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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butylene isobutane isobutylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Product Supplied for Isobutane/Isobutylene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Data may not add to ...

2

Refinery Net Production of Isobutane/Isobutylene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

3

Isobutane/Butylene Refinery Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

4

U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Propane/Propylene: 308: 269: 271: 294: 335: 408: 1973-2013: Normal Butane/Butylene: 30: 33: 48: 44: 30: 20: 1981-2013: Isobutane/Isobutylene : ...

5

Refinery & Blender Net Production of Isobutane/Isobutylene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

6

Refinery Stocks of Isobutane/Isobutylene - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: "Other Oxygenates ...

7

Isobutane/Butylene Bulk Terminal Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

8

Catalytic dehydrogenation of propane and isobutane in hydrogen permselective membrane reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The dehydrogenation of propane and isobutane was studied in hydrogen permselective packed bed membrane reactors and conventional packed bed reactors. Two different types of developmental membranes were investigated: sol-gel derived silica-based membranes and a pure palladium thin film supported by a porous ceramic substrate. The palladium membranes deactivated and eventually failed when exposed to both isobutane and propane dehydrogenation temperatures above 773 K. Moderate improvements in propylene and isobutylene yields were obtained with the silica-based membrane reactors. An isobutylene yield of 48 mole percent was obtained at a liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 1.8 and temperature of 798 K compared to a yield of 39 percent in a conventional reactor operated with the same flow rate. Similar improvements in propylene yield were obtained when the silica-based membranes were tested in propane dehydrogenation experiments. There was no significant difference in the reaction selectivities for the desired olefin products when the membrane and conventional reactors were operated with the scone LHSV However, for a constant value of the olefin yield, the membrane reactors had a higher reaction selectivity since the desired yield was achieved at a higher LHSV where there was less time for side products to form. Catalyst deactivation rates were generally greater in the membrane reactors, especially when the reactors were operated with high hydrogen removal rates at temperatures of 773 K and above.

Collins, J.P.; Schwartz, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sehgal, R.; Ward, T.L. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

U.S. Isobutane-Isobutylene Stocks at Natural Gas Processing ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

456: 482: 435: 394: 363: 472: 649: 558: 389: 565: 476: 2005: 544: 607: 387: 478: 421: 426: 473: 657: 596: 718: 511: 426: 2006: 485: 529: 537: 590: 569: 772: 556: 541 ...

10

West Coast (PADD 5) Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Normal Butane/Butylene Exports; Normal Butane/Butylene Supply and Disposition; West Coast (PADD 5) Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...

11

Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Final report, September 1, 1990--January 31, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Previous work on isosynthesis (conversion of synthesis gas to isobutane and isobutylene) was performed at very low conversions or extreme process conditions. The objectives of this research were (1) determine the optimum process conditions for isosynthesis; (2) determine the optimum catalyst preparation method and catalyst composition/properties for isosynthesis; (3) determine the kinetics for the best catalyst; (4) develop reactor models for trickle bed, slurry, and fixed bed reactors; and (5) simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for isosynthesis. More improvement in catalyst activity and selectivity is needed before isosynthesis can become a commercially feasible (stand-alone) process. Catalysts prepared by the precipitation method show the most promise for future development as compared with those prepared hydrothermally, by calcining zirconyl nitrate, or by a modified sol-gel method. For current catalysts the high temperatures (>673 K) required for activity also cause the production of methane (because of thermodynamics). A catalyst with higher activity at lower temperatures would magnify the unique selectivity of zirconia for isobutylene. Perhaps with a more active catalyst and acidification, oxygenate production could be limited at lower temperatures. Pressures above 50 atm cause an undesirable shift in product distribution toward heavier hydrocarbons. A model was developed that can predict carbon monoxide conversion an product distribution. The rate equation for carbon monoxide conversion contains only a rate constant and an adsorption equilibrium constant. The product distribution was predicted using a simple ratio of the rate of CO conversion. This report is divided into Introduction, Experimental, and Results and Discussion sections.

Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

1994-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

12

Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Normal Butane/Butylene Supply and Disposition; Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...

13

Thermodynamic representations of ammonia and isobutane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tables of the thermodynamic properties of ammonia and isobutane are presented for the superheated vapor and the saturated liquid and vapor states. The properties were calculated using appropriate analytical pressure-volume-temperature (P-V-T) representations for the fluids in the regions described. The tables cover the approximate range of values of reduced temperatures up to 1.5 and reduced pressure up to 5.

Milora, S. L.; Combs, S. K.

1977-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

East Coast (PADD 1) Normal Butane-Butylene Stock Change ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast (PADD 1) Normal Butane-Butylene Stock Change (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 4-3: 1: ...

15

Midwest (PADD 2) Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Midwest (PADD 2) Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 0: 0: 0: 0: ...

16

Midwest (PADD 2) Normal Butane-Butylene Stock Change (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Midwest (PADD 2) Normal Butane-Butylene Stock Change (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981-4-34-7: 14: ...

17

West Coast (PADD 5) Imports of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

West Coast (PADD 5) Imports of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 9: 18: ...

18

Momentum Profile and Final Correlation Effects of Iso-butane Inner Valence by Binary (e, 2e) Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Momentum Profile and Final Correlation Effects of Iso-butane Inner Valence by Binary (e, 2e Momentum Profile and Final Correlation Effects of Iso-butane Inner Valence by Binary (e, 2e) Spectroscopy) The binding energy spectra and the momentum distributions of the valence orbitals of iso-butane, also known

Wang, Yayu

19

West Coast (PADD 5) Product Supplied of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

West Coast (PADD 5) Product Supplied of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; ...

20

An experimental study of isobutane oxidation at transition temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation of isobutane at temperatures in the range 563-693 K has been studied experimentally using a static reactor. Gas chromatographic analysis was used to measure stable species concentrations. The experimental results were used to postulate the main reaction paths of the mechanism at these temperatures. A region of negative temperature coefficient (NTC) was observed between 650 and 680 K. Changes in the product yields and product distribution indicated a transition in the mechanism across the NTC region, from low to intermediate temperatures. Analysis of the experimental results and comparison with results for other fuels, such as n-butane, propane and propene, indicated that the NTC and mechanism transition were strongly dependent on the shift in the equilibrium of CH/sub 3/ + O/sub 2/ <==> CH/sub 3/O/sub 2/. The results are also discussed in relation in relation to recent engine results.

Wilk, R.D.; Cernansky, N.P.; Miller, D.L.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butylene isobutane isobutylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

EIA’s Proposed NGL Realignment: Overview of Proposed Changes  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Water . Dry Gas . Olefins (Ethylene, Propylene, Butylene, Isobutylene) Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids . Natural Gas Liquids (Ethane, Propane, Butanes, & Pentanes Plus) 2 .

22

Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Final report, September 1, 1990--January 31, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was initiated because the supply of isobutylene had been identified as a limitation on the production of methyl-t-butyl ether, a gasoline additive. Prior research on isobutylene synthesis had been at low conversion (less than 5%) or extremely high pressures (greater than 300 bars). The purpose of this research was to optimize the synthesis of a zirconia based catalyst, determine process conditions for producing isobutylene at pressures less than 100 bars, develop kinetic and reactor models, and simulate the performance of fixed bed, trickle bed and slurry flow reactors. A catalyst, reactor models and optimum operating conditions have been developed for producing isobutylene from coal derived synthesis gas. The operating conditions are much less severe than the reaction conditions developed by the Germans during and prior to WWII. The low conversion, i.e. CO conversion less than 15%, have been perceived to be undesirable for a commercial process. However, the exothermic nature of the reaction and the ability to remove heat from the reactor could limit the extent of conversion for a fixed bed reactor. Long residence times for trickle or slurry (bubble column) reactors could result in high CO conversion at the expense of reduced selectivities to iso C{sub 4} compounds. Economic studies based on a preliminary design, and a specific location will be required to determine the commercial feasibility of the process.

Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.; Philip, C.V.; Erkey, C.; Feng, Z.; Postula, W.S.; Wang, J.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas Plant Net Stocks Natural Gas Plant Net Stocks Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Butylene (C4H8) An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery processes. Ethane (C2H6) A normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of -127.48º F. It is extracted from natural gas and refinery gas streams. Isobutane (C4H10) A normally gaseous branch-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of 10.9º F. It is extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams. Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) A group of hydrocarbon-based gases derived from crude oil refining or nautral gas fractionation. They include: ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, and isobutylene. For convenience of transportation, these gases are liquefied through pressurization.

24

East Coast (PADD 1) Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast (PADD 1) Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 ...

25

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 7,016: 5,987: ...

26

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; ...

27

U.S. Normal Butane-Butylene Stocks at Natural Gas Processing ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Normal Butane-Butylene Stocks at Natural Gas Processing Plants (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1993: ...

28

U.S. Refinery Normal Butane/Butylene Shell Storage Capacity as ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Normal Butane/Butylene Shell Storage Capacity as of January 1 (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 ...

29

U.S. Ending Stocks of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Ending Stocks of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 26,098: 24,979: 24,689: ...

30

Ignition properties of n-butane and iso-butane in a rapid compression machine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Autoignition delay times of n-butane and iso-butane have been measured in a Rapid Compression Machine in the temperature range 660-1010 K, at pressures varying from 14 to 36 bar and at equivalence ratios {phi} = 1.0 and {phi} = 0.5. Both butane isomers exhibit a negative-temperature-coefficient (NTC) region and, at low temperatures, two-stage ignition. At temperatures below {proportional_to}900 K, the delay times for iso-butane are longer than those for the normal isomer, while above this temperature both butanes give essentially the same results. At temperatures above {proportional_to}720 K the delay times of the lean mixtures are twice those for stoichiometric compositions; at T butane using a comprehensive model for butane ignition, including both delay times in the two-stage region, with substantial differences being observed for iso-butane, particularly in the NTC region. (author)

Gersen, S.; Darmeveil, J.H. [Gasunie Engineering and Technology, P.O. Box 19, 9700 MA Groningen (Netherlands); Mokhov, A.V. [Laboratory for Fuel and Combustion Science, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Levinsky, H.B. [Gasunie Engineering and Technology, P.O. Box 19, 9700 MA Groningen (Netherlands); Laboratory for Fuel and Combustion Science, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

Experimental enthalpies for a mixture of 80 mole percent isobutane in isopentane. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Seven enthalpy isobars were measured for a nominal mixture of 80% isobutane/20% isopentane. These data were used to construct a phase envelope for use in the design of a turbine expander and the heat exchangers for a geothermal power plant. The dew point values for the phase envelope are difficult to establish for a mixture, particularly in the region near the critical.

Koppany, C.R.; Lenoir, J.M.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Isobutane ignition delay time measurements at high pressure and detailed chemical kinetic simulations  

SciTech Connect

Rapid compression machine and shock-tube ignition experiments were performed for real fuel/air isobutane mixtures at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2. The wide range of experimental conditions included temperatures from 590 to 1567 K at pressures of approximately 1, 10, 20, and 30 atm. These data represent the most comprehensive set of experiments currently available for isobutane oxidation and further accentuate the complementary attributes of the two techniques toward high-pressure oxidation experiments over a wide range of temperatures. The experimental results were used to validate a detailed chemical kinetic model composed of 1328 reactions involving 230 species. This mechanism has been successfully used to simulate previously published ignition delay times as well. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed to gain further insight to the chemical processes occurring at various conditions. Additionally, useful ignition delay time correlations were developed for temperatures greater than 1025 K. Comparisons are also made with available isobutane data from the literature, as well as with 100% n-butane and 50-50% n-butane-isobutane mixtures in air that were presented by the authors in recent studies. In general, the kinetic model shows excellent agreement with the data over the wide range of conditions of the present study. (author)

Healy, D.; Curran, H.J. [Combustion Chemistry Centre, School of Chemistry, NUI Galway (Ireland); Donato, N.S.; Aul, C.J.; Petersen, E.L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Zinner, C.M. [Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Bourque, G. [Rolls-Royce Canada Limited, 9500 Cote de Liesse, Lachine, Quebec (Canada)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to develop a new catalyst; the kinetics for this catalyst; reactor models for trickle bed, slurry and fixed bed reactors; and to simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for conversion of a hydrogen lean synthesis gas to isobutylene. A hydrogen-lean synthesis gas with a ratio of H{sub 2}/CO of 0.5 to 1.0 is produced from the gasification of coal, lignite, or biomass. Isobutylene is a key reactant in the synthesis of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and of isooctanes. MTBE and isooctanes are high octane fuels used to blend with low octane gasolines to raise the octane number required for modern automobiles. The production of these two key octane boosters is limited by the supply of isobutylene. MTBE, when used as an octane enhancer, also decreases the amount of pollutants emitted from the exhaust of an automobile engine.

Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

TABLE27.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7. 7. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD District, January 1998 Crude Oil a ....................................................................... 0 1,168 0 0 5,978 7,146 231 Natural Gas Liquids ...................................................... 24 752 885 6 451 2,118 68 Pentanes Plus ............................................................. 1 455 0 5 (s) 461 15 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ......................................... 24 297 885 (s) 450 1,657 53 Ethane/Ethylene ..................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Propane/Propylene ................................................. 20 96 637 (s) 149 904 29 Normal Butane/Butylene ......................................... 3 201 248 0 301 753 24 Isobutane/Isobutylene ............................................ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Other Liquids ..................................................................

35

LPG--a direct source of C/sub 3/-C/sub 4/ olefins  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the selective production of olefins by the catalytic dehydrogenation of the corresponding paraffins by means of UOP's Oleflex process. In this process, propylene can be obtained at about 85 mol % selectivity by the catalytic dehydrogenation of propane. Isobutylene can be obtained at selectivities in excess of 90 mol % from isobutane, and n-butenes (1-butene plus 2-butene) at about 80 mol % from n-butane. The availability of this technology, coupled with an abundant supply of LPG (C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ paraffins), opens new avenues for the selective production of propylene and butylenes.

Pujado, P.R.; Berg, R.C.; Vora, B.V.

1983-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

36

Dynamics of Exchange at Gas-Zeolite Interfaces 1: Pure Component n-Butane and Isobutane  

SciTech Connect

The authors present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of n-butane and isobutane in silicalite. They begin with a comparison of the bulk adsorption and diffusion properties for two different parameterizations of the interaction potential between the hydrocarbon species, both of which have been shown to reproduce experimental gas-liquid coexistence curves. They examine diffusion as a function of the loading of the zeolite, as well as the temperature dependence of the diffusion constant at loading and for infinite dilution. They continue with simulations in which interfaces are formed between single component gases and the zeolite. After reaching equilibrium, they examine the dynamics of exchange between the bulk gas and the zeolite. Finally, they calculate the permeability of the zeolite for n-butane and isobutane as a function of pressure. Their simulations are performed for a number of different gas temperatures and pressures, covering a wide range of state points.

CHANDROSS,MICHAEL E.; WEBB III,EDMUND B.; GREST,GARY S.; MARTIN,MARCUS G.; THOMPSON,AIDAN P.; ROTH,M.W.

2000-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

37

Synthesis of Isobutene and Isobutane from Synthesis Gas. A Literature Review Since 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The isosynthesis reaction is commonly referred as the reaction that converts selectively synthesis gas to isobutene and isobutane. The main feature of this reaction is the production of branched hydrocarbons in higher proportion with respect to linear hydrocarbons than expected from thermodynamic equilibrium and with a molecular weight distribution favoring iso-C4 hydrocarbons. This article reviews and summarizes isosynthesis research results reported in the open scientific literature with emphasis on the articles published in the last two decades.

Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Thermodynamics of Liquid Mixtures of Xenon with Alkanes: (Xenon + n-Butane) and (Xenon + Isobutane)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The total vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of (xenon + n-butane) has been measured at 182.34 and 195.49 K, and of (xenon + isobutane) at 195.49 K. The liquid molar volumes have also been measured at 182.34 K for both systems. The mixtures follow the behavior already found for other (xenon + alkane) mixtures, i.e., E negative deviations from Raoult’s law, negative excess molar Gibbs energies (Gm) and negative excess molar

Eduardo J. M. Filipe; Luís F. G. Martins; Jorge C. G. Calado; Clare Mccabe; George Jackson

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Conceptual design of a 10MW regenerative isobutane geothermal power plant. Technical report No. 18  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At present, there are basically three different systems for converting energy in geothermal fluid into power: vapor-flashing system, total flow system, and binary system. A comparison of the power production processes was made on the basis of work output in Kwh per 1000 pounds of geothermal fluid for self flowing wells with wellhead pressure of 100 psia and for wells with downhole pumps. For simplicity, the assumptions were made that the enthalpy of the geothermal fluid in the reservoir is approximately equal to that at the wellhead, that the thermodynamic properties of geothermal fluid may be approximated by those of water, and that the pressure effects on the properties of fluid are negligible. The results showed that the performance of the two-stage vapor-flashing system is not appreciably improved by using a downhole pump. The total flow system is simple, but its success depends mainly on the development of a reliable machine with sufficiently high thermal efficiency. The regenerative isobutane system is impractical, if the geothermal fluid temperature is below 380/sup 0/F. But, when the brine temperatures range from 485 to 600/sup 0/F, the regenerative isobutane system with downhole pump exhibits superior performance as compared to two-stage vapor-flashing system, basic isobutane system, or total flow system.

Gupta, A.K.; Chou, J.C.S.

1976-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

U.S. Normal Butane-Butylene Stocks in Pipelines (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Normal Butane-Butylene Stocks in Pipelines (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1993: 1,901: 1,455: 1,356: 1,810: 2,062 ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butylene isobutane isobutylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

U.S. Refinery Net Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Net Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 2005-4,241-2,244: 2,431: 7,319: 7,538 ...

42

[Oxygenated octane enhancers: Syngas to isobutylene]. Technical progress report No. 8, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this program is to develop a catalyst and a process for the conversion of syngas to isobutylene. However, due to the low conversion and selectivity generally experienced by the industry in direct conversion of syngas to isobutylene, indirect conversion via branched C{sub 4} alcohol intermediates is being explored. The objectives of the current program are to develop a catalyst and process for the conversion of syngas to isobutanol and to evaluate the commercial potential of the new process. The research program underway at UOP will identify and optimize key catalyst and process characteristics. This report covers the modification and shake-down of a fixed-bed pilot plant (No. 700) for the testing of catalysts and catalyst combinations. A separate syngas feed system has been added to an existing fixed bed Fischer-Tropsch pilot plant and new reactors are constructed to avoid catalyst cross contamination. Shake-down testing with a commercial Cu/Zn/Al oxide catalyst alone and in combination with a basic Mg/Al MOSS (Metal Oxide Solid Solution) catalyst have demonstrated good CO and H{sub 2} conversion. However, contamination of the product by residual Fischer-Tropsch product in the exit lines and the liquid gas chromatograph (GC) has prevented accurate product analyses. A separate exit system and liquid GC have been added to the plant for use by the higher alcohols synthesis project.

Barger, P.T.

1993-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

43

Refinery & Blender Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

& Blender Net Production & Blender Net Production Product: Total Finished Petroleum Products Liquefied Refinery Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethane Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Isobutane Isobutylene Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55 Conventional Other Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Less Than 0.31 Percent Sulfur Residual Fuel 0.31 to 1.00 Percent Sulfur Residual Fuel Greater Than 1.00 Percent Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha For Petro. Feed. Use Other Oils For Petro. Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Processing Gain(-) or Loss(+) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

44

Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to develop a new catalyst, the kinetics for this catalyst, reactor models for trickle bed, slurry and fixed bed reactors, and simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for conversion of a hydrogen lean synthesis gas to isobutylene. The goals for the quarter include: (1) Conduct experiments using a trickle bed reactor to determine the effect of reactor type on the product distribution. (2) Use spherical pellets of silica as a support for zirconia for the purpose of increasing surface, area and performance of the catalysts. (3) Conduct exploratory experiments to determine the effect of super critical drying of the catalyst on the catalyst surface area and performance. (4) Prepare a ceria/zirconia catalyst by the precipitation method.

Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Support shape effect in metal oxide catalysis: ceria nanoshapes supported vanadia catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane  

SciTech Connect

The activation energy of VOx/CeO2 catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane was found dependent on the shape of ceria support: rods < octahedra, closely related to the surface oxygen vacancy formation energy and defects amount of the two ceria supports with different crystallographic surface planes.

Wu, Zili [ORNL; Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Li, Meijun [ORNL; Rondinone, Adam Justin [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Thermodynamic properties of isobutane-isopentane mixtures from -40 to +600/sup 0/F and up to 1000 psia  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Helmholtz function for pure isobutane from a recent correlation has been converted to a dimensionless form and a pressure-enthalpy chart based on this function has been generated by computer. A Helmholtz function for mixtures of isobutane and isopentane has been formed based upon the dimensionless isobutane Helmholtz function as the reference fluid by means of an extended corresponding-states principle. Scarce literature data for saturation properties of isopentane, and new data for its vapor pressure and for the critical line of the mixture were used. The accuracy of the surface was checked by comparing with literature enthalpy data and with new VLE data for the mixture. Tables of thermodynamic properties have been generated from this Helmholtz function for the 0.1 mole fraction isopentane-in-isobutane mixture in the single-phase region and on the dew- and bubble-point curves, together with properties of the coexisting phase. A pressure-enthalpy chart for this mixture has also been generated.

Gallagher, J.S.; Levelt Sengers, J.M.H.; Morrison, G.; Sengers, J.V.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Serious pitting hazard in the raft river 5MW(e) Geothermal Power Plant isobutane cooling loop  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The 5MW(e) Dual Boiling Cycle Geothermal Power Plant, hence referred to as the Raft River plant, is being developed for DOE by EG and G, Inc., Idaho Falls, Idaho. This pilot power plant is of the binary concept and utilizes isobutane as the working second fluid. The plant will demonstrate the feasibility of power generation from an intermediate temperature ({approx} 290 F) resource. The plant is schematically diagrammed in Figure 1. During the final design phase and after the major components were specified to be made of carbon steel, and ordered, various conditions forced the power plant design to switch from surface water to geothermal fluid for the condenser cooling loop make-up water. Because the geothermal fluid contains significant concentrations of chlorides and sulfates, about 1000 ppm and 65 ppm respectively, aeration in the cooling tower causes this water to become extremely aggressive, especially in the pitting of carbon steel components. Although essentially all of the condenser cooling loop materials are carbon steel, the isobutane condenser and turbine lube oil cooler are the most vulnerable. These components are tubed with carbon steel tubes of 0.085 and 0.075 inch wall thickness. These two components are extremely leak critical heat exchangers. For example, even a single pit perforation in the isobutane condenser can cause plant shutdown through loss of isobutane. Such a leak also poses an explosion or fire hazard. As isobutane pressure falls, the incursion of cooling water into the isobutane loop could occur, causing damage to anhydrous service seals. Under a DOE contract for geothermal failure analysis, Radian Corporation has made a preliminary investigation of the pitting hazard presented by the aggressive cooling fluid and the corrosion inhibition treatment that has thus far been proposed. This report documents Radian's understanding of the present situation and the results of its investigation on possible mitigation of this hazard. Finally, various conclusions and recommendations are made that may, if pursued, lead to a satisfactory solution that will avert a certain early prolonged plant shutdown due to failure of the thin walled isobutane and turbine lube oil cooler tubes.

Ellis, Peter F.

1980-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

48

Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to develop a new catalyst, the kinetics for this catalyst, reactor models for trickle bed, slurry and fixed bed reactors, and simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for conversion of a hydrogen lean synthesis gas to isobutylene. The six main accomplishments for the quarter are the following: (1) activity testing with the 7% (wt) Ce-ZrO{sub 2}, (2) activity testing the same catalyst with CO from an aluminum cylinder, (3) preparation of ZrO{sub 2} by heating zirconyl nitrate, (4) preparation of an active zirconia prepared by a modified sol gel procedure and evaluation of the catalytic activity of a commercial zirconia and the catalysts prepared by the sol gel procedure, (5) determining the effect of separator temperatures and oil flow rate on the performance of a trickle bed reactor, and (6) calculation of the equilibrium composition of the C{sub 2} to C{sub 5} olefins, and initiation of the development of a macrokinetic model. The details of each of these accomplishments are discussed.

Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

1993-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

49

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

124 22 3,585 1,761 3,291 117 -137 3,532 241 5,264 124 22 3,585 1,761 3,291 117 -137 3,532 241 5,264 Crude Oil 34 - - - - 897 1 113 -43 1,084 3 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 90 0 25 32 86 - - 16 27 15 174 Pentanes Plus 15 0 - - - - - - 0 - 10 4 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 75 - - 25 32 86 - - 16 27 5 169 Ethane/Ethylene 1 - - 0 - - - - 0 - - 1 Propane/Propylene 51 - - 36 27 83 - - 24 - 4 168 Normal Butane/Butylene 16 - - -11 3 3 - - -8 17 1 0 Isobutane/Isobutylene 8 - - 0 2 - - - -1 9 - 0 Other Liquids - - 22 - - 555 1,614 193 -31 2,421 5 -10 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 22 - - 25 273 -19 -35 332 5 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 4 - - 4 0 - - Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol)

50

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1,164 20 3,171 1,425 308 193 28 2,990 349 2,914 1,164 20 3,171 1,425 308 193 28 2,990 349 2,914 Crude Oil 1,104 - - - - 1,209 - 140 10 2,443 - 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 61 0 66 4 - - - 36 59 13 22 Pentanes Plus 26 0 - - - - - - 5 18 3 -1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 34 - - 66 4 - - - 30 41 10 23 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - - - - - - - - - 0 Propane/Propylene 14 - - 49 4 - - - 12 - 10 45 Normal Butane/Butylene 5 - - 15 0 - - - 13 19 0 -11 Isobutane/Isobutylene 15 - - 1 - - - - 5 22 - -12 Other Liquids - - 20 - - 107 252 94 -71 488 13 43 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 20 - - 19 143 37 -2 219 3 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 47 - - 47 0 - - Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol)

51

table09.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3,434 3,434 - 5,080 -9 -1,729 230 0 6,546 0 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ....... 1,272 347 65 - -68 -208 - 229 29 1,566 Pentanes Plus .................................. 188 - 33 - -5 30 - 66 0 119 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 1,084 347 31 - -63 -238 - 163 29 1,446 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 503 24 18 - 112 -52 - 0 0 709 Propane/Propylene ....................... 363 301 4 - -158 -120 - 0 21 610 Normal Butane/Butylene .............. 76 3 6 - -11 -89 - 100 8 54 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 142 19 4 - -6 22 - 63 0 73 Other Liquids .................................... 172 - 223 - -73 82 - 216 65 -41 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates .... 149 - 1 - 0 6 - 97 46 0 Unfinished Oils ................................. - - 221 - 4 72 - 195 0 -41 Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. .......... 23 - 1 - -77 4 - -76 19 0 Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. ....... - - 0 - 0 (s) - (s) 0 0 Finished Petroleum Products

52

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,980 842 4,204 1,948 672 -339 187 3,995 240 4,886 ,980 842 4,204 1,948 672 -339 187 3,995 240 4,886 Crude Oil 1,472 - - - - 1,839 556 -359 17 3,416 76 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 508 -17 115 63 -14 - - 75 105 71 404 Pentanes Plus 63 -17 - - 0 98 - - -18 37 53 72 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 444 - - 115 63 -112 - - 93 68 18 332 Ethane/Ethylene 163 - - - 0 -100 - - 11 - - 52 Propane/Propylene 186 - - 104 49 -22 - - 66 - 7 244 Normal Butane/Butylene 52 - - 16 5 5 - - 22 17 11 29 Isobutane/Isobutylene 43 - - -4 8 5 - - -6 50 - 7 Other Liquids - - 858 - - 12 -143 127 346 474 40 -6 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 858 - - 5 -547 -8 11 271 26 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 23 - - 23 0 - -

53

table07.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

558 558 - 893 -73 1,935 -111 0 3,387 38 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ....... 283 89 116 - 9 -210 - 123 24 558 Pentanes Plus .................................. 37 - 1 - 17 7 - 25 15 9 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 246 89 115 - -8 -217 - 98 10 550 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 94 0 (s) - -71 -4 - 0 0 26 Propane/Propylene ....................... 100 116 86 - 31 -155 - 0 3 485 Normal Butane/Butylene .............. 37 -27 16 - 18 -48 - 74 6 12 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 15 (s) 13 - 14 -10 - 24 0 27 Other Liquids .................................... 24 - 0 - 38 40 - 46 (s) -24 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates .... 45 - 0 - 0 7 - 37 (s) 0 Unfinished Oils ................................. - - 0 - -4 17 - 3 0 -24 Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. .......... -21 - 0 - 42 16 - 6 (s) 0 Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. ....... - - 0 - 0 -1 - 1 0 0 Finished Petroleum Products .......... 71 3,648 9 - 646 154

54

TABLE13.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3. 3. PAD District V - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum (Thousand Barrels per Day) January 1998 Crude Oil ............................................ 2,165 - 440 154 -73 101 0 2,393 193 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ........ 93 43 (s) - 0 -51 - 98 15 75 Pentanes Plus ................................... 51 - 0 - 0 (s) - 42 (s) 9 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 42 43 (s) - 0 -51 - 56 15 66 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ (s) 0 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 (s) Propane/Propylene ....................... 12 47 (s) - 0 -26 - 0 5 80 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 21 -8 0 - 0 -25 - 43 10 -15 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 10 5 0 - 0 (s) - 13 0 2 Other Liquids ..................................... 87 - 71 - 24 87 - 73 3 19 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates ..... 109 - 28 - 0 14 - 121 3 0 Unfinished Oils ................................. - - 43 - 0 32 - -8 0 19 Motor

55

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

562 822 4,163 1,839 735 -69 52 3,955 244 4,801 562 822 4,163 1,839 735 -69 52 3,955 244 4,801 Crude Oil 1,116 - - - - 1,730 800 -87 62 3,442 55 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 446 -16 121 74 -25 - - -12 105 111 395 Pentanes Plus 50 -16 - - 1 82 - - -4 31 101 -12 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 396 - - 121 73 -107 - - -8 74 11 407 Ethane/Ethylene 163 - - - 0 -108 - - -2 - - 58 Propane/Propylene 156 - - 108 59 -24 - - -3 - 2 300 Normal Butane/Butylene 48 - - 11 9 10 - - -4 29 9 45 Isobutane/Isobutylene 29 - - 2 6 14 - - 1 46 - 5 Other Liquids - - 838 - - 5 -258 -159 8 408 25 -16 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 838 - - 3 -565 4 1 257 21 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 22 - - 22 0 - -

56

TABLE18.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8. 8. Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, January 1998 Crude Oil .................................................................... 14,835 511 15,346 8,591 1,779 2,386 12,756 Petroleum Products .................................................. 53,526 2,604 56,130 37,545 10,689 14,376 62,610 Pentanes Plus .......................................................... 0 0 0 4 209 225 438 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ...................................... 1,482 13 1,495 2,085 308 672 3,065 Ethane/Ethylene ................................................... 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 Propane/Propylene ............................................... 564 5 569 1,196 16 332 1,544 Normal Butane/Butylene ....................................... 584 6 590 608 205 232 1,045 Isobutane/Isobutylene ...........................................

57

table05.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

27 27 - 1,721 -65 -3 170 0 1,511 0 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ....... 27 18 40 - 153 -28 - 8 1 257 Pentanes Plus .................................. 3 - 0 - 0 (s) - 0 (s) 2 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 24 18 40 - 153 -28 - 8 1 254 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 8 0 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 8 Propane/Propylene ........................ 11 54 39 - 149 -8 - 0 1 261 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 4 -27 1 - 3 -18 - 5 (s) -7 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 1 -9 0 - 0 -2 - 3 0 -8 Other Liquids .................................... -9 - 183 - 11 17 - 234 1 -67 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates ..... 64 - 22 - 0 7 - 79 1 0 Unfinished Oils ................................. - - 34 - 0 -2 - 104 0 -68 Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. ........... -72 - 126 - 11 12 - 54 (s) 0 Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. ....... - - 0 - 0 1 - -2 0 1 Finished Petroleum Products .......... 76 1,798 771 - 2,918 -104 - - 63 5,603 Finished

58

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1,173 16 2,988 1,321 324 106 21 2,811 344 2,751 1,173 16 2,988 1,321 324 106 21 2,811 344 2,751 Crude Oil 1,111 - - - - 1,160 2 62 4 2,331 0 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 61 0 50 5 - - - 1 66 15 35 Pentanes Plus 28 0 - - - - - - 0 21 3 4 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 33 - - 50 5 - - - 1 45 12 31 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - - - - - - - - - 0 Propane/Propylene 12 - - 46 4 - - - 1 - 10 51 Normal Butane/Butylene 6 - - 6 1 - - - 0 26 1 -14 Isobutane/Isobutylene 15 - - -2 0 - - - 0 20 - -7 Other Liquids - - 16 - - 74 245 103 11 414 13 1 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 16 - - 7 138 37 2 193 3 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 43 - - 43 0 - - Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) - - - - 1 1 0

59

TABLE11.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1. 1. PAD District IV-Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum (Thousand Barrels per Day) January 1998 Crude Oil ........................................... 356 - 204 52 -131 -1 0 483 0 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ........ 131 (s) 17 - -93 (s) - 19 (s) 35 Pentanes Plus .................................. 25 - 4 - -11 (s) - 5 (s) 12 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 106 (s) 14 - -82 (s) - 14 (s) 23 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 31 0 0 - -41 0 - 0 0 -10 Propane/Propylene ....................... 48 9 8 - -23 -2 - 0 (s) 43 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 18 -7 6 - -10 1 - 11 0 -5 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 9 -3 0 - -8 1 - 2 0 -4 Other Liquids .................................... 11 - 0 - 0 18 - -5 0 -2 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates .... 3 - 0 - 0 -1 - 4 0 0 Unfinished Oils ................................. - - 0 - 0 3 - -1 0 -2 Motor Gasoline

60

table03.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3. 3. U.S. Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 1998 Crude Oil ............................................... 6,541 - 8,339 60 389 0 14,319 231 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ........... 1,805 497 238 - -497 - 478 68 2,492 Pentanes Plus .................................... 303 - 38 - 37 - 138 15 151 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ................ 1,502 497 200 - -534 - 340 53 2,340 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 636 24 18 - -55 - 0 0 734 Propane/Propylene ........................ 533 527 137 - -310 - 0 29 1,478 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 155 -65 28 - -179 - 234 24 39 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 178 11 17 - 11 - 106 0 89 Other Liquids ........................................ 285 - 476 - 244 - 564 69 -116 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates ...... 369 - 51 - 33 - 337 50 0 Unfinished Oils ...................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butylene isobutane isobutylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

TABLE35.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Thousand Thousand Barrels) January 1998 Crude Oil .................................................................. 344 433 -89 62,087 2,094 59,993 Petroleum Products ................................................ 103,659 8,121 95,538 34,597 13,141 21,456 Pentanes Plus ....................................................... 0 0 0 678 159 519 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ................................... 4,737 0 4,737 6,111 6,365 -254 Ethane/Ethylene ............................................... 0 0 0 773 2,988 -2,215 Propane/Propylene ........................................... 4,630 0 4,630 3,760 2,792 968 Normal Butane/Butylene ................................... 107 0 107 1,086 515 571 Isobutane/Isobutylene ...................................... 0 0 0 492 70 422 Unfinished Oils ......................................................

62

Single event kinetic modeling of solid acid alkylation of isobutane with butenes over proton-exchanged Y-Zeolites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Complex reaction kinetics of the solid acid alkylation of isobutane with butenes over a proton-exchanged Y-zeolite has been modeled at the elementary step level. Starting with a computer algorithm that generated the reaction network based on the fundamentals of the carbenium ion chemistry, the formation of over 100+ product species has been modeled in order to gain understanding of the underlying phenomena leading to rapid catalyst deactivation and product selectivity shifts observed in experimental runs. An experimental investigation of the solid acid alkylation process was carried out in a fixed bed catalytic reactor operating with an excess of isobutane under isothermal conditions at moderate temperatures (353-393 K) in liquid phase. Experimental data varying with run-time for a set of butene space-times and reaction temperatures were collected for parameter estimation purposes. A kinetic model was formulated in terms of rate expressions at the elementary step level including a rigorous modeling of deactivation through site coverage. The single event concept was applied to each rate coefficient at the elementary step level to achieve a significant reduction in the number of model parameters. Based on the identification of structural changes leading to the creation or destruction of symmetry axes and chiral centers in an elementary step, formulae have been developed for the calculation of the number of single events. The Evans-Polanyi relationship and the concept of stabilization energy were introduced to account for energy levels in surface-bonded carbenium ions. A novel functional dependency of the stabilization energy with the nature of the carbenium ion and the carbon number was proposed to account for energy effects from the acid sites on the catalyst. Further reductions in the number of parameters and simplification of the equations for the transient pseudohomogeneous one-dimensional plug-flow model of the reactor were achieved by means of thermodynamic constraints. Altogether, the single event concept, the Evans-Polanyi relationship, the stabilization energy approach and the thermodynamic constraints led to a set of 14 parameters necessary for a complete description of solid acid alkylation at the elementary step level.

Martinis Coll, Jorge Maximiliano

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Total electron scattering cross sections of ethane, propane, n-butane, 1,3-butadiene and butylene in the energy range 0.3 to 4.0 keV.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The total electron scattering cross sections of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane, 1,3-Butadiene and Butylene were measured in the energy range 0.3 to 4.0 keV using linear… (more)

Wickramarachchi, Priyangika.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Development of a catalyst for conversion of syngas-derived materials to isobutylene. Quarterly report number 19, October 1--December 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goals of this project are to develop a catalyst and process for the conversion of syngas to isobutanol. After identification and optimization of key catalyst and process characteristics, the commercial potential of the process is to be evaluated by an economic analysis. From independent process variable studies to investigate the conversion of a methanol/ethanol feed to isobutanol, the best performance to date has been achieved with the 2% Pt on Zn/Mn/Zr oxide catalyst. Using Hyprotech Hysim v2.5 process simulation software, and considering both gas and liquid recycle loops in the process flow diagram, the overall carbon conversion is 98% with 22% selectivity to isobutanol. The expected production of isobutanol is 92 MT/day from 500 MT/day of methanol and 172 MT/day of ethanol feed. An additional 13 MT/day of isobutryaldehyde intermediate is recovered in the liquid product and vent streams. Because of the low selectivity (22%) of the methanol conversion catalyst to isobutanol, the process is uneconomical, even if the isobutanol is valued as a solvent ($903/MT) and not as isobutylene for MTBE production ($352/MT).

Spehlmann, B.C.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total 559,639 599,643 591,916 616,905 613,451 578,101 1981-2013 Liquefied Refinery Gases 24,599 26,928 25,443 26,819 25,951 19,023 1981-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 464 426 407 441 487 379 1981-2013 Ethane 317 277 283 312 332 232 1993-2013 Ethylene 147 149 124 129 155 147 1993-2013 Propane/Propylene 16,840 17,792 16,966 17,839 18,063 17,254 1981-2013 Propane 8,051 8,949 8,756 9,002 9,153 8,816 1995-2013 Propylene 8,789 8,843 8,210 8,837 8,910 8,438 1993-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 7,270 8,876 8,122 8,676 7,664 1,738 1981-2013 Normal Butane 7,447 9,044 8,314 8,832 8,067 1,743 1993-2013 Butylene -177 -168 -192 -156 -403 -5 1993-2013 Isobutane/Isobutylene

66

U.S. Natural Gas Processing Plant  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

647 837 1993-2012 PropanePropylene 864 1,575 1,329 1,371 1,505 1,944 1993-2012 Normal ButaneButylene 646 1,373 907 1,292 688 907 1993-2012 IsobutaneButylene 499 453 567 500 500...

67

table04.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. 4. PAD District I-Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 1998 Crude Oil ........................................... 824 - 53,357 -2,000 -89 5,262 0 46,830 0 0 16,235 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ........ 829 569 1,233 - 4,737 -869 - 252 24 7,961 5,223 Pentanes Plus ................................ 79 - 0 - 0 7 - 0 1 71 19 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ............ 750 569 1,233 - 4,737 -876 - 252 24 7,889 5,204 Ethane/Ethylene ........................ 262 0 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 262 0 Propane/Propylene .................... 334 1,689 1,206 - 4,630 -262 - 0 20 8,101 4,043 Normal Butane/Butylene ............ 116 -843 27 - 107 -548 - 162 3 -210 821 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................ 38 -277 0 - 0 -66 - 90 0 -263 340 Other Liquids .................................... -272 - 5,668 - 350 537 - 7,268 17 -2,076 19,354 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates ... 1,973

68

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

59,397 25,268 126,131 58,449 20,168 -10,157 5,610 119,848 7,211 59,397 25,268 126,131 58,449 20,168 -10,157 5,610 119,848 7,211 146,586 280,571 Crude Oil 44,167 - - - - 55,181 16,673 -10,758 505 102,476 2,282 0 102,610 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 15,230 -515 3,462 1,887 -432 - - 2,252 3,146 2,129 12,105 58,830 Pentanes Plus 1,896 -515 - - 6 2,928 - - -549 1,119 1,599 2,146 7,743 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 13,334 - - 3,462 1,881 -3,360 - - 2,801 2,027 530 9,959 51,087 Ethane/Ethylene 4,901 - - - 9 -3,013 - - 339 - - 1,558 4,694 Propane/Propylene 5,587 - - 3,111 1,470 -650 - - 1,991 - 199 7,328 24,444 Normal Butane/Butylene 1,561 - - 475 162 156 - - 651 514 331 858 20,078 Isobutane/Isobutylene 1,285 - - -124 240 147 - - -180 1,513 - 215 1,871

69

East Coast (PADD 1) Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Total Crude Oil and Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55 Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and Under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem. Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products

70

U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

18,553 18,551 18,724 19,046 19,091 19,116 1963-2013 18,553 18,551 18,724 19,046 19,091 19,116 1963-2013 Crude Oil 0 0 0 0 0 0 1981-2013 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs 2,297 2,086 2,138 2,169 2,159 2,331 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 52 48 113 -52 15 114 1981-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,245 2,038 2,025 2,222 2,144 2,217 1973-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 921 930 894 963 940 1,027 1981-2013 Propane/Propylene 1,148 924 979 1,052 1,036 1,093 1973-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 130 138 85 141 103 78 1981-2013 Isobutane/Isobutylene 47 45 68 66 64 18 1981-2013 Other Liquids 66 100 24 184 -43 199 1981-2013 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons 0 0 0 0 0 0 1991-2013 Unfinished Oils 67 100 24 184 -43 199 1981-2013 Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. 0 0 0 0 0 0 1981-2013

71

U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

96,229 107,478 106,354 120,656 114,693 108,925 1981-2013 96,229 107,478 106,354 120,656 114,693 108,925 1981-2013 Crude Oil 3,965 3,863 3,591 3,029 2,052 2,975 1920-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 12,522 14,761 10,699 17,203 15,796 13,937 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 3,327 4,292 1,655 7,308 5,315 2,989 1984-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 9,194 10,468 9,044 9,895 10,481 10,947 1981-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 1981-1992 Propane/Propylene 8,363 9,542 8,057 8,407 9,125 10,040 1981-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 832 927 987 1,488 1,356 907 1981-2013 Isobutane/Isobutylene 1984-1992 Other Liquids 7,489 6,277 6,728 7,063 5,570 6,579 1991-2013 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons 2,897 3,520 3,180 3,430 4,056 3,543 1991-2013 Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol)

72

U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

302,265 311,620 293,713 317,538 316,119 299,380 1981-2013 302,265 311,620 293,713 317,538 316,119 299,380 1981-2013 Crude Oil 231,793 239,848 231,900 250,207 251,054 237,344 1920-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 5,268 5,261 4,667 4,819 3,708 4,020 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 1,366 2,222 730 1,461 316 772 1981-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3,902 3,039 3,937 3,358 3,392 3,248 1981-2013 Ethane 1993-2006 Ethylene 9 12 8 12 12 9 1993-2013 Propane 2,585 1,818 2,474 2,105 1,901 1,875 1995-2013 Propylene 728 680 814 595 722 728 1993-2013 Normal Butane 181 121 149 106 272 194 1995-2013 Butylene 143 241 162 153 146 139 1993-2013 Isobutane 256 167 330 387 339 303 1995-2013 Isobutylene 1993-2010 Other Liquids 43,066 47,595 40,206 44,400 38,927 40,118 1981-2013

73

table06.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7,308 7,308 - 27,686 -2,263 59,993 -3,449 0 105,005 1,168 0 70,132 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ......... 8,763 2,756 3,599 - 265 -6,499 - 3,820 752 17,310 23,020 Pentanes Plus ................................... 1,146 - 42 - 519 214 - 769 455 269 1,988 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ............... 7,617 2,756 3,557 - -254 -6,713 - 3,051 297 17,041 21,032 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 2,909 0 12 - -2,215 -110 - 0 0 816 2,868 Propane/Propylene ....................... 3,095 3,602 2,661 - 968 -4,799 - 0 96 15,029 13,173 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 1,156 -837 486 - 571 -1,497 - 2,303 201 369 3,305 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 457 -9 398 - 422 -307 - 748 0 827 1,686 Other Liquids ..................................... 738 - 0 - 1,171 1,228 - 1,429 11 -759 26,014 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates ..... 1,380 - 0 - 0 225 - 1,144 11 0 2,175 Unfinished Oils ..................................

74

table02.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. 2. U.S. Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 1998 Crude Oil ............................................... 202,756 - 258,506 1,851 12,065 0 443,902 7,146 0 880,184 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ............ 55,963 15,419 7,378 - -15,412 - 14,810 2,118 77,244 79,784 Pentanes Plus .................................... 9,388 - 1,185 - 1,137 - 4,282 461 4,693 6,852 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ................ 46,575 15,419 6,193 - -16,549 - 10,528 1,657 72,551 72,932 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 19,726 751 556 - -1,715 - 0 0 22,748 17,192 Propane/Propylene ........................ 16,528 16,343 4,241 - -9,623 - 0 904 45,831 34,422 Normal Butane/Butylene ................ 4,818 -2,023 880 - -5,547 - 7,256 753 1,213 12,826 Isobutane/Isobutylene .................... 5,503 348 516 - 336 - 3,272 0 2,759 8,492

75

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

25,966 7,956 1,280,301 725,573 1,191,766 9,116 -19,377 1,260,324 25,966 7,956 1,280,301 725,573 1,191,766 9,116 -19,377 1,260,324 90,720 1,909,011 152,389 Crude Oil 9,418 - - - - 316,140 4,126 8,405 -1,574 336,230 3,434 0 8,328 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 16,548 -84 14,202 18,043 26,704 - - -1,588 7,264 3,052 66,685 6,377 Pentanes Plus 2,828 -84 - - 185 -19 - - 12 63 315 2,520 43 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 13,720 - - 14,202 17,858 26,723 - - -1,600 7,201 2,737 64,165 6,334 Ethane/Ethylene 174 - - 93 - - - - 0 - - 267 - Propane/Propylene 9,223 - - 12,922 16,074 26,601 - - -793 - 1,230 64,383 5,184 Normal Butane/Butylene 2,091 - - 1,435 616 122 - - -866 3,435 1,507 188 837 Isobutane/Isobutylene 2,232 - - -248 1,168 - - - 59 3,766 - -673 313

76

U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

556,591 575,071 561,721 590,423 591,817 573,483 1981-2013 556,591 575,071 561,721 590,423 591,817 573,483 1981-2013 Crude Oil 0 0 0 0 0 0 1981-2013 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs 68,909 64,655 64,147 67,242 66,924 69,929 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 1,561 1,486 3,400 -1,627 474 3,432 1981-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 67,349 63,170 60,747 68,869 66,450 66,498 1981-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 27,620 28,821 26,806 29,847 29,153 30,817 1981-2013 Propane/Propylene 34,429 28,651 29,365 32,619 32,108 32,780 1981-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 3,899 4,288 2,546 4,356 3,201 2,347 1981-2013 Isobutane/Isobutylene 1,400 1,409 2,030 2,047 1,988 554 1981-2013 Other Liquids 1,994 3,096 713 5,708 -1,348 5,977 1981-2013 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons 0 0 0 0 0 0 1991-2013

77

East Coast (PADD 1) Net Receipts of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Type: Net Receipts Receipts Shipments Type: Net Receipts Receipts Shipments Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Type Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 96,936 96,489 98,076 99,950 102,408 98,737 1981-2013 Crude Oil -533 -654 -152 -479 -42 20 1981-2013 Petroleum Products 97,469 97,143 98,228 100,429 102,450 98,717 1986-2013 Pentanes Plus -2 1987-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,739 1,357 1,555 1,342 1,959 2,568 1981-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 1989-2002 Propane/Propylene 2,739 1,357 1,555 1,342 1,959 2,483 1989-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 85 1989-2013 Isobutane/Isobutylene 1989-2013

78

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3,707 661 107,540 52,842 98,737 3,513 -4,105 105,957 7,218 3,707 661 107,540 52,842 98,737 3,513 -4,105 105,957 7,218 157,931 153,902 Crude Oil 1,020 - - - - 26,908 20 3,378 -1,285 32,517 94 0 10,326 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 2,687 -11 747 945 2,568 - - 471 798 453 5,214 6,541 Pentanes Plus 443 -11 - - - - - - 2 - 300 130 82 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,244 - - 747 945 2,568 - - 469 798 153 5,084 6,459 Ethane/Ethylene 27 - - 9 - - - - 6 - - 30 15 Propane/Propylene 1,517 - - 1,078 813 2,483 - - 724 - 126 5,041 4,442 Normal Butane/Butylene 474 - - -333 80 85 - - -246 523 27 2 1,673 Isobutane/Isobutylene 226 - - -7 52 - - - -15 275 - 11 329 Other Liquids - - 672 - - 16,653 48,432 5,798 -936 72,642 156 -307 61,003

79

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

429,215 5,872 1,093,588 483,473 118,666 38,688 7,789 1,028,754 429,215 5,872 1,093,588 483,473 118,666 38,688 7,789 1,028,754 126,026 1,006,933 150,671 Crude Oil 406,791 - - - - 424,639 598 22,523 1,445 853,106 0 0 56,432 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 22,424 -123 18,260 1,933 - - - 404 24,108 5,319 12,663 4,734 Pentanes Plus 10,215 -123 - - - - - - -20 7,565 1,094 1,453 51 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 12,209 - - 18,260 1,933 - - - 424 16,543 4,225 11,210 4,683 Ethane/Ethylene 34 - - - - - - - - - - 34 - Propane/Propylene 4,422 - - 16,669 1,593 - - - 335 - 3,714 18,635 1,915 Normal Butane/Butylene 2,360 - - 2,258 332 - - - 129 9,346 512 -5,037 2,249 Isobutane/Isobutylene 5,393 - - -667 8 - - - -40 7,197 - -2,423 519

80

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

302,630 5,088 230,918 121,366 -164,290 -11,531 4,472 221,774 5,269 302,630 5,088 230,918 121,366 -164,290 -11,531 4,472 221,774 5,269 252,667 39,043 Crude Oil 163,870 - - - - 115,845 -53,264 -13,771 3,101 209,575 5 0 18,928 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 138,760 -110 3,391 3,503 -119,108 - - 94 6,946 4,261 15,135 1,470 Pentanes Plus 18,508 -110 - - - -13,355 - - 14 2,156 3,795 -922 194 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 120,252 - - 3,391 3,503 -105,753 - - 80 4,790 466 16,057 1,276 Ethane/Ethylene 63,265 - - - - -61,214 - - -6 - - 2,057 400 Propane/Propylene 36,541 - - 3,406 3,155 -28,078 - - 7 - 12 15,005 363 Normal Butane/Butylene 15,114 - - 294 255 -9,019 - - 88 2,241 455 3,860 366 Isobutane/Isobutylene 5,332 - - -309 93 -7,442 - - -9 2,549 - -4,866 147

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butylene isobutane isobutylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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81

