threshold of instability increases with increasing major loop radius, primarily because the aspect ratio then also increases. Numerically obtained equilibria at subcritical twist are very close to the approximate analytical equilibrium; they do not show indications of sigmoidal shape. The growth of kink perturbations is eventually slowed down by the surrounding potential field, which varies only slowly with radius in the model. With this field a global eruption is not obtained in the ideal MHD limit. Kink perturbations with a rising loop apex lead to the formation of a vertical current sheet below the apex, which does not occur in the cylindrical approximation.

T. Toeroek; B. Kliem; V. S. Titov

2003-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

159

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Ground Loop Design  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Loop Design Ground Loop Design logo Ground Loop Design is a versatile ground source heat pump system design program that helps the trained geothermal HVAC designerengineer...

160

The closed fuel cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The fast growth of the world's economy coupled with the need for optimizing use of natural resources, for energy security and for climate change mitigation make energy supply one of the 21. century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficiency of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an energy market undergoing a new oil shock are as many factors in favor of the 'renaissance' of this greenhouse gas free energy. Over 160,000 tHM of LWR1 and AGR2 Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) have already been unloaded from the reactor cores corresponding to 7,000 tons discharged per year worldwide. By 2030, this amount could exceed 400,000 tHM and annual unloading 14,000 tHM/year. AREVA believes that closing the nuclear fuel cycle through the treatment and recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel sustains the worldwide nuclear power expansion. It is an economically sound and environmentally responsible choice, based on the preservation of natural resources through the recycling of used fuel. It furthermore provides a safe and secure management of wastes while significantly minimizing the burden left to future generations. (authors)

Froment, Antoine; Gillet, Philippe [AREVA NC (France)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Land application uses for dry FGD by-products, Phase 1 report  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. It is highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the chemical composition of the FGD by-product materials were dominated by Ca, S, Al, and Si. Many of the elements regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency reside primarily in the fly ash. Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD by-product materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Hard thermal loops in static external fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study, in the imaginary-time formalism, the high temperature behavior of n-point thermal loops in static Yang-Mills and gravitational fields. We show that in this regime, any hard thermal loop gives the same leading contribution as the one obtained by evaluating the loop at zero external energies and momenta.

Frenkel, J; Takahashi, N

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

PHIGS function: emergency close phigs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

emergency close phigs. All PVT documentation can be found under PHIGS Validation Tests - Overview. Also, you may return ...

164

A loop group extension of the odd Chern character.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the universal odd Chern form, defined on the stable unitary group $U$, extends to the loop group $LU$ in a way that is closed with respect to an equivariant-type differential. This provides an odd analogue to the Bismut-Chern form. We also describe the associated transgression form, the so-called Bismut-Chern-Simons form, and explicate some properties it inherits as a differential form on the space of maps of a cylinder into the stable unitary group. As a corollary, we obtain the Chern character homomorphism from odd K-theory to the periodic cohomology of the free loop space, represented geometrically on the level of differential forms.

Scott O. Wilson

165

Design manual for management of solid by-products from advanced coal technologies  

SciTech Connect

Developing coal conversion technologies face major obstacles in byproduct management. This project has developed several management strategies based on field trials of small-scale landfills in an earlier phase of the project, as well as on published/unpublished sources detailing regulatory issues, current industry practice, and reuse opportunities. Field testing, which forms the basis for several of the disposal alternatives presented in this design manual, was limited to byproducts from Ca-based dry SO{sub 2} control technologies, circulating fluidized bed combustion ash, and bubbling bed fluidized bed combustion ash. Data on byproducts from other advanced coal technologies and on reuse opportunities are drawn from other sources (citations following Chapter 3). Field results from the 5 test cases examined under this project, together with results from other ongoing research, provide a basis for predictive modeling of long-term performance of some advanced coal byproducts on exposure to ambient environment. This manual is intended to provide a reference database and development plan for designing, permitting, and operating facilities where advanced coal technology byproducts are managed.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Chemical Looping for Combustion and Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ChemiCal looping for Combustion and ChemiCal looping for Combustion and hydrogen produCtion Objective The objective of this project is to determine the benefits of chemical looping technology used with coal to reduce CO 2 emissions. Background Chemical looping is a new method to convert coal or gasified coal to energy. In chemical looping, there is no direct contact between air and fuel. The chemical looping process utilizes oxygen from metal oxide oxygen carrier for fuel combustion, or for making hydrogen by "reducing" water. In combustion applications, the products of chemical looping are CO 2 and H 2 O. Thus, once the steam is condensed, a relatively pure stream of CO 2 is produced ready for sequestration. The production of a sequestration ready CO 2 stream does not require any additional separation units

167

IGCC and PFBC By-Products: Generation, Characteristics, and Management Practices  

SciTech Connect

The following report is a compilation of data on by-products/wastes from clean coal technologies, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC). DOE had two objectives in providing this information to EPA: (1) to familiarize EPA with the DOE CCT program, CCT by-products, and the associated efforts by DOE contractors in the area of CCT by-product management and (2) to provide information that will facilitate EPA's effort by complementing similar reports from industry groups, including CIBO (Council of Industrial Boiler Owners) and EEI USWAG (Edison Electric Institute Utility Solid Waste Activities Group). The EERC cooperated and coordinated with DOE CCT contractors and industry groups to provide the most accurate and complete data on IGCC and PFBC by-products, although these technologies are only now being demonstrated on the commercial scale through the DOE CCT program.

Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

RESIDUES FROM COAL CONVERSION AND UTILIZATION: ADVANCED MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND DISPOSED BYPRODUCT DIAGENESIS  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the project are two-fold: (1) to upgrade semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) methods presently used in analyzing complex coal combustion by-product (CCB) systems, with the quantitative Rietveld method, and (2) to apply this method to a set of by-product materials that have been disposed or utilized for a long period (5 years or more) in contact with the natural environment, to further study the nature of CCB diagenesis. The project is organized into three tasks to accomplish these two goals: (1) thorough characterization of a set of previously analyzed disposed by-product materials, (2) development of a set of CCB-specific protocols for Rietveld QXRD, and (3) characterization of an additional set of disposed CCB materials, including application of the protocols for Rietveld QXRD developed in Task 2.

Gregory J. McCarthy; Dean G. Grier

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

By-product disposal from MSW incinerator flue gas cleaning systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Waste incineration has been found to be an effective method of achieving significant volume reduction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) while at the same time allowing for energy recovery in the form of steam or electricity. Concern over potential air pollution from incinerators in the form of acid gases, heavy metals and dioxins has led to the application of Spray Dryer Absorption (SDA) flue gas cleaning systems to control these emissions. SDA has demonstrated high efficiencies in converting these air pollutants into a dry by-product for disposal. This has, in turn, led to concerns over potential secondary pollution from the disposal of these by-products. This paper presents a description of the SDA process and reviews disposal options for the SDA product. Product characteristics are given and results of leaching studies are presented. Comparisons between EPA's and TEP and TCLP procedures are presented. Results of dioxin measurements from the by-product are given.

Donnelly, J.R. (Joy Manufacturing Co., Los Angeles, CA (US)); Jons, E. (A/S Niro Atomizer, Copenhagen (DK))

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Closed-cycle Retrofit Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI is investigating implications of a potential U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Clean Water Act 316(b) rulemaking that would establish "Best Technology Available" (BTA) based on closed-cycle cooling retrofits for facilities with once-through cooling. This report focuses on estimated costs associated with closed-cycle cooling system retrofits that include: 1) capital costs, 2) energy required to operate the closed-cycle system, 3) heat rate penalty, and 4) extended downtime required to retrof...

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

171

Bounds on tracking error using closed-loop rapidly-exploring random trees  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper considers the real-time motion planning problem for autonomous systems subject to complex dynamics, constraints, and uncertainty. Rapidly-exploring random trees (RRT) can be used to efficiently construct trees ...

Luders, Brandon Douglas

172

Closed-loop insulin delivery for treatment of type 1 diabetes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

information about interstitial glucose levels to a handheld device about the size of a cellphone (red box) which holds a control algorithm and interacts with the user. An insulin pump (blue box in the pocket) delivers a rapid-acting insulin analog...

Elleri, Daniela; Dunger, David B; Hovorka, Roman

2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

173

Apparatus for closed-loop combustion control in internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

Schematically disclosed is an engine control apparatus wherein cylinder pressure is sensed before and after the top dead center position. Desired cylinder pressure curves are stored in a microcomputer for a range of engine speed-load combinations. By electrically comparing the actual pressure-time curve with the desired pressure curve for the existing speed-load combination it should be possible to generate an error signal representing deviation of actual engine performance from the desired performance, i.e., a permissible plus or minus band following the desired curve. The invention would provide a control action using only three parameters, namely engine speed, engine load and cylinder pressure.

Cheklich, G.E.

1983-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

174

Study of gas contaminants and interaction with materials in RPC closed loop system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Resistive Plate Counters (RPC) detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments use gas recirculation systems to cope with large gas mixture volumes and costs. In this paper a long-term systematic study about gas purifiers, gas contaminants and detector performance is discussed. The study aims at measuring the lifetime of purifiers with new and used cartridge material along with contaminants release in the gas system. During the data-taking the response of several RPC double-gap detectors was monitored in order to characterize the correlation between dark currents, filter status and gas contaminants.

S. Colafranceschi; R. Aurilio; L. Benussi; S. Bianco; L. Passamonti; D. Piccolo; D. Pierluigi; A. Russo; M. Ferrini; T. Greci; G. Saviano; C. Vendittozzi; M. Abbrescia; C. Calabria; A. Colaleo; G. Iaselli; M. Maggi; S. Nuzzo; G. Pugliese; P. Verwilligen; A. Sharma

2013-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

175

Generic closed control loop of a high efficiency low volume bioethanol distillery.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Bioethanol is a type of biofuel that is created by fermenting organic materials into a solution called mash. This mash contains water, dead yeast cells,… (more)

Pearson, Andrew

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Method of digital epitaxy by externally controlled closed-loop feedback  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for digital epitaxy are disclosed. The apparatus includes a pulsed gas delivery assembly that supplies gaseous material to a substrate to form an adsorption layer of the gaseous material on the substrate. Structure is provided for measuring the isothermal desorption spectrum of the growth surface to monitor the active sites which are available for adsorption. The vacuum chamber housing the substrate facilitates evacuation of the gaseous material from the area adjacent the substrate following exposure. In use, digital epitaxy is achieved by exposing a substrate to a pulse of gaseous material to form an adsorption layer of the material on the substrate. The active sites on the substrate are monitored during the formation of the adsorption layer to determine if all the active sites have been filled. Once the active sites have been filled on the growth surface of the substrate, the pulse of gaseous material is terminated. The unreacted portion of the gas pulse is evacuated by continuous pumping. Subsequently, a second pulse is applied when availability of active sites is determined by studying the isothermal desorption spectrum. These steps are repeated until a thin film of sufficient thickness is produced. 4 figs.

Eres, D.; Sharp, J.W.

1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

177

Directly induced swing for closed loop control of electroslag remelting furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are disclosed for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace, imposing a periodic fluctuation on electrode drive speed and thereby generating a predictable voltage swing signal. The fluctuation is preferably done by imposition of a sine, square, or sawtooth wave on the drive dc offset signal. 8 figs.

Damkroger, B.

1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

178

Understanding operational regimes of closed loop pulsating heat pipes: an experimental study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquid­vapor distributions causing uneven void fraction in the tubes, and, · presence of approximately with the non-uniform void fraction distribution in respective tubes, as stated earlier, is the primary driving. Respective tube sections thus have a different volumetric phase distribution. One end of this tube bundle

Khandekar, Sameer

179

Multispectral polarimetric sensor for glucose monitoring utilizing a digital closed-loop control system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Treatment of many medical disorders, such as diabetes hics. and other hormonal or metabolic imbalances, requires accurate blood analysis. Conventionally, blood is analyzed by withdrawing a sample from the body of the subject. One of the major disadvantages of conventional methods is the invasive nature of the tests that raise the risk of patient infection and discomfort. The polarimetric approach is currently being researched to determine glucose levels in the body non-invasively. Polarized light experiences a change in its plane of rotation that is proportional to the concentration of the sample when passed through an optically choral sample such as glucose. A multi-wavelength, multi-beam polarimetric device has been designed and implemented. The potential site for in-vivo measurements is the aqueous humor of the eye, which shows glucose concentrations proportional to the concentrations in the blood. The purpose of this dual wavelength device is to provide the means for overcoming two important problems with in-vivo glucose monitoring, namely, motion artifacts and the presence of other optically active substances at the test site. The device was tested in-vitro for accuracy and sensitivity. It predicted glucose to within an average standard deviation of 9.88mg/d1 for 670nm wavelength and 7.61mg/dl for the 820nm wavelength for the hyperglycemic ranges of 0-600mg/dl of glucose doped water. Improved results were obtained for glucose predictions in the hypoglycemic range of 0-100mg/dl of glucose. Glucose was predicted to within a standard deviation of 9.57mg/d1 for the 67013m wavelength and 5.35mg/dl for the 820nm wavelength. The system was also able to extract glucose information to within an average standard deviation of 24.41mg/dl from a solution of albumin and glucose, albumin being the other choral substance used in this study. Motion artifact studies indicated a clear trend of the two wavelengths in tracking each other, which potentially could be used to allow for glucose measurements in the presence of motion artifacts. The novelty of the system was its simultaneous dual wavelength approach and a fast feedback control system implemented in Labview. Overall, the results are satisfactory and show considerable being developed as an important approach to glucose potential in this technique sensing.

Gorde, Harshal Wasudeo

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

MANAGEMENT OF BLOWDOWN FROM CLOSED LOOP COOLING SYSTEMS USING IMPAIRED WATERS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Management of cooling tower blowdown is one of the key components in cooling tower operation and usually requires treatment to meet local, state or federal… (more)

Feng, Yinghua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Privacy-preserving screen capture: Towards closing the loop for health IT usability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As information technology permeates healthcare (particularly provider-facing systems), maximizing system effectiveness requires the ability to document and analyze tricky or troublesome usage scenarios. However, real-world health IT systems are typically ... Keywords: Health IT, Privacy, Redaction, Security, Usability

Joseph Cooley, Sean Smith

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Closed-Loop Control and FEM-Based Thermal Management on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... years as a novel and efficient substitute for oven curing of powder coating, characterized by its high curing speed, negligible heating effects on the substrate

183

2102, Page 1 Experimental Investigation of Closed Loop Oscillating Heat Pipe as the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

improvement in the coefficient of performance (COP) of a commercial heat pump using a mixture of refrigerants can be removed with the intent of performing composition analyses on them. The copper condenser commercial product, process, or serviceby trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does

Ghajar, Afshin J.

184

Closed-loop torque feedback for a universal field-oriented controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A torque feedback system is employed in a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller to tune a torque-producing current command and a slip frequency command in order to achieve robust torque control of an induction machine even in the event of current regulator errors and during transitions between pulse width modulated (PWM) and square wave modes of operation. 1 figure.

De Doncker, R.W.A.A.; King, R.D.; Sanza, P.C.; Haefner, K.B.

1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

185

In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

186

Closed-loop torque feedback for a universal field-oriented controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A torque feedback system is employed in a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller to tune a torque-producing current command and a slip frequency command in order to achieve robust torque control of an induction machine even in the event of current regulator errors and during transitions between pulse width modulated (PWM) and square wave modes of operation.

De Doncker, Rik W. A. A. (Schenectady, NY); King, Robert D. (Schenectady, NY); Sanza, Peter C. (Clifton Park, NY); Haefner, Kenneth B. (Schenectady, NY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Closed-loop adaptive decision support based on automated trust assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper argues that it is important to study issues concerning trust and reliance when developing systems that are intended to augment cognition. Operators often under-rely on the help of a support system that provides advice or that performs certain ...

Peter-Paul van Maanen; Tomas Klos; Kees van Dongen

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Closed-loop controlled filament stretching and break-up of polymer solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A constant true (radial) strain rate filament stretching experiment has been the Holy Grail of extensional rheological studies. These experiments are performed on a Filament Stretching Extensional Rheometer (FiSER). A ...

Yeh, Roger, 1980-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Installation of a close loop water system for cooling the turbine bearing oil  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

KAPLAN TURBINE BLADE KAPLAN TURBINE BLADE CRACK WELD REPAIR BUILDING STRONG US Army Corps of Engineers Presented by Beau Biffle P. E. Chief, Hydropower Tulsa District Keystone Power Plant Sam Rayburn Power Plant BUILDING STRONG ® Keystone Power Plant Unit # 2 Technical Data Rated at 35 MW Average yearly generation - 127,000 MWH Unit placed online May 1968 Sam Rayburn Power Plant Unit #2 Technical Data Rated at 26 MW Average yearly generation - 30,000 MWH Unit placed online 1965 BUILDING STRONG ® General Information  The repair procedure developed by HDC for the McNary Power Plant was used for both of these repairs  Both repairs were performed by Corps employees  Both cracks were discovered during routine inspections BUILDING STRONG ® Keystone Repair

190

Study of gas contaminants and interaction with materials in RPC closed loop system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Resistive Plate Counters (RPC) detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments use gas recirculation systems to cope with large gas mixture volumes and costs. In this paper a long-term systematic study about gas purifiers, gas contaminants and detector performance is discussed. The study aims at measuring the lifetime of purifiers with new and used cartridge material along with contaminants release in the gas system. During the data-taking the response of several RPC double-gap detectors was monitored in order to characterize the correlation between dark currents, filter status and gas contaminants.

Colafranceschi, S; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Russo, A; Ferrini, M; Greci, T; Saviano, G; Vendittozzi, C; Abbrescia, M; Calabria, C; Colaleo, A; Iaselli, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Verwilligen, P; Sharma, A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Video looping of human cyclic motion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, a system called Video Looping is developed to analyze human cyclic motions. Video Looping allows users to extract human cyclic motion from a given video sequence. This system analyzes similarities from a large amount of live footage to find the point of smooth transition. The final cyclic loop is created using only a few output images. Video Looping is useful not only to learn and understand human movements, but also to apply the cyclic loop to various artistic applications. To provide practical animation references, the output images are presented as photo plate sequences to visualize human cyclic motion similar to Eadweard Muybridge's image sequences. The final output images can be used to create experimental projects such as composited multiple video loops or small size of web animations. Furthermore, they can be imported into animation packages, and animators can create keyframe animations by tracing them in 3D software.

Choi, Hye Mee

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Closing the light gluino window  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The running of the strong coupling constant, $R_{e^+e^-},R_Z$ and $R_\\tau$ is studied on the three-loop level. Based on experimental data of $R_{e^+e^-},R_Z$ and $R_\\tau$ and the LEP multijet analysis, the light gluino scenario is excluded to 99.97% CL (window I) and 99.89% CL (window III).

Ferenc Csikor; Zoltan Fodor

1997-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

193

Magnetic monopole in the loop representation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We quantize, within the Loop Representation formalism, the electromagnetic field in the presence of a static magnetic pole. It is found that the loop-dependent physical wave functionals of the quantum Maxwell theory become multivalued, through a topological phase factor depending on the solid angle subtended at the monopole by a surface bounded by the loop. It is discussed how this fact generalizes what occurs in ordinary quantum mechanics in multiply connected spaces.

Leal, Lorenzo; Lopez, Alexander [Grupo de Campos y Particulas, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, AP 47270, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela); Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, AP 21827, Caracas 1020-A, Venezuela, and Grupo de Campos y Particulas, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela (Venezuela)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

LMFBR with booster pump in pumping loop  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A loop coolant circulation system is described for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) utilizing a low head, high specific speed booster pump in the hot leg of the coolant loop with the main pump located in the cold leg of the loop, thereby providing the advantages of operating the main pump in the hot leg with the reliability of cold leg pump operation.

Rubinstein, H.J.

1975-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

195

Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) Process Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO 2 Capture William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering The Ohio...

196

Aircraft Thermal Management Using Loop Heat Pipes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this thesis was to determine the feasibility of using loop heat pipes to dissipate waste heat from power electronics to the skin… (more)

Fleming, Andrew J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Land Application of Coal Combustion By-Products: Use in Agriculture and Land Reclamation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land application of coal combustion by-products (CCBP) can prove beneficial for a number of reasons. The data presented in this survey provide a basis for optimizing the rates and timing of CCBP applications, selecting proper target soils and crops, and minimizing adverse effects on soil properties, plant responses, and groundwater quality.

1997-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

198

Utilization of Coal Combustion By-Products in Agriculture and Land Reclamation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A four-year (1994-98) project on using blends of coal combustion by-products (CCBP) and biosolids in agriculture, horticulture, and land reclamation was undertaken to assess agronomic value, environmental safety, and potential economic use of these materials.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Biofuels and their By–Products: Global Economic and Environmental Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The biofuel industry has been rapidly growing around the world in recent years. Several papers have used general equilibrium models and addressed the economy-wide and environmental consequences of producing biofuels at a large scale. They mainly argue that since biofuels are mostly produced from agricultural sources, their effects are largely felt in agricultural markets with major land use and environmental consequences. In this paper, we argue that virtually all of these studies have overstated the impact of liquid biofuels on agricultural markets due to the fact that they have ignored the role of by-products resulting from the production of biofuels. Feed by-products of the biofuel industry, such as Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and biodiesel by-products (BDBP) such as soy and rapeseed meals, can be used in the livestock industry as substitutes for grains and oilseed meals used in this industry. Hence, their presence mitigates the price impacts of biofuel production on the livestock and food industries. The importance of incorporating by-products of biofuel production in economic models is well recognized by some partial equilibrium analyses of biofuel production. However, to date, this issue has not been tackled by those conducting CGE analysis of biofuels programs. Accordingly,

Farzad Taheripour; Thomas W. Hertel; Wallace E. Tyner; Jayson F. Beckman; Dileep K. Birur; Farzad Taheripour

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

UWB communication receiver feedback loop  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel technique and structure that maximizes the extraction of information from reference pulses for UWB-TR receivers is introduced. The scheme efficiently processes an incoming signal to suppress different types of UWB as well as non-UWB interference prior to signal detection. Such a method and system adds a feedback loop mechanism to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of reference pulses in a conventional TR receiver. Moreover, sampling the second order statistical function such as, for example, the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the received signal and matching it to the ACF samples of the original pulses for each transmitted bit provides a more robust UWB communications method and system in the presence of channel distortions.

Spiridon, Alex (Palo Alto, CA); Benzel, Dave (Livermore, CA); Dowla, Farid U. (Castro Valley, CA); Nekoogar, Faranak (San Ramon, CA); Rosenbury, Erwin T. (Castro Valley, CA)

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995  

SciTech Connect

On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, and a discussion of these is not repeated here. Rather, this report discusses the technical progress made during the period April 1 - June 30, 1995. A final topical report on the SEEC, Inc. demonstration of its technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed during the quarter, although final printing of the report was accomplished early in July, 1995. The SEEC technology involves the use of Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC`s) developed by SEEC, and the transportation of such containers - filled with fly ash or other coal combustion residues - on rail coal cars or other transportation means. Copies of the final topical report, entitled {open_quotes}The Development and Testing of Collapsible Intermodal Containers for the Handling and Transport of Coal Combustion Residues{close_quotes} were furnished to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The Rapid Aging Test colums were placed in operation during the quarter. This test is to determine the long-term reaction of both the pneumatic and hydraulic mixtures to brine as a leaching material, and simulates the conditions that will be encountered in the actual underground placement of the coal combustion residues mixtures. The tests will continue for about one year.

Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

A THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE TRANSIENT OPERATION AND STABILITY OF TWO-PHASE NATURAL CIRCULATION LOOPS  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical models of the time-dependent behavior of two-phase natural- circulation loops were used to predict the operation and to explain the unusual instability sometimes observed. The initial results obtained for a loop similar to the Univ. of Minnesota loop were used to formulate a more complex and accurate model, and the predicted transient behavior was in close agreement with the experimental results from the Minnesota loop. For a 300psia, high-pressure loop, unstable oscillatory behavior was predicted under certain conditions and stable behavior under others. Closed unstable regions rather than limits were predicted, and the specifications of stability in terms of a single parameter were found to be impossible. The great difference in oscillatory frequencies observed at low and high pressures was found to be due largely to the system geometry. The criterion for the absence of oscillations was found to be similar to one of the criteria for stability of chemical reaction systems. (D.L.C.)

Garlid, K.; Amundson, N.R.; Isbin, H.S.

1961-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Slack analysis in the system design loop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a system-level technique to analyze the impact of design optimizations on system-level timing dependencies. This technique enables us to speed up the design cycle by substituting, in the design the loop, the time-consuming simulation step ... Keywords: slack analysis, system design loop, timing update

Girish Venkataramani; Seth C. Goldstein

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Coronal loop detection from solar images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we make an overview of a methodology for the automatic retrieval of images with coronal loops from the solar image data captured by the extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope (EIT) onboard the spacecraft SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory). ... Keywords: Classification techniques, Coronal loop, Curvature feature, Data mining, Feature extraction, Image retrieval, Solar images

Nurcan Durak; Olfa Nasraoui; Joan Schmelz

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Hard thermal loops in static background fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the high temperature behavior of retarded thermal loops in static external fields. We employ an analytic continuation of the imaginary time formalism and use a spectral representation of the thermal amplitudes. We show that, to all orders, the leading contributions of static hard thermal loops can be directly obtained by evaluating them at zero external energies and momenta.

