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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE SURVEYS By Michael J. Moran, Rick M. Clawges, and John S. Zogorski U.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline

2

Induction of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE)-Oxidizing Activity in Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 by MTBE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...directly from the culture vessels. In experiments that followed...time course of organic acid consumption as well as MTBE oxidation...determine the extent of MTBE consumption and the accumulation of TBA...detectable growth or MTBE consumption occurred when cells were incubated...

Erika L. Johnson; Christy A. Smith; Kirk T. O'Reilly; Michael R. Hyman

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

4

Environmental Microbiology (2001) 3(6), 407416 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation by a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tank (LUFT) remediation programme. A recent USGS study has estimated that as many as 9000 community, remediation actions are implemented at costs usually 10± 30% higher than those at sites without MTBE contamina- tion. The evaluation of innovative and cost-effective treatment such as bioremediation for MTBE spills

5

State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-butyl ether (ETBE) for gasoline blending as a replacement for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) because and be blended with ETBE in the gasoline pool. Even for neat operation, if the conversion is low, the unconverted

Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

7

Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project title: Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production oftert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as ainvestigate the effect of ethanol release on existing MTBE

Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Effects of Gasoline Formulation on Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) Contamination in Private Wells near Gasoline Stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New York State Department of Health, Bureau of Environmental Exposure Investigation, 547 River Street, Room 300, Troy, New York 12180, and New York State Department of Health, Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, P.O. ... Wells with contamination of ?20 ?g/L were scheduled for periodic or follow-up sampling by local county health departments or scheduled for remedial action, as appropriate. ... (13)?Delzer, G. C.; Zogorski, J. S.; Lopes, T. J.; Bosshart, R. L. Occurrence of the gasoline Oxygenate MTBE and BTEX compounds in urban stormwater in the United States, 1991?1995; U.S. Geologic Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report, WRIR 96-4145, Rapid City, SD, 1996. ...

Daniel P. Lince; Lloyd R. Wilson; Gordon A. Carlson; Anthony Bucciferro

2001-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

9

MTBE Production Economics (Released in the STEO April 2001)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the causes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) price increases in 2000.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

MTBE Production Economics  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MTBE Production MTBE Production Economics Tancred C. M. Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Production Costs 3. Relationship between price of MTBE and Reformulated Gasoline 4. Influence of Natural Gas Prices on the Gasoline Market 5. Regression Results 6. Data Sources 7. End Notes 1. Summary Last year the price of MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) increased dramatically on two occasions (Figure 1) (see Data Sources at end of article.): 1. Between April and June 2000, the price (U.S. Gulf Coast waterborne market) of MTBE rose from $1.00 per gallon to over $1.60 per gallon. This represented an increase in the price premium for MTBE over the wholesale price of conventional gasoline from its normal (1995 though 2000 average) $0.26 per gallon to $0.60 per gallon. The MTBE

11

Role of Volatilization in Changing TBA and MTBE Concentrations at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a low affinity for gasoline (low Kfw, Table 1). Therefore, minute amounts of TBA in the MTBE blended tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) added to gasoline. Frequent observations of high TBA, and especially rising TBA/MTBE concentration ratios, in groundwater at gasoline spill sites are generally attributed to microbial conversion

12

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MTBE, Oxygenates, and MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an

13

Drinking Water Problems: MTBE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether, a gasoline additive commonly known as MTBE, can contaminate ground water and cause health problems for those exposed to it for a long time. However, filtering devices can remove this and other additives from well water...

Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

14

UMass builds bugs to eat MTBE ByAuriaCimino  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a toxic gasoline component might be just what the doctor ordered for Maine's con- taminated groundwater with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), which is found in gasoline. Once the first field trial is complete out of the reformulated gasoline pro- gram (RFG) .The gasoline, which con- tains 11 percent MTBE

Lovley, Derek

15

Status and Impact of State MTBE Bans  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Status and Impact of State MTBE Bans Status and Impact of State MTBE Bans Background As a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90), the year-round use of reformulated gasoline (RFG) has been required in cities with the worst smog problems since 1995 (Figure 1). One of the requirements of RFG specified by CAAA90 is a 2- percent oxygen requirement, which is met by blending "oxygenates," 1 including methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol, into the gasoline. MTBE is the oxygenate used in almost all RFG outside of the Midwest. Ethanol is currently used in the Midwest as an oxygenate in RFG and as an octane booster and volume extender in conventional gasoline. Several years ago, MTBE was detected in water supplies scattered throughout the country, but predominantly in areas using RFG. MTBE from RFG was apparently

16

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Motor Gasoline Outlook Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans Tancred Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Supply and Demand 3. Ethanol Supply 4. Gasoline Supply 5. Gasoline Prices A. Long-Term Equilibrium Price Analysis B. Short-Term Price Volatility 6. Conclusion 7. Appendix A. Estimating MTBE Consumption by State 8. Appendix B. MTBE Imports and Exports 9. Appendix C. Glossary of Terms 10. End Notes 11. References 1. Summary The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending State bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year. Three impending State bans on MTBE blending could significantly affect gasoline

17

Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

02/22/2006 02/22/2006 Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006 Summary In 2005, a number of petroleum companies announced their intent to remove methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) from their gasoline in 2006. Companies' decisions to eliminate MTBE have been driven by State bans due to water contamination concerns, continuing liability exposure from adding MTBE to gasoline, and perceived potential for increased liability exposure due to the elimination of the oxygen content requirement for reformulated gasoline (RFG) included in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. EIA's informal discussions with a number of suppliers indicate that most of the industry is trying to move away from MTBE before the 2006 summer driving season. Currently, the largest use of MTBE is in RFG consumed on the East Coast outside of

18

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Atmospheric chemistry of diethyl ether and ethyl tert-butyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanisms for the Cl-initiated and OH-initiated atmospheric oxidation of diethyl ether and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) have been determined. For diethyl ether the products are ethyl formate and formaldehyde and its atmospheric oxidation can be represented by C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OC{sub 2}H{sub 5} + OH + 2NO {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OC(O)H + HCHO + 2NO{sub 2} + HO{sub 2}. The mechanism for the atmospheric oxidation of ETBE is more complex, with 80% of the reaction being accounted for in terms of tert-butyl formate and formaldehyde. The remaining 20% the authors ascribe to 2-ethoxy-2-methylpropanal. The atmospheric oxidation of ETBE can be represented by ETBE + OH + 1.8NO {yields} 0.8HCOOC(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} + 0.2C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OC(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHO + HO{sub 2} + 0.8HCHO + 1.8NO{sub 2}. THe subsequent atmospheric chemistry of 2-ethoxy-2-methylpropanal the authors estimate to be represented by C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OC(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHO + OH + 3NO {yields} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}CO + C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OC(O)CH{sub 3} + HO{sub 2} + 3NO{sub 2}. These results are discussed in terms of the reactivity of these compounds in urban atmospheres.

Wallington, T.J.; Japar, S.M. (Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (USA))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Separation of methyl t-butyl ether from close boiling C[sub 5] hydrocarbons by extractive distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for recovering methyl t-butyl ether from a mixture of methyl t-butyl ether and 1-pentene which comprises distilling a mixture of methyl t-butyl ether and 1-pentene in the presence of about one part of an extractive agent per part of methyl t-butyl ether -- 1-pentene mixture, recovering the 1-pentene as overhead product and obtaining the methyl t-butyl ether and the extractive agent from the still pot, wherein said extractive agent consists of one material selected from the group consisting of sulfolane, nitroethane, t-butanol, ethylene glycol diacetate, 1-methoxy-2-propanol acetate, methyl isoamyl ketone, ethylene glycol methyl ether, propylene glycol phenyl ether and diethyl malonate.

Berg, L.

1993-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

22

Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sato, and N. Kato. 2003. Propane monooxygenase and NAD + -alcohol dehydrogenase in propane metabolism by Gordonia sp.tert-butyl ether by propane-grown Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Dynamic Simulation of Startup in Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation with Input Multiplicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dynamic Simulation of Startup in Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation with Input Multiplicity ... However, smaller internal rates inside the column that result from lower reboiler and condenser duty could increase the potential risk of flooding in the column and reduce the availability of reactants in the reactive section. ... Column simulations performed using both Pro/II and SpeedUp showed excellent agreement with previously published exptl. ...

Budi H. Bisowarno; Moses O. Tadé

2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

24

Production of methyl tert-alkyl ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transition to the use of unleaded gasolines has required the replacement of tetraethyl lead by oxygen-containing compounds such as methanol, ethanol, and ethers, which are termed {open_quotes}oxygenates{close_quotes} in the technical literature. These may be used in commercial gasolines in amounts of 10-15% by volume, equivalent to 2% oxygen by weight. When methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is used, the oxygen content may amount to 2.7% by weight. This oxygenate gives a significant improvement of knock resistance of naphtha fractions, the greatest effects being observed for straight-run naphthas and reformer naphthas produced under normal conditions; the MTBE also improves the engine power and economy characteristics and lowers the carbon monoxide content in the exhaust by 15-30% and the hydrocarbon content by 7-8%. This paper describes methods for the production of MTBE and also methyl tert-alkyl ethers.

Trofimov, V.A.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Detection and Quantification of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Strain PM1 by Real-Time TaqMan PCR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...purification Fresh Water microbiology Geologic...Polymerase metabolism Water Pollution, Chemical...bioremediation detection ethers ground water hydrocarbons methyl tert-butyl...pollutants pollution remediation sampling water resources...

Krassimira R. Hristova; Christian M. Lutenegger; Kate M. Scow

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

energy savings by the use of mtbe to replace alkylate in automotive gasolines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents data on the differences in energy consumption in the production of leaded and unleaded AI-93 gasolines with various blend components. The authors investigate as high-octane components certain products that are more effective in use and less energy-consuming in production in comparison with alkylate. In particular, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is discussed; it is not poisonous, it has a high heat of combustion, and it does not attack materials of construction. The addition of 11% MTBE to gasoline lowers the cold start temperature of engines by 10-12 degrees. Moreover, no adjustment of the carburetor is required for the changeover to gasoline with 11% MTBE.

Englin, B.A.; Emel'yanov, V.E.; Terent'ev, G.A.; Vinogradov, A.M.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

because of its low cost and blending characteristics. Depending on the season, reformulated gasoline of reactor per hour, a value comparable to other gasoline constituents. Such high performance could enhancer in gasoline. The use of MTBE increased rapidly after the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required

28

Use of ethers as high-octane components of gasolines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article reports on a study of the possible utilization of methyl tert-amyl ether (MTAE) as an automotive gasoline component, both by itself and in combination with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). The naphtha used in these studies consisted of 80% reformer naphtha produced under severe conditions and 20% straight-run IBP-62/sup 0/C cut. The physicochemical properties of the MTAE, the MTBE, and the naphtha base stock are given. It is determined that MTAE, which has a slightly poorer knock resistance than MTBE, is fully equal to MTBE in all other respects and can be used as an automotive gasoline component; that a gasoline blend prepared from 89% naphtha base stock, 5.5% MTAE, and 5.5% MTBE meets all of the requirements of the standard GOST 2084-77 for Grade AI-93 gasoline; and that the use of MTAE offers a means for expanding the resources of high-octane components, lowering the toxicity of the gasolines and the exhaust gas (in comparison with organometallic antiknock agents), and bringing non-petroleum raw materials into the fuel production picture.

Gureev, A.A.; Baranova, G.N.; Korotkov, I.V.; Levinson, G.I.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE By Michael J. Moran, Mike J. Halde, Rick M. Clawges and John S. Zogorski U in the United States as an octane enhancer and oxygenate in gasoline. Octane enhancement began in the late 1970's with the phase-out of tetraethyl lead from gasoline. The use of oxygenates was expanded

30

High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Final technical report, September 25, 1990--December 24, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the research was to develop the methodology for the catalytic synthesis of ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers. The last stage of the synthesis involves direct coupling of synthesis gas-derived methanol and isobutanol that has been previously demonstrated by us to occur over superacid catalysts to yield MIBE and smaller amounts of MTBE at moderate pressures and a mixture of methanol and isobutene at low pressures. A wide range of organic resin catalysts and inorganic oxide and zeolite catalysts have been investigated for activity and selectivity in directly coupling alcohols, principally methanol and isobutanol, to form ethers and in the dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene in the presence of methanol. All of these catalysts are strong acids, and it was found that the organic and inorganic catalysts operate in different, but overlapping, temperature ranges, i.e. mainly 60--120{degrees}C for the organic resins and 90--175{degrees}C for the inorganic catalysts. For both types of catalysts, the presence of strong acid centers is required for catalytic activity, as was demonstrated by lack of activity of fully K{sup +} ion exchanged Nafion resin and zirconia prior to being sulfated by treatment with sulfuric acid.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Microsoft Word - LBNL 53866_SPME-MTBE_Final_112103.doc  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

There are numerous sources of MTBE contamination including leaking underground storage tanks, surface runoff, and precipitation (1-4). In California, MTBE contamination of...

32

MTBE Prices Responded to Natural Gas Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: On top of the usual factors impacting gasoline prices, natural gas has had some influence recently. MTBE is an oxygenate used in most of the RFG consumed in the U.S. Generally, it follows gasoline prices and its own supply/demand balance factors. But this winter, we saw it respond strongly to natural gas prices. MTBE is made from methanol and isobutylene, which in turn come from methane and butane. Both methane and butane come from natural gas streams. Until this year, the price of natural gas has been so low that it had little effect. But the surge that occurred in December and January pulled MTBE up . Keep in mind that about 11% MTBE is used in a gallon of RFG, so a 30 cent increase in MTBE is only about a 3 cent increase in the price of RFG. While we look ahead at this summer, natural gas prices should be

33

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydride-vinyl methyl ether Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4-Methyl-2-pentanol Other secondary alcohols... - quire handling with precautions. Acrolein tert-Butyl methyl ether Di(1-propynl) ether n... Methoxy-1,3,5,7- cyclooctatetraene...

34

Remedial Costs for MTBE in Soil and Ground Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The contamination of MTBE in ground water has introduced concerns about the increased cost of remediating MTBE/BTEX releases compared to remediating sites with BTEX only contamination. In an attempt to evaluat...

Barbara H. Wilson; John T. Wilson Ph.D.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results shown in Figures 10 and 11 demonstrate that the formation of butenes was very sensitive to the alcohol partial pressure. A small elevation of the alcohol pressure suppressed the formation of butenes rather drastically at both 90 and 117{degree}C. The synthesis rates of DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers were not significantly affected at 90{degree}C, although there was a trend to increase the space time yield of DME as the alcohol pressure was increased. At the reaction temperature of 117{degree}C, all of the ethers showed increasing productivities as the pressure of the reactants was increased (Figure 11). An isotope labelling experiment was carried out to provide mechanistic insight into the manner in which methanol and isobutanol react together to form DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers and to determine if MTBE were derived from MIBE.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Menszak, J.; Johansson, M.A.; Feeley, O.C.; Kim, D.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Ditertiary butyl peroxide recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described wherein a feed material comprising significant amounts of tertiary butyl hydroperoxide and tertiary butyl alcohol and minor amounts of ditertiary butyl peroxide and other impurities is charged to a reactor together with propylene and a soluble epoxidation catalyst. At least a portion of the tertiary butyl hydroperoxide is reacted in the reactor with the propylene to form a reaction product composed of unreacted feed components, propylene oxide, an additional quantity of tertiary butyl alcohol, and impurities, including a minor amount of ditertiary butyl peroxide. The improvement for recovering substantially pure ditertiary butyl peroxide from the reaction product after the reaction product is discharged from the reactor comprises the steps of: charging the reaction product to a first distillation zone and separating therein a first unreacted propylene distillate recycle fraction, charging the remaining heavier components of the reaction product from the first distillation zone to a second distillation zone and separating a second propylene oxide distillate product fraction therein charging the heavier components from the second distillation zone to a third distillation zone and separating a third distillate fraction comprising a major amount of tertiary butyl alcohol and a minor amount of ditertiary butyl peroxide, and recovering the second propylene oxide distillate fraction, the heavier tertiary butyl alcohol product fraction and the ditertiary butyl peroxide raffinate fraction.

Sanderson, J.R.; Meyer, R.A.; Smith, W.A.; Marquis, E.T.

1989-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

37

Thermodynamic properties of organic oxygen compounds XLIII. Vapour pressures of some ethers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vapour pressures of methyl propyl, isopropyl methyl, butyl methyl, ethyl propyl, t-butyl methyl, dipropyl, di-isopropyl, di-t-butyl, and decyl methyl ethers were measured at pressures up to 205 kPa. The measured values were fitted by Antoine and by Chebyshev equations, values already published from this laboratory for three aromatic ethers were recomputed uniformly with the present results, and published values for four additional compounds were incorporated in a scheme for correlation of the vapour pressures of ethers. Estimates were made of the vapour pressures of 10 other ethers. Between 5 and 200 kPa the vapour pressures of ethers may be represented by a single equation in which carbon number or an effective carbon number is a parameter. Chebyshev equations are given for interpolation between the upper bounds of the measurements and the critical pressures of 11 ethers for which this property has been previously determined.

D Ambrose; J.H Ellender; C.H.S Sprake; R Townsend

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Water Research 37 (2003) 37563766 Seasonal and daily variations in concentrations of methyl-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by volume to gasoline from November to February, and blending 11% MTBE by volume during the rest of the year; accepted 24 March 2003 Abstract Methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), an additive used to oxygenate gasoline of gasoline-powered watercraft. This paper documents and explains both seasonal and daily variations in MTBE

Toran, Laura

39

APPENDXD.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Report The Form EIA-819, "Monthly Oxygenate Report" provides production data for fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). End-of-month stock data held at ethanol...

40

The feasibility of ethanol production in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agricultural interests across Texas are looking at the possibility of an ethanol industry in Texas. Continued conflict in the Middle East, the ban of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in California, and low commodity prices have all lead...

Herbst, Brian Keith

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerobic mtbe biodegradation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

27 ACCEPTED BY WATER ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH ODOR AND VOC REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT Summary: capable of MTBE biodegradation. 12;Effective treatment of a mixture...

42

Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 00(0):000000 (2001) 1064-3389/01/$.50  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-3389/01/$.50 © 2001 by CRC Press LLC The Transport and Fate of Ethanol and BTEX in Groundwater Contaminated by Gasohol water contamination by methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have made policymakers more cognizant of the need). It has been discovered that MTBE is a ubiquitous contaminant in surface and ground waters throughout

Alvarez, Pedro J.

43

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkyl-tert alkyl ethers Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

> >> 1 7198 J. Org. Chem. 1995,60, 7198-7208 Gas Phase Decomposition of Conjugate Acid Ions of Simple Summary: of ProtonatedAlkyl tert-ButylEthers RO(H)C(CH&+ (To.6 Values in meV...

44

Remediation of Releases Containing MTBE at Gasoline Station Sites—ENSR International’s Experience  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter summarizes ENSR’s national and international experience remediating MTBE and other gasoline constituents in soil and ground water at retail gasoline station sites. ENSR has extensive experience in...

Robert M. Cataldo P.G.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Preparations for Meeting New York and Connecticut MTBE Bans  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 Preparations for Meeting New York and Connecticut MTBE Bans October 2003 Office of Oil and Gas Energy Information Administration U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or of any other organization. Contacts and Acknowledgments This report was prepared by the Office of Oil and Gas of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) under the direction of John Cook, Director, Petroleum Division. Questions concerning the report may be directed to Joanne Shore (202/586-4677),

46

Automobile proximity and indoor residential concentrations of BTEX and MTBE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Attached garages have been identified as important sources of indoor residential air pollution. However, the literature lacks information on how the proximity of cars to the living area affects indoor concentrations of gasoline-related compounds, and the origin of these pollutants. We analyzed data from the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study and evaluated 114 residences with cars in an attached garage, detached garage or carport, or without cars. Results indicate that homes with cars in attached garages were affected the most. Concentrations in homes with cars in detached garages and residences without cars were similar. The contribution from gasoline-related sources to indoor benzene and MTBE concentrations appeared to be dominated by car exhaust, or a combination of tailpipe and gasoline vapor emissions. Residing in a home with an attached garage could lead to benzene exposures ten times higher than exposures from commuting in heavy traffic.

Corsi, Dr. Richard [University of Texas, Austin; Morandi, Dr. Maria [University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston; Siegel, Dr. Jeffrey [University of Texas, Austin; Hun, Diana E [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Reaction Pathways and Energetics of Etheric C?O Bond Cleavage Catalyzed by Lanthanide Triflates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient and selective cleavage of etheric C?O bonds is crucial for converting biomass into platform chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. In this contribution, computational methods at the DFT B3LYP level of theory are employed to understand the efficacy of lanthanide triflate catalysts (Ln(OTf)3, Ln = La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Yb, and Lu) in cleaving etheric C?O bonds. In agreement with experiment, the calculations indicate that the reaction pathway for C?O cleavage occurs via a C?H ? O?H proton transfer in concert with weakening of the C?O bond of the coordinated ether substrate to ultimately yield a coordinated alkenol. The activation energy for this process falls as the lanthanide ionic radius decreases, reflecting enhanced metal ion electrophilicity. Details of the reaction mechanism for Yb(OTf)3-catalyzed ring opening are explored in depth, and for 1-methyl-d3-butyl phenyl ether, the computed primary kinetic isotope effect of 2.4 is in excellent agreement with experiment (2.7), confirming that etheric ring-opening pathway involves proton transfer from the methyl group alpha to the etheric oxygen atom, which is activated by the electrophilic lanthanide ion. Calculations of the catalytic pathway using eight different ether substrates indicate that the more rapid cleavage of acyclic versus cyclic ethers is largely due to entropic effects, with the former C?O bond scission processes increasing the degrees of freedom/particles as the transition state is approached.

Assary, Rajeev S.; Atesin, Abdurrahman C.; Li, Zhi; Curtiss, Larry A.; Marks, Tobin J.

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Propenyl ether monomers for photopolymerization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Propenyl ether monomers of formula A(OCH{double_bond}CHCH{sub 3}){sub n} wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of the above formula together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

Crivello, J.V.

1996-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

49

Use of superconductor type catalysts in the preparation of tertiary butyl alcohol from tertiary butyl hydroperoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a method wherein a solution of a tertiary butyl hydroperoxide charge stock in tertiary butyl alcohol is brought into contact with a catalytically effective amount of a hydroperoxide decomposition catalyst in a hydroperoxide decomposition reaction zone in liquid phase with agitation to convert said tertiary butyl hydroperoxide to decomposition products, principally tertiary butyl alcohol, the improvement is described which comprises: (a) using a superconductor as said hydroperoxide decomposition catalyst, and (b) recovering tertiary butyl alcohol from the products of said hydroperoxide decomposition reaction.

Sanderson, J.R.; Stockton, M.E.

1993-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

50

Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150 to 250 F at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C[sub 3] to C[sub 6] and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom. 2 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Jones, E.M. Jr.; Hearn, D.

1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

51

Accelerated aging of EPDM and butyl elastomers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was composed of three parts: a post cure study to optimize final properties of an ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) formulation, an accelerated aging study to compare the stress relaxation behavior of a butyl and an EPDM elastomer under compression, and a cursory evaluation of a new 70 Shore A EPDM. The optimum postcure for the EPDM was found to be 2 to 4 hours at 182{degrees}C in a vacuum. The EPDM was also shown to have superior aging characteristics compared to the butyl and is recommended for use instead of the butyl material. The physical properties for new 70 Shore A EPDM are satisfactory, and the stress relaxation behavior was only slightly inferior to the other EPDM.

Wilson, M.H.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkyl tert-butyl ether Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

> >> 1 7198 J. Org. Chem. 1995,60, 7198-7208 Gas Phase Decomposition of Conjugate Acid Ions of Simple Summary: .S.Patent 5,091,590,1992. 0 1995American Chemical Society...

53

Biodegradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether by a Pure Bacterial Culture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...identify cost-effective remediation technologies. Relatively...treated with ENV735 as a remediation biocatalyst, but the strain...through the Small Business Innovative Research program (grant...situ bioaugmentation for remediation of chlorinated solvents in...

Paul B. Hatzinger; Kevin McClay; Simon Vainberg; Marina Tugusheva; Charles W. Condee; Robert J. Steffan

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Contaminated Water Using a Dense  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

discharge of organic compounds require that new, innovative tech- nologies and methods of remediation dioxide, making the DMP reactor a promising tool in the future remediation of water. Chemical and physical is transformed into a more toxic material or a substance that is more difficult to remediate, the treatment

Dandy, David

55

Simultaneous Efficiency, NOx, and Smoke Improvements through Diesel/Gasoline Dual-Fuel Operation in a Diesel Engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, biogas, hydrogen, and alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, iso-propanol, and n-butanol), and fuel additives (MTBE or methyl tertiary-butyl ether, H2O2 or hydrogen peroxide, 2-EHN or ethylhexyl nitrate and DTBP or di...

Sun, Jiafeng

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

56

Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Act mandated oxygenated gasoline containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) in certain areas percent. The State of Maine elected to use reformulated gasoline (RFG) that contained at least 11 percent and by 1995, oxygenated gasoline use was common in the northeast. Soon after the widespread use of gasoline

57

VOL. 32, No.4 UNL WATER CENTER AUGUST 2000 New Method For Detecting Trace Amounts of MTBE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water their use to help curb growing prob- at spill sites. lems with air pollution. MTBE is the most emis-by Steve Ress sions, are considered small. Gasoline additives that help keep our air clean can- "Most of the information available on oxygenates 10 mine the extent of their environmental impacts

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

58

Catalytic distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Catalytic Distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) is investigated in this thesis. The solvent, ethylene glycol, is proposed as a means of… (more)

Safinski, Tomasz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Near-Infrared Electrochromism in Electroactive Pentacenediquinone-Containing Poly(aryl ether)s  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Near-Infrared Electrochromism in Electroactive Pentacenediquinone-Containing Poly(aryl etherVed October 21, 2005 The synthesis and near-infrared electrochromic properties of pentacenediquinone-infrared electrochromic properties of pentacenediquinone-containing poly(aryl ether)s were studied

Wan, Xin-hua

60

E-Print Network 3.0 - ammoniated glycyrrhizin butylated Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ammoniated glycyrrhizin butylated Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: ammoniated glycyrrhizin butylated Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Crown Ethers in Graphene Bring Strong, Selective Binding | ornl...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Characterization Crown Ethers in Graphene Bring Strong, Selective Binding November 14, 2014 Schematic showing a graphene sheet containing an array of ideal crown ethers....

62

Ethers have good gasoline-blending attributes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of their compatibility with hydrocarbon gasoline-blending components, their high octane blending values, and their low volatility blending values, ethers will grow in use as gasoline blending components. This article discusses the properties of ethers as blending components, and environmental questions.

Unzelman, G.H.

1989-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

63

Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Biodegradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and Other Fuel Oxygenates by a New Strain, Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and the O2 consumption rate was measured with a 12-mm...France). The measured rates were corrected for endogenous...Cells were broken by three passes through a French press...from 105 to 200C at a rate of 10C/min. Helium...flushed with a Spectra-Physics SCM 400 vacuum flusher...

Alan François; Hugues Mathis; Davy Godefroy; Pascal Piveteau; Françoise Fayolle; Frédéric Monot

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Enhancing Transport of Hydrogenophaga flava ENV735 for Bioaugmentation of Aquifers Contaminated with Methyl tert-Butyl Ether  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...column was washed with the surfactant solution. d The sand was prewashed with the surfactant solution, and the cells...washed with BSM without surfactant. This work was supported...bacteria through a sandy soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol...

Sheryl H. Streger; Simon Vainberg; Hailiang Dong; Paul B. Hatzinger

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Treatment of methyl t-butyl ether contaminated water using a dense medium plasma reactor, a mechanistic and kinetic investigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, a mechanistic and kinetic investigation Derek C. Johnson1 , Vasgen A. Shamamian2 , John H. Callahan2 , Ferencz S in the future remediation of water. Chemical and physical mechanisms, together with carbon balances, are used

Dandy, David

68

Enhancing Transport of Hydrogenophaga flava ENV735 for Bioaugmentation of Aquifers Contaminated with Methyl tert-Butyl Ether  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...National Science Foundation Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program (award no...Ontario, Canada. Ground Water Monit. Remediation 18: 113-122. 52 Scholl, M. A...evaluation of in situ bioaugmentation for remediation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater...