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

315,006 29,943 578,101 299,380 14,453 11,088 543,388 108,925 315,006 29,943 578,101 299,380 14,453 11,088 543,388 108,925 573,483 1,831,621 Crude Oil 233,810 - - - - 237,344 8,334 7,688 468,825 2,975 0 1,067,149 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 81,196 -552 19,023 4,020 - - 3,027 16,794 13,937 69,929 189,672 Pentanes Plus 11,167 -552 - - 772 - - -700 5,666 2,989 3,432 18,036 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 70,029 - - 19,023 3,248 - - 3,727 11,128 10,947 66,498 171,636 Ethane/Ethylene 30,015 - - 379 9 - - -414 - - 30,817 34,444 Propane/Propylene 25,545 - - 17,254 2,603 - - 2,582 - 10,040 32,780 67,782 Normal Butane/Butylene 6,893 - - 1,738 333 - - 999 4,711 907 2,347 58,942 Isobutane/Isobutylene 7,576 - - -348 303 - - 560 6,417 - 554 10,468

82

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8,897 964 18,564 10,598 335 158 17,505 3,205 18,490 8,897 964 18,564 10,598 335 158 17,505 3,205 18,490 Crude Oil 6,489 - - - - 8,527 144 93 14,999 67 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 2,408 -18 630 170 - - 65 509 314 2,301 Pentanes Plus 317 -18 - - 29 - - -13 174 118 50 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,091 - - 630 141 - - 79 335 196 2,251 Ethane/Ethylene 974 - - 18 0 - - 34 - - 958 Propane/Propylene 712 - - 553 116 - - 36 - 171 1,175 Normal Butane/Butylene 179 - - 56 15 - - 5 143 26 77 Isobutane/Isobutylene 225 - - 3 9 - - 4 192 - 41 Other Liquids - - 981 - - 1,257 53 51 1,997 214 28 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 981 - - 40 151 5 1,050 116 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 190 - - 190 0 - -

83

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

71 22 3,498 1,982 3,256 25 -53 3,444 248 5,216 71 22 3,498 1,982 3,256 25 -53 3,444 248 5,216 Crude Oil 26 - - - - 864 11 23 -4 919 9 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 45 0 39 49 73 - - -4 20 8 182 Pentanes Plus 8 0 - - 1 0 - - 0 0 1 7 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 37 - - 39 49 73 - - -4 20 7 175 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - 0 - - - - 0 - - 1 Propane/Propylene 25 - - 35 44 73 - - -2 - 3 176 Normal Butane/Butylene 6 - - 4 2 0 - - -2 9 4 1 Isobutane/Isobutylene 6 - - -1 3 - - - 0 10 - -2 Other Liquids - - 22 - - 717 1,611 114 -5 2,505 10 -47 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 22 - - 29 291 -9 3 324 6 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 4 - - 4 0 - - Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) - - - - 0 - 0 0

84

Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker,  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Total Crude Oil and Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and Under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem. Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

85

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

34,932 594 95,116 42,741 9,239 5,791 830 89,707 10,470 87,406 34,932 594 95,116 42,741 9,239 5,791 830 89,707 10,470 87,406 142,840 Crude Oil 33,114 - - - - 36,279 - 4,213 311 73,295 - 0 52,719 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 1,818 -8 1,970 134 - - - 1,076 1,782 396 660 8,270 Pentanes Plus 794 -8 - - - - - - 163 552 92 -21 314 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,024 - - 1,970 134 - - - 913 1,230 304 681 7,956 Ethane/Ethylene 3 - - - - - - - - - - 3 - Propane/Propylene 420 - - 1,475 124 - - - 374 - 299 1,346 2,272 Normal Butane/Butylene 158 - - 451 10 - - - 378 556 5 -320 5,110 Isobutane/Isobutylene 443 - - 44 - - - - 161 674 - -348 574 Other Liquids - - 602 - - 3,200 7,556 2,809 -2,126 14,630 387 1,276 46,625

86

Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Ether* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Reformulated Blended with Fuel Ethanol Reformulated, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Less than 0.31 Percent Sulfur 0.31 to 1.00 Percent Sulfur Greater than 1.00 Percent Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Marketable Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Units: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

87

TABLE12.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. 2. PAD District V-Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 1998 Crude Oil ............................................ 67,121 - 13,641 4,786 -2,251 3,132 0 74,187 5,978 0 63,808 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ........ 2,884 1,346 5 - 0 -1,591 - 3,038 451 2,337 3,315 Pentanes Plus ................................... 1,572 - 0 - 0 -1 - 1,293 (s) 280 23 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 1,312 1,346 5 - 0 -1,590 - 1,745 450 2,058 3,292 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 2 0 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 2 0 Propane/Propylene ....................... 358 1,447 5 - 0 -805 - 0 149 2,466 1,676 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 639 -241 0 - 0 -771 - 1,348 301 -480 1,111 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 313 140 0 - 0 -14 - 397 0 70 505 Other Liquids ..................................... 2,710 - 2,197 - 734 2,707 - 2,248 94 592 36,195 Other

88

table08.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

106,453 106,453 - 157,490 -279 -53,603 7,143 0 202,918 0 0 717,193 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ........ 39,438 10,759 2,005 - -2,109 -6,438 - 7,105 885 48,541 46,872 Pentanes Plus .................................. 5,820 - 1,031 - -167 925 - 2,057 0 3,702 4,603 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 33,618 10,759 974 - -1,942 -7,363 - 5,048 885 44,839 42,269 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 15,603 751 544 - 3,485 -1,605 - 0 0 21,988 14,111 Propane/Propylene ....................... 11,268 9,321 136 - -4,893 -3,707 - 0 637 18,902 15,091 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 2,346 107 176 - -356 -2,748 - 3,088 248 1,685 7,266 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 4,401 580 118 - -178 697 - 1,960 0 2,264 5,801 Other Liquids .................................... 5,321 - 6,903 - -2,255 2,536 - 6,692 2,021 -1,280 65,913 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates .... 4,613 - 22

89

Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Exports Exports Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Naphtha for Petro. Feed. Use Other Oils Petro. Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

90

U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total 522,879 659,392 738,803 858,685 1,089,848 1,172,965 1981-2012 Crude Oil 10,006 10,464 15,985 15,198 17,158 24,693 1870-2012 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 25,584 36,951 50,681 59,842 90,968 115,054 1981-2012 Pentanes Plus 4,776 12,393 14,337 11,792 36,837 43,136 1984-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 20,809 24,558 36,344 48,050 54,131 71,918 1981-2012 Ethane/Ethylene 1983-1992 Propane/Propylene 15,501 19,264 30,925 39,860 45,243 62,490 1981-2012 Normal Butane/Butylene 5,308 5,294 5,419 8,189 8,888 9,428 1981-2012 Isobutane/Isobutylene 1984-1992 Other Liquids 32,049 23,477 23,625 44,514 67,981 78,359 1991-2012 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons

91

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

10,500 998 19,270 9,979 482 370 18,113 3,631 19,116 10,500 998 19,270 9,979 482 370 18,113 3,631 19,116 Crude Oil 7,794 - - - - 7,911 278 256 15,628 99 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 2,707 -18 634 134 - - 101 560 465 2,331 Pentanes Plus 372 -18 - - 26 - - -23 189 100 114 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,334 - - 634 108 - - 124 371 365 2,217 Ethane/Ethylene 1,001 - - 13 0 - - -14 - - 1,027 Propane/Propylene 852 - - 575 87 - - 86 - 335 1,093 Normal Butane/Butylene 230 - - 58 11 - - 33 157 30 78 Isobutane/Isobutylene 253 - - -12 10 - - 19 214 - 18 Other Liquids - - 1,015 - - 1,337 296 304 1,926 219 199 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 1,015 - - 75 121 -36 1,129 118 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 208 - - 208 0 - -

92

Product Supplied for Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petro. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petro. Feed Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Petroleum Coke - Marketable Petroleum Coke - Catalyst Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

93

Refinery Net Input of Isobutane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and ...

94

Refinery & Blender Net Production of Isobutylene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

95

Normal Butane/Butylene Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil exports are ...

96

Refinery & Blender Net Production of Isobutane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

97

Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Isobutane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

98

Refinery Stocks of Normal Butane/Butylene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: "Other Oxygenates ...

99

Normal Butane/Butylene - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Working storage ...

100

Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A rate equation for carbon monoxide consumption showing first order in CO and 0.5 order in hydrogen indicates the rate controlling step involves dissociated hydrogen. The inhibition of the rate with carbon dioxide is also shown. Examination of the hydrocarbon distributions indicates a see-saw effect with the C[sub 4]s representing the fulcrum and methane and C[sub 5][sup +] the end points. The shift in the distributions tends to be towards the C[sub 5][sup +] for high pressures and long residence times. This distribution can be shifted by incorporating Ti into the catalysts, but the optimum amount of Ti needs to be determined. The sol gel method of preparing the catalysts tends to produce a less active catalyst than by precipitation of a zirconyl salt. The most active catalyst contained approximately 2% Th/ZrO[sub 2

Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

1992-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butylene isobutane isobutylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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101

Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports by Area of Entry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

by Area of Entry by Area of Entry Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Ethylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene-Type Bonded Aircraft Fuel Other Bonded Aircraft Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Bonded, 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Other, 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Bonded, Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Other, Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Bonded, Greater than 500 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Other, Greater than 500 ppm to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Bonded, Greater than 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Other, Greater than 2000 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Bonded Ship Bunkers, Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., Bonded Ship Bunkers, 0.31 to 1.00% Sulfur Residual F.O., Bonded Ship Bunkers, Greater than 1.00% Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

102

Refinery Net Production of Isobutane - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

103

Experimental and DFT studies of initiation processes for butane isomerization over sulfated-zirconia catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Reaction kinetics studies were conducted of isobutane and n-butane isomerization at 423 K over sulfated-zirconia, with the butane feeds purified of olefins. Dihydrogen evolution was observed during butane isomerization over fresh catalysts, as well as over catalysts selectively poisoned by preadsorbed ammonia. Butane isomerization over sulfated-zirconia can be viewed as a surface chain reaction comprised of initiation, propagation, and termination steps. The primary initiation step in the absence of feed olefins is considered to be the dehydrogenation of butane over sulfated-zirconia, generating butenes which adsorb onto acid sites to form protonated olefinic species associated with the conjugate base form of the acid sites. Quantum-chemical calculations, employing density-functional theory, suggest that the dissociative adsorption of dihydrogen, isobutylene hydrogenation, and dissociative adsorption of isobutane are feasible over the sulfated-zirconia cluster, and these reactions take place over Zr-O sites.

Hong, Z.; Watwe, R.M.; Natal-Santiago, M.A.; Hill, J.M.; Dumesic, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Fogash, K.B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)] [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Kim, B. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Masqueda-Jimenez, B.I. [Univ. Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion y Estudios de Posgrado] [Univ. Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion y Estudios de Posgrado

1998-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

104

Normal Butane/Butylene Refinery Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

105

Refinery & Blender Net Production of Normal Butane/Butylene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast: 382: 612: 603: 584: 549-349: 1993-2013: Appalachian No. 1: 67: 42: 68: 37: 39: 16: 1995 ... La. Gulf Coast: 919: 1,323: 917: 984: 882: ...

106

Normal Butane/Butylene Total Stocks Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

107

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Normal Butane-Butylene Stock Change ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981-58-3-1: 78: 50: 25: 31: 35: 70-11-92-132: 1982-70-64-93-26: 36: 46: 37: 39: 20-43-76-102: ...

108

Refinery Net Production of Normal Butane/Butylene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

109

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 December 2011 Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH3-(CH2)n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation. A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of an acid catalyst,

110

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

September 2013 September 2013 Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH3-(CH2)n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation. A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of an acid catalyst,

111

Olefins from High Yield Autothermal Reforming Process ...  

Isobutylene is used to produce fuel additives. The autothermal reforming process can produce isobutylene and requires no external energy input ...

112

Selective oxidation of alkanes and/or alkenes to valuable oxygenates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst, its method of preparation and its use for producing at least one of methacrolein and methacrylic acid, for example, by subjecting isobutane or isobutylene or a mixture thereof to a vapor phase catalytic oxidation in the presence of air or oxygen. In the case where isobutane alone is subjected to a vapor phase catalytic oxidation in the presence of air or oxygen, the product is at least one of isobutylene, methacrolein and methacrylic acid. The catalyst comprises a compound having the formula A.sub.aB.sub.bX.sub.xY.sub.yZ.sub.zO.sub.o wherein A is one or more elements selected from the group of Mo, W and Zr, B is one or more elements selected from the group of Bi, Sb, Se, and Te, X is one or more elements selected from the group of Al, Bi, Ca, Ce, Co, Fe, Ga, Mg, Ni, Nb, Sn, W and Zn, Y is one or more elements selected from the group of Ag, Au, B, Cr, Cs, Cu, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Re, Ru, Sn, Te, Ti, V and Zr, and Z is one or more element from the X or Y groups or from the following: As, Ba, Pd, Pt, Sr, or mixtures thereof, and wherein a=1, 0.05

Lin, Manhua (Maple Glen, PA); Pillai, Krishnan S. (North Brunwick, NJ)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Isobutane - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

114

Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Quarterly report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The presence of potassium or calcium in sol gel catalysts increase the production of C{sub 4} hydrocarbon and that of methane while maintaining high activities. Characterization of catalysts using temperature programmed desorption of carbon dioxide indicates that activity and product distribution over an isosynthesis catalyst depend on its acid-base properties. Low activity was observed for catalysts with very weak basicity, and high oxygenate production for catalysts with strong basicity. An optimum strength of basic sites is crucial to achieve high activity while minimizing the amount of oxygenates. A kinetic model was developed based on the reaction mechanisms, and the simulation from the model produces reasonable fit with the experimental data.

Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

1993-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

115

U.S. Product Supplied of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's: 134: 101: 124: 143: 117: 146: 151: 163: 188: 1990's: 110: 102: 113: 86: 128: 113 ...

116

U.S. Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 316: 278: 293: 421: 330: 382: 312: 2,765: 310: 1,334: 991: 917: 1982: 1,314: 864: 1,174: ...

117

U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Input of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 237: 165: 117: 104: 77: 89: 80: 91: 144: 185: 242: 301: 1982: 243: 213: 144: 123: 120: ...

118

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 226: 214: 215: 222: 219: 218: 221: 219: 231: 247: 226: 203: 1982: 222: 219: 215: 219: 232: ...

119

U.S. Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's: 31: 10: 9: 7: 8: 11: 11: 1990's: 12: 14: 16: 16: 14: 20: 23: 17: ...

120

Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

petroleum petroleum Alcohol: The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH(3)-(CH(2))n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate: The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high-octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation: A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of anacid catalyst, usually sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid. The product alkylate, an isoparaffin, has high octane value and is blended with motor and aviation gasoline to

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butylene isobutane isobutylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

@Title = Definitions of Petroleum Products and Other Terms  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Definitions of Petroleum Products and Other Terms (Revised January 2010) Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH 3 - (CH 2 )n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation. A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of an acid catalyst, usually sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid. The product, alkylate, an

122

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Plant Field Production Plant Field Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Butylene (C4H8) An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery processes. Ethane (C2H6) A normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of -127.48º F. It is extracted from natural gas and refinery gas streams. Field Production Represents crude oil production on leases, natural gas liquids production at natural gas processing plants, new supply of other hydrocarbons/oxygenates and motor gasoline blending components, and fuel ethanol blended into finished motor gasoline. Isobutane (C4H10) A normally gaseous branch-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of 10.9º F. It is extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams.

123

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Comp. Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Gasoline, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., than 1.00% Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petro. Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petro. Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

124

U.S. Total Stocks  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 1,665,345 1,736,739 1,776,375 1,794,099 1,750,087 1,807,777 1956-2012 Crude Oil 983,046 1,027,663 1,051,795 1,059,975 1,026,630 1,060,764 1913-2012 All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) 682,299 709,076 724,580 734,124 723,457 747,013 1993-2012 Pentanes Plus 10,278 13,775 10,481 12,510 17,596 12,739 1981-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 95,592 113,134 102,147 108,272 111,778 140,529 1967-2012 Ethane/Ethylene 14,869 27,591 20,970 24,323 22,892 35,396 1967-2012 Propane/Propylene 52,007 55,408 50,140 49,241 54,978 67,991 1967-2012 Normal Butane/Butylene 21,862 23,031 24,149 27,652 26,779 28,574 1981-2012 Isobutane/Butylene 6,854 7,104 6,888 7,056 7,129 8,568 1981-2012 Other Hydrocarbons 29 20 41 42 2009-2012

125

U.S. Refinery  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 354,918 353,802 345,413 343,062 345,025 342,763 1993-2013 Crude Oil 98,082 97,563 90,880 93,075 97,586 90,778 1981-2013 All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) 256,836 256,239 254,533 249,987 247,439 251,985 1993-2013 Pentanes Plus 947 867 828 805 708 856 1993-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 12,896 14,096 15,761 16,662 18,296 18,683 1993-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 281 321 261 242 205 171 1993-2013 Propane/Propylene 2,692 2,994 3,569 3,518 4,099 4,104 1993-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 7,627 8,451 9,511 10,757 11,921 12,147 1993-2013 Isobutane/Butylene 2,296 2,330 2,420 2,145 2,071 2,261 1993-2013 Other Hydrocarbons 19 43 49 33 26 21 2009-2013 Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) 116 99 100 82 71 78 2009-2013

126

U.S. Refinery  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 346,915 338,782 331,615 339,907 336,327 341,211 1993-2012 Crude Oil 89,070 86,598 90,944 88,982 90,640 88,781 1981-2012 All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) 257,845 252,184 240,671 250,925 245,687 252,430 1993-2012 Pentanes Plus 949 997 1,006 971 895 884 1993-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 13,161 12,456 12,611 14,896 14,429 15,934 1993-2012 Ethane/Ethylene 31 185 118 220 223 214 1993-2012 Propane/Propylene 4,120 3,293 3,577 4,278 4,087 4,574 1993-2012 Normal Butane/Butylene 6,320 6,482 6,478 7,818 7,794 8,774 1993-2012 Isobutane/Butylene 2,690 2,496 2,438 2,580 2,325 2,372 1993-2012 Other Hydrocarbons 29 20 41 42 2009-2012 Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) 47 24 58 112 2009-2012

127

U.S. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propylene (Nonfuel Use) Normal Butane/Butylene Refinery Grade Butane Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Comp. Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Gasoline, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., than 1.00% Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petro. Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petro. Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products

128

Development of a catalyst for conversion of syngas-derived materials to isobutylene. Quarterly report No. 14, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goals of this project are to develop a catalyst and process for the conversion of syngas to isobutanol. The research will identify and optimize key catalyst and process characteristics. In addition, the commercial potential of the new process will be evaluated by an economic analysis. Previous work had identified Pt and Pd on Zn/Mn/Zr oxide and Pd on Zn/Mn/Cr oxide as promising catalysts for the conversion of a 10/1 methanol/ethanol blend to higher oxygenates. The reproducibility of these catalyst preparations has been found to be generally good, although some variations in performance have been observed between the Pd containing samples. Further characterization of the catalysts showing performance differences is in progress to determine whether compositional variations can account for the discrepancies. Several new 2% Pt on metal oxide catalysts have been prepared and tested. None of these materials performed better than the original 2% Pt on Zn/Mn/Zr (34/34/32 molar) oxide catalyst. However, a lower Zr content support (45/45/10 Zn/Mn/Zr oxide) gave similar results. Evaluation of the 2% Pd on Zn/Mn/Cr oxide at high space velocities has indicated that this material may be substantially less active for the C{sub 1}{minus}C{sub 1}, condensation step necessary for methanol only conversion to higher alcohols. In view of this finding, subsequent research will focus on the development of the Zn/Mn/Zr oxide support. A variety of alternative catalyst formulations have also been prepared and tested, but have failed to match the performance of noble metal on mixed metal oxide catalysts. These materials have include Cu and Mo on TiO{sub 2}, Mg/Al MOSS and polyvinylpyridine and commercial and laboratory prepared Mn oxide samples.

Barger, P.T.; Kurek, P.R.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

129

Development of a catalyst for conversion of syngas-derived materials to isobutylene. Quarterly technical report No. 13, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goals of this project are to develop a catalyst and process for the conversion of syngas to isobutanol. The research will identify and optimize key catalyst and process characteristics. In addition, the commercial potential of the new process will be evaluated by an economic analysis. This report describes the preparation and testing of a variety of potential higher alcohols synthesis catalysts based on a bifunctional formulation consisting of a noble metal dehydrogenation function on a basic mixed metal oxide support. A pilot plant catalyst screening test using a 10/1 methanol/ethanol feed blend has been used to identify a new class of catalysts that afford higher selectivities and productivities. of the desired isobutanol and other C{sub 4+}, products than the Cu/Zn/Al oxide methanol synthesis catalyst that is being used as a baseline for this work. 2% Pd or Pt on a Zn/Mn/Zr oxide support and 2% Pd on a Zn/Mn/Cr support have given the best performances to date. In addition to isobutanol, these catalysts afford significant quantities of isobutyraldehyde and methyl isobutyrate. In order to elucidate the reaction pathway occurring with this class of catalyst, the 2%Pd on Zn/Mn/Zr oxide catalyst has been evaluated over a range of space velocities. It has been found that isobutanol and higher oxygenates yields increase with decreasing space velocity at ethanol conversions greater than 90%. This suggests that this catalyst is capable of converting methanol alone to higher alcohols. This is different from the result obtained with the Cu/Zn/Al oxide baseline catalyst, which showed no change in product yields at high ethanol conversions. Therefore, further effort will be focussed on the development of these noble metal/basic metal oxide catalysts for this application.

Barger, P.T.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

130

Development of a catalyst for conversion of syngas-derived materials to isobutylene. Quarterly report No. 15, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goals of this project are to develop a catalyst and process for the conversion of syngas to isobutanol. The research will identify and optimize key catalyst and process characteristics. In addition, the commercial potential of the new process will be evaluated by an economic analysis. Previous work identified Pt or Pd on Zn/Mn[Zr co-precipitated metal oxides as promising catalysts for the conversion of a 10/1 methanol/ethanol blend to higher oxygenates. A series of catalysts have been prepared to determine the effects of metal oxide support composition and noble metal loading on the performance of these catalysts. The three components of the metal oxide have been systematically varied from 10% to 60%. These supports have been tested in the pilot plant with 2% Pt and 2% Pd added. Support composition has shown a surprisingly minor affect on both catalyst activity and selectivity. Supports with high Zn (>45%) and low Zr (<33%) have afforded the best selectivities for the desired branched C{sub 4} products. The Zn/Mn/Zr (60/20/20) support from this series has been impregnated with 0.5, 1, 2 and 5% Pt to evaluate the affect of noble metal loading. The best selectivities to the desired C{sub 4} oxygenates has been observed with the 2% Pt loading. However, the other catalysts showed higher activities as well as lower selectivities in the standard test. Therefore, a more detailed testing protocol will be employed to establish a selectivity versus conversion relationship in order to properly compare these materials. Evaluation of the 2% Pt on Zn/Mn/Zr (60/20/20) oxide catalyst at high space velocities has indicated that this material may have some activity for C{sub l}-C{sub 1}, condensation needed for methanol only conversion to higher alcohols. This material and others will be tested for methanol only conversion.

Barger, P.T.; Kurek, P.R.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

131

Development of a catalyst for conversion of syngas-derived materials to isobutylene. Quarterly report, 1 January 1995--31 March 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goals of this project are to develop a catalyst and process for the conversion of syngas to isobutanol. The research will identify and optimize key catalyst characteristics. In addition, the commercial potential of the new process will be evaluated by an economic analysis. Previous work identified Pt or Pd on Zn/Mn/Zr co-precipitated metal oxides as promising catalysts for the conversion of a 10/1 methanol/ethanol blend to higher oxygenates. Supports with high Zn (>45%) and low Zr (< 33%) have afforded the best selectivities for the desired branched C{sub 4} products in the standard pilot plant test after impregnation with 2% Pt. In this report the analytical characterization of this series of materials is summarized. A large scale preparation of Zn/Mn/Zr oxide support has been completed for use in future process variable studies.

Barger, P.T.; Kurek, P.R.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

Development of a catalyst for conversion of syngas-derived materials to isobutylene. Technical progress report No. 5, March 31, 1992--June 30, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main goal of this contract is to develop a catalyst and technology that will produce iC4{sub 4}{sup =} directly from coal-derived syngas and that is capable of using a lower H{sub 2}/CO ratio (0.5 to 1.0). The research will identify and optimize the key catalyst and process characteristics that give improved performance for CO conversion by a non-Fischer-Tropsch process. This report, which is Quarterly Report No. 5 for contract DE-AC22-91PC90042, covers the testing of various zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) and bismuth oxide (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}) based catalyst systems designed to examine the effects of catalyst preparation and process variables, especially the H{sub 2}/Co ratio. Testing of sol-gel ZrO{sub 2} catalysts with lanthanum (La) or yttrium (Y) addition indicates a decrease in isobutene yield. An attempt to increase catalyst surface area by impregnating Zr on a sol-gel SiO{sub 2} catalyst was unsuccessful. A Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was very low in activity as a result of complete reduction to Bi metal. Increasing the H{sub 2}/CO ratio to 2:1 slightly increased the isobutene yield and improved catalyst stability.

Gajda, G.J.

1993-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

133

Development of a catalyst for conversion of syngas-derived materials to isobutylene. Quarterly report No. 7, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main goal of this contract is to develop a catalyst and technology that will produce iC{sub 4}= directly from coal-derived syngas and that is capable of utilizing a lower (0.5 to 1.0) H{sub 2}:CO ratio. The research will identify and optimize the key catalyst and process characteristics that give improved performance for CO conversion by a non-Fischer-Tropsch process. This report, which is the seventh quarterly report covers the testing of various ZrO{sub 2}-based catalyst systems designed to examine the effects of catalyst preparation and process variables, especially low calcination temperature and mild reaction conditions (low temperatures, low pressure and low space velocity). Testing of solvent-extracted sol-gel ZrO{sub 2} catalysts indicate a decrease in isobutene yield. Lowering the reaction temperature, pressure and space velocity resulted in a small improvement in isobutene yield. Three extended runs demonstrated reasonable catalyst stability. In view of the generally poor isobutene yields, the emphasis in this project will shift to isoalcohol production.