Brandt, F T; Siqueira, J B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Newtonian gravity in loop quantum gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We apply a recent argument of Verlinde to loop quantum gravity, to conclude that Newton's law of gravity emerges in an appropriate limit and setting. This is possible because the relationship between area and entropy is realized in loop quantum gravity when boundaries are imposed on a quantum spacetime.

Smolin, Lee

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Is the Loop Current a Chaotic Oscillator?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamical systems theory is employed to study the irregular Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico using a short database of shedding periods and north–south positions of the current. Two independent tests based on these data suggest that the Loop ...

Alexis Lugo-Fernández

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Efficient Hardware Looping Units for FPGAs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Looping operations impose a significant bottleneck to achieving better computational efficiency for embedded applications. To confront this problem in embedded computation either in the form of programmable processors or FSMD (Finite-State Machine with ... Keywords: FPGA, embedded system, high-level synthesis, hardware looping, control unit

Nikolaos Kavvadias; Konstantinos Masselos

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) Process Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) Retrofit to Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO 2 Capture William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 Award #: DE-NT0005289 PI: Liang-Shih Fan Presenter: Samuel Bayham Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The Ohio State University 2013 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting July 11, 2013 Pittsburgh, PA Clean Coal Research Laboratory at The Ohio State University Sub-Pilot Scale Unit 250kW th Pilot Unit (Wilsonville, Alabama) Syngas Chemical Looping Coal-Direct Chemical Looping Cold Flow Model Sub-Pilot Scale Unit HPHT Slurry Bubble Column 120kW th Demonstration Unit Calcium Looping Process CCR Process Sub-Pilot Unit F-T Process

210

Dual quark condensate and dressed Polyakov loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct a new order parameter for finite temperature QCD by considering the quark condensate for U(1)-valued temporal boundary conditions for the fermions. Fourier transformation with respect to the boundary condition defines the dual condensate. This quantity corresponds to an equivalence class of Polyakov loops, thereby being an order parameter for the center symmetry. We explore the duality relation between the quark condensate and these dressed Polyakov loops numerically, using quenched lattice QCD configurations below and above the QCD phase transition. It is demonstrated that the Dirac spectrum responds differently to changing the boundary condition, in a manner that reproduces the expected Polyakov loop pattern. We find the dressed Polyakov loops to be dominated by the lowest Dirac modes, in contrast to thin Polyakov loops investigated earlier.

Erek Bilgici; Falk Bruckmann; Christof Gattringer; Christian Hagen

2008-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

211

Recent advances in biochemical technology for the processing of geothermal byproducts  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory studies has shown the biochemical technology for treating brines/sludges generated in geothermal electric powerproduction to be promising, cost-efficient, and environmentally acceptable. For scaled-up field use, the new technology depends on the chemistry of the geothermal resources which influences choice of plant design and operating strategy. Latter has to be adaptable to high/low salinity, temperatures, quantity to be processed, and chemistry of brines and byproducts. These variables are of critical and economic importance in areas such as the Geysers and Salton Sea. The brines/sludges can also be converted into useful products. In a joint effort between industrial collaborators and BNL, several engineered processes for treating secondary and other byproducts from geothermal power production are being tested. In terms of field applications, there are several options. Some of these options are presented and discussed.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Lian, L.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

WATER AND BY-PRODUCT ISSUES IN THE ELECTRIC-UTILITY INDUSTRY  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Power Conference in conjunction with 2 and Power Conference in conjunction with 2 nd Joint U.S.-People's Republic of China Conference on Clean Energy, November 17-19, 2003, Washington, DC A DOE R&D RESPONSE TO EMERGING COAL BY-PRODUCT AND WATER ISSUES IN THE ELECTRIC-UTILITY INDUSTRY Thomas J. Feeley, III Technology Manager U.S. Department of Energy - Office of Fossil Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Pittsburgh, PA ABSTRACT While the regulation and control of air emissions will continue to be of primary concern to the electric-utility industry over the next several decades, other environmental-related issues may also impact the operation of existing and new coal-based power systems. Coal by-products are one such issue. Coal-fired power plants generate nearly 118 million tons of fly ash, flue gas

213

Vehicle Technologies Office: Closed Solicitations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Closed Solicitations Closed Solicitations Technology Solicitation Title Open Date Close Date Hydrogen and Fuel Cells- Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Request for Information (RFI) on performance, durability, and cost targets for fuel cells designed for Combined Heat and Power (CHP) and Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) applications Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 05/28/2009 06/30/2009 Vehicle Technologies- Vehicle Technologies Recovery Act - Systems Level Technology Development, Integration,and Demonstration for Efficient Class 8 Trucks (SuperTruck) and Advanced Technology Powertrains For Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 06/09/2009 09/09/2009 Crosscutting U.S. China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 03/30/2010 05/21/2010

214

Business Plan for Utilization of Coal Combustion By-Products (CCBP) -- Biosolids Blends in Horticultural Markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a marketing plan for coal combustion by-products (CCBP)-biosolids blends which summarizes the business opportunity (potential demand for CCBP-biosolids blends) and defines conditions necessary to seize and execute the opportunity identified. The plan places a hypothetical business in a specific location (Austell, GA) to make the cost-profit analysis as realistic as possible. It should be remembered, however, that the marketing plan for a business venture is not "the business." This h...

1999-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

215

Coal Combustion and Organic By-Products Blends as Soil Substitutes/Amendments for Horticulture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents data from greenhouse and field experiments evaluating the utilization of coal combustion by-products (CCBP) as (i) components of potting mixes to grow ornamentals in a greenhouse, (ii) components of topsoil to grow sod in a greenhouse on plastic, and (iii) components of topsoil to produce sod in the field. The experimental mixes included bottom and fly-ash mixed with biosolids. Two greenhouse experiments involving Evolvus and Pansy test plants and a greenhouse experiment to grow sod ...

2000-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

216

Production of manufactured aggregates from flue gas desulfurization by-products  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL R and D has developed a disk pelletization process to produce manufactured aggregates from the by-products of various technologies designed to reduce sulfur emissions produced from coal utilization. Aggregates have been produced from the by-products of the Coolside and LIMB sorbent injection, the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), spray dryer absorption (SDA), and lime and limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. The aggregates produced meet the general specifications for use as road aggregate in road construction and for use as lightweight aggregate in concrete masonry units. Small field demonstrations with 1200 lb to 5000 lb of manufactured aggregates were conducted using aggregates produced from FBC ash and lime wet FGD sludge in road construction and using aggregates made from SDA ash and lime wet FGD sludge to manufacture concrete blocks. The aggregates for this work were produced with a bench-scale (200--400 lb batch) unit. In 1999, CONSOL R and D constructed and operated a 500 lb/hr integrated, continuous pilot plant. A variety of aggregate products were produced from lime wet FGD sludge. The pilot plant test successfully demonstrated the continuous, integrated operation of the process. The pilot plant demonstration was a major step toward commercialization of manufactured aggregate production from FGD by-products. In this paper, progress made in the production of aggregates from dry FGD (Coolside, LIMB, SDA) and FBC by-products, and lime wet FGD sludge is discussed. The discussion covers bench-scale and pilot plant aggregate production and aggregate field demonstrations.

Wu, M.M.; McCoy, D.C.; Fenger, M.L.; Scandrol, R.O.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Statnick, R.M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear wastes from the defense production cycle contain many uniquely useful, intrinsically valuable, and strategically important materials. These materials have a wide range of known and potential applications in food technology, agriculture, energy, public health, medicine, industrial technology, and national security. Furthermore, their removal from the nuclear waste stream can facilitate waste management and yield economic, safety, and environmental advantages in the management and disposal of the residual nuclear wastes that have no redemptive value. This document is the program plan for implementing the recovery and beneficial use of these valuable materials. An Executive Summary of this document, DOE/DP-0013, Vol. 1, January 1983, is available. Program policy, goals and strategy are stated in Section 2. Implementation tasks, schedule and funding are detailed in Section 3. The remaining five sections and the appendixes provide necessary background information to support these two sections. Section 4 reviews some of the unique properties of the individual byproduct materials and describes both demonstrated and potential applications. The amounts of byproduct materials that are available now for research and demonstration purposes, and the amounts that could be recovered in the future for expanded applications are detailed in Section 5. Section 6 describes the effects byproduct recovery and utilization have on the management and final disposal of nuclear wastes. The institutional issues that affect the recovery, processing and utilization of nuclear byproducts are discussed in Section 7. Finally, Section 8 presents a generalized mathematical process by which applications can be evaluated and prioritized (rank-ordered) to provide planning data for program management.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Occupational Hygiene Aspects of Sulfur Hexafluoride Decomposition By-Products: Workshop Summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inert gas that is present in many different types of electrical utility equipment. While the environmental concerns about this gas have been widely addressed, worker exposure aspects of SF6 decomposition by-products have not been fully explored. To address this knowledge gap, EPRI conducted a workshop on March 12, 2013, in Charlotte, North Carolina. This workshop was designed to 1) address the perspectives of occupational hygiene and engineering ...

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

219

Closed sets of nonlocal correlations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a fundamental concept - closed sets of correlations - for studying nonlocal correlations. We argue that sets of correlations corresponding to information-theoretic principles, or more generally to consistent physical theories, must be closed under a natural set of operations. Hence, studying the closure of sets of correlations gives insight into which information-theoretic principles are genuinely different, and which are ultimately equivalent. This concept also has implications for understanding why quantum nonlocality is limited, and for finding constraints on physical theories beyond quantum mechanics.

Allcock, Jonathan; Linden, Noah [Department of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); Brunner, Nicolas; Popescu, Sandu; Skrzypczyk, Paul [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Vertesi, Tamas [Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

220

Novel Reactor Design for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Opportunity Research is active on the patent pending technology, titled "Apparatus and Method for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Long-Term Column Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products  

SciTech Connect

An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. The stability of mercury and any co-captured elements in the by-products could have a large economic impact if it reduced by-product sales or increasing their disposal costs. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed continuous leaching of a select subset of the available sample pairs using four leachants: water (pH=5.7), dilute sulfuric acid (pH=1.2), dilute acetic acid (pH=2.9), and sodium carbonate (pH=11.1). This report describes results obtained for mercury, arsenic, and selenium during the 5-month leaching experiments.

Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; White, Fredrick; Rohar, P.C.; Kim, A.G

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Practical Handbook of Soybean Processing and UtilizationChapter 17 Soybean Oil Processing Byproducts and Their Utilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Practical Handbook of Soybean Processing and Utilization Chapter 17 Soybean Oil Processing Byproducts and Their Utilization Processing eChapters Processing 3C7A766EAA5954C5254E686584271014 AOCS Press Downloadable pdf ...

223

Joint Test Plan to Identify the Gaseous By-Products of CH3I Loading on AgZ  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this test plan is to describe research to determine the gaseous by-products of the adsorption of CH3I on hydrogen reduced silver exchanged mordenite (AgZ).

R. T. Jubin; N. R. Soelberg; D. M. Strachan; T. M. Nenoff; B. B. Spencer

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 1. Executive summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nuclear byproducts are a major national resource that has yet to be incorporated into the economy. The current Defense Byproducts Program is designed to match specific military and commercial needs with the availability of valuable products which are currently treated as waste at considerable expense in waste management costs. This program plan focuses on a few specific areas with the greatest potential for near-term development and application. It also recognizes the need for a continuing effort to develop new applications for byproducts and to continue to assess the impacts on waste management. The entire program has been, and will continue to be structured so as to ensure the safety of the public and maintain the purity of the environment. Social and institutional concerns have been recognized and will be handled appropriately. A significant effort will be undertaken to inform the public of the benefits of byproduct use and of the care being taken to ensure safe, efficient operation.

None

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Land application uses of dry FGD by-products. [Quarterly report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report contains three separate monthly reports on the progress to use flue gas desulfurization by-products for the land reclamation of an abandoned mine site in Ohio. Data are included on the chemical composition of the residues, the cost of the project, as well as scheduling difficulties and efforts to allay the fears of public officials as to the safety of the project. The use of by-products to repair a landslide on State Route 541 is briefly discussed.

Dick, W.A.; Beeghly, J.H.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Environmental Monitoring of Abandoned Mined Land Revegetated Using Dry FGD By-Products and Yard Waste Compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The utility industry currently generates about 25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products annually in the United States. Utilities expect this quantity to increase as they apply new controls to comply with Clean Air Act Amendments. This report presents the results of a field-scale study of beneficial land-use applications of these by-products in surface mine reclamation.

2000-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

227

FINAL CLOSE-OUT REPORT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) engaged in numerous projects outlined under the scope of work discussed in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) grant number DE-FG26-01BC15336 awarded to the IOGCC. Numerous projects were completed that were extremely valuable to state oil and gas agencies as a result of work performed utilizing resources provided by the grant. There are numerous areas in which state agencies still need assistance. This additional assistance will need to be addressed under another grant because funding resources have been exhausted under The scope of work objectives for the eight projects covered under this grant is as follows: (1) Improve uniformity within state oil and gas data management efforts. (2) Conduct environmental compliance workshops and related educational projects on natural gas and oil exploration and production. (3) Improve regulatory efficiency through partnering opportunities provided by the Appalachian Illinois Basin Directors. (4) Promote the development and implementation of risk-based environmental regulation at the state level through an expertise-sharing program that brings stakeholders together to develop guidelines and models to meet regulatory challenges. (5) Support the IOGCC's regulatory streamlining efforts, including the identification and elimination of unnecessary duplications of effort between state and federal programs dealing with exploration and production on public lands, and identify the need to enhance and regionalize regulatory coordination and cooperation among the states. (6) Involve states and provinces of Canada that have offshore petroleum exploration and production in a regulatory sharing alliance to identify areas of concern that may be incorporated into standard practices for offshore environmental and regulatory compliance. (7) Coordinate efforts with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to ensure that adequate information is available to the public regarding oil and gas exploration and production operations consistent with the intent of ''community right-to-know'' programs. (8) Demonstrate leadership in educating the public about the exploration, extraction and refining of petroleum; the economic value of domestic petroleum and its byproducts; conservation measures and their benefits; and other topics designed to assist the American public in gaining understanding of the importance of domestic resources and defining a true picture of those resources.

Mark A. Carl

2004-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

228

Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2} separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

229

SAVE THIS | EMAIL THIS | Close  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SAVE THIS | EMAIL THIS | Close SAVE THIS | EMAIL THIS | Close Monitoring laser weld quality Due to the increasing use of high-power CO 2 lasers for welding automotive transmission components at Chrysler (now DaimlerChrysler Corporation), executive board members realized the significance of developing a real-time weld process monitor to ensure that its high quality automotive standards are maintained. This led to a mandate that a monitoring system would be developed and installed on all laser welding systems at Chrysler. Accepting the challenge to develop the technology, a team at Argonne National Laboratory headed by Dr. Keng Leong, was given mandatory specifications that the system had to be real time, user friendly, low cost, robust, and above all, reliable. Dr. Leong brought Spawr Industries Inc. (Lake Havasu City, AZ) into

230

Supervisory control of a pilot-scale cooling loop  

SciTech Connect

We combine a previously developed strategy for Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) with a supervisory controller in closed loop. The combined method is applied to a model of a pilot-scale cooling loop of a nuclear plant, which includes Kalman filters and a model-based predictive controller as part of normal operation. The system has two valves available for flow control meaning that some redundancy is available. The FDI method is based on likelihood ratios for different fault scenarios which in turn are derived from the application of the Kalman filter. A previously introduced extension of the FDI method is used here to enable detection and identification of non-linear faults like stuck valve problems and proper accounting of the time of fault introduction. The supervisory control system is designed so to take different kinds of actions depending on the status of the fault diagnosis task and on the type of identified fault once diagnosis is complete. Some faults, like sensor bias and drift, are parametric in nature and can be adjusted without need for reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. Other faults, like a stuck valve problem, require reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. The whole strategy is demonstrated for several scenarios.

Kris Villez; Venkat Venkatasubramanian; Humberto Garcia

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

LOOP CALCULUS AND BELIEF PROPAGATION FOR Q-ARY ALPHABET: LOOP TOWER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Loop calculus introduced in [1], [2] constitutes a new theoretical tool that explicitly expresses symbol Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) solution of a general statistical inference problem via a solution of the Belief Propagation (BP) equations. This finding brought a new significance to the BP concept, which in the past was thought of as just a loop-free approximation. In this paper they continue a discussion of the Loop Calculus, partitioning the results into three Sections. In Section 1 they introduce a new formulation of the Loop Calculus in terms of a set of transformations (gauges) that keeping the partition function of the problem invariant. The full expression contains two terms referred to as the 'ground state' and 'excited states' contributions. The BP equations are interpreted as a special (BP) gauge fixing condition that emerges as a special orthogonality constraint between the ground state and excited states, which also selects loop contributions as the only surviving ones among the excited states. In Section 2 they demonstrate how the invariant interpretation of the Loop Calculus, introduced in Section 1, allows a natural extension to the case of a general q-ary alphabet, this is achieved via a loop tower sequential construction. The ground level in the tower is exactly equivalent to assigning one color (out of q available) to the 'ground state' and considering all 'excited' states colored in the remaining (q-1) colors, according to the loop calculus rule. Sequentially, the second level in the tower corresponds to selecting a loop from the previous step, colored in (q-1) colors, and repeating the same ground vs excited states splitting procedure into one and (q-2) colors respectively. The construction proceeds till the full (q-1)-levels deep loop tower (and the corresponding contributions to the partition function) are established. In Section 3 they discuss an ultimate relation between the loop calculus and the Bethe-Free energy variational approach of [3].

CHERTKOV, MICHAEL [Los Alamos National Laboratory; CHERNYAK, VLADIMIR [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

232

MESSAGE: WIA W/O CLOSING REF CLOSING REF  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

MESSAGE: MESSAGE: WIA W/O CLOSING REF CLOSING REF _ CONSTRUCTION COMPL DATE J. King SAIC J. Waddell SAIC R. Wright SAIC T. Gangwer SAIC M. Khan SAIC T. Patterson SAIC R. Tucker SAIC C.Helie SAIC K. Renfro SAIC S. Heptinstall SAIC PLEASE RETURN TO PDCC FOR CORRECTIONS MGMT. SYSTEMS: PROGRAM ADMIN.: DEPUTY PROGRAM MGR: PROJECT MANAGER: () I PROGRAM MANAGER: I I ANL: AJ. Dvorak ANL A Geisler ANL G. Maraman ANL D. Dunning ANL J. Wing BNI DIRECTOR. FSRD: L Price FSRD DEP. DIRECTOR. FSRD: W.Seay FSRD SITE MANAGER: D.Adler FSRD " S. Cange FSRD R. Kirk FSRD J. Kopotic FSRD M. Nee FSRD PROJECT SUPPORT GRP: J.Hart FSRD S. Oldham FSRD 4- G. Hartman FSRD L Marz FSRD PRGM ANALYST: B. Hughlett FSRD SECRETARY: M. Seiber"''' Dyke FSRD FSRD CHRON FILE FSRD NOTEBOOKS READING FILE DOEIP&CD: French/Sistrunk DCO DOEIHO: J. Wagoner DHO RESeDNSE TRACKING INFORMATION SECONDARY: / : SECONDARY: ~ OWED TO: / lOWED

233

Parameterizing loop fusion for automated empirical tuning  

SciTech Connect

Traditional compilers are limited in their ability to optimize applications for different architectures because statically modeling the effect of specific optimizations on different hardware implementations is difficult. Recent research has been addressing this issue through the use of empirical tuning, which uses trial executions to determine the optimization parameters that are most effective on a particular hardware platform. In this paper, we investigate empirical tuning of loop fusion, an important transformation for optimizing a significant class of real-world applications. In spite of its usefulness, fusion has attracted little attention from previous empirical tuning research, partially because it is much harder to configure than transformations like loop blocking and unrolling. This paper presents novel compiler techniques that extend conventional fusion algorithms to parameterize their output when optimizing a computation, thus allowing the compiler to formulate the entire configuration space for loop fusion using a sequence of integer parameters. The compiler can then employ an external empirical search engine to find the optimal operating point within the space of legal fusion configurations and generate the final optimized code using a simple code transformation system. We have implemented our approach within our compiler infrastructure and conducted preliminary experiments using a simple empirical search strategy. Our results convey new insights on the interaction of loop fusion with limited hardware resources, such as available registers, while confirming conventional wisdom about the effectiveness of loop fusion in improving application performance.

Zhao, Y; Yi, Q; Kennedy, K; Quinlan, D; Vuduc, R

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

234

On Closed Shells in Nuclei  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

It has been suggested in the past that special numbers of neutrons or protons in the nucleus form a particularly stable configuration.{sup1} The complete evidence for this has never been summarized, nor is it generally recognized how convincing this evidence is. That 20 neutrons or protons (Ca{sup40}) form a closed shell is predicted by the Hartree model. A number of calculations support this fact.{sup2} These considerations will not be repeated here. In this paper, the experimental facts indicating a particular stability of shells of 50 and 82 protons and of 50, 82, and 126 neutrons will be listed.

Mayer, M. G.

1948-02-00T23:59:59.000Z

235

Closed inductively coupled plasma cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A closed inductively coupled plasma cell generates a relatively high power, low noise plasma for use in spectroscopic studies is disclosed. A variety of gases can be selected to form the plasma to minimize spectroscopic interference and to provide a electron density and temperature range for the sample to be analyzed. Grounded conductors are placed at the tube ends and axially displaced from the inductive coil, whereby the resulting electromagnetic field acts to elongate the plasma in the tube. Sample materials can be injected in the plasma to be excited for spectroscopy. 1 fig.

Manning, T.J.; Palmer, B.A.; Hof, D.E.

1990-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

236

Potential for by-product recovery in geothermal energy operations issue paper  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document identifies and discusses the significant issues raised by the idea of recovering useful by-products from wastes (primarily spent brine) generated during geothermal power production. The physical availability of numerous valuable materials in geothermal brines has captured the interest of geothermal resource developers and other parties ever since their presence was known. The prospects for utilizing huge volumes of highly-saline geothermal brines for electricity generation in the Imperial Valley of California have served to maintain this interest in both private sector and government circles.

None

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products  

SciTech Connect

This eleventh quarterly report describes work done during the eleventh three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini; Wiles Elder

1999-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

239

TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This seventeenth quarterly report describes work done during the seventeenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, submitting a manuscript and making and responding to one outside contact.

James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

Demirbas, A. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

NETL: Hg Control – The Effects on By-products: What Do We Know and Where  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hg Control – The Effects on By-products: Hg Control – The Effects on By-products: What Do We Know and Where Do We Go? Table of Contents Foreword Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Introductions Field Demonstrations Laboratory Studies Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

242

Feasibility Analysis of Steam Reforming of Biodiesel by-product Glycerol to Make Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Crude glycerol is the major byproduct from biodiesel industry. In general, for every 100 pounds of biodiesel produced, approximately 10 pounds of crude glycerol are produced as a by-product. As the biodiesel industry rapidly expands in the U.S., the market is being flooded with this low quality waste glycerol. Due to its high impurities, it is expensive to purify and use in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. Biodiesel producers should seek an alternative method which is economically and environmentally friendly. This research contains reforming process to covert waste glycerol from a biodiesel industry into sellable hydrogen. This process consists of 850oC reformer, 350oC and 210oC shift reactors for water gas shift reaction, flash tanks, and a separator. It is considered to be the least expensive method. At 850oC and 1 atm pressure, glycerol reacts with superheated steam to produce gaseous mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane. Reformer is a batch process where only 68% of waste glycerol is converted into gaseous mixture. The excess glycerol is recycled back as a feedstock. Water gas shift (WGS) reaction, further convert carbon monoxide into hydrogen and carbon dioxide which is further subjected to separation process to isolate hydrogen from CO2 and any other impurities. The final product stream consists of 68% of hydrogen, and 27% of CO2 based on molar flow rate.

Joshi, Manoj

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

243

Succinic Acid as a Byproduct in a Corn-based Ethanol Biorefinery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

MBI endeavored to develop a process for succinic acid production suitable for integration into a corn-based ethanol biorefinery. The project investigated the fermentative production of succinic acid using byproducts of corn mill operations. The fermentation process was attuned to include raw starch, endosperm, as the sugar source. A clean-not-sterile process was established to treat the endosperm and release the monomeric sugars. We developed the fermentation process to utilize a byproduct of corn ethanol fermentations, thin stillage, as the source of complex nitrogen and vitamin components needed to support succinic acid production in A. succinogenes. Further supplementations were eliminated without lowering titers and yields and a productivity above 0.6 g l-1 hr-1was achieved. Strain development was accomplished through generation of a recombinant strain that increased yields of succinic acid production. Isolation of additional strains with improved features was also pursued and frozen stocks were prepared from enriched, characterized cultures. Two recovery processes were evaluated at pilot scale and data obtained was incorporated into our economic analyses.