Sheryl H. Streger; Simon Vainberg; Hailiang Dong; Paul B. Hatzinger

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Measurement of Trihalomethanes and Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether in Tap Water Using Solid-Phase Microextraction GC-MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......ductive age living in Corpus Christi, Texas and Cobb...micro extraction with gas chromatography-mass...determinations using gas chromatog- raphy...of fulvic acids in natural waters. Env. Sci...trihalomethane by headspace-gas chromatog- raphy......

Frederick L. Cardinali; David L. Ashley; John C. Morrow; Deborah M. Moll; Benjamin C. Blount

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

The Thermal Decomposition of Diethyl Ether. V. The Production of Ethanol from Diethyl Ether and the Pyrolysis of Ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The Thermal Decomposition of Diethyl Ether. V. The Production of Ethanol from Diethyl Ether and the Pyrolysis of Ethanol G. R. Freeman The two modes of decomposition of ethanol at 525 degrees C, namely dehydration and dehydrogenation, are affected...

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Process for making propenyl ethers and photopolymerizable compositions containing them  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Propenyl ether monomers of formula A(OCH{double_bond}CHCH{sub 3}){sub n} (V) wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether, and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

Crivello, J.V.

1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

72

Crown Ethers Flatten in Graphene for Strong, Specific Binding...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Crown Ethers Flatten in Graphene for Strong, Specific Binding ORNL discovery holds potential for separations, sensors, batteries, biotech and more This sheet of graphene contains...

73

Ozone-forming potential of a series of oxygenated organic compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An incremental reactivity approach has been used to assess the relative ozone-forming potentials of various important oxygenated fuels/fuel additives, i.e., tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), dimethyl ether (DME), diethyl ether (DEE), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), in a variety of environments. Calculations were performed using a single-cell trajectory model, combined with the Lurmann-Carter-Coyner chemical mechanism, with (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratios ranging from 4 to 20. This work provides the first quantitative assessment of the air quality impact of release of these important oxygenated compounds. ETBE and DEE are the two most reactive compounds on a per carbon equivalent basis, while TBA is the least reactive species. At a (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratio of 8, which is generally typical of polluted urban areas in the United States, TBA, DME, MTBE, and ETBE all have incremental reactivities less than or equal to that of the urban NMHC mix. Thus, use of these additives in fuels may have a beneficial impact on urban ozone levels.

Japar, S.M.; Wallington, T.J.; Rudy, S.J.; Chang, Tai Y. (Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (USA))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Densities and isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for the mixtures formed by four butyl esters and 1-butanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Densities of 298.15 K and the vapor-liquid equilibria for 1-butanol + butyl methanoate, + butyl ethanoate, + butyl propanoate, and + butyl butanoate have been measured at 101.32 kPa in small capacity ebulliometer. All results were found to be thermodynamically consistent with a point-to-point test. The mixtures containing butyl methanoate and butyl ethanoate show azeotropes at T = 379.14 K, x = 0.871 and T = 389.64 K, x = 0.222, respectively. Different group-contribution methods were applied to these mixtures.

Gonzalez, E.; Ortega, J. [Univ. of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)] [Univ. of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Ethanol Plant Production Ethanol Plant Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous alcohol (ethanol with less than 1% water) intended for gasoline blending as described in the Oxygenates definition. Oxygenates Substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol are common oxygenates. Fuel Ethanol: Blends of up to 10 percent by volume anhydrous ethanol (200 proof) (commonly referred to as the "gasohol waiver"). Methanol: Blends of methanol and gasoline-grade tertiary butyl alcohol (GTBA) such that the total oxygen content does not exceed 3.5 percent by weight and the ratio of methanol to GTBA is less than or equal to 1. It is also specified that this blended fuel must meet ASTM volatility specifications (commonly referred to as the "ARCO" waiver).

76

Solvent Effects on Metal Complexation with Crown Ethers from Liquid to Supercritical Fluids (DE-FG07-98ER 149 13)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to study the salvation effects of metal-crown ether complexation in different solvents. It has been suggested in the literature that supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) is a tunable solvent because its salvation environment can be varied with the fluid density. In this project, spectroscopic techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) were used to evaluate salvation effects of metal crown complexation in organic solvents and in SF-CO2. In most solvent extraction systems, water is often involved in the extraction processes. We have carried out extensive studies of water-crown ether interactions in different solvents and in SF-CO2 using NMR and FTIR techniques. Water molecules can be attached to crown ethers through hydrogen bonding of H-0-H to the oxygen atoms of crown ether cavities. This type of interaction is like a Lewis acid-Lewis base complexation. During the course of this project, we noticed that some CO2 soluble Lewis base such as tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) can also form such Lewis acid-Lewis base complexes with water and other inorganic acids including nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Inorganic acids (e.g. nitric acid) are normally not soluble in SF-CO2. However, because TBP is highly soluble in SF-CO2, an inorganic acid bound to TBP via hydrogen bonding becomes CO2 soluble. This Lewis acid-Lewis base complex approach provides a method of introducing inorganic acids into supercritical fluid CO2 for chemical reactions.

Wai, C.M.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Crown Ethers in Nonaqueous Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of three crown ethers, 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, and 18-crown-6, as additives and co-solvents in non-aqueous electrolytes on the cell performance of primary Li/air batteries operated in a dry air environment were investigated. Crown ethers have large effects on the discharge performance of non-aqueous electrolytes in Li/air batteries. A small amount (normally less than 10% by weight or volume in electrolytes) of 12-Crown-4 and 15-crown-5 reduces the battery performance and a minimum discharge capacity appears at the crown ether content of ca. 5% in the electrolytes. However, when the content increases to about 15%, both crown ethers improve the capacity of Li/air cells by about 28% and 16%, respectively. 15-Crown-5 based electrolytes even show a maximum discharge capacity in the crown ether content range from 10% to 15%. On the other hand, the increase of 18-crown-6 amount in the electrolytes continuously lowers of the cell performance. The different battery performances of these three crown ethers in electrolytes are explained by the combined effects from the electrolytes’ contact angle, oxygen solubility, viscosity, ionic conductivity, and the stability of complexes formed between crown ether molecules and lithium ions.

Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiguang

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

78

Shear viscosity measurements in the binary mixture butyl cellosolve-water near its upper and lower critical consolute points  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

has been measured for a two-component critical liquid system, butyl cellosolve-water, in the region to report measurements of the shear viscosity of critical binary mixture butyl cello- solve (2-n353 Shear viscosity measurements in the binary mixture butyl cellosolve-water near its upper

Boyer, Edmond

79

Properties Investigation of Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone)/Polyacrylonitrile Acid–Base Blend Membrane for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Acid–base blend membrane prepared from sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was detailedly evaluated for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application. SPEEK/PAN blend membrane exhibited dense and homogeneous cross-...

Zhaohua Li; Wenjing Dai; Lihong Yu; Le Liu; Jingyu Xi; Xinping Qiu; Liquan Chen

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

Remediation of water contamination using catalytic technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Remediation of contaminated ground and underground water is becoming a critical issue in Europe and worldwide. We discuss here the role of catalysis in water remediation, with reference to two specific examples of catalytic water remediation technologies: (i) the elimination of nitrate and pesticides from water contaminated as a result of agricultural practices and (ii) the conversion of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in contaminated underground water. Of particular interest is a technology based on catalytic membranes for remediation of water contaminated by nitrate, which offers various advantages with respect to conventional technologies. Using a Pd-Cu-based catalytic membrane, a reaction temperature below 15 °C, a mixed 4:1 CO2:H2 feed and controlling bulk solution pH by \\{HCl\\} addition, it is possible to obtain a nitrate conversion higher than 80% even with ammonium ion formation below 0.5 ppm, i.e. the maximum concentration allowed to meet the requirements for drinking water quality. In MTBE conversion in contaminated underground water, acid zeolites with suitable pore structures (channel structure and pore openings) such as H-ZSM-5 and H-BEA can be used as catalytic permeable reactive barriers for in situ remediation. These zeolites not only act as adsorbents for both MTBE and its reaction products, but also effectively catalyze the hydrolysis of MTBE to t-butyl alcohol (TBA) and methanol (MeOH) which then can be rapidly biodegraded by indigenous microorganisms.

Gabriele Centi; Siglinda Perathoner

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Atmospheric and combustion chemistry of dimethyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been demonstrated that dimethyl ether (DME) is an ideal diesel fuel alternative. DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}, combines good fuel properties with low exhaust emissions and low combustion noise. Large scale production of this fuel can take place using a single step catalytic process converting CH{sub 4} to DME. The fate of DME in the atmosphere has previously been studied. The atmospheric degradation is initiated by the reaction with hydroxyl radicals, which is also a common feature of combustion processes. Spectrokinetic investigations and product analysis were used to demonstrate that the intermediate oxy radical, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}O, exhibits a novel reaction pathway of hydrogen atom ejection. The application of tandem mass spectrometry to chemi-ions based on supersonic molecular beam sampling has recently been demonstrated. The highly reactive ionic intermediates are sampled directly from the flame and identified by collision activation mass spectrometry and ion-molecule reactions. The mass spectrum reflects the distribution of the intermediates in the flame. The atmospheric degradation of DME as well as the unique fuel properties of a oxygen containing compound will be discussed.

Nielsen, O.J.; Egsgaard, H.; Larsen, E.; Sehested, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Wallington, T.J. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

82

Kinetic mechanism of dimethyl ether production process using syngas from integrated gasification combined cycle power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a 1-step synthesis gas-to-dimethyl ether process, synthesis gas is converted into dimethyl ether (DME) in a single reactor. Three reactions are involved in this process: methanol synthesis, methanol dehydra...

Hee-Woo Park; Jin-Kuk Ha; Euy Soo Lee

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Hydrogen Generation from Dimethyl Ether for Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen Generation from Dimethyl Ether for Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units ... Vehicle manufacturers are rushing ahead with research into alternative fuels such as dimethyl ether (DME), biodiesel, methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen. ...

Marita Nilsson; Lars J. Pettersson; Bård Lindström

2006-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

84

Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, they have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F{trademark}), polytetrafluoro-ethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to approximately 3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using Vapor Transport Rate measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. The authors have developed a chemical compatibility program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be incorporated in packaging for transporting mixed waste forms. From the data analyses performed to date, they have identified the thermoplastic, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, as having the greatest chemical compatibility after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the poor performance of polytetrafluoroethylene under these conditions. In the evaluation of the two elastomeric materials they have concluded that while both materials exhibit remarkable resistance to these environmental conditions, EPDM has a greater resistance to this corrosive simulant mixed waste.

Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

The Effect of the Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ignition Using Isooctane, Ethanol and Natural Gas - AModel for High Temperature Ethanol Oxidation," Internationalof Bio-Derived Carbon from Ethanol-in-Diesel Blends in the

Mack, John Hunter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Flowers, Daniel L; Dibble, Robert W

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Modification of Y Zeolite with Alkaline Treatment: Textural Properties and Catalytic Activity for Diethyl Carbonate Synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1) Compared to dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethanol, DEC has been proposed as a potential fuel oxygenate additive to replace methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) because of its high oxygen content (40.6 wt %) and favorable fuel/water partition coefficient. ... For CuY using untreated zeolite as a support, there were only two H2-comsumption peaks at 473 and 681 K, ascribed to the Cu+ located on sites III? and II. ... Dunn, B. C.; Guenneau, C.; Hilton, S. A.; Pahnke, J.; Eyring, E. M.Production of diethyl carbonate from ethanol and carbon monoxide over a heterogeneous catalyst Energy Fuels 2002, 16, 177– 181 ...

Shouying Huang; Pengzhen Chen; Bing Yan; Shengping Wang; Yongli Shen; Xinbin Ma

2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

87

Assessment of Summer RBOB Supply for NY & CT  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Assessment for New York and Connecticut May 5, 2004 In October 2003, EIA published a review of the status of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban transition in New York (NY) and Connecticut (CT) 1 that noted significant uncertainties in gasoline supply for those States for the summer of 2004. To obtain updated information, EIA spoke to major suppliers to the two States over the past several months as the petroleum industry began the switch from winter- to summer-grade gasoline. As discussed on our earlier report, the NY and CT bans on MTBE mainly affect reformulated gasoline (RFG), which in recent years has been provided by domestic refineries on the East Coast (PADD 1) and imports. Our recent findings indicate that

88

Synthesis of Medium Ring Ethers. 5. The Synthesis of (+)-Laurencin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The eight-membered medium ring ether natural product (+)-laurencin 1 is the prototypical member of a growing family of marine natural product cyclic ethers isolated from red algae and those marine organisms which feed on Laurencia species. ... The reaction mixture immediately became yellow and gradually turned dark red as gas was evolved. ... We thank the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) UK for a research grant, Pfizer Central Research, and Corpus Christi College Cambridge for the award of a studentship and a Junior Research Fellow ship (J.W.B.), the Cambridge European Overseas Trust, Ciba (Novartis) and the Swiss Foundation for Gifted Students (scholarship to S.D.), and the Commission of the European Communities (TMR award to T.C.S.) for generous financial support. ...

Jonathan W. Burton; J. Stephen Clark; Sam Derrer; Thomas C. Stork; Justin G. Bendall; Andrew B. Holmes

1997-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

89

Dimethyl Ether Autoignition at Engine-Relevant Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

† Key Laboratory for Power Machinery and Engineering of M.O.E., Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, People’s Republic of China ... The autoignition of dimethyl ether (DME), an alternative diesel engine fuel, has been studied at elevated pressures. ... In addition to studies aimed at ascertaining the performance of compression–ignition internal combustion engines fuel with DME,(2, 3) there have been a number of studies focused on experimental characterization of fundamental combustion properties for DME. ...

Zhenhua Li; Weijing Wang; Zhen Huang; Matthew A. Oehlschlaeger

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

2' and 3' Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed a process for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. Said carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of said compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells.

Soloway, Albert H. (Worthington, OH); Barth, Rolf F. (Columbus, OH); Anisuzzaman, Abul K. (Columbus, OH); Alam, Fazlul (Anaheim, CA); Tjarks, Werner (Columbus, OH)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Palladium/Tris(tert-butyl)phosphine-Catalyzed Suzuki Cross-Couplings in the Presence of Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dipalladiumtris(dibenzylideneacetone)/tris(tert-butyl)phosphonium tetrafluoroborate/potassium fluoride dihydrate [Pd2(dba)3/[HP(t-Bu)3]BF4/KF?2?H2O] serves as a mild, robust, and user-friendly method for the efficient ...

Lou, Sha

92

The interactions of water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied the interactions of water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100) in order to model the effects of surface structure and humidity on the bonding and decomposition of perfluoroalkyl ether lubricants with metal surfaces. In order to understand the interactions on Ru(100), we have first investigated the interactions of each of these adsorbates alone on the clean surface. The interactions of water with Ru(100) have been studied using both thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). From these studies we conclude that a small amount of water dissociates on this surface (5--10% of a monolayer), but water is adsorbed in a predominantly molecular form on this surface with an increasing degree of hydrogen-bonding with increasing coverage. The effects of hydrogen and oxygen coadsorption on the interactions of water with this surface have also been studied using TDS. Finally, the interactions of coadsorbed water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100) have been investigated using TDS.

Leavitt, P.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

93

Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

T.A. Semelsberger

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

E-Print Network 3.0 - allyl glycidyl ether Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science 15 () Trichloromethane ()1,1,2,2-1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane Summary: ;() Acrolein () Acrylic acid () Allyl zlcohol () Allyl chloride () Allyl glycidyl ether(AGE) ()2-...

95

POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AND POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN GALAPAGOS SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS WOLLEBAEKI)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p- dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) repre- sent persistent

Gobas, Frank

96

Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Alternative Fuels lDimethyl Ether Rheology and Materials Studies Liquid Fuels from Biomass BiodieselFuelManagementBestPracticesReport.pdf...

97

Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the antarctic environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the historical record of dioxins, PCBs and DDTs in the same cores showed a decreasing trend. At present, PBDEs are recognized as a worldwide pollution problem since they have reached remote areas such as the deep ocean, the Arctic and Antarctica (de Boer et al... that cheerful and warm Brazilian spirit. You are my Aggie family! viii NOMENCLATURE #1; critical value of a statistical test used to reject the null hypothesis ANOVA Analysis of Variance BDE Brominated Diphenyl Ether BFR Brominated Flame Retardant DC...

Yogui, Gilvan Takeshi

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

Extraction of Plutonium into 30 Percent Tri-Butyl Phosphate from Nitric Acid Solution Containing Fluoride, Aluminum, and Boron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work consists of experimental batch extraction data for plutonium into 30 volume-percent tri-butyl phosphate at ambient temperature from such a solution matrix and a model of this data using complexation constants from the literature.

Kyser, E.A.

2000-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

99

Structure and Reactivity of Alkyl Ethers Adsorbed on CeO2(111) Model Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of surface hydroxyls on the adsorption of ether on ceria was explored. Adsorption of dimethyl ether (DME) and diethyl ether (DEE) on oxidized and reduced CeO{sub 2}(111) films was studied and compared with Ru(0001) using RAIRS and sXPS within a UHV environment. On Ru(0001) the ethers adsorb weakly with the molecular plane close to parallel to the surface plane. On the ceria films, the adsorption of the ethers was stronger than on the metal surface, presumably due to stronger interaction of the ether oxygen lone pair electrons with a cerium cation. This interaction causes the ethers to tilt away from the surface plane compared to the Ru(0001) surface. No pronounced differences were found between oxidized (CeO{sub 2}) and reduced (CeOx) films. The adsorption of the ethers was found to be perturbed by the presence of OH groups on hydroxylated CeOx. In the case of DEE, the geometry of adsorption resembles that found on Ru, and in the case of dimethyl ether DME is in between that one found on clean CeOx and the metal surface. Decomposition of the DEE was observed on the OH/CeOx surface following high DEE exposure at 300 K and higher temperatures. Ethoxides and acetates were identified as adsorbed species on the surface by means of RAIRS and ethoxides and formates by s-XPS. No decomposition of dimethyl ether was observed on the OH/CeOx at these higher temperatures, implying that the dissociation of the C-O bond from ethers requires the presence of {beta}-hydrogen.

F Calaza; T Chen; D Mullins; S Overbury

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

100

Structure and Reactivity of Alkyl Ethers Adsorbed on CeO(2)(111) Model Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of surface hydroxyls on the adsorption of ether on ceria was explored. Adsorption of dimethyl ether (DME) and diethyl ether (DEE) on oxidized and reduced CeO{sub 2}(111) films was studied and compared with Ru(0001) using RAIRS and sXPS within a UHV environment. On Ru(0001) the ethers adsorb weakly with the molecular plane close to parallel to the surface plane. On the ceria films, the adsorption of the ethers was stronger than on the metal surface, presumably due to stronger interaction of the ether oxygen lone pair electrons with a cerium cation. This interaction causes the ethers to tilt away from the surface plane compared to the Ru(0001) surface. No pronounced differences were found between oxidized (CeO{sub 2}) and reduced (CeOx) films. The adsorption of the ethers was found to be perturbed by the presence of OH groups on hydroxylated CeOx. In the case of DEE, the geometry of adsorption resembles that found on Ru, and in the case of dimethyl ether DME is in between that one found on clean CeOx and the metal surface. Decomposition of the DEE was observed on the OH/CeOx surface following high DEE exposure at 300 K and higher temperatures. Ethoxides and acetates were identified as adsorbed species on the surface by means of RAIRS and ethoxides and formates by s-XPS. No decomposition of dimethyl ether was observed on the OH/CeOx at these higher temperatures, implying that the dissociation of the C-O bond from ethers requires the presence of {beta}-hydrogen.

Calaza, Florencia C [ORNL; Chen, Tsung-Liang [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Aging of Weapon Seals – An Update on Butyl O-ring Issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During testing under the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign in 2001, preliminary data detected a previously unknown and potentially serious concern with recently procured butyl o-rings on several programs. All butyl o-rings molded from a proprietary formulation throughout the period circa 1999 through 2001 had less than a full cure. Engineering judgment was that under curing is detrimental and could possibly lead to sub-optimum performance or, in the worst case, premature seal failure. An aging study was undertaken to ensure that suspect o-rings installed in the stockpile will retain sufficient sealing force for a minimum ten-year service life. A new prediction model developed for this study indicates suspect o-rings do not need to be replaced before the ten-year service life. Long-term testing results are reported on a yearly basis to validate the prediction model. This report documents the aging results for the period September 2002 to January 2011.

Wilson, Mark H.

2011-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

102

Reverse osmosis performance with solutions containing tri-n-butyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were conducted to determine whether the reverse osmosis (RO) units at the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at the Savannah River could be made to process solutions containing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). It was desired to test whether operation at a feed pH other than neutral would improve performance. Test results are discussed in this report and indicate that little improvement in the water flux can be expected at other pH values.

Siler, J.L.

1991-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

103

Batch polymerization of styrene initiated by n-butyl lithium in a cyclohexane solvent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

anionic mechanism. A mathematical model is de- veloped and the predicted values are compared with their corresponding experimental values. Initiator and monomer concentrations are varied and their conversion time profiles are studied. A G&el... and Storage Vessels Purification of Monomer Purification of Solvent Polymerization Reaction Scavenger Level Analysis o f Butyl Lithium Analysis of Molecular Weight Distributions by the Use of Gel Permeation Technique 10 19 19 ZO Zl ZZ 24 25 25...

Landon, Thomas Rodman

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis of Single-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl ether (DME) at typical SWNT growth conditions using to the predicted decomposition mechanism. Signature peak intensities indicated concentrations of both ethanol

Maruyama, Shigeo

105

Composition and Digestibility of the Ether Extract of Hays and Fodders.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

556-712-5m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. BULLETIN NO . 150 AUGUST , 1912. Division o f Chemistry TECHNICAL BULLETIN Composition and Digestibility of the Ether Extract of Hays and Fodders By G S. FRAPS and J. B. RATHER POSTOFFICE... Digestibility of the Constituents............................................................. 23 Summary and Conclusions.......................................................................29 BLANK PAGE IN ORIGINAL Composition and Digestibility of the Ether...

Fraps, G. S.; Rather, J. B.

1912-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Proton-conducting polymer electrolyte membranes based on fluoropolymers incorporating perfluorovinyl ether sulfonic acids and fluoroalkenes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acids. A novel synthetic route describing the preparation of perfluorovinyl ether monomer containing. The radical (co) and terpolymerization of 4-[(,,-trifluorovinyl)oxy]benzene sulfonyl chloride (TFVOBSC) with 1,1-difluoroethylene (or vinylidene fluoride, VDF), hexafluoropropene (HFP), and perfluoromethyl vinyl ether (PMVE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

Modelling the fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) during the municipal sewage treatment process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are an important source to the environment for many chemicals of concern (COCs). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are one such group of COCs of present day concern for which studies on fate and transport during the ... Keywords: chemical fate and transport, mass balance model, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, risk assessment, sewage treatment, water and wastewater management

Kerry N. McPhedran; Rajesh Seth

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate Title Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2005 Authors Sun, Xiao-Guang, Jun Hou, and John B. Kerr Journal Electrochimica Acta Volume 50 Pagination 1139-1147 Keywords ionic conductivity, plasticizer, polyacrylate ethers, single ion conductor Abstract Comb-shaped single ion conductors have been synthesized by sulfonation of small molecule chloroethyleneglycols, which, after ion exchange to the Li+ salt were then converted to the acrylate by reaction with acryloyl chloride and copolymerized with polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether acrylate (Mn = 454, n = 8) (PAE8-co-E3SO3Li);

109

Kinetic measurements of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with hydroxy ethers, hydroxy ketones, and keto ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Absolute rate constants were determined for the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals with a series of hydroxy ethers as well as the simplest hydroxy ketone and keto ether with use of the flash photolysis resonance fluorescence technique. At 298 K, the measured rate constants were as follows (in units of 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}): 2-methoxyethanol, 12.5 {plus minus} 0.7; 2-ethoxyethanol, 18.7 {plus minus} 2.0; 2-butoxyethanol, 23.1 {plus minus} 0.9; 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, 22.0 {plus minus} 1.3; 3-methoxy-l-butanol, 23.6 {plus minus} 1.6; acetol, 3.0 {plus minus} 0.3; and methoxyacetone, 6.8 {plus minus} 0.6. The kinetic data for 2-methoxyethanol obtained between 240 and 440 K were used to derive the following Arrhenius expression: k{sub 1} = (4.5 {plus minus} 1.4) {times} 10{sup {minus}12} exp((325 {plus minus} 100)/T) (cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}). The results for all seven reactants are discussed in terms of the prediction of OH rate constants for oxygenated organic compounds.

Dagaut, P.; Liu, R.; Wallington, T.J.; Kurylo, M.J. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

1989-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

110

Test of Orientation/Stretch-Induced Reduction of Friction via Primitive Chain Network Simulations for Polystyrene, Polyisoprene, and Poly(n-butyl acrylate)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Test of Orientation/Stretch-Induced Reduction of Friction via Primitive Chain Network Simulations for Polystyrene, Polyisoprene, and Poly(n-butyl acrylate) ...

Yuichi Masubuchi; Yumi Matsumiya; Hiroshi Watanabe

2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

111

Synthesis and Evaluation of 3',5'-Di-tert-butyl-4'-hydroxyflavones as Potential Inhibitors of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synthesis and Evaluation of 3',5'-Di-tert-butyl-4'-hydroxyflavones as Potential Inhibitors of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Oxidation ...

Guy Lewin; Yves Rolland; Sylvie Privat; Christine Breugnot; Albert Lenaers; Jean Paul Vilaine; Jean-Pierre Baltaze; Jacques Poisson

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Total Blender Net Input of Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Input Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquid Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Oxygenates/Renewables Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

113

Total Refinery Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Alaskan Crude Oil Receipts Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

114

Pool octanes via oxygenates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasingly stringent antipollution regulations placed on automobile exhaust gases with consequent reduction or complete lead ban from motor gasoline result in octane shortage at many manufacturing sites. Attractive solutions to this problem, especially in conjunction with abundant methanol supplies, are the hydration and etherification of olefins contained in light product streams from cracking unit or produced by field gas dehydrogenation. A comparison is made between oxygenates octane-volume pool contributions and established refinery technologies. Process reviews for bulk manufacture of fuel-grade isopropanol (IPA), secondary butanol (SBA), tertiary butanol (TBA), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) are presented together with the characteristic investment and operating data. The implantation of these processes into a typical FCCU refinery complex with the resulting octane-pool improvement possibilities is descried.

Prezelj, M.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

116

Numerical study of the effect of oxygenated blending compounds on soot formation in shock tubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This numerical study deals with the influence of blends on the amount of soot formed in shock tubes, which were simulated by assuming a homogeneous plug flow reactor model. For this purpose, first, the reaction model used here was validated against experimental results previously obtained in the literature. Then, the soot volume fractions of various mixtures of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-benzene, isobutene-benzene, methanol-benzene, and ethanol-benzene diluted in argon were simulated and compared to the results of benzene-argon pyrolysis at 1721 K and 5.4 MPa. For MTBE, isobutene, methanol, and ethanol, small amounts of additives to benzene-argon mixtures promoted soot formation, for the shock tube model assumed, while higher concentrations of these additives led to smaller soot volume fractions in comparison to pure benzene-argon pyrolysis. The most significant soot promotion effect was found for the additives MTBE and isobutene. The channel for MTBE decomposition producing isobutene and methanol is very effective at temperatures beyond 1200 K. Thus, both MTBE-benzene and isobutene-benzene mixtures diluted in argon showed rather similar behavior in regard to soot formation. Special emphasis was directed toward the causes for the concentration-dependent influence of the blends on the amount of soot formed. Aromatic hydrocarbons and acetylene were identified as key gas-phase species that determine the trends in the formation of soot of various mixtures. From reaction flux analysis for phenanthrene, it was deduced that the combinative routes including phenyl species play a major role in forming PAHs, especially at early reaction times. It is found that the additives play an important role in providing material to grow side chains, such as by reaction channels including phenylacetylene or benzyl, which are confirmed to form aromatic hydrocarbons and thus to influence the amount of soot formed, particularly when the concentrations of the blends are increased. (author)

Boehm, H. [Physikalische Chemie I, Universitaet Bielefeld (Germany); Braun-Unkhoff, M. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Batch polymerization of styrene and isoprene by n-butyl lithium initiator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-20). Analysis of products consists of determining the point at which no free lithium alkyl remains. Thus if a butyl lithium initiated polymerization were terminated with water, butane would be evolved as long as the initiator were present. The butane...? agent were evaporated under a hood. Finally the polymer. was dried in a vacuum oven at about 50'C and under a vacuum of 30 inches of gg for about 30 hours. The weight of polymer formed was determined by final weighing. 25 The monomer conversion...