Gajda, G.J.

1993-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

134

Development of a catalyst for conversion of syngas-derived materials to isobutylene. Technical progress report No. 6, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Goal is to develop a catalyst and technology that will produce iC{sub 4}{double_bond} directly from coal-derived syngas and that is capable of using a lower H{sub 2}/CO ratio (0.5 to 1.0). This report covers the testing of various zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) based catalyst systems designed to examine effects of catalyst preparation and process variables, especially feed additives. Testing sol-gel ZrO{sub 2} catalysts calcined at 475 C instead of 500 C increases the isobutene yield. Supporting zirconia on high-surface-area sol-gel silica or silica-alumina results in low activity catalysts. Addition of ethylene, propylene, ethanol to feed produces hydrogenation, dimerization, and metathesis products, but little or no isobutene.

Gajda, G.J.

1993-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

135

Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Product Supplied of Normal Butane ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Normal Butane/Butylene Supply and Disposition; Product Supplied for Normal Butane/Butylene ; Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Product Supplied for Crude Oil ...

136

CATALYSIS BY PLATINUM SINGLE CRYSTAL SURFACES: LOW PRESSURE HYDROCARBON REACTIONS AND THE EFFECTS OF INTRODUCING STRONGLY BOUND OXYGEN AT THE SURFACE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of neo-pentane and iso-butane in the presence of excessof neo-pentane to iso-butane was found to be a demandingof neo-pentane and iso-butane in the presence of excess

Smith, Carol Ellen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

EIA-800 - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Isobutane - NGPL Isobutane - LRG 247 644 Reformulated, Blended with Fuel Ethanol 127 Reformulated, Other Conventional, Blended with Fuel Ethanol Ed55 ...

138

nist23  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... heptane, hexane, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, isobutane, isopentane, methane, nitrogen, nonane, octane, oxygen, pentane, propane, and water. ...

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

139

nist23old  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... heptane, hexane, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, isobutane, isopentane, methane, nitrogen, nonane, octane, oxygen, pentane, propane, and water. ...

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

140

HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

·omatography, mass , propane, butane , wa:ter, and CO co dueethane ( 1. 7 flillOl) , n~butane (0.17 flmol), isobutane (not possess Isobutane/n~butane activity, this activity The

Benner, Linda S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butylene isobutane isobutylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

EFFECT OF FUEL TYPE ON FLAME IGNITION BY TRANSIENT PLASMA Jianbang Liu1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Rise and delay times of mixtures of methane, propane, n-butane, iso-butane and iso- octane mixed performance of various fuels including methane, propane, iso-butane, n-butane and iso-octane mixed with air

142

Building and Fire Publications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Performance Evaluation of Two Azeotropic Refrigerant Mixtures of HFC-134a With R-290 (Propane) and R-600a (Isobutane). ...

143

Pergamon Atmospheric Environment Vol. 31, No. 23, pp. 4017 4038, 1997 X-1997 Elsevier Science Ltd  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, propane, n-butane, iso-butane, ethene and acetylene) display a seasonal variation of a winter maximum

Aneja, Viney P.

144

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inputs kbbl Crude Oil Butane Isobutane Other Hydrocarbons,674,276 kbbl. Data on butane, isobutene, other hydrocarbons

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

7, 1164711683, 2007 VOC ratios as probes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemistry, and [isobutane]/[n-butane] and [methyl ethyl ketone]/[n-5 butane] are used to study the extent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

146

Crystallization, mechanical, rheological and degradation behavior of polytrimethylene terephthalate, polybutylene terephthalate and polycarbonate blend.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Blends of polycarbonate (PC), polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) and poly butylene terephthalate (PBT) are an important class of commercial blends with numerous applications providing good chemical… (more)

Al-Omairi, L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

A B  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

oils and diesel) Crude oil and lease condensate Motor gasoline LPG (Ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, butane, butylene) Natural gas Anthracite Bituminous and subbituminous...

148

Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending...

149

Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending...

150

ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

> 0.001 mol % typically have ethane > ethylene, propane > propylene, and butane > butylene. There are three end member fluid compositions: type 1 fluids in which...

151

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Net Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker, and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Net Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker, and Barge from Other PADDs of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day)

152

OMB No. 1905-0165 Expiration Date: 1/31/2013 Version No.:2011 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Propane/Propylene: 246 Normal Butane/Butylene 244 ... Report storage capacity of trans-shipment and other tanks and underground storage operated as ...

153

OMB No. 1905-0165 Version No.:xxxx.xx FORM EIA-812 MONTHLY ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Propane/Propylene. 246: Normal Butane/Butylene. 244: ... Report storage capacity of trans-shipment and other tanks and underground storage operated as ...

154

Conntents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... With Isobutane and n-Butane: Modified Ingham, and John J. Lynch Leung-Griffiths Correlation and Data Evaluation Conference Reports ...

2003-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

155

NIST - Physical and Chemical Properties Division - Technical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... We are now working to develop formulations for propane, butane, and isobutane (so-called "natural refrigerants") that are of increasing interest. ...

156

A New Functional Form and New Fitting Techniques for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Of the 34 equa- tions of state compared in this work (see Table 1), only the equations for ammonia, argon, butane, ethane, ethylene, isobutane ...

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

157

Magma Max Power Generating Plant: Feasibility Study and Preliminary Design  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rogers Engineering affirms that the isobutane power recovery cycle is a sound one from the standpoint of thermodynamic and engineering considerations.

None

1970-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

158

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Thermodynamic properties of...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Thermodynamic properties of a geothermal working fluid; 90% isobutane-10% isopentane: Final report Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us |...

159

Table E2.1. Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

ethane-propane mixtures, propane-butane mixtures, and isobutane" "produced at refineries or natural gas processing plants, including plants that fractionate raw" "Natural...

160

Dr. William V. (Vance) Payne, II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... His refrigerant work included examining natural refrigerants such as propane and iso-butane (hydrocarbons) as well as carbon dioxide (CO2). ...

2012-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butylene isobutane isobutylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Table 1. Halocarbons Dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Table 2. Hydrocarbons Ethane n-Heptane Propane Benzene Propene n-Octane n-Butane iso-Octane iso-Butane Toluene iso-Butene Nonane n ...

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

162

Hydrogeology, chemical and microbial activity measurement through deep permafrost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ethene % Ethane % Propene % Propane % Butene % iso-Butane %Butane C1/(C2 + C3) HLW-03-28, Purge 4 ND HLW-03-28, Purge 6

Stotler, R.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

NGL Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 EIA's Proposed NGL Realignment: Overview June 4, 2013 Butanes include normal butane and isobutane. 3 Changes proposed by EIA to realign NGL data and related terminology...

164

Optimization of finned-tube condensers using an intelligent ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... with isobutane (R600a), R134a, propane (R290), R22 ... for determining the refrigerant state at the ... second ed., Hemisphere, New York, NY, USA, 1986 ...

2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

165

Molecular Components of Catalytic Selectivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hexagonal Square isobutane n-butane isobutane C 1 – C 3H 2 O H 3 C OH 1-Butanol H 3 C H 2 Butane H H 3 C + H 2 CH 3Pyrrolidine + H 2 +NH 3 Butane and ammonia Scheme 1. (a) (b)

Somorjai, Gabor A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

167

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

168

West Coast (PADD 5) Product Supplied for Crude Oil and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Area: 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History; Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products: 3,235: 3,057: 2,845: 2,903: ... 51: 1989-2012: Normal Butane/Butylene-3: 2-3 ...

169

U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Propane/Propylene: 1,235: 1,154: 1,160: 1,160: 1,153: 1,175: 1973-2012: Normal Butane/Butylene: 101: 111: 72: 108: 68: 77: 1981-2012: ... 1985-2012: ...

170

Safe Operating Procedure (Revised 7/09)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

://ehs.unl.edu/) LPG includes propane, butane, and butylenes used for heating, cooking, and fuel. The purpose Food Service No more than two 10 ounce non-refillable butane cylinders in use per appliance

Farritor, Shane

171

East Coast (PADD 1) Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast (PADD 1) Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; ...

172

Nucleation mechanisms of aromatic polyesters, PET, PBT, and PEN, on single-wall carbon nanotubes: early nucleation stages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nucleation mechanisms of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly (butylene terephthalate) (PBT), and poly (ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) on single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are proposed, based on experimental evidence, theoretical epitaxy analysis, ...

Adriana Espinoza-Martínez, Carlos Avila-Orta, Víctor Cruz-Delgado, Oscar Olvera-Neria, Julio González-Torres, Francisco Medellín-Rodríguez

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

A comprehensive environment for property prediction and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Density LAMMPS/OPLSAA Error (K) (g/cm3) (g/cm3) Butane 273 0.6013 0.6010 ± .0026 -0.05% Isobutane 273.2 0.58052 0.6046 ± .0039 4.15% ...

2010-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

174

Study on the Interaction Coefficients in PR Equation with VdW ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The values of ki for HFCs and HCs, including Propane, Isobutane, n-butane, HFC32, HFC125, HFC134a, HFC143a, HFC152a and HFC227ea ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

175

Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

Rapier, Pascal M. (Richmond, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carryover through the turbine causing corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

Rapier, P.M.

1979-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

177

BFRL: HVAC&R - Publications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents a comparable evaluation of isobutane (R600a), propane (R290), R134a, R22, R410A, and R32 in an optimized finned-tube ...

178

DIRECT CONTACT HEAT EXCHANGER 10 kW POWER LOOP. SECTION 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. SECTION 2: TEST SERIES NO. 1. SECTION 3; TEST SERIES NO. 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Condenser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .turbine output power. Condenser pressures were much highere d isobutane w i t h it. Condenser I s o b u t a n e v a p

Engineering, Barber-Nicholas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

396 J. Phys. Chem. 1990, 94, 396-409 Reaction of Cyclopropane, Methylcyclopropane, and Propylene with Hydrogen on the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the production of n-butane. This result was interpreted qualitatively by invokingparallel reaction mechanisms for the production of n-butane and isobutane, with the n-butane channel exhibiting a higher apparent activation

Goodman, Wayne

180

C-H functionalisation through singlet chlorocarbenes insertions – MP2 and DFT investigations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The insertion reactions of singlet mono and dichlorocarbenes (1CHCl and 1CCl2) into primary, secondary and tertiary C-H bonds of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and iso-butane have been investigated at ...

M. Ramalingam; K. Ramasami; P. Venuvanalingam; V. Sethuraman

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butylene isobutane isobutylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

A Simulation Study of Diffusion in Microporous Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dynamics simulation of the diffusion of n- butane andi-butane in silicalite. J. Chem. Phys. 108, 2170–2172 (Stefan diffusivity of iso-butane in MFI zeolite. Chem. Phys.

Abouelnasr, Mahmoud Kamal Forrest

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Microsoft Word - RBL_Jan_2009_RG13-1-398.doc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

N001 4.67 Methane percent 01072009 N001 84.98 Ethane percent 01072009 N001 6.97 Propane percent 01072009 N001 1.97 Isobutane percent 01072009 N001 0.464 Butane percent...

183

Data Report  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

N001 5.18 Methane percent 5282008 N001 89.69 Ethane percent 5282008 N001 3.70 Propane percent 5282008 N001 0.695 Isobutane percent 5282008 N001 0.159 Butane percent 5...

184

I T L L C P M O N  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

"A" No. 29-95 on June 8,1966) * Component-. , Carbon Dioxtde Nitrogen Methane ,Ethane Propane iso-Butane. nqentanb Hexanes Heptanes plus . *As reported by Core Laboratories, Inc....

185

Microsoft Word - May_2008_BM26-42_Data_Rpt.doc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

N001 3.21 Methane percent 05282008 N001 88.77 Ethane percent 05282008 N001 3.89 Propane percent 05282008 N001 0.963 Isobutane percent 05282008 N001 0.179 Butane percent...

186

Analysis of mass transfer processes in geothermal power cycles utilizing direct contact heat exchange. Report of work, September 21, 1978 to September 30, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer program was developed which calculates the isobutane content of the spent brine and the liquid-vapor distribution of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide throughout the components of a geothermal power plant using direct contact heat exchange. The program model assumes separate boiler and preheater vessels, with the preheater being a spray tower. The condenser model is a horizontal tube surface condenser with condensation on the outside. The program was written in Fortran language. The Fortran source deck consists of 976 cards. The program utilizes 320K for compilation and 72K for execution on an IBM 370/3031. Sample cases were run which illustrate the effects of salt concentration in the brine and isobutane-to-brine ratio on isobutane and noncondensible gas content of the spent brine.

Knight, J.J.; Perona, J.J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Determination of the 5 MW gross nominal design case binary cycle for power generation at Raft River, Idaho. [Using GEOSYS program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of Rankine cycle studies for power generation utilizing geothermal fluid as the heat source and isobutane as the working fluid are reported. To find the plant configuration which would most effectively utilize the available energy, a parametric study was performed. The desirability of supercritical, single boiler or double boiler cycles, and the relative boiler temperatures and percentage isobutane flow split between the boilers in the double cycles for geothermal fluid temperatures of 260/sup 0/F to 360/sup 0/F were considered. This study was designed to discover thermodynamic trends which would point to an optimum isobutane cycle for geothermal fluid temperatures in this temperature range. The results of the parametric study were applied to derive a Nominal Design Case for a demonstration plant at Raft River, with a geothermal fluid resource at 290/sup 0/F. In addition, plant variations due to tolerances applied to thermodynamic properties and other key factors are included.

Ingvarsson, I.J.; Madsen, W.W. (eds.)

1976-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes-proof-of-concept stage -- Phase 6. Final report, February 1--October 31, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the course of the first three years of the Cooperative Agreement, the authors uncovered a family of metal perhaloporphyrin complexes which had unprecedented activity for the selective air-oxidation of light alkanes to alcohols. The reactivity of light hydrocarbon substrates with air or oxygen was in the order: isobutane > propane > ethane > methane, in accord with their homolytic bond dissociation energies. Isobutane was so reactive that the proof-of-concept stage of a process for producing tert-butyl alcohol from isobutane was begun (Phase 5). It was proposed that as more active catalytic systems were developed (Phases 4, 6), propane, then ethane and finally methane oxidations will move into this stage (Phases 7 through 9). As of this writing, however, the program has been terminated during the later stages of Phase 5 and 6 so that further work is not anticipated. 72 refs.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

189

Analysis of field-performance data on shell-and-tube heat exchangers in geothermal service  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Analysis of field performance data from a binary cycle test loop using geothermal brine and a hydrocarbon working fluid is reported. Results include test loop operational problems, and shell-and-tube heat exchanger performance factors such as overall heat transfer coefficients, film coefficients, pinch points, and pressure drops. Performance factors are for six primary heaters having brine in the tubes and hydrocarbon in the shells in counterflow, and for a condenser having cooling water in the tubes and hydrocarbon in the shell. Working fluids reported are isobutane, 90/10 isobutane/isopentane, and 80/20 isobutane/isopentane. Performance factors are for heating each working fluid at supercritical conditions in the vicinity of their critical pressure and temperature and condensing the same fluid.

Silvester, L.F.; Doyle, P.T.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. [801Methyl tert-butyl ether  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

191

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

192

Failure analysis report: 10 MW geothermal binary turbine, Magma Electric Company, East Mesa, California  

SciTech Connect

The cause of failure of two isobutane turbines at the East Mesa geothermal plant was investigated. One turbine lost all the vanes in all three stages, while the other turbine sustained dings and nicks in the vanes, but remained intact. The exact cause of failure could not be determined. Three possibilities were determined: (1) a single foreign object, possibly a bolt; (2) foreign substance (geothermal fluid, oil, liquid isobutane, or particulate corrosion products) entered both turbines; or (3) one or more brazed joints failed by fatigue or by a corrosive process. 5 refs., 13 figs. (ACR)

Anliker, D.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Development of direct heat exchangers for geothermal brines. Final report, October 4, 1977--June 30, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of experiments during a period of eight months was conducted with the existing Direct Contact Heat Exchanger (DCHX) Loop in order to better understand the thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the equipment. Modifications were made to the equipment which were designed to improve heat transfer and reduce the cost of the heat exchangers. Additional changes were made to the equipment to conduct turbine experiments, condenser experiments, and carryover tests. Further studies of the amounts of dissolved isobutane in the geothermal brine and methods of recovering this dissolved isobutane were also made. The procedures used and the results of the tests performed are presented.

Urbanek, M.W.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Geothermal binary-cycle working-fluid properties information. Annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research discussed was performed prior to December 31, 1979. The report was not released until September 30, 1981, so that pressure-enthalpy diagrams for a number of potential geothermal binary cycle working fluids could be prepared in SI units. Efforts were directed principally to working fluid thermophysical property correlation and presentation of properties information. Pressure-enthalpy diagrams are presented for propane, normal butane, isobutane, normal pentane, isopentane and propylene. Generalized correlations are presented for the thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrocarbon pure and mixture working fluids. Specific correlations are presented for the thermodynamic properties of 27 fluids and for the viscosity and thermal conductivity of hydrocarbons including isobutane and isopentane.

Starling, K.E.; Kumar, K.H.; Malik, Z.I.; Batson, B.; Plumb, P.

1981-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

195

Efficient Energy Usage in Butane Splitters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A World surplus of mixed butanes coupled with an increased need for gasoline extenders has raised the demand for isobutane. Isobutane is readily separated from an admixture with normal butane by conventional distillation techniques. However, application of the heat pump principle to this separation can reduce energy consumption by over 50%, though capital costs increase. The conventional fractionation scheme is compared to two different methods of applying the heat pump principle; overhead compression and bottoms flash compression. For both heat pump designs, payout time is less than one year for a Middle East location, based upon a detailed study of an actual case.

Barnwell, J.; Morris, C. P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

ORIGINAL PAPER Natural Fiber Reinforced Poly(vinyl chloride) Composites: Effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, electric wires, window profiles, siding, etc. Recently, wood fiber reinforced PVC is getting more popular straw, rice husk, and pine fiber) and loading level of styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) block copolymer on composite properties was investigated. Mechanical analysis showed that storage modulus

197

Photovoltaic properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes deposited on n-doped silicon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), grown by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) over Fe supported on alumina catalyst, using isobutane as feedstock, are dispersed in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Stable and highly photosensitive ... Keywords: Hybrid solar cells, Multi-walled carbon nanotubes, Silicon heterojunctions

A. Arena; N. Donato; G. Saitta; S. Galvagno; C. Milone; A. Pistone

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Catalytic oxidation of light alkanes in presence of a base  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The presence of a base in the reaction mixture in a metal-ligand catalyzed partial oxidation of alkanes results in sustained catalyst activity, and in greater percent conversion as compared with oxidation in the absence of base, while maintaining satisfactory selectivity for the desired oxidation, for example the oxidation of isobutane to isobutanol.

Bhinde, Manoj V. (Boothwyn, PA); Bierl, Thomas W. (West Chester, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Catalytic oxidation of light alkanes in presence of a base  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The presence of a base in the reaction mixture in a metal-ligand catalyzed partial oxidation of alkanes results in sustained catalyst activity, and in greater percent conversion as compared with oxidation in the absence of base, while maintaining satisfactory selectivity for the desired oxidation, for example the oxidation of isobutane to isobutanol. 1 fig.

Bhinde, M.V.; Bierl, T.W.

1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

200

Roaming radical pathways for the decomposition of alkanes.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CASPT2 calculations predict the existence of roaming radical pathways for the decomposition of propane, n-butane, isobutane and neopentane. The roaming radical paths lead to the formation of an alkane and an alkene instead of the expected radical products. The predicted barriers for the roaming radical paths lie {approx}1 kcal/mol below the corresponding radical asymptotes.

Harding, L. B.; Klippenstein, S. J. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butylene isobutane isobutylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Table 39. Production Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2003  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

State/Refiner/Location Alkylates Aromatics State/Refiner/Location Alkylates Aromatics Isobutane Lubricants Isomers Isopentane and Isohexane Asphalt and Road Oil Marketable Petroleum Coke Hydrogen (MMcfd) Sulfur (short tons per day) Table 4. Production Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2013 (Barrels per Stream Day, Except Where Noted) Isooctane a

202

Thermal and hydraulic performance tests of a sieve-tray direct-contact heat exchanger vaporizing pure and mixed-hydrocarbon Rankine-cycle working fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments investigating a sieve-tray direct-contact heat exchanger were conducted at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site in southeastern Idaho using the 60-kW Mobile Heat Cycle Research Facility operating in the thermal loop mode (without a turbine). Isobutane, propane, and several hydrocarbon mixtures were heated and boiled in the direct-contact column, which is approx. 12 in. in diameter and 19-1/2 ft. high, using the energy from a 280/sup 0/F geothermal resource. Using pure fluids, isobutane or propane, the column operated much as intended, with 17 trays used for preheating and one or two accomplishing the boiling. For the pure fluids, individual tray efficiencies were found to be 70% or higher for preheating, and close to 100% for boiling; column pinch points were projected to be well under 1/sup 0/F with some runs reaching values as low as approx. 0.02/sup 0/F. Maximum geofluid throughputs for the isobutane tests corresponded roughly to the terminal rise velocity of a 1/32 in. working fluid droplet in geofluid. Boiling was found to occur in as many as 12 trays for the mixtures having the highest concentrations of the minor component, with overall efficiencies in the boiling section estimated on the order of 25 or 30%. Preheating tray efficiencies appeared to be fairly independent of working fluid, with pinch points ranging from as low as approx. 0.03/sup 0/F for a 0.95 isobutane/0.05 hexane mixture to approx. 2.3/sup 0/F for a 0.85 isobutane/0.05 hexane mixture. Column operation was noticeably less stable for the mixtures than for the pure fluids, with maximum throughputs dropping to as low as 40 to 50% of those for the pure fluids.

Mines, G.L.; Demuth, O.J.; Wiggins, D.J.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Commercial Lining Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Comparative ranking of rubber lining materials...Heat Oxidation Ultraviolet Abrasion Weathering Oil Motor fuels Acid Alkali Flame Natural rubber NR 5 4 4 4 4 6 6 3 3 6 Styrene-butadiene SBR 4 3 3 2 4 5 6 3 3 6 Nitrile NBR 3 3 3 2 3 1 6 4 4 6 Chloroprene CR 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 1 2 2 Chlorosulfonylpolyethylene CSM 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 Isobutylene-isoprene...

204

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY SABIC INNOVATIVE PLASTICS FOR WAIVER OF U.S.  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SABIC INNOVATIVE PLASTICS FOR WAIVER OF U.S. SABIC INNOVATIVE PLASTICS FOR WAIVER OF U.S. AND FOREIGN RIGHTS IN AN IDENTIFIED INVENTION, DOE DOCKET NO . S-109,544 MADE UNDER DOE AWARD NO. DE-FC36-03G013000, SUBCONTRACT 60105 WITH GENERAL ELECTRIC. W(l)-08-009; CH- 1453 S-109 ,544 "SYNTHESIS OF POL Y(BUTYLENE-CO-ISOSORBIDE TEREPHTHALA TE) AND ITS PROPERTIES" The Petitioner, SABIC Innovative Plastics IP B.V. ("SABIC"), has requested a waiver of domestic and foreign patent rights in the subject invention entitled "SYNTHESIS OF POL Y(BUTYLENE-CO-ISOSORBIDE TEREPHTHALA TE) AND ITS PROPERTIES." The invention relates to copolymers made from biological materials. The invention was made under the above identified subcontract with General Electric Plastics (GE). GE was subsequently purchased by SABIC

205

Evaluation of ammonia as a working fluid for a wet/dry-cooled binary geothermal plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The concepts considered in this study involve various arrangments of the binary geothermal power cycle with advanced dry cooling schemes. Brief descriptions of the binary cycle and advanced cooling schemes are included. Also included are descriptions of the base case concept and the ammonia working fluid concept. Performance and cost estimates were developed for a wet-cooled isobutane cycle plant, wet/dry cooled isobutane cycle plant, wet-cooled ammonia cycle plant, and a wet/dry cooled ammonia cycle plant. The performance and cost estimates were calculated using the GEOCOST computer code developed at PNL. Inputs for GEOCOST were calculated based on the Heber sites. The characteristics of the wet/dry cooling system were determined using the BNWGEO computer code developed at PNL. Results of the cooling system analysis are presented, followed by results of the geothermal plant analysis. Conclusions and comments also are included.

Drost, M.K.; Huber, H.D.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Introduction to electric energy conversion systems for geothermal energy resources  

SciTech Connect

The types of geothermal energy conversion systems in use are classified as follows: direct, dry steam; separated steam; single-flash steam; double-flash steam; multi-flash steam; brine/Freon binary cycle; and brine/isobutane binary cycle. The thermodynamics of each of these is discussed with reference to simplified flow diagrams. Typical existing power plants are identified for each type of system. (MHR)

DiPippo, R.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Study and testing of direct contact heat exchangers for geothermal brines. Final report, June 1975--July 1976  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The object of the work reported herein was to assess the technical and economic feasibility of preheating and evaporating a secondary fluid via direct contact with hot geothermal brine. The work covered a period of 12 months and included the design, construction, and testing of a unit which heats and vaporizes 10 gpm of isobutane by direct contact with 325/sup 0/F brine. The analytical and experimental efforts explored design and economic characteristics, including anticipated problem areas such as working fluid loss in the brine, production of a stable dispersion of the working fluid in brine, fluids separation, axial mixing and carry-over of water vapor with the working fluid. Isobutane was selected as the working fluid for tests primarily because of the favorable amount of net work produced per pound of geothermal brine and the low amount and cost of working fluid lost in the heat exchange process. The Elgin Spray Tower concept was selected for the preheater and boiler. The test apparatus includes a separate boiler and a separate preheater, each 6'' diameter by 6' high. Brine enters the top of each vessel and leaves the bottom. Isobutane enters the bottom of the preheater through a distributor plate to produce 0.15 inch diameter drops. The experimental unit operated with no major problems and demonstrated its hydraulic and thermal capabilities. Volumetric heat transfer coefficients obtained ranged up to 4000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/. Boiling heat transfer coefficients of as high as 17,000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/ were obtained with a design value of 10,000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/. Amount of isobutane in a 21 percent NaCl solution leaving the preheater was less than 40 ppM. A conceptual design and cost estimate was prepared for a direct contact heat exchange system sized for a 50 MW power plant.