MBI International

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

244

CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS FOR THE RE-EVOLUTION OF MERCURY INTO ECOSYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

There is concern that mercury (Hg) in coal combustion by-products might be emitted into the environment during processing to other products or after the disposal/landfill of these by-products. This perception may limit the opportunities to use coal combustion by-products in recycle/reuse applications and may result in additional, costly disposal regulations. In this program, CONSOL conducted a comprehensive sampling and analytical program to include ash, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, and coal combustion by-products. This work is necessary to help identify potential problems and solutions important to energy production from fossil fuels. The program objective was to evaluate the potential for mercury emissions by leaching or volatilization, to determine if mercury enters the water surrounding an active FGD disposal site and an active fly ash slurry impoundment site, and to provide data that will allow a scientific assessment of the issue. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test results showed that mercury did not leach from coal, bottom ash, fly ash, spray dryer/fabric filter ash or forced oxidation gypsum (FOG) in amounts leading to concentrations greater than the detection limit of the TCLP method (1.0 ng/mL). Mercury was detected at very low concentrations in acidic leachates from all of the fixated and more than half of the unfixated FGD sludge samples, and one of the synthetic aggregate samples. Mercury was not detected in leachates from any sample when deionized water (DI water) was the leaching solution. Mercury did not leach from electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fly ash samples collected during activated carbon injection for mercury control in amounts greater than the detection limit of the TCLP method (1.0 ng/mL). Volatilization tests could not detect mercury loss from fly ash, spray dryer/fabric filter ash, unfixated FGD sludge, or forced oxidation gypsum; the mercury concentration of these samples all increased, possibly due to absorption from ambient surroundings. Mercury loss of 18-26% was detected after 3 and 6 months at 100 F and 140 F from samples of the fixated FGD sludge. Water samples were collected from existing ground water monitoring wells around an active FGD disposal site (8 wells) and an active fly ash slurry impoundment (14 wells). These were wells that the plants have installed to comply with ground water monitoring requirements of their permits. Mercury was not detected in any of the water samples collected from monitoring wells at either site. A literature review concluded that coal combustion byproducts can be disposed of in properly designed landfills that minimize the potentially negative impacts of water intrusion that carries dissolved organic matter (DOM). Dissolved organic matter and sulfate-reducing bacteria can promote the transformation of elemental or oxidized mercury into methyl mercury. The landfill should be properly designed and capped with clays or similar materials to minimize the wet-dry cycles that promote the release of methylmercury.

J.A. Withum; J.E. Locke; S.C. Tseng

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop  

SciTech Connect

Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Loop expansion in Yang-Mills thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We argue that a selfconsistent spatial coarse-graining, which involves interacting (anti)calorons of unit topological charge modulus, implies that real-time loop expansions of thermodynamical quantities in the deconfining phase of SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills thermodynamics are, modulo 1PI resummations, determined by a finite number of connected bubble diagrams.

Ralf Hofmann

2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

247

Free Steiner Loops Smile Markovski, Ana Sokolova  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Free Steiner Loops Smile Markovski, Ana Sokolova Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Institute and finite sloops. Two constructions of free objects in the variety of sloops are pre­ sented in this paper. They both allow recursive construction of a free sloop with a free base X, provided that X is recursively

Sokolova, Ana

248

Loop realizations of quantum affine algebras  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We give a simplified description of quantum affine algebras in their loop presentation. This description is related to Drinfeld's new realization via halves of vertex operators. We also define an idempotent version of the quantum affine algebra which is suitable for categorification.

Cautis, Sabin [Department of Mathematics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 90089 (United States); Licata, Anthony [Department of Mathematics, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

Optimization of Jatropha Oil Extraction and Its By-Product Utilization by Pyrolysis Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the price of fossil fuel has increased, petroleum resources have been restricted and the environmental effects have been of great concern. Biofuel has been considered to be a good solution because it is a clean, non-pollutant and a renewable energy. Biodiesel is one alternative energy that plays a major role in the energy industry. So, the development of biofuel process is more interesting. Jatropha curcas L. is considered as an alternative energy source in order to help solve the energy crisis. The purpose of this research is to investigate the optimum condition of Jatropha seed extraction via a screw press and its by-product utilization by a pyrolysis method for achieving the maximum mass conversion and energy recovery. In this study, Jatropha seeds were first extracted by a screw press with different discharge aperture sizes, namely, number 4 (4.0 mm), 8 (7.0 mm), and 10 (10.5 mm). The by-product obtained from a screw press was then performed pyrolysis runs at the operating temperatures of 400, 500, and 600 degrees C. Results revealed that the optimum condition was achieved when using discharge aperture number 8 (7.0 mm) for a screw press and performing the pyrolysis of the by- product at 500 degrees C. The mass conversion efficiency of 35.8% refined oil, 21.8% bio-char, 14.6% bio-oil, and 11.7% syn-gas were obtained. Therefore, the utilization of by-product using a pyrolysis can enhance the effectiveness of Jatropha oil extraction with only 16% mass losses occurred. In addition, the gross heating values of the products were observed as 39.6 MJ/kg for the refined oil, 35.1 MJ/kg for the bio-oil, 27.5 MJ/kg for the bio-char, and 2.1 MJ/kg for the syn-gas. Due to a high mass conversion efficiency and energy content of Jatropha products, Jatropha has the potential to serve as an alternative energy source.

Kongkasawan, Jinjuta 1987-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Hydrogen-bond driven loop-closure kinetics in unfolded polypeptide chains  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Characterization of the length dependence of end-to-end loop-closure kinetics in unfolded polypeptide chains provides an understanding of early steps in protein folding. Here, loop-closure in poly-glycine-serine peptides is investigated by combining single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy with molecular dynamics simulation. For chains containing more than 10 peptide bonds loop-closing rate constants on the 20-100 nanosecond time range exhibit a power-law length dependence. However, this scaling breaks down for shorter peptides, which exhibit slower kinetics arising from a perturbation induced by the dye reporter system used in the experimental setup. The loop-closure kinetics in the longer peptides is found to be determined by the formation of intra-peptide hydrogen bonds and transient beta-sheet structure, that accelerate the search for contacts among residues distant in sequence relative to the case of a polypeptide chain in which hydrogen bonds cannot form. Hydrogen-bond-driven polypeptide-chain collapse in unfolded peptides under physiological conditions found here is not only consistent with hierarchical models of protein folding, that highlights the importance of secondary structure formation early in the folding process, but is also shown to speed up the search for productive folding events.

Daidone, Isabella [University of Heidelberg; Neuweiler, H [University of Heidelberg; Doose, S [University of Heidelberg; Sauer, M [University of Heidelberg; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Loop simulation capability for sodium-cooled systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A one-dimensional loop simulation capability has been implemented in the thermal-hydraulic analysis code, THERMIT-4E. This code had been used to simulate and investigate flow in test sections of experimental sodium loops ...

Adekugbe, Oluwole A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Design and Fabrication of a Vertical Pump Multiphase Flow Loop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new centrifugal pump has been devised to handle two-phase flow. However, it requires full scale testing to allow further development. Testing is required to verify performance and to gain information needed to apply this design in the field. Further, testing will allow mathematical models to be validated which will allow increased understanding of the pump's behavior. To perform this testing, a new facility was designed and constructed. This facility consists of a closed flow loop. The pump is supplied by separate air and water inlet flows that mix just before entering the pump. These flows can be controlled to give a desired gas volume fraction and overall flow rate. The pump outlet flows into a tank which separates the fluids allowing them to re-circulate. Operating inlet pressures of up to three hundred PSIG will be used with a flow rate of twelve hundred gallons per minute. A two-hundred fifty horsepower electric motor is used to power the pump. The loop is equipped with instrumentation to measure temperature, pressure, flow rate, pump speed, pump shaft horsepower, shaft torque, and shaft axial load. The pump itself has a clear inlet section and a clear section allowing visualization of the second stage volute interior as well as numerous pressure taps along the second stage volute. This instrumentation is sufficient to completely characterize the pump. Design and construction details are provided as well as a history of the initial operating experiences and data collected. A discussion of lessons learned is given in the conclusions. Future projects intended to use this facility are also given. Finally, detailed design drawings are supplied as well as operating instructions and checklists.

Kirkland, Klayton 1965-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Better 'Photon Loops' May Be Key to Computer and Physics ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Better 'Photon Loops' May Be Key to Computer and Physics Advances. From NIST Tech Beat: August 22, 2011. ...

2012-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

254

Case Study of Optimal Byproduct Gas Distribution in Integrated Steel Mill Using Multi-Period Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy constitutes about 20 % of the total production cost in an integrated steel mill, and therefore energy efficiency is crucial for profitability within the environmental policy context. An integrated steel mill generates high calorific value byproduct gases at varying rates. The differences between gas generation and consumption rates are compensated with gas holders. However, under certain circumstances the imbalances can lead to the flaring of excessive gas or require the purchase of supplementary fuel. This presentation describes a steel mill energy management system with sophisticated monitoring, planning, and optimization tools. It models the complex energy interconnections between various processes of the mill and determines the optimal trade-off between gas holder level control, flare minimization, and optimization of electricity purchase versus internal power generation. The system reduces energy cost, improves energy efficiency, manages carbon footprint, and provides environmental reporting features.

Makinen, K.; Kymalainen, T.; Junttila, J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

A Load Balancing Tool for Distributed Parallel Loops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large scale applications typically contain parallel loops with many iterates. The iterates of a parallel loop may have variable execution times which translate into performance degradation of an application due to load imbalance. This paper describes ... Keywords: adaptive loop scheduling, dynamic load balancing

Ricolindo L. Cariño; Ioana Banicescu

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

An indicator energy of two close levels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we introduce a concept of an indicator energy of two close levels in the perturbation.

Alexander V. Shamanin

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

257

Center Late Opening or Early Closing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Emergency Center Late Opening or Early Closing - Inclement Weather or Emergency Situation. ... Emergency Situation - "Shelter-in-Place" Plan. ...

2013-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

258

Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Highly Efficient Modeling of Dynamic Coronal Loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observational and theoretical evidence suggests that coronal heating is impulsive and occurs on very small cross-field spatial scales. A single coronal loop could contain a hundred or more individual strands that are heated quasi-independently by nanoflares. It is therefore an enormous undertaking to model an entire active region or the global corona. Three-dimensional MHD codes have inadequate spatial resolution, and 1D hydro codes are too slow to simulate the many thousands of elemental strands that must be treated in a reasonable representation. Fortunately, thermal conduction and flows tend to smooth out plasma gradients along the magnetic field, so "0D models" are an acceptable alternative. We have developed a highly efficient model called Enthalpy-Based Thermal Evolution of Loops (EBTEL) that accurately describes the evolution of the average temperature, pressure, and density along a coronal strand. It improves significantly upon earlier models of this type--in accuracy, flexibility, and capability. It ...

Klimchuk, J A; Cargill, P J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

EXAMINATION OF HIGH PRESSURE RECOMBINER LOOP SPECIMENS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Speciments of iodide zirconium, Zircaloy-2, Zr-15Nb, iodide titanium, TMCA-45 titanium, A-110AT titanium, and 430 stainless steel were corroded in a highpressure recombiner loop. Analyses were performed to determine the amount of hydrogen pickup. The titanium materials and iodide zirconium showed very high hydrogen pickups, while the zirconium alloys and the 430 stainless steel absorbed smaller amounts of hydrogen Metallographic examination of the specimens showed that recrystallization occurred in all but the Ar-15Nb specimens. There seems to be little difference in the extent of recrystallization and grain growth whether the in the recombiner section at 430 to 500 deg C. Recrystalliplained or correlated in any way with the amount of f hydrogen sion that occured. Since hydrogen is known to seriously embrittle zirconium and titanium, it is recommended that crystal-bar zirconium and titanium alloys not be used as materials of construction in environ ments sinmilar to that of the High Pressure Recombiner Loop. (auth)

Picklesimer, M.L.; Rittenhouse, P.L.

1958-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Projective Structures in Loop Quantum Cosmology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Projective structures have successfully been used for the construction of measures in the framework of loop quantum gravity. In the present paper we establish such a structure for the space $R \\sqcup R_Bohr$ recently constructed in the context of homogeneous isotropic loop quantum cosmology. This space has the advantage to be canonically embedded into the quantum configuration space of the full theory, but, in contrast to the traditional space $R_Bohr$, there exists no Haar measure on $R \\sqcup R_Bohr$. The introduced projective structure, however, allows to construct a family of canonical measures on $R \\sqcup R_Bohr$ whose corresponding Hilbert spaces of square integrable functions we finally investigate.

Maximilian Hanusch

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

262

Field Evaluation of the Comanagement of Utility Low-Volume Wastes with High-Volume By-Products: CY Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents an investigation into the effects of comanagement of low-volume wastes with high-volume coal combustion by-products at the CY site. This is one of 14 sites investigated by EPRI to provide background information to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the 2000 Regulatory Determination on comanagement under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

2005-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

263

Proceedings: Tenth International Ash Use Symposium, Volume 2: Ash Use R&D and Clean Coal By-Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Topics discussed at the tenth symposium on coal ash use included fundamental ash use research, product marketing, applied research, ash management and the environment, and commercial applications. Intense international research interest continues in coal ash use due to the prospects of avoiding disposal costs and generating revenue from by-product sales.

1993-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

264

Utilizing the heat content of gas-to-liquids by-product streams for commercial power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Gas-to-liquids (GTL) processes produce a large fraction of by-products whose disposal or handling ordinarily becomes a cost rather than benefit. As an alternative strategy to market stranded gas reserves, GTL provides middle distillates to an unsaturated global market and offers opportunities to generate power for commercial purposes from waste by-product streams, which normally are associated with increased expenses incurred from additional handling cost. The key concept investigated in this work is the possibility of integrating the GTL process with power generation using conventional waste by-product steam streams. Simulation of the integrated process was conducted with the aim of identifying the critical operating conditions for successful integration of the GTL and power generation processes. About 500 MW of electric power can be generated from 70% of the exit steam streams, with around 20 to 25% steam plant thermal efficiency. A detailed economic analysis on the LNG, stand-alone GTL, and Integrated GTL Power-Generation plants indicates that the integrated system is more profitable than the other options considered. Justifying the technology and economics involved in the use of the by-product streams to generate power could increase the net revenue and overall profitability of GTL projects. This technology may be transferable to GTL projects in the world, wherever a market for generated power exists.

Adegoke, Adesola Ayodeji

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Hydrogen is a clean fuel. When used in fuel cells, the only byproducts are water and heat.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, combined heat and power, materials handling, and backup power. Power Generation & Electric Grid support· Hydrogen is a clean fuel. When used in fuel cells, the only byproducts are water and heat The demand for multi-megawatt (MW) fuel cell systems for power generation and utility grid support applica

266

Management of dry gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry coal combustion by-products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of combustion by-products with about 70% solids. Phase 2 of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase 2 is to develop and fabricate the equipment for both the pneumatic and hydraulic placement technologies, and to conduct a limited, small-scale shakedown test of the pneumatic and hydraulic placement equipment. The shakedown test originally was to take place on the surface, in trenches dug for the tests. However, after a thorough study it was decided, with the concurrence of DOE-METC, to drill additional injection wells and conduct the shakedown tests underground. This will allow a more thorough test of the placement equipment.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

267

Flipped spinfoam vertex and loop gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce a vertex amplitude for 4d loop quantum gravity. We derive it from a conventional quantization of a Regge discretization of euclidean general relativity. This yields a spinfoam sum that corrects some difficulties of the Barrett-Crane theory. The second class simplicity constraints are imposed weakly, and not strongly as in Barrett-Crane theory. Thanks to a flip in the quantum algebra, the boundary states turn out to match those of SO(3) loop quantum gravity -- the two can be identified as eigenstates of the same physical quantities -- providing a solution to the problem of connecting the covariant SO(4) spinfoam formalism with the canonical SO(3) spin-network one. The vertex amplitude is SO(3) and SO(4)-covariant. It rectifies the triviality of the intertwiner dependence of the Barrett-Crane vertex, which is responsible for its failure to yield the correct propagator tensorial structure. The construction provides also an independent derivation of the kinematics of loop quantum gravity and of the result that geometry is quantized.

Jonathan Engle; Roberto Pereira; Carlo Rovelli

2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

268

Lorentz covariance of loop quantum gravity  

SciTech Connect

The kinematics of loop gravity can be given a manifestly Lorentz-covariant formulation: the conventional SU(2)-spin-network Hilbert space can be mapped to a space K of SL(2,C) functions, where Lorentz covariance is manifest. K can be described in terms of a certain subset of the projected spin networks studied by Livine, Alexandrov and Dupuis. It is formed by SL(2,C) functions completely determined by their restriction on SU(2). These are square-integrable in the SU(2) scalar product, but not in the SL(2,C) one. Thus, SU(2)-spin-network states can be represented by Lorentz-covariant SL(2,C) functions, as two-component photons can be described in the Lorentz-covariant Gupta-Bleuler formalism. As shown by Wolfgang Wieland in a related paper, this manifestly Lorentz-covariant formulation can also be directly obtained from canonical quantization. We show that the spinfoam dynamics of loop quantum gravity is locally SL(2,C)-invariant in the bulk, and yields states that are precisely in K on the boundary. This clarifies how the SL(2,C) spinfoam formalism yields an SU(2) theory on the boundary. These structures define a tidy Lorentz-covariant formalism for loop gravity.

Rovelli, Carlo; Speziale, Simone [Centre de Physique Theorique de Luminy, Case 907, F-13288 Marseille (France)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Ground Loops for Heat Pumps and Refrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ground loops are used for water source heat pumps. Refrigeration can be put on a ground loop. Water-cooled condensing units are more efficient than air-cooled, and they can be put indoors. Indoor location makes piping for desuperheater hot water easy. Since refrigeration equipment runs more than heat pumps, energy savings can be large for ground-coupled refrigeration. The paper presents a design procedure for ground loops for heat pumps, hot water, ice machines, and water-cooled refrigeration. It gives an overview of the commercial ground-coupled systems in Louisiana that have both refrigeration and heat pumps. Systems vary from small offices to a three-story office building with 187 tons. A chain of hamburger outlets uses total ground-coupling in all of its stores. A grocery store has ground-coupling for heat pumps and refrigeration. Desuperheaters provide 80 percent of the hot water for a coin laundry in the same building. A comparison of energy costs in a bank with a ground-coupled heat pump system to a similar bank with air-conditioning and gas for heat revealed a 31 percent reduction in utility costs for the ground-coupled building. Two buildings of the Mississippi Power and Light Co. have ground-coupled heat pumps in one, and high efficiency air source heat pumps in the other. Energy savings in nine months was 60,000 kWh (25 percent), and electric peak demand was reduced 42 kW (35 percent).

Braud, H. J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

MAGNETIC LOOPS IN THE QUIET SUN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the fine structure of magnetic fields in the atmosphere of the quiet Sun. We use photospheric magnetic field measurements from SUNRISE/IMaX with unprecedented spatial resolution to extrapolate the photospheric magnetic field into higher layers of the solar atmosphere with the help of potential and force-free extrapolation techniques. We find that most magnetic loops that reach into the chromosphere or higher have one footpoint in relatively strong magnetic field regions in the photosphere. Ninety-one percent of the magnetic energy in the mid-chromosphere (at a height of 1 Mm) is in field lines, whose stronger footpoint has a strength of more than 300 G, i.e., above the equipartition field strength with convection. The loops reaching into the chromosphere and corona are also found to be asymmetric in the sense that the weaker footpoint has a strength B < 300 G and is located in the internetwork (IN). Such loops are expected to be strongly dynamic and have short lifetimes, as dictated by the properties of the IN fields.

Wiegelmann, T.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Borrero, J. M.; Schmidt, W. [Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, Schoeneckstr. 6, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Pillet, V. MartInez; Bonet, J. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea s/n, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Del Toro Iniesta, J. C. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain); Domingo, V. [Grupo de Astronomia y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Knoelker, M. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Title, A. M., E-mail: wiegelmann@mps.mpg.d [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

271

On active region loops: Hinode/EIS observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coronal loops are fundamental building blocks of the solar active regions and the corona. Therefore, a clear understanding of the physics of coronal loops will help us understand the physics of active region heating in particular and coronal heating in general. This requires a precise measurement of physical quantities such as electron densities and filling factors, temperatures, and flows in coronal loops. In this paper we have carried out an investigation of a spatially well resolved coronal loop using the EIS onboard Hinode to measure the above mentioned physical quantities. Based on this study we find that a nano-flare model could explain most of the observed characteristics of this loop.

Tripathi, D; Dwivedi, B N; Del Zanna, G; Young, P R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Bio-Polymer Hairpin Loops Sustained by Polarons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that polarons can sustain loop-like configurations in flexible bio-polymers and that the size of the loops depend on both the flexural rigidity of the polymer and the electron-phonon coupling constant. In particular we show that for single stranded DNA (ssDNA) such loops can have as little as 10 base pairs. For polyacetylene the shortest loop must have at least 12 nodes. We also show that these configurations are very stable under thermal fluctuations and can facilitate the formation of hairpin-loops of ssDNA.

B. Chakrabarti; B. Piette; W. J. Zakrzewski

2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

273

Bio-Polymer Hairpin Loops Sustained by Polarons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that polarons can sustain loop-like configurations in flexible bio-polymers and that the size of the loops depend on both the flexural rigidity of the polymer and the electron-phonon coupling constant. In particular we show that for single stranded DNA (ssDNA) such loops can have as little as 10 base pairs. For polyacetylene the shortest loop must have at least 12 nodes. We also show that these configurations are very stable under thermal fluctuations and can facilitate the formation of hairpin-loops of ssDNA.

Chakrabarti, B; Zakrzewski, W J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Chemical Looping Air Separation Unit and Methods of Use  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Looping Air Separation Unit and Methods of Use Looping Air Separation Unit and Methods of Use Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov October 2012 Opportunity Research is currently active on the patent-pending technology "Chemical Looping Air Separation Unit and Methods of Use" that combines the best attributes of chemical looping and oxy-fuel combustion technologies. Following patent approval, the technology will be available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Significance * Combines chemical looping and oxy-fuel technologies * Separates oxygen from air at high efficiencies * Removes CO

275

Folding of a DNA Hairpin Loop Structure in Explicit Solvent Using Replica-Exchange Molecular Dynamics Simulations.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Hairpin loop structures are common motifs in folded nucleic acids. The 59-GCGCAGC sequence in DNA forms a characteristic and stable trinucleotide hairpin loop flanked by a two basepair stem helix. To better understand the structure formation of this hairpin loop motif in atomic detail, we employed replica-exchange molecular dynamics (RexMD) simulations starting from a single-stranded DNA conformation. In two independent 36 ns RexMD simulations, conformations in very close agreement with the experimental hairpin structure were sampled as dominant conformations (lowest free energy state) during the final phase of the RexMDs (;35% at the lowest temperature replica). Simultaneous compaction and accumulation of folded structures were observed. Comparison of the GCA trinucleotides from early stages of the simulations with the folded topology indicated a variety of central loop conformations, but arrangements close to experiment that are sampled before the fully folded structure also appeared. Most of these intermediates included a stacking of the C2 and G3 bases, which was further stabilized by hydrogen bonding to the A5 base and a strongly bound water molecule bridging the C2 and A5 in the DNA minor groove. The simulations suggest a folding mechanism where these intermediates can rapidly proceed toward the fully folded hairpin and emphasize the importance of loop and stem nucleotide interactions for hairpin folding. In one simulation, a loop motif with G3 in syn conformation (dihedral flip at N-glycosidic bond) accumulated, resulting in a misfolded hairpin. Such conformations may correspond to long-lived trapped states that have been postulated to account for the folding kinetics of nucleic acid hairpins that are slower than expected for a semiflexible polymer of the same size.

Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Zacharias, Martin W.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production  

SciTech Connect

The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

Donal F. Day

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

277

RESIDUES FROM COAL CONVERSION AND UTILIZATION: ADVANCED MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND DISPOSED BYPRODUCT DIAGENESIS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prior to the initiation of this study, understanding of the long-term behavior of environmentally-exposed Coal Combustion By-Products (CCBs) was lacking in (among others) two primary areas addressed in this work. First, no method had been successfully applied to achieve full quantitative analysis of the partitioning of chemical constituents into reactive or passive crystalline or noncrystalline compounds. Rather, only semi-quantitative methods were available, with large associated errors. Second, our understanding of the long-term behavior of various CCBs in contact with the natural environment was based on a relatively limited set of study materials. This study addressed these areas with two objectives, producing (1) a set of protocols for fully quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld Quantitative X-ray Diffraction (RQXRD) method and (2) greater understanding of the hydrologic and geochemical nature of the long-term behavior of disposed and utilized CCBs. The RQXRD technique was initially tested using (1) mixtures of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) crystalline standards, and (2) mixtures of synthetic reagents simulating various CCBs, to determine accuracy and precision of the method, and to determine the most favorable protocols to follow in order to efficiently quantify multi-phase mixtures. Four sets of borehole samples of disposed or utilized CCBs were retrieved and analyzed by RQXRD according to the protocols developed under the first objective. The first set of samples, from a Class F ash settling pond in Kentucky disposed for up to 20 years, showed little mineralogical alteration, as expected. The second set of samples, from an embankment in Indiana containing a mixture of chain-grate (stoker) furnace ash and fluidized bed combustion (FBC) residues, showed formation of the mineral thaumasite, as observed in previously studied exposed FBC materials. Two high-calcium CCBs studied, including a dry-process flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product disposed in the Midwest, and a mixture of Class C fly ash and wet process FGD by-product codisposed in North Dakota, appeared relatively unchanged mineralogically over the up to 5 and 17 years of emplacement, respectively. Each of these two materials contained mineralogies consistent with short-term hydration products of their respective starting (dry) materials. The hydration product ettringite persisted throughout the duration of emplacement at each site, and the diagenetic ash alteration product thaumasite did not form at either site. Explanations for the absence of thaumasite in these two sites include a lack of significant carbonate, sulfate, and alkalinity sources in the case of the North Dakota site, and a lack of sulfate, alkalinity, and sufficient moisture in the Midwest site. Potential for future thaumasite formation in these materials may exist if placed in contact with cold, wet materials containing the missing components listed above. In the presence of the sulfite scrubber mineral hannebachite, the ettringites formed had crystallographic unit cell dimensions smaller than those of pure sulfate ettringite, suggesting either incorporation of sulfite ions into the ettringite structure, or incorporation of silicon and carbonate ions, forming a solid solution towards thaumasite.