Hasan, Sayeed

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria in the system methyl propanoate + n-butyl alcohol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria were determined at 74.66, 101.32, and 127.99 kPa for binary mixtures containing methyl propanoate + n-butyl alcohol by using a dynamic still with vapor and liquid circulation. No azeotrope was detected. The data were found to be thermodynamically consistent according to the point to point test. Application of the group-contribution models ASOG, UNIFAC, and modified UNIFAC to the activity coefficients at the three pressures studied gives average errors of less than 10%, 11%, and 3%, respectively.

Susial, P.; Ortega, J. (Univ. de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain). Lab. de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid-labile cholesterol-vinyl ether-peg...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Crystallization of Recombinant Crithidia fasciculata Tryparedoxin Summary: of 30% polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (PEG MME) 2000, 0.1 M TrisHCl, pH 8.2, 1% dimethyl Source:...

120

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in combusted residues and soils from an open burning site of electronic wastes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants due to their extensive use. Combusted residue from electronic waste (e-waste) combustion is one of the contamination sources ... tr...

Qian Luo; Ming Hong Wong; Zijian Wang; Zongwei Cai

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Solvent Effects on Cesium Complexation with Crown Ethers from Liquid to Supercritical Fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques were used to study crown ether-water interactions in solvents of low dielectric constants such as chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Water forms a 1:1 complex with a number of crown ethers including 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, 18-crown-6, dicyclohexano-18=crown-6, dicyclohexano-24-crown 8, and dibenzl-24-crown-8 in chloroform. Among these crown ethers, the 18-crown-6-H2 complex has the largest equilibrium constant (K=545) and 97% of the crown is complexed to water in chloroform. Addition of carbon tetrachloride to chloroform lowers the equilibrium constants of the crown-water complexes. The partition coefficients of crown ethers (D=crown in water/crown in solvent) between water and organic solvent also vary with solvent composition.

Chien M. Wai; Anne Rustenholtz; Shaofen Wang; Su-Chen Lee; Jamie Herman; Richard A. Porter

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Atmospheric chemistry of automotive fuel additives: Diisopropyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To quantify the atmospheric reactivity of diisopropyl ether (DIPE), we have conducted a study of the kinetics and mechanism of reaction 1: OH + DIPE {r_arrow} products. Kinetic measurements of reaction 1 were made using both relative (at 295 K) and absolute techniques (over the temperature range 240-440 K). Rate data from both techniques can be represented by the following: k{sub 1} = (2.2{sub -0.8}{sup +14}) x 10{sup -12} exp[(445 {plus_minus} 145)/T] cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1}. At 298 K, k{sub 1} = 9.8 x 10{sup -12} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1}. The products of the simulated atmospheric oxidation of DIPE were identified using FT-IR spectroscopy; isopropyl acetate and HCHO were the main products. The atmospheric oxidation of DIPE can be represented by i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}O-i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7} + OH + 2NO {r_arrow} HCHO + i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}OC(O)CH{sub 3} + HO{sub 2} + 2NO{sub 2}. Our kinetic and mechanistic data were incorporated into a 1-day simulation of atmospheric chemistry to quantify the relative incremental reactivity of DIPE. Results are compared with other oxygenated fuel additives. 30 refs., 9 figs.

Wallington, T.J.; Andino, J.M.; Potts, A.R. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)] [and others

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Study downplays health concerns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A government-funded study has concluded that reformulated gasoline containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) does not increase short-term health risks when compared with gasoline that does not contain the additive. The study, performed by the Health Effects Institute (Cambridge, MA), compared data from dozens of animal, human, and epidemiological studies of health effects linked to oxygenates, including MTBE and ethanol, but did not find enough evidence to warrant an immediate reduction in oxygenate use. However, the study did recommend that additional research be conducted on possible health consequences associated with the gasoline additives, including neurotoxic effects, if oxygenates continue to be used long term. Oxygenates have been used in gasoline since 1992, when EPA mandated that several municipalities use MTBE or other oxygenates in reformulated gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide emissions and meet Clean Air Act requirements. Shortly after the program began, residents in areas where the oxygenates were used complained of nausea, headaches, and dizziness. The institute says the study--funded by EPA and the Centers for Disease Control--will be used for a broader review of gasoline oxygenates by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.

Stringer, J.

1996-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

124

Nonlinear viscoelastic response of carbon black-filled butyl rubber and implications for o-ring aging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Butyl rubber, unfortunately, has pronounced nonlinear viscoelastic behavior, which may be modelled by a separable KBKZ formalism. While these effects seem to have minimal impact on accelerated sealing force measurements, they do severely impact compression set tests. Therefore, a new test is suggested for evaluating field-return o-rings which is free from such confounding effects.

Adolf, D.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Rate dependent finite deformation stressstrain behavior of an ethylene methacrylic acid copolymer and an ethylene methacrylic acid butyl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rate dependent finite deformation stress­strain behavior of an ethylene methacrylic acid copolymer and an ethylene methacrylic acid butyl acrylate copolymer S. Deschanel a,*, B.P. Greviskes a , K. Bertoldi a , S dependence a b s t r a c t The large strain deformation behaviors of an ethylene methacrylic acid (EMAA

126

Liquid phase oxidation of thiophene compounds by tert-butyl hydroperoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidative instability problems in both shale and petroleum-derived middle distillate fuels are related to the presence of hydroperoxides. Although a good body of knowledge exists concerning the formation of peroxides in the liquid phase, relatively little is known about the reaction/decomposition pathways when other functional groups are present. One of the significant and undesirable problems is the formation of solid deposits which can plug nozzles and filters and coal heat exchanger surfaces. Deposit formation in fuels is triggered by autoxidation reactions and is closely associated with elemental oxygen and/or hydroperoxide concentration. This paper reports on the reaction between a primary autoxidation product, a hydroperoxide, and sulfur compounds of the type present in petroleum-derived middle distillate fuels. Specifically, we examine the t-butyl hydroperoxide oxidation of thiophene, 2, 5-dimethylthiophene, tetrahydrothiophene and benzothiophene in a deaerated model fuel, tetradecane, at 120{degree}C.

Mushrush, G.W.; Watkins, J.M. Jr.; Hazlett, R.N.; Hardy, D.R.; Eaton, H.G. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (USA))

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Fuel instability studies; Liquid phase oxidation of tetrahydrothiophene by tert-butyl hydroperoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reactions that lead to fuel instability are the subject of conflicting reports in the literature. Confusion results from the difficulty in relating differences in fuel composition, temperature, surface effects and dissolved oxygen content that comprise the multitude of reported studies. Model studies offer a means by chic the mechanism of an individual reaction can be related to a simple system and then extended to the more complex fuel media. This paper reports a model oxidation study of a species, t-butyl hydroperoxide under mild reaction conditions, 120{degrees}C, in a tetradecane model fuel. The major oxidation product was tetrahydrothiophene sulfoxide from the sulfide and t-butanol from the hydroperoxide. The complete suite of products is reported.

Mushrush, G.W.; Pellenbarg, R.E.; Hazlett, R.N.; Morris, R.E.; Hardy, D.R. (Fuels Section, Code 6180, Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (US))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Tests for mutagenic effects of ammoniated glycyrrhizin, butylated hydroxytoluene, and gum arabic in roden germ cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ammoniated glycyrrhizin, butylated hydroxytoluene, and gum Arabic are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substances that are used primarily as additives in foods. These substances were incorporated into rodent diets and fed to male rats and mice for 10 and 8 wk, respectively. The treated male mice and rats were then tested for dominant lethal effects. The mice were also tested for induced heritable translocation. Results of the rat studies indicated a statistically significant dominant lethal effect of each of the compounds tested; however, the biological significance of this response is not known. Results of the mouse dominant lethal and heritable translocation studies, on the other hand, indicated no adverse effects of the compounds tested.

Sheu, C.W.; Cain, K.T.; Rushbrook, C.J.; Jorgenson, T.A.; Generoso, W.M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Butyl rubber O-ring seals: Revision of test procedures for stockpile materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extensive testing showed little correlation between test slab and O-ring performance. New procedures, comparable to those used with the traditional test slabs, were defined for hardness, compression set, and tensile property testing on sacrificial O-ring specimens. Changes in target performance values were made as needed and were, in one case, tightened to reflect the O-ring performance data. An additional study was carried out on O-ring and slab performance vs cure cycle and showed little sensitivity of material performance to large changes in curing time. Aging and spectra of certain materials indicated that two sets of test slabs from current vendor were accidently made from EPDM rather than butyl rubber. Random testing found no O-rings made from EPDM. As a result, and additional spectroscope test will be added to the product acceptance procedures to verify the type of rubber compound used.

Domeier, L.A.; Wagter, K.R.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Initiation Temperature for Runaway Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate/Nitric Acid Reaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a review of the safety basis for solvent extraction processes at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, a question was raised concerning the safety margin associated with a postulated accident involving a runaway tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/nitric acid reaction due to the inadvertent heating of a tank. The safety margin was based on studies which showed the maximum temperature would not exceed 128 degrees Celsius compared to 130 degrees Celsius, the minimum initiation temperature for runaway reaction established in the 1950's following damaging incidents at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. The reviewers were concerned the minimum temperature was not conservative since data for solutions containing 20 wt percent dissolved solids showed initiation temperatures at or below 130 degrees Celsius and process solutions normally contain some dissolved solids.

Rudisill, T.S.

2001-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

131

A thermodynamic model of nitric acid extraction by tri-n-butyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermodynamic model is presented for nitric acid extraction by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). This model is based on the formation of the organic phase species: TBP.HNO/sub 3/ and (TBP)/sub 2/.HNO/sub 3/. The model works successfully at TBP concentrations of 5 to 100 vol% and was found to be effective at predicting the extraction of HNO/sub 3/ from HNO/sub 3//NaNO/sub 3/ and HNO/sub 3//LiNO/sub 3/ solutions. Within the TBP concentration range of 5 to 30%, a single set of extraction constants was sufficient to fit extraction data. Stoichiometric activity coefficients of nitric acid in HNO/sub 3//NaNO/sub 3/ and HNO/sub 3//LiNO/sub 3/ mixtures were calculated using a model developed by Bromley.

Chaiko, D.J.; Vandegrift, G.F.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the work and challenges continued as it has been difficult to maintain operability of the shuttle bus due to fuel and component difficulties. In late June 2002, the pump head itself developed operational problems (loss of smooth function) leading to excessive stress on the magnetic coupling and excessive current draw to operate. A new pump head was installed on the system to alleviate this problem and the shuttle bus operated successfully on DME blends from 10-25 vol% on the shuttle bus loop until September 30, 2002. During the period of operation on the campus loop, the bus was pulled from service, operated at the PTI test track and real-time emissions measurements were obtained using an on-board emissions analyzer from Clean Air Technologies International, Inc. Particulate emissions reductions of 60% and 80% were observed at DME blend ratios of 12 vol.% and 25 vol.%, respectively, as the bus was operated over the Orange County driving cycle. Increases in NOx, CO and HC emissions were observed, however. In summary, the conversion of the shuttle bus was successfully accomplished, particulate emissions reductions were observed, but there were operational challenges in the field. Nonetheless, they were able to demonstrate reliable operation of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel blends.

Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Ab initio calculations of various protonation sites in perfluorodiethyl ether: Models for high temperature lubricant decomposition?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricants have found successful application in spacecraft mechanisms and computer hard drives, there eventual breakdown is irksome, and the mechanism of decomposition is the subject of much scrutiny. However, very little notice is taken of the monomer ethers on which the polymer lubricants are based. Recently, concerted studies of the Lewis base properties of various fluorinated ethers have been performed, both from an experimental and a theoretical viewpoint. As an extension of the theoretical work, this study presents ab initio theoretical consideration of the multiple potential basic sites within perfluorodiethyl ether, (CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}){sub 2}O, by way of the proton affinity of the molecule at various possible protonation sites (i.e., oxygen and fluorine atoms). The results indicate that although protonation at the oxygen is more energetically favored, protonation at the fluorine is not much higher in energy and provides for formation of an excellent leaving group, HF.

Ball, D.W. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Catalyst system and process for benzyl ether fragmentation and coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dibenzyl ether can be readily cleaved to form primarily benzaldehyde and toluene as products, along with minor amounts of bibenzyl and benzyl benzoate, in the presence of a catalyst system comprising a Group 6 metal, preferably molybdenum, a salt, and an organic halide. Although useful synthetically for the cleavage of benzyl ethers, this cleavage also represents a key model reaction for the liquefaction of coal; thus this catalyst system and process should be useful in coal liquefaction with the advantage of operating at significantly lower temperatures and pressures.

Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN)

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

135

The Total Fatty Acids and Other Ether-Soluable Constituents of Feedstuffs.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

586-914-10m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 169 SEPTEMBER, 19I4 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY The Total Fatty Acids and Other Ether-Soluble Constituents of Feedstuffs BY J. B. RATHER Assistant Chemist POSTOFFICE COLLEGE STATION... IS T .* In previous publications of this Experiment Station (Fraps and Bather, Bulletins Nos. 150 and 162) it has been shown that the un? saponifiable matter in the ether extract of hays and fodders averages about 58 per cent. Of the total extract, and is of much...

Rather, J. B. (James Burness)

1914-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Toxicity of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in Hydra attenuata and in rat whole embryo culture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A?TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE A Thesis by MARION CAROL BECKER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Toxicology TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A1TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE by MARION CAROL BECKER Approved as to style and content by: Stephen H. S (Ca...

Becker, Marion Carol

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

137

Hydrolysis of cellulose to produce glucose with solid acid catalysts in 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ([bmIm][Cl]) with sequential water addition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Selective glucose production by cellulose hydrolysis with initial or sequential water addition in the presence of solid acid catalysts in 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ([bmIm][Cl]) under microwave irra...

Kaori Ishida; Shiho Matsuda; Masaru Watanabe…

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Anhydrous aluminum chloride as an alkylation catalyst: identification of mono- and dialkyl-benzenes from the condensation of tertiary butyl alcohol with benzene.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LIBRARY a a w c"I. I. SI - O~ TI:YAf ANHYDROUS ALUMINUM CHLORIDE AS AN ALKYLATION CATALYST: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DIALKYIZENZENES FROM THE CONDENSATION QF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENKENE IACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS 4 A Thesis Submitted...: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DI~NZZNES FROM THE CONDENSATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENZENE A Thesis By LACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS Approved as to style and content hy: Chairman of Committee Head of Chemistry Department 1959 ACKNOWLEDGME1VTS The author...

Scoggins, Lacey E

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Initiation Temperature for Runaway Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate/Nitric Acid Reaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During a review of the H-Canyon authorization basis, Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) staff members questioned the margin of safety associated with a postulated tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/nitric acid runaway reaction due to the inadvertent heating of a canyon tank containing greater than 3000 lbs (1362 kg) of TBP. The margin of safety was partially based on experiments and calculations performed by the Actinide Technology Section (ATS) to support deletion of indication of tank agitation as a Safety Class System. In the technical basis for deletion of this system, ATS personnel conservatively calculated the equilibrium temperature distribution of a canyon tank containing TBP and nitric acid layers which were inadvertently heated by a steam jet left on following a transfer. The maximum calculated temperature (128 degrees C) was compared to the minimum initiation temperature for a runaway reaction (greater than 130 degrees C) documented by experimental work in the mid 195 0s. In this work, the initiation temperature as a function of nitric acid concentration was measured for 0 and 20 wt percent dissolved solids. The DNFSB staff members were concerned that data for 0 wt percent dissolved solids were not conservative given the facts that data for 20 wt percent dissolved solids show initiation temperatures at or below 130 degrees C and H-Canyon solutions normally contained a small amount of dissolved solids.

Rudisill, T.S.

2000-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

140

Thorium ions transport across Tri-n-butyl phosphate-benzene based supported liquid membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transport of Th(IV) ions across tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) benzene based liquid membranes supported in microporous hydrophobic polypropylene film (MHPF) has been studied. Various parameters such as variation of nitric acid concentration in the feed, TBP concentration in the membrane, and temperature on the given metal ions transport have been investigated. The effects of nitric acid and TBP concentrations on the distribution coefficient were also studied, and the data obtained were used to determine the Th ions-TBP complex diffusion coefficient in the membrane. Permeability coefficients of Th(IV) ions were also determined as a function of the TBP and nitric acid concentrations. The optimal conditions for the transport of Th(IV) ions across the membrane are 6 mol{sm_bullet}dm{sup -3} HNO{sub 3} concentration, 2.188 mol {center_dot} dm{sup -3} TBP concentration, and 25{degrees}C. The stoichiometry of the chemical species involved in chemical reaction during the transport of Th(IV) ions has also been studied.

Rasul, G.; Chaudry, M.A. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Islamabad (Pakistan); Afzal, M. [Quaid-I-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Dimethyl ether (DME) from coal as a household cooking fuel in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

technologies. Given China's rich coal resources, the production and use of coal-derived DME as a cooking fuelDimethyl ether (DME) from coal as a household cooking fuel in China Eric D. Larson Princeton gas (LPG) as a household cooking fuel. As such, DME is an attractive fuel for clean cooking. DME can

142

Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion investigations1 of water retention mechanism by cellulose ethers in mortars2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion investigations1 of water retention mechanism by cellulose : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2012.06.002 #12;2 ABSTRACT22 23 We show how nuclear magnetic spin-lattice relaxation dispersion of protons-water24 (NMRD) can be used to elucidate the effect of cellulose ethers

Boyer, Edmond

143

The influence of propylene glycol ethers on base diesel properties and emissions from a diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The oxygenated additives propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol ethyl ether (PGEE), dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME) were studied to determine their influence on both the base diesel fuel properties and the exhaust emissions from a diesel engine (CO, NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and smoke). For diesel blends with low oxygen content (?4.0 wt.%), the addition of these compounds to base diesel fuel decreases aromatic content, kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and Conradson carbon residue. Also, each compound modifies the distillation curve at temperatures below the corresponding oxygenated compound boiling point, the distillate percentage being increased. The blend cetane number depends on the type of propylene glycol ether added, its molecular weight, and the oxygen content of the fuel. The addition of PGME decreased slightly diesel fuel cetane number, while PGEE and DPGME increased it. Base diesel fuel-propylene glycol ether blends with 1.0 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen contents were used in order to determine the performance of the diesel engine and its emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds (1000, 2500 and 4000 rpm). In general, at full load and in comparison with base diesel fuel, the blends show a slight reduction of oxygen-free specific fuel consumption. CO emissions are reduced appreciably for 2.5 wt.% of oxygen blends, mainly for PGEE and DPGME. \\{NOx\\} emissions are reduced slightly, but not the smoke. Unburnt hydrocarbon emissions decrease at 1000 and 2500 rpm, but not at 4000 rpm. At medium load, the effect of the additives is much less significant, due to the fact that the ratio oxygen from additive/oxygen from air is much lower.

F. Gómez-Cuenca; M. Gómez-Marín; M.B. Folgueras-Díaz

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Linking Low-Level Stable Isotope Fractionation to Expression of the Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase-Encoding ethB Gene for Elucidation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Biodegradation in Aerated Treatment Pond Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...application of CSIA in field investigations to detect biodegradation...52). An alternative remedial strategy could be the use...application of CSIA in field investigations to detect biodegradation may lead to...application of CSIA in field investigations to detect biodegradation...

Sven Jechalke; Mònica Rosell; Paula M. Martínez-Lavanchy; Paola Pérez-Leiva; Thore Rohwerder; Carsten Vogt; Hans H. Richnow

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

145

Appendix A - Acronyms  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A - ACRONYMS A - ACRONYMS AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials CNG Compressed Natural Gases CVO Commercial Vehicle Operation DOE Department of Energy DOT Department of Transportation E85 85% Ethanol, 15% Gasoline EPA Environmental Protection Agency ExFIRS Excise Files Information Retrieval System ExSTARS Excise Summary Terminal Activity Reporting System FHWA Federal Highway Administration FTA Federation of Tax Administrators GAO General Accounting Office HTF Highway Trust Fund IFTA International Fuel Tax Agreement IM Interstate Maintenance IRS Internal Revenue Service LNG Liquid Natural Gases LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gases M85 85% Methanol, 15% Gasoline MTBE Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether NHS National Highway System ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory STP Surface Transportation Program

146

Why sequence ethene and vinyl chloride-oxidizing Mycobacterium strains?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sequence ethene and vinyl sequence ethene and vinyl chloride-oxidizing Mycobacterium strains? Mycobacteria are known for causing human and animal diseases but they are also important degraders of hard-to-break-down water contaminants such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). So far the handful of bacterial species representing the Mycobacterium genus that have been sequenced all break down PAHs. In this project, researchers focus on the genomes of mycobacterial species isolated from soil, freshwater and marine environments that use the alkene compounds ethene and vinyl chloride as carbon sources. Chlorinated ethene compounds are difficult to remove from contaminated groundwater but necessary because of their toxicity. Additionally these compounds reduce the ozone levels in the atmosphere.

147

Kinetics of liquid phase catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports the kinetics of the liquid phase catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether investigated. The experiments were carried out under low concentrations of feed in a 1-L stirred autoclave, according to a statistical experimental design. The inert liquid phase used for this investigation was a 78:22 blend of paraffinic and naphthenic mineral oils. A complete thermodynamic analysis was carried out in order to determine the liquid phase concentrations of the dissolved species. A global kinetic model was developed for the rate of dimethyl ether synthesis in terms of the liquid phase concentration of methanol. The activation energy of the reaction was found to be 18,830 cal/gmol. Based on a step-wise linear regression analysis of the kinetic data, the order of the reaction which gave the best fit was 0.28 with respect to methanol.

Gogate, M.R.; Lee, B.G.; Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Kulik, C.J. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

1996-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

149

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Rejai, Bahman (Lakewood, CO); Bain, Richard L. (Golden, CO); Overend, Ralph P. (Lakewood, CO)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Soluble, Infrared-Absorbing Croconate Dyes from 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylchalcogenopyrylium Salts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1 Although many squarylium dyes have limited solubility in organic solvents or in coated organic films, squarylium dyes 1 (Chart 1) derived from 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylchalcogenopyrylium salts (2)3 are soluble and have been coated in organic thin films for a variety of applications. ... The croconates are readily prepared, are soluble in organic solvents, and have absorption maxima that cover a broad range of laser emission lines from gallium?arsenide diode lasers (?820 nm) to the neodinium-YAG laser (1064 nm). ... The reaction mixture was poured into water (50 mL), and the product was extracted with hexanes (3 × 25 mL). ...

Todd P. Simard; Jian H. Yu; Jennifer M. Zebrowski-Young; Neil F. Haley; Michael R. Detty

2000-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

151

Molecular modeling of the morphology and transport properties of two direct methanol fuel cell membranes: phenylated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) versus Nafion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine membrane morphology and the transport of water, methanol and hydronium in phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) and Nafion membranes at 360 K for a range of hydration levels. At comparable hydration levels, the pore diameter is smaller, the sulfonate groups are more closely packed, the hydronium ions are more strongly bound to sulfonate groups, and the diffusion of water and hydronium is slower in Ph-SPEEKK relative to the corresponding properties in Nafion. The aromatic carbon backbone of Ph-SPEEKK is less hydrophobic than the fluorocarbon backbone of Nafion. Water network percolation occurs at a hydration level ({lambda}) of {approx}8 H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 3}{sup -}. At {lambda} = 20, water, methanol and hydronium diffusion coefficients were 1.4 x 10{sup -5}, 0.6 x 10{sup -5} and 0.2 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The pore network in Ph-SPEEKK evolves dynamically and develops wide pores for {lambda} > 20, which leads to a jump in methanol crossover and ion transport. This study demonstrates the potential of aromatic membranes as low-cost challengers to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications and the need to develop innovative strategies to combat methanol crossover at high hydration levels.

Devanathan, Ramaswami; Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Dupuis, Michel

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

152

2[prime] and 3[prime] Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. The carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of the compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells. No Drawings

Soloway, A.H.; Barth, R.F.; Anisuzzaman, A.K.; Alam, F.; Tjarks, W.

1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

Effect of solvents on the radiation-induced polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of solvents on the radiation-induced cationic polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers (EVE and IPVE, respectively) was investigated. EVE and IPVE polymerizations were carried out in bulk and in solution under superdry conditions in which polar impurities, especially water, have been reduced to negligible levels. This was accomplished by means of a sodium mirror technique using joint free baked out glass equipment and high vacuum. Plots of the monomer conversions and irradiation times were obtained for EVE and IPVE polymerizations in bulk and in benzene solution at constant monomer concentrations. The monomer concentration dependence of the polymerization rate was studied for EVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene, diethlyl ether, diglyme and methylene chloride, and for IPVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene. Solvent effect on the estimated propagating rate constants was examined for EVE and IPVE polymerization in bulk and in solution. The effect of temperature on the polymerization rate was also investigated for EVE polymerization in bulk ad in benzene, diethyl and diisopropyl ethers, methylene chloride and nitromethane, and for IPVE ploymerization in bulk and in benzene.

Hsieh, W.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Effect of use of low oxygenate gasoline blends upon emissions from California vehicles. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to investigate the emissions effects of low-oxygenate gasoline blends on exhaust and evaporative emissions from a test fleet of California certified light-duty autos. Thirteen vehicles were procured and tested using four gasoline-oxygenate blends over three test cycles. The four gasoline blends were: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and 'match' and 'splash' blends of ethanol (in the 'match' blend the fuel Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) is held constant, while in the 'splash' blend the fuel RVP is allowed to increase). Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide exhaust emissions were generally reduced for the oxygenated blends, the exception being the 'splash-blended' ethanol gasoline which showed mixed results. Older technology vehicles (e.g., non-catalyst and oxidation catalyst) showed the greatest emissions reductions regardless of gasoline blend, while later technology vehicles showed the smallest reductions. Evaporative emissions and toxics were generally reduced for ETBE, while results for the other blends were mixed.

Born, G.L.; Lucas, S.V.; Scott, R.D.; DeFries, T.H.; Kishan, S.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Assessing and Managing the Risks of Fuel Compounds: Ethanol Case Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have implemented a suite of chemical transport and fate models that provide diagnostic information about the behavior of ethanol (denoted EtOH) and other fuel-related chemicals released to the environment. Our principal focus is on the impacts to water resources, as this has been one of the key issues facing the introduction of new fuels and additives. We present analyses comparing the transport and fate of EtOH, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), and 2,2,4 trimethyl pentane (TMP) for the following cases (1) discharges to stratified lakes, subsurface release in a surficial soil, (3) cross-media transfer from air to ground water, and (4) fate in a regional landscape. These compounds have significantly different properties that directly influence their behavior in the environment. EtOH, for example, has a low Henry's law constant, which means that it preferentially partitions to the water phase instead of air. An advantageous characteristic of EtOH is its rapid biodegradation rate in water; unlike MTBE or TMP, which degrade slowly. As a consequence, EtOH does not pose a significant risk to water resources. Preliminary health-protective limits for EtOH in drinking water suggest that routine releases to the environment will not result in levels that threaten human health.

Layton, D.W.; Rice, D.W.

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

156

Advanced quadrupole ion trap instrumentation for low level vehicle emissions measurements. CRADA final report for number ORNL93-0238  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry has been evaluated for its potential use in vehicle emissions measurements in vehicle test facilities as an analyzer for the top 15 compounds contributing to smog generation. A variety of ionization methods were explored including ion trap in situ chemical ionization, atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, and nitric oxide chemical ionization in a glow discharge ionization source coupled with anion trap mass spectrometer. Emphasis was placed on the determination of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons at parts per million to parts per billion levels. Ion trap in situ water chemical ionization and atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization were both shown to be amenable to the analysis of arenes, alcohols, aldehydes and, to some degree, alkenes. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge also generated molecular ions of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE). Neither of these ionization methods, however, were found to generate diagnostic ions for the alkanes. Nitric oxide chemical ionization, on the other hand, was found to yield diagnostic ions for alkanes, alkenes, arenes, alcohols, aldehydes, and MTBE. The ability to measure a variety of hydrocarbons present at roughly 15 parts per billion at measurement rates of 3 Hz was demonstrated. These results have demonstrated that the ion trap has an excellent combination of sensitivity, specificity, speed, and flexibility with respect to the technical requirements of the top 15 analyzer.