Suratt, W.B.; Hart, G.K.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Raft River binary-cycle geothermal pilot power plant final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design and performance of a 5-MW(e) binary-cycle pilot power plant that used a moderate-temperature hydrothermal resource, with isobutane as a working fluid, are examined. Operating problems experienced and solutions found are discussed and recommendations are made for improvements to future power plant designs. The plant and individual systems are analyzed for design specification versus actual performance figures.

Bliem, C.J.; Walrath, L.F.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Raft River 5-MW(e) geothermal pilot plant project  

SciTech Connect

The Raft River 5-MW(e) Pilot Plant Project was started in 1976. Construction is scheduled for completion in July 1980, with three years of engineering and operational testing to follow. The plant utilized a 280/sup 0/F geothermal fluid energy source and a dual boiling isobutane cycle. Developmental efforts are in progress in the areas of down hole pumps and chemical treatment of geothermal fluid for cooling tower makeup.

Rasmussen, T.L.; Whitbeck, J.F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Theory and practice of near critical pressure direct contact heat exchange. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The direct contact heat exchange (DCHE) system previously designed, developed, and tested, was operated successfully without scale deposition. Conceptual design, optimization, and cost analysis showed that an additional advantage is the reduction in cost due to the high capacity of the DCHE compared with conventional heat exchangers. The technical and economic feasibility of DCHE operated near or above the critical pressure of isobutane using isobutane in direct contact with geothermal brine was assessed. The program consisted of conceptual design with a preliminary process evaluation and feasibility analysis, design and construction of the experimental apparatus, experimental tests, a final revised process evaluation and feasibility analysis based on the experimental results, and preparation of a design procedure. No scaling problems were present in the direct contact heat exchanger or the test unit. Test runs show that no scale was deposited in either the packed column section or the sieve tray section for continuous runs of 76 and 160 hours using East Mesa well 6-2 brine. In fact, the sieve tray section after 160 hours operation was visibly cleaner after the run than before. Both the packed column section and the sieve tray section operated according to theoretical thermodynamic and hydraulic predictions. Operation of the supercritical isobutane direct contact heat exchange and associated test unit with geothermal brine was routine with automatic controls and without operator attention. A design procedure including the requisite equations for sieve tray direct contact heat exchange columns was developed. The procedure gives the optimum ratio of isobutane to brine, optimum number of trays and tray spacing, and the sieve tray layout variables, namely downcomer area, active hole area, bubbling area, and column cross sectional area.

Wahl, E.F.; Boucher, F.B.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Metal dissolution kinetics in organic solvents using rotating ring-disc voltammetry. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of a two-phased liquid system - composed of geothermal brine and an organic heat transfer fluid - on the stability of materials used in the energy conversion system was investigated. The principle organic liquids used were isobutane and isopentane. The effects of relative fluid velocity on the corrosion behavior of representative construction materials, austenitic stainless steels, nickel, and copper alloy were determined using an autoclave incorporating a rotating ring-disc electrode. 2 refs., 20 figs. (ACR)

Not Available

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Pemex opts for catalytic dehydrogenation  

SciTech Connect

In the gas-rich areas such as the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Canada, and Mexico, low-cost ethane is the feed of choice for ethylene production. Coproduct production is minimal. Continued growth in demand for propylene, isobutylene, normal butone-1, and butadiene requires that alternate sources of these normally coproduct olefins be developed. Catalytic dehydrogenation, with its high selectivity to the desired olefin, is the logical and economic choice. Mexico is a case in point. It's ethylene production is based on ethane. Demand is rising for propylene and butadiene derivatives, and a potential demand exists for isobutylene to produce octane enhancers to implement an announced lead phase down. Only modest amounts of by-product monoolefin will be available from refining operations. Pemex, the Mexican refining and petrochemical giant, recognized this and started up its first Houdry Catadene /SUP TM/ plant in 1975 at Ciudad Madero to produce 55,000 metric ton/year of butadiene from normal butane. Pemex recently committed to a large (350,000 metric ton/year) propylene-from-propane plant at Morelos based on the Houdry Catofin /SUP TM/ catalytic dehydrogenation process. The plant will supply propylene to a long list of derivative plants (Table 1).

Craig, R.G.; Penny, S.J.; Schwartz, W.A.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Binary module test. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to design and test a binary loop module representative of and scaleable to commercial size units. The design was based on state-of-the-art heat exchanger technology, and the purpose of the tests was to confirm performance of a supercritical boiling cycle using isobutane and a mixture of isobutane and isopentane as the secondary working fluid. The module was designed as one percent of a 50 MW unit. It was installed at Magma Power's East Mesa geothermal field and tested over a period of approximately 4 months. Most of the test runs were with isobutane but some data were collected for hydrocarbon mixtures. The results of the field tests are reported. In general these results indicate reasonably good heat balances and agreement with overall heat transfer coefficients calculated by current stream analysis methods and available fluid property data; however, measured pressure drops across the heat exchangers were 20 percent higher than estimated. System operation was stable under all conditions tested.

Schilling, J.R.; Colley, T.C.; Pundyk, J.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes. Final report, January 1, 1990--October 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

During the course of the first three years of the Cooperative Agreement (Phase I-III), we uncovered a family of metal perhaloporphyrin complexes which had unprecedented activity for the selective air-oxidation of fight alkanes to alcohols. The reactivity of fight hydrocarbon substrates with air or oxygen was in the order: isobutane>propane>ethane>methane, in accord with their homolytic bond dissociation energies. Isobutane was so reactive that the proof-of concept stage of a process for producing tert-butyl alcohol from isobutane was begun (Phase V). It was proposed that as more active catalytic systems were developed (Phases IV, VI), propane, then ethane and finally methane oxidations will move into this stage (Phases VII through IX). As of this writing, however, the program has been terminated during the later stages of Phases V and VI so that further work is not anticipated. We made excellent progress during 1994 in generating a class of less costly new materials which have the potential for high catalytic activity. New routes were developed for replacing costly perfluorophenyl groups in the meso-position of metalloporphyrin catalysts with far less expensive and lower molecular weight perfluoromethyl groups.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

215

TABLE17.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7. 7. Refinery Net Production of Finished Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, January 1998 Liquefied Refinery Gases ........................................... 576 -7 569 2,415 -51 392 2,756 Ethane/Ethylene ..................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ethane ............................................................... W W W W W W W Ethylene ............................................................ W W W W W W W Propane/Propylene ................................................ 1,656 33 1,689 2,645 329 628 3,602 Propane ............................................................. W W W 1,979 W W W Propylene .......................................................... W W W 666 W W W Normal Butane/Butylene ........................................ -804 -39 -843 -320 -337 -180 -837 Normal Butane ..................................................

216

MTBE Prices Responded to Natural Gas Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: On top of the usual factors impacting gasoline prices, natural gas has had some influence recently. MTBE is an oxygenate used in most of the RFG consumed in the U.S. Generally, it follows gasoline prices and its own supply/demand balance factors. But this winter, we saw it respond strongly to natural gas prices. MTBE is made from methanol and isobutylene, which in turn come from methane and butane. Both methane and butane come from natural gas streams. Until this year, the price of natural gas has been so low that it had little effect. But the surge that occurred in December and January pulled MTBE up . Keep in mind that about 11% MTBE is used in a gallon of RFG, so a 30 cent increase in MTBE is only about a 3 cent increase in the price of RFG. While we look ahead at this summer, natural gas prices should be

217

Assessment of ether and alcohol fuels from coal. Volume 2. Technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A unique route for the indirect liquefaction of coal to produce transportation fuel has been evaluated. The resultant fuel includes alkyl tertiary alkyl ethers and higher alcohols, all in the gasoline boiling range. When blended into gasoline, the ether fuel provides several advantages over the lower alcohols: (1) lower chemical oxygen content, (2) less-severe water-separation problems, and (3) reduced front-end volatility effects. The ether fuel also has high-octane quality. Further, it can be utilized as a gasoline substitute in all proportions. Production of ether fuel combines several steps, all of which are or have been practiced on an industrial scale: (1) coal gasification, (2) gas cleanup and shift to desired H/sub 2/:CO ratio, (3) conversion of synthesis gas to isobutanol, methanol, and higher alcohols, (4) separation of alcohols, (5) chemical dehydration of isobutanol to isobutylene, and (6) etherification of isobutylene with methanol. A pilot-plant investigation of the isobutanol synthesis step was performed. Estimates of ether-fuel manufacturing costs indicate this process route is significantly more costly than synthesis of methanol. However, the fuel performance features provide incentive for developing the necessary process and catalyst improvements. Co-production of higher-molecular-weight co-solvent alcohols represents a less-drastic form of methanol modification to achieve improvement in the performance of methanol-gasoline blends. Costs were estimated for producing several proportions of methanol plus higher alcohols from coal. Estimated fuel selling price increases regularly but modestly with higher alcohol content.

Not Available

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

TABLE16.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6. 6. Refinery Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, January 1998 Crude Oil ................................................................... 44,047 2,783 46,830 70,320 12,891 21,794 105,005 Natural Gas Liquids ................................................. 252 0 252 2,613 131 1,076 3,820 Pentanes Plus ....................................................... 0 0 0 202 45 522 769 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ................................... 252 0 252 2,411 86 554 3,051 Ethane ............................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Propane ............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Normal Butane .................................................. 162 0 162 1,792 76 435 2,303 Isobutane ..........................................................

219

The North American natural gas liquids markets are chaotic  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors test for deterministic chaos (i.e., nonlinear deterministic processes which look random) in seven Mont Belview, Texas hydrocarbon markets, using monthly data from 1985:1 to 1996:12--the markets are those of ethane, propane, normal butane, iso-butane, naptha, crude oil, and natural gas. In doing so, they use the Lyapunov exponent estimator of Nychka, Ellner, Gallant, and McCaffrey. They conclude that there is evidence consistent with a chaotic nonlinear generation process in all five natural gas liquids markets.

Serletis, A.; Gogas, P. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Economics)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 September 2013 Table 32. Blender Net Inputs of Petroleum Products by PAD District, September 2013 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ....................................................... 308 5 313 45 44 345 434 Pentanes Plus ...................................................... - - - - 2 75 77 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .................................. 308 5 313 45 42 270 357 Normal Butane .................................................. 308 5 313 45 42 270 357 Isobutane .......................................................... - - - - - - - Other Liquids ..........................................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butylene isobutane isobutylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Petroleum Supply Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.PDF 0.PDF Table 20. Blender Net Inputs of Petroleum Products by PAD Districts, January 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ....................................................... 158 5 163 47 18 168 233 Pentanes Plus ...................................................... 5 - 5 - - 5 5 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .................................. 153 5 158 47 18 163 228 Normal Butane .................................................. 153 5 158 47 18 163 228 Isobutane .......................................................... - - - - - - - Other Liquids ..........................................................

222

untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Blender Net Inputs of Petroleum Products by PAD Districts, 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ....................................................... 1,744 80 1,824 345 324 2,161 2,830 Pentanes Plus ...................................................... 63 - 63 - - 87 87 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .................................. 1,681 80 1,761 345 324 2,074 2,743 Normal Butane .................................................. 1,681 80 1,761 345 324 2,074 2,743 Isobutane .......................................................... - - - - - - - Other Liquids ..........................................................

223

Olefins by catalytic oxidation of alkanes in fluidized bed reactors  

SciTech Connect

The production of ethylene or syngas from ethane and olefins from propane, n-butane, and isobutane in the presence of air or O{sub 2} at atmospheric pressure has been examined over 100 {mu}m {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} beads coated with noble metals in a static fluidized bed reactor at contact times from 0.05 to 0.2 s. Variations in feed composition, preheating temperature, and flow rate were examined. 21 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Bharadwaj, S.S.; Schmidt, L.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)] [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Conceptual design and cost evaluation of organic Rankine cycle electric generating plant powered by medium temperature geothermal water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The economic production of electrical power from high temperature steam and liquid dominated geothermal resources has been demonstrated. Large quantities of geothermal energy are considered to exist at moderate temperatures, however, the economics of converting this energy into electricity has not been established. This paper presents the design concept of a dual boiler isobutane cycle selected for use with the moderate temperature hydrothermal resource and presents a cost estimate for a 10 and 50 MW power plant. Cost of electrical power from these plants is estimated and compared with that from coal, oil and nuclear plants. The impact of selling a portion of the residual heat in the geothermal effluent is assessed. (auth)

Dart, R.H.; Neill, D.T.; Whitbeck, J.F.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

1995-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

226

FCC LPG olefinicity and branching enhanced by octane catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Refiners are increasingly recognizing the downstream opportunities for fluid catalytic cracking LPG olefins for the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, if the ethanol subsidy is extended to the production of ETBE), and as petrochemical feedstocks. Some of new gasoline FCC octane-enhancing catalysts can support those opportunities because their low non-framework alumina (low NFA) preserve both LPG olefinicity and promote branching of the LPG streams from the FCCU. The combined effect results in more isobutane for alkylate feed, more propylene in the propane/propylene stream, and more isobutene - which makes the addition of an MTBE unit very enticing.

Keyworth, D.A.; Reid, T.A.; Kreider, K.R.; Yatsu, C.A.

1989-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

227

Internal Technical Report, Heat Exchanger Sizing for 20 MW Geothermal Power Plants at MX Sites  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the details of the analyses used to size the heaters, steam condenser, and working fluid condenser for a proposed 20 MW geothermal power plant application at MX sites in the southwest. These units would use a mixture of hydrocarbons (90% isobutane--10% n-hexane) to extract energy from moderate temperature resources (resource temperatures of 365 F, 400 F, and 450 F were considered). The working fluid will be maintained at supercritical pressures in the heater units. Studies have shown that this cycle will provide a significant net power increase over standard dual boiling single fluid cycles currently in use, e.g., the Raft River 5 MW pilot plant.

Kochan, R.J.; Bliem, C.J.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physisorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics.

Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H. (Evanston, IL); Huang, Yin-Yan (Evanston, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are disclosed for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physical sorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics. 17 figs.

Sachtler, W.M.H.; Huang, Y.Y.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

230

Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 74,056 76,732 74,938 79,040 82,376 81,196 1981-2013 PADD 1 1,525 1,439 2,394 2,918 2,821 2,687 1981-2013 East Coast 1993-2008 Appalachian No. 1 1,525 1,439 2,394 2,918 2,821 2,687 1993-2013 PADD 2 12,892 13,208 13,331 13,524 15,204 15,230 1981-2013 Ind., Ill. and Ky. 1,975 1,690 2,171 1,877 2,630 2,746 1993-2013

231

Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Natural Gas Liquids  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period: Monthly Annual Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 5,419 6,722 6,801 5,826 6,210 6,249 1993-2013 PADD 1 122 121 115 189 246 248 1993-2013 East Coast 1993-2010 Appalachian No. 1 122 121 115 189 246 248 1993-2013 PADD 2 959 891 880 1,129 1,104 1,041 1993-2013 Ind., Ill. and Ky. 311 300 298 308 262 260 1993-2013 Minn., Wis., N. Dak., S. Dak. 56 64 58 60 51 64 1993-2013 Okla., Kans., Mo. 592 527 524 761 791 717 1993-2013 PADD 3 3,810 5,007 5,032 3,817 4,246 4,272 1993-2013

232

Analysis of binary thermodynamic cycles for a moderately low-temperature geothermal resource  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Analyses of a number of geothermal binary-cycles were made with the objective of finding a cycle which can produce low-cost electrical energy from a moderately low-temperature geothermal resource. Cycles were screened which included isobutane, pentane, cis-2-butene, and several mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids. Dual- and triple-boiling cycles were analyzed. Both shell-and-tube and direct-contact boilers, heaters, and condensers were assessed. A geothermal fluid (geo-fluid), typical of Raft River resource conditions was assumed, which has a temperature of 290/sup 0/F and 52 parts per million dissolved nitrogen. Special emphasis in the analyses was directed toward investigation of several methods for keeping the loss of working fluid for the cycle at an acceptable level. It was concluded that for the Raft River geo-fluid, the direct-contact cycle has a potential for net geofluid utilization effectiveness values, (watt-hr/lbm geo-fluid) equivalent to those of the shell-and-tube cycle. Therefore, because of the lower cost of direct-contact components, a potential exists for the direct-contact plant to produce lower cost electrical energy than a comparable shell-and-tube plant. Advanced cycles were assessed which showed improvements in net geo-fluid utilization effectivness, relative to the first Raft River 5-MW Pilot Plant (dual-boiling, shell-and-tube isobutane cycle), of up to 19%.

Demuth, O.J.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Performance of a new LMRPC prototype for the STAR MTD system  

SciTech Connect

A new prototype of a Long-Strip Multi-Gap Resistive Plate Chamber (LMRPC) for the STAR Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) at RHIC has been developed. This prototype has an active area of 52 x 90 cm{sup 2} and consists of six 250 {mu}m wide gaps. Each detector has 12 strips, read-out at both ends, which are each 3.8 cm wide and 90 cm long with 0.6 cm intervals. In cosmic-ray tests, the efficiency was larger than 95% and the time resolution was {approx}75 ps for the 94% Freon, 5% iso-butane, and 1% SF{sub 6} gas mixture. There was good uniformity in the performance across the different strips. The module was also tested in a proton beam at IHEP in Beijing. The efficiency was close to 100% and the best timing resolution achieved was 55 ps for the 90% Freon, 5% iso-butane, and 5% SF6 gas mixture. Trigger scans along and across the strip direction were also performed.

Ruan, L.J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Ding, W. C.; Qiu, X. Z.; Wang, J. B.; Zhu, X. L.; Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, Y. J.; Ruan, L.; Xu, Z.; Asselta, K.; Christie, W.; D'Agostino, C.; Dunlop, J.; Landgraf, J.; Ljubicic, T.; Scheblein, J.; Soja, R.; Tang, A. H.; Ullrich, T.; Crawford, H. J.; Engelage, J.; Sanchez, M. Calderon de la Barca; Reed, R.; Liu, H. D.; Butterworth, J.; Eppley, G.; Geurts, F.; Llope, W. J.; McDonald, D.; Nussbaum, T.; Roberts, J.; Xin, K.; Bridges, L.; Li, J. C.; Qian, S.; Ning, Z.; Chen, H. F.; Huang, B. C.; Li, C.; Shao, M.; Sun, Y. J.; Tang, Z. B.; Wang, X. L.; Xu, Y. C.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zeng, H.; Zhou, Y.; Clarke, R.; Mioduszewski, S.; Davila, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Li, L.; Markert, C.; Ray, L.; Schambach, J.; Thein, D.; Wada, M.; Ahammed, Z.; Bhaduri, P. P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dutt-Mazumdar, M. R.; Ghosh, P.; Khan, S. A.; Muhuri, S.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, T. K.; Pal, S.; Singaraju, R.; Singhal, V.; Tribedy, P.; Viyogi, Y. P.

2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

234

Kinetics and deactivation of sulfated zirconia catalysts for butane isomerization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reaction kinetics studies were conducted of n-butane and isobutane isomerization over sulfated zirconia at 423 K. The kinetic data can be described well by a rate expression based on a reversible, bimolecular surface reaction between two adsorbed n-C{sub 4} species, probably through a C{sub 8} intermediate, to produce one i-C{sub 4} species, as well as surface reaction between two adsorbed i-C{sub 4} species to produce one n-C{sub 4} species. This reaction sequence also describes well the rates of C{sub 4}-disproportionation reactions to produce C{sub 3} and C{sub 5} species. The initial rate of catalyst deactivation is faster during n-butane isomerization than during isobutane isomerization, and the longer-term rate of deactivation during n-butane isomerization increases with the pressures of n-butane. The more rapid catalyst deactivation during n-butane isomerization may be related to the formation of n-C{sub 4}-diene species. 25 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Fogash, K.B.; Larson, R.B.; Gonzalez, M.R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); and others

1996-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes - phase V. Topical report, February 1993--October 1994  

SciTech Connect

We have made excellent progress toward a practical route from field butanes to MTBE, the oxygenate of choice for high-octane, clean-burning, environmentally acceptable reformulated gasoline. We have evaluated two proprietary process possibilities with a potential commercial partner and have conducted a joint catalyst evaluation program. The first of the two potential processes considered during the past quarter utilizes a two-step route from isobutane to tert-butyl alcohol, TBA. Not only is TBA an intermediate for MTBE production but is equally applicable for ETBE-an oxygenate which utilizes renewable ethanol in its` manufacture. In the two-step process, isobutane is oxidized in a non-catalytic reaction to a roughly equal mixture of TBA and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. TBHP, eq. 1. We have developed an inexpensive new catalyst system based on an electron-deficient macrocyclic metal complex that selectively converts TBHP to TBA, eq. 2, and meets or exceeds all of the process criteria that we have set.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

236

Economic evaluation of four types of dry/wet cooling applied to the 5-MWe Raft River geothermal power plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A cost study is described which compared the economics of four dry/wet cooling systems to use at the existing Raft River Geothermal Plant. The results apply only at this site and should not be generalized without due consideration of the complete geothermal cycle. These systems are: the Binary Cooling Tower, evaporative condenser, Combin-aire, and a metal fin-tube dry cooling tower with deluge augmentation. The systems were evaluated using cooled, treated geothermal fluid instead of ground or surface water in the cooling loops. All comparisons were performed on the basis of a common plant site - the Raft River 5 MWe geothermal plant in Idaho. The Binary Cooling Tower and the Combin-aire cooling system were designed assuming the use of the isobutane/water surface condenser currently installed at the Raft River Plant. The other two systems had the isobutane ducted to the evaporative condensers. Capital credit was not given to the system employing the direct condensing process. The cost of the systems were estimated from designs provided by the vendors. The levelized energy cost range for each cooling system is listed below. The levelized energy cost reflects the incremental cost of the cooling system for the life of the plant. The estimates are presented in 1981 dollars.

Bamberger, J.A.; Allemann, R.T.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Experimental testing of a direct contact heat exchanger for geothermal brine. Final report, July 1, 1978-February 1, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of direct contact heat exchanger (DCHX) experiments were conducted at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site during the period July 1, 1978 to February 1, 1979. The purpose of these tests was to provide additional data necessary to better understand the thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the DCHX binary cycle loop components that may be used to extract energy from geothermal brines. Isobutane and Isopentane were tested as secondary working fluids. The analytical and experimental efforts were directed at the problems of working fluid loss in the effluent brine, carryover of water vapor with the vaporized secondary fluid and the free CO/sub 2/ content of the feed brine. The tests aimed at evaluating the heat transfer performance of various type tubes installed in vertical shell-and-tube secondary fluid condensers. Data was collected while operating a low temperature isopentane cycle with brine preflashed to 210 to 212/sup 0/F; the objective being to gain insight to waste heat recovery applications such as the Arkansas Power and Light project. Possible alternatives for isobutane recovery from the spent brine were investigated. A system was designed and the economic aspects studied.

Urbanek, M.W.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION GAS  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION GAS ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION GAS ANALYSES Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION GAS ANALYSES Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Measurement of organic compounds in Karaha- Telaga Bodas and Coso fluid inclusions shows there are strong relationships between H2 concentrations and alkane/alkene ratios and benzene concentrations. Inclusion analyses that indicate H2 concentrations > 0.001 mol % typically have ethane > ethylene, propane > propylene, and butane > butylene. There are three end member fluid compositions: type 1 fluids in which alkane compounds predominate, type 2 fluids that have ethane and propylene and no

239

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 September 2013 Table 49. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD District, September 2013 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD Districts U.S. Total 1 2 3 4 5 Total Daily Average Crude Oil 1 ............................................................ 94 2,282 598 1 - 2,975 99 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 453 2,129 10,579 380 396 13,937 465 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 300 1,599 652 346 92 2,989 100 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............................. 153 530 9,927 34 304 10,947 365 Ethane/Ethylene ........................................... - - - - - - - Propane/Propylene ....................................... 126 199 9,412 4 299 10,040 335 Normal Butane/Butylene ...............................

240

Jet fuel from LPG  

SciTech Connect

Explains how jet fuel can be manufactured from propane and/or butane with attractive rates of return. This scheme is advantageous where large reserves of LPG-bearing gas is available or LPG is in excess. The following sequence of processes in involved: dehydrogenation of propane (and/or butane) to propylene (and/or butylene); polymerization of this monomer to a substantial yield of the desired polymer by recycling undesired polymer; and hydrotreating the polymer to saturate double bonds. An attribute of this process scheme is that each of the individual processes has been practiced commercially. The process should have appeal in those parts of the world which have large reserves of LPG-bearing natural gas but little or no crude oil, or where large excesses of LPG are available. Concludes that economic analysis shows attractive rates of return in a range of reasonable propane costs and product selling prices.

Maples, R.E.; Jones, J.R.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butylene isobutane isobutylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Production of biodiesel using expanded gas solvents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method of producing an alkyl ester. The method comprises providing an alcohol and a triglyceride or fatty acid. An expanding gas is dissolved into the alcohol to form a gas expanded solvent. The alcohol is reacted with the triglyceride or fatty acid in a single phase to produce the alkyl ester. The expanding gas may be a nonpolar expanding gas, such as carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, pentene, isomers thereof, and mixtures thereof, which is dissolved into the alcohol. The gas expanded solvent may be maintained at a temperature below, at, or above a critical temperature of the expanding gas and at a pressure below, at, or above a critical pressure of the expanding gas.

Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID; Fox, Robert V [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

242

Kinetics of HEX-BCC Transition in a Triblock Copolymer in a Selective Solvent: Time Resolved Small Angle X-ray Scattering Measurements and Model Calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Time-resolved small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to examine the kinetics of the transition from HEX cylinders to BCC spheres at various temperatures in poly(styrene-b- ethylene-co-butylene-b-styrene) (SEBS) in mineral oil, a selective solvent for the middle EB block. Temperature-ramp SAXS and rheology measurements show the HEX to BCC order-order transition (OOT) at ~127 oC and order-disorder transition (ODT) at ~180 oC. We also observed the metastability limit of HEX in BCC with a spinodal temperature, Ts ~ 150 oC. The OOT exhibits 3 stages and occurs via a nucleation and growth mechanism when the final temperature Tf peak into two peaks when the cylinder spacing and modulation wavelength are incommensurate predicted by the model is confirmed by analysis of the SAXS data.