Gregory J. McCarthy; Dean G. Grier

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS FOR A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION FAN LOOP FROM HINODE/EIS OBSERVATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The velocity pattern of a fan loop structure within a solar active region over the temperature range 0.15-1.5 MK is derived using data from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode satellite. The loop is aligned toward the observer's line of sight and shows downflows (redshifts) of around 15 km s{sup -1} up to a temperature of 0.8 MK, but for temperatures of 1.0 MK and above the measured velocity shifts are consistent with no net flow. This velocity result applies over a projected spatial distance of 9 Mm and demonstrates that the cooler, redshifted plasma is physically disconnected from the hotter, stationary plasma. A scenario in which the fan loops consist of at least two groups of 'strands'-one cooler and downflowing, the other hotter and stationary-is suggested. The cooler strands may represent a later evolutionary stage of the hotter strands. A density diagnostic of Mg VII was used to show that the electron density at around 0.8 MK falls from 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3} at the loop base, to 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} cm{sup -3} at a projected height of 15 Mm. A filling factor of 0.2 is found at temperatures close to the formation temperature of Mg VII (0.8 MK), confirming that the cooler, downflowing plasma occupies only a fraction of the apparent loop volume. The fan loop is rooted within a so-called outflow region that displays low intensity and blueshifts of up to 25 km s{sup -1} in Fe XII {lambda}195.12 (formed at 1.5 MK), in contrast to the loop's redshifts of 15 km s{sup -1} at 0.8 MK. A new technique for obtaining an absolute wavelength calibration for the EIS instrument is presented and an instrumental effect, possibly related to a distorted point-spread function, that affects velocity measurements is identified.

Young, P. R. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); O'Dwyer, B.; Mason, H. E. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

The Polyakov loop and the hadron resonance gas model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Polyakov loop has been used repeatedly as an order parameter in the deconfinement phase transition in QCD. We argue that, in the confined phase, its expectation value can be represented in terms of hadronic states, similarly to the hadron resonance gas model for the pressure. Specifically, L(T) \\approx 1/2\\sum_\\alpha g_\\alpha e^(-\\Delta_\\alpha/T), where g_\\alpha are the degeneracies and \\Delta_\\alpha are the masses of hadrons with exactly one heavy quark (the mass of the heavy quark itself being subtracted). We show that this approximate sum rule gives a fair description of available lattice data with N_f=2+1 at low temperatures by using the spectrum of hadrons containing one charmed quark, and the \\bar{MS}-scheme charmed quark mass. A direct fit to this latter quantity yields a close value, m_c=1280_{-44}^{+29}MeV. The lattice data are well reproduced by a simplified version of this formula, L(T)= N_f(2N_f+3)e^(-\\Delta/T), for T < 200 MeV and Delta=913(2)MeV. We argue that this number should be Delta ...

Megias, E; Salcedo, L L

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Utilization of by-products from alkaline hydroxide preservation of whole broiler carcasses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alkaline hydroxides can be used as a preservation method for on-farm storage of broiler mortalities. This method creates two by-products: alkaline preserved whole broiler carcasses, which can be rendered into an Alkaline Poultry By-Product Meal (APBPM) and residual alkaline effluent, which can be used as a soil amendment. In experiment 1 APBPM was added to a broiler diet and evaluated for apparent metabolizable energy (AME). In experiment 2 AME was used to formulate balanced diets with 0 to 5% APBPM. Effects on broiler performance, organ morphology, tibia sheer strength and moisture content were evaluated in both experiments. Experiment 1 determined that the optimum additive concentration for the APBPM was 5%. The AME trials showed no significant difference between the control group and treatment group (5% APBPM) when comparing body weight and feed consumption, however a significant difference was observed when comparing excreta moisture. Experiment 2 evaluated the parameters of feed consumption, feed conversion, and body weight when fed an APBPM. The feed conversion for the 5% treatment in trial 1 was significantly lower compared to control, 1%, and 3% treatment groups. Feed consumption per bird for trial 1 was significantly higher in the control, 1%, and 3% treatment groups compared to the 5% treatment group. The percentage of organ weight was larger in treatment groups compared to control groups indicating an enlargement of organ weight as a percentage of body weight. The residual alkaline effluent was applied to coastal bermudagrass plots in amounts of 0 to 9354 L/ha with four replications per treatment each year for 1999 and 2000. Dry matter yield, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) uptakes were evaluated. In 1999 maximum yields were at the 5612 L/ha rate but there was no yield response to effluent rate in 2000. Effluent rate had only small effects on N and P uptake since all treatments were balanced for these nutrients. The potassium uptakes showed a significant increase as the effluent rate increased. The residual KOH effluent can be applied to Coastal bermudagrasses as a source of K as well as N and P.

Niemeyer, Truitt Preston

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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281

Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) Process Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

increase in cost of electricity Future work * Test other fuels such as woody biomass and corn stover * Work closely with B&W to scale-up to pilot plant (3 MW th ) Accomplishments...

283

High-Resolution Design of a Protein Loop  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Despite having irregular structure, protein loops often adopt specific conformations that are critical to protein function. Most studies in de novo protein design have focused on creating proteins with regular elements of secondary structure connected by very short loops or turns. To design longer protein loops that adopt specific conformations, we have developed a protocol within the Rosetta molecular modeling program that iterates between optimizing the sequence and conformation of a loop in search of low-energy sequence-structure pairs. We have tested the procedure by designing 10-residue loops for the connection between the second and third strand in the {beta}-sandwich protein tenascin. Three low-energy designs from 7,200 flexible backbone trajectories were selected for experimental characterization. All three designs, called LoopA, LoopB, and LoopC, adopt stable folded structures. High-resolution crystal structures of LoopA and LoopB have been solved. LoopB adopts a structure very similar to the design model (0.46 Angstroms rmsd), and all but one of the side chains are modeled in the correct rotamers. LoopA crystallized at low pH in a structure that differs dramatically from our design model. It forms a strand-swapped dimer mediated by hydrogen bonds to protonated glutamic acids. Gel filtration indicates that the protein is not a dimer at neutral pH. These results suggest that the high-resolution design of protein loops is possible; however, they also highlight how small changes in protein energetics can dramatically perturb the low free energy structure of a protein.

Hu,X.; Wang, H.; Ke, H.; Kuhlman, B.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Inertially stabilized platforms for SATCOM on-the-move applications : a hybrid open/closed-loop antenna pointing strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The increasing need for timely information in any environment has led to the development of mobile SATCOM terminals. SATCOM terminals seeking to achieve high data-rate communications require inertial antenna pointing to ...

Marsh, Eric Allen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Program on Technology Innovation: Geothermal Energy Harvesting from a Closed-Loop Single-Well Heat Exchanger Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From the perspective of reducing the cost of an enhanced geothermal system (EGS) that requires injection and productions wells, a single-wellbore configuration could be a cost-efficient solution for larger geothermal plants that are constrained by water demand. The applicability of a single-wellbore configuration depends on the ability to have high thermal conductivity with the heat exchange from the rock system surrounding it. The result of the Polaris award work suggests that a numerical model is neede...

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

286

Investigation of the MTC noise estimation with a coupled neutronic/thermal-hydraulic dedicated model - 'Closing the loop'  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the reliability of different noise estimators aimed at determining the Moderator Temperature Coefficient (MTC) of reactivity in Pressurized Water Reactors. By monitoring the inherent fluctuations in the neutron flux and moderator temperature, an on-line monitoring of the MTC without perturbing reactor operation is possible. In order to get an accurate estimation of the MTC by noise analysis, the point-kinetic component of the neutron noise and the core-averaged moderator temperature noise have to be used. Because of the scarcity of the in-core instrumentation, the determination of these quantities is difficult, and several possibilities thus exist for estimating the MTC by noise analysis. Furthermore, the effect of feedback has to be negligible at the frequency chosen for estimating the MTC in order to get a proper determination of the MTC. By using an integrated neutronic/thermal- hydraulic model specifically developed for estimating the three-dimensional distributions of the fluctuations in neutron flux, moderator properties, and fuel temperature, different approaches for estimating the MTC by noise analysis can be tested individually. It is demonstrated that a reliable MTC estimation can only be provided if the core is equipped with a sufficient number of both neutron detectors and temperature sensors, i.e. if the core contain in-core detectors monitoring both the axial and radial distributions of the fluctuations in neutron flux and moderator temperature. It is further proven that the effect of feedback is negligible for frequencies higher than 0.1 Hz, and thus the MTC noise estimations have to be performed at higher frequencies. (authors)

Demaziere, C.; Larsson, V. [Div. of Nuclear Engineering, Dept. of Applied Physics, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Logistics 1: closed-loop, simulation-based, systems engineering approach to life cycle management of defense systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Assessing the life-cycle impacts of operations and maintenance decisions made for new or aging systems requires an accurate ability to measure and respond to uncertainty. Maintenance and parts requirements forecasts for fielded military systems are traditionally ...

Sean Connors; Julie Gauldin; Marshall Smith

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Integrated Framework toward a Closed Loop Measurement and Verification Shankar Earni, Phil Coleman, Mark Sanders, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

aging buildings to achieve desired building occupant comfort needed to maintain worker productivity companies (ESCOs). An ESPC project allows an agency to reallocate its utility and building O&M expenses to pay for energy system infrastructure improvements from the resulting cost savings. In ESPCs

289

Closed-Loop Simulation of Model-Based Current Profile Control with the DIII-D Plasma Control System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 55, 131 (2010)52nd American Physical Society Annual Meeting of Division of Plasma Physics Chicago Illinois, US, 2010999618145

Barton, J.E.

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

290

Closed-loop biomass co-firing in a laboratory reactor and in a full-scale boiler.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Co-firing tests were conducted in a pilot-scale reactor at Sandia National Laboratories and in a boiler at the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar factory at Puunene, Hawaii. Combustion tests were performed in the Sandia Multi-Fuel Combustor using Australian coal, whole fiber cane including tops and leaves processed at three different levels (milled only, milled and leached, and milled followed by leaching and subsequent milling), and fiber cane stripped of its tops and leaves and heavily processed through subsequent milling, leaching, and milling cycles. Testing was performed for pure fuels and for biomass co-firing with the coal at levels of 30% and 70% by mass. The laboratory tests revealed the following information: (1) The biomass fuels convert their native nitrogen into NO more efficiently than coal because of higher volatile content and more reactive nitrogen complexes. (2) Adding coal to whole fiber cane to reduce its tendency to form deposits should not adversely affect NO emissions. ( 3 ) Stripped cane does not offer a NO advantage over whole cane when co-fired with coal. During the field test, Sandia measured 0 2 , C02, CO, SO2, and NO concentrations in the stack and gas velocities near the superheater. Gas concentrations and velocities fluctuated more during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. The mean 0 2 concentration was lower and the mean C02 concentration was higher during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. When normalized to a constant exhaust 0 2 concentration, mean CO concentration was higher and mean NO concentration was lower for biomass co-firing than for coal. The SO2 concentration tracked the use of Bunker C fuel oil. When normalized by the amount of boiler energy input, the amounts of NO and SO2 formed were lower during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. The difference between NOx trends in the lab and in the field are most likely a result of less effective heat and mass transfer in the boiler. Particles were sampled near the superheater tube using an impaction probe and were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Particle loading appeared higher for biomass co-firing than for coal combustion, especially for the smaller particle diameters. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to detect silicon, aluminum, titanium, iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium concentrations near the superheater. LIBS provided an abundant amount of real-time information. The major constituents of the fuel ash (silicon and aluminum) were also the major measured inorganic constituents of the combustion products. The combustion products were enriched in sodium relative to the fuel ash during all tests, and they were enriched in potassium for the biomass co-firing tests. Alkali metals are enriched because compounds containing these elements are more readily releasable into the combustion products than refractory components that remain in large particles such as silicon, aluminum, and titanium. Relative to the measured deposit chemistry, the combustion flows were enriched in iron, sodium, and potassium, constituents that are known to form fumes laden with fine particles and/or vapors. The LIBS results yield insight into the deposition mechanism: Impaction of larger particles dominates over fume deposition. The present application of LIBS reveals its potential to provide real-time field information on the deposition propensity of different fuels and the effects of different fuels and boiler operating conditions.

Jenkins, Bryan M. (University of California, Davis, CA); Williams, Robert B. (University of California, Davis, CA); Turn, Scott Q. (Hawaii Natural Energy Institute.); Jakeway, Lee A. (Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company); Blevins, Linda Gail

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Closed-loop biomass co-firing. Quarterly technical progress report for the period October - December 1999  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tasks included the following: analyze data from small plot harvests; large-scale planting of high-fiber cane variety; pilot-scale testing of fuel blends; procuring harvest equipment; perform harvest and co-firing trials for full-scale demonstration.

Jakeway, Lee; Nakahata, Mae

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Fast Model Based Approximation of the Closed-loop Performance Limits of Gas/Liquid Inline Separators for Accelerated Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

trend in the oil and gas (exploration & production) industry is to use compact ­centrifugal forces based.fuenmayor@shell.com, ruud.henkes@shell.com) Abstract: A current trend in the oil and gas industry is to use compact so, oil and gas industry, slug control, model based control, feedforward control 1. INTRODUCTION A current

Van den Hof, Paul

293

The three loop slope of the Dirac form factor and the S Lamb shift in hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The last unknown contribution to hydrogen energy levels at order malpha{sup 7}, due to the slope of the Dirac form factor at three loops, is evaluated in a closed analytical form. The resulting shift of the hydrogen nS energy level is found to be 3.016/n{sup 3} kHz. Using the QED calculations of the 1S Lamb shift, the authors extract a precise value of the proton charge radius r{sub p} = 0.883{+-}0.014 fm.

Melnikov, K.

1999-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

294

Free energy of static quarks and the renormalized Polyakov loop in full QCD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results from a detailed study of singlet free energies in full QCD with realistic quark masses. An improved scheme for the non-perturbative renormalization of the Polyakov loop is used and we compare its temperature dependence for QCD with different flavor content. We also analyze screening masses extracted from singlet free energies at various temperatures close to and above the QCD transition temperature. We conclude that the temperature dependence of screening masses is well described by perturbation theory up to a non-perturbative pre-factor. An effective running coupling has been determined for all temperature values giving additional insight into screening phenomena at high temperature.

K. Petrov; for the RBC-Bielefeld Collaboration

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

295

GNSS dataless signal tracking with a delay semi-open loop and a phase open loop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article we propose to process the code and phase delay of a dataless GNSS signal in open and semi-open loops. The aims of this processing are to get an accurate estimate of the phase and code delays by integration of the GNSS signal. We show ... Keywords: Bayesian estimation, Circular estimation, GNSS signal processing

G. Stienne; S. Reboul; M. Azmani; J. B. Choquel; M. Benjelloun

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Loop Current Cycle: Coupled Response of the Loop Current with Deep Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although the upper-layer dynamics of the Loop Current and eddies in the Gulf of Mexico are well studied, the understanding of how they are coupled to the deep flows is limited. In this work, results from a numerical model are analyzed to classify ...

Y.-L. Chang; L.-Y. Oey

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

James T. Cobb, Jr.

2003-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

298

Electrolysis byproduct D2O provides a third way to mitigate CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rapid atomic power deployment may be possible without using fast breeder reactors or making undue demands on uranium resource. Using by-product D2O and thorium-U233 in CANDU and RBMK piles may circumvent need for either fast breeder reactors or seawater uranium. Atmospheric CO2 is presently increasing 2.25%/year in proportion to 2.25%/year exponential fossil fuel consumption increase. Roughly 1/3 anthropologic CO2 is removed by various CO2 sinks. CO2 removal is modelled as being proportional to 45-year-earlier CO2 amount above 280 ppm-C Water electrolysis produces roughly 0.1 kg-D20/kWe-y. Material balance assumes each electrolysis stage increases D2O bottoms concentration times 3. Except for first two electrolysis stages, all water from hydrogen consumption is returned to electrolysis. The unique characteristic of this process is the ability to economically burn all deuterium-enriched H2 in vehicles. Condensate from vehicles returns to appropriate electrolysis stage. Fuel cell condensate originally from reformed natural gas may augment second-sage feed. Atomic power expansion is 5%/year, giving 55000 GWe by 2100. World primary energy increases 2.25%/y, exceeding 4000 EJ/y by 2100. CO2 maximum is roughly 600 ppm-C around year 2085. CO2 declines back below 300 ppm-C by 2145 if the 45-year-delay seawater sink remains effective.

Schenewerk, William Ernest [self, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Highly Efficient Modeling of Dynamic Coronal Loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observational and theoretical evidence suggests that coronal heating is impulsive and occurs on very small cross-field spatial scales. A single coronal loop could contain a hundred or more individual strands that are heated quasi-independently by nanoflares. It is therefore an enormous undertaking to model an entire active region or the global corona. Three-dimensional MHD codes have inadequate spatial resolution, and 1D hydro codes are too slow to simulate the many thousands of elemental strands that must be treated in a reasonable representation. Fortunately, thermal conduction and flows tend to smooth out plasma gradients along the magnetic field, so "0D models" are an acceptable alternative. We have developed a highly efficient model called Enthalpy-Based Thermal Evolution of Loops (EBTEL) that accurately describes the evolution of the average temperature, pressure, and density along a coronal strand. It improves significantly upon earlier models of this type--in accuracy, flexibility, and capability. It treats both slowly varying and highly impulsive coronal heating; it provides the differential emission measure distribution, DEM(T), at the transition region footpoints; and there are options for heat flux saturation and nonthermal electron beam heating. EBTEL gives excellent agreement with far more sophisticated 1D hydro simulations despite using four orders of magnitude less computing time. It promises to be a powerful new tool for solar and stellar studies.

J. A. Klimchuk; S. Patsourakos; P. J. Cargill

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Jordan cells of periodic loop models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jordan cells in transfer matrices of finite lattice models are a signature of the logarithmic character of the conformal field theories that appear in their thermodynamical limit. The transfer matrix of periodic loop models, T_N, is an element of the periodic Temperley-Lieb algebra EPTL_N(\\beta, \\alpha), where N is the number of sites on a section of the cylinder, and \\beta = -(q+1/q) = 2 \\cos \\lambda and \\alpha the weights of contractible and non-contractible loops. The thermodynamic limit of T_N is believed to describe a conformal field theory of central charge c=1-6\\lambda^2/(\\pi(\\lambda-\\pi)). The abstract element T_N acts naturally on (a sum of) spaces V_N^d, similar to those upon which the standard modules of the (classical) Temperley-Lieb algebra act. These spaces known as sectors are labeled by the numbers of defects d and depend on a {\\em twist parameter} v that keeps track of the winding of defects around the cylinder. Criteria are given for non-trivial Jordan cells of T_N both between sectors with distinct defect numbers and within a given sector.

Alexi Morin-Duchesne; Yvan Saint-Aubin

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

BAYESIAN MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SEISMOLOGY OF CORONAL LOOPS  

SciTech Connect

We perform a Bayesian parameter inference in the context of resonantly damped transverse coronal loop oscillations. The forward problem is solved in terms of parametric results for kink waves in one-dimensional flux tubes in the thin tube and thin boundary approximations. For the inverse problem, we adopt a Bayesian approach to infer the most probable values of the relevant parameters, for given observed periods and damping times, and to extract their confidence levels. The posterior probability distribution functions are obtained by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations, incorporating observed uncertainties in a consistent manner. We find well-localized solutions in the posterior probability distribution functions for two of the three parameters of interest, namely the Alfven travel time and the transverse inhomogeneity length scale. The obtained estimates for the Alfven travel time are consistent with previous inversion results, but the method enables us to additionally constrain the transverse inhomogeneity length scale and to estimate real error bars for each parameter. When observational estimates for the density contrast are used, the method enables us to fully constrain the three parameters of interest. These results can serve to improve our current estimates of unknown physical parameters in coronal loops and to test the assumed theoretical model.

Arregui, I. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Asensio Ramos, A., E-mail: inigo.arregui@uib.es, E-mail: aasensio@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

302

Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches. 6 figs.

Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Hunter, S.R.

1987-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

303

Automatically closing swing gate closure assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A swing gate closure assembly for nuclear reactor tipoff assembly wherein the swing gate is cammed open by a fuel element or spacer but is reliably closed at a desired closing rate primarily by hydraulic forces in the absence of a fuel charge.

Chang, Shih-Chih (Richland, WA); Schuck, William J. (Richland, WA); Gilmore, Richard F. (Kennewick, WA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Geothermal Ground-Loop Preinstallation Project at Walden Pond  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geothermal ground-source heat pumps can help utilities increase electricity sales while reducing peak demands, but high ground-loop installation costs are a barrier to widespread acceptance. This project, conducted with Public Service Company of Indiana, demonstrated that mass installation of ground loops in a residential subdivision prior to home construction can substantially reduce installed cost for both horizontal and vertical loop configurations.

1990-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

305

The Quantum Configuration Space of Loop Quantum Cosmology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The article gives an account of several aspects of the space known as the Bohr compactification of the line, featuring as the quantum configuration space in loop quantum cosmology, as well as of the corresponding configuration space realization of the so-called polymer representation. Analogies with loop quantum gravity are explored, providing an introduction to (part of) the mathematical structure of loop quantum gravity, in a technically simpler context.

J. M. Velhinho

2007-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

306

Laboratory Characterization of Advanced SO2 Control By-Products: Dry Sodium and Calcium In-Duct Injection Wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extensive laboratory investigation indicates that the physical and chemical characterization and engineering properties of dry sodium and calcium in-duct injection wastes differ, as do the refuse and by-product management options associated with them. Utilities can use this report on the chemical, physical, engineering, and leachate properties of dry sodium and calcium in-duct injection wastes to better plan for and manage future waste disposal and/or use.

1990-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

307

Mixtures of a Coal Combustion By-Product and Composted Yard Wastes for Use as Soil Substitutes and Amendments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under certain conditions, the physical and chemical properties of coal combustion by-products (CCBPs) can be conducive to plant growth. As one means of increasing use rates, EPRI and several utilities have studied CCBP applications as a soil amendment and soil substitute when mixed with varying proportions of yard waste compost, sand, and soil. This report presents the results of green-house studies on the use of CCBP mixtures in growing shrubs, trees, and ground cover plants.

1996-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

308

Evolution and dynamics of cusped light-like Wilson loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the possible relation between the singular structure of TMDs on the light-cone and the geometrical behaviour of rectangular Wilson loops.

Frederik F. Van der Veken

2013-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

309

Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO2 Capture from Existing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

looping combustion prototype based on successful development and testing of a 65 kW (thermal) pilot-scale system under a previous Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative...

310

Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture The Ohio State University (OSU) Project Number: FE0012136 Project Description The...

311

Precipitation and scaling in dynamic geothermal systems. [Titanium loop facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A dynamic loop facility for studying scaling in simulated geothermal brines--under conditions such as will be encountered in engineering scale heat transfer equipment is being constructed. The first phase of the program consists of two principal efforts: (1) modification of an existing 100 gpm titanium loop to provide the engineering scaling test facility and (2) operation of an approximately 1 gph once-through (experimental) system to provide design data for titanium loop modifications to provide experience with scale formation and characterization. This experience is being used in planning the scaling studies to be conducted in the dynamic loop facility. The status of the project is described.

Bohlmann, E.G.; Shor, A.J.; Berlinski, P.

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Bosonic (meta)stabilization of cosmic string loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the possibility of a bosonic (meta)stabilization of a cosmic gauge string loop due to the presence of a gas of low mass bosonic particles which become trapped within the string core. This boson gas exerts a pressure which tends to counteract the string tension, allowing a circular string loop to find a finite equilibrium radius, provided that gas particles do not escape the string core. However, high energy bosons do escape, and consequently the loop shrinks and the temperature rises. Estimates indicate that the bosonic stabilization mechanism is ineffective, and the loop is unstable against decay.

J. R. Morris

2013-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

313

Experimental and computational studies of loop heat pipes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Computational and experimental investigations of fluid flow and heat transfer aspects of loop heat pipes (LHPs) are presented in this thesis. The overall goal is… (more)

Atabaki, Nima.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

NETL: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-Fueled Chemical Looping...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Looping Combustion Project No.: DE-FE0001808 NETL has partnered with Western Kentucky University to develop a series of advanced oxygen carriers for coal-fueled...