McLuckey, S.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Asano, K.G.; Hart, K.J.; Goeringer, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dearth, M.A. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Environmental Research Consortium

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

A laser and molecular beam mass spectrometer study of low-pressure dimethyl ether flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) is studied in low-pressure flames using new molecular beam mass spectrometer and laser diagnostics. Two 30.0-Torr, premixed DME/oxygen/argon flames are investigated with stoichiometries of 0.98 and 1.20. The height above burner profiles of nine stable species and two radicals are measured. These results are compared to the detailed chemical reaction mechanism of Curran and coworkers. Generally good agreement is found between the model and data. The largest discrepancies are found for the methyl radical profiles where the model predicts qualitatively different trends in the methyl concentration with stoichiometry than observed in the experiment.

Andrew McIlroy; Toby D. Hain; Hope A. Michelsen; Terrill A. Cool

2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process. Peroxide formation of dimethyl ether in methanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organic peroxides could form when dimethyl ether in methanol is stored for three to six months at a time. The objective of this work was to determine the level of peroxide formation from dimethyl ether in reagent grade methanol and raw methanol at room temperature under 3 atmospheres (45 psig) of air. Raw methanol is methanol made from syngas by the LPMEOH Process without distillation. Aliphatic ethers tend to react slowly with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides. However, there are no reports on peroxide formation from dimethyl ether. After 172 days of testing, dimethyl ether in either reagent methanol or raw methanol at room temperature and under 60--70 psig pressure of air does not form detectable peroxides. Lack of detectable peroxides suggests that dimethyl ether or dimethyl ether and methanol may be stored at ambient conditions. Since the compositions of {approximately} 1.3 mol% or {approximately} 4.5 mol% dimethyl ether in methanol do not form peroxides, these compositions can be considered for diesel fuel or an atmospheric turbine fuel, respectively.

Waller, F.J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Flash photolysis resonance fluorescence investigation of the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals with cyclic ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Absolute rate constants were measured for the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals with a series of dioxanes and other cyclic ethers by using the flash photolysis resonance fluorescence technique. Kinetic data for 1,3-dioxane and 1,4-dioxane, reactions 1 and 2, over the temperature range 240-440 K were used to derive the Arrhenius expressions. These results are compared to our earlier measurements for aliphatic ethers and are discussed in terms of reaction mechanisms and the prediction of reaction rates for such compounds from group reactivity values.

Dagaut, P.; Liu, R.; Wallington, T.J.; Kurylo, M.J. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

1990-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

160

Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Title: Decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl-ether during CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of ethanol and dimethyl-ether during CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes Author list: Bo Hou (single-walled carbon nanotubes) was investigated. Gas-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and DME ethanol and DME decomposition, confirming expected reaction trends and primary byproducts. Peak

Maruyama, Shigeo

162

Environmental actions of agrochemicals 2. Histological effects of the herbicide/insecticide dinoseb-acetate (2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenyl acetate) on the spider miteTetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) reared on herbicidetreatedPhaseolus vulgaris  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pure herbicidal compound dinoseb-acetate (2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenyl acetate) and its commercial formulation Aretit® were tested for their effects on the spider miteTetranychus urticae L. (Acari, Tetranych...

Ursula Mothes-Wagner; Harald K. Reitze…

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Densities and isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria of butyl esters (methanoate to butanoate) with ethanol at 101.32 kPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor-liquid equilibrium and densities at 101.32 kPa have been determined for the binary systems formed by four butyl esters (from methanoate to butanoate) with ethanol. The four systems exhibit positive deviations from ideal behavior, and all data (p-T-x-y) were found to be thermodynamically consistent. The activity coefficients and the dimensionless function G{sup E}/RT of the solution were correlated with its concentration by different equations. Am azeotrope was found in the mixture butyl methanoate (1) + ethanol (2) at T = 350.9 K and x{sub 1} = y{sub 1} = 0.088. The group contribution models ASOG and modified UNIFAC gave fair predictions.

Gonzalez, E.; Ortega, J. [Univ. of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Direct hydro-liquefaction of sawdust in petroleum ether and comprehensive bio-oil products analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effect of temperature, time, hydrogen pressure and amount of catalyst on production distribution and the bio-oil yield obtained from the direct liquefaction of sawdust in the petroleum ether (60–90 °C) are investigated. The highest sawdust conversion obtained was 72.32% with a bio-oil yield of 47.69% were obtained at 370 °C, 40 min and 5wt.% catalyst content with the initial H2 pressure of 3.0 MPa. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) approach was utilized to analyze the non-volatile fraction. In this study, the composition of bio-oil could be analyzed in an unprecedented detail through a combination of GC–MS and FT-ICR MS techniques.

Dong Liu; Linhua Song; Pingping Wu; Yan Liu; Qingyin Li; Zifeng Yan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

166

Use of aluminum phosphate as the dehydration catalyst in single step dimethyl ether process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention pertains to a process for the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) directly from a synthesis gas in a single step (hereafter, the "single step DME process"). In this process, the synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon oxides is contacted with a dual catalyst system comprising a physical mixture of a methanol synthesis catalyst and a methanol dehydration catalyst. The present invention is an improvement to this process for providing an active and stable catalyst system. The improvement comprises the use of an aluminum phosphate based catalyst as the methanol dehydration catalyst. Due to its moderate acidity, such a catalyst avoids the coke formation and catalyst interaction problems associated with the conventional dual catalyst systems taught for the single step DME process.

Peng, Xiang-Dong (Allentown, PA); Parris, Gene E. (Coopersburg, PA); Toseland, Bernard A. (Allentown, PA); Battavio, Paula J. (Allentown, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Using Heteropolyacids in the Anode Catalyst Layer of Dimethyl Ether PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, polarization experiments were performed on a direct dimethyl ether fuel cell (DMEFC). The experimental setup allowed for independent control of water and DME flow rates. Thus the DME flow rate, backpressure, and water flow rate were optimized. Three heteropoly acids, phosphomolybdic acid (PMA), phosphotungstic acid (PTA), and silicotungstic acid (STA) were incorporated into the anode catalyst layer in combination with Pt/C. Both PTA-Pt and STA-Pt showed higher performance than the Pt control at 30 psig of backpressure. Anodic polarizations were also performed, and Tafel slopes were extracted from the data. The trends in the Tafel slope values are in agreement with the polarization data. The addition of phosphotungstic acid more than doubled the power density of the fuel cell, compared to the Pt control.

Ferrell III, J. R.; Turner, J. A.; Herring, A. M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Use of ferric sulfate: acid media for the desulfurization of model compounds of coal. [Dibenzothiophene, diphenyl sulfide, di-n-butyl sulfide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work has been to investigate the ability of ferric sulfate-acid leach systems to oxidize the sulfur in model compounds of coal. Ferric iron-acid leach systems have been shown to be quite effective at removal of inorganic sulfur in coal. In this study, the oxidative effect of ferric iron in acid-leach systems was studied using dibenzothiophene, diphenyl sulfide, and di-n-butyl sulfide as models of organic sulfur groups in coal. Nitrogen and oxygen, as well as various transition metal catalysts and oxidants, were utilized in this investigation. Dibenzothiophene was found to be quite refractory to oxidation, except in the case where metavanadate was added, where it appears that 40% oxidation to sulfone could have occurred per hour at 150/sup 0/C and mild oxygen pressure. Diphenyl sulfide was selectively oxidized to sulfoxide and sulfone in an iron and oxygen system. Approximately 15% conversion to sulfone occurred per hour under these conditions. Some of the di-n-butyl sulfide was cracked to 1-butene and 1-butanethiol under similar conditions. Zinc chloride and ferric iron were used at 200/sup 0/C in an attempt to desulfonate dibenzothiophene sulfone, diphenyl sulfone, and di-n-butyl sulfone. Di-n-butyl sulfone was completely desulfurized on one hour and fragmented to oxidized parafins, while dibenzothiophene sulfone and diphenyl sulfone were unaffected. These results suggest that an iron-acid leach process could only selectively oxidize aryl sulfides under mild conditions, representing only 20% of the organic sulfur in coal (8% of the total sulfur). Removal through desulfonation once selective sulfur oxidation had occurred was only demonstrated for alkyl sulfones, with severe oxidation of the fragmented paraffins also occurring in one hour.

Clary, L.R.; Vermeulen, T.; Lynn, S.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Identification of volatile butyl rubber thermal-oxidative degradation products by cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical structure and physical properties of materials, such as polymers, can be altered as aging progresses, which may result in a material that is ineffective for its envisioned intent. Butyl rubber formulations, starting material, and additives were aged under thermal-oxidative conditions for up to 413 total days at up to 124 %C2%B0C. Samples included: two formulations developed at Kansas City Plant (KCP) (%236 and %2310), one commercially available formulation (%2321), Laxness bromobutyl 2030 starting material, and two additives (polyethylene AC-617 and Vanax MBM). The low-molecular weight volatile thermal-oxidative degradation products that collected in the headspace over the samples were preconcentrated, separated, and detected using cryofocusing gas chromatography mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS). The majority of identified degradation species were alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes. Observations for Butyl %2310 aged in an oxygen-18 enriched atmosphere (18O2) were used to verify when the source of oxygen in the applicable degradation products was from the gaseous environment rather than the polymeric mixture. For comparison purposes, Butyl %2310 was also aged under non-oxidative thermal conditions using an argon atmosphere.

Smith, Jonell Nicole; White, Michael Irvin; Bernstein, Robert; Hochrein, James Michael

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

for and moving more ethanol to the East Coast and Texas, converting terminal tanks from petroleum to ethanol, adding blending equipment at many terminals, and finding...

172

Sulfobutyl Ether b-Cyclodextrin (SBE-b-CD) in Eyedrops Improves the Tolerability of a Topically Applied Pilocarpine Prodrug in Rabbits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effects of a novel, modified ?-cyclodextrin (SBE4-?-CD; a variably substituted sulfobutyl ether with an average degree of substitution of four) on eye irritation and miotic response of an ophthalmically applied pilocarpine ...

Stella, Valentino J.; Jä rvinen, Tomi; Jä rvinen, Kristina; Thompson, Diame; Urtti, Arto

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Ether* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Reformulated Blended with Fuel Ethanol Reformulated, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Less than 0.31 Percent Sulfur 0.31 to 1.00 Percent Sulfur Greater than 1.00 Percent Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Marketable Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Units: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

174

CRC fuel rating program: road octane performance of oxygenates in 1982 model cars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of the widespread interest in the use of alcohols and ethers as gasoline blending components, this program was conducted to evaluate the effects of several oxygenates on gasoline octane performance and to evaluate the effects of car design features such as engine and transmission type. Five oxygenates were evaluated at two nominal concentrations, 5 and 10 volume%, at both regular- and premium-grade octane levels: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (ETOH), isopropanol (IPA), tertiary butanol (TBA), and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). A blend of 5% MeOH and 5 percent TBA was also tested at both octane levels. Twenty-eight unleaded fuels, including four hydrocarbon fuels, two hydrocarbon fuels plus toluene, and twenty-two oxygenated fuels, were rated in duplicate in thirty-eight cars using the Modified Uniontown Technique (CRC Designation F-28-75 described in Appendix C), plus some additional instructions. All testing was done on chassis dynamometers. Ratings were obtained at full throttle with all thirty-eight cars, and at the most critical part-throttle condition (occurring with manifold vacuum of 4 in. Hg (13.5 kPa) or greater above the full-throttle vacuum) with nine cars.

Not Available

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Solvent Extraction Behavior of Neptunium (IV) Ions between Nitric Acid and Diluted 30% Tri-butyl Phosphate in the Presence of Simple Hydroxamic Acids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Formo- and aceto-hydroxamic acids are very effective reagents for stripping tetravalent actinide ions such as Np(IV) and Pu(IV) ions from a tri-butyl phosphate phase into nitric acid. Distribution data for Np(IV) in the presence of these hydroxamate ions have now been accumulated and trends established. Stability constants for aceto-hydroxamate complexes of Np(IV) and Np(V) ions have also been determined in a perchlorate medium, and these reaffirm the affinity of hydroxamate ligands for actinide (IV) ions over actinyl (V,VI) ions.

Taylor, Robin J.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Choppin, Gregory R.; May, Iain

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

An evaluation of the 3M Organic Vapor Monitor #3500 as a short term exposure limit sampling device for acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl iso butyl ketone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. An exploded view of the monitor is illustrated in Figure 1. The theory of diffusive sampling considers a concentration gra- dient between the ambient air and the adsorbent to be the driving force for sampling. For the adsorption to be controlled by diffu...AN EVALUATION OF THE 3M ORGANIC VAPOR MONITOR 43500 AS A SHOR'I TERM EXPOSURE LIMIT SAMPLING DEVICE FOR ACETONE, METHYL ETHYL KETONE, AND METHYL ISO BUTYL KETONE A Thesis by LLOYD B. ANDREW III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM...

Andrew, Lloyd B.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

177

A New Flow Control Technique Using Diluted Epinephrine in the N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate Embolization of Visceral Artery Pseudoaneurysms Secondary to Chronic Pancreatitis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) has been used as an effective liquid embolization material, its indication for pseudoaneurysms has seemingly been limited because of the technical difficulties of using NBCA, such as reflux to the parent artery and causing significant infarction. Thus, considerable skill in using NBCA or a device to control blood flow during its polymerization is required to achieve embolization without severe complications. We report our new technique for controlling blood flow using diluted epinephrine in transcatheter arterial NBCA embolization of five pseudoaneurysms in four cases secondary to hemosuccus pancreaticus.

Morishita, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hmorif@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Yamagami, Takuji [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science (Japan); Takeuchi, Yoshito [National Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Sato, Hideki [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology (Japan); Taniguchi, Fumihiro [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Surgery (Japan); Sato, Osamu [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science (Japan)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase induction of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in H4IIE cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction potencies of 29 polychlorinated diphenyl ethers were determined in the rat hepatoma H4IIE cell bioassay and compared with that of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Two polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were included as additional reference substances. PCDE congeners tested were PCDEs 47, 66, 77, 85, 99, 105, 118, 126, 128, 137, 138, 140, 147, 153, 154, 156, 157, 167, 170, 180, 181, 182, 190, 194, 195, 196, 197, 203 and 206. The purity of these congeners was > 99%. Because several of these congeners induced EROD activity when tested at high concentrations, the amount of PCDD and PCDF impurities of these active PCDEs was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The activity of the active PCDEs was concluded to be mainly due to contamination with 2,3,7,8-chloro substituted PCDFS, because after an additional clean-up on a Florisil column, which removes PCDDs and PCDFs, only three PCDEs (156, 180, 194) remained active. The potencies of PCDEs 156, 180 and 194 (TEF {approximately} 10{sup {minus}6}), however, were about 100-fold less than that of PCB 77 (TEF {approximately} 10{sup {minus}4}). The poor induction potencies of the non- and mono-ortho-PCDEs indicates that PCDEs do not have structure-activity relationships analogous to those of PCBs. If the authors use EROD inducing potency in H4IIE cells as a relative measure of potential Ah receptor-mediated toxic potency, the PCDEs in the study would be expected to be less toxic than analogous PCBs and considerably less-toxic than certain PCDDs and PCDFs.

Koistinen, J.; Sanderson, J.T.; Giesy, J.P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Nevalainen, T.; Paasivirta, J. [Univ. of Jyvaskyla (Finland)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

179

Mechanistic Investigation of Acid-Catalyzed Cleavage of Aryl-Ether Linkages: Implications for Lignin Depolymerization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon-oxygen bonds are the primary inter-monomer linkages lignin polymers in plant cell walls, and as such, catalyst development to cleave these linkages is of paramount importance to deconstruct biomass to its constituent monomers for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. For many decades, acid catalysis has been used to depolymerize lignin. Lignin is a primary component of plant cell walls, which is connected primarily by aryl-ether linkages, and the mechanism of its deconstruction by acid is not well understood, likely due to its heterogeneous and complex nature compared to cellulose. For effective biomass conversion strategies, utilization of lignin is of significant relevance and as such understanding the mechanisms of catalytic lignin deconstruction to constituent monomers and oligomers is of keen interest. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the acid catalysis of a range of dimeric species exhibiting the b-O-4 linkage, the most common inter-monomer linkage in lignin. We demonstrate that the presence of a phenolic species dramatically increases the rate of cleavage in acid at 150 degrees C. Quantum mechanical calculations on dimers with the para-hydroxyl group demonstrate that this acid-catalyzed pathway differs from the nonphenolic dimmers. Importantly, this result implies that depolymerization of native lignin in the plant cell wall will proceed via an unzipping mechanism wherein b-O-4 linkages will be cleaved from the ends of the branched, polymer chains inwards toward the center of the polymer. To test this hypothesis further, we synthesized a homopolymer of b-O-4 with a phenolic hydroxyl group, and demonstrate that it is cleaved in acid from the end containing the phenolic hydroxyl group. This result suggests that genetic modifications to lignin biosynthesis pathways in plants that will enable lower severity processes to fractionate lignin for upgrading and for easier access to the carbohydrate fraction of the plant cell wall.

Sturgeon, M. R.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

The lightness of being: mass, ether, and unification of the forces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

How can an electron be both a wave and a particle? At the same time? Because it is a quantum field. That key insight seems to be underappreciated, given the awe and mysticism that permeate most nontechnical discussions of modern physics. Perhaps the root of the problem is that most popularizations of quantum mechanics and of particle physics shy away from quantized fields, the natural language for microscopic phenomena. In 'The Lightness of Being: Mass, Ether, and the Unification of Forces', Frank Wilczek confronts quantum field theory head on, demystifying not only wave-particle duality but also the origin of mass for hadrons (that is, everyday matter). Wilczek is the Herman Feshbach Professor of Physics at MIT and a co-recipient of the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. His research has spanned almost all aspects of theoretical particle physics, with significant forays into condensed-matter physics and dense nuclear matter (condensed quark matter, one might say). Recurring themes are the richness of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the alluring ideas of unification. His breadth and depth make him a sought after speaker for colloquia and public lectures. Wilczek also contributes an occasional Reference Frame column to 'Physics Today'. The material in 'The Lightness of Being' reflects the scope of the author's research. The book consists of three parts: the quantum fields of QCD (the ether that makes mass), gravitation (the ether that feels mass), and unification. Part 1, which traces notions of mass from Isaac Newton's time through theoretical and computational results of the past 40 years, is the most substantial and original; it is rich, modern, and rooted in observed phenomena. Part 2 continues in the same vein as it connects gravity, also an observed phenomenon, to QCD. Part 3 is more conventional, for a popularization of particle physics, in its focus on speculative ideas that (still) await direct experimental tests. Readers of 'Physics Today' will know that Wilczek can write with wit, grace, and an uncanny facility for using lightweight language to express heavy-duty ideas. They will find much of that kind of writing in 'The Lightness of Being'. Wilczek addresses subtle ideas with vim and vigor. He avoids some of the jargon of quantum field theory; for example, he calls the vertex in a Feynman diagram a hub. In more ambitious terminology, he refers to space-filling, everfluctuating quantum fields--be they electrons, quarks, gluons, or gravity--as 'the Grid'. The term is supposed to be short and familiar, evoking the ubiquitous electric grid (and soon-to-beubiquitous computing grid). It also, for the expert, cleverly alludes to lattice gauge theory. Indeed, after vividly explaining how the dynamics of QCD and the constraints of Heisenberg uncertainty conspire to create mass from the Grid, Wilczek emphasizes that the picture is backed by lattice QCD computations of 'heroic' proportions. Unfortunately, too much of 'The Lightness' is laden with clunky affectation: silly names (a pulsed electron accelerator is called the 'ultrastroboscopic nanomicroscope'), sophomoric jokes ('hadron' is 'not a typo'), references to pop culture (Wilczek might have called quantum fields 'the Matrix, but the sequels tarnished that candidate'), and many pointless footnotes. In a public lecture the audience may guffaw at such jokes, but on the printed page they fall flat. Wilczek explains physics so well that the inappropriate humor is the biggest unexplained puzzle of the book. It is fine to be silly, even crude, as long as the reader's path to understanding is made easier. A joke can inform with an unexpected perspective or simply give the mind a pause to refresh. Some of the humor achieves such aims, but too many gags impede the pace of the otherwise fine exposition. Three appendices, a glossary, and a set of endnotes are crisp and sober. They are excellent. 'The Lightness of Being' is not unbearable, but it is weighed down with too much clutter to rank as a masterpiece. It's a pity: Wilczek's best writing--some of it in this book--is l

Kronfeld, Andreas S.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Distribution of glycerol ether lipids in the oxygen minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The distributions of microbial glycerol ether lipids in suspended particulate matter in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean (ETNP) were investigated. Nine groups of glycerol ether core lipids were detected and quantified: isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) (iso-GDGTs), isoprenoid glycerol dialkanol diethers (iso-GDDs) and hydroxylated isoprenoid \\{GDGTs\\} and \\{GDDs\\} (OH-GDGTs and OH-GDDs) of archaeal origin; branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (br-GDGTs) of bacterial origin and overly branched \\{GDGTs\\} (OB-GDGTs), sparsely branched \\{GDGTs\\} (SB-GDGTs), hybrid isoprenoid/branched \\{GDGTs\\} (IB-GDGTs) and a tentatively assigned H-shaped GDGT (H-1020) of unknown biological origin. The archaeal iso-GDGTs were the most abundant core lipids (89% of total), followed by iso-GDDs (4%), br-GDGTs (2%) and OH-GDGTs (1%). Archaeal intact polar \\{GDGTs\\} (IP GDGTs), including both mono- and diglycosidic iso-GDGTs, had depth profiles similar to OH-GDGTs and OH-GDDs, with a maximum concentration in the upper OMZ and secondary peaks in the mid and lower OMZ, suggesting similar but multiple planktonic sources. Core lipids of iso-GDGTs and other glycerol ethers showed deviating concentration profiles compared with IP \\{GDGTs\\} and OH-GDGTs and were most abundant in the mid OMZ. This is the first report of OH-GDDs, OB-GDGTs, SB-GDGTs, IB-GDGTs and H-1020 in the marine water column and the distribution patterns of these “orphan lipids” suggest that anaerobic planktonic microbes are their main source.

Sitan Xie; Xiao-Lei Liu; Florence Schubotz; Stuart G. Wakeham; Kai-Uwe Hinrichs

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

E-Print Network 3.0 - allyl methacrylate styrene Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tetrachloroethylene () Cyclohexanol () Cyclohexanone ()1- 1-Butyl alcohol ()2... ;() Acrolein () Acrylic acid () Allyl zlcohol () Allyl chloride () Allyl glycidyl ether(AGE) ()2-...

183

TABLE33.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

products are reported by the PAD District of entry. b Includes crude oil imported for storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. c Includes ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE),...

184

TABLE34.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

products are reported by the PAD District of entry. b Includes crude oil imported for storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. c Includes ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE),...

185

Use of Nonionic Poly(Ethylene glycol) p-Isooctyl-Phenyl Ether (Triton X-100) Surfactant Mobile Phases in the Thin-Layer Chromatography of Heavy-Metal Cations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Article The analytical potential of poly(ethylene glycol) p-isooctyl-phenyl ether...40, March 2002 Use of Nonionic Poly(Ethylene glycol) p-Isooctyl-Phenyl Ether...Bidlingmeyer, S.N. Deming, W.P. Price, B. Sachok, and M. Petrusek. Retention......

Ali Mohammad; Eram Iraqi; Iftkhar Alam Khan

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Chemical Recycling of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol and Dimethyl Ether: From Greenhouse Gas to Renewable, Environmentally Carbon Neutral Fuels and Synthetic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical Recycling of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol and Dimethyl Ether: From Greenhouse Gas to Renewable, Environmentally Carbon Neutral Fuels and Synthetic Hydrocarbons ... (1, 3-6) Methanol and derived dimethyl ether (DME) are also excellent fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE) and in a new generation of direct oxidation methanol fuel cells (DMFC), as well as convenient starting materials for producing light olefins (ethylene and propylene) and subsequently practically any derived hydrocarbon product. ... Methanol produced this way was used in the 19th century for lighting, cooking, and heating purposes but was later replaced by cheaper fuels, especially kerosene. ...

George A. Olah; Alain Goeppert; G. K. Surya Prakash

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

187

Experimental investigation on thermal barrier coated diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel-ethanol-diethyl ether blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present work diesel-biodiesel-ethanol (DBE) and diesel-biodiesel-diethyl ether (DBD) fuels are tested with normal diesel engine and the diesel engine coated with the layers of aluminum oxide (Al 2O3) of 0.3?mm and yttria-stabilized zirconia of 0.2?mm. The various performance and emission parameters are analyzed and determined. The experimental work was carried out in a single cylinder water cooled engine coupled with eddy current dynamometer. The AVL make five gas analyzer and smoke meter were used to measure the different exhaust pollutants. The result shows that the brake thermal efficiency of coated engine is more than that of base diesel at high loads. The thermal barrier coated engine using fuel as diesel biodiesel and ethanol (TDBE) produces the lowest carbon monoxide (CO) emissions among all the fuels that are selected. In addition it produces the lowest carbon dioxide (CO2) at higher loads. Both the thermal barrier coated engine using fuel as diesel biodiesel and diethyl ether (TDBD) and TDBE have higher NOx emissions among almost all the fuels used. The TDBE and TDBD have higher smoke emissions at initial loads but eventually show lower smoke emissions at higher loads. The thermal barrier coated diesel engine fueled with DBE and DBD shows an increase in engine power and specific fuel consumption as well as significant improvements in exhaust gas emissions except NOx.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Modeling of the simultaneous extraction of nitric acid and uranyl nitrate with tri-n-butyl phosphate. Application to extraction operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A mathematical model developed for the equilibrium HNO{sub 3}-UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}-tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)-diluent is the basis of the computation of distribution isotherms. The isotherms are used to study the influence of TBP concentration on two chosen operation parameters, distribution coefficients and number of theoretical stages, for the selected flow sheets. It is established that an increase in TBP concentration leads to a decrease in the number of theoretical stages for the extraction flow sheets but to their increase for the striping flow sheets. Given diagrams can be used to determine the efficiency of extraction processes. Agreement with available literature calculations on the number of theoretical stages supports the use of the model in the computation of distribution isotherms, of the system quoted above, in a wide range of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and TBP concentrations.

Comor, J.J.; Tolic, A.S.; Kopecni, M.M.; Petkovic, D.M. [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Chemical Dynamics Lab.] [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Chemical Dynamics Lab.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

(2/94)(2-4,9/95)(7/97)(11,12/98)(1,9,11/99) Neuman Chapter 3 Haloalkanes, Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Ethers, and Amines from Organic Chemistry by Robert C. Neuman, Jr. Professor of Chemistry, emeritus://web.chem.ucsb.edu/~neuman/orgchembyneuman/> Chapter Outline of the Book ************************************************************************************** I. Foundations 1. Organic Molecules and Chemical Bonding 2. Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 3. Haloalkanes

Reed, Christopher A.

190

Role of Endocytosis in the Action of Ether Lipids on WEHI-3B, HL60, and FDCP-Mix A4 Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Lipid by WEHI-3B Cells Has an Energy- dependent and an Energy-independent Component. Uptake...protective agents, suggested that the energy-dependent component of ether...of ET-18-OCH., by FDCP-mix A4 cells was measured, it was...

G. W. Bazill and T. M. Dexter

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Reactions of 15-crown-5 and bis-15-crown-5 ethers with metal acetylacetonate ions in the gas phase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was carried out on the ion-molecule reactions of ions arising in the dissociation of ferric, cobaltic, chromic, manganous, neodymium(II), gallium(III), and indium(III) acetylacetonates upon electron impact with 15-crown-5 and bis-15-crown-5. The ratio of the yields of (acac)x-1 /SUP M+L/ ions is determined by the case of reduction of M /SUP x+1+/ to M /SUP x+/ and for (acac)/sub 3/M complexes, this ratio decreases in the series Nd, In, GA > Cr > Fe, Co. The rate constant for the formation of acacCoL/sup +/ ions is greater than for acacFeL/sup +/ ions. The possibility of fixing transition metals in unstable oxidation states by crown ethers is demonstrated in the case of nickel.

Timofeev, O.S.; Bogatskii, A.V.; Gren, A.I.; Lobach, A.V.; Nekarsov, Y.S.; Zagorevskii, D.V.