Minghai Li; Yongsheng Liu; Huifen Nie; Rama Bansil; Milos Steinhart

2007-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

243

EIA-816  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6281 6281 Receipts During Month Inputs During Month Production During Month Shipments During Month Plant Fuel Use & Losses 247 Pentanes Plus Isobutane Normal Butane 249 Month 220 243 Ethane Propane Stocks End of Month Product Code Stocks Beginning of Month FORM EIA-816 MONTHLY NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS REPORT A completed form must be received by the 20th calendar day following the end of the report month. This report is mandatory under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other sanctions as provided by law. Title 18 USC 1001 makes it a criminal offense for any person knowingly and willingly to make to any Agency or Department of the United States any false, fictitious, or fraudulent statements as to any matter within its jurisdiction. See Instructions for further details on

244

Total Refinery Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Alaskan Crude Oil Receipts Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

245

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Production Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Butane (C4H10) A normally gaseous straight-chain or branch-chain hydrocarbon extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams. It includes isobutane and normal butane and is designated in ASTM Specification D1835 and Gas Processors Association Specifications for commercial butane.

246

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker, and Barge Between PAD Districts Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker, and Barge Between PAD Districts Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Butane (C4H10) A normally gaseous straight-chain or branch-chain hydrocarbon extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams. It includes isobutane and normal butane and is designated in ASTM Specification D1835 and Gas Processors Association Specifications for commercial butane.

247

Performances of linseed oil-free bakelite RPC prototypes with cosmic ray muons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A comparative study has been performed on Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) made of two different grades of bakelite paper laminates, produced and commercially available in India. The chambers, operated in the streamer mode using argon, tetrafluroethane and isobutane in 34:59:7 mixing ratio, are tested for the efficiency and the stability with cosmic rays. A particular grade of bakelite (P-120, NEMA LI-1989 Grade XXX), used for high voltage insulation in humid conditions, was found to give satisfactory performance with stable efficiency of > 96% continuously for more than 130 days. A thin coating of silicone fluid on the inner surfaces of the bakelite RPC is found to be necessary for operation of the detector.

S. Biswas; S. Bhattacharya; S. Bose; S. Chattopadhyay; S. Saha; M. K. Sharan; Y. P. Viyogi

2009-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

248

BEOWAWE number1-A 10 MW geothermal unit in northern Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a project to build and operate a nominal 10 mw electrical generating unit using the geothermal heat from the Beowawe, Nevada, geothermal reservoir to power an isobutane binary unit. This 10 mw unit would be fabricated on portable skids by equipment supplier for shipment to the site. The project will be owned and operated by the NORNEV Demonstration Geothermal Company which is made up of Pacific Power and Light, Eugene Water and Electric Board, Sierra Pacific Power Company, and Sacramento Municipal Utility District. The geothermal brine for powering the 10 mw binary WGU will be purchased from Chevron Resource Company. This first unit is a research and development unit and will, hopefully, lead to total development of the 300 mw plus Beowawe reservoir.

Keilman, L.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Total Blender Net Input of Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Input Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquid Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Oxygenates/Renewables Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

250

Natural Gas - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

15, 2013 | Release Date: May 16, 15, 2013 | Release Date: May 16, 2013 | Next Release: May 23, 2013 Previous Issues Week: 12/29/2013 (View Archive) JUMP TO: In The News | Overview | Prices/Demand/Supply | Storage In the News: Natural gas liquids price information added to the Natural Gas Weekly Upd Starting today, the Natural Gas Weekly Update will include a graph and a brief text overview of natural gas liquids (NGL) spot prices for five products: ethane, propane, butane, isobutane, and natural gasoline, as well as a volume-weighted composite of these prices. The natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) composite price is calculated by applying the proportionate yield of liquids produced at natural gas processing plants to the daily spot prices. Next week's Natural Gas Weekly Update will feature the NGL

251

PSADEFS.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Definitions Definitions of Petroleum Products and Other Terms Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH 3 - (CH 2 )n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usu- ally refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gaso- line. Alkylation. A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, buty- lene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of an acid catalyst, usually sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid. The product, alkylate, an isoparaffin, has high octane value and is blended with motor and aviation gasoline to improve the antiknock

252

Development of bakelite based Resistive Plate Chambers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Comparative study has been performed on Resistive Plate Chambers made of different grades of bakelite paper laminates, produced and commercially available in India. The chambers, operated in the streamer mode using argon : tetrafluroethane : isobutane in 34:59:7 mixing ratio, are tested with cosmic rays for the efficiency and the stability with cosmic rays. A particular grade of bakelite (P-120, NEMA LI-1989 Grade XXX), used for high voltage insulation in humid conditions, was found to give satisfactory performance with stable efficiency of > 96% continuously for more than 110 days. A silicone treatment of the inner surfaces of the bakelite RPC is found to be necessary for operation of the detector.

S. Biswas; S. Bhattacharya; S. Bose; S. Chattopadhyay; S. Saha; M. K. Sharan; Y. P. Viyogi

2008-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

253

Countercurrent direct contact heat exchange process and system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources by direct contact heat exchange with a working fluid, such as a hydrocarbon working fluid, e.g. isobutane. The process and system consists of a plurality of stages, each stage including mixing and settling units. In the first stage, hot brine and arm working fluid are intimately mixed and passed into a settler wherein the brine settles to the bottom of the settler and the hot working fluid rises to the top. The hot working fluid is passed to a heat engine or turbine to produce work and the working fluid is then recycled back into the system. The system is comprised of a series of stages each containing a settler and mixer, and wherein the working fluid and the brine flow in a countercurrent manner through the stages to recover the heat from the brine in increments and raise the temperature of the working fluid in increments.

Wahl, III, Edward F. (Claremont, CA); Boucher, Frederic B. (San Juan Capistrano, CA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Simple electronic apparatus for the analysis of radioactively labeled gel electrophoretograms  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high resolution position sensitive radiation detector for analyzing radiation emanating from a source, constructed of a thin plate having an elongated slot with conductive edges acting as a cathode, a charged anode wire positioned within 0.5 mm adjacent the source and running parallel to the slot and centered therein, an ionizable gas ionized by radiation emanating from the source provided surrounding the anode wire in the slot, a helical wire induction coil serving as a delay line and positioned beneath the anode wire for detecting gas ionization and for producing resulting ionization signals, and processing circuits coupled to the induction coil for receiving ionization signals induced therein after determining therefrom the location along the anode wire of any radiation emanating from the source. An ionization gas of 70% Ar, 29% Isobutane, 0.6% Freon 13BI, and 0.4% Methylal is used.

Goulianos, Konstantin (New York, NY); Smith, Karen K. (New York, NY); White, Sebastian N. (New York, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Conceptual design of a coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline commercial plant. Volume V. Alternate design studies. Second interim final report, August 31, 1977-March 1, 1979  

SciTech Connect

Three design cases have been investigated for converting methanol to gasoline using the Mobil process. These are defined as Case A, which produces gasoline and byproduct LPG; Case B, which produces gasoline, high Btu gas, and byproduct LPG; and Case C which produces gasoline only. The LPG includes propane LPG and high purity isobutane. Base Case B is described in Volumes I and IV of this report. Alternate Cases A and C are described in part I of Volume V. Part II of this volume (V) contains additional process studies. Under Contract EX-76-C-01-2416 Modification No. A006, item (4) of the General Requirements requires economy of scale evaluations, and item (24) of the Scope of Work includes studies of Lurgi methanol synthesis recommendations, integration of Methanol-to-Gasoline facilities with a refinery, and recovery of aromatics from stabilized synthetic gasoline.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Thermal Decomposition Chemistry of Amine Borane (U)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Amine boranes potentially can be used as a vehicular hydrogen storage material. (2) Purity of the hydrogen stream is critical for use with a fuel cell. Pure H{sub 2} can be provided by carefully conditioning the fuel (encapsulation, drying, heating rate, impurities). (3) Thermodynamics and kinetics can be controlled by conditioning as well. (4) Regeneration of the spent amine borane fuel is still the greatest challenge to its potential use. (5) Addition of hydrocarbon-substituted amine boranes alter the chemistry dramatically. (6) Decomposition of the substituted amine borane mixed system favors reaction products that are more potentially easier to regenerate the hydrogenated fuel. (7) t-butylamine borane is not the best substituted amine borane to use since it releases isobutane; however, formation of CNBH{sub x} products does occur.

Stowe, A. C.; Feigerle, J.; Smyrl, N. R.; Morrell, J. S.

2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

257

Field tests of a vertical-fluted-tube condenser in the prototype power plant at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A vertical-fluted-tube condenser was designed, fabricated, and tested with isobutane as the shell-side working fluid in a binary prototype power plant at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site. After shakedown and contamination removal operations were completed, the four-pass water-cooled unit (with 102 outside-fluted Admiralty tubes) achieved performance predictions while operating with the plant surface evaporator on-line. A sample comparison shows that use of this enhanced condenser concept offers the potential for a reduction of about 65% from the size suggested by corresponding designs using conventional horizontal-smooth-tube concepts. Subsequent substitution of a direct-contact evaporator for the surface evaporator brought drastic reductions in system performance, the apparent consequence of high concentrations of noncondensible gases introduced by the brine/working-fluid interaction.

Murphy, R.W.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Fuel property effects on engine combustion processes. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A major obstacle to improving spark ignition engine efficiency is the limitations on compression ratio imposed by tendency of hydrocarbon fuels to knock (autoignite). A research program investigated the knock problem in spark ignition engines. Objective was to understand low and intermediate temperature chemistry of combustion processes relevant to autoignition and knock and to determine fuel property effects. Experiments were conducted in an optically and physically accessible research engine, static reactor, and an atmospheric pressure flow reactor (APFR). Chemical kinetic models were developed for prediction of species evolution and autoignition behavior. The work provided insight into low and intermediate temperature chemistry prior to autoignition of n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, 1-pentene, n-heptane, iso-octane and some binary blends. Study of effects of ethers (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and DIPE ) and alcohols (methanol and ethanol) on the oxidation and autoignition of primary reference fuel (PRF) blends.

Cernansky, N.P.; Miller, D.L.

1995-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

259

Computer program for determining the thermodynamic properties of light hydrocarbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program was written to be used as a subroutine. The program determines the thermodynamics of light hydrocarbons. The following light hydrocarbons can be analyzed: butane, ethane, ethylene, heptane, hexane, isobutane, isopentane, methane, octane, pentane, propane and propylene. The subroutine can evaluate a thermodynamic state for the light hydrocarbons given any of the following pairs of state quantities: pressure and quality, pressure and enthalpy, pressure and entropy, temperature and pressure, temperature and quality and temperature and specific volume. These six pairs of knowns allow the user to analyze any thermodynamic cycle utilizing a light hydrocarbon as the working fluid. The Starling--Benedict--Webb--Rubin equation of state was used. A brief description, flowchart, listing and required equations for each subroutine are included.

Riemer, D.H.; Jacobs, H.R.; Boehm, R.F.; Cook, D.S.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Computer program for determining the thermodynamic properties of light hydrocarbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program was written to be used as a subroutine. The program determines the thermodynamics of light hydrocarbons. The following light hydrocarbons can be analyzed: butane, ethane, ethylene, heptane, hexane, isobutane, isopentane, methane, octane, pentane, propane and propylene. The subroutine can evaluate a thermodynamic state for the light hydrocarbons given any of the following pairs of state quantities: pressure and quality, pressure and enthalpy, pressure and entropy, temperature and pressure, temperature and quality and temperature and specific volume. These six pairs of knowns allow the user to analyze any thermodynamic cycle utilizing a light hydrocarbon as the working fluid. The Starling-Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation of state was used. This report contains a brief description, flowchart, listing and required equations for each subroutine.

Riemer, D.H.; Jacobs, H.R.; Boehm, R.F.; Cook, D.S.

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butylene isobutane isobutylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Floating dry cooling: a competitive alternative to evaporative cooling in a binary cycle geothermal power plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of the floating cooling concept to non-evaporative and evaporative atmospheric heat rejection systems was studied as a method of improving the performance of geothermal powerplants operating upon medium temperature hydrothermal resources. The LBL thermodynamic process computer code GEOTHM is used in the case study of a 50 MWe isobutane binary cycle power plant at Heber, California. It is shown that operating a fixed capacity plant in the floating cooling mode can generate significantly more electrical energy at a higher thermodynamic efficiency and reduced but bar cost for approximately the same capital investment. Floating cooling is shown to benefit a plant which is dry cooled to an even greater extent than the same plant operating with an evaporative heat rejection system. Results of the Heber case study indicate that a dry floating cooling geothermal binary cycle plant can produce energy at a bus bar cost which is competitive with the cost of energy associated with evaporatively cooled systems.

Pines, H.S.; Green, M.A.; Pope, W.L.; Doyle, P.A.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Final design, installation and baseline testing of 500 kW direct contact pilot plant at East Mesa  

SciTech Connect

The pilot plant was configured to accomplish two objectives - first to evaluate the overall performance potential of direct contact powerplants and second to develop design criteria and parameters for full-scale direct contact plants. The pilot plant includes all of the process functions that would be incorporated in a full-scale plant. Incoming brine is treated to remove undissolved gases, pumped through the direct contact heat exchanger (DCHX), and then sent to a recovery system for removal of the dissolved working fluid. The chosen working fluid is isobutane (IC/sub 4/). The working fluid loop includes a radial inflow turbine with generator, condensers, hot-well reservoir, and a feed pump. A downwell pump was installed in the geothermal well to supply the plant with unflashed brine. (MHR)

Hlinak, A.; Lobach, J.; Nichols, K.; Olander, R.; Werner, D.

1980-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

263

RPT_PERIOD","R_S_NAME","LINE_NUM","PROD_CODE","PROD_NAME","PORT_CODE","PORT_CITY  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

RPT_PERIOD","R_S_NAME","LINE_NUM","PROD_CODE","PROD_NAME","PORT_CODE","PORT_CITY","PORT_STATE","PORT_PADD","GCTRY_CODE","CNTRY_NAME","QUANTITY","SULFUR","APIGRAVITY","PCOMP_RNAM","PCOMP_SNAM","PCOMP_STAT","STATE_NAME","PCOMP_PADD" RPT_PERIOD","R_S_NAME","LINE_NUM","PROD_CODE","PROD_NAME","PORT_CODE","PORT_CITY","PORT_STATE","PORT_PADD","GCTRY_CODE","CNTRY_NAME","QUANTITY","SULFUR","APIGRAVITY","PCOMP_RNAM","PCOMP_SNAM","PCOMP_STAT","STATE_NAME","PCOMP_PADD" 41547,"AEROPRES CORP ",1,253,"Isobutane/Ngl",3402,"NOYES, MN","MINNESOTA",2,260,"CANADA",2,0,0,,,,," " 41547,"AEROPRES CORP ",2,252,"Normal Butane/Ngl",3402,"NOYES, MN","MINNESOTA",2,260,"CANADA",5,0,0,,,,," "

264

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

265

Field tests of 2- and 40-tube condensers at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two water-cooled isobutane condensers, one with 2 tubes and one with 40 tubes, were subjected to field tests at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site to assess relative heat transfer performance in both surface evaporator and direct-contact evaporator modes. The five groups of tests established that field performance was below earlier laboratory-determined levels and that direct-contact evaporator mode performance was poorer than that for the surface evaporator mode. In all test situations, fluted condenser tubes performed better than smooth condenser tubes. Cooling water quality had no significant effect on performance, but brine preflash in the direct-contact mode did promote some relative performance improvement. Important implications of these results for binary geothermal power plants are that (1) working-fluid-side impurities can significantly degrade heat transfer performance of the power plant condensers and (2) provisions for minimizing such impurities may be required.

Murphy, R.W.; Domingo, N.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

The selective catalytic cracking of Fischer-Tropsch liquids to high value transportation fuels. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Amoco Oil Company, investigated a selective catalytic cracking process (FCC) to convert the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) gasoline and wax fractions to high value transportation fuels. The primary tasks of this contract were to (1) optimize the catalyst and process conditions of the FCC process for maximum conversion of F-T wax into reactive olefins for later production of C{sub 4}{minus}C{sub 8} ethers, and (2) use the olefin-containing light naphtha obtained from FCC processing of the F-T wax as feedstock for the synthesis of ethers. The catalytic cracking of F-T wax feedstocks gave high conversions with low activity catalysts and low process severities. HZSM-5 and beta zeolite catalysts gave higher yields of propylene, isobutylene, and isoamylenes but a lower gasoline yield than Y zeolite catalysts. Catalyst selection and process optimization will depend on product valuation. For a given catalyst and process condition, Sasol and LaPorte waxes gave similar conversions and product selectivities. The contaminant iron F-T catalyst fines in the LaPorte wax caused higher coke and hydrogen yields.

Schwartz, M.M.; Reagon, W.J.; Nicholas, J.J.; Hughes, R.D.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Mass transfer of volatile organic compounds from drinking water to indoor air: The role of residential dishwashers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contaminated tap water may be a source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in residential indoor air. To better understand the extent and impact of chemical emissions from this source, a two-phase mass balance model was developed based on mass transfer kinetics between each phase. Twenty-nine experiments were completed using a residential dishwasher to determine model parameters. During each experiment, inflow water was spiked with a cocktail of chemical tracers with a wide range of physicochemical properties. In each case, the effects of water temperature, detergent, and dish-loading pattern on chemical stripping efficiencies and mass transfer coefficients were determined. Dishwasher headspace ventilation rates were also measured using an isobutylene tracer gas. Chemical stripping efficiencies for a single cycle ranged from 18% to 55% for acetone, from 96% to 98% for toluene, and from 97% to 98% for ethylbenzene and were consistently 100% for cyclohexane. Experimental results indicate that dishwashers have a relatively low but continuous ventilation rate that results in significant chemical storage within the headspace of the dishwasher. In conjunction with relatively high mass transfer coefficients, low ventilation rates generally lead to emissions that are limited by equilibrium conditions after approximately 1--2 min of dishwasher operation.

Howard-Reed, C.; Corsi, R.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Moya, J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, they have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F{trademark}), polytetrafluoro-ethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to approximately 3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using Vapor Transport Rate measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. The authors have developed a chemical compatibility program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be incorporated in packaging for transporting mixed waste forms. From the data analyses performed to date, they have identified the thermoplastic, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, as having the greatest chemical compatibility after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the poor performance of polytetrafluoroethylene under these conditions. In the evaluation of the two elastomeric materials they have concluded that while both materials exhibit remarkable resistance to these environmental conditions, EPDM has a greater resistance to this corrosive simulant mixed waste.

Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3,256,148 352,785 6,794,407 3,878,852 122,574 57,691 6,406,693 3,256,148 352,785 6,794,407 3,878,852 122,574 57,691 6,406,693 1,172,965 6,767,418 1,807,777 Crude Oil 2,374,842 - - - - 3,120,755 52,746 34,134 5,489,516 24,693 0 1,060,764 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 881,306 -6,534 230,413 62,192 - - 23,894 186,270 115,054 842,159 153,268 Pentanes Plus 116,002 -6,534 - - 10,680 - - -4,857 63,596 43,136 18,273 12,739 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 765,304 - - 230,413 51,512 - - 28,751 122,674 71,918 823,886 140,529 Ethane/Ethylene 356,592 - - 6,597 115 - - 12,504 - - 350,800 35,396 Propane/Propylene 260,704 - - 202,309 42,460 - - 13,013 - 62,490 429,970 67,991 Normal Butane/Butylene 65,555 - - 20,580 5,567 - - 1,795 52,246 9,428 28,233 28,574

270

U.S. Refinery Net Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total 5,383,494 5,119,100 4,676,865 4,568,301 4,484,600 4,395,128 2005-2012 Liquefied Refinery Gases 238,904 230,431 227,470 240,454 225,992 230,413 2005-2012 Ethane/Ethylene 7,323 6,671 7,069 7,228 7,148 6,597 2005-2012 Ethane 5,145 4,608 5,229 5,200 5,105 4,835 2005-2012 Ethylene 2,178 2,063 1,840 2,028 2,043 1,762 2005-2012 Propane/Propylene 205,179 190,020 196,011 204,223 201,492 202,309 2005-2012 Propane 120,596 114,268 106,177 102,913 98,508 100,933 2005-2012 Propylene 84,583 75,752 89,834 101,310 102,984 101,376 2005-2012 Normal Butane/Butylene 24,285 30,887 24,148 30,281 17,449 20,580 2005-2012 Normal Butane 25,715 33,092 25,825 32,094 19,263 22,965 2005-2012

271

U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total 6,567,929 6,641,293 6,527,069 6,735,067 6,815,590 6,794,407 1981-2012 Liquefied Refinery Gases 238,904 230,431 227,470 240,454 225,992 230,413 1981-2012 Ethane/Ethylene 7,323 6,671 7,069 7,228 7,148 6,597 1981-2012 Ethane 5,145 4,608 5,229 5,200 5,105 4,835 1993-2012 Ethylene 2,178 2,063 1,840 2,028 2,043 1,762 1993-2012 Propane/Propylene 205,179 190,020 196,011 204,223 201,492 202,309 1981-2012 Propane 120,596 114,268 106,177 102,913 98,508 100,933 1995-2012 Propylene 84,583 75,752 89,834 101,310 102,984 101,376 1993-2012 Normal Butane/Butylene 24,285 30,887 24,148 30,281 17,449 20,580 1981-2012 Normal Butane 25,715 33,092 25,825 32,094 19,263 22,965 1993-2012

272

East Coast (PADD 1) Net Receipts of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Type: Net Receipts Receipts Shipments Type: Net Receipts Receipts Shipments Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Type Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 1,009,989 959,458 1,099,509 1,131,797 1,168,599 1,191,766 1981-2012 Crude Oil -3,860 -5,544 8,672 5,983 5,106 4,126 1981-2012 Petroleum Products 1,013,849 965,002 1,090,837 1,125,814 1,163,493 1,187,640 1986-2012 Pentanes Plus -590 -452 -113 -19 1991-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 32,846 32,207 20,384 34,725 33,545 26,723 1981-2012 Ethane/Ethylene 1989-2002 Propane/Propylene 32,199 31,673 19,415 33,585 33,025 26,601 1989-2012 Normal Butane/Butylene

273

Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: The biodegradabilities of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) powders in a controlled compost at 58 °C have been studied using a Microbial Oxidative Degradation Analyzer (MODA) based on the ISO 14855-2 method, entitled “Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradability of plastic materials under controlled composting conditions—Method by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide—Part 2: Gravimetric measurement of carbon dioxide evolved in a laboratory-scale test”. The evolved CO2 was trapped by an additional aqueous Ba(OH)2 solution. The trapped BaCO3 was transformed into graphite via a serial vaporization and reduction reaction using a gas-tight tube and vacuum manifold system. This graphite was analyzed by accelerated mass spectrometry (AMS) to determine the percent modern carbon [pMC (sample)] based on the 14 C radiocarbon concentration. By using the theory that pMC (sample) was the sum of the pMC (compost) (109.87%) and pMC (PBS) (0%) as the respective ratio in the determined period, the CO2 (respiration) was calculated from only one reaction vessel. It was found that the biodegradabilities determined by the CO2 amount from PBS in the sample vessel were about 30 % lower than those based on the ISO method. These differences between the

Masao Kunioka; Fumi Ninomiya; Masahiro Funabashi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Assessing a Spectroelectrochemical Sensor's Performance for Detecting [Ru(bpy)3]2+ in Natural and Treated Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spectroelectrochemical sensor that combines three modes of selectivity in a single device was evaluated in natural and treated water samples using tris-(2,2’-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) dichloride hexahydrate, [Ru(bpy)3]2+, as a model analyte. The sensor was an optically transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode coated with a thin film of partially sulfonated polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene (SSEBS). As the potential of the ITO electrode was cycled from +0.7 to +1.3 V, the analyte changed from the colored [Ru(bpy)3]2+ complex to colorless [Ru(bpy)3]3+ complex and the change in absorbance at 450 nm was used as the optical signal for quantification. Calibration curves were obtained for [Ru(bpy)3]2+ in natural well water, river water and treated tap water with detection limits of 108, 139 and 264 nM, respectively. A standard addition method was developed to determine an *unknown* spike addition concentration of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ in well water. The spectroelectrochemical sensor determined the concentration of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ spiked into a sample of Hanford well water to be 0.39*0.03 mM versus the actual concentration of 0.40 mM.

Abu, Eme A.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Laser ultrasonic furnace tube coke monitor. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, May 1--August 1, 1998  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall aim of the project is to demonstrate the performance and practical use of a laser ultrasonic probe for measuring the thickness of coke deposits located within the high temperature tubes of a thermal cracking furnace. This aim will be met by constructing an optical probe that will be tested using simulated coke deposits that are positioned inside of a bench-scale furnace. Successful development of the optical coke detector will provide industry with the only available method for on-line measurement of coke deposits. The optical coke detector will have numerous uses in the refining and petrochemical sectors including monitoring of visbreakers, hydrotreaters, delayed coking units, vacuum tower heaters, and various other heavy oil heating applications where coke formation is a problem. The coke detector will particularly benefit the olefins industry where high temperature thermal crackers are used to produce ethylene, propylene, butylene and other important olefin intermediates. The ethylene industry requires development of an on-line method for gauging the thickness of coke deposits in cracking furnaces because the current lack of detailed knowledge of coke deposition profiles introduces the single greatest uncertainty in the simulation and control of modern cracking furnaces. The laser ultrasonic coke detector will provide operators with valuable new information allowing them to better optimize the decoking turnaround schedule and therefore maximize production capacity.