315

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J. [and others

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

316

Utilizing Bioenergy By-products in Beef Production Systems The newly expanded renewable fuels standard requires 36 billion gallons of renewable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Utilizing Bioenergy By-products in Beef Production Systems The newly expanded renewable fuels standard requires 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels be used annually by 2022, which allows continued

317

Field Evaluation of the Comanagement of Utility Low-Volume Wastes with High-Volume Coal Combustion By-Products: HA Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Typically, utilities comanage some or all of their low-volume wastes with their high-volume by-products in disposal facilities. This report presents the results of a field study of comanagement of coal combustion by-products at a utility-owned impoundment in the midwestern United States (HA site). The findings from this research provided technical information for use in a study of comanagement practices by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

2000-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

318

Who pays to close a nuke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Treating nuclear power plant decommissioning as an externality helps reduce the costs of the decisions we will be forced to make soon. According to the British magazine Atom, more than 60 nuclear power plants will be candidates for decommissioning worldwide by 2000. Another 350 commercial reactors worldwide will become eligible for decommissioning two decades after that. The United States has about one-quarter of the world's commercial reactors, many of which are nearing the end of their licensed life. While various organizations and government agencies debate the future direction of nuclear power in the United States, reactor retirements already are starting to accumulate. Vermont Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Indian Point 1, Dresden 1, LaCrosse, Peach Bottom 1, Ft. St. Vrain, Three Mile Island 2, Rancho Seco, and Humboldt Bay 3 all have been announced for decommissioning. Shippingport Atomic Station, near Pittsburgh, has been dismantled and removed. Many questions are emerging as the specter of abandoned hulks and mountains of radioactive debris begins to loom on the horizon. A useful way to address some of the problems of nuclear decommissioning is through the work of University of Chicago Professor Ronald Coase. Coase received the Nobel Prize in economics in October 1991 primarily for his work on externalities; that is, the by-products of production or consumption activities that affect others besides the producer or consumer.

Pasqualetti, M.J.; Rothwell, G.

1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

319

Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research at the Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility was successfully concluded in September 1979. In 13,000 hours of operation over a three and one half year period, the nominal 10 megawatt electrical equivalent GLEF provided the opportunity to identify problems in working with highly saline geothermal fluids and to develop solutions that could be applied to a commercial geothermal power plant producing electricity. A seven and one half year period beginning in April 1972, with early well flow testing and ending in September 1979, with the completion of extensive facility and reservoir operations is covered. During this period, the facility was designed, constructed and operated in several configurations. A comprehensive reference document, addressing or referencing documentation of all the key areas investigated is presented.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Open-loop heat-recovery dryer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A drying apparatus is disclosed that includes a drum and an open-loop airflow pathway originating at an ambient air inlet, passing through the drum, and terminating at an exhaust outlet. A passive heat exchanger is included for passively transferring heat from air flowing from the drum toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the ambient air inlet toward the drum. A heat pump is also included for actively transferring heat from air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the drum. A heating element is also included for further heating air flowing from the heat pump toward the drum.

TeGrotenhuis, Ward Evan

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

ABJ Fractional Brane from ABJM Wilson Loop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new Fermi gas formalism for the ABJ matrix model. This formulation takes a form that identifies the effect of the fractional M2-brane in the ABJ matrix model as that of a composite Wilson loop operator in the corresponding ABJM matrix model. Using this formalism, we study the phase dependence of the ABJ partition function numerically and find a simple rule for it. We further compute first few exact values at some coupling constants. Fitting these exact values against the expected form of the grand potential we can write down the grand potential with exact coefficients. The results at various coupling constants enable us to conjecture an explicit form of the grand potential for general coupling constants. This matches with a natural generalization of the perturbative sum, worldsheet instantons and bound states from the ABJM matrix model, but contains a minor difference in the membrane instantons.

Sho Matsumoto; Sanefumi Moriyama

2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

322

Strontium Isotope Study of Coal Untilization By-products Interacting with Environmental Waters  

SciTech Connect

Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elements—including alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zinc—during sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-{sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUB–water interaction.

Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Conversion of high carbon refinery by-products. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate that a partial oxidation system, which utilizes a transport reactor, is a viable means of converting refinery wastes, byproducts, and other low value materials into valuable products. The primary product would be a high quality fuel gas, which could also be used as a source of hydrogen. The concept involves subjecting the hydrocarbon feed to pyrolysis and steam gasification in a circulating bed of solids. Carbon residue formed during pyrolysis, as well as metals in the feed, are captured by the circulating solids which are returned to the bottom of the transport reactor. Air or oxygen is introduced in this lower zone and sufficient carbon is burned, sub-stoichiometrically, to provide the necessary heat for the endothermic pyrolysis and gasification reactions. The hot solids and gases leaving this zone pass upward to contact the feed material and continue the partial oxidation process. Studies were conducted in the Transport Reactor Test Unit (TRTU) to pyrolyze naphtha with untreated as well as potassium-impregnated spent FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) catalyst as the circulating medium over a temperature range of 1,400 to 1,600 F. The results from these studies are presented and discussed here. Studies were also performed in the Bench Scale Reactor Unit (BRU) in an effort to develop suitable catalyst formulations and to study the steam reforming of methane and propane in support of the experiments conducted in the TRTU. The results from these studies are also presented here. A Cold Flow Simulator (CFS) was designed and built to investigate the flow problems experienced in the TRTU.

O`Donnell, J.; Katta, S.; Henningsen, G.; Lin, Y.Y.

1996-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

324

Effect of industrial by-products containing electron acceptors on mitigating methane emission during rice cultivation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three industrial by-products (fly ash, phosphogypsum and blast furnace slag), were evaluated for their potential re-use as soil amendments to reduce methane (CH{sub 4}) emission resulting from rice cultivation. In laboratory incubations, CH{sub 4} production rates from anoxic soil slurries were significantly reduced at amendment levels of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (wt wt{sup -1}), while observed CO{sub 2} production rates were enhanced. The level of suppression in methane production was the highest for phosphogypsum, followed by blast slag and then fly ash. In the greenhouse experiment, CH{sub 4} emission rates from the rice planted potted soils significantly decreased with the increasing levels (2-20 Mg ha{sup -1}) of the selected amendments applied, while rice yield simultaneously increased compared to the control treatment. At 10 Mg ha{sup -1} application level of the amendments, total seasonal CH{sub 4} emissions were reduced by 20%, 27% and 25%, while rice grain yields were increased by 17%, 15% and 23% over the control with fly ash, phosphogypsum, and blast slag amendments, respectively. The suppression of CH{sub 4} production rates as well as total seasonal CH{sub 4} flux could be due to the increased concentrations of active iron, free iron, manganese oxides, and sulfate in the amended soil, which acted as electron acceptors and controlled methanogens' activity by limiting substrates availability. Among the amendments, blast furnace slag and fly ash contributed mainly to improve the soil nutrients balance and increased the soil pH level towards neutral point, but soil acidity was developed with phosphogypsum application. Conclusively, blast slag among the selected amendments would be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH{sub 4} emissions as well as sustaining rice productivity.

Ali, Muhammad Aslam [Department of Environmental Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202 (Bangladesh); Lee, Chang Hoon [Functional Cereal Crop Research Division, National Institute of Crop Science, RDA, 1085, Naey-dong, Milyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yoon [Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School (Brain Korea 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Pil Joo [Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School (Brain Korea 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: pjkim@gnu.ac.kr

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

325

Closing_Language_Patent_Waiver_Grant_Cases.pdf | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ClosingLanguagePatentWaiverGrantCases.pdf ClosingLanguagePatentWaiverGrantCases.pdf ClosingLanguagePatentWaiverGrantCases.pdf More Documents & Publications...

326

Direct current, closed furnace silicon technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dc closed furnace technology for smelting silicon offers technical operating challenges, as well as, economic opportunities for off-gas recovery, reduced electrode consumption, reduced reductant oxidation losses, reduced energy consumption, and improved silicon recovery. The 10 mva dc closed furnace is located in East Selkirk, Manitoba. Construction of this pilot plant was started in September 1990. Following successful commissioning of the furnace in 1992, a number of smelting tests have been conducted aimed at optimization of the furnace operation and the raw material mix. The operation of a closed furnace is significantly different from an open furnace operation. The major difference being in the mechanical movement of the mix, off-gas recovery, and inability to observe the process. These differences made data collection and analysis critical in making operating decisions. This closed furnace was operated by computer control (state of the art in the smelling industry).

Dosaj, V.D. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States); May, J.B. [Dow Corning Corp., Freeland, MI (United States); Arvidson, A.N. [Meadow Materials, Manitoba (Canada)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

The pomeron in closed bosonic string theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We compute the couplings of the pomeron to the first few mass levels of closed bosonic string states in flat space. We recognize the deviation from the linearity of the Regge trajectories in a five dimensional anti De Sitter background.

Fazio, A. R. [Departamento de fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

328

VISUALS: Photovoltaic Solar Cells Close-Up  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jan 10, 2008 ... This site contains very close-up static and portrait shots of photovoltaic solar cells and cell arrays. Two cell types are shown: A silver and gray ...

329

Gosling and Fehner- Closing the Circle  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

F. G. Gosling and Terrence R. Fehner. Closing the Cirlce: The Department of Energy and Environmental Management, 1942-1994. March 1994.Text in each PDF is fully searchable.

330

Closed Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline: Revision 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Closed Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline addresses the use of chemicals and monitoring methods to mitigate corrosion, fouling, and microbiological growth in the closed cooling-water (CCW) systems of nuclear and fossil-fueled power plants. The chemical additives used for these purposes depend on plant-design characteristics, water quality, operating parameters, and the specifications of the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) suppliers. The list of chemicals is not as extensive as that ...

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

331

Feature Exploration for Mining Coronal Loops from Solar Images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coronal loops are especially important in analyzing some important phenomena related to the Sun such as the controversial coronal heating problem. The analysis requires astrophysicists to manually sift through thousands of images in order to acquire ... Keywords: feature extraction, coronal loops, SOHO, data mining, solar

Nurcan Durak; Olfa Nasraoui

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Electricity generation with looped transmission networks: Bidding to an ISO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electricity generation with looped transmission networks: Bidding to an ISO Xinmin Hu Daniel Ralph to model markets for delivery of electrical power on looped transmission networks. It analyzes in transmission capacity mean the ISO potentially sets a different electricity price at each node of the trans

Ferris, Michael C.

333

The Spectrum of Loop Current Variability from Gappy Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this work was to understand the rate at which large anticyclonic rings are shed from the Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico. The northward penetration of the Loop Current is used here as a surrogate variable. Data are primarily from ...

Wilton Sturges

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Singlet Free Energies and Renormalized Polyakov Loop in full QCD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the free energy of a static quark anti-quark pair and the renormalized Polyakov loop in 2+1- and 3- flavor QCD using $16^3 \\times 4$ and $16^3 \\times 6$ lattices and improved staggered p4 action. We also compare the renormalized Polyakov loop with the results of our earlier studies.

K. Petrov

2006-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

335

URANIUM-BISMUTH IN-PILE CORROSION TEST LOOP. RADIATION LOOP NO. 1  

SciTech Connect

A loop was operated in the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor to determine the effect of in-pile irradiation on the corrosion of various materials by a U-- Bi solution. The loop wws fabricated of 21/4% chrome-1% Mo steel and contained, in the in-pile section, specimens of low-chrome steels, C steel, Mo, Be, Ta, and graphite. The U--Bi solution containing 869 ppm U/sup 235/ 98 ppm U/ sup 238/, 236 ppm Zr, and 346 ppm Mg was circulated at 51/4 gpm. A temperature difference of 75 deg C was maintained on the loop. The in-pile test section ran at 500 deg C and the finned cooler section at 425 deg C. The in-pile test section was exposed to a neutron flux of 4.4 x 10/sup 12/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/-sec which provided a fission density of 5.5 x 10/sup 10/ fissions/cm/sup 3/-sec. Metallographic examination indicated that the corrosion and/or erosion of the steel and graphite specimens was nil. Wetting of the specimens by the U-Bi solution was limited. Results indicate that in-pile and out-of-pile experimental results are similar and that fission fragment recoils did not contribute materially to either wetting or corrosion under the conditions imposed in this test. (auth)

Waide, C.H.; Kukacka, L.E.; Meyer, R.A.; Milau, J.; Klein, J.H.; Chow, J.G.Y.; Klamut, C.J.; Gurinsky, D.H.

1961-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Complete algebraic reduction of one-loop tensor Feynman integrals  

SciTech Connect

We set up a new, flexible approach for the tensor reduction of one-loop Feynman integrals. The 5-point tensor integrals up to rank R=5 are expressed by 4-point tensor integrals of rank R-1, such that the appearance of the inverse 5-point Gram determinant is avoided. The 4-point tensor coefficients are represented in terms of 4-point integrals, defined in d dimensions, 4-2{epsilon}{<=}d{<=}4-2{epsilon}+2(R-1), with higher powers of the propagators. They can be further reduced to expressions which stay free of the inverse 4-point Gram determinants but contain higher-dimensional 4-point integrals with only the first power of scalar propagators, plus 3-point tensor coefficients. A direct evaluation of the higher-dimensional 4-point functions would avoid the appearance of inverse powers of the Gram determinants completely. The simplest approach, however, is to apply here dimensional recurrence relations in order to reduce them to the familiar 2- to 4-point functions in generic dimension d=4-2{epsilon}, introducing thereby coefficients with inverse 4-point Gram determinants up to power R for tensors of rank R. For small or vanishing Gram determinants--where this reduction is not applicable--we use analytic expansions in positive powers of the Gram determinants. Improving the convergence of the expansions substantially with Pade approximants we close up to the evaluation of the 4-point tensor coefficients for larger Gram determinants. Finally, some relations are discussed which may be useful for analytic simplifications of Feynman diagrams.

Fleischer, J. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Riemann, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Solid looping cycles: A new technology for coal conversion  

SciTech Connect

This article examines both oxygen looping cycles (otherwise known as chemical looping combustion), and lime-based CO{sub 2} looping cycles, where calcined limestone is used for in situ CO{sub 2} capture. There has been a rapid rise in the amount of research carried out recently, and both technologies are likely to see practical application in the near future. However, these technologies urgently require demonstration at the large pilot-plant level - in the case of chemical looping cycles for use with high-pressure syngas of the type likely to be produced by current coal gasification technologies and in the case of CO{sub 2} looping cycles both for combustion and gasification applications with coal. Both approaches have potential for application in schemes for H{sub 2} production, but these have not been considered here, although such applications will also inevitably follow in the medium to long term.

Anthony, E.J. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Natural Resources Canada

2008-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

338

A thermodynamic model for agglomeration of DNA-looping proteins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a thermodynamic mechanism for the formation of transcriptional foci via the joint agglomeration of DNA-looping proteins and protein-binding domains on DNA: The competition between the gain in protein-DNA binding free energy and the entropy loss due to DNA looping is argued to result in an effective attraction between loops. A mean-field approximation can be described analytically via a mapping to a restricted random-graph ensemble having local degree constraints and global constraints on the number of connected components. It shows the emergence of protein clusters containing a finite fraction of all looping proteins. If the entropy loss due to a single DNA loop is high enough, this transition is found to be of first order.

Sumedha; Martin Weigt

2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

339

ADVANCED BYPRODUCT RECOVERY: DIRECT CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF SO2 TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR  

SciTech Connect

Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its commercialization partner, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner Tufts, investigated a single-step process for direct, catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide from regenerable flue gas desulfurization processes to the more valuable elemental sulfur by-product. This development built on recently demonstrated SO{sub 2}-reduction catalyst performance at Tufts University on a DOE-sponsored program and is, in principle, applicable to processing of regenerator off-gases from all regenerable SO{sub 2}-control processes. In this program, laboratory-scale catalyst optimization work at Tufts was combined with supported catalyst formulation work at Engelhard, bench-scale supported catalyst testing at Arthur D. Little and market assessments, also by Arthur D. Little. Objectives included identification and performance evaluation of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. The catalyst formulation was improved significantly over the course of this work owing to the identification of a number of underlying phenomena that tended to reduce catalyst selectivity. The most promising catalysts discovered in the bench-scale tests at Tufts were transformed into monolith-supported catalysts at Engelhard. These catalyst samples were tested at larger scale at Arthur D. Little, where the laboratory-scale results were confirmed, namely that the catalysts do effectively reduce sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur when operated under appropriate levels of conversion and in conditions that do not contain too much water or hydrogen. Ways to overcome those limitations were suggested by the laboratory results. Nonetheless, at the end of Phase I, the catalysts did not exhibit the very stringent levels of activity or selectivity that would have permitted ready scale-up to pilot or commercial operation. Therefore, we chose not to pursue Phase II of this work which would have included further bench-scale testing, scale-up, pilot-scale (0.5 MW{sub e}) testing at conditions representative of various regenerable SO{sub 2}-control systems, preparation of a commercial process design, and development of a utility-scale demonstration plan.

Robert S. Weber

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

Donal F. Day

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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341

Consistent probabilities in loop quantum cosmology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A fundamental issue for any quantum cosmological theory is to specify how probabilities can be assigned to various quantum events or sequences of events such as the occurrence of singularities or bounces. In previous work, we have demonstrated how this issue can be successfully addressed within the consistent histories approach to quantum theory for Wheeler-DeWitt-quantized cosmological models. In this work, we generalize that analysis to the exactly solvable loop quantization of a spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic cosmology sourced with a massless, minimally coupled scalar field known as sLQC. We provide an explicit, rigorous and complete decoherent histories formulation for this model and compute the probabilities for the occurrence of a quantum bounce vs. a singularity. Using the scalar field as an emergent internal time, we show for generic states that the probability for a singularity to occur in this model is zero, and that of a bounce is unity, complementing earlier studies of the expectation values of the volume and matter density in this theory. We also show from the consistent histories point of view that all states in this model, whether quantum or classical, achieve arbitrarily large volume in the limit of infinite `past' or `future' scalar `time', in the sense that the wave function evaluated at any arbitrary fixed value of the volume vanishes in that limit. Finally, we briefly discuss certain misconceptions concerning the utility of the consistent histories approach in these models.

David A. Craig; Parampreet Singh

2013-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

342

Laser photon statistics in the feedback loop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A mere correspondence between the electron statistics and the photon one vanishes in the feedback loop (FBL). It means that the direct photodetection, supplying us with the electron statistics, does not provide us with a wished information about the laser photon statistics. For getting this information we should think up another measurement procedure, and we in the article suggest applying the three-level laser as a auxiliary measuring device. This laser has impressive property, namely, its photon statistics survive information about the initial photon statistics of the laser which excites coherently the three-level medium. Thus, if we choose the laser in the FBL as exciting the three-level laser, then we have an possibility to evaluate its initial photon statistics by means of direct detecting the three-level laser emission. Finally, this approach allows us to conclude the feedback is not capable of creating a regularity in the laser light beam. Contrary, the final photon fluctuations turn out to be always even bigger. The mentioned above feature of the three-level laser takes place only for the strong interaction between the lasers (exciting and excited). It means the initial state of the exciting laser is changed dramatically, so our measurement procedure can not be identified with some non-demolition one.

T. Yu. Golubeva; Yu. M. Golubev

2005-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

343

TS LOOP NON-POTABLE PUMP EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect

This analysis evaluates the existing subsurface non-potable water system from the portal pump to the end of the water line in the South Ramp and determines if the pump size and spacing meets the system pressure and flow requirements for construction operations and incipient fire fighting capability as established in the Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis (CRWMS M&O 1998b). This analysis does not address the non potable water system in the Cross Drift which is covered under a previous design analysis (CRWMS-M&O 1998a). The Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis references sections of OSHA 29 CFR 1910 Subpart L for requirements applicable to the incipient fire fighting hose stations used underground. This analysis does not address mechanical system valves, fittings, risers and other components of the system piping. This system is not designed or intended to meet all National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) codes for a fire fighting system but is only considered a backup system to fire extinguishers that are installed throughout the Topopah Springs (TS) Loop and may be used to fight small incipient stage fires.

S. Goodin

1999-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

344

EXAMINATION OF Zr AND Ti RECOMBINER LOOP SPECIMENS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cold-worked specimens of iodide zirconium, Zircaloy-2, iodide titanium, and A-55 titanium were tested in a high-pressure recombiner loop in an attempt to duplicate anomalous results obtained in a prior recombiner loop. Hydrogen analyses and metallographic examinations were made on all specimens. The titanium materials and Zircaloy-2 picked up major amounts of hydrogen in the cell section. None of the materials tested showed appreciable hydrogen absorption in the recombiner section. Complete recrystallization occurred in all cell specimens while only Zircaloy-2, of the recombiner specimens, showed any degree of recrystallization. No explanation for this behavior can be given. A survnnary of the data obtained in previous recombiner loops is compared with the results of this loop. Conclusions were based on the results of three recombiner loops. Primarlly because of the hydrogen absorption data obtained in all three recombiner loops it is recommended that the zirconium and titunium materials tested not be used in environments similar to those encountered in high pressure recombiner loops. (auth)

Rittenhouse, P.L.

1958-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

345

Observation of multiple sausage oscillations in cool postflare loop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using simultaneous high spatial (1.3 arc sec) and temporal (5 and 10 s) resolution H-alpha observations from the 15 cm Solar Tower Telescope at ARIES, we study the oscillations in the relative intensity to explore the possibility of sausage oscillations in the chromospheric cool postflare loop. We use standard wavelet tool, and find the oscillation period of ~ 587 s near the loop apex, and ~ 349 s near the footpoint. We suggest that the oscillations represent the fundamental and the first harmonics of fast sausage waves in the cool postflare loop. Based on the period ratio P1/P2 ~ 1.68, we estimate the density scale height in the loop as ~ 17 Mm. This value is much higher than the equilibrium scale height corresponding to H-alpha temperature, which probably indicates that the cool postflare loop is not in hydrostatic equilibrium. Seismologically estimated Alfv\\'en speed outside the loop is ~ 300-330 km/s. The observation of multiple oscillations may play a crucial role in understanding the dynamics of lower solar atmosphere, complementing such oscillations already reported in the upper solar atmosphere (e.g., hot flaring loops).

A. K. Srivastava; T. V. Zaqarashvili; W. Uddin; B. N. Dwivedi; Pankaj Kumar

2008-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

346

Closed sets of non-local correlations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce a fundamental concept -- closed sets of correlations -- for studying non-local correlations. We argue that sets of correlations corresponding to information-theoretic principles, or more generally to consistent physical theories, must be closed under a natural set of operations. Hence, studying the closure of sets of correlations gives insight into which information-theoretic principles are genuinely different, and which are ultimately equivalent. This concept also has implications for understanding why quantum non-locality is limited, and for finding constraints on physical theories beyond quantum mechanics.

Jonathan Allcock; Nicolas Brunner; Noah Linden; Sandu Popescu; Paul Skrzypczyk; Tamas Vertesi

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

347

Note on tachyon moduli and closed strings  

SciTech Connect

The collective behavior of the SL(2,R) covariant brane states of noncritical c=1 string theory, found in a previous work, is studied in the Fermi liquid approximation. It is found that such states mimic the coset WZW model, whereas only by further restrictions one recovers the double-scaling limit which was purported to be equivalent to closed string models. Another limit is proposed, inspired by the tachyon condensation ideas, where the spectrum is the same of two-dimensional string theory. We close by noting some strange connections between vacuum states of the theory in their different interpretations.

Carneiro da Cunha, Bruno [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland) and Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, CEP 53901-970, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

DOE/EA-1498: Advanced Coal Utilization Byproduct Beneficiation Processing Plant Ghent Power Station, Carroll County, Kentucky (01/05)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EA-1498 EA-1498 Advanced Coal Utilization Byproduct Beneficiation Processing Plant Ghent Power Station, Carroll County, Kentucky Final Environmental Assessment January 2005 Note: No comments were received during the public comment period from September 25 to October 25, 2004. Therefore, no changes to the Draft Environmental Assessment were necessary. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Cover Sheet Proposed Action: The proposed Federal action is to provide funding, through a cooperative agreement with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation (UKRF), Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), for the design, construction, and operation of an advanced coal ash beneficiation processing plant at Kentucky Utilities (KU) Ghent Power Station in Carroll County, Kentucky.

349

Iterational retiming: Maximize iteration-level parallelism for nested loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nested loops are the most critical sections in many scientific and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) applications. It is important to study effective and efficient transformation techniques to increase parallelism for nested loops. In this paper, we propose a novel technique, iterational retiming, that can satisfy any given timing constraint by achieving full parallelism for iterations in a partition. Theorems and efficient algorithms are proposed for iterational retiming. The experimental results show that iterational retiming is a promising technique for parallel embedded systems. It can achieve 87% improvement over software pipelining and 88 % improvement over loop unfolding on average.

Chun Xue; Zili Shao; Meilin Liu; Edwin H. -m. Sha

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Fiber-bragg grating-loop ringdown method and apparatus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A device comprising a fiber grating loop ringdown (FGLRD) system of analysis is disclosed. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) or Long-Period grating (LPG) written in a section of single mode fused silica fiber is incorporated into a fiber loop. By utilizing the wing areas of the gratings' bandwidth as a wavelength dependent attenuator of the light transmission, a fiber grating loop ringdown concept is formed. One aspect of the present invention is temperature sensing, which has been demonstrated using the disclosed device. Temperature measurements in the areas of accuracy, stability, high temperature, and dynamic range are also described.