1985-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

192

Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

193

Single-Step Syngas-to-Dimethyl Ether Processes for Optimal Productivity, Minimal Emissions, and Natural Gas-Derived Syngas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Single-step conversion of synthesis gas (syngas, H2/CO mixture) to dimethyl ether (DME, CH3OCH3) is very attractive as a route for indirect coal liquefaction, natural gas utilization, and production of synthetic liquid fuels, fuel additives, and chemicals. ... The main driving force for developing a single-step syngas-to-DME process is to produce DME at a cost lower than that from the commercially available two-step process, namely, syngas-to-methanol followed by methanol dehydration in sequential reactors. ... Furthermore, the composition of most commercially available syngas (except that produced by a CO2?methane reformer) is not the optimal composition (1:1 H2:CO) for the syngas-to-DME reactor. ...

X. D. Peng; A. W. Wang; B. A. Toseland; P. J. A. Tijm

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

194

Ethynyl terminated ethers. Synthesis and thermal characterization of 2,2 bis (ethynyl-4-phenylcarbonyl-4-phenoxy-4-phenyl) propane and 2,2 bis (ethynyl-4-phenylsulfonyl-4-phenoxy-4-phenyl) propane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two ethynyl end-capped ethers 2,2 Bis [ethynyl-4-phenylsulfonyl-4-phenoxy-4-phenyl] propane and 2,2 Bis [ethynyl-4-phenylcarbonyl-4-phenoxy-4-phenyl] propane have been prepared by a three steps...

Georges Lucotte; Laurent Cormier; Bruno Delfort

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Efficient production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural through the dehydration of sugars with caprolactam hydrogen sulfate ([CPL]HSO4) ionic liquid catalyst in a water/proprylene glycol monomethyl ether mixed solvent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) through the dehydration of sugars...4) ionic liquid or using metal halide as the co-catalyst in a new water/proprylene glycol monomethyl ether solvent system....

Pingzhen Huang; Aijuan Gu; Jinxing Wang

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Fluctuating micro-heterogeneity in water–tert-butyl alcohol mixtures and lambda-type divergence of the mean cluster size with phase transition-like multiple anomalies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water–tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) binary mixture exhibits a large number of thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies. These anomalies are observed at surprisingly low TBA mole fraction, with x{sub TBA} ? 0.03–0.07. We demonstrate here that the origin of the anomalies lies in the local structural changes that occur due to self-aggregation of TBA molecules. We observe a percolation transition of the TBA molecules at x{sub TBA} ? 0.05. We note that “islands” of TBA clusters form even below this mole fraction, while a large spanning cluster emerges above that mole fraction. At this percolation threshold, we observe a lambda-type divergence in the fluctuation of the size of the largest TBA cluster, reminiscent of a critical point. Alongside, the structure of water is also perturbed, albeit weakly, by the aggregation of TBA molecules. There is a monotonic decrease in the tetrahedral order parameter of water, while the dipole moment correlation shows a weak nonlinearity. Interestingly, water molecules themselves exhibit a reverse percolation transition at higher TBA concentration, x{sub TBA} ? 0.45, where large spanning water clusters now break-up into small clusters. This is accompanied by significant divergence of the fluctuations in the size of largest water cluster. This second transition gives rise to another set of anomalies around. Both the percolation transitions can be regarded as manifestations of Janus effect at small molecular level.

Banerjee, Saikat; Furtado, Jonathan; Bagchi, Biman, E-mail: bbagchi@sscu.iisc.ernet.in [SSCU, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)] [SSCU, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

197

Transport study of hafnium(IV) and zirconium(IV) ions mutual separation by using Tri-n-butyl phosphate-xylene-based supported liquid membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Hf transport study through supported liquid membranes has been carried out to determine flux and permeability data for this metal ion. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)-xylene-based liquid membranes supported in polypropylene hydrophobic microporous film have been used. These data for hafnium and the previous data for zirconium have furnished the Zr to Hf flux ratio (S) as a function of nitric acid and TBP concentrations of the order of 12 in a single stage at room temperature. Optimum conditions for the separation of these two metal ions appear to 5-6 TBP mol/dm{sup 3} HNO{sub 3}, concentrations {le} 2.93 mol/dm{sup 3}, and 10C. The value of S from an aqueous solution containing 2.4% Hf with respect to Zr has been found to be >125 at 10C and 1.78 mol/dm{sup 3} TBP concentration in the membrane. The technique appears to be feasible for purification of Zr respect to Hf or vice versa.

Chaudry, M.A.; Ahmed, B. (Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Low-temperature CVD of iron, cobalt, and nickel nitride thin films from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin films of late transition metal nitrides (where the metal is iron, cobalt, or nickel) are grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia. These metal nitrides are known to have useful mechanical and magnetic properties, but there are few thin film growth techniques to produce them based on a single precursor family. The authors report the deposition of metal nitride thin films below 300?°C from three recently synthesized M[N(t-Bu){sub 2}]{sub 2} precursors, where M?=?Fe, Co, and Ni, with growth onset as low as room temperature. Metal-rich phases are obtained with constant nitrogen content from growth onset to 200?°C over a range of feedstock partial pressures. Carbon contamination in the films is minimal for iron and cobalt nitride, but similar to the nitrogen concentration for nickel nitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the incorporated nitrogen is present as metal nitride, even for films grown at the reaction onset temperature. Deposition rates of up to 18?nm/min are observed. The film morphologies, growth rates, and compositions are consistent with a gas-phase transamination reaction that produces precursor species with high sticking coefficients and low surface mobilities.

Cloud, Andrew N.; Abelson, John R., E-mail: abelson@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 201 Materials Science and Engineering Building, 1304 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Davis, Luke M.; Girolami, Gregory S., E-mail: girolami@scs.illinois.edu [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

199

Fluctuating micro-heterogeneity in water - tert-butyl alcohol mixtures and lambda-type divergence of the mean cluster size with phase transition-like multiple anomalies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water - tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) binary mixture exhibits a large number of thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies. These anomalies are observed at surprisingly low TBA mole fraction, with $x_{\\text{TBA}} \\approx 0.03 - 0.07$. We demonstrate here that the origin of the anomalies lies in the local structural changes that occur due to self-aggregation of TBA molecules. We observe a percolation transition of the TBA molecules at $x_{\\text{TBA}} \\approx 0.05$. We note that "islands" of TBA clusters form even below this mole fraction, while a large spanning cluster emerges above that mole fraction. At this percolation threshold, we observe a lambda-type divergence in the fluctuation of the size of the largest TBA cluster, reminiscent of a critical point. Alongside, the structure of water is also perturbed, albeit weakly, by the aggregation of TBA molecules. There is a monotonic decrease in the tetrahedral order parameter of water, while the dipole moment correlation shows a weak non-linearity. Interestingly, water molecules themselves exhibit a reverse percolation transition at higher TBA concentration, $x_{\\text{TBA}} \\approx 0.45$, where large spanning water clusters now break-up into small clusters. This is accompanied by significant divergence of the fluctuations in the size of largest water cluster. This second transition gives rise to another set of anomalies around. Both the percolation transitions can be regarded as manifestations of Janus effect at small molecular level.

Saikat Banerjee; Jonathan Furtado; Biman Bagchi

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

200

Advances in the design of co-poly(ether-imide) membranes for CO2 separations. Influence of aromatic rigidity on crystallinity, phase segregation and gas transport  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In our previous works, it was observed a clear relationship between the structure and the properties for different copoly(ether-imide)s, besides a good relation was found between SAXS characterization and permeability results. Here, a series of aliphatic aromatic copoly(ether-imide)s, based on an aromatic diamine (ODA), a diamine terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO2000) of a molecular weight of 2000 g/mol and different aromatic dianhydrides (BPDA, BKDA (or BTDA) and PMDA) has been synthesized and characterized. The permeability for O2, N2, CO2 and CH4, increased with the rigidity of the monomers (BKDA CO2/N2 separation. This work gives indications on how to design advanced materials for this separation with the increasing possibilities of controlled structure and properties.

Alberto Tena; Ángel Marcos-Fernández; Mónica de la Viuda; Laura Palacio; Pedro Prádanos; Ángel E. Lozano; Javier de Abajo; Antonio Hernández

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2000 - International  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

international energy module (IEM) consists of four submodules (Figure 4) that perform the following functions: international energy module (IEM) consists of four submodules (Figure 4) that perform the following functions: world oil market submodule—calculates the average annual world oil price (imported refiner acquisition cost) that is consistent with worldwide petroleum demand and supply availability crude oil supply submodule—provides im- ported crude oil supply curves for five crude oil quality classes petroleum products supply submodule—pro- vides imported refined product supply curves for eleven types of refined products oxygenates supply submodule—provides imported oxygenates supply curves for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and methanol. Figure 4. International Energy Module Structure The world oil price that is generated by the world oil market submodule is used by all the modules of NEMS as well as the other submodules of IEM. The import supply curves for crude oils, refined products, and oxygenates are used by the petroleum market module.

202

U.S. Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total Input 1,184,435 1,522,193 1,850,204 2,166,784 2,331,109 2,399,318 2005-2012 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 3,445 5,686 6,538 7,810 10,663 2008-2012 Pentanes Plus 2,012 474 1,808 1,989 2,326 4,164 2005-2012 Liquid Petroleum Gases 2,971 3,878 4,549 5,484 6,499 2008-2012 Normal Butane 2,943 2,971 3,878 4,549 5,484 6,499 2005-2012 Isobutane 2005-2006 Other Liquids 1,518,748 1,844,518 2,160,246 2,323,299 2,388,655 2008-2012 Oxygenates/Renewables 234,047 274,974 286,837 295,004 2009-2012 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 2005-2006 Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) 234,047 274,974 286,837 295,004 2009-2012 Fuel Ethanol 131,810 182,772 232,677 273,107 281,507 287,433 2005-2012

203

U.S. Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total Input 206,541 217,867 212,114 216,075 219,783 208,203 2005-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 891 352 376 196 383 1,397 2008-2013 Pentanes Plus 261 301 313 67 287 393 2005-2013 Liquid Petroleum Gases 630 51 63 129 96 1,004 2008-2013 Normal Butane 630 51 63 129 96 1,004 2005-2013 Isobutane 2005-2006 Other Liquids 205,650 217,515 211,738 215,879 219,400 206,806 2008-2013 Oxygenates/Renewables 25,156 26,576 26,253 26,905 27,788 25,795 2009-2013 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 2005-2006 Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) 25,156 26,576 26,253 26,905 27,788 25,795 2009-2013 Fuel Ethanol 24,163 25,526 24,804 25,491 25,970 24,116 2005-2013

204

The conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels using the Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The natural gas and energy industries have long sought an economically attractive means of converting remote gas reserves into transportable products, such as fuels or petrochemicals. Applicable gas sources include: undeveloped gas fields in locations so remote that pipeline construction is prohibitively expensive and associated gas from oil wells that is either flared, which is becoming environmentally unacceptable in many parts of the world, or reinjected, which is costly. Projects which have been developed to exploit such feeds typically have converted the gas into one of the following: (1) liquefied natural gas (LNG)--the process plants for LNG production are expensive, need to be very large to be economically viable, have costly dedicated shipping requirements, and suffer from a limited market concentrated in few countries; (2) methanol--the market for petrochemical feedstock methanol is limited, for use as a fuel, further downstream processing is needed, for example in a methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or methanol to gasoline (MTG) unit. Clearly, there is a need for an alternative that produces high quality fuels or value added products that can be transported to far-off markets, while yielding an attractive return on the developers` investment. The Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate Process will fulfill this need.

Silverman, R.W. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Cambridge, MA (United States); Hill, C.R. [Sastech, Johannesburg (South Africa)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

205

Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Exports Exports Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Naphtha for Petro. Feed. Use Other Oils Petro. Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

206

he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert- butyl, the September 15, 1999, Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Oxygenates in Gasoline (1) states that between 5 with large releases (e.g., LUFTs). Unprecedented growth in use Use of MTBE as a gasoline additive began

207

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in U.S. Sewage Sludges and Biosolids: Temporal and Geographical Trends and Uptake by Corn Following Land Application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Robert C. Hale *, Mark J. La Guardia , Ellen Harvey , Da Chen , Thomas M. Mainor , and Drew R. Luellen , ... An internal standard (decachlorodiphenyl ether) was added and the final extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with electron-capture negative chemical ionization (EC-NCI). ... This work surveyed PBDE in spruce needles and air (gaseous and particle-bound) over an annual cycle to model PBDE accumulation in vegetation. ...

Robert C. Hale; Mark J. La Guardia; Ellen Harvey; Da Chen; Thomas M. Mainor; Drew R. Luellen; Lakhwinder S. Hundal

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

208

Design and synthesis of the next generation of crown ethers for waste separations: An inter-laboratory comprehensive proposal. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

'The purpose of this task is to undertake the design, synthesis, and characterization of the next generation of crown ethers for metal-ion separations applicable to USDOE''s environmental needs. Target problems include: Li{sup +} ions leaching from burial sites at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; fission products 90 Sr and {sup 137}Cs contaminating high-level tank wastes at Hanford, INEEL, and Savannah River; and radium in wastes at the Niagara Falls Storage Site. Unfortunately, the technologies needed to address these problems either do not exist or exhibit substantial deficiencies. Separation techniques such as solvent extraction and ion exchange promise to play a strong role, especially as enhanced with highly selective crown ethers and calixarenes. This project is midway through year 2 of a 3-year effort. Below is given a summary of progress in the approximate period September, 1997, to May, 1998, for each of the four co-investigators at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the University of Tennessee (UTK). The overall approach entails utilization of theory and molecular modeling (PNNL), organic synthesis of novel crown compounds (ORNL), solvent extraction studies (ORNL and ANL), and studies of polymer-immobilized crown ethers (UTK).'

Moyer, B.A.; Hay, B.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Sachleben, R.A.; Chiarizia, R.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Promoting effect of polyoxyethylene octylphenol ether on Cu/ZnO catalysts for low-temperature methanol synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cu/ZnO catalysts were prepared by the co-precipitation method with the addition of OP-10 (polyoxyethylene octylphenol ether) and were chemically and structurally characterized by means of XRD, BET, H2-TPR, CO-TPD and N2O-titration. The effect of OP-10 addition on the activity of Cu/ZnO for the slurry phase methanol synthesis at 150 °C was evaluated. The results showed that Cu/ZnO prepared with addition of 8% OP-10 (denoted as C8) exhibited the promoted activity for the methanol synthesis. The conversion of CO and the STY (space time yield) of methanol were 42.5% and 74.6% higher than those of Cu/ZnO prepared without addition of OP-10 (denoted as C0), respectively. The precursor of C8 contained more aurichalcite and rosasite, and the concerted effect of Cu-Zn in C8 was found to be stronger than that in C0. Compared with C0, C8 showed smaller particle size, lower reduction temperature and larger BET and Cu surface areas.

Ling Liu; Tiansheng Zhao; Qingxiang Ma; Yufang Shen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase induction potency of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) are structurally similar to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and some PCDE congeners have been reported to cause toxic responses similar to those caused by some of the non-ortho-substituted PCBs, which are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Twenty-nine PCDEs were tested for their potency as AhR agonists relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) by measuring their ability to induce the cytochrome P-450 1A1-associated enzyme activity, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), in the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. All PCDE congeners tested were found to be inactive as EROD inducers except for PCDE 156, which was a weak EROD inducer with a 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalency factor of about 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}. During this study the authors determined that small amounts of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) that occurred as impurities in the PCDE preparations were the cause of the apparent EROD induction initially measured in their experiments. Once the PCDF impurities were removed by purification on florisil, little or no activity could be attributed to the PCDEs.

Koistinen, J.; Sanderson, J.T.; Giesy, J.P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Nevalainen, T.; Paasivirta, J. [Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Investigation of HCCI Combustion of Diethyl Ether and Ethanol Mixtures Using Carbon 14 Tracing and Numerical Simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite the rapid combustion typically experienced in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), components in fuel mixtures do not ignite in unison or burn equally. In our experiments and modeling of blends of diethyl ether (DEE) and ethanol (EtOH), the DEE led combustion and proceeded further toward completion, as indicated by {sup 14}C isotope tracing. A numerical model of HCCI combustion of DEE and EtOH mixtures supports the isotopic findings. Although both approaches lacked information on incompletely combusted intermediates plentiful in HCCI emissions, the numerical model and {sup 14}C tracing data agreed within the limitations of the single zone model. Despite the fact that DEE is more reactive than EtOH in HCCI engines, they are sufficiently similar that we did not observe a large elongation of energy release or significant reduction in inlet temperature required for light-off, both desired effects for the combustion event. This finding suggests that, in general, HCCI combustion of fuel blends may have preferential combustion of some of the blend components.

Mack, J H; Dibble, R W; Buchholz, B A; Flowers, D L

2004-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

212

Calcitriol inhibits Ether-a go-go potassium channel expression and cell proliferation in human breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Antiproliferative actions of calcitriol have been shown to occur in many cell types; however, little is known regarding the molecular basis of this process in breast carcinoma. Ether-a-go-go (Eag1) potassium channels promote oncogenesis and are implicated in breast cancer cell proliferation. Since calcitriol displays antineoplastic effects while Eag1 promotes tumorigenesis, and both factors antagonically regulate cell cycle progression, we investigated a possible regulatory effect of calcitriol upon Eag1 as a mean to uncover new molecular events involved in the antiproliferative activity of this hormone in human breast tumor-derived cells. RT real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that calcitriol suppressed Eag1 expression by a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent mechanism. This effect was accompanied by inhibition of cell proliferation, which was potentiated by astemizole, a nonspecific Eag1 inhibitor. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot demonstrated that Eag1 and VDR abundance was higher in invasive-ductal carcinoma than in fibroadenoma, and immunoreactivity of both proteins was located in ductal epithelial cells. Our results provide evidence of a novel mechanism involved in the antiproliferative effects of calcitriol and highlight VDR as a cancer therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment and prevention.

Garcia-Becerra, Rocio [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Diaz, Lorenza, E-mail: lorenzadiaz@gmail.com [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Camacho, Javier [Department of Pharmacology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Pharmacology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Barrera, David; Ordaz-Rosado, David; Morales, Angelica [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz, Cindy Sharon [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Avila, Euclides [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bargallo, Enrique [Department of Breast Tumors, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Breast Tumors, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Arrecillas, Myrna [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Halhali, Ali; Larrea, Fernando [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Monodisperse porous polymer particles containing macrocyclic ether as a new class of sorbent for SR(II) separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strontium{sup 90} is one of the typical fission products that may be found in high level liquid waste (HLLW). Separation of Sr{sup 90} prior to the vitrification is beneficial to the final treatment of solid radioactive waste. In this study, a new class of sorbent for Sr(II) was developed by loading the macrocyclic ether DtBuCH18C6 into the monodisperse porous polymer particles (MPPPs). The MPPPs are well-known as a promising chromatographic material due to the uniform particle size, porous morphology, good compatibility with organic extractants, and rigid matrix. The structure and micro-morphology of the sorbent particles were characterized. The adsorption behavior towards Sr(II) in HNO{sub 3} media was investigated by both batch and column experiments. High adsorption efficiency and selective separation of Sr(II) was obtained. The sorbent particles can be recycled for at least several times before obvious lose of the adsorption ability. This kind of sorbent possesses the potential to be used for strontium separation in radioactive liquid waste.

Leng, Yuxiao; Bai, Feifei [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Faculty of Chemical Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 100084 (China); Ye, Gang; Wei, Jichao; Wang, Jianchen; Chen, Jing [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Synergistic effect of mixing dimethyl ether with methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soot formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels mixed with dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated. Planar laser-induced incandescence and fluorescence techniques were employed to measure relative soot volume fractions and PAH concentrations, respectively. Results showed that even though DME is known to be a clean fuel in terms of soot formation, DME mixture with ethylene fuel increases PAH and soot formation significantly as compared to the pure ethylene case, while the mixture of DME with methane, ethane, and propane decreases PAH and soot formation. Numerical calculations adopting a detailed kinetics showed that DME can be decomposed to produce a relatively large number of methyl radicals in the low-temperature region where PAH forms and grows; thus the mixture of DME with ethylene increases CH{sub 3} radicals significantly in the PAH formation region. Considering that the increase in the concentration of O radicals is minimal in the PAH formation region with DME mixture, the enhancement of PAH and soot formation in the mixture flames of DME and ethylene can be explained based on the role of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation. Methyl radicals can increase the concentration of propargyls, which could enhance incipient benzene ring formation through the propargyl recombination reaction and subsequent PAH growth. Thus, the result substantiates the importance of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation, especially in the PAH formation region of diffusion flames. (author)

Yoon, S.S. [Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, Gyeonggi-do 445-706 (Korea); Anh, D.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea); Chung, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

Life cycle study of coal-based dimethyl ether as vehicle fuel for urban bus in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, a life cycle model of coal-based dimethyl ether (CBDME) as a vehicle fuel is established for China. Its life cycle from well to wheel are divided into three phases. They are feedstock extraction, fuel production and fuel consumption in vehicle. The primary energy consumption (PEC) and global warming potential (GWP) of CBDME pathway are analyzed and compared with coal-based diesel (CBD) as a latent rival to replace conventional petroleum-based diesel (CPBD). This study demonstrates that the LCA methodology is very suitable and effective for the choice of vehicle fuels. One result is that the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of coal-based vehicle fuel pathways is usually concentrated on fuel production stage. The percentages of CBDME and CBD pathways both exceed 60%. The application of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is helpful for coal-based vehicle fuel pathways to improve their global warming effect dramatically. Compared with CBD pathway, CBDME pathway consumes less PEC and emits less \\{GHGs\\} emission as well. Even though the CCS and CH4-fired generation are used, the advantages of CBDME are still kept. For saving petroleum energy and reducing global warming effect, CBDME has greater potential than CBD to substitute CPBD under current fuel synthesis technologies. If the hurdles such as the maturity of engine and vehicle technologies, corresponding regulations and standards and infrastructures are reliably solved, CBDME will have better prospect in China.

Liang Zhang; Zhen Huang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Solubility of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ethane, and nitrogen in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (eFAP) ionic liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The density and viscosity of the ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [C1C4Pyrro][eFAP] and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [P66614][eFAP] were measured as a function of temperature and pressure and as a function of temperature, respectively. These two ionic liquids are more viscous than those based in the same anion associated to imidazolium cations. The effect of the addition of water on the density and viscosity of [P66614][eFAP] was studied at pressures close to atmospheric and as a function of the temperature. This ionic liquid is only partially miscible with water, its solubility being of around X H 2 O = 0.2 in the range of (303 to 315) K. Experimental values of the solubility of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ethane, and nitrogen were obtained as a function of temperature and at pressures close to atmospheric. Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are the more soluble gases with mole fraction solubilities up to 7 · 10?2. Ethane is four times and 1.3 times less soluble than carbon dioxide in [C1C4Pyrro][eFAP] and [P66614][eFAP], respectively. Nitrogen is one order of magnitude less soluble than the others gases in the two ionic liquids studied. In order to understand behavior of the different gases with these ionic liquids, the thermodynamic functions of solvation such as enthalpy and entropy were calculated from the variation of the Henry’s law constant with temperature. It is shown that the more favorable interactions of the gases with the ionic liquid explain the larger solubility of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in [C1C4Pyrro][eFAP]. In the case of [P66614][eFAP], it is the less favorable entropic contribution that explains the lower solubility of ethane in this ionic liquid.

S. Stevanovic; M.F. Costa Gomes

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was developed for the synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas. Studied were temperatures of operation ranging from 250°C to 380°C. High temperatures (e.g. 380°C) are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst, utilized industrially for the synthesis of methanol at 220-280°C, suffers from a rapid deactivation when the reaction is conducted at high temperature (>320°C). On the contrary, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be highly stable for methanol and DME synthesis at 380°C. The Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was thus further investigated for methanol and DME synthesis at P=34-69 bars, T= 250-380°C, GHSV= 5 000-18 000 h-1, and molar feeds H2/CO= 1, 2, and 3. Selectivity to DME increased with decreasing operating temperature, and increasing operating pressure. Increased GHSV’s and H2/CO syngas feed ratios also enhanced DME selectivity. Undesirable CH4 formation was observed, however, can be minimized through choice of process conditions and by catalyst design. By studying the effect of the Pd loading and the Pd:Zn molar ratio the formulation of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was optimized. A catalyst with 5% Pd and a Pd:Zn molar ratio of 0.25:1 has been identified as the preferred catalyst. Results indicate that PdZn particles are more active than Pdº particles for the synthesis of methanol and less active for CH4 formation. A correlation between DME selectivity and the concentration of acid sites of the catalysts has been established. Hence, two types of sites are required for the direct conversion of syngas to DME: 1) PdZn particles are active for the synthesis of methanol from syngas, and 2) acid sites which are active for the conversion of methanol to DME. Additionally, CO2 formation was problematic as PdZn was found to be active for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction, under all the conditions evaluated.

Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

In Situ MTBE Biodegradation Supported by Diffusive Oxygen Release  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Noted on the figure are the locations of some of the monitoring conducted as part of our project, notably transects A?C. ... Selected VOC samples were sent to Turtle Bayou Laboratories (Liberty, TX) for TBA analyses via GC/MS (estimated detection limit 1 ?g/L). ...

Ryan D. Wilson; Douglas M. Mackay; Kate M. Scow

2001-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

219

The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

additive factors of the net loss in volume due to removal ofadditive factors of the net loss in volume due to removal of

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and W.D. Montgomery. Oil Prices, Energy Security, and Importnew equilibrium world oil price and level of U.S. imports.to estimate the changes in oil prices that would result from

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for crude oil. Ethanol also has lower energy density thangallon. 41 Ethanol also contains less energy per physicalbe replaced by ethanol. California Energy Commission, Staff

Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by weight [6]. The potential improvements in energy efficiency within the transportation section, particularly in sport utility vehicles and light-duty trucks, that can be provided by deployment of diesel engines in passenger cars and trucks is a strong incentive to develop cleaner burning diesel engines and cleaner burning fuels for diesel engines. Thus, serious consideration of oxygenated diesel fuels is of significant practical interest and value to society. In the present work, a diesel fuel reformulating agent, CETANERTM, has been examined in a popular light-medium duty turbodiesel engine over a range of blending ratios. This additive is a mixture of glycol ethers and can be produced from dimethyl ether, which itself can be manufactured from synthesis gas using Air Products' Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME TM) technology. CETANERTM is a liquid, has an oxygen content of 36 wt.%, has a cetane number over 100 and is highly miscible in diesel fuel. This combination of physical and chemical properties makes CETANERTM an attractive agent for oxygenating diesel fuel. The present study considered CETANERTM ratios from 0 to 40 wt.% in a California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel. Particulate matter emissions, gaseous emissions and in-cylinder pressure traces were monitored over the AVL 8-Mode engine test protocol [7]. This paper presents the results from these measurements and discusses the implications of using high cetane number oxygenates in diesel fuel reformulation.

Boehman, Andre L.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

223

Synthesis, structures, and properties of novel aminodisilanes bearing bulky substituents: 1,2-bis(1,1,2-trimethylpropyl)-1,1,2,2-tetrakis(diethylamino) disilane and 1,2-di-tert-butyl-1,1,2,2-tetrakis(diethylamino) disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two novel tetraaminodisilanes, 1,2-bis(1,1,2-trimethylpropyl)-1,1,2,2-tetrakis(diethylamino)disilane (1) and 1,2-di-tert-butyl-1,1,2,2-tetrakis(diethylamino)disilane (2) were synthesized and X-ray crystallography analyses of these compounds were carried out. Reflecting the steric congestion, the Si?Si bonds are very long: 2.539(2) Å for bis(1,1,2-trimethylpropyl)disilane, and 2.4764(9) Å for di-tert-butyl-disilane. UV spectra and oxidation potentials of several tetraaminodialkyldisilanes are compared and discussed. In addition, in the chlorination of 1 with HCl, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro-1,2-bis(1,1,2-trimethylpropyl)disilane (6) was obtained with a 72% yield.