NONE

1998-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

U.S. Total Shell Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) Midwest (PADD 2) Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) West Coast (PADD 5) Period: Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) Midwest (PADD 2) Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) West Coast (PADD 5) Period: Annual (as of January 1) Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 View History Total 765,593 758,619 710,413 -- -- -- 1982-2013 Crude Oil 180,830 179,471 180,846 -- -- -- 1985-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 34,772 32,498 33,842 -- -- -- 1982-2013 Propane/Propylene 10,294 8,711 8,513 -- -- -- 1982-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 24,478 23,787 25,329 -- -- -- 1982-2013 Other Liquids 95,540 96,973 96,157 -- -- -- 1982-2013 Oxygenates 1,336 1,028 1,005 -- -- -- 1994-2013

277

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

571,552 300,900 1,523,608 673,109 268,869 -25,130 18,853 1,447,490 571,552 300,900 1,523,608 673,109 268,869 -25,130 18,853 1,447,490 89,370 1,757,194 287,201 Crude Oil 408,314 - - - - 633,223 292,624 -31,767 22,602 1,259,826 19,966 0 115,743 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 163,238 -6,037 44,417 27,019 -9,288 - - -4,496 38,476 40,729 144,640 43,693 Pentanes Plus 18,229 -6,037 - - 213 29,889 - - -1,599 11,319 36,827 -4,253 6,686 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 145,009 - - 44,417 26,806 -39,177 - - -2,897 27,157 3,902 148,893 37,007 Ethane/Ethylene 59,649 - - - 115 -39,435 - - -716 - - 21,045 3,590 Propane/Propylene 57,022 - - 39,605 21,464 -8,812 - - -1,114 - 580 109,813 22,020 Normal Butane/Butylene 17,564 - - 4,181 3,156 3,807 - - -1,354 10,449 3,322 16,291

278

U.S. Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total Input 1,184,435 1,522,193 1,850,204 2,166,784 2,331,109 2,399,318 2005-2012 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 3,445 5,686 6,538 7,810 10,663 2008-2012 Pentanes Plus 2,012 474 1,808 1,989 2,326 4,164 2005-2012 Liquid Petroleum Gases 2,971 3,878 4,549 5,484 6,499 2008-2012 Normal Butane 2,943 2,971 3,878 4,549 5,484 6,499 2005-2012 Isobutane 2005-2006 Other Liquids 1,518,748 1,844,518 2,160,246 2,323,299 2,388,655 2008-2012 Oxygenates/Renewables 234,047 274,974 286,837 295,004 2009-2012 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 2005-2006 Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) 234,047 274,974 286,837 295,004 2009-2012 Fuel Ethanol 131,810 182,772 232,677 273,107 281,507 287,433 2005-2012

279

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 9 Table 5.10 Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Finished Petroleum Products 1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases Pentanes Plus 4 Total Ethane 2 Isobutane Normal Butane 3 Propane 2,3 Total 1949 53 8 11 61 74 155 223 430 1950 66 12 13 69 101 195 238 499 1955 68 34 30 120 205 390 313 771 1960 47 51 45 161 291 549 333 929 1965 41 92 67 185 390 734 434 1,210 1970 25 201 84 248 561 1,095 540 1,660 1975 7 337 90 237 552 1,217 409 1,633 1976 6 365 82 227 521 1,195 403 1,604 1977 5 397 81 223 513 1,214 399 1,618 1978 3 406 75 210 491 1,182 382 1,567 1979 26 400 104 212 500 1,216 342 1,584 1980 23 396 105 210 494 1,205 345 1,573 1981 18 397 117 224 519 1,256 334 1,609 1982 11 426 109 204 519 1,258 282 1,550 1983 12 456 100 217 541 1,314 233 1,559 1984 4 505 99 203 527 1,334 292 1,630 1985 14 493 127 171 521 1,313 282 1,609 1986 4 485 128 157 508 1,277

280

U.S. Natural Gas Plant Field Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Natural Gas Liquids 650,794 652,822 697,124 757,019 808,865 881,306 1981-2012 Pentanes Plus 95,899 96,530 98,904 101,155 106,284 116,002 1981-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 554,895 556,292 598,220 655,864 702,581 765,304 1981-2012 Ethane 258,682 256,713 280,590 317,180 337,972 356,592 1981-2012 Propane 185,099 187,340 199,398 213,782 230,227 260,704 1981-2012 Normal Butane 46,833 48,976 49,528 56,655 57,399 65,555 1981-2012 Isobutane 64,281 63,263 68,704 68,247 76,983 82,453 1981-2012 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions, Sources, and Notes link above for more information on this table.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butylene isobutane isobutylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

U.S. Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total Input 206,541 217,867 212,114 216,075 219,783 208,203 2005-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 891 352 376 196 383 1,397 2008-2013 Pentanes Plus 261 301 313 67 287 393 2005-2013 Liquid Petroleum Gases 630 51 63 129 96 1,004 2008-2013 Normal Butane 630 51 63 129 96 1,004 2005-2013 Isobutane 2005-2006 Other Liquids 205,650 217,515 211,738 215,879 219,400 206,806 2008-2013 Oxygenates/Renewables 25,156 26,576 26,253 26,905 27,788 25,795 2009-2013 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 2005-2006 Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) 25,156 26,576 26,253 26,905 27,788 25,795 2009-2013 Fuel Ethanol 24,163 25,526 24,804 25,491 25,970 24,116 2005-2013

282

Global gas processing will strengthen to meet expanding markets  

SciTech Connect

The worldwide LPG industry continues to expand faster than the petroleum industry -- 4%/year for LPG vs. 2%/year for petroleum in 1995 and less than 1%/year in the early 1990s. This rapid expansion of LPG markets is occurring in virtually every region of the world, including such developing countries as China. The Far East is the focus of much of the LPG industry`s attention, but many opportunities exist in other regions such as the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. The investment climate is improving in all phases of downstream LPG marketing, including terminaling, storage, and wholesale and retail distribution. The world LPG supply/demand balance has been relatively tight since the Gulf War and should remain so. Base demand (the portion of demand that is not highly price-sensitive) is expanding more rapidly than supplies. As a result, the proportion of total LPG supplies available for price-sensitive petrochemical feedstock markets is declining, at least in the short term. The paper discusses importers, price patterns, world LPG demand, world LPG supply, US NGL supply, US gas processing, ethane and propane supply, butane, isobutane, and natural gasoline supply, and US NGL demand.

Haun, R.R. [Purvin and Gertz Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.; Gist, R.L. [Purvin and Gertz Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Power-cycle studies for a geothermal electric plant for MX operating bases  

SciTech Connect

Binary geothermal plants were investigated for providing electrical power for MX missile bases. A number of pure hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon mixtures were evaluated as working fluids for geothermal resource temperatures of 365, 400, and 450/sup 0/F. Cycle thermodynamic analyses were conducted for pure geothermal plants and for two types of coal-geothermal hybrid plants. Cycle performance results were presented as net geofluid effectiveness (net plant output in watts per geofluid flow in 1 bm/hr) and cooling water makeup effectiveness (net plant output in watts per makeup water flow in 1 bm/hr). A working fluid containing 90% (mass) isobutane/10% hexane was selected, and plant statepoints and energy balances were determined for 20MW(e) geothermal plants at each of the three resource temperatures. Working fluid heaters and condensers were sized for these plants. It is concluded that for the advanced plants investigated, geothermal resources in the 365 to 450/sup 0/F range can provide useful energy for powering MX missile bases.

Bliem, C.J.; Kochan, R.J.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

U.S. Refinery & Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total 526,996 566,851 559,032 581,600 578,456 543,388 1981-2013 Crude Oil 445,937 474,296 474,991 497,241 489,887 468,825 1981-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 12,805 11,759 12,769 13,227 13,760 16,794 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 4,949 4,341 4,752 4,734 5,331 5,666 1981-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 7,856 7,418 8,017 8,493 8,429 11,128 1981-2013 Ethane 1981-1992 Normal Butane 2,668 1,880 1,998 2,014 2,083 4,711 1981-2013 Isobutane 5,188 5,538 6,019 6,479 6,346 6,417 1981-2013 Other Liquids 68,254 80,796 71,272 71,132 74,809 57,769 1981-2013 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons 32,667 34,665 34,097 35,446 36,356 33,881 1981-2013

285

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Plant Processing Plant Processing Definitions Key Terms Definition Extraction Loss The reduction in volume of natural gas due to the removal of natural gas liquid constituents such as ethane, propane, and butane at natural gas processing plants. Natural Gas Processed Natural gas that has gone through a processing plant. Natural Gas Processing Plant A facility designed to recover natural gas liquids from a stream of natural gas which may or may not have passed through lease separators and/or field separation facilities. These facilities also control the quality of the natural gas to be marketed. Cycling plants are classified as natural gas processing plants. For definitions of related energy terms, refer to the EIA Energy Glossary. Sources Natural Gas Processed, Total Liquids Extracted, and Extraction Loss Volume: Form EIA-64A, "Annual Report of the Origin of Natural Gas Liquids Production" . Estimated Heat Content of Extraction Loss: Estimated, assuming the makeup to total liquids production as reported on Form EIA-64A for each State was proportional to the components and products ultimately separated in the States as reported on the 12 monthly reports on Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-816, "Monthly Natural Gas Liquids Report," and applying the following conversion factors to the individual component and product production estimates (million Btu extraction loss per barrel of liquid produced): ethane - 3.082; propane - 3.836; normal butane - 4.326; isobutane - 3.974; pentanes plus - 4.620.

286

U.S. Natural Gas Plant Field Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Natural Gas Liquids 74,056 76,732 74,938 79,040 82,376 81,196 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 9,772 10,464 10,689 11,270 11,542 11,167 1981-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 64,284 66,268 64,249 67,770 70,834 70,029 1981-2013 Ethane 27,647 28,274 26,311 27,829 30,063 30,015 1981-2013 Propane 23,332 24,191 24,157 25,425 25,974 25,545 1981-2013 Normal Butane 5,876 6,383 6,543 6,399 6,508 6,893 1981-2013 Isobutane 7,429 7,420 7,238 8,117 8,289 7,576 1981-2013 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions, Sources, and Notes link above for more information on this table.

287

U.S. Refinery & Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total 6,204,500 6,277,893 6,169,893 6,345,372 6,422,710 6,406,693 1981-2012 Crude Oil 5,532,097 5,361,287 5,232,656 5,374,094 5,404,347 5,489,516 1981-2012 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 184,383 177,559 177,194 161,479 178,884 186,270 1981-2012 Pentanes Plus 64,603 55,497 59,100 56,686 63,385 63,596 1981-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 119,780 122,062 118,094 104,793 115,499 122,674 1981-2012 Ethane 1981-1992 Normal Butane 48,292 50,024 48,509 43,802 47,571 52,246 1981-2012 Isobutane 71,488 72,038 69,585 60,991 67,928 70,428 1981-2012 Other Liquids 488,020 739,047 760,043 809,799 839,479 730,907 1981-2012 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons

288

Waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Waste heat rejection systems for geothermal power stations have a significantly greater influence on plant operating performances and costs than do corresponding systems in fossil- and nuclear-fueled stations. With thermal efficiencies of only about 10%, geothermal power cycles can reject four times as much heat per kilowatt of output. Geothermal sites in the United States tend to be in water-short areas that could require use of more expensive wet/dry or dry-type cooling towers. With relatively low-temperature heat sources, the cycle economics are more sensitive to diurnal and seasonal variations in sink temperatures. Factors such as the necessity for hydrogen sulfide scrubbers in off-gas systems or the need to treat cooling tower blowdown before reinjection can add to the cost and complexity of goethermal waste heat rejection systems. Working fluids most commonly considered for geothermal cycles are water, ammonia, Freon-22, isobutane, and isopentane. Both low-level and barometric-leg direct-contact condensers are used, and reinforced concrete has been proposed for condenser vessels. Multipass surface condensers also have wide application. Corrosion problems at some locations have led to increased interest in titanium tubing. Studies at ORNL indicate that fluted vertical tubes can enhance condensing film coefficients by factors of 4 to 7.

Robertson, R C

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Study and testing of direct contact heat exchangers for geothermal brines. Phase II, August 1976--June 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The analytical and experimental studies completed under this project have explored several aspects of geothermal binary power cycles and column type direct contact heat exchangers between geothermal brine and isobutane. A major improvement of the heat exchanger was developed by the combination of the preheater and boiler into a single continuous column. At East Mesa, this new direct contact heat exchanger was tested on geothermal brine in order to correlate the experimental heat transfer data with the theoretical model for use in designing larger plants. Experiments also involved a small radial inflow turbine to produce electricity which marked the first generation of electricity from geothermal brine using a binary cycle. In analytical studies, a comparison of the relationship between column diameter and droplet size was made for both Minard--Johnson and Sakiadis--Johnson model. The Letan--Kehat model for relating column height and temperature profile was analyzed and compared with experimental data. It appears that the experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical models. A detailed design of a 250 Kw pilot plant incorporating the direct contact heat exchanger was completed. This design with estimated costs for it and a 500 Kw pilot plant is incorporated.

Suratt, W.B.; Lee, C.O.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Irrigation pumping using geothermal energy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential of using geothermal energy in an isobutane binary system to drive directly a cluster of irrigation pumps was evaluated. This three well geothermal system, based at 150{sup 0}C (302{sup 0}F) resource at 2000 m (6560 ft), would cost an estimated $7,800,000 in capital investment to provide 6000 gpm of irrigation water from 12 water wells. It would serve approximately 4.5 square miles of irrigated agricultural land, with the delivered water costing $106.76 per acre-foot. This compares with an estimated cost of $60.78 per acre-foot for a conventional irrigation system driven by natural gas at the current price (1980 dollars) of $2.72/mm Btu. It is obvious that if natural gas prices continue to rise, or if geothermal resources can be found at depths less than 2000 meters, then the geothermal irrigation pumping system would be attractive economically. The importance of water to the economy and growth of Arizona was summarized. Total water consumption in Arizona is about 7,600,000 acre-feet annually of which about 87% is used for agriculture. Total supply from the Colorado River and water runoff is only 2,600,000 acre-feet per year, resulting in a net potable groundwater depletion of about 4,000,000 acre-feet per year assuming a recharge rate of about 1,000,000 acre-feet per year.

White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

Wahl, III, Edward F. (Claremont, CA); Boucher, Frederic B. (San Juan Capistrano, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Plasma chemistry in wire chambers  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

Wise, J.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Thermal performance of a geofluid direct-contact heat exchanger  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A sieve-tray direct-contact heat exchanger was used to transfer heat from a 280/sup 0/F geothermal fluid to the working fluid, isobutane, in the Raft River 60kW prototype plant. A series of experiments were run at different working fluid-to-geofluid flow ratios which produced different boiling conditions. In this paper, the results of these experiments are analyzed on the basis of thermal performance. The flow ratio, the geofluid outlet temperature, the working fluid inlet temperature, the amount of working fluid dissolved or entrained in geofluid, and tray efficiency are varied and preheating temperature profiles are calculated. These are compared with the experimentally obtained temperature profiles and the relative effects of the variables are evaluated. From this, it was determined that the approach temperature difference was on the order of .1/sup 0/ after 17 preheating trays, and the tray efficiencies, which appear to be about the same for all trays, reached approx. 70%. It was also determined that entrainment has a negligible effect on column thermal performance. The thermal performance of this column compares favorably with a spray-tower direct-contact heat exchanger and a shell-and-tube heat exchanger in terms of overall heat-transfer coefficient. Distributor tray and boiling tray behavior are discussed. These is some discussion of operations and thermal hydraulics as well.

Wiggins, D.J.; Mines, G.L.; Wahl, E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Test results from the 500 kW direct contact pilot plant at East Mesa  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 500 kW power plant utilizing direct contact heat exchange (DCHX) between the geothermal brine and the isobutane (IC/sub 4/) working fluid is being operated at the East Mesa test facility. The power plant incorporates a 40-inch-diameter direct-contactor approximately 35 feet tall. The purpose of the pilot plant is to determine the feasibility of large-scale direct-contact heat exchange and power plant operation with the DCHX. The binary cycle offers higher conversion factors (heat energy transformed to electrical energy) than the flashed steam approach for geothermal brines in the 300 to 400/sup 0/F range and preliminary results indicate the DCHX system may have higher performance than the conventional tube-and-shell binary approach. This performance advantage results from the absence of any fouling and the very close pinch temperatures achieved in the DCHX itself. The baseline performance tests for the plant were completed in January 1980. The results of these tests and follow-on testing are covered.

Nichols, K.E.; Olander, R.G.; Lobach, J.L.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

User manual for GEOCOST: a computer model for geothermal cost analysis. Volume 2. Binary cycle version  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer model called GEOCOST has been developed to simulate the production of electricity from geothermal resources and calculate the potential costs of geothermal power. GEOCOST combines resource characteristics, power recovery technology, tax rates, and financial factors into one systematic model and provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate their impacts on the cost of geothermal power. Both the geothermal reservoir and power plant are simulated to model the complete energy production system. In the version of GEOCOST in this report, geothermal fluid is supplied from wells distributed throughout a hydrothermal reservoir through insulated pipelines to a binary power plant. The power plant is simulated using a binary fluid cycle in which the geothermal fluid is passed through a series of heat exchangers. The thermodynamic state points in basic subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles are calculated for a variety of working fluids. Working fluids which are now in the model include isobutane, n-butane, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-113, R-114, and ammonia. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at the state points are calculated using empirical equations of state. The Starling equation of state is used for hydrocarbons and the Martin-Hou equation of state is used for fluorocarbons and ammonia. Physical properties of working fluids at the state points are calculated.

Huber, H.D.; Walter, R.A.; Bloomster, C.H.

1976-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Design features and equilibrium flash modeling of direct-contact binary-fluid heat exchangers for use with geothermal brines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Baseline and preliminary tests of a 500 kW pilot plant were conducted during 1980. The DCHX evaporator, which combines an equilibrium-flash boiler with a countercurrent preheater, met and exceeded the performance of its predecessors, the volumetric and surface type boilers, although only its essential features had been installed. Additional tests to be conducted during 1981 are designed to improve overall tower performance and to create modular designs for a 20-foot diameter column, thereby replacing the plurality of DCHX units otherwise required for commercial-size (>50 MWe) installations. For the preheater-boiler combination, the recommended criterion of performance is the classical steam distillation efficiency, E/sub v/, defined as the ratio of the partial pressure actually exerted by the hydrocarbon to its saturation pressure at the vapor exit temperature. As presently installed, the 500 kW DCHX unit typically generates a working-fluid vapor composed of 5 mole % water and 95% isobutane at 415 psia and 254.2/sup 0/F bubble point. E/sub v/ is 87.6%. However, with the additional improvements planned, 95% should be attainable.

Rapier, P.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Preliminary report on the baseline thermal and hydraulic performance tests of a sieve tray direct contact heat exchanger  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A sieve tray direct contact heat exchanger was designed, built and then tested in a binary power cycle at the Raft River geothermal test site. A series of baseline thermal and hydraulic tests were conducted with an isobutane working fluid. The evaluation of these tests is reported. The testing of the DCHX confirmed that the repeated forming and coalescence of the working fluid drops in the sieve tray column produce excellent heat transfer performance. Tray thermal efficiencies were at or above the design value of 70% and the pinch points were well under the design goal of 1/sup 0/F (too small to be measured with installed instrumentation). From a hydraulic standpoint, the column operated at the working fluid velocities from the plate holes corresponding to the predicted condition of maximum total drop surface area (or minimum drop size) when the unit was operating near the flooding limits, or throughputs. This is the recommended working fluid hole velocity for use in designing sieve tray columns. The geothermal flow limits encountered (at flooding) corresponded roughly to the thermal rise velocity of a 1/32-inch drop. This is a drop size commonly used for specifying the terminal velocity (or continuous fluid velocity) in the design of columns for mass transfer applications.

Mines, G.L.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Condensation of refrigerants on vertical fluted tubes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were run to determine heat transfer performance of single vertical fluted tubes with selected fluids condensing on the outside. Working fluids included six fluorocarbons (Refrigerants 11, 21, 22, 113, 114, and 115) and a hydrocarbon (Refrigerant 600a or isobutane). The nine test tubes were of 2.54-cm (1-in.) nominal outside diameter and 1.2 m (4 ft) in length with from 0 (smooth) to 60 axial flutes. Condensing heat transfer coefficients ranged from 620 to 7900 W/m/sup 2/ . K (110 to 1400 Btu/hr . ft/sup 2/ . /sup 0/F) over the heat flux range of 2000 to 43,000 W/m/sup 2/ (920 to 13,600 Btu/hr . ft/sup 2/). All parameters are based on total condensing surface area. The data show that, for a given heat flux, a fluted tube can increase condensing coefficients up to 6.0 times smooth tube values. Further heat transfer enhancement was achieved by the use of drainage skirts on fluted tubes; these skirts effectively divided the 1.2-m (4-ft) tubes into two, four, and eight equal condensing lengths.

Combs, S.K.; Mailen, G.S.; Murphy, R.W.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Measurement of liquified petroleum gas  

SciTech Connect

Propane, iso-butane, and normal butane commonly referred to as Liquified Petroleum Gases or LPG's are used as heating and transportation fuels, feed-stocks for petrochemical plants, gasoline additives, and aerosol propellents. These liquids are commonly stored in high pressure vessels, underground caverns, or salt domes. Pipelines, trucks, and rail cars are used for transporting these fluids. LPG's must conform to industry accepted specifications regarding their composition and the allowable amounts of contaminants that may be present such as sulphur, heavy hydrocarbons, and water. GPA Standard 2140-80, Liquified Petroleum Gas Specifications and Test Methods, outlines the test procedures to be followed in determining product quality. The physical properties of LPG's including low specific gravities (0.498 to 0.584), high vapor pressures, low boiling points, and lack of lubricity must be considered when storing, transporting, or measuring them. LPG's are easily measured if certain precautions are taken. The equipment must be properly installed, maintained, and calibrated. If meters are used, product flow must be in liquid phase. Due to the considerable effect of temperature and pressure on LPG's, volumes obtained at operating conditions must be reduced to standard conditions.

Vehe, R.E.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

The importance of FCC catalyst selection on LPG profitability  

SciTech Connect

Recently the value of LPG in chemical operations downstream of the FCC unit has increased. Such downstream operations utilize propylene not only in alkylate, but also in rapid growth petrochemical applications such as for a raw material in the manufacture of polypropylene and propylene oxide. Isobutane and the butenes (particularly butene-2 in sulfuric acid catalyzed alkylation units) are prized for alkylate feed. The profit potential and incentives to use other LPG components such as isobutene to make MTBE is now increased because of legislative actions and increased octane performance demand; and because of the greater isobutene content in the LPG from the new FCC octane catalysts. A low non-framework alumina (NFA) zeolite studied made a more olefinic LPG with higher iso-to normal C4 ratio than the other zeolites. Pilot plant data has also shown the new low NFA zeolite gave not only outstanding motor octane (MON) performance, but produced an LPG with better propylene to propane ratio, more isobutene, more n-butenes and more C4 branching than other RE promoted zeolite catalysts. Commercial results have verified the improved performance and profitability for the new low-NFA type zeolite catalysts. Three commercial examples are described.

Keyworth, D.A.; Gilman, R.; Pearce, J.R. (AKZO Catalysts, 13000 Bay Park Road, Pasadena, TX (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butylene isobutane isobutylene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Energy savings in petroleum refining using absorption heat pumping  

SciTech Connect

There is now a new and highly economic technology available for saving energy in petroleum refineries. This technology--absorption heat pumping--is gaining rapid acceptance overseas, but to date is relatively unknown and untried in the U.S. Packaged units now can be supplied in virtually any capacity rating desired. These units are economical, with paybacks typically in less than two years, and are highly reliable compared to heat pumps incorporating large rotating members. This paper provides an overview of how an absorption heat pump (AHP) works, the different configurations possible, and how they can be applied to fractional distillation in a petroleum refinery. A detailed example flowsheet and economic estimate are presented for a specific petroleum refinery application--modernization of the energy intensive alkylation unit--which is of interest currently. A stand-alone isobutane splitter is compared to a mechanically heat pumped alternative and an absorption heat pumped alternative. In general, the AHP requires less than half the capital investment of the next best alternative and provides numerous important intangible benefits as well. The AHP will show even larger margins of advantage on columns involving higher temperature differentials between top and bottom (temperature ''lifts'').

Davidson, W.F.; Campagne, W.V.L.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Design and analysis of a 5-MW vertical-fluted-tube condenser for geothermal applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design and analysis of an industtial-sized vertical-fluted-tube condenser. The condenser is used to condense superheated isobutane vapor discharged from a power turbine in a geothermal test facility operated for the US Department of Energy. The 5-MW condenser has 1150 coolant tubes in a four-pass configuration with a total heat transfer area of 725 m/sup 2/ (7800 ft/sup 2/). The unit is being tested at the Geothermal Components Test Facility in the Imperial Valley of East Mesa, California. The condenser design is based on previous experimental research work done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on condensing refrigerants on a wide variety of single vertical tubes. Condensing film coefficients obtained on the high-performance vertical fluted tubes in condensing refrigerants are as much as seven times greater than those obtained with vertical smooth tubes that have the same diameter and length. The overall heat transfer performance expected from the fluted tube condenser is four to five times the heat transfer obtained from the identical units employing smooth tubes. Fluted tube condensers also have other direct applications in the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) program in condensing ammonia, in the petroleum industry in condensing light hydrocarbons, and in the air conditioning and refrigeration industry in condensing fluorocarbon vapors.