Wang, Chuji (Starkville, MS)

2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

351

Fiber-bragg grating-loop ringdown method and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device comprising a fiber grating loop ringdown (FGLRD) system of analysis is disclosed. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) or Long-Period grating (LPG) written in a section of single mode fused silica fiber is incorporated into a fiber loop. By utilizing the wing areas of the gratings' bandwidth as a wavelength dependent attenuator of the light transmission, a fiber grating loop ringdown concept is formed. One aspect of the present invention is temperature sensing, which has been demonstrated using the disclosed device. Temperature measurements in the areas of accuracy, stability, high temperature, and dynamic range are also described.

Wang, Chuji (Starkville, MS)

2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

352

Zipping and Unzipping of Cosmic String Loops in Collision  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper the collision of two cosmic string loops is studied. After collision junctions are formed and the loops are entangled. We show that after their formation the junctions start to unzip and the loops disentangle. This analysis provides a theoretical understanding of the unzipping effect observed in numerical simulations of a network of cosmic strings with more than one type of cosmic strings. The unzipping phenomena have important effects in the evolution of cosmic string networks when junctions are formed upon collision, such as in a network of cosmic superstrings.

Hassan Firouzjahi; Johanna Karouby; Shahram Khosravi; Robert Brandenberger

2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

353

Equivalence of string and fusion loop-spin structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The importance of the fusion relation of loops was recognized in the context of spin structures on the loop space by Stolz and Teichner and further developed by Waldorf. On a spin manifold M the equivalence classes of `fusive' spin structures on the loop space LM, incorporating the fusion property, strong regularity and reparameterization-invariance, are shown to be in 1-1 correspondence with equivalence classes of string structures on M. The identification is through the affine space of `string' cohomology classes considered by Redden.

Chris Kottke; Richard Melrose

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Mining closed relational graphs with connectivity constraints  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relational graphs are widely used in modeling large scale networks such as biological networks and social networks. In this kind of graph, connectivity becomes critical in identifying highly associated groups and clusters. In this paper, we investigate ... Keywords: closed pattern, connectivity, graph

Xifeng Yan; X. Jasmine Zhou; Jiawei Han

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

print close Mon 2 May 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nuclear fusion reactor. The two sides have been at pains to craft a compromise over competing Japaneseprint close Mon 2 May 2005 (UK)2:56am Europe and Japan at Odds over 'Superpower' Reactor "PA and French bids to host the £6.8billion International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The ITER plant

356

Print this Page Close The nuclear deal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that the US will adopt to the demands of Pakistan and Israel, which will also claim to be responsible nuclearPrint this Page Close The nuclear deal July 20, 2005 | 19:05 ISTT P Sreenivasan | y assuming the same responsibilities and practices as leading countries with nuclear technologies 'such as the United

357

Boosted Fast Flux Loop Alternative Cooling Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Gas Test Loop (GTL) Project was instituted to develop the means for conducting fast neutron irradiation tests in a domestic radiation facility. It made use of booster fuel to achieve the high neutron flux, a hafnium thermal neutron absorber to attain the high fast-to-thermal flux ratio, a mixed gas temperature control system for maintaining experiment temperatures, and a compressed gas cooling system to remove heat from the experiment capsules and the hafnium thermal neutron absorber. This GTL system was determined to provide a fast (E > 0.1 MeV) flux greater than 1.0E+15 n/cm2-s with a fast-to-thermal flux ratio in the vicinity of 40. However, the estimated system acquisition cost from earlier studies was deemed to be high. That cost was strongly influenced by the compressed gas cooling system for experiment heat removal. Designers were challenged to find a less expensive way to achieve the required cooling. This report documents the results of the investigation leading to an alternatively cooled configuration, referred to now as the Boosted Fast Flux Loop (BFFL). This configuration relies on a composite material comprised of hafnium aluminide (Al3Hf) in an aluminum matrix to transfer heat from the experiment to pressurized water cooling channels while at the same time providing absorption of thermal neutrons. Investigations into the performance this configuration might achieve showed that it should perform at least as well as its gas-cooled predecessor. Physics calculations indicated that the fast neutron flux averaged over the central 40 cm (16 inches) relative to ATR core mid-plane in irradiation spaces would be about 1.04E+15 n/cm2-s. The fast-to-thermal flux ratio would be in excess of 40. Further, the particular configuration of cooling channels was relatively unimportant compared with the total amount of water in the apparatus in determining performance. Thermal analyses conducted on a candidate configuration showed the design of the water coolant and Al-Hf alloy heat sink system is capable of maintaining all system components below their maximum temperature limits. The maximum temperature of this conduction cooling system, 224.2°C (435.6 °F) occurs in a small, localized region in the heat sink structure near the core mid-plane. The total coolant flow rate requirement for this configuration is 207 L/min (54.7 gpm). The calculated Flow Instability Ratio and Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio for this configuration under nominal conditions are 6.5 and 8.0, respectively, which safely exceed the minimum values of 2.0. Materials and fabrication issues inspection revealed that the neutron absorber would probably best be made from powdered Al3Hf mixed with aluminum powder and extruded or hot isostatically pressed. Although Al3Hf has not been specifically studied extensively, its mechanical and chemical properties should be very much like Al3Zr, which has been studied. Its behavior under irradiation should be very satisfactory, and resistance to corrosion will be investigated to a limited extent in planned miniplate irradiation tests in ATR. Pressurized water systems needed to effect heat removal are already available in the ATR complex, and mixed gas temperature control systems needed to trim experiment temperatures have been engineered and need only be fabricated and installed. In sum, it appears the alternately cooled configuration arrived at can be very successful. The cost estimate for this configuration indicates to

Glen R. Longhurst; Donna Post Guillen; James R. Parry; Douglas L. Porter; Bruce W. Wallace

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

1989-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

359

DisClose: Discovering Colossal Closed Itemsets via a Memory Efficient Compact Row-Tree  

SciTech Connect

Itemset mining has recently focused on discovery of frequent itemsets from high-dimensional datasets with relatively few rows and a larger number of items. With exponentially in-creasing running time as average row length increases, mining such datasets renders most conventional algorithms impracti-cal. Unfortunately, large cardinality closed itemsets are likely to be more informative than small cardinality closed itemsets in this type of dataset. This paper proposes an approach, called DisClose, to extract large cardinality (colossal) closed itemsets from high-dimensional datasets. The approach relies on a memory-efficient Compact Row-Tree data structure to represent itemsets during the search process. The search strategy explores the transposed representation of the dataset. Large cardinality itemsets are enumerated first followed by smaller ones. In addition, we utilize a minimum cardinality threshold to further reduce the search space. Experimental result shows that DisClose can complete the extraction of colossal closed itemsets in the considered dataset, even for low support thresholds. The algorithm immediately discovers closed itemsets without needing to check if each new closed itemset has previously been found.

Zulkurnain, Nurul F.; Keane, John A.; Haglin, David J.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Feasibility of Detecting Byproducts of Chemical Weapons Manufacturing in Environmental Media: A Preliminary Evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Quantitative information on the environmental transport and fate of organophosphorus nerve agents has been limited to studies conducted at high concentration representative of acute doses (Munroe et al. 1999). Nerve agents have relatively rapidly degradation rates at acute levels, and first order degradation pathways and half-lives have been characterized. However, similar knowledge is lacking in the open literature on the long-term environmental persistence of nerve agents, their manufacturing precursors and byproducts, and their degradation products, particularly at sub-acute or chronic health levels. Although many recent publications reflect low-level detection methods for chemical weapons signature compounds extracted from a variety of different media (e.g. D'Agostino et al., 2001; Kataoka et al., 2001), little of this work answers questions regarding their adsorptive character and chemical persistence. However, these questions are a central theme to both the detection of illegal chemical weapons manufacturing, as well as determining long-term cleanup needs and health risks associated with potential terrorist acts using such agents. Adsorption onto environmental surfaces can enhance the persistence of organophosphorus compounds, particularly with strong chelators like phosphonic acids. In particular, organophosphorus compound adsorption can lead to irreversible binding (e.g. Aubin and Smith, 1992), and current methods of chemical extraction and solid-state detection are challenged to detect them. This may be particularly true if the adsorbed compound is of a low initial concentration because it may be that the most preferred adsorption sites form the strongest bonds. This is particularly true in mixed media having various adsorption domains that adsorb at different rates (e.g. Weber and Huang, 1996). For high enough initial concentrations, sorption sites become saturated and solvent extraction has a relatively high efficiency. It is no surprise that many CW fate studies can report findings using traditional extraction or solid-state methods of detection, since release concentration exceed the capacity of environmental media to adsorb or degrade them. This report documents a test using solid-state {sup 31}P-NMR and GC/MS methods to delineate two adsorbed phosphonates on a uniform silica gel substrate at different concentrations. The test sought to determine the sensitivity of {sup 31}P-NMR detection, delineate adsorption character of the phosphonates, quantify their extraction efficiency using different solvents, and test the phosphonate mobility and photodegradability under short-term idealized conditions. The results show that solid-state detection at the experimental conditions can detect individual phosphonate species down to the 100 ppm level. Sensitivity could be further increased using larger samples and longer collection times. Solvent extraction of the phosphonates from the silica gel showed that a chlorinated solvent (methylene chloride) produced poor recovery for phosphonic acids from the silica gel, whereas methanol used as a solvent achieved high extraction efficiency. The phosphonates used showed strong aqueous mobility in a silica gel column experiment, with a small but significant amount left adsorbed to the substrate. A 96 hour photo-degradation experiment showed no degradation of the compounds.

Davisson, L; Reynolds, J G; Koester, C; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Love, A H; Viani, B E

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

High Spatial Resolution Observations of Loops in the Solar Corona  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determining how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in July 2012. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) data for a subset of 79 of these loops and find that their temperature distributions are narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of proposed physical mechanisms.

Brooks, David H; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Winebarger, Amy R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Loop Current Response to Hurricanes Isidore and Lili  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent hurricane activity over the Gulf of Mexico basin has underscored the importance of the Loop Current (LC) and its deep, warm thermal structure on hurricane intensity. During Hurricanes Isidore and Lili in 2002, research flights were ...

Lynn K. Shay; Eric W. Uhlhorn

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Sodium Plugging Test Loop - Nuclear Engineering Division (Argonne)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sodium Plugging Test Loop Sodium Plugging Test Loop Sodium Plugging Test Loop Overview Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Sodium Plugging Test Loop This experimental setup is part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Fuel Cycle R&D work carried out at Argonne on advanced sodium component technology. Bookmark and Share For long range sodium technology research and development, employing supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion technology as an advanced balance of plant technology is being considered. The component that provides the interface between the sodium and supercritical CO2 is a compact heat exchanger known as a printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE). This heat exchanger has very small coolant flow passages that may foul or

364

Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit for Pulverized Coal-Fired...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit for Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants with In-Situ CO 2 Capture Background Pulverized coal (PC)-fired power plants provide nearly 50% of...

365

The search for the phonological store: From loop to convolution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phonological loop system of Baddeley and colleagues' Working Memory model is a major accomplishment of the modern era of cognitive psychology. It was one of the first information processing models to make an explicit attempt to accommodate both traditional ...

Bradley R. Buchsbaum; Mark D'Esposito

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

A Numerical Study of Loop Current Intrusions and Eddy Shedding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamics of the eddy shedding by the Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico have been investigated using three nonlinear numerical models: two-layer, barotropic and reduced gravity. The barotropic and reduced gravity models demonstrate the ...

H. E. Hurlburt; J. Dana Thompson

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

N >= 4 Supergravity Amplitudes from Gauge Theory at Two Loops  

SciTech Connect

We present the full two-loop four-graviton amplitudes in N = 4, 5, 6 supergravity. These results were obtained using the double-copy structure of gravity, which follows from the recently conjectured color-kinematics duality in gauge theory. The two-loop four-gluon scattering amplitudes in N = 0, 1, 2 supersymmetric gauge theory are a second essential ingredient. The gravity amplitudes have the expected infrared behavior: the two-loop divergences are given in terms of the squares of the corresponding one-loop amplitudes. The finite remainders are presented in a compact form. The finite remainder for N = 8 supergravity is also presented, in a form that utilizes a pure function with a very simple symbol.

Boucher-Veronneau, C.; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Geometry of loop quantum gravity on a graph  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the meaning of geometrical constructions associated to loop quantum gravity states on a graph. In particular, we discuss the 'twisted geometries' and derive a simple relation between these and Regge geometries.

Rovelli, Carlo; Speziale, Simone [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS-Luminy Case 907, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

Corrosion of alloy 718 in a mercury thermal convection loop  

SciTech Connect

Two thermal convection loops (TCLs) fabricated from annealed alloy 718 continuously circulated mercury (Hg) with 1000 wppm gallium (Ga), respectively, for about 5000 h, duplicating previous TCL tests for annealed 316L. In each case, the maximum loop temperature was 305C, the minimum temperature was 242C, and the Hg flow rate was approximately 1.2 m/min. Unlike the 316L exposed to Hg, which above about 260C exhibited a thin, porous surface layer depleted in Ni and Cr, the alloy 718 coupons revealed essentially no wetting and, therefore, no interaction with that Hg at any temperature. Alloy 718 coupons suspended in the loops revealed inconsequentially small weight changes, and both the coupons and loop tubing exhibited no detectable metallographic evidence of attack.

Pawel, S.J.; DiStefano, J.R.; Manneschmidt, E.T.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process  

This patent-pending technology, “Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process,” provides a metal-oxide oxygen carrier for application in fuel combustion processes that use oxygen.

371

Klystron "efficiency loop" for the ALS storage ring RF system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EFFICIENCY LOOP” FOR THE ALS STORAGE RING RF SYSTEM* S.at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in order to decrease thethe cavities. 1 INTRODUCTION ALS Storage Ring RF system is

Kwiatkowski, Slawomir; Julian, Jim; Baptiste, Kenneth

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

A Trigger Mechanism for Loop Current Ring Separations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico sheds large anticyclonic rings on an irregular basis. The authors attempt to show what actually triggers the ring separations. Pulses of increased transport through the Florida Straits, as observed by the ...

Wilton Sturges; Nicholas G. Hoffmann; Robert R. Leben

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Investigations of tetraspanin functions using large extracellular loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes our characterization of a specific tetraspanin domain: the large extracellular loop (LEL). Tetraspanins are involved in cellular migration, adhesion, and metastasis, sperm-egg fusion, and viral ...

Liu, Christopher C

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Ground Loop Design  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ground Loop Design Ground Loop Design Ground Loop Design logo Ground Loop Design is a versatile ground source heat pump system design program that helps the trained geothermal HVAC designer/engineer size equipment, determine the correct lengths of bore or pipe required for commercial projects, optimize the piping configuration for balanced flow and optimal heat transfer, and calculate the annual and lifetime energy/operating/emissions costs associated with the design. The modular program enhances design productivity and permits flexibility in the designing process and customization based on designer preferences. It also has an English/metric conversion engine and is available in many languages, providing applicability to the widest range of equipment and customers. Screen Shots

375

Loop Current Eddy Paths in the Western Gulf of Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paths of anticyclonic Loop Current eddies in the western Gulf of Mexico have been investigated using ARGOS-tracked drifters accompanied by hydrographic surveys. The analysis used orbit parameters derived from a least square fit of a ...

Peter Hamilton; G. S. Fargion; D. C. Biggs

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Towards open-closed string duality: Closed Strings as Open String Fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We establish a translation dictionary between open and closed strings, starting from open string field theory. Under this correspondence, (off-shell) level-matched closed string states are represented by star algebra projectors in open string field theory. Particular attention is paid to the zero mode sector, which is indispensable in order to generate closed string states with momentum. As an outcome of our identification, we show that boundary states, which in closed string theory represent D-branes, correspond to the identity string field in the open string side. It is to be remarked that closed string theory D-branes are thus given by an infinite superposition of star algebra projectors.

L. Bonora; N. Bouatta; C. Maccaferri

2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

377

Snowmass Benchmark Points and Three-Loop Running  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the full three-loop beta-functions for the MSSM generalised to include additional matter multiplets in 5, 10 representations of SU(5). We analyse in detail the effect of three-loop running on the sparticle spectrum for the MSSM Snowmass Benchmark Points. We also consider the effect on these spectra of additional matter multiplets (the semi-perturbative unification scenario).

I. Jack; D. R. T. Jones; A. F. Kord

2004-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

378

On the Rational Terms of the one-loop amplitudes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The various sources of Rational Terms contributing to the one-loop amplitudes are critically discussed. We show that the terms originating from the generic (n-4)-dimensional structure of the numerator of the one-loop amplitude can be derived by using appropriate Feynman rules within a tree-like computation. For the terms that originate from the reduction of the 4-dimensional part of the numerator, we present two different strategies and explicit algorithms to compute them.

Giovanni Ossola; Costas G. Papadopoulos; Roberto Pittau

2008-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

379

HEATING OF FLARE LOOPS WITH OBSERVATIONALLY CONSTRAINED HEATING FUNCTIONS  

SciTech Connect

We analyze high-cadence high-resolution observations of a C3.2 flare obtained by AIA/SDO on 2010 August 1. The flare is a long-duration event with soft X-ray and EUV radiation lasting for over 4 hr. Analysis suggests that magnetic reconnection and formation of new loops continue for more than 2 hr. Furthermore, the UV 1600 Angstrom-Sign observations show that each of the individual pixels at the feet of flare loops is brightened instantaneously with a timescale of a few minutes, and decays over a much longer timescale of more than 30 minutes. We use these spatially resolved UV light curves during the rise phase to construct empirical heating functions for individual flare loops, and model heating of coronal plasmas in these loops. The total coronal radiation of these flare loops are compared with soft X-ray and EUV radiation fluxes measured by GOES and AIA. This study presents a method to observationally infer heating functions in numerous flare loops that are formed and heated sequentially by reconnection throughout the flare, and provides a very useful constraint to coronal heating models.

Qiu Jiong; Liu Wenjuan; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States)

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

380

2F and 2H evaporator loop evaluation closure report  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the Concentrate Transfer System (CTS) tank ventilation system contamination event, a task team was formed to evaluate instrument loops associated with waste reduction equipment. During the event a conductivity probe designed to provide an alarm and initiate an interlock failed to respond to the presence of liquid. An investigation revealed that the probe had become disconnected from the loop. The daily functional check of the conductivity probe circuit only tested the circuit continuity from the ventilation unit to the control room and did not actually test the probe. To test the continuity, a test switch was used to simulate the conducting probe. Because the functional check did not test each part of the loop, the test could be satisfactorily completed even though the probe itself was inoperable. The function of the task team was to develop a list of loops and interlocks prioritized by importance and likelihood of similar failure. The team evaluated the associated loop calibration and functional test procedures to verify that they are adequate to ensure loop performance on a periodic frequency. This report documents the evaluation findings and associated actions required prior to startup of the 2F and 2H evaporators.

Bates, W.F.

1994-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The triple loop heat exchanger comprises portions of a strong solution line for conducting relatively hot, strong solution from a generator to a solution heat exchanger of the absorption refrigeration system, conduit means for conducting relatively cool, weak solution from the solution heat exchanger to the generator, and a bypass system for conducting strong solution from the generator around the strong solution line and around the solution heat exchanger to an absorber of the refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator to an undesirable level. The strong solution line and the conduit means are in heat exchange relationship with each other in the triple loop heat exchanger so that, during normal operation of the refrigeration system, heat is exchanged between the relatively hot, strong solution flowing through the strong solution line and the relatively cool, weak solution flowing through the conduit means. Also, the strong solution line and the bypass system are in heat exchange relationship in the triple loop heat exchanger so that if the normal flow path of relatively hot, strong solution flowing from the generator to an absorber is blocked, then this relatively, hot strong solution which will then be flowing through the bypass system in the triple loop heat exchanger, is brought into heat exchange relationship with any strong solution which may have solidified in the strong solution line in the triple loop heat exchanger to thereby aid in desolidifying any such solidified strong solution.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Case Closed on Nauru Island Effect  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Closed on Nauru Island Effect Closed on Nauru Island Effect For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/ Research Highlight The tiny 4-kilometer-by-6-kilometer island of Nauru is isolated in the equatorial Pacific Ocean with naught but a few small scattered islands for thousands of kilometers around. Thus, the ARM measurements made there are intended to represent the larger surrounding oceanic area. But decades of phosphate mining have left large barren karst fields as the predominant land surface over most of the center of the island, making it much more susceptible to solar heating than typical tropical vegetated surfaces. During the Nauru99 campaign, small cumulus clouds were observed at times forming over the center of the island, advecting over the ARM site

383

Closed cycle cogeneration for the future  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While present energy needs can be met with available supplies of fossil fuels, the need to plan for the eventual elimination of dependence on premium fuels in utility and industrial applications remains urgent. One of the most promising power conversion technologies for these needs is the closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) configured for power and heat production. Closed cycle gas turbines have been in commercial use, principally in Europe, for over four decades. That experience base, combined with emerging awareness of potential CCGT applications, could lead to the operation of coal-fired CCGT cogeneration systems in the U.S. within the next decade. This paper discusses the multi-fuel capability of the CCGT and compares its performance as a flexible cogeneration system with that of a more conventional steam turbine system.

Crim, W.M.; Fraize, W.E.; Kinney, G.; Malone, G.A.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Status Update: Closing Rocky Flats by 2006  

SciTech Connect

Safely closing Rocky Flats by December 2006 is a goal shared by many: the State of Colorado, the communities surrounding the site, the U.S. Congress, the Department of Energy (DOE), Kaiser-Hill and its team of subcontractors, the site's employees and taxpayers across the country. This paper will: provide a status of the Closure Project to date; describe important accomplishments of the past year; describe some of the closure-enhancing technologies enabling acceleration; and discuss the remaining challenges ahead.

Tuor, N.; Schubert, A.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

385

Quantum Mechanics and Closed Timelike Curves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

General relativity allows solutions exhibiting closed timelike curves. Time travel generates paradoxes and quantum mechanics generalizations were proposed to solve those paradoxes. The implications of self-consistent interactions on acausal region of space-time are investigated. If the correspondence principle is true, then all generalizations of quantum mechanics on acausal manifolds are not renormalizable. Therefore quantum mechanics can only be defined on global hyperbolic manifolds and all general relativity solutions exhibiting time travel are unphysical.

Florin Moldoveanu

2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

386

Field Evaluation of the Comanagement of Utility Low-Volume Wastes With High-Volume Coal Combustion By-Products: LS Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electric power industry has historically comanaged low-volume wastes with high-volume by-products as a cost-effective means of disposal. This report documents an investigation into the effects of comanagement of low-volume wastes with high-volume coal combustion by-products at the LS site. This is one of 14 sites investigated by EPRI to provide background information to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the 2000 Regulatory Determination on comanagement under the Resource Conservation and ...

2007-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

387

Small Molecule Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase [gamma] (RPTP[gamma]) Ligands That Inhibit Phosphatase Activity via Perturbation of the Tryptophan?Proline?Aspartate (WPD) Loop  

SciTech Connect

Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) catalyze the dephosphorylation of tyrosine residues, a process that involves a conserved tryptophan-proline-aspartate (WPD) loop in catalysis. In previously determined structures of PTPs, the WPD-loop has been observed in either an 'open' conformation or a 'closed' conformation. In the current work, X-ray structures of the catalytic domain of receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase {gamma} (RPTP{gamma}) revealed a ligand-induced 'superopen' conformation not previously reported for PTPs. In the superopen conformation, the ligand acts as an apparent competitive inhibitor and binds in a small hydrophobic pocket adjacent to, but distinct from, the active site. In the open and closed WPD-loop conformations of RPTP{gamma}, the side chain of Trp1026 partially occupies this pocket. In the superopen conformation, Trp1026 is displaced allowing a 3,4-dichlorobenzyl substituent to occupy this site. The bound ligand prevents closure of the WPD-loop over the active site and disrupts the catalytic cycle of the enzyme.

Sheriff, Steven; Beno, Brett R.; Zhai, Weixu; Kostich, Walter A.; McDonnell, Patricia A.; Kish, Kevin; Goldfarb, Valentina; Gao, Mian; Kiefer, Susan E.; Yanchunas, Joseph; Huang, Yanling; Shi, Shuhao; Zhu, Shirong; Dzierba, Carolyn; Bronson, Joanne; Macor, John E.; Appiah, Kingsley K.; Westphal, Ryan S.; O’ Connell, Jonathan; Gerritz, Samuel W. (BMS)

2012-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

388

Shell-models of RMHD turbulence and the heating of solar coronal loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simplified non-linear numerical model for the development of incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in the presence of a strong magnetic field B0 and stratification, nicknamed Shell-Atm, is presented. In planes orthogonal to the mean field, the non-linear incompressible dynamics is replaced by 2D shell-models for the complex variables u and b, allowing one to reach large Reynolds numbers while at the same time carrying out sufficiently long time integrations to obtain a good statistics at moderate computational cost. The shell-models of different planes are coupled by Alfven waves propagating along B0. The model may be applied to open or closed magnetic field configurations where the axial field dominates and the plasma pressure is low; here we apply it to the specific case of a magnetic loop of the solar corona heated via turbulence driven by photospheric motions, and we use statistics for its analysis. The Alfven waves interact non-linearly and form turbulent spectra in the directions perpendicular and, via propagation, also parallel to the mean field. A heating function is obtained, and is shown to be intermittent; the average heating is consistent with values required for sustaining a hot corona, and is proportional to the aspect ratio of the loop to the power -1.5; characteristic properties of heating events are distributed as power-laws. Cross-correlations show a delay of dissipation compared to energy content.