Masafumi Unno; Mina Saito; Hideyuki Matsumoto

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene in a slurry reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The April 1990 Alternative Fuels Proposal to the Department of Energy involved the development of new technology, based on the liquid phase process, for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels, fuel additives, and fuel intermediates. The objective of this work was to develop a slurry reactor based process for the dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The isobutene can serve as a feedstock for the high octane oxygenated fuel additive methyl tertiary-butyl either (MTBE). Alumina catalysts were investigated because of their wide use as a dehydration catalyst. Four commercially available alumina catalysts (Catapal B, Versal B, Versal GH, and Al-3996R) were evaluated for both activity and selectivity to the branched olefin. All four catalysts demonstrated conversions greater than 80% at 290 C, while conversions of near 100% could be obtained at 330 C. The reaction favors low pressures and moderate to low space velocities. A yield of 0.90 mole isobutene per mole reacted isobutanol or better was obtained at conversions of 60--70% and higher. From 75 to 98% conversion, the four catalysts all provide isobutene yields ranging from 0.92 to 0.94 with the maximum occurring around 90% conversion. At low conversions, the concentration of diisobutyl ether becomes significant while the concentration of linear butenes is essentially a linear function of isobutanol conversion. Doping the catalyst with up to 0.8 wt % potassium showed a modest increase in isobutene selectivity; however, this increase was more than offset by a reduction in activity. Investigations using a mixed alcohols feed (consistent with isobutanol synthesis from syngas) demonstrated a small increase in the C4 iso-olefin selectivity over that observed for a pure isobutanol feed. 55 refs.

Latshaw, B.E.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

SPME in Environmental Analysis: Biotransformation Pathways  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......SPMEGCMS to study the degradation of ethyl benzene using...methyl-t-butyl ether and its degradation products, t-butyl...food by determining degradation products and other released...Bitumen is a fossil fuel rich in sulfur, which...Aliquots of the cell suspension (2 mL......

Annamaria Halasz; Jalal Hawari

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Gas transport properties of reverse-selective poly(ether-b-amide6)/[Emim][BF4] gel membranes for CO2/light gases separation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present research investigates deeply effect of 1-ethyl-3 methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Emim][BF4]) ionic liquid on separation performance and transport properties of poly(ether-b-amide6)(Pebax1657) at different operating pressures from 2 to 20 bar and temperatures from 25 to 65 °C. [Emim][BF4] showed interesting separation factor for CO2/light gases as a solvent and it was expected that its addition to Pebax1657 leads more amorphous structure, thereby diffusion and permeability of gases increase. [Emim][BF4] was added to the polymer solution up to 100 wt.% of Pebax1657 weight and permeation coefficients of CO2, H2, CH4 and N2 through the prepared membranes were measured. The results showed remarkable increment in permeation of all the tested gases, particularly CO2 and ideal selectivity of CO2/H2 enhanced significantly due to high solubility selectivity of the added compound. Effect of operating conditions on solubility coefficients were also investigated, thus sorption isotherms and activation energies of permeability, solubility and diffusion were calculated. In addition, the membranes were characterized by SEM, DSC, FT-IR spectroscopy and Tensile analysis to inspect changes in their physical and thermal properties, precisely.

Hesamoddin Rabiee; Ali Ghadimi; Toraj Mohammadi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

LANXESS Global Butyl Rubber Research Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Park, in partnership with Surface Science Western $10million City of London Investment in Fraunhofer- fraunhofer Agreement chosen to highlight celebrations for 40th Anniversary of Canada-Germany cooperation fuel cluster in Sarnia-Lambton, said Sarnia Mayor Mike Bradley, noting the Bioindustrial Innovation

Denham, Graham

228

DME-to-oxygenates process studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The feasibility of the production of hydrocarbons from dimethyl ether (DNM) has been illustrated in a fixed bed micro-reactor as well as a bench scale fluidized bed reactor by the University of Akron/EPRI DME-to-Hydrocarbon (DTG) Process. The DTG process has distinct advantages over its methanol based counterpart. Specifically, the DTG process excels in the area of higher productivity, higher per-pass conversion, and lower heat duties than the MTG process. Also of special importance is the production of oxygenates -- including MTBE, ETBE, and TAME. DME may be reacted with isobutylene to produce a mixture of MTBE and ETBE. The properties of ETBE excel over MTBE in the areas of lower RVP and higher RON. According to industrial reports, MTBE is the fastest growing chemical (1992 US capacity 135,350 BPD, with expected growth of 34%/year to 1997). Also, recent renewed interest as an octane-enhancer and as a source of oxygen has spurred a growing interest in nonrefinery synthesis routes to ETBE. TAME, with its lower RVP and higher RON has proven useful as a gasoline blending agent and octane enhancer and may also be produced directly from DME. DME, therefore, serves as a valuable feedstock in the conversion of may oxygenates with wide-scale industrial importance. It should be also noted that the interest in the utilization of DME as process feedstock is based on the favorable process economics of EPRI/UA`s liquid phase DME process.

Tartamella, T.L.; Sardesai, A.; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Kulik, C.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

229

ETBE Synthesis via Reactive Distillation. 1. Steady-State Simulation and Design Aspects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To validate the simulation results without experimental data, Smith's MTBE column was simulated for the case described in his patent application (Smith, 1980) using both Pro/II and SpeedUp. ... The maximum conversion in a 10-stage ETBE reactive distillation column (Figure 5) and a 30-stage ETBE reactive distillation column based on a commercial MTBE column (Simulation Sciences, 1995) (where the co-objective is to essentially eliminate butylenes from the ether product) was determined for varying isobutylene concentrations in the hydrocarbon feed to the primary reactor, by simulations using Pro/II. ... 11.?Determine?column?diameter?from?simulation?data?for?vapor?and?liquid?loadings?and?column?height?from?stage?efficiency? estimates,?including?appropriate?allowances?for?uncertainties?in?flooding?factor?and?stage?efficiency. ...

Martin G. Sneesby; Moses O. Tadé; Ravindra Datta; Terence N. Smith

1997-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

230

Middlesex FUSRAP Site - A Path to Site-Wide Closure - 13416  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The road-map to obtaining closure of the Middlesex Sampling Plant FUSRAP site in Middlesex, New Jersey (NJ) has required a multi-faceted approach, following the CERCLA Process. Since 1998, the US ACE, ECC, and other contractors have completed much of the work required for regulatory acceptance of site closure with unrestricted use. To date, three buildings have been decontaminated, demolished, and disposed of. Two interim storage piles have been removed and disposed of, followed by the additional removal and disposal of over 87,000 tons of radiologically and chemically-impacted subsurface soils by the summer of 2008. The US ACE received a determination from the EPA for the soils Operable Unit, (OU)-1, in September 2010 that the remedial excavations were acceptable, and meet the criteria for unrestricted use as required by the 2004 Record of Decision (ROD) for OU-1. Following the completion of OU-1, the project delivery team performed additional field investigation of the final Operable Unit for Middlesex, OU-2, Groundwater. As of December 2012, the project delivery team has completed a Supplemental Remedial Investigation, which will be followed with a streamlined Feasibility Study, Proposed Plan, and ROD. Several years of historical groundwater data was available from previous investigations and the FUSRAP Environmental Surveillance Program. Historical data indicated sporadic detections of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), primarily trichloroethylene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), with no apparent trend or pattern indicating extent or source of the VOC impact. In 2008, the project delivery team initiated efforts to re-assess the Conceptual Site Model (CSM) for groundwater. The bedrock was re-evaluated as a leaky multi-unit aquifer, and a plan was developed for additional investigations for adequate bedrock characterization and delineation of groundwater contaminated primarily by CT, TCE, and tetrachloroethene (PCE). The investigation was designed to accumulate multiple lines of evidence to determine the source and to delineate the extent of contamination, as required to complete the CERCLA Process and gain regulatory acceptance. Investigative techniques included in-well vertical flow tracing, borehole geophysics and packer testing of temporary test holes to characterize contamination in the bedrock fractures beneath the site, and to delineate likely source areas. (authors)

Miller, David M. [ECC, 110 Fieldcrest Ave, Ste 31, Edison, NJ, 08837 (United States)] [ECC, 110 Fieldcrest Ave, Ste 31, Edison, NJ, 08837 (United States); Edge, Helen [US Army Corps of Engineers - NYD, 26 Federal Plaza, Room 1811, New York, NY, 10278 (United States)] [US Army Corps of Engineers - NYD, 26 Federal Plaza, Room 1811, New York, NY, 10278 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports by Area of Entry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

by Area of Entry by Area of Entry Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Ethylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene-Type Bonded Aircraft Fuel Other Bonded Aircraft Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Bonded, 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Other, 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Bonded, Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Other, Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Bonded, Greater than 500 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Other, Greater than 500 ppm to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Bonded, Greater than 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Other, Greater than 2000 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Bonded Ship Bunkers, Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., Bonded Ship Bunkers, 0.31 to 1.00% Sulfur Residual F.O., Bonded Ship Bunkers, Greater than 1.00% Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

232

High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

233

Mechanisms of gas permeation through polymer membranes. Progress report, July 1, 1985-May 31, 1986. [CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, n-C/sub 4/H/sub 10/, CO/sub 2/ in poly(n-butyl methacrylate)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work described is concerned with the significant changes in these mechanisms in the glass-transition range. Permeability, diffusion, and solubility coefficients for CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, and n-C/sub 4/H/sub 10/ in poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PnBMA) were determined at pressures up to 25 atm and from -14/sup 0/ to 50/sup 0/C. Solubility was also determined for CO/sub 2/ in PnBMA at pressures up to 25 atm and at -10/sup 0/ and 30/sup 0/C. No significant changes were observed in the pressure (or concentration) and temperature dependence of the permeability, diffusion, and solubility coefficients for CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, and n-C/sub 4/H/sub 10/ in the glass-transition range of PnBMA, or when the temperature was lowered below T/sub g/. Moreover, these gas/polymer systems do not exhibit below T/sub g/ the usual ''dual-mode'' sorption behavior of gases in glassy polymers. The solubility isotherm for CO/sub 2/ in PnBMA at -10/sup 0/C and lower pressures suggests incipient dual-mode sorption. Results are exceptions to dual-mode sorption behavior and may be due to small difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion of PnBMA above and below T/sub g/. This indicates that the unrelaxed domains in glassy PnBMA are very small. A ''free-volume'' mechanism describes the dependence of C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ permeability on P, T both above and below the glass transition of PnBMA. Adsorption/desorption kinetics are Fickian.

Stern, S.A.; Vakil, U.; Zhou, S.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Synthesis and characterization of hybrid materials based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid and Dawson-type tungstophosphate K{sub 7}[H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}].18H{sub 2}O and K{sub 6}[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}].13H{sub 2}O  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we synthesized hybrid materials using well-Dawson polyoxometalates (POMs), K{sub 7}[H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}].18H{sub 2}O or K{sub 6}[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}].13H{sub 2}O and a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF{sub 4}]). K, W, P and CHN elemental analysis showed that one mole of [H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}]{sup 7-} reacts with 6 moles of BMIM{sup +} and one mole of [P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}]{sup 6-} reacts with 4 moles of BMIM{sup +} to form, respectively, K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. X-ray diffraction illustrated amorphous structure of the hybrid materials. FT-IR spectra showed the presence of both 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and the Dawson anion. TG analysis displayed a relative thermal stability of the hybrid materials compared to the parents Dawson POMs. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the reduction peak potentials of the Dawson anion in the hybrid materials shift towards negative values and the shift is more pronounced for K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} compared to K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. This was attributed to a decrease in the acidity of the Dawson POM anion in the hybrid material. -- Graphical abstract: Powder XRD patterns of (a) PW{sub 18}, (b) K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}, (c) P{sub 2}W{sub 18}, and (d) K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate([BMIM][BF{sub 4}]) reacts with K{sub 7}[H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}].18H{sub 2}O to form K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}. {yields} [BMIM][BF{sub 4}] reacts with K{sub 6}[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}].13H{sub 2}O to form K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. {yields} K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62} displayed amorphous structures. {yields} K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62} illustrated low water content. {yields} K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62} showed improved thermal stability.

Ammam, Malika, E-mail: m78ammam@yahoo.f [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (MTM), K.U Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Fransaer, Jan [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (MTM), K.U Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Reactivity of the Quinone Methide of Butylated hydroxytoluene in Solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BHT is a common antioxidant in pharmaceutical formulations and when oxidized it forms a quinone methide (QM). QM is a highly reactive electrophilic species which can undergo nucleophilic addition. This research investigated ...

Willcockson, Maren Gulsrud

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

Sorption of vapours and liquids in PDMS: novel data and analysis with the GAB model of multilayer adsorption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Novel data on the sorption of vapours and liquids in cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer at 25–40 °C are reported together with the accurate and original way of parameterising the sorption isotherms by using the GAB (Guggenheim, Anderson and De Boer) model of multilayer adsorption. The GAB model has been found to provide a comparable or better representation of sorption isotherms than the Flory–Huggins model with a concentration-dependent interaction parameter and better than the ENSIC (Engaged Species Induced Clustering) model. This comparison holds true for poor solvents of PDMS (water, methanol), mild solvents (acetone, methyl acetate, dimethyl carbonate) and good solvents (tert-butyl methyl ether, tert-amyl methyl ether, cyclopentyl methyl ether). The GAB model provided a noticeably good assessment of the sorption of liquids and highly saturated vapours, which makes the model applicable within the entire activity range.

Ond?ej Vopi?ka; Alena Randová; Karel Friess

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Final Report for Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-95PC93052, the ''Development of Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas,'' was prepared by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products), and covers activities from 29 December 1994 through 31 July 2002. The overall objectives of this program were to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO), to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at the LaPorte, Texas Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). Laboratory work was performed by Air Products and a variety of subcontractors, and focused on the study of the kinetics of production of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, the production of DME using the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) Process, the conversion of DME to fuels and chemicals, and the production of other higher value products from syngas. Four operating campaigns were performed at the AFDU during the performance period. Tests of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process and the LPDME{trademark} Process were made to confirm results from the laboratory program and to allow for the study of the hydrodynamics of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) at a significant engineering scale. Two campaigns demonstrated the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon products via the slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. Other topics that were studied within this program include the economics of production of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), the identification of trace components in coal-derived syngas and the means to economically remove these species, and the study of systems for separation of wax from catalyst in the F-T process. The work performed under this Cooperative Agreement has continued to promote the development of technologies that use clean syngas produced from any one of a variety of sources (including coal) for the production of a spectrum of alternative fuels (hydrocarbons and oxygenate fuels), octane enhancers, and chemicals and chemical intermediates. In particular, the data from the 1995 LPMEOH{trademark} campaign provided confirmation of assumptions used in the design of the catalyst reduction system at the Kingsport LPMEOH{trademark} Commercial Demonstration Project, and the alternate methanol catalyst has been in use there since late 1998. The kinetic model was also expanded to allow for more accurate prediction of methanol production and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) conversion, and more accurate modeling of by-product formation for the alternate methanol catalyst. The outstanding performance results of the LPMEOH{trademark} Process at Kingsport can be attributed in large part to the body of work performed since 1981 in collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products. In addition, a pilot-plant-tested LPDME{trademark} Process has been demonstrated, and the product cost of DME from coal-derived syngas can be competitive in certain locations and applications. The need for liquid fuels will continue to be a critical concern for this nation in the 21st century. Efforts are needed to ensure the development and demonstration of economically competitive, efficient, environmentally responsible technologies that produce clean fuels and chemicals from coal under DOE's Vision 21 concept. These liquids will be a component of the fuel mix that will provide the transition from the current reliance on carbon-based fuels to the ultimate use of H{sub 2} as a means of energy transport. Indirect liquefaction, which converts the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) produced by the gasification of coal to sulfur- and nitrogen-free liquid products, is a key component of the Vision 21 initiative. The results from this current program provide continued support to the objectives for the conversion of domestic coal to electric power and co-produced clean liquid fuels and chemicals in an environmentally superior manner.

Peter J. Tijrn

2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

239

Liquefied Dimethyl Ether: An Energy-Saving, Green Extraction Solvent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Extraction is an essential procedure in the fields of food, pharmacy, and renewable bio-fuels, and it affords the recovery of desired components and the removal of undesired components from the natural feedstock....

Peng Li; Hisao Makino

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Alternative Fuels lDimethyl Ether Rheology and Materials Studies  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: The Pennsylvania State University

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dimethyl Ether (DME): Fuel of...  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

The AFDC is a resource of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program. Contacts | Web Site Policies | U.S. Department of Energy | USA.gov Content Last Updated: 01022015...

242

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dimethyl Ether (DME) as a Transportatio...  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

similar to that of propane, in that both are required to be kept in pressurized storage tanks at ambient temperature. DME has several fuel properties that make it attractive for...

243

Surface Modification of Silicone Elastomer Using Perfluorinated Ether  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a silicone-coated substrate.29 In addition, higher molecular weight perfluoropolyethers have been included

Chaudhury, Manoj K.

244

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Flame Retardants in Virginia Freshwater Fishes (USA)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Robert C. Hale ,* Mark J. La Guardia , Ellen P. Harvey , T. Matteson Mainor , William H. Duff , and Michael O. Gaylor ... Following solvent exchange to hexane, the halogenated compounds in the purified extracts were separated on a gas chromatograph (GC; Varian 3400, Sugar Land, TX), equipped with a 60-m DB-5 column (J&W Scientific, Folsom, CA; 0.25 ?m film, 0.32 i.d.). ...

Robert C. Hale; Mark J. La Guardia; Ellen P. Harvey; T. Matteson Mainor; William H. Duff; Michael O. Gaylor

2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

245

The Ether Extract and the Chloroform Extract of Soils.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

KNJJUG................................................................................................................Mailing Clerk STATE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. H U M T 9 L 3L H G U . 9 Z R 11 3J X C I T P P T L I 0 Y uUM T 9 L U 9 0. B. A U P s S 3 D D ...................................................... Austin t 3 T S D T L . L D 1u U M T 9 L U 9 i 3 P P... n R r . 0 T J ......................................................Brownwood A U O O 3J J 3U L T 9 U o V H 9 3 I S P D S 9 T X Z w R dU L T ...................................................... Austin DIRECTOR OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS. B. l U...

Fraps, G. S.; Rather, J. B.

1913-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Quantum-Gravity Phenomenology and the DSR Ether Theories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Guided primarily by versions of a theoretical framework called Doubly Special Relativity, or DSR, that are supposed to entail speeds of light that vary with energy while preserving the relativity of inertial frames, quantum-gravity phenomenologists have recently been seeking clues to quantum gravity, in hoped-for differing times of arrival, for light of differing energies, from cosmologically distant sources. However, it has long been known that signals, of arbitrarily high speed in opposing directions, could be used to observe the translational state of (absolute) rest, as could signals of a fixed speed different from c. Consequently, the above versions of DSR are nonviable.

Kenneth M. Sasaki

2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

247

Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial CuZnOAl2O3 catalyst, utilized...

248

Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocalello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

249

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in the Sediments of the Great Lakes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

source of many pollutants, including PCBs and dioxins, to the Great Lakes. This has been particularly analysis demonstrated that the pattern of PBDEs in Lake Superior sediments differs from those in air from the point sources. Sediments are an important sink and reservoir of per- sistent pollutants

Rockne, Karl J.

250

Network Structure of Cellulose Ethers Used in Pharmaceutical Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, have studied these two processes (1,3­6). Significant models have been proposed by Peppas molecules dissolve in water and are released by diffusion. The processes of swelling, ero- sion, and drug mathematical models that include all interrelated parameters and that fit accurately the experimental results

Peppas, Nicholas A.

251

European-Scale Modeling of Concentrations and Distribution of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in the Pentabromodiphenyl Ether Product  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Environmental Science, Institute of Environmental and Natural Sciences, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4 YQ, United Kingdom ... Limited survey data in the Mediterranean (Cyprus) were surprisingly high (20); it was assumed that the advection into Europe from the south was probably lower, but this assumption needs to be tested by future field data. ... VP-derived EFs should be suited to solid?gas-phase releases (13) and may therefore describe outgassing of the lighter components of PeBDE under ambient temperatures from solid matrixes where they have been used as additives. ...

K. Prevedouros; K. C. Jones; A. J. Sweetman

2004-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

252

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #264: April 21, 2003 Production of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4: April 21, 4: April 21, 2003 Production of Ethanol and MTBE to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #264: April 21, 2003 Production of Ethanol and MTBE on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #264: April 21, 2003 Production of Ethanol and MTBE on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #264: April 21, 2003 Production of Ethanol and MTBE on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #264: April 21, 2003 Production of Ethanol and MTBE on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #264: April 21, 2003 Production of Ethanol and MTBE on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #264: April 21, 2003 Production of Ethanol and MTBE on AddThis.com... Fact #264: April 21, 2003 Production of Ethanol and MTBE

253

Cometabolic bioremediation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contaminants, e.g. PCE, TCE, MTBE, TNT, dioxane, atrazine,Geobacter, Clavibacter) BTEX, PCE, PAHs, Pyrene, Atrazine,VC, 1,1-DCE, 1,1,1- TCA, MTBE PCE, TCE, DCE, VC, Hexachloro-

Hazen, Terry C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Publications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 results: 7 results: BibTex RIS RTF XML Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year (Desc) ] Filters: Author is Elton J. Cairns [Clear All Filters] 2008 Shin, Joon Ho, Pratyay Basak, John B. Kerr, and Elton J. Cairns. "Rechargeable Li/LiFePO4 Cells Using N-Methyl-N-butyl pyrrolidinium Bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide-LiTFSI Electrolyte Incorporating Polymer Additives." Electrochimica Acta 54, no. 2 (2008): 410-414. Shin, Joon Ho, and Elton J. Cairns. "N-Methyl-(n-butyl)pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-LiTFSI-poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether mixture as a Li/S cell electrolyte." Journal of Power Sources 177 (2008): 537-545. 2007 Nakahara, Kentaro, Jiro Iriyama, Shigeyuki Iwasa, Masahiro Suguro, Masaharu Satoh, and Elton J. Cairns. "Al-laminated film packaged organic radical

255

Solubility of Solid tert-Butyl Mercaptan in Liquid Methane and an LNG Mixture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Knowledge of the solubility limit of heavy hydrocarbons in liquid methane is of practical interest in the liquefaction of natural gas. Data for several binary systems were given in previous publications [1,2].The...

G. P. Kuebler; C. McKinley

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

The K-band microwave spectra of t-butyl halides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1954 Major Subjeet: Chemistry ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author wishes to express his appreciation to Dr. Fred W. Jensen for his help and encouragement during the oourse of this investigation. To the author's wife, Helen Louise, goes the credit for most...) as 100%. 10 Transition nvun.be r assignments and frequencies of the unperturbed rotational lines aa given abova ware calculated by Methods described in the following seotion. 11 DISCUSSION 12 The fundamental process of energy absorption...

Crook, George Hardy

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

257

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum triso-ethylphosphonate butylate...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resistance Advancements: Dr. Dragan CurcijaDr. Dragan Curcija Summary: -Expanded (EPS) Pine or Douglas Fir Frame Cavity Polyfoam tape Urethane Sealant Silicone...

258

THERMODYNAMICS OF EXTRACTION OF NITRIC ACID BY TRI-n-BUTYL PHOSPHATE--HYDROCARBON DILUENT SOLUTIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the mean act ivi ty coefficient T of TBP and TBP.H20 i n the acid-free, water-saturated organic phase

Wallace Davis

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Safe conditions for contacting nitric acid or nitrates with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to a request from DOE-SR, the current state of knowledge of the reactions between TBP and aqueous nitrate solutions is critically reviewed, and recommendations are made for the safe operation of SRS separations equipment in which this combination of chemicals may be present. The existing limits for evaporation are validated. Guidelines are presented for cases in which general limits do not apply. The rate of reaction between nitric acid and TBP appears to be controlled by the rate of TBP hydrolysis. The hydrolysis reaction produces dibutyl phosphate and n-butanol. The hydrolysis rate is a strong function of temperature, and becomes very fast at temperatures in the range 130{degrees} to 150{degrees}C. The resulting n-butanol is volatile at high temperatures, boiling at 117.5{degrees}C, but is also subject to exothermic oxidation by nitric acid or nitrates. If oxidation occurs before the n-butanol evaporates, the heat of oxidation may exceed local cooling by convection. The resulting heating will further accelerate the reaction, leading to an energetic runaway and possibly (in confined systems) an explosion. Extensive experiments and practice have shown that in a well-mixed and well-vented aqueous system such as an evaporator, at moderate acidities and temperatures below 130{degrees}C, the heat of reaction is adequately removed by vaporization of steam. In general, the heating will be so slow that natural processes provide adequate cooling at temperatures below 80{degrees}C. Above this temperature, care should be taken to ensure that adequate cooling is available for the amount of TBP that may be present. Experiments suggest that in well-ventilated systems n-butanol evaporation and convective cooling are sufficient to control the reaction at temperatures up to 120{degrees}C.

Hyder, M.L

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Optical fibers by butyl methacrylate reactive extrusion Berthet Romuald, Chalamet Yvan, Taha Mohamed*, Zerroukhi Amar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

limitations. Reactive extrusion experiments were carried out in a twin-screw extruder and the effect optical fibbers, polymethacrylate. Introduction Twin screw extruders are playing an increasing role of reactive extrusion is explained by the different advantages offered by the use of the twin-screw extruders

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

E-Print Network 3.0 - acaricide tri-n-butyl tin Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of California, Davis; Seybold, Steven J. - Departments of Entomology and Forest Resources, University of Minnesota Collection: Biotechnology ; Environmental Sciences and...

262

Oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene with tert-butyl hydro peroxide in a photochemical micro-reactor.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Sulfur content in fuels is an increasingly critical environmental issue. Hydrodesulfurization removes sulfur from hydrocarbons; however, further desulfurization is necessary in fuels. New methods are… (more)

Hebert, Eilleen M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Frontside versus backside reactivity in electron transfer to oriented tert butyl bromide and methyl bromide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reactions, such as Cl CH3BrClCH3 Br . 1 These reactions proceedH9Br. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1496477 I. INTRODUCTION Chemical reaction decreases the reaction rate by orders of magnitude because the larger CH3 groups impede the inversion

Brooks, Philip R.

264

Saponification rates of isomeric butyl esters in aqueous 1,4-dioxane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, "Handbuch der Organischen Chemie," l*th ed., Vol. II, J. Springer, Berlin, 1920 (see also 1st and 2nd supplements); %. Schlenk, Jr., Ann., 573, 1^2(1951). 26 V. 1,4-Dioxane. The 1,4-dioxane (Matheson Co.) used in this research was specified...

Ruhnke, Edward Vincent

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

265

E-Print Network 3.0 - antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

University Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology ; Biology and Medicine 5 Evaluation of Potential Therapies for a Mouse Model of Human Age-Related Macular Degeneration...

266

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid t-butyl ester Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

at Berkeley Collection: Materials Science ; Chemistry 67 Management of Hazardous Waste A Policy and Procedures Manual Summary: . It can be substituted by...

267

Economics of Lifecycle analysis and greenhouse gas regulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

namely, the hike in crude oil prices, replacement of MTBE bygrowth in demand. Crude oil import price is expected to

Rajagopal, Deepak

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

California's Move Toward E10 (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In Annual Energy Outlook 2009, (AEO) E10–a gasoline blend containing 10% ethanol–is assumed to be the maximum ethanol blend allowed in California erformulated gasoline (RFG), as opposed to the 5.7% blend assumed in earlier AEOs. The 5.7% blend had reflected decisions made when California decided to phase out use of the additive methyl tertiary butyl ether in its RFG program in 2003, opting instead to use ethanol in the minimum amount that would meet the requirement for 2.0% oxygen content under the Clean Air Act provisions in effect at that time.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Inputs & Utilization Inputs & Utilization Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline.

270

Why Sequence Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans? Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans? Ethers such as 1,4-dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, and methyl tert-butyl ether are widespread contaminants of groundwater resources. 1,4-Dioxane is widely used as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA). 1,4-Dioxane is a carcinogen, and causes acute toxic effects on the nervous system, liver, and kidneys. One promising approach for remediating 1,4-dioxane-impacted water supplies is in-situ bioremediation using aerobic bacteria. Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 is a unique bacterial strain that can grow using 1,4-dioxane as a sole source of carbon and energy. It can degrade several other water contaminants and also fix dinitrogen, making it an attractive bioaugmentation culture even for nitrogen-limited

271

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

272

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Molecular Vibrations of Quinones. III. Preparation and Infrared Spectra (Solution and Vapor) of p?Benzoquinone?d 1, p?Benzoquinone?2,5?d 2, p?Benzoquinone?2,6?d 2, p?Benzoquinone?18O2, and p?Benzoquinone?d 4?18O2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three specifically deuterated quinones p?benzoquinone?d 1 ?2 5?d 2 and ?2 6?d 2 have been prepared by a scheme involving (1) the formation of the dibenzyl ether of the appropriate bromohydroquinone (2) reaction of this bromoether with n?butyl lithium (3) introduction of deuterium by solvolysis of the lithium derivative in D2O (4) cleavage of the ether with sodium in liquid ammonia and (5) oxidation of the specifically deuterated hydroquinone by chromic oxide in buffered acetic acid.Infrared spectra have been obtained for the three compounds both in solution (4000–75 cm?1) and in vapor phase (4000–300 cm?1). The band contours of the vapor spectra are analyzed and discussed.