Llewellyn, G.H.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Improving the stability of H-mordenite for n-butane isomerization  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of n-butane over mordenite-based catalysts in the presence of hydrogen and water was investigated for reaction temperatures between 523 and 623 K. Special attention was given to the influence of Pt upon catalytic activity, selectivity, and stability. With parent mordenite the catalytic activity for n-butane conversion decreased markedly after a short time on stream. Deactivation can be minimized by hydrogen (in the presence of Pt) and water addition. Both measures are thought to reduce the concentration of intermediate olefins in the zeolite pores. The best results with respect to selective conversion of n-butane to isobutane were obtained for 0.25 wt% Pt on mordenite in the presence of hydrogen. Higher concentrations of Pt in the catalyst are shown to be detrimental for n-butane isomerization, because of increasing selectivity to hydrogenolysis. A detailed mechanistic scheme for n-butane conversion over Pt-containing mordenites is presented. n-Butane conversion is concluded to occur via a bimolecular mechanism involving a complex network of hydrogen transfer, oligomerization/cracking, isomerization, hydrogenation/dehydrogenation, and hydrogenolysis. 23 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

Asuquo, R.A.; Eder-Mirth, G.; Lercher, J.A. [Catalysis Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)] [and others] [Catalysis Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. Tenth quarterly report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transition metal promoters markedly increase the activity of sulfated zirconia for isomerization of butane. Data presented here demonstrate the effects of the promoters zinc, iron, and manganese; none of these is as effective as the iron/manganese combination. The effects of feed impurities (olefins and/or isobutane in n-butane) are consistent with those described in the preceding quarterly report: they lead to an improvement in catalytic activity. These observations are inferred to be of practical importance; they indicate the benefit of the impurities in increasing butane conversion. The product distribution data show that reactions accompanying isomerization and disproportionation are more important with some promoters (e.g., iron) than others (e.g., zinc). The data demonstrate that the iron- and manganese-promoted catalyst can be regenerated at least sever times with negligible loss of activity (within the experimental error). To apply this catalyst or a related catalyst industrially, it seems very likely to be necessary to reduce the rate of deactivation substantially and/or to regenerate the catalyst through many cycles.

Gates, B.C. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Geothermal Power Plants in China  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nine small experimental geothermal power plants are now operating at six sites in the People's Republic of China. These range in capacity from 50 kW to 3MW, and include plants of the flash-steam and binary type. All except two units utilize geofluids at temperatures lower than 100 C. The working fluids for the binary plants include normal- and iso-butane, ethyl chloride, and Freon. The first geothermal plant came on-line in 1970, the most recent ones in 1979. Figure 1 shows the location of the plants. Major cities are also shown for reference. Table 1 contains a listing of the plants and some pertinent characteristics. The total installed capacity is 5,186 kW, of which 4,386 kW is from flash-steam units. In the report, they given an example of the results of exploratory surveys, and show system diagrams, technical specifications, and test results for several of the power plants.

DiPippo, Ronald

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes -- research and proof-of-concept stages  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objective is to find new catalysts for direct reaction of methane, ethane, propane, butanes with O{sub 2} to form alcohols, and to develop practical processes for direct oxidative conversion of natural gas and its C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} components to produce alcohol-rich liquid oxygenates for use as alternative transportation fuels/environmentally superior reformulated gasolines. The proposed mechanism for oxidation activity of cytochrome P-450 and methane monoxygenase suggested that a catalyst able to reductively bind oxygen, not between Fe(III) center and a proton, but between two Fe(III) centers, might give the desired dioxygenase activity for alkane hydroxylation. Selective oxidation of light alkanes could be done by oxidation-active metal (Fe) centers in electron-deficient prophyrin-like macrocycles, polyoxoanions, and zeolites. In the isobutane conversion to tert-butanol proof-of-concept, it was found that nitro groups on the periphery of Fe porphyrin complexes give the greatest increase in Fe(III)/(II) reduction potential. 8 figs, 6 tabs, 40 refs.

Lyons, J.E.; Hancock, A.W. II

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

307

Short and long-term tests of elastomers with hot hostile fluids. Environmental Compatibility Test Program final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Equipment manufacturers and elastomer houses were called to find the best currently available high-temperature elastomers. Tensile specimens of 46 such compounds were immersion tested for five days in six 190C fluids of interest: isobutane, brine, ASTM No. 1 oil, ASTM No. 3 oil, Pacer DHT-185M synthetic oil, and Chevron Cylinder Grade 460X oil. The best eight were selected based upon the least change in mechanical properties. These eight were then simultaneously tested (a) by immersion in five 190C fluids for six months and (b) as 0-rings for 46 hours at 190C, 230C, and 265C (accelerated ageing) in three fluids and at a differential pressure of 21 MPa. Based upon these 0-ring tests, four compounds were selected for testing as 0-rings in three 204C fluids at 21 MPa differential pressure. The data were evaluated and conclusions were drawn. Conclusions and recommendations are provided. There was immersion testing of primarily L'Garde compounds in brine and CL3 mineral oil for 6 months at 190C. L'Garde had formulated several compounds specifically for 260C brine, and their applicability to a specific problem was assessed early in the program.

Friese, G.J.

1982-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

308

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes, Phase 3. Topical report, January 1990--December 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in the first simple, economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to an alcohol-rich oxygenated product which can either be used as an environmentally friendly, high-performance liquid fuel, or a precursor to a liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuel. The authors have entered the proof-of-concept stage for converting isobutane to tert butyl alcohol in a practical process and are preparing to enter proof-of-concept of a propane to isopropyl alcohol process in the near future. Methane and ethane are more refractory and thus more difficult to oxidize than the C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} hydrocarbons. Nonetheless, advances made in this area indicate that further research progress could achieve the goal of their direct conversion to alcohols. Progress in Phase 3 catalytic vapor phase methane and ethane oxidation over metals in regular oxidic lattices are the subject of this topical report.

NONE

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

309

Biogenic and biomass burning sources of acetone to the troposphere  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Acetone may be an important source of reactive odd hydrogen in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. This source of odd hydrogen may affect the concentration of a number of species, including ozone, nitrogen oxides, methane, and others. Traditional, acetone had been considered a by-product of the photochemical oxidation of other species, and had not entered models as a primary emission. However, recent work estimates a global source term of 40-60 Tg acetone/year. Of this, 25% is directly emitted during biomass burning, and 20% is directly emitted by evergreens and other plants. Only 3% is due to anthropogenic/industrial emissions. The bulk of the remainder, 51% of the acetone source, is a secondary product from the oxidation of propane, isobutane, and isobutene. Also, while it is speculated that the oxidation of pinene (a biogenic emission) may also contribute about 6 Tg/year, this term is highly uncertain. Thus, the two largest primary sources of acetone are biogenic emission and biomass burning, with industrial/anthropogenic emissions very small in comparison.

Atherton, C.S.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. Eleventh quarterly report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The new catalyst Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia is remarkably active for the low-temperature (even room temperature) isomerization of n-butane to give isobutane in the near absence of side products. Thus this catalyst offers excellent potential for practical application in this process. The catalyst is so active that it even converts smaller alkanes, including propane and ethane. The ethane conversion is orders of magnitude slower than the butane conversion, and the prospects for practical application with ethane are apparently negligible. However, the results for ethane conversion provide strong evidence that the alkane conversions proceed (at least under some conditions) by protonation of the alkane with the catalyst; thus the catalyst is comparable to superacids, and the chemistry is analogous to that occurring in superacid solutions. This insight will be useful in further improvement of the catalyst and the potential process for butane isomerization. The catalyst is active for alkane cracking at temperatures of typically 200-300{degrees}C, and evidence, summarized here, indicates that numerous reactions of alkanes begin as the catalyst protonates the alkane reactant. The kinetics data for this family of reactions fall on a linear compensation effect plot; such data for reactions that do not proceed via such a mechanism do not fall near the line representing the compensation effect. Thus the analysis of the kinetics data provides a good diagnostic tool for understanding the fundamental chemistry of the acid-catalyzed hydrocarbon conversions.

Gates, B.C. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

311

Resource utilization efficiency improvement of geothermal binary cycles, phase I. Semiannual progress report, June 15, 1975--December 15, 1975  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A summary of the research carried out prior to the start and during the first half of this project is presented. A description of the geothermal binary cycle and procedures for cycle thermodynamic analysis focusing on the question of resource utilization are discussed. General and specific criteria for preliminary selection of working fluids and operating conditions for binary cycles are considered in terms of equipment and working fluid costs and in terms of resource utilization efficiency. Steps are given for preliminary binary cycle design computations. Preliminary evaluations of alternative pure working fluid, ideal thermodynamic cycles are illustrated. The development of the working fluid mixture thermodynamic cycle, GEO 1, using the improved versions of previously developed thermodynamic properties routines was the first of several significant accomplishments during the first half of this project. Documentation of the thermodynamic properties program which can calculate densities, enthalpies, entropies, heat capacities, K-values for vapor and liquid mixtures (limited presently to hydrocarbons), flashes, dew and bubble points, isentropic and isenthalpic state changes, has been completed. Preliminary calculations using GEO 1 have indicated that mixture cycles yield greater net power output than either pure propane, isobutane, or isopentane cycles when equal heat exchanger log mean temperature differences are considered and also when optimized ideal cycles are compared. Steps to upgrade GEO 1 with equipment sizing and economics routines to produce GEO 2 and GEO 3 simulators were begun.

Starling, K.E.; Fish, L.W.; Iqbal, K.Z.; Yieh, D.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Alkylate  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Day) Day) Product: Alkylate Aromatics Asphalt & Road Oil Isomers Isobutane Isopentane & Isohexane Isooctane Lubricants Marketable Petroleum Coke Hydrogen Sulfur Period: Annual (as of January 1) Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 View History U.S. 1,260,985 1,260,923 1,248,514 1,262,443 1,246,875 1,269,361 1982-2013 PAD District 1 110,229 110,229 95,500 108,629 79,429 91,429 1982-2013 Delaware 11,729 11,729 0 11,729 11,729 11,729 1982-2013 Florida 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2013 Georgia 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2013 Maryland 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2013 New Jersey 40,200 40,200 36,200 37,200 37,200 37,200 1982-2013

313

Phase selectively soluble polymers for homogeneously supported catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soluble polymer supports that could be used in thermomorphic and latent biphasic systems have been prepared and analyzed for their potential application as supports for facilitated synthesis and catalysis. Phase selective solubilities were evaluated using polymers tagged with either visible dyes or fluorescent probes. Heptane/DMF, heptane/90% ethanol-water, heptane/ethyl acetate, heptane/ ethanol and heptane/tert-butanol solvent mixtures were all studied as examples of thermomorphic or latent biphasic systems. A range of polymers, including poly-(tert-butylstyrene) (PTBS), poly(alkylsiloxanes) (PAS), poly(dodecylvinylpyrrolidone) (PDVP), poly(didodecylvinylpyrrolidone (PDDVP), poly(isobutylene) (PIB), poly(octadecyl acrylate)s (PODA), and poly(octadecyl methacrylate)s (PODMA), were tested for hydrophobic phase selective solubility. The results of these studies were compared to prior work with polar and nonpolar poly(N-alkylacrylamide)s and polystyrene. Together with this prior work, these results have indicated that a wide range of polymers and solvent mixtures can be used for the recycling of soluble polymer-bound catalysts, reagents and sequestrants using either thermomorphic or latent biphasic separation strategies.Synthetic routes to terminally functionalized polyisobutylene oligomers, useful as supports in synthesis and catalysis, are also discussed and described. Such hydrocarbon polymers serve as highly soluble nonpolar analogs of well known poly(ethylene glycol) supports for synthesis and catalysis with the difference that the polymers are separated after a reaction by an extraction with alkane solvent. The synthesis of two polyisobutylene-supported phase transfer catalysts (PTC) are also described. These PTCs utilize the robust triazole functionality as a key synthetic step towards the preparation of the catalytic species. N alkylation of a PIB-supported triazole provides a direct route to the preparation of a PTC. Preparation of a tertiary phosphoninium salt containing a terminal alkyne allows simple attachment of the PTC to a PIB-supported azide via a triazole linker using Sharpless' Cu (I) [3 + 2] cycloaddition. These materials are active in catalyzing solid-liquid PTC and can be easily recycled by liquid-liquid extraction techniques.

Sung, Shayna D

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Conductive porous scaffolds as potential neural interface materials.  

SciTech Connect

Our overall intent is to develop improved prosthetic devices with the use of nerve interfaces through which transected nerves may grow, such that small groups of nerve fibers come into close contact with electrode sites, each of which is connected to electronics external to the interface. These interfaces must be physically structured to allow nerve fibers to grow through them, either by being porous or by including specific channels for the axons. They must be mechanically compatible with nerves such that they promote growth and do not harm the nervous system, and biocompatible to promote nerve fiber growth and to allow close integration with biological tissue. They must exhibit selective and structured conductivity to allow the connection of electrode sites with external circuitry, and electrical properties must be tuned to enable the transmission of neural signals. Finally, the interfaces must be capable of being physically connected to external circuitry, e.g. through attached wires. We have utilized electrospinning as a tool to create conductive, porous networks of non-woven biocompatible fibers in order to meet the materials requirements for the neural interface. The biocompatible fibers were based on the known biocompatible material poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) as well as a newer biomaterial developed in our laboratories, poly(butylene fumarate) (PBF). Both of the polymers cannot be electrospun using conventional electrospinning techniques due to their low glass transition temperatures, so in situ crosslinking methodologies were developed to facilitate micro- and nano-fiber formation during electrospinning. The conductivity of the electrospun fiber mats was controlled by controlling the loading with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Fabrication, electrical and materials characterization will be discussed along with initial in vivo experimental results.

Hedberg-Dirk, Elizabeth L.; Cicotte, Kirsten N.; Buerger, Stephen P.; Reece, Gregory; Dirk, Shawn M.; Lin, Patrick P.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

926,785 32,969 2,665,992 1,875,331 -1,415,011 111,431 45,954 926,785 32,969 2,665,992 1,875,331 -1,415,011 111,431 45,954 2,448,351 861,579 1,841,613 1,178,473 Crude Oil 1,386,449 - - - - 1,630,908 -244,084 67,355 8,560 2,830,779 1,288 0 861,333 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 540,336 -180 150,143 11,694 101,692 - - 29,480 109,476 61,693 603,036 96,994 Pentanes Plus 66,222 -180 - - 10,282 -16,515 - - -3,264 42,493 1,105 19,475 5,765 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 474,114 - - 150,143 1,412 118,207 - - 32,744 66,983 60,588 583,561 91,229 Ethane/Ethylene 233,470 - - 6,504 - 100,649 - - 13,226 - - 327,397 31,406 Propane/Propylene 153,496 - - 129,707 174 10,289 - - 14,578 - 56,954 222,134 38,509 Normal Butane/Butylene 28,426 - - 12,412 1,208 5,090 - - 3,798 26,775 3,633 12,930

316

Cyclization Phenomena in the Sol-Gel Polymerization of a,w-Bis(triethoxysilyl)alkanes and Incorporation of the Cyclic Structures into Network Silsesquioxane Polymers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intramolecular cyclizations during acid-catalyzed, sol-gel polymerizations of ct,co- bis(tietioxysilyl)aWmes substintidly lengtien gelties formonomers witietiylene- (l), propylene- (2), and butylene-(3)-bridging groups. These cyclizations reactions were found, using mass spectrometry and %i NMR spectroscopy, to lead preferentially to monomeric and dimeric products based on six and seven membered disilsesquioxane rings. 1,2- Bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (1) reacts under acidic conditions to give a bicyclic drier (5) that is composed of two annelated seven membered rings. Under the same conditions, 1,3- bis(triethoxysilyl)propane (2), 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)butane (3), and z-1,4- bis(triethoxysilyl)but-2-ene (10) undergo an intramolecular condensation reaction to give the six membemd and seven membered cyclic disilsesquioxanes 6, 7, and 11. Subsequently, these cyclic monomers slowly react to form the tricyclic dirners 8,9 and 12. With NaOH as polymerization catalyst these cyclic silsesquioxanes readily ~aeted to afford gels that were shown by CP MAS z%i NMR and infr=d spectroscopes to retain some cyclic structures. Comparison of the porosity and microstructwe of xerogels prepared from the cyclic monomers 6 and 7 with gels prepared directly from their acyclic precursors 2 and 3, indicate that the final pore structure of the xerogels is markedly dependent on the nature of the precursor. In addition, despite the fact that the monomeric cyclic disilsesquioxane species can not be isolated from 1-3 under basic conditions due to their rapid rate of gelation, spectroscopic techniques also detected the presence of the cyclic structures in the resulting polymeric gels.

Alam, T.M.; Carpenter, J.P.; Dorhout, P.K.; Greaves, J.; Loy, D.A.; Shaltout, R.; Shea, K.J.; Small, J.H.

1999-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

317

U.S. Refinery Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total 320,455 348,984 346,918 365,525 358,673 335,185 2005-2013 Crude Oil 445,937 474,296 474,991 497,241 489,887 468,825 2005-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids 11,914 11,407 12,393 13,031 13,377 15,397 2005-2013 Pentanes Plus 4,688 4,040 4,439 4,667 5,044 5,273 2005-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 7,226 7,367 7,954 8,364 8,333 10,124 2005-2013 Normal Butane 2,038 1,829 1,935 1,885 1,987 3,707 2005-2013 Isobutane 5,188 5,538 6,019 6,479 6,346 6,417 2005-2013 Other Liquids -137,396 -136,719 -140,466 -144,747 -144,591 -149,037 2005-2013 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons 7,511 8,089 7,844 8,541 8,568 8,086 2005-2013 Hydrogen 5,792 6,200 6,050 6,477 6,520 6,226 2009-2013

318

Economics of a conceptual 75 MW Hot Dry Rock geothermal electric power station  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Man-made, Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal energy reservoirs have been investigated for over ten years. As early as 1977 a research-sized reservoir was created at a depth of 2.9 km near the Valles Caldera, a dormant volcanic complex in New Mexico, by connecting two wells with hydraulic fractures. Thermal power was generated at rates of up to 5 MW(t) and the reservoir was operated for nearly a year with a thermal drawdown less than 10/sup 0/C. A small 60kW(e) electrical generation unit using a binary cycle (hot geothermal water and a low boiling point organic fluid, R-114) was operated. Interest is now worldwide with field research being conducted at sites near Le Mayet de Montagne, France; Falkenberg and Urach, Federal Republic of Germany; Yakedake, Japan; and Rosemanowes quarry in Cornwall, United Kingdom. To assess the commercial viability of future HDR electrical generating stations, an economic modeling study was conducted for a conceptual 75 MW(e) generating station operating at conditions similar to those prevailing at the New Mexico HDR site. The reservoir required for 75 MW(e), equivalent to 550 MW of thermal energy, uses at least 9 wells drilled to 4.3 km and the temperature of the water produced should average 230/sup 0/C. Thermodynamic considerations indicate that a binary cycle should result in optimum electricity generation and the best organic fluids are refrigerants R-22, R-32, R-115 or R-600a (Isobutane). The break-even bus bar cost of HDR electricity was computed by the levelized life-cycle method, and found to be competitive with most alternative electric power stations in the US.

Murphy, H.D.; Drake, R.H.; Tester, J.W.; Zyvoloski, G.A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

The Anderson Quin Cycle. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to make a more refined evaluation of the Anderson Quin Cycle based on most recent information on the performance of various elements that will be used in the Anderson Quin Cycle. My original estimate of the work plan for evaluating and optimizing the Anderson Quin Cycle called for 7000 man hours of work. Since this grant was limited to 2150 man hours, we could not expect to achieve all the objectives within the allotted period of work. However, the most relevant program objectives have been completed as reported here. The analysis generally confirms the results originally estimated in my paper on the subject. (Ref. 2) Further optimizations should show even higher efficiencies. The Anderson Quin Cycle (US Patent applied for) basically consists of 5 elements in the power cycle: A refrigeration system to cool and clean the inlet air before it enters the compressor that supplies air for the gas turbine; a gas turbine consisting of a compressor, combustor, and turbine; a steam boiler and steam turbine system using the heat from the exhaust gas out of the gas turbine; a vapor turbine cycle, which utilizes the condensed heat from the exhaust of the steam turbine and the exhaust gas heat leaving the steam boiler to operate a vapor turbine cycle which utilizes another fluid than water, in this case isobutane; and the fifth element consists of a gas cooler and heat pump system, which removes the heat from the exhaust gas to lower its temperature essentially to atmospheric temperature, and at the same time permits treatment of the exhaust gas to remove acid components such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Current industry accepted component characteristics were incorporated in the performance analysis of the overall cycle, ensuring accurate and meaningful operating predictions. The characteristics and performance of each of the elements are described. The thermal efficiency of the optimized calculated Anderson Quin Cycle is 62 percent.

Anderson, J.H.; Bilbow, W.M.

1993-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

320

The Anderson Quin Cycle  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to make a more refined evaluation of the Anderson Quin Cycle based on most recent information on the performance of various elements that will be used in the Anderson Quin Cycle. My original estimate of the work plan for evaluating and optimizing the Anderson Quin Cycle called for 7000 man hours of work. Since this grant was limited to 2150 man hours, we could not expect to achieve all the objectives within the allotted period of work. However, the most relevant program objectives have been completed as reported here. The analysis generally confirms the results originally estimated in my paper on the subject. (Ref. 2) Further optimizations should show even higher efficiencies. The Anderson Quin Cycle (US Patent applied for) basically consists of 5 elements in the power cycle: A refrigeration system to cool and clean the inlet air before it enters the compressor that supplies air for the gas turbine; a gas turbine consisting of a compressor, combustor, and turbine; a steam boiler and steam turbine system using the heat from the exhaust gas out of the gas turbine; a vapor turbine cycle, which utilizes the condensed heat from the exhaust of the steam turbine and the exhaust gas heat leaving the steam boiler to operate a vapor turbine cycle which utilizes another fluid than water, in this case isobutane; and the fifth element consists of a gas cooler and heat pump system, which removes the heat from the exhaust gas to lower its temperature essentially to atmospheric temperature, and at the same time permits treatment of the exhaust gas to remove acid components such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Current industry accepted component characteristics were incorporated in the performance analysis of the overall cycle, ensuring accurate and meaningful operating predictions. The characteristics and performance of each of the elements are described. The thermal efficiency of the optimized calculated Anderson Quin Cycle is 62 percent.

Anderson, J.H.; Bilbow, W.M.

1993-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

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321

Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. Final report, August 26, 1993--August 26, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Motivated by the goal of finding improved catalysts for low- temperature conversion of light alkanes into fuel components or precursors of fuel components, the researchers have investigated sulfated zirconia and promoted sulfated zirconia for conversion of butane, propane, and ethane. Catalyst performance data for sulfated zirconia promoted with iron and manganese show that it is the most active noncorrosive, nonhalide catalyst known for n-butane isomerization, and it is an excellent candidate catalyst for new low- temperature n-butane isomerization processes to make isobutane, which can be converted by established technology into methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). Various transition metals have been found to work as promoters of sulfated zirconia for n-butane isomerization. The combination of iron and manganese is the best known combination of promoters yet discovered. The iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia is also a catalyst for conversion of propane and of ethane. Ethane is converted into ethylene and butanes in the presence of the iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia; propane is also converted into butane, among other products. However, the activities of the catalyst for these reactions are orders of magnitude less than the activity for n-butane conversion, and there is no evidence that the catalyst would be of practical value for conversion of alkanes lighter than butane. The product distribution data for ethane and propane conversion provide new insights into the nature of the catalyst and its acidity. These data suggest the involvement of Olah superacid chemistry, whereby the catalyst protonates the alkane itself, giving carbonium ions (as transition states). The mechanism of protonation of the alkane may also pertain to the conversion of butane, but there is good evidence that the butane conversion also proceeds via alkene intermediates by conventional mechanisms of carbenium ion formation and rearrangement.

Gates, B.C.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

322

Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine cycle. Results of this study indicate that dual flash type plants are preferred at resources with temperatures above 400 F. Closed loop (binary type) plants are preferred at resources with temperatures below 400 F. A rotary separator turbine upstream of a dual flash plant can be beneficial at Salton Sea, the hottest resource, or at high temperature resources where there is a significant variance in wellhead pressures from well to well. Full scale demonstration is required to verify cost and performance. Hot water turbines that recover energy from the spent brine in a dual flash cycle improve that cycle's brine efficiency. Prototype field tests of this technology have established its technical feasibility. If natural gas prices remain low, a combustion turbine/binary hybrid is an economic option for the lowest temperature sites. The use of mixed fluids appear to be an attractive low risk option. The synchronous turbine option as prepared by Barber-Nichols is attractive but requires a pilot test to prove cost and performance. Dual flash binary bottoming cycles appear promising provided that scaling of the brine/working fluid exchangers is controllable. Metastable expansion, reheater, Subatmospheric flash, dual flash backpressure turbine, and hot dry rock concepts do not seem to offer any cost advantage over the baseline technologies. If implemented, the next generation geothermal power plant concept may improve brine utilization but is unlikely to reduce the cost of power generation by much more than 10%. Colder resources will benefit more from the development of a next generation geothermal power plant than will hotter resources. All values presented in this study for plant cost and for busbar cost of power are relative numbers intended to allow an objective and meaningful comparison of technologies. The goal of this study is to assess various technologies on an common basis and, secondarily, to give an approximate idea of the current costs of the technologies at actual resource sites. Absolute costs at a given site will be determined by the specifics of a giv

Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine cycle. Results of this study indicate that dual flash type plants are preferred at resources with temperatures above 400 F. Closed loop (binary type) plants are preferred at resources with temperatures below 400 F. A rotary separator turbine upstream of a dual flash plant can be beneficial at Salton Sea, the hottest resource, or at high temperature resources where there is a significant variance in wellhead pressures from well to well. Full scale demonstration is required to verify cost and performance. Hot water turbines that recover energy from the spent brine in a dual flash cycle improve that cycle's brine efficiency. Prototype field tests of this technology have established its technical feasibility. If natural gas prices remain low, a combustion turbine/binary hybrid is an economic option for the lowest temperature sites. The use of mixed fluids appear to be an attractive low risk option. The synchronous turbine option as prepared by Barber-Nichols is attractive but requires a pilot test to prove cost and performance. Dual flash binary bottoming cycles appear promising provided that scaling of the brine/working fluid exchangers is controllable. Metastable expansion, reheater, Subatmospheric flash, dual flash backpressure turbine, and hot dry rock concepts do not seem to offer any cost advantage over the baseline technologies. If implemented, the next generation geothermal power plant concept may improve brine utilization but is unlikely to reduce the cost of power generation by much more than 10%. Colder resources will benefit more from the development of a next generation geothermal power plant than will hotter resources. All values presented in this study for plant cost and for busbar cost of power are relative numbers intended to allow an objective and meaningful comparison of technologies. The goal of this study is to assess various technologies on an common basis and, secondarily, to give an approximate idea of the current costs of the technologies at actual resource sites. Absolute costs at a given site will be determined by the specifics of a given pr

Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z