E. Buchlin; M. Velli

2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

389

Open loop pneumatic control of a Lysholm engine or turbine exhaust pressure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Lysholm engine, or helical screw expander, is currently being evaluated at the University of California, Berkeley for staging with a conventional turbine in geothermal energy conversion. A pneumatic closed loop, proportional-integral control system was implemented to control the Lysholm engine's exhaust pressure for performance testing of the engine at constant inlet/outlet pressure ratios. The control system will also be used to control the exhaust pressure of the conventional turbine during future testing of the staged Lysholm-turbine system. Analytical modeling of the control system was performed and successful tuning was achieved by applying Ziegler-Nichol's tuning method. Stable control and quick response, of approximately 1 minute, was demonstrated for load and set point changes in desired exhaust pressures.

Plonski, B.A.

1981-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

390

Synthesizing Transformations for Locality Enhancement of Imperfectly-Nested Loop Nests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Linear loop transformations and tiling are known to be very effective for enhancing locality of reference in perfectly-nested loops. However, they cannot be applied directly to imperfectly-nested loops. Some compilers attempt to convert imperfectly-nested ... Keywords: automatic locality enhancement, caches, imperfectly-nested loops, program transformation, restructuring compilers

Nawaaz Ahmed; Nikolay Mateev; Keshav Pingali

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Design and analysis of a second order phase locked loops (PLLs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work concerns with the design and analysis of phase locked loops (PLLs). In the last decade a lot of works have been done about the analysis of PLLs. The phase locked loops are analyzed briefly, second order, third order, and fourth order. In practically ... Keywords: charge pump PLL (CPPPL), loop filter (LF), phase locked loop (PLL)

Diary R. Sulaiman

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Micro-Columnated Loop Heat Pipe: The Future of Electronic Substrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Loop Heat Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Heat Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .of operation of a heat pipe [13]. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Dhillon, Navdeep Singh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Loop Current, Rings and Related Circulation in the Gulf of Mexico: A Review of Numerical  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3 Loop Current, Rings and Related Circulation in the Gulf of Mexico: A Review of Numerical Models of the most energetic components of the circulation in the Gulf of Mexico: the Loop Current and Loop Current the observable features of the Loop Current and rings." The Gulf of Mexico is a semi-enclosed sea that con- nects

Ezer,Tal

394

An exercise in forecasting loop current and eddy frontal positions in the Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An exercise in forecasting loop current and eddy frontal positions in the Gulf of Mexico L.-Y. Oey to forecast Loop Current and Loop Current eddy frontal positions in the Gulf of Mexico, the Princeton Regional (2005), An exercise in forecasting loop current and eddy frontal positions in the Gulf of Mexico

395

The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems  

SciTech Connect

Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Orientable closed 3-manifolds with surface-complexity one  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After a short summary of known results on surface-complexity of closed 3-manifolds, we will classify all closed orientable 3-manifolds with surface-complexity one.

Amendola, Gennaro

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Thermodynamic nonextensivity in a closed string gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Well known results in string thermodynamics show that there is always a negative specific heat phase in the microcanonical description of a gas of closed free strings whenever there are no winding modes present. We will carefully compute the number of strings in the gas to show how this negative specific heat is related to the fact that the system does not have thermodynamic extensivity. We will also discuss the consequences for a system of having a microcanonical negative specific heat versus the exact result that such a thing cannot happen in any canonical (fixed temperature) description.

Manuel A. Cobas; M. A. R. Osorio; María Suárez

2004-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

399

Speckle interferometric observations of close binary stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Speckle interferometric technique is employed to record a series of hundreds of short-exposure images of several close binary stars with sub-arcsecond separation through a narrow band filter at the Cassegrain focus of the 2.34 meter (m) Vainu Bappu telescope (VBT), situated at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO), Kavalur, India. The data are recorded sequentially by a Peltier-cooled intensified CCD camera with 10 ms exposure. The auto-correlation method is applied to determine the angular separations and position angles of these binary systems.

S. K. Saha; V. Chinnappan; L. Yeswanth; P. Anbazhagan

2002-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

400

Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Closing Gaps in Modeling Multifamily Retrofits  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Building America Technical Update Meeting Denver, Colorado April 30, 2013 Jordan Dentz, The Levy Partnership., Inc. Closing Gaps in Modeling Multifamily Retrofits Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Overview * Multifamily modeling inputs (BA House Simulation Protocols) * Important multifamily measures * Other MF gaps Vital to meet 50% goals and therefore important to include in Building America's multifamily modeling capabilities Model Inputs * Heating set point * Cooling set point * Behavior assumptions 3 Heating Set Point - Central Systems * House simulation protocol assumes 71°F * Overheating is common * Approach: adjust modeled heating set point - how much? * Average heating season indoor temperature was 76°F in a sample of 18 buildings (ARIES 2013a)

402

DOE/NETL's R&D Response to Emerging Coal By-Product and Water Issues  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

R&D Response to Emerging R&D Response to Emerging Coal By-Product and Water Issues Clean Coal and Power Conference in conjunction with 2 nd Joint U.S.-People's Republic of China Conference on Clean Energy Washington, DC November 17-19, 2003 Thomas J. Feeley, III National Energy Technology Laboratory Feeley_CC&P Conf. 11/03 Electric Power Using Coal Clean Liquid Fuels Natural Gas Coal Production Environmental Control V21 Next Generation Carbon Sequestration Exploration & Production Refining & Delivery Alternative Fuels Exploration & Production Pipelines & Storage Fuel Cells Combustion Turbines NETL Plays Key Role in Fossil Energy Supply, Delivery, and Use Technologies Future Fuels Photo of hydrogen fueled car: Warren Gretz, NREL Feeley_CC&P Conf. 11/03 Innovations for Existing Plants Program

403

NETL: Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Technology with CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Technology with CO2 Capture for New and Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Technology with CO2 Capture for New and Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants Project No.: DE-FE0009484 Alstom is advancing the development of Limestone Chemical Looping Combustion (LCL-C(tm)) technology. Chemical looping has no direct contact between air and fuel. The looping process usually utilizes oxygen from a metal carrier, but in this case, limestone is used. Economic evaluations will be made of four LCL-C plant configurations. The base configuration plant has already been completed and will be updated from previous reports. A second case will compare the effects of designing the reducer reactor using CFB sizing standards. A third case will investigate the effects of using a pressurized reducer reactor. Pressurizing the reducer reduces the reactor size and reduces the amount of compression required for the CO2 outlet gas stream. A fourth case will investigate the use of an advanced ultra-supercritical (USC) steam cycle. The advanced USC steam cycle should increase overall plant efficiency and lower the cost of electricity. Mass and energy balances will be done for each case. The four LCL-CTM cases will be compared against a supercritical pulverized coal-fired plant without CO2 capture.

404

Electroweak Constraints on the Fourth Generation at Two Loop Order  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

If the Higgs-like particle at 126 GeV is the standard model Higgs boson, then SM4, the simplest four generation extension of the SM, is inconsistent with the most recent LHC data. However, 4G variations (BSM4) are possible if the new particle is not the SM Higgs boson and/or if other new quanta modify its production and decay rates. Since LHC searches have pushed 4G quarks to high mass and strong coupling where perturbation theory eventually fails, we examine the leading nondecoupling EW (electroweak) corrections at two loop order to estimate the domain of validity for perturbation theory. We find that the two loop hypercharge correction, which has not been included in previous EW fits of 4G models, makes the largest quark sector contribution to the rho parameter, much larger even than the nominally leading one loop term. Because it is large and negative, it has a big effect on the EW fits. It does not invalidate perturbation theory since it only first appears at two loop order and is large because it does not vanish for equal quark doublet masses, unlike the one loop term. We estimate that perturbation theory is useful for $m_Q\\simeq 600$ GeV but begins to become marginal for $m_Q\\, \\gtap\\, 900$ GeV. The results apply directly to BSM4 models that retain the SM Higgs sector but must be re-evaluated for non-SM Higgs sectors.

Michael S. Chanowitz

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

405

Rehabilitation of semi-arid coal mine spoil bank soils with mine residues and farm organic by-products  

SciTech Connect

A method of rehabilitating coal mine soils was studied under the conditions of a semi-arid climate, lack of topsoil but availability of farm by-products in NE Spain. The objectives of the research were to assess a new method in order to achieve a suitable substrate for the establishment of native vegetation, to evaluate environmental impacts associated with the reclamation process, and to determine the time necessary to integrate the treated area into the surrounding environment. Eight plots (10 x 35 m{sup 2}) were established in September 1997. Substrate combinations of two types of mine spoil (coal dust and coarse-sized material), two levels of pig slurry (39 and 94 Mg ha{sup -1}dry-wt), and cereal straw (0 and 15 Mg ha{sup -1}) were applied. Monitoring of select physical and chemical soil properties and vegetation characteristics was performed from 1997 until 2005. The bulk density and the saturated hydraulic conductivity measured did not limit plant development and water availability. Initial substrate salinity (1.37 S m{sup -1}) decreased with time and in the long term did not limit plant colonization to salinity-adapted species. Initial nitrate concentration was 298 mg kg{sup -1}, but was reduced significantly to acceptable values in 3 years (55 mg kg{sup -1}) and the measured pH (7.6) was maintained at the level of initial spoil values. Vegetation cover reached up to 90%. In the treated area, spontaneous vegetation cover (15 to 70%) colonized the nonsown areas widely. In the medium term, vegetation cover tended to be higher in plots with a thicker layer of coal dust material and the higher slurry rate. Soil rehabilitation and environmental reintegration, taking into account soil and vegetation indicators, was possible in the studied area with low cost inputs using residual materials from mining activities and animal husbandry by-products.

Salazar, M.; Bosch-Serra, A.; Estudillos, G.; Poch, R.M. [University of Lleida, Lleida (Spain). Dept. of Environmental & Soil Science

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

The use of gypsum and a coal desulfurization by-product to ameliorate subsoil acidity for alfalfa growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acid soils limit the growth of aluminum-(Al) sensitive crops such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Management of acid subsoils can be difficult due to physical and economic constraints. Field experiments were conducted at two locations to evaluate the effectiveness of surface-applied gypsum and a flue gas desulfurization by-product for reducing the toxic effects of acid subsoils on alfalfa. The materials were applied at rates of 0, 5, 10, and 15 Mg ha-1. In addition, a glasshouse experiment was conducted that used 0, 5, and 10 Mg ha-1 of gypsum only. Field studies were concluded 41 and 45 months after treatment application at the two locations. No effect of material on alfalfa yield or tissue mineral concentration was observed. Also, rate did not affect yield. However, there were differences in plant tissue mineral concentration in several harvests that were related to rate. Soil was sampled periodically to 120 cm and indicated movement of Ca and S into the soil profile to depths of 60 and 120 cm, respectively. Subsoil pHH2O and pHCaCl2 were not affected by treatment. Extractable and exchangeable Al were not reduced by movement of Ca and S into the soil. In the glasshouse study, alfalfa yields and root growth were not affected by gypsum rate. As gypsum rate increased, plant tissue S increased, but K and Mg decreased. Alfalfa roots did not grow below 60 cm, even though there was indication of material movement to 90 cm in the soil. Although sulfur moved to 75 cm, no effect on soil Al was observed. Leachate collected from the bottoms of columns indicated that soil cations were leached as a result of gypsum application. Gypsum and the flue gas desulfurization by-product did not significantly affect the acid soils used in these studies or improve alfalfa growth.

Chessman, Dennis John

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Analysis of Markets for Coal Combustion By-Products Use in Agriculture and Land Reclamation: Summary Report of Four Regional Marketi ng Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sites for the disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCBP) are becoming more difficult to acquire, license, and develop. Since CCBP production may increase in the foreseeable future, reducing the reliance on disposal makes economic and environmental sense. This report summarizes the findings of four regional marketing studies, which examined barriers--both economic and regulatory-- to the land application of CCBP.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Modification of the EIC hydrogen sulfide abatement process to produce valuable by-products. Final report, May 4, 1981-May 4, 1982  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A program of analytical and experimental studies has been carried out to develop modifications of the CUPROSUL process for the desulfurization of geothermal steam. The objective of the program was to devise practical means to manipulate the chemistry of the process so that the consumption of raw materials could be controlled and a variety of valuable by-products could be produced. The process had been demonstrated, at one-tenth commercial scale, for steam of the Geysers' average composition in a configuration which resulted in essentially complete oxidation of sulfide to sulfate. The ability to control the extent of oxidation would increase process flexibility and extend its range of applicability to steams of widely varying composition. Preliminary market surveys of raw materials required for the process and by-products which could be produced indicated that controlling the oxidation of sulfides to produce elemental sulfur would probably be the preferred process option. Use of lime to treat sulfate-containing purge streams to produce by-product gypsum and ammonia for recycle or sale could also be justified for certain steam compositions. Recovery of ammonium sulfate alone from the purge stream would not normally be justified unless corecovery of other valuable by-products, such as boric acid, was possible at incremental cost. It was found that ferric sulfate was a highly effective, selective oxidant for the controlled oxidation of copper sulfide solids to produce elemental sulfur for sale and copper sulfate for recycle.

Offenhartz, P. O'D.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quarterly report, March 30, 1996--June 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Progress is described on the use of by-products form clean coal technologies for the treatment of hazardous wastes. During the third quarter of Phase 2, work continued on evaluating Phase 1 samples (including evaluation of a seventh waste), conducting scholarly work, preparing for field work, preparing and delivering presentations, and making additional outside contacts.

Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Neufeld, R.D.; Blachere, J.R. [and others

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Conditions for Robustness and Nonrobustness of the Stability of Feedback Systems with Respect to Small Delays in the Feedback Loop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been observed that for many stable feedback control systems, the introduction of arbitrarily small time delays into the loop causes instability. In this paper we present a systematic frequency domain treatment of this phenomenon for distributed parameter systems. We consider the class of all matrix-valued transfer functions which are bounded on some right half-plane and which have a limit at +1 along the real axis. Such transfer functions are called regular. Under the assumption that a regular transfer function is stabilized by unity output feedback, we give sufficient conditions for the robustness and for the non-robustness of the stability with respect to small time delays in the loop. These conditions are given in terms of the high frequency behavior of the open loop system. Moreover, we discuss robustness of stability with respect to small delays, for feedback systems with dynamic compensators. In particular, we show that if a plant with infinitely many poles in the closed...

Hartmut Logemann; Richard Rebarber; George Weiss

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Inductance and near fields of a loop antenna in a cold magnetoplasma in the whistler frequency band  

SciTech Connect

The influence of a magnetoplasma on the inductance of a circular loop antenna oriented perpendicular to the ambient static magnetic field and operated in the whistler frequency band is studied. Based on a strict electrodynamic approach, the analytical treatment of the antenna reactance is performed for a uniform rf current distribution along the antenna wire. Calculations are made for plasma parameters and operating frequencies typical for active ionospheric experiments and laboratory rf (helicon) sources of dense magnetized plasmas. It is shown that the plasma influence on the inductance of the loop antenna remains relatively weak, even for antennas with dimensions close to half of the longitudinal whistler wavelength, when the rf field distribution in the antenna near zone is strongly different from that in vacuum. The theoretical predictions are confirmed by measurements performed on the large KROT plasma device. The results obtained are of crucial importance for the preparation of active ionospheric experiments and for the matching of loop antennas used in laboratory rf sources of dense magnetized plasmas.

Gushchin, M. E.; Korobkov, S. V.; Kostrov, A. V. [Institute of Applied Physics, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Zaboronkova, T. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Technical University of Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Krafft, C. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, Univ. Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

Belgium east loop active network management (Smart Grid Project) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Belgium east loop active network management (Smart Grid Project) Belgium east loop active network management (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Belgium east loop active network management Country Belgium Coordinates 50.148746°, 4.086914° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":50.148746,"lon":4.086914,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

413

Quasi-Local Energy in Loop Quantum Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although there is no known meaningful notion of the energy density of the gravitational field in general relativity, a few notions of quasi-local energy of gravity associated to extended but finite domains have been proposed. In this paper, the notions of quasi-local energy are studied in the framework of loop quantum gravity, in order to see whether these notions can be carried out at quantum level. Two basic quasi-local geometric quantities are quantized, which lead to well-defined operators in the kinematical Hilbert space of loop quantum gravity. We then use them as basic building blocks to construct different versions of quasi-local energy operators. The operators corresponding to Brown-York energy, Liu-Yau energy, Hawking energy, and Geroch energy are obtained respectively. The virtue of the Geroch energy operator is beneficial for us to derive a rather general entropy-area relation and thus a holographic principle from loop quantum gravity.

Jinsong Yang; Yongge Ma

2008-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

414

Quasi-Local Energy in Loop Quantum Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although there is no known meaningful notion of the energy density of the gravitational field in general relativity, a few notions of quasi-local energy of gravity associated to extended but finite domains have been proposed. In this paper, the notions of quasi-local energy are studied in the framework of loop quantum gravity, in order to see whether these notions can be carried out at quantum level. Two basic quasi-local geometric quantities are quantized, which lead to well-defined operators in the kinematical Hilbert space of loop quantum gravity. We then use them as basic building blocks to construct different versions of quasi-local energy operators. The operators corresponding to Brown-York energy, Liu-Yau energy, Hawking energy, and Geroch energy are obtained respectively. The virtue of the Geroch energy operator is beneficial for us to derive a rather general entropy-area relation from loop quantum gravity.

Yang, Jinsong

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Multi-loop Feynman integrals and conformal quantum mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New algebraic approach to analytical calculations of D-dimensional integrals for multi-loop Feynman diagrams is proposed. We show that the known analytical methods of evaluation of multi-loop Feynman integrals, such as integration by parts and star-triangle relation methods, can be drastically simplified by using this algebraic approach. To demonstrate the advantages of the algebraic method of analytical evaluation of multi-loop Feynman diagrams, we calculate ladder diagrams for the massless $\\phi^3$ theory. Using our algebraic approach we show that the problem of evaluation of special classes of Feynman diagrams reduces to the calculation of the Green functions for specific quantum mechanical problems. In particular, the integrals for ladder massless diagrams in the $\\phi^3$ scalar field theory are given by the Green function for the conformal quantum mechanics.

A. P. Isaev

2003-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

416

Novel Reactor Design for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Novel Reactor Design for Solid Fuel Novel Reactor Design for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Opportunity Research is active on the patent pending technology, titled "Apparatus and Method for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview The removal of CO2 from power plants is challenging because existing methods to separate CO2 from the gas mixture requires a significant fraction of the power plant output. Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel technology that utilizes a metal oxide oxygen carrier to transport oxygen to the fuel thereby avoiding direct contact between fuel and air. The use of CLC has the advantages of reducing the energy penalty while

417

A HUMAN RELIABILITY-CENTERED APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF JOB AIDS FOR REVIEWERS OF MEDICAL DEVICES THAT USE RADIOLOGICAL BYPRODUCT MATERIALS.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is engaged in an initiative to risk-inform the regulation of byproduct materials. Operating experience indicates that human actions play a dominant role in most of the activities involving byproduct materials, which are radioactive materials other than those used in nuclear power plants or in weapons production, primarily for medical or industrial purposes. The overall risk of these activities is strongly influenced by human performance. Hence, an improved understanding of human error, its causes and contexts, and human reliability analysis (HRA) is important in risk-informing the regulation of these activities. The development of the human performance job aids was undertaken by stages, with frequent interaction with the prospective users. First, potentially risk significant human actions were identified based on reviews of available risk studies for byproduct material applications and of descriptions of events for byproduct materials applications that involved potentially significant human actions. Applications from the medical and the industrial domains were sampled. Next, the specific needs of the expected users of the human performance-related capabilities were determined. To do this, NRC headquarters and region staff were interviewed to identify the types of activities (e.g., license reviews, inspections, event assessments) that need HRA support and the form in which such support might best be offered. Because the range of byproduct uses regulated by NRC is so broad, it was decided that initial development of knowledge and tools would be undertaken in the context of a specific use of byproduct material, which was selected in consultation with NRC staff. Based on needs of NRC staff and the human performance related characteristics of the context chosen, knowledge resources were then compiled to support consideration of human performance issues related to the regulation of byproduct materials. Finally, with information sources and an application context identified, a set of strawman job aids was developed, which was then presented to prospective users for critique and comment. Work is currently under way to develop training materials and refine the job aids in preparation for a pilot evaluation.

COOPER, S.E.; BROWN, W.S.; WREATHALL, J.

2005-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

418

From Classical To Quantum Gravity: Introduction to Loop Quantum Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an introduction to the canonical quantization of gravity performed in loop quantum gravity, based on lectures held at the 3rd quantum geometry and quantum gravity school in Zakopane in 2011. A special feature of this introduction is the inclusion of new proposals for coupling matter to gravity that can be used to deparametrize the theory, thus making its dynamics more tractable. The classical and quantum aspects of these new proposals are explained alongside the standard quantization of vacuum general relativity in loop quantum gravity.

Giesel, Kristina

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Gravity quantized: Loop quantum gravity with a scalar field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...''but we do not have quantum gravity.'' This phrase is often used when analysis of a physical problem enters the regime in which quantum gravity effects should be taken into account. In fact, there are several models of the gravitational field coupled to (scalar) fields for which the quantization procedure can be completed using loop quantum gravity techniques. The model we present in this paper consists of the gravitational field coupled to a scalar field. The result has similar structure to the loop quantum cosmology models, except that it involves all the local degrees of freedom of the gravitational field because no symmetry reduction has been performed at the classical level.

Domagala, Marcin; Kaminski, Wojciech [Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej, Uniwersytet Warszawski, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warszawa (Warsaw), Polska (Poland) (Poland); Giesel, Kristina [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Lewandowski, Jerzy [Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej, Uniwersytet Warszawski, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warszawa (Warsaw), Polska (Poland) (Poland); Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Physics Department, Penn State, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

420

Severe accident sequences analyzed for a two-loop PWR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Different severe accident sequences have been analyzed for a two-loop Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR) using the MELCOR code, version 1.8.4. The purpose of this study was to calculate source terms and the timing of events for severe accident sequences at this type of PWR to be used in the HAS-CAL code .The results calculated by MELCOR have been compared to results from the individual plant examination (IPE) of the Kewaunee nuclear power plant, also a two-loop Westinghouse PWR. The results of the Kewaunee IPE were obtained with the severe accident code MAAP.

Carbajo, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

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421

Dilaton Gravity, Poisson Sigma Models and Loop Quantum Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spherically symmetric gravity in Ashtekar variables coupled to Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions and its relation to dilaton gravity and Poisson sigma models are discussed. After introducing its loop quantization, quantum corrections for inverse triad components are shown to provide a consistent deformation without anomalies. The relation to Poisson sigma models provides a covariant action principle of the quantum corrected theory with effective couplings. Results are also used to provide loop quantizations of spherically symmetric models in arbitrary D space-time dimensions.

Martin Bojowald; Juan D. Reyes

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

422

Transportation implications of a closed fuel cycle.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transportation for each step of a closed fuel cycle is analyzed in consideration of the availability of appropriate transportation infrastructure. The United States has both experience and certified casks for transportation that may be required by this cycle, except for the transport of fresh and used MOX fuel and fresh and used Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) fuel. Packaging that had been used for other fuel with somewhat similar characteristics may be appropriate for these fuels, but would be inefficient. Therefore, the required neutron and gamma shielding, heat dissipation, and criticality were calculated for MOX and ABR fresh and spent fuel. Criticality would not be an issue, but the packaging design would need to balance neutron shielding and regulatory heat dissipation requirements.

Bullard, Tim (University of Nevada - Reno); Bays, Samuel (Idaho National Laboratory); Dennis, Matthew L.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Sorenson, Ken Bryce; Dixon, Brent (Idaho National Laboratory); Greiner, Miles (University of Nevada - Reno)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Thermal vacancies in close-packing solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on Stillinger's version of cell cluster theory, we derive an expression for the equilibrium concentration of thermal monovacancies in solids which allows for a transparent interpretation of the vacancy volume and the energetic/entropic part in the corresponding Gibbs energy of vacancy formation $\\Delta G_{\\rm v}$. For the close--packing crystals of the hard sphere and Lennard--Jones model systems very good agreement with simulation data is found. Application to metals through the embedded--atom method (EAM) reveals a strong sensitivity of the variation of $\\Delta G_{\\rm v}$ with temperature to details of the EAM potential. Our truncation of the cell cluster series allows for an approximate, but direct measurement of crystal free energies and vacancy concentration in colloidal model systems using laser tweezers.