Herman Ziffer; Elliot Charney; Edwin D. Becker

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 View History U.S. 27,197 26,722 26,923 26,320 25,564 27,995 1981-2013 East Coast (PADD 1) 628 784 836 842 527 636 2004-2013 Midwest (PADD 2) 25,209 24,689 24,786 24,186 23,810 26,040 2004-2013 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 523 404 487 460 431 473 2004-2013 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 450 432 430 432 415 429 2004-2013 West Coast (PADD 5)

275

An Aerosol Condensation Model for Sulfur Trioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes a model for condensation of sulfuric acid aerosol given an initial concentration and/or source of gaseous sulfur trioxide (e.g. fuming from oleum). The model includes the thermochemical effects on aerosol condensation and air parcel buoyancy. Condensation is assumed to occur heterogeneously onto a preexisting background aerosol distribution. The model development is both a revisiting of research initially presented at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union Meeting [1] and a further extension to provide new capabilities for current atmospheric dispersion modeling efforts [2]. Sulfuric acid is one of the most widely used of all industrial chemicals. In 1992, world consumption of sulfuric acid was 145 million metric tons, with 42.4 Mt (mega-tons) consumed in the United States [10]. In 2001, of 37.5 Mt consumed in the U.S., 74% went into producing phosphate fertilizers [11]. Another significant use is in mining industries. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] estimate that, in 1996, 68% of use was for fertilizers and 5.8% was for mining. They note that H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} use has been and should continue to be very stable. In the United States, the elimination of MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) and the use of ethanol for gasoline production are further increasing the demand for petroleum alkylate. Alkylate producers have a choice of either a hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid process. Both processes are widely used today. Concerns, however, over the safety or potential regulation of hydrofluoric acid are likely to result in most of the growth being for the sulfuric acid process, further increasing demand [11]. The implication of sulfuric acid being a pervasive industrial chemical is that transport is also pervasive. Often, this is in the form of oleum tankers, having around 30% free sulfur trioxide. Although sulfuric acid itself is not a volatile substance, fuming sulfuric acid (referred to as oleum) is [7], the volatile product being sulfur trioxide. Sulfate aerosols and mist may form in the atmosphere on tank rupture. From chemical spill data from 1990-1996, Lawuyi02 and Fingas [7] prioritize sulfuric acid as sixth most serious. During this period, they note 155 spills totaling 13 Mt, out of a supply volume of 3700 Mt. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] summarize information on three major sulfuric acid spills. On 12 February 1984, 93 tons of sulfuric acid were spilled when 14 railroad cars derailed near MacTier, Parry Sound, Ontario. On 13 December 1978, 51 railroad cars derailed near Springhill, Nova Scotia. One car, containing 93% sulfuric acid, ruptured, spilling nearly its entire contents. In July 1993, 20 to 50 tons of fuming sulfuric acid spilled at the General Chemical Corp. plant in Richmond, California, a major industrial center near San Francisco. The release occurred when oleum was being loaded into a nonfuming acid railroad tank car that contained only a rupture disk as a safety device. The tank car was overheated and this rupture disk blew. The resulting cloud of sulfuric acid drifted northeast with prevailing winds over a number of populated areas. More than 3,000 people subsequently sought medical attention for burning eyes, coughing, headaches, and nausea. Almost all were treated and released on the day of the spill. By the day after the release, another 5,000 people had sought medical attention. The spill forced the closure of five freeways in the region as well as some Bay Area Rapid Transit System stations. Apart from corrosive toxicity, there is the additional hazard that the reactions of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid vapors with water are extremely exothermic [10, 11]. While the vapors are intrinsically denser than air, there is thus the likelihood of strong, warming-induced buoyancy from reactions with ambient water vapor, water-containing aerosol droplets, and wet environmental surface. Nordin [12] relates just such an occurrence following the Richmond, CA spill, with the plume observed to rise to 300 m. For all practical purposes, sulfur trioxide was the constituent released from the heated tank

Grant, K E

2008-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

276

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Comp. Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Gasoline, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., than 1.00% Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petro. Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petro. Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

277

U.S. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propylene (Nonfuel Use) Normal Butane/Butylene Refinery Grade Butane Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Comp. Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Gasoline, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., than 1.00% Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petro. Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petro. Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products

278

THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 139, 014704 (2013) Molecular dynamics simulations of n-hexane at 1-butyl-3-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pharmaceutical ingredients, solvents for green processing, purification processes, supercritical fluid applica

Lisal, Martin

279

Effect of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the Aerobic Biodegradation of a Model Vegetable Oil in Aquatic Media  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Becker, P.; Koster, D.; Popov, M. N.; Markossian, S.; Antranikian, G.; Markl, H.The biodegradation of olive oil and the treatment of lipid-rich wool scouring wastewater under aerobic thermophilic conditions Water Resour. ... The biodegradation of olive oil and the treatment of lipid-rich wool scouring wastewater under aerobic thermophilic conditions ... The biodegrdn. of olive oil and the treatment of the lipid-rich wool scouring wastewater were studied under aerobic thermophilic (65°) conditions using Bacillus thermoleovorans IHI-91. ...

Darine A. Salam; Makram T. Suidan; Albert D. Venosa

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Acta Cryst. (1983). C39, 985-987 Structureof Benzoyl(tert-butyl isocyanide)(carbonyl)bis(dimethylphenyl-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.375(3) and 2.362 (4) ]~; -COPh is trans to --CNC(Me) 3 with Ru-COPh and Ru-CNC(Me) 3 distances of 2.142 (15 with equimolar quantities of the isocyanide Me3CNC. From the analytical data for the products it was difficult obtained by reaction of [Ru(CO)2Ph 2- (PMe2Ph)2] and Me3CNC. It seemed possible that the resonance was due

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

On the structural and impedance characteristics of Li- doped PEO, using n-butyl lithium in hexane as dopant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nowadays polymer based solid state electrolytes for applications in rechargeable battery systems are highly sought after materials, pursued extensively by various research groups worldwide. Numerous methods are discussed in literature to improve the fundamental properties like electrical conductivity, mechanical stability and interfacial stability of polymer based electrolytes. The application of these electrolytes in Li-ion cells is still in the amateur state, due to low ionic conductivity, low lithium transport number and the processing difficulties. The present work is an attempt to study the effects of Li doping on the structural and transport properties of the polymer electrolyte, poly-ethelene oxide (PEO) (Molecular weight: 200,000). Li doped PEO was obtained by treating PEO with n-Butyllithium in hexane for different doping concentrations. Structural characterization of the samples was done by XRD and FTIR techniques. Impedance measurements were carried out to estimate the ionic conductivity of Li doped PEO samples. It is seen that, the crystallinity of the doped PEO decreases on increasing the doping concentration. XRD and FTIR studies support this observation. It is inferred that, ionic conductivity of the sample is increasing on increasing the doping concentration since less crystallinity permits more ionic transport. Impedance measurements confirm the results quantitatively.

Anand, P. B., E-mail: anandputhirath@gmail.com, E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in; Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: anandputhirath@gmail.com, E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Division for Research in Advanced Materials Department of Physics Cochin University of Science and Technology Cochin 22, Kerala (India)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

282

Safety of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and nitric acid solutions in two-phase systems at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper addresses the prevention of self-accelerating oxidation of nitric acid and tributyl phosphate (TBP). An accident of this type, which occurred at Tomsk-7, Russia, in 1993, resulted from a slow chemical reaction occurring initially at sub-boiling temperatures. The accumulating heat and vapors overpressurized and burst a process tank. Two safety issues are addressed in this summary of experimental data: circumstances under which convection or radiation cooling of vessels will exceed reaction heat, and measures which can prevent or mitigate such reactions. Heat generations rates have been found to range widely. Thermodynamic calculations confirm that heat generation is reduced by a large factor when nitrogen oxides are able to escape from the reaction mixure. Scoping calculations show that the evaporation of water is potentially the most effective mechanism for heat removal in a large vessel, and experiments have demonstrated that water evaporation is effective for preventing runaway reactions in a vented, two-phase system operated below about 120 C. These data indicate that venting is the key to controlling runaway reactions. However, other experiments have indicated that the self-heating reaction did not present a danger, even if reaction heating led to an accelerating reaction, in a sufficiently vented system. To determine how much venting was required, experiments were performed with pure organic phase and two-phase TBP-nitric acid mixtures. Data show a critical ratio of organic mass to vent area, above which the reacting system can reach potentially dangerous pressures. Experiments show runaway reactions occurring in vented systems only as the temperature approaches 130 C. These results clearly indicate that adequate venting of vessels containing heated TBP and nitrate is the key to controlling their reaction.

Hyder, M.L.; Paddleford, D.F.; Thompson, M.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

283

An experimental system for the n-butyl-lithium initiated polymerization of styrene in a multi-sampled batch reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The power to the water heater is controlled by a Fisher Proportional Temperature Control (Catalog P3 TENPERATURE CONTROLLER CONSTANT TENPERATURE BATH P2 CHILLER ELECTRICAL HEATER Figure 3. Schematic of Reactor Temperature Control System 20... successful column; i, e, , extremely high pressure drops and low plate counts were observed in these columns. As a last measure, the gel was stirred in a hot, concen- trated sodium hydroxide solution (approximately pH 13) for ten hours. The excess sodium...

Cox, James Harvey

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

284

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha -chloro ethers Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technologies and Information Sciences 31 NetInfo Editions 4.x User Manual Summary: and Internet addresses: alpha 192.42.172.1 bravo 192.42.172.2 charlie 192.42.172.3 Two of the...

285

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic crown ethers Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy 4 Aggregation and Reactivity of Phenyllithium Solutions Hans J. Reich,* D. Patrick Green, Marco A. Medina, Wayne S. Goldenberg, Summary: ), N,N-dimethylpropyl- eneurea...

286

Neutron Scattering Study of Vermiculite?Poly(vinyl methyl ether) Mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neutrons scattered by the gel samples were recorded on a two-dimensional area detector, software coded as 128 × 128 pixels, situated 1.5 m behind the samples, covering the approximate q range between 0.2 and 2 nm-1, where the wavenumber q is defined by the equation with ? being the scattering angle. ... The quartz sample cells used were practically transparent to neutrons at the wavelength utilized on the SANS-J, and the small angle neutron scattering from D2O was of low intensity and completely unstructured over the q range studied. ...

H. Jinnai; M. V. Smalley; T. Hashimoto; S. Koizumi

1996-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

287

Reactions of Methyl Perfluoroalkyl Ethers with Isopropyl Alcohol: Experimental and Theoretical Studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

B&W Pantex, LLC, Amarillo, Texas 79120, United States ... Chemicals and Materials ... Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (2007), 9 (29), 3864-3871 CODEN: PPCPFQ; ISSN:1463-9076. ...

Howard C. Knachel; Vladimir Benin; Chadwick D. Barklay; Janine C. Birkbeck; Billy D. Faubion; William E. Moddeman

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

288

Comparison of CO and NO Emissions from Propane, n-Butane, and Dimethyl Ether Premixed Flames  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurements were made with a water-cooled stainless steel sampling probe situated above the visible reaction zone of a co-flow burner. ... Dehydration is satisfactory for DME production geared toward current demand but it is not cost-effective for the mass production of DME required for widespread fuel use.10 The recent and intense interest in DME as a transportation fuel has arisen from development of new methods to produce DME on a larger scale from natural gas10 and from syngas in a one-step slurry phase process. ...

Christopher A. Frye; André L. Boehman; Peter J. A. Tijm

1999-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

289

Determination of properties of PVE lubricants with HFC refrigerants[PolyVinylEther  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polyalkyleneglycol (PAG) and polyol ester (POE) have been developed as refrigeration lubricants, used with HFC134a. PAG is used for automotive air conditioning systems and POE is used for domestic reciprocating refrigerators and for A/C systems. Although PAG exhibits good lubricity performance, it is difficult to use for domestic reciprocating refrigerators due to its low dielectric property. POE is difficult to use for automotive A/C systems, due to hydrolysis and poor lubricity performance. Polyvinylether (PVE) can be used in place of PAG and POE with HFC refrigerants. PVE is used for A/C systems as well as refrigerator and freezer applications. PVE is an ideal lubricant for use with HFCs.

Kaneko, Masato; Sakanoue, Shuichi; Tazaki, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Shoichi; Takagi, Minoru; Goodin, M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Tribology of Confined Fomblin-Z Perfluoropolyalkyl Ethers: Role of Chain-End Chemical Functionality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, polysiloxanes,1-4 polybutadiene,1,5 or perfluorinated perfluoropolyethers6-8) in which the chain end

Granick, Steve

291

Antarctic Research Bases: Local Sources of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Flame Retardants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Robert C. Hale †, Stacy L. Kim ‡, Ellen Harvey †, Mark J. La Guardia †, T. Matt Mainor †, Elizabeth O. Bush † and Elizabeth M. Jacobs † ... Purified extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). ...

Robert C. Hale; Stacy L. Kim; Ellen Harvey; Mark J. La Guardia; T. Matt Mainor; Elizabeth O. Bush; Elizabeth M. Jacobs

2008-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

292

Sulfonated Polybenzophenone/Poly(arylene ether) Block Copolymer Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Major car companies have announced that they will commercialize fuel cell vehicles from 2015. ... Future articles will describe the performance of these copolymers as proton-exchange membranes in hydrogen/air and direct methanol fuel cells. ...

Takahiro Miyahara; Tetsuji Hayano; Soichi Matsuno; Masahiro Watanabe; Kenji Miyatake

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

293

Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and Resulting Concentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with realistic air-exchange and product usage rates, theand total rate of air freshener product volatilization (26, 589-597. Cleaning Product and Air Freshener Emissions (

Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Fluoroalkylation of aryl ether perfluorocyclobutyl polymers S. Clark Ligon, Jr.a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Bernard Boutevinb , Dennis W. Smith, Jr.a* a Advanced Materials Research Laboratories, Department of Chemistry and Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), Clemson University applications [6,7], in aerospace coatings applications [8], and in battery electrolyte applications [9

Boyer, Edmond

295

Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

296

Ether-Induced Retrograde Amnesia for One-Trial Conditioning in Mice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...16 January 1961 A World-wide Stratospheric Aerosol Layer Abstract. An aerosol layer has been identified by a stratospheric balloon and aircraft aerosol collection program. Meas-urements of horizontal extension and ver-tical distribution...

John P. Abt; Walter B. Essman; Murray E. Jarvik

1961-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

297

Synthesis and Modification of Alternating Copolymers Based on Vinyl Ethers, Chlorotrifluoroethylene, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, in dynamic mode, under air, showed decomposition temperatures (Td,10%) higher than 200 °C. Electrochemical recent fuel cells technology, combining the best of both alkaline batteries and solid polymer electrolyte-exchange membranes, do not require noble metals (Pt, Ru...) as catalysts to function, which is one of the main

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

298

Fingerprints in the Ether: Using the Physical Layer for Wireless Authentication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transmitters (users) based on their channel frequency responses in a given office environment. For several environment typical of wireless scenarios, the response of the medium along any transmit- receive path. In this paper we propose ways to exploit the fact that, in a typically rich scattering environment, the radio

Trappe, Wade

299

Measurements of flatflame velocities of diethyl ether in air Fiona Gillespiea,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leclercb , Henry J. Currana a Combustion Chemistry Centre, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland on a flatflame burner using the heat flux method. The experimental pressure was 1 atm are compared with experimental and computational data reported in the literature. The data reported

Boyer, Edmond

300

Isolation of Acetobacterium sp. Strain AG, Which Reductively Debrominates Octa- and Pentabrominated Diphenyl Ether Technical Mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...day 33; all lactate was depleted by then, producing 7.5 mM...sediments contaminated with uranium(VI). Appl. Environ. Microbiol...Peterson. 2006. The 2005 World Health Organization reevaluation of...and neurotoxicity. Environ. Health Perspect. 119 . 44. Drake...

Chang Ding; Wai Ling Chow; Jianzhong He

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Peak-Shift Technique in Gas-Liquid Chromatography : Trimethylsilyl Ether Derivatives of Alcohols  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... in Mass Spectrometry. Proc. Joint Conf. by Inst. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Res. Group and ASTM Comm. E-14, edit. by Waldron, J. (Pergamon Press, London 1959) ...

STANLEY H. LANGER; PETER PANTAGES

1961-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

302

Electronic structure of unsaturated ethers and thioethers by uv photoelectron spectroscopy andab initio quantum mechanical calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations and photoelectron (PE) spectroscopy measurements of ... and thioethers provided a reliable description of the electronic structure, in particular as far ...

G. Modena; F. Marcuzzi; E. Tondello; D. Ajó

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Exergy Analysis of the Process for Dimethyl Ether Production through Biomass Steam Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

About 6.37% of the total carbon is released to the environment in the form of wastewater and waste gas. ... If the heat for gasifying the biomass could be obtained from other energy resource, the carbon atom utilization could be increased greatly, and the CO2 emissions could be decreased considerably. ... A Cost?Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry: Volume 1 Main Report; Princeton University: Princeton, NJ, 2006. ...

Xiangping Zhang; Christian Solli; Edgar G. Hertwich; Xiao Tian; Suojiang Zhang

2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

304

E-Print Network 3.0 - anesthesia ether cyclopropane Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technion, Israel Institute of Technology Collection: Chemistry 58 Three-Electron SN2 Reactions of Arylcyclopropane Cation Radicals. 2. Steric and Electronic Effects of...

305

Poly(arylene ether sulfone) Statistical Copolymers Bearing Perfluoroalkylsulfonic Acid Moieties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Number-average molecular weight (Mn) and polydispersity index (PDI) of the polymeric materials were measured using a gel permeation chromatography (GPC) system consisting of a Waters Alliance 2695 separation module, an online multiangle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector fitted with a gallium arsenide laser (power: 20 mW) operating at 690 nm (MiniDAWN, Wyatt Technology Inc.), an interferometric refractometer (Optilab DSP, Wyatt Technology Inc.), and two Polymer Laboratories mixed D columns (5 ?m bead size) connected in series. ... (23) After experimentation with several alternative neutralizing agents including pyridine and alkali metal hydroxides and carbonates, we determined that the aliphatic tertiary amine, N,N-diisopropylethylamine, produces a salt with favorable solubility and crystallization behavior. ... It is sparingly soluble in water, which facilitates isolation, and as will be shown, it may be used directly in polymerization, and under these conditions, the free amine is released and volatilized out of the polymer product. ...

Haibo Li; Andrew B. Jackson; Nathan J. Kirk; Kenneth A. Mauritz; Robson F. Storey

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

306

SORPTION OF A NONIONIC POLYOXYETHYLENE LAURYL ETHER SURFACTANT BY 2:1 LAYER SILICATES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Surfactants find their way into the soil environment through agrochemical formulations, detergents, cosmetics, textiles and other...Ca-SWy, Ca-PC, Ca-IMV1 and Ca-IMV2. The elemental compositions of Ca-saturated clay samples were determined by inductively...

L. S. Sonon; M. L. Thompson

307

NAME/TEAM: ______________________________________ FTIR postlab -1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in gasoline v/v % ethanol in vodka v/v % ethanol in mouthwash 2) Based on your results, what is the proof your value % RE 100 lit. value - = � 4) Convert your v/v % MTBE in gasoline to units of mass % (w/w %) of oxygen in gasoline. Density of MTBE = 0.74 g/mL, Density of gasoline = 0.66 g/mL, Molar Mass of MTBE = 88

Nizkorodov, Sergey

308

E-Print Network 3.0 - antiknock ratings Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

etryandgaschromatography-thermal conductivity techniques. A rate law is developed for the removal of MTBE from an aqueous solution in the DMP... reactor. Rate constants are also...

309

Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending...

310

Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending...

311

Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

initiated ignition in methane-propane mixtures”, Combustiontemperature ignition of propane with MTBE as an additive:detonation in ethylene and propane mixtures”, Combustion and

Saxena, Priyank

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Total Stocks Total Stocks Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton.

313

Annual Energy Outlook 2005-Acronyms  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AD AD Associated-dissolved (natural gas) AEO2004 Annual Energy Outlook 2004 AEO2005 Annual Energy Outlook 2005 Altos Altos Partners AMT Alternative Minimum Tax ANWR Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Btu British thermal unit CAFE Corporate average fuel economy CAMR Clean Air Mercury Rule CARB California Air Resources Board CBECS Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (EIA) CBO Congressional Budget Office CCCC Climate Change Credit Corporation CH 4 Methane CHP Combined heat and power CO 2 Carbon dioxide CTL Coal-to-liquids DB Deutsche Bank, A.G. E85 Fuel containing a blend of 70 to 85 percent ethanol and 30 to 15 percent gasoline by volume EEA Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. EIA Energy Information Administration EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPACT Energy Policy Act of 1992 ETBE Ethyl tertiary butyl ether EVA Energy Ventures Analysis, Incorporated FERC

314

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Weekly Supply Estimates Weekly Supply Estimates Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton.

315

Annual Energy Outlook 2000 - Acronyms  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Homepage Homepage ACEEE American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy AD Associated-dissolved (natural gas) AEO Annual Energy Outlook AGA American Gas Association ANWR Arctic National Wildlife Refuge API American Petroleum Institute BRP Blue Ribbon Panel Btu British thermal unit CAAA90 Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 CARB California Air Resources Board CCAP Climate Change Action Plan CDM Clean Development Mechanism CECA Comprehensive Electricity Competition Act CIDI Compression ignition direct injection CO Carbon monoxide DBAB Deutsche Banc Alex. Brown DOE U.S. Department of Energy DRI Standard & PoorÂ’s DRI EIA Energy Information Administration EOR Enhanced oil recovery EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPACT Energy Policy Act of 1992 ETBE Ethyl tertiary butyl ether

316

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Imports & Exports Imports & Exports Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock.

317

Annual Energy Outlook 1999 - Acronyms  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

acronyms.gif (3491 bytes) acronyms.gif (3491 bytes) AD - Associated/dissolved natural gas AEO98 - Annual Energy Outlook 1998 AEO99 - Annual Energy Outlook 1999 AFVs - Alternative-fuel vehicles AGA - American Gas Association API - American Petroleum Institute BTAB - BT Alex Brown CAAA90 - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 CCAP - Climate Change Action Plan CDM - Clean Development Mechanism CFCs - Chlorofluorocarbons CNG - Compressed natural gas CO - Carbon monoxide CO2 - Carbon dioxide DOE - U.S. Department of Energy DRI - DRI/McGraw-Hill EIA - Energy Information Administration EOR - Enhanced oil recovery EPA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPACT - Energy Policy Act of 1992 ETBE - Ethyl tertiary butyl ether EU - European Union FERC - Federal Energy Regulatory Commission GDP - Gross domestic product

318

Process for producing gasoline of high octane number, in particular lead-free gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for producing gasoline of high octane number from C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ olefinic cuts, such as those obtained by fractional distillation of a C/sub 3/ / C/sub 4/ catalytic cracking cut. It includes the steps of: (A) oligomerizing propylene of the C/sub 3/ cut to obtain a first gasoline fraction, (B) reacting the isobutene of the C/sub 4/ cut with methanol to produce methyl tert.-butyl ether which is separated from the unreacted C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons to form a second gasoline fraction, (C) alkylating said unreacted C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons with isobutane in the presence of an alkylation catalyst such as hydrofluoric acid, to form a third gasoline fraction, and (D) admixing, at least partially, said first, second and third gasoline fractions, so as to obtain gasoline of high octane number.

Chauvin, Y.; Gaillard, J.; Hellin, M.; Torck, B.; Vu, Q.D.

1981-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

319

AirUCI Summer Training Workshop in Environmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

schedule Syllabus Wet Lab: MTBE in gasoline and ethanol in vodka / mouthwash measured by FTIR FTIR Wet Lab: Determination of ethanol and benzene in gasoline by GCMS GCMS Wet Lab: Determination of PAH in cigarette smoke and benzene in gasoline by GC/MS - MTBE in gasoline and ethanol in vodka / mouthwash measured by FTIR

Nizkorodov, Sergey

320

Microsoft Word - BingQuestionOne1004.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Supply Impacts of an MTBE Ban Supply Impacts of an MTBE Ban September 2002 ii Energy Information Administration/Supply Impacts of An MTBE Ban Contacts This report was prepared by the Office of Oil and Gas of the Energy Information Administration. General questions concerning the report may be directed to Mary J. Hutzler (202/586-2222, mhutzler@eia.doe.gov), Director, Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, or Joanne Shore (202/586-4677, joanne.shore@eia.doe.gov), Team Leader, Petroleum Division. 1 Energy Information Administration/Supply Impacts of An MTBE Ban Supply Impacts of an MTBE Ban On June 17, 2002, Senator Jeff Bingaman, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, requested (Appendix A) that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) provide analysis of eight factors related to the Senate-passed fuels

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The toxicity of triclosan, bisphenol A, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether to the regeneration of cnidarian, Hydra magnipapillata  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A ... cosmetics, cleaners and plastic bowls. However, triclosan has been detected in sewage samples after ... are commonly exposed to phenolic chemicals such as triclosan

Hyung-Geun Park; Min-Kyeong Yeo

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Process Design, Simulation and Integration of Dimethyl Ether (DME) Production from Shale Gas by Direct and Indirect Methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The reaction of partial oxidation is exothermic and the residence time is very short (? = 3.6-72 ms). The overall reaction between CH4 and O2 is; CH 4 + 0.5O 2 ? CO + 2H 2 ?H o 298K = ?36 kJ/mol (3... sufficient cooling of reactor to continue healthy reactor conditions because the reactions that occur in reactor are highly exothermic [32]. Type of reactor has significant effect on the final products in reactor. Multitubular fixed-bed reactors...

Karagoz, Secgin

2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

323

Performance and Emissions of a Compression-Ignition Engine Fueled with Dimethyl Ether and Rapeseed Oil Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sorenson and Mikkelsen2 had studied DME in a modified diesel engine, and their results showed that the engine could achieve ultralow-emission prospects without a fundamental change in combustion systems. ... Meanwhile, these parameters are compared with those of pure diesel fuel in order to clarify the effect of blends on the combustion and emission of engines (a CI engine cannot run for much longer of a period with pure DME fuel, so a comparison is only made with pure diesel fuel). ... Moreover, owing to the lower calorific value of the blend compared to diesel fuel, the fuel supply amount per cycle for blend operation is enlarged by increasing the plunger stroke of the fuel pump in order to make the power and torque output of the blends approach those of the corresponding diesel engine. ...

Wang Ying; Zhou Longbao

2007-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

324

Fast Scan Ion Mobility Spectra of Diethyl, Dipropyl, and Dibutyl Ethers as Determined by the Plasma Chromatograph  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......v U U) The Beta VII plasma chromatograph is equipped...signal produced has a 5 kHz bandwidth. The oscilloscope...oscilloscope. Under identical plasma chromatographic conditions...a reaction chamber at atmospheric pressure where collisional...formed. The use of the plasma chromatograph as an identi......

Michael M. Metro; Roy A. Keller

1973-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Development of air and dust sampling methods for quantitative measurements of polybromated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in offices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, published in "10. International Conference Healthy Buildings (HB2012), Brisbane : Australia (2012)" #12

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

327

Indoor Air Is a Significant Source of Tri-decabrominated Diphenyl Ethers to Outdoor Air via Ventilation Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four apartments in each building were selected randomly for air sampling and these contained household goods, electronic equipment, and furniture typical of Swedish households. ... The PBDE levels in Japan are comparable to those found in European countries. ...

Justina Awasum Björklund; Kaj Thuresson; Anna Palm Cousins; Ulla Sellström; Gunnel Emenius; Cynthia A. de Wit

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Simultaneous Speciation of Butyl-, Phenyl-, and Cyclohexyltin Compounds in Aqueous Matrices Using Ethylation Followed by Solid-Phase Trace Enrichment, SFE, and GC Determination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......TCyT), and their degradation products (1,2...the extraction cell had an internal volume...respectively. Flows of fuel gases were 120 mL...into the extraction cell, which contained...butyltin and its degradation products from seawater......

Yong Cai; Josep M. Bayona

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Effect of in-situ bonding system and surface modification of montmorillonite on the properties of butyl rubber/MMT composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Isobutylene-isoprene rubber (IIR)/nanoclay composites were prepared by solution intercalation method. Cloisite Na + nanoclays and organo-modified montmorillonite (OMT) Cloisite 10 A .15 A and 20 A were used in this study. The effect of In-situ bonding system HRH (hexametylene tetramine: resorcinol: hydrated silica) on the dispersion of used nanoclays in the rubber matrix were examined by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Characterization of the prepared composites was performed by studying the rheometeric and mechanical properties. The burning out behavior of the nanocomposites with and without the bonding system was also measured.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Differential Gene Expression To Investigate the Effect of (5Z)-4-Bromo- 5-(Bromomethylene)-3-Butyl-2(5H)-Furanone on Bacillus subtilis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...PL APO 100/1.4 numerical aperture oil immersion objective (true confocal system...Acad. Sci. USA 91: 5788-5792. 23 Price, C. W. 2002. General stress response...of Chemical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Rd., U-3222, Storrs...

Dacheng Ren; Laura A. Bedzyk; Peter Setlow; Dacre F. England; Staffan Kjelleberg; Stuart M. Thomas; Rick W. Ye; Thomas K. Wood

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Risindialogue Risindialogue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- based substances such as MTBE. There is a large global market for new technologies which may result systems which are suitable for the production of bioenergy and biomaterials, and which can at the same

332

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generation Requirements. DOE/NETL-400/2008/1339; NationalGeneration Requirements. DOE/NETL-400/2008/1339; NationalMTBE MWD MWDOC NAICS NERC NETL NOAA NPCC NREL PADD PDI ppm

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Saving Energy and Reducing Emissions from the Regeneration Air System of a Butane Dehydrogenation Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Texas Petrochemicals operates a butane dehydrogenation unit producing MTBE for reformulated gasoline that was originally constructed when energy was cheap and prior to environmental regulation. The process exhausts 900,000 pounds per hour of air...

John, T. P.

334

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol tba biodegradation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

biodegradation. Inoculum size 0.3 g50 mL 0 20 40 60 80 100... in liquid phase, capture 14CO2. 12;Biodegradation of MTBE in Soil Columns Setup: Height: 47 cm ID: 4 Source:...

335

Cumene by catalytic distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Catalytic distillation, a combination of catalytic reaction and distillation in a single column, has several advantages when used in a process to make cumene from benzene and propylene. An extremely high purity cumene is obtained in high yield. The catalytic distillation principle was used in an earlier process to make MTBE. A unit, started up up in Houston refinery in 1981, operated successfully for four years. Since then, three other MTBE units of this design have gone into service.

Shoemaker, J.D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

8180 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 81808185 This journal is c the Owner Societies 2011 Cite this: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 81808185  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

photofragment translational spectroscopy. The tert-butyl radical was produced from flash pyrolysis of azo

Neumark, Daniel M.

337

Influence of relaxation transitions on radiation-initiated cationic graft polymerization. [Gamma radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiation grafting of vinyl n-butyl ether (VBE) to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) over a broad temperature range was investigated. The relaxation transitions in the PVC/VBE system were also determined. Grafting of vinyl alkyl ethers proceeds entirely by a cationic mechanism in a reaction medium that has been dried to a water concentration no greater than 0.1-1.0 ppm. In this connection, the diffusion properties of water in the temperature region were studied. Commercial films of unplasticized PVC (thickness 200 M); were subjected to swelling in two systems: in a 50% solution of VBE in benzene at 25/sup 0/C, and in the pure monomer at 40/sup 0/C. The reaction mixtures were first dried over metallic sodium in a deaerated atmosphere. The specimens were irradiated in a Co gamma-radiation unit to a dose of 10 kGy at a dose rate of 3 Gy/sec. The first reaction mixture was investigated over a range of temperatures from -60/sup 0/ to +70/sup 0/C, and the second from -15/sup 0/ to +50/sup 0/C. The degree of grafting was determined from the increase in weight of the original ungrafted film. The temperature was held to within +/-1/sup 0/C. The relaxation transitions in the swollen polymer systems were determined by two methods, thermostimulated current (TSC) and thermomechanics (TM). It was found that in the region of the glass transition of a swollen PVC-VBE system, radiation-initiated cationic graft polymerization proceeds at a maximal rate, and there are changes in state of the water molecules (the agents of breaking the ion reaction chain) and in their diffusion properties within the matrix.

Kudryavtsev, V.N.; Kabanov, V.Ya.; Chalykh, A.E.; Spitsyn, V.I.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants. Progress report, April 1992--March 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

Lagow, R.J.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

Lagow, R.J.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Annual Energy Outlook 2000 - Legislation & Regulations  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

leg_reg.gif (4810 bytes) Climate Change Action Plan Comprehensive Electricity Competition Act Tier 2 Vehicle Emissions and Gasoline Sulfur Standards California Ban of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Low-Emission Vehicle Program Introduction Because analyses by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) are required to be policy-neutral, the projections in this Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AEO2000) are based on Federal, State, and local laws and regulations in effect on July 1, 1999. The potential impacts of pending or proposed legislation, regulations, and standards and sections of existing legislation for which funds have not been appropriated are not reflected in the projections. Federal legislation incorporated in the projections includes the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, which adds 4.3 cents per gallon to the Federal tax on highway fuels [1]; the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987; the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90); the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT); the Outer Continental Shelf Deep Water Royalty Relief Act of 1995; the Tax Payer Relief Act of 1997; and the Federal Highway Bill of 1998, which includes an extension of the ethanol tax credit. AEO2000 assumes the continuation of the ethanol tax credit through 2020.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Table 10.5 Estimated Number of Alternative-Fueled Vehicles in Use and Fuel Consumption, 1992-2010 Year Alternative and Replacement Fuels 1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases Compressed Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Methanol, 85 Percent (M85) 3 Methanol, Neat (M100) 4 Ethanol, 85 Percent (E85) 3,5 Ethanol, 95 Percent (E95) 3 Elec- tricity 6 Hydro- gen Other Fuels 7 Subtotal Oxygenates 2 Bio- diesel 10 Total Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether 8 Ethanol in Gasohol 9 Total Alternative-Fueled Vehicles in Use 11 (number) 1992 NA 23,191 90 4,850 404 172 38 1,607 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1993 NA 32,714 299 10,263 414 441 27 1,690 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994 NA 41,227 484 15,484 415 605 33 2,224 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1995 172,806 50,218 603 18,319 386 1,527

342

What's New in the Computational Biology Section  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

What's New? What's New? Kane, SR, Chakicherla, AY, Chain, PSG, Schmidt, R, Shin, MW, Legler, TC, Scow, KM, Larimer, FW, Lucas, SM, Richardson, PM, and Hristova, KR. (2007). Whole-Genome Analysis of the Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1. J. Bacteriol. 189(5): 1931-1945. PubMed Scott KM, Sievert SM, Abril FN, Ball LA, Barrett CJ, Blake RA, Boller AJ, Chain PS, Clark JA, Davis CR, Detter C, Do KF, Dobrinski KP, Faza BI, Fitzpatrick KA, Freyermuth SK, Harmer TL, Hauser LJ, Hugler M, Kerfeld CA, Klotz MG, Kong WW, Land M, Lapidus A, Larimer FW, Longo DL, Lucas S, Malfatti SA, Massey SE, Martin DD, McCuddin Z, Meyer F, Moore JL, Ocampo LH, Paul JH, Paulsen IT, Reep DK, Ren Q, Ross RL, Sato PY, Thomas P, Tinkham LE, Zeruth GT. (2006). The Genome of Deep-Sea Vent Chemolithoautotroph Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2. PLoS Biol. 4(12): e383. PubMed

343

Role of alkyl alcohol on viscosity of silica-based chemical gels for decontamination of highly radioactive nuclear facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silica-based chemical gel for the decontamination of nuclear facilities was prepared by using fumed silica as a viscosifier, a 0.5 M Ce (IV) solution dissolved in concentrated nitric acid as a chemical decontamination agent, and tripropylene glycol butyl ether (TPGBE) as a co-viscosifier. A new effective strategy for the preparation of the chemical gel was investigated by introducing the alkyl alcohols as organic solvents to effectively dissolve the co-viscosifier. The mixture solution of the co-viscosifier and alkyl alcohols was more effective in the control of viscosity than that of the co-viscosifier only in gel. Here, the alkyl alcohols played a key role as an effective dissolution solvent for the co-viscosifier in the preparation of the chemical gel, resulting in a reducing of the amount of the co-viscosifier and gel time compared with that of the chemical gel prepared without the alkyl alcohols. It was considered that the alkyl alcohols contributed to the effective dissolution of the co-viscosifier as well as the homogeneous mixing in the formation of the gel, while the co-viscosifier in an aqueous media of the chemical decontamination agent solution showed a lower solubility. The decontamination efficiency of the chemical gels prepared in this work using a multi-channel analyzer (MCA) showed a high decontamination efficiency of over ca. 94% and ca. 92% for Co-60 and Cs-137 contaminated on surface of the stainless steel 304, respectively. (authors)

Choi, B. S.; Yoon, S. B.; Jung, C. H.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Div. of Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Development, Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Selecting activated carbon for water and wastewater treatability studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of follow-up investigations were performed to produce data for improving the four-indicator carbon selection method that we developed to identify high-potential activated carbons effective for removing specific organic water pollutants. The carbon's pore structure and surface chemistry are dependent on the raw material and the activation process. Coconut carbons have relatively more small pores than large pores; coal and apricot nutshell/walnut shell fruit carbons have the desirable pore structures for removing adsorbates of all sizes. Chemical activation, excessive activation, and/or thermal reactivation enlarge small pores, resulting in reduced phenol number and higher tannic acid number. Activated carbon's phenol, iodine, methylene blue, and tannic acid numbers are convenient indicators of its surface area and pore volume of pore diameters < 10, 10-15, 15-28, and > 28 angstrom, respectively. The phenol number of a carbon is also a good indicator of its surface acidity of oxygen-containing organic functional groups that affect the adsorptive capacity for aromatic and other small polar organics. The tannic acid number is an indicator of carbon's capacity for large, high-molecular-weight natural organic precursors of disinfection by-products in water treatment. The experimental results for removing nitrobenzene, methyl-tert-butyl ether, 4,4-bisphenol, humic acid, and the organic constituents of a biologically treated coking-plant effluent have demonstrated the effectiveness of this capacity-indicator-based method of carbon selection.

Zhang, W.; Chang, Q.G.; Liu, W.D.; Li, B.J.; Jiang, W.X.; Fu, L.J.; Ying, W.C. [East China University of Chemical Technology, Shanghai (China)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

Zelenay named Electrochemical Society Fellow  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and dimethyl ether oxidation; hydrogen, direct methanol, and direct dimethyl ether fuel cells; electrode and membrane-electrode - 2 - assembly development; and performance...

346

E-Print Network 3.0 - aryl bisdiazeniumdiolates potent Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Hindered Alkyl-Aryl Ethers Thomas F. Woiwode... synthesis.2 Our retrosynthetic analysis of phomopsin A targeted the chiral tertiary alkyl-aryl ether... substitution (SNAr)...

347

Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as Bioindicators in Canadian Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes Basin. 1. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Eggs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Eggs from Lyons Creek (Niagara River AOC) reflected a local PCB source over a range of 7.5 km (3.2 ? 10.8) from the Welland Canal. ... AOC ... Mean ?PBDEs concentrations in turtle eggs ranged from 3.8 ng/g ww (Algonquin Park) to 73.3 ng/g (Hamilton Harbour AOC; Figure 2). ...

S. R. de Solla; K. J. Fernie; R. J. Letcher; S. G. Chu; K. G. Drouillard; S. Shahmiri

2007-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

348

Quantification of Fuel Oxygenate Ethers in Human Blood using Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Because ofwater solubility, fuel oxygenate...toluene. When water supplies are contaminated...followed by gas chromatography-high-resolution...helium-sparged distilled water (26) to produce...blanks,and water standardsfor daily...column carrier gas for all analyses...using liquid nitrogen from Air Liq......

Lalith K. Silva; Clayton R. Wilburn; Michael A. Bonin; Mitchell M. Smith; Katherine A. Reese; David L. Ashley; Benjamin C. Blount

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Quantification of Fuel Oxygenate Ethers in Human Blood using Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......which performsautomatedsample heating, SPME extraction, and GC injection...fibers were preconditioned by heating at 250~ for 2 h. Fuel oxy...accurate, the high purchase price of the HRMSand the high cost...Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Petroleum Supply Monthly......

Lalith K. Silva; Clayton R. Wilburn; Michael A. Bonin; Mitchell M. Smith; Katherine A. Reese; David L. Ashley; Benjamin C. Blount

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Comparative Study on Engine Performance and Diesel Emissions with European Diesel Fuel (DF)?Diethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether (DGM) and Fischer?Tropsch (FT)?DGM Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

† Department of Energy and Process Engineering ... The general picture of the methyl- and methylene-related vibrations in the DF used here confirms the results of the GC analyses; i.e., that the DF resembles a n-alkane-dominated hydrocarbon mixture. ... To investigate influences of fuel design on regulated and non-regulated emissions of heavy-duty diesel engines, a Mercedes-Benz OM 906 Euro 3 engine was run with common diesel fuel (DF), first- and second-generation alternative fuels (Gas-to-liq. ...

Md. Nurun Nabi; Rudolf Schmid; Johan Einar Hustad

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

351

Synthesis, Structure, and Dispersion Property of a Novel Lignin-Based Polyoxyethylene Ether from Kraft Lignin and Poly(ethylene glycol)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(19) Dimethomorph was provided as a light white powder (50 ?m) with a minimum purity of 98.5% from Noposion Agrochemicals Co., Ltd., China. ... Effect of Molar Ratio of ECH to PEG on the Composition of KL-PEG Copolymer ... Table 3. Structural Compositions of KL-PEG Copolymers ...

Xuliang Lin; Mingsong Zhou; Suya Wang; Hongming Lou; Dongjie Yang; Xueqing Qiu

2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

352

Highly Regioselective [2 + 2 + 2] Cycloaddition of Terminal Alkynes Catalyzed by ?6-Arene Complexes of Titanium Supported by Dimethylsilyl-Bridged p-tert-Butyl Calix[4]arene Ligand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two new Ti??6-arene complexes [(DMSC)Ti{?6-1,2,4-C6H3(SiMe3)3}] (6) and [(DMSC)Ti{?6-1,3,5-C6H3But3}] (7) containing 1,2-alternate, Me2Si-bridged p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene (DMSC) ancillary ligand have been synthesized. ... The high selectivity for 1,2,4-substituted benzene may be understood in terms of the directing influence of the DMSC ligand. ... For example, the two chloride ligands in (DMSC)TiCl2 (1) (DMSC = 1,2-alternate Me2Si-bridged p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene) exist in different stereochemical environments. ...

Oleg V. Ozerov; Brian O. Patrick; Folami T. Ladipo

2000-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

353

C(sp2)?C(sp3) Rotational Barriers in Simple Amides:? H2N?C(O)R (R = Methyl, Ethyl, i-Propyl, tert-Butyl)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(a) Cuillerdier, C.; Musikas, C.; Hoel, P.; Nigond, L.; Vitart, X. Sep. ... (f) Cuillerdier, C.; Musikas, C.; Nigond, L. Sep. ... (i) Nigond, L.; Musikas, C.; Cuillerdier, C. Solv. ...

Giovanni Sandrone; David A. Dixon; Benjamin P. Hay

1999-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

354

Photoluminescence properties of polynapthalenevinylene (PNV) homopolymers and block copolymers by ring–opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and study of their photoluminescence properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...6-tetrafluorobenzene, 6, reacts with butyl lithium to yield a benzyne intermediate which...second metal halide exchange using butyl lithium at low temperature yielded the lithium adduct. Addition of an excess of alkyl iodide and gradual warming...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Catalysis Dimethyl Ether Flash Pyrolysis Fischer Tropschpure hydrogen fuel product. Flash pyrolysis Pyrolysis is the

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Catalysis Dimethyl Ether Flash Pyrolysis Fischer Tropschpure hydrogen fuel product. Flash pyrolysis Pyrolysis is the

Farrell, Alexander; Sperling, Daniel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-Term Supply Potential of Domestic Biofuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Catalysis Dimethyl Ether Flash Pyrolysis Fischer Tropschpure hydrogen fuel product. Flash Pyrolysis Pyrolysis is the

Jones, Andrew; O'Hare, Michael; Farrell, Alexander

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

E-Print Network 3.0 - acrylic acid grafted Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

& acronyms 11 PPPP PAA Poly(acrylic acid) PBMA Poly(butyl methacrylate) PE Polyethylene PHEMA Poly... ......

359

An elusive species with many different traits.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Pase detection of HSOH: Synthesis by Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis of ditert-butyl-sulfoxide and rotational- torsional

Giesen, Thomas

360

Dynamics of conserved waters in human Hsp90: implications for drug design  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...43 0.80 3 H H OMe H H n-butyl 3.17 0.88 4 H H OCH2O bridge H n-butyl 0.46 0.78 5 H OMe H H OMe n-butyl 0...F OMe H H OMe 1-pentynyl 0.53 1.25 12 F H OCH2O bridge H n-butyl 0.45 0.53 a RMS: docking result when four...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Total Synthesis of Amphilectolide, Sandresolide B, Archazolid B and towards Archazolid A and Caribenol A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The presence of an excess of lithium chloride acceleratesusing an excess of tert-butyl lithium and trimethylsilyl

Chen, Ingrid T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Molybdenum recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the preparation of propylene oxide and tertiary butyl alcohol. It comprises: propylene and tertiary butyl hydroperoxide are reacted in an epoxidation reaction zone in solution in tertiary butyl alcohol in the presence of a soluble molybdenum catalyst to provide an epoxidation reaction product comprising unreacted propylene, unreacted tertiary butyl hydroperoxide, propylene oxide, tertiary butyl alcohol, dissolved molybdenum catalyst and impurities, including lower aliphatic C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} carboxylic acids, and wherein the epoxidation reaction product is resolved into product fractions in a distillation zone including a distillate propylene fraction.

Meyer, R.A.; Marquis, E.T.

1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

363

Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a furnished room a furnished room Title Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-53943 Year of Publication 2004 Authors Singer, Brett C., Kenneth L. Revzan, Toshifumi Hotchi, Alfred T. Hodgson, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 38 Start Page Chapter Issue 16 Pagination 2483-2494 Abstract We present experimental data and semi-empirical models describing the sorption of organic gases in a simulated indoor residential environment. Two replicate experiments were conducted with 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a 50-m3 room finished with painted wallboard, carpet and cushion, draperies and furnishings. The VOCs span a wide volatility range and include ten Hazardous Air Pollutants. VOCs were introduced to the static chamber as a pulse and their gas-phase concentrations were measured during a net adsorption period and a subsequent net desorption period. Three sorption models were fit to the measured concentrations for each compound to determine the simplest formulation needed to adequately describe the observed behavior. Sorption parameter values were determined by fitting the models to adsorption period data then checked by comparing measured and predicted behavior during desorption. The adequacy of each model was evaluated using a goodness of fit parameter calculated for each period. Results indicate that sorption usually does not greatly affect indoor concentrations of methyl-tert-butyl ether, 2-butanone, isoprene and benzene. In contrast, sorption appears to be a relevant indoor process for many of the VOCs studied, including C8-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons (HC), terpenes, and pyridine. These compounds sorbed at rates close to typical residential air change rates and exhibited substantial sorptive partitioning at equilibrium. Polycyclic aromatic HCs, aromatic alcohols, ethenylpyridine and nicotine initially adsorbed to surfaces at rates of 1.5 to >6 h-1 and partitioned 95 to >99% in the sorbed phase at equilibrium

364

Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Second annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors describe second year efforts in synthesis, characterization, and rheology to develop polymers with significantly improved efficiency in mobility control and conformance. These advanced polymer systems would maintain high viscosities or behave as virtual gels under low shear conditions and at elevated electrolyte concentrations. At high fluid shear rates, associates would deaggregate yielding low viscosity solutions, reducing problems of shear degradation or face plugging during injection. Polymeric surfactants were also developed with potential for use in higher salt, higher temperature reservoirs for mobilization of entrapped oil. Chapters include: Ampholytic terpolymers of acrylamide with sodium 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride; Hydrophilic sulfobetaine copolymers of acrylamide and 3-(2-acrylamido-methylpropane-dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate; Copolymerization of maleic anhydride and N-vinylformamide; Reactivity ratio of N-vinylformamide with acrylamide, sodium acrylate, and n-butyl acrylate; Effect of the distribution of the hydrophobic cationic monomer dimethyldodecyl(2-acrylamidoethyl)ammonium bromide on the solution behavior of associating acrylamide copolymers; Effect of surfactants on the solution properties of amphipathic copolymers of acrylamide and N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecyl-N-(2-acrylamidoethyl)ammonium bromide; Associative interactions and photophysical behavior of amphiphilic terpolymers prepared by modification of maleic anhydride/ethyl vinyl ether copolymers; Copolymer compositions of high-molecular-weight functional acrylamido water-soluble polymers using direct-polarization magic-angle spinning {sup 13}C NMR; Use of factorial experimental design in static and dynamic light scattering characterization of water soluble polymers; and Porous medium elongational rheometer studies of NaAMB/AM copolymer solutions.

McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Nanostructured epoxies based on the self-assembly of block copolymers: a new miscible block that can be tailored to different epoxy formulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanostructured thermosets may be obtained by self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in a reactive solvent and fixation of the morphologies by the cross-linking reaction. Nanostructuration requires the presence of a bock that remains miscible in the polymer during polymerization. The selection of the miscible block depends on the particular system and in some cases (e.g., for epoxy-amine network based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, and 4,4'- diaminodiphenylsulfone) it is very difficult to find such a block. In this manuscript it is shown that random copolymers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) containing different molar fractions of DMA, can be used as a miscible block for the nanostructuration of epoxies. The miscibility of the random copolymer during formation of the epoxy network was first analyzed determining cloud-point conversions as a function of the molar fraction of DMA in the copolymer. A thermodynamic model of the phase separation was performed using the Flory-Huggins model and taking the polydispersities of both polymers into account. A single expression of the interaction parameter based on the theory of random copolymers provided a reasonable fitting of the experimental cloud-point curves. The significant increase in the miscibility produced by using small DMA molar fractions in the copolymer was explained by the high negative value of the binary interaction energy between DMA and the epoxy-amine solvent, associated to the positive value of the interaction energy between DMA and MMA units. Block copolymers with poly(n-butyl acrylate) as the immiscible block and the random copolymer P(MMA-co-DMA) as the miscible block were used for the nanostructuration of epoxy networks. The necessary molar fraction of DMA in the miscible block to stabilize a dispersion of nanosize domains depended on the fraction of the immiscible block.

S. Maiez-Tribut; J. P. Pascault; E. R. Soule; J. Borrajo; R. J. J. Williams

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

366

Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies Rula A. Deeb1 ; Jonathan with Federal Clean Air Act requirements for carbon monoxide and ozone attainment, ethanol is being considered as a replacement for MTBE. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential impact of ethanol on benzene

Alvarez, Pedro J.

367

Energy Efficient Refinery Process Developed with U.S. D.O.E. Support  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in one column, the exothermic heat of reaction is utilized to supplement distil lation energy requirements. Spent Recycle C4's MeOH MeOH C4's MTBE MeOH Reaction Water recovery column wash column INEL 3 0110 Figure 2. Process Flow Diagram...

Mings, W. J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Tomato Fruit Antioxidants in Relation to Salinity and Greenhouse Climate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tomato Fruit Antioxidants in Relation to Salinity and Greenhouse Climate ... Blocks were positioned to account for experimental error due to minor light gradients in the greenhouse. ... Tomato extracts (15 ?L injection) were eluted with a methanol/MTBE gradient over an 80 min run. ...

David L. Ehret; Kevin Usher; Tom Helmer; Glenn Block; Dan Steinke; Brenda Frey; Tallie Kuang; Moussa Diarra

2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

369

MT3DMS, A Modular Three-Dimensional Multispecies Transport Model User Guide to the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.M. Cozzarelli, M.H. Lahvis, and B.A. Bekins. 1998. Ground water contamination by crude oil near Bemidji (LNAPL) contaminant through the unsaturated zone and the formation of an oil lens on the water table ................................................................................................................. 18 #12;1 1. INTRODUCTION Leaks of fuels that release contaminants such as BTEX, MTBE and other fuel

Zheng, Chunmiao

370

Achieving Acceptable Air Quality: Some Reflections on Controlling Vehicle Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...combus-tion. Over time, electric vehicles will not...shift as fossil fuel power plants that provide...trans-portation power that is free of...urban areas where electric vehicles are used...some-times increased. In refineries, MTBE is generally...mechanisms. Volatility curves for methanol-gasoline...

J. G. Calvert; J. B. Heywood; R. F. Sawyer; J. H. Seinfeld

1993-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

371

UMass scientists tackle gas spills Underground microbesseenas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on earth could be the newest , weapon against gasoline spills. Researchers at the University spills of the gasoline additive MTBE. First added to gasoline to enhance octane, and later in much larger on sulfur, the UMass team has been. able to remove benzene, a carcino- genic component of gasoline and other

Lovley, Derek

372

Transformation of Coordinated Dinitrogen by Reaction with Dihydrogen and Primary Silanes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...phenyl} (10) to ZrCl 4 (THT) 2 (THT = tetrahydrothiophene) in diothyl ether produces the corresponding dichloride...phenyl} (10) to ZrCl4(THT)2 (THT-=-tetrahydrothiophene) in diothyl ether produces the corresponding...

Michael D. Fryzuk; Jason B. Love; Steven J. Rettig; Victor G. Young

1997-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

373

PREPRINT  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

dried before using by dissolving in a minimum amount of ether, drying over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, and removing the ether under vacuum. This material is >95% pure and may be...

374

Factors Relevant for the Regioselective Cyclopolymerization of 1,6-Heptadiynes, N,N-Dipropargylamines, N,N-Dipropargylammonium Salts, and Dipropargyl Ethers by RuIV?Alkylidene-Based Metathesis Initiators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

V.) IOM, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany, Institut für Allgemeine, Anorganische and Theoretische Chemie, Universität Innsbruck, Innrain 52 a, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria, and Institut für Technische Chemie, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstrasse 3, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany ... 1:50 ...

P. Santhosh Kumar; K. Wurst; Michael R. Buchmeiser

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

375

Barrier to Rotation around the Csp2-Csp2 Bond of the Ketoaldehyde Enol Ether MeC(O)CHCH?OEt As Determined by 13C NMR and ab Initio Calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

NMR measurements and ab initio calculations were applied to determine the barriers to rotation around formally single bonds of the title methyl-?-ethoxyvinyl ketone, i.e., the vinylogue of the ethyl ester of acetic acid. For comparison, ab initio ...

Hans-Christian Siebert; Emad Tajkhorshid; Janusz Dabrowski

2001-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

376

Diverted Total Synthesis Leads to the Generation of Promising Cell-Migration Inhibitors for Treatment of Tumor Metastasis: In vivo and Mechanistic Studies on the Migrastatin Core Ether Analog  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Cell Biology Program, Laboratory for Bioorganic Chemistry, Organic Synthesis Core Facility, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, and Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, Havemeyer Hall, 3000 Broadway, New York, New York 10027 ... This work was supported by NIH grants CA103823 (S.J.D.), CA126518 (J.M.), and CA129243 (J.M.); by the Alan and Sandra Gerry Metastasis Research Initiative (J.M.); and by a Cancer Research Institute Gar Reichman Award (M.M.). ... Danishefsky, S. J., Yan, C. F., Singh, R. K., Gammill, R. B., McCurry, P. M., Jr., Fritsch, N. and Clardy, J. J. Am. ...

Thordur Oskarsson; Pavel Nagorny; Isaac J. Krauss; Lucy Perez; Mihirbaran Mandal; Guangli Yang; Ouathek Ouerfelli; Danhua Xiao; Malcolm A. S. Moore; Joan Massagué