Mostafa Mortazavifar; Martin Oettel

2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

424

Silica precipitation and scaling in a dynamic loop system. [Design and testing of titanium corrosion test loop  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A titanium corrosion test loop was modified to provide a dynamic facility for studying the formation of silica precipitates and scale from simulated geothermal brines as a function of composition, temperature, and flow conditions. A schematic of the modified loop system is presented. The principal components and connecting piping are all constructed of commercially pure titanium. These components include a centrifugal pump, silica saturator column, segmented heat exchanger, reheat heat exchanger, and a high pressure feed pump (stainless steel). The system is designed to circulate simulated geothermal brines saturated with silica to approximately 300/sup 0/C for study of silica scaling. Data obtained from a test run are included. (JGB)

Bohlmann, E.G.; Shor, A.J.; Berlinski, P.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Why Can Wind Delay the Shedding of Loop Current Eddies?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is first shown that wind in the Gulf of Mexico can delay the shedding of Loop Current eddies. A time-dependent, three-dimensional numerical experiment forced by a spatially and temporally constant westward wind stress within the Gulf is ...

Y.-L. Chang; L.-Y. Oey

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Discrete gravity models and Loop Quantum Gravity: a short review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review the relation between loop quantum gravity on a fixed graph and discrete models of gravity. We compare Regge and twisted geometries, and discuss discrete actions based on twisted geometries and on the discretization of the Plebanski action. We discuss the role of discrete geometries in the spin foam formalism, with particular attention to the definition of the simplicity constraints.

Dupuis, Maite; Speziale, Simone

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

LOOP ROUTE UCSC CAMPUS SHUTTLES Saturday Service Hours  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Way Social Sciences 2 ChinquapinRoad MERRILL COLLEGE McLaughlin Drive East Field House Hagar Drive, Hagar Drive, McLaughlin Drive, Heller Drive, and Empire Grade/High Street. Barn Theater Loop Science & Engineering Library Steinhart W ay Social Sciences 2 ChinquapinRoad MERRILL COLLEGE McLaughlin

California at Santa Cruz, University of

428

Energy of string loops and thermodynamics of dark energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We discuss the thermodynamic aspects of a simple model of cosmic string loops, whose energy is nonlinearly related to their lengths. We obtain in a direct way an equation of state having the form p=-(1+{alpha}){rho}/3, with {rho} the energy density and 1+{alpha} the exponent which relates the energy u{sub l} of a loop with its length l as u{sub l}{approx}l{sup 1+{alpha}}. In the linear situation ({alpha}=0) one has p=-{rho}/3, in the quadratic one ({alpha}=1) p=-2{rho}/3, and in the cubic case ({alpha}=2) p=-{rho}. For all values of {alpha} the entropy goes as S{approx}(2-{alpha})L{sup 3/2} (L being the string length density). The expression of S is useful to explore the behavior of such string loops under adiabatic expansion of the Universe. Thermodynamic stability suggests that the gas of string loops must coexist with several long strings, longer than the horizon radius.

Jou, D. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Mongiovi, M. S.; Sciacca, M. [Dipartimento di Metodi e Modelli Matematici, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128, Palermo (Italy)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

Water-Loop Heat Pump Systems: Volumes 1 and 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water-loop heat pump (WLHP) systems are reliable, versatile, energy-efficient alternatives to conventional systems such as packaged rooftop or central chiller systems. These systems offer low installed costs, unparalleled design flexibility, and an inherent ability to recover heat in a variety of commercial and multifamily residential buildings for both new construction and retrofit markets.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Cerenkov's Effect and Neutrino Oscillations in Loop Quantum Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bounds on the scale parameter {\\cal L} arising in loop quantum gravity theory are derived in the framework of Cerenkov's effect and neutrino oscillations. Assuming that {\\cal L} is an universal constant, we infer {\\cal L}> 10^{-18}eV^{-1}, a bound compatible with ones inferred in different physical context.

G. Lambiase

2003-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

431

Loop Quantum Corrections to Statefinder Parameters of Dark Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this short letter, we presented the explicit forms of the statefinder parameters for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe in the loop quantum cosmology (LQC) for Holographic dark energy and New-Agegraphic dark energy. Numerically we investigated cosmological implications of these parameters for models of dark energy.

Jamil, Mubasher; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Loop Quantum Corrections to Statefinder Parameters of Dark Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this short letter, we presented the explicit forms of the statefinder parameters for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe in the loop quantum cosmology (LQC) for Holographic dark energy and New-Agegraphic dark energy. Numerically we investigated cosmological implications of these parameters for models of dark energy.

Mubasher Jamil; D. Momeni; Ratbay Myrzakulov

2013-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

433

A Mirnov loop array for field-reversed configurations  

SciTech Connect

An array of 64 magnetic pick-up loops has been used for stability studies of large field-reversed configurations in the FRX-C/LSM device. This array proved reliable, could resolve signals of a few Gauss, and allowed the detection of several plasma instabilities. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Tuszewski, M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Two-loop corrections to gluon fusion into two photons  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the calculation of the two-loop helicity amplitudes for scattering of two gluons into two photons is presented. These matrix elements enter into the recent improved calculation of the QCD background to Higgs boson decay into a pair of photons, which is the preferred search mode at the LHC for the case of a light Higgs boson.

Dixon, Lance

2002-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

435

Micro loop heat pipe evaporator coherent pore structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Loop heat pipes seem a promising approach for application in modern technologies where such thermal devices as cooling fans and radiators cannot satisfy overall requirements. Even though a loop heat pipe has a big potential to remove the thermal energy from a high heat flux source, the heat removal performance of heat pipes cannot be predicted well since a first principles of evaporation has not been established. An evaporation model based on statistical rate theory has been recently suggested by Ward and developed for a single pore by Oinuma. A loop heat pipe with coherent pore wick structure has been proposed as a design model. To limit product development risk and to enhance performance assurance, design model features and performance parameters have been carefully reviewed during the concept development phase and have been deliberately selected so as to be well-founded on the limited existing loop heat pipe knowledge base. A first principles evaporation model has been applied for evaporator geometry optimization. A number of iteration calculations have been performed to satisfy design and operating limitations. A set of recommendations for design optimization has been formulated. An optimal model has been found and proposed for manufacture and experimental investigation.

Alexseev, Alexandre Viktorovich

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Phase Locked Loop Control of Inverters in a Microgrid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phase Locked Loop Control of Inverters in a Microgrid Matthew Surprenant Dept of ECE University Venkataramanan Dept of ECE University of Wisconsin Madison, WI, USA Abstract--Microgrids are small for inverter-based microsources within a mi- crogrid. The general control philosophy within a microgrid

Hiskens, Ian A.

437

Loop Current excursions and ring detachments during 1993–2009  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Linkages between the variability of Loop Current LC surface dynamics, LC ring detachments, and the mean sea height anomaly in the Gulf of Mexico GOM are explored using a new methodology that locates the LC fronts and detects the shedding of LC rings. ...

David Lindo-Atichati, Francis Bringas, Gustavo Goni

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Polyhedral model based mapping optimization of loop nests for CGRAs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture (CGRA) is a promising platform that provides both high performance and high power-efficiency. The compute-intensive portions of an application (e.g. loops) are often mapped onto CGRA for acceleration. To ...

Dajiang Liu, Shouyi Yin, Leibo Liu, Shaojun Wei

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to design, construct, and operate an ash beneficiation facility that will generate several products from coal combustion ash stored in a utility ash pond. The site selected is LG&E's Ghent Station located in Carroll County, Kentucky. The specific site under consideration is the lower ash pond at Ghent, a closed landfill encompassing over 100 acres. Coring activities revealed that the pond contains over 7 million tons of ash, including over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon and 1.8 million tons of fine (ash market is currently oversupplied by more than 500,000 tpy and distant markets (i.e. Florida) are oversupplied as well. While the total US demand for ultrafine pozzolan is currently equal to demand, there is no reason to expect a significant increase in demand. Despite the technical merits identified in the pilot plant work with regard to beneficiating the entire pond ash stream, market developments in the Ohio River Valley area during 2006-2007 were not conducive to demonstrating the project at the scale proposed in the Cooperative Agreement. As a result, Cemex withdrew from the project in 2006 citing unfavorable local market conditions in the foreseeable future at the demonstration site. During the Budget Period 1 extensions provided by the DOE, CAER has contacted several other companies, including cement producers and ash marketing concerns for private cost share. Based on the prevailing demand-supply situation, these companies had expressed interest only in limited product lines, rather than the entire ash beneficiation product stream. Although CAER had generated interest in the technology, a financial commitment to proceed to Budget Period 2 could not be obtained from private companies. Furthermore, the prospects of any decisions being reached within a reasonable time frame were dim. Thus, CAER concurred with the DOE to conclude the project at the end of Budget Period 1, March 31, 2007. The activities presented in this report were carried out during the Cooperative Agreement period 08 November 2004 through 31 March 2007.

Thomas Robl; John Groppo

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

440

Closed-cycle gas turbine chemical processor  

SciTech Connect

A closed-cycle gas turbine chemical processor separates the functions of combustion air and dilution fluid in a gas turbine combustor. The output of the turbine stage of the gas turbine is cooled and recirculated to its compressor from where a proportion is fed to a dilution portion of its combustor and the remainder is fed to a chemical recovery system wherein at least carbon dioxide is recovered therefrom. Fuel and combustion air are fed to a combustion portion of the gas turbine combustor. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the gas turbine is employed to drive an electric generator. A heat recovery steam generator and a steam turbine may be provided to recover additional energy from the gas turbine exhaust. The steam turbine may be employed to also drive the electric generator. additional heat may be added to the heat recovery steam generator for enhancing the electricity generated using heat recovery combustors in which the functions of combustion and dilution are separated. The chemical recovery system may employ process steam tapped from an intermediate stage of the steam turbine for stripping carbon dioxide from an absorbent liquid medium which is used to separate it from the gas stream fed to it. As the amount of carbon dioxide in the fuel fed to the chemical processor increases, the amount of process steam required to separate it from the absorbent fluid medium increases and the contribution to generated electricity by the steam turbine correspondingly decreases.

Stahl, C. R.

1985-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The Neftemash closed joint-stock company  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Neftemash closed joint-stock company was created from the VNIIneftemash Scientific Production Association in the privatization process in the country. Members of the Neftemash Co. are listed. This group of members determined the basic activities of the Neftemash Co. as a multifunctional scientific production complex for designing and manufacturing modern equipment for oil and gas production and refining. By having highly qualified specialists, modern enterprises, test experience, and production capacity, this company is the leading organization in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) for supplying oil and gas enterprises with petroleum equipment. The Neftemash Co. designs and produces drilling, geological prospecting, and petroleum production equipment and instrumentation. It designs oil and gas refining equipment and petrochemical equipment, equipment for processing coal and liquid fuels, including integrated automated production lines. It does fundamental and applied research in materials science, welding, and corrosion protection for oil and gas production and refining equipment. It designs ecologically safe equipment complexes for drilling wells and refining oil and gas. To a significant extent the petroleum industry in Russia was developed from the activity of the All-Union Scientific Research, Design, and Construction Institute for Petroleum Machinery. Equipment designed by the institute was used to explore, develop, and exploit oil and gas fields of western Siberia, the far north, and other petroleum regions of the country.

Umanchik, N.P.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF COOLING PLASMA IN QUIESCENT ACTIVE REGION LOOPS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present work, we use SOHO/SUMER, SOHO/UVCS, SOHO/EIT, SOHO/LASCO, STEREO/EUVI, and Hinode/EIS coordinated observations of an active region (AR 10989) at the west limb taken on 2008 April 8 to study the cooling of coronal loops. The cooling plasma is identified using the intensities of SUMER spectral lines emitted at temperatures in the 4.15 {EIS and SUMER spectral observations are used to measure the physical properties of the loops. We found that before cooling took place these loops were filled with coronal hole-like plasma, with temperatures in the 5.6 {<=} log T {<=} 5.9 range. SUMER spectra also allowed us to determine the plasma temperature, density, emission measure, element abundances, and dynamic status during the cooling process. The ability of EUVI to observe the emitting region from a different direction allowed us to measure the volume of the emitting region and estimate its emission measure. Comparison with values measured from line intensities provided us with an estimate of the filling factor. UVCS observations of the coronal emission above the active region showed no streamer structure associated with AR 10989 at position angles between 242{sup 0}and 253.{sup 0} EIT, LASCO, and EUVI-A narrowband images and UVCS spectral observations were used to discriminate between different scenarios and monitor the behavior of the active region in time. The present study provides the first detailed measurements of the physical properties of cooling loops, a very important benchmark for theoretical models of loop cooling and condensation.

Landi, E. [Artep, Inc. at Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. S.W., 20375-5320, Washington DC (United States); Miralles, M. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-50, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Curdt, W. [Max Planck Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max Planck Strasse 2, Katlenburg-Lindau 37191 (Germany); Hara, H. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

443

MHK Technologies/Closed Cycle OTEC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Closed Cycle OTEC Closed Cycle OTEC < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Closed Cycle OTEC.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Marine Development Associates Inc Technology Resource Click here OTEC Technology Type Click here OTEC - Closed Cycle Technology Description Closed Cycle System Technology Dimensions Device Testing Date Submitted 02:50.8 << Return to the MHK database homepage Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=MHK_Technologies/Closed_Cycle_OTEC&oldid=681555" Category: Marine and Hydrokinetic Technologies What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load)

444

String operations in orientable open-closed string topology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To open-closed cobordism surfaces labeled by closed orientable submanifolds, orientable open-closed string topology associates (degree zero) string operations determined up to sign, which depend only on homeomorphism types of surfaces and which satisfy sewing property. In orientable open-closed string topology, we show that most string operations vanish. We describe those open-closed cobordisms with vanishing string operations, and give a short list of open-closed cobordisms with possibly nontrivial string operations. To prove the above vanishing results, we give a systematic discussion of properties of transfer maps.

Tamanoi, Hirotaka

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

On the universality of some Smarandache loops of Bol-Moufang type  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Smarandache quasigroup(loop) is shown to be universal if all its f,g-principal isotopes are Smarandache f,g-principal isotopes. Also, weak Smarandache loops of Bol-Moufang type such as Smarandache: left(right) Bol, Moufang and extra loops are shown to be universal if all their f,g-principal isotopes are Smarandache f,g-principal isotopes. Conversely, it is shown that if these weak Smarandache loops of Bol-Moufang type are universal, then some autotopisms are true in the weak Smarandache sub-loops of the weak Smarandache loops of Bol-Moufang type relative to some Smarandache elements. Futhermore, a Smarandache left(right) inverse property loop in which all its f,g-principal isotopes are Smarandache f,g-principal isotopes is shown to be universal if and only if it is a Smarandache left(right) Bol loop in which all its f,g-principal isotopes are Smarandache f,g-principal isotopes. Also, it is established that a Smarandache inverse property loop in which all its f,g-principal isotopes are Smarandache f,g-principal isotopes is universal if and only if it is a Smarandache Moufang loop in which all its f,g-principal isotopes are Smarandache f,g-principal isotopes. Hence, some of the autotopisms earlier mentioned are found to be true in the Smarandache sub-loops of universal Smarandache: left(right) inverse property loops and inverse property loops.

Temitope Gbolahan Jaiyeola

2006-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

446

Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to design, construct, and operate an ash beneficiation facility that will generate several products from coal combustion ash stored in a utility ash pond. The site selected is LG&E's Ghent Station located in Carroll County, Kentucky. The specific site under consideration is the lower ash pond at Ghent, a closed landfill encompassing over 100 acres. Coring activities revealed that the pond contains over 7 million tons of ash, including over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. These potential products are primarily concentrated in the lower end of the pond adjacent to the outlet. A representative bulk sample was excavated for conducting laboratory-scale process testing while a composite 150 ton sample was also excavated for demonstration-scale testing at the Ghent site. A mobile demonstration plant with a design feed rate of 2.5 tph was constructed and hauled to the Ghent site to evaluate unit processes (i.e. primary classification, froth flotation, spiral concentration, secondary classification, etc.) on a continuous basis to determine appropriate scale-up data. Unit processes were configured into four different flowsheets and operated at a feed rate of 2.5 tph to verify continuous operating performance and generate bulk (1 to 2 tons) products for product testing. Cementitious products were evaluated for performance in mortar and concrete as well as cement manufacture process addition. All relevant data from the four flowsheets was compiled to compare product yields and quality while preliminary flowsheet designs were generated to determine throughputs, equipment size specifications and capital cost summaries. A detailed market study was completed to evaluate the potential markets for cementitious products. Results of the study revealed that the Ghent local fly ash market is currently oversupplied by more than 500,000 tpy and distant markets (i.e. Florida) are oversupplied as well. While the total US demand for ultrafine pozzolan is currently equal to demand, there is no reason to expect a significant increase in demand. Despite the technical merits identified in the pilot plant work with regard to beneficiating the entire pond ash stream, market developments in the Ohio River Valley area during 2006-2007 were not conducive to demonstrating the project at the scale proposed in the Cooperative Agreement. As a result, Cemex withdrew from the project in 2006 citing unfavorable local market conditions in the foreseeable future at the demonstration site. During the Budget Period 1 extensions provided by the DOE, CAER has contacted several other companies, including cement producers and ash marketing concerns for private cost share. Based on the prevailing demand-supply situation, these companies had expressed interest only in limited product lines, rather than the entire ash beneficiation product stream. Although CAER had generated interest in the technology, a financial commitment to proceed to Budget Period 2 could not be obtained from private companies. Furthermore, the prospects of any decisions being reached within a reasonable time frame were dim. Thus, CAER concurred with the DOE to conclude the project at the end of Budget Period 1, March 31, 2007. The activities presented in this report were carried out during the Cooperative Agreement period 08 November 2004 through 31 March 2007.

Thomas Robl; John Groppo

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

447

An Analysis of Loop Current Frontal Eddies in a ° Atlantic Ocean Model Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Loop Current frontal eddies (LCFEs) refer to cyclonic cold eddies moving downstream along the outside edge of the Loop Current in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. They have been observed by in situ measurements and satellite imagery, mostly ...

Haosheng Huang; Nan D. Walker; Ya Hsueh; Yi Chao; Robert R. Leben

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

On the Linear Relationship between Loop Current Retreat Latitude and Eddy Separation Period  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A linear correlation exists between the retreat latitude of the Loop Current following eddy separation and the subsequent eddy separation period. This empirical relationship was first identified in satellite altimeter-derived Loop Current ...

Alexis Lugo-Fernández; Robert R. Leben

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

An Analysis of Loop Current Frontal Eddies in a 1/6° Atlantic Ocean Model Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Loop Current Frontal Eddies (LCFEs) refer to cyclonic cold eddies moving downstream along the outside edge of the Loop Current in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. They have been observed by in-situ measurements and satellite imagery, mostly ...

Haosheng Huang; Nan D. Walker; Ya Hsueh; Yi Chao; Robert R. Leben

450

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Closely Aligned Programs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > C&CBTL > Closely Aligned Programs Coal and CoalBiomass to Liquids Closely Aligned Programs The Department of Energy's (DOE) Coal & CoalBiomass to Liquids...

451

Automated electricity demand response - Tech Close-Up  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Automated electricity demand response - Tech Close-Up Click here to view this video Date: August 27, 2013 Presenter(s): Many, including EETD's Mary Ann Piette. A Tech Close-Up news...

452

Closed BLM Public Lands: Geothermal Leases Not Permitted The...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Closed BLM Public Lands: Geothermal Leases Not Permitted The U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) released a series of GIS layers of public lands closed to geothermal leases...

453

PARS II Process Document - DOE Period Close | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Period Close PARS II Process Document - DOE Period Close This document details the process adopted by the Office of Acquisition and Project Management to prepare APM DepSec...

454

Microsoft Word - PARS II Process Document - Close Period 2013...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PARS II APM DepSec Monthly Report & Close Period, V-2013-04-29 Page 1 PARS II Process Document APM DEPSEC MONTHLY REPORT & CLOSE PERIOD PURPOSE The purpose of this document is to...

455

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. The major event during the quarter was the demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for loading and transporting coal combustion residues in the SEEC developed Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The demonstration was held on November 17, 1994, at the Illinois Power Company Baldwin power plant, and was attended by about eighty (80) invited guest. Also during the quarter meetings were held with Peabody Coal Company officials to finalize the area in the Peabody No. 10 mine to be used for the placement of coal combustion residues. Work under the Materials Handling and Systems Economics area continued, particularly in refining the costs and systems configuration and in economic evaluation of various systems using equipment leasing rather than equipment purchases. Likewise, work progressed on residues characterization, with some preparations being made for long-term testing.

Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the U.S. and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loading of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing. 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Yim, Sung Paal; Kalb, P.D.; Milian, L.W.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess elemental sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the US and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loadings of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing.

Kalb, P.D.; Milian, L.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Environmental and Waste Technology Center; Yim, S.P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Korea, Republic of); Dyer, R.S.; Michaud, W.R. [Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

The HIGGS Boson Mass at 2 Loops in the Finely Tuned Split Supersymmetric Standard Model  

SciTech Connect

The mass of the Higgs boson in the finely tuned Split Supersymmetric Standard Model is calculated. All 1 loop threshold effects are included, in addition to the full RG running of the Higgs quartic coupling through 2 loops. The 2 loop corrections are very small, typically less than 1GeV. The 1 loop threshold corrections to the top yukawa coupling and the Higgs mass generally push the Higgs mass down a few GeV.

Binger, M

2004-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

459

Open-Closed String Correspondence in Open String Field Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We address the problem of describing different closed string backgrounds in background independent open string field theory: A shift in the closed string background corresponds to a collective excitation of open strings. As an illustration we apply the formalism to the case where the closed string background is a group manifold.

Baumgartl, Marco

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Brief Nonlinear stabilization of a thermal convection loop by state feedback  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nonlinear feedback control law that achieves global asymptotic stabilization of a 2D thermal convection loop (widely known for its ''Lorenz system'' approximation) is presented. The loop consists of viscous Newtonian fluid contained in between two ... Keywords: Backstepping, Boundary control, Convection loop

Dejan M. BošKovi?; Miroslav Krsti?

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "byproducts closed loop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Development of a Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation System for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Performance Test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to facilitate control strategy development and performance test of hybrid electric vehicle, a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system is developed. The system is constructed with LabVIEW and PXI hardware. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation test ... Keywords: hybrid electric vehicle, hardware-in-the-loop simulation, fuel economy, exhaust emission

Yanyi Zhang, Zhenhua Jin, Haoduan Wang, Qingchun Lu

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Ga-based passive loop optimization for magnetic field mitigation of transmission lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a systematic method to assist in the design of passive loops with the aim of mitigating the magnetic field generated by overhead transmission lines. The procedure is based on a two-dimensional (2D) modeling of the magnetic field, ... Keywords: Compensated loop, Genetic algorithm, Magnetic field, Mitigation, Passive loop, Reduction factor

Pedro Cruz; Jesús M. Riquelme; Antonio de la Villa; José L. Martínez

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Field Evaluation of the Comanagement of Utility Low-Volume Wastes with High-Volume Coal Combustion By-Products: FC Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities typically comanage some or all of their low-volume wastes with high-volume by-products in disposal facilities. This report presents the results of a field study of comanagement practices at an impoundment at a power plant located in the south-central United States. The findings from this research provided technical information for use in a study of comanagement practices by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

2002-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

464

Field Evaluation of the Comanagement of Utility Low-Volume Wastes with High Volume Coal Combustion By-Products: AP Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power companies typically comanage some or all of their low-volume wastes with high-volume by-products in disposal facilities. This report presents the results of a field study of comanagement practices at an impoundment at a power plant located in the southwestern United States. The findings from this research provided technical information for use in a study of comanagement practices by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

2001-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

465

Field Evaluation of the Comanagement of Utility Low-Volume Wastes With High-Volume Coal Combustion By-Products: CL Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a field study of comanagement of coal combustion by-products at a utility disposal impoundment in the southeastern United States. The study was part of a multiyear effort by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in cooperation with the Utility Solid Waste Activities Group (USWAG) and individual utility companies, to characterize utility comanagement practices and collect and analyze a comprehensive set of data pertinent to the environmental effects of those pra...

1997-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

466

Field Evaluation of the Comanagement of Utility Low-Volume Wastes with High-Volume Coal Combustion By-Products: MO Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents an investigation into the effects of comanagement of low-volume wastes with high-volume coal combustion by-products at the MO site. The MO site is one of 14 investigated by EPRI to provide background information to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the 2000 Regulatory Determination on comanagement under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

2003-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

467

Microsoft Word - DOE Report on OSU Looping final.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

December 2007 December 2007 DOE/NETL-2008/1307 Independent Assessment of the Potential of Chemical-Looping in the Context of a Fischer-Tropsch Plant Chemical-Looping Process in a Coal-to-Liquids Configuration Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name,

468

NETL: Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Technology with CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Commercialization of the Iron Based Coal Direct Chemical Looping Process for Power Production with in situ CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0009761 CDLC Process Concept CDLC Process Concept (click to enlarge) Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) is developing the coal direct chemical looping (CDCL) process. The CDCL process consists of a unique moving bed reactor - the reducer - where pulverized coal is fully converted using iron-based oxygen carriers. The oxygen carrier is reduced from Fe2O3 to FeO/Fe and the flue gas is a concentrated stream of CO2 that is available for storage or beneficial use. The reduced FeO/Fe is oxidized to Fe2O3 using air in the combustor, liberating heat to produce steam for a

469

Scaling law for the heating of solar coronal loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report preliminary results from a series of numerical simulations of the reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations, used to describe the dynamics of magnetic loops in active regions of the solar corona. A stationary velocity field is applied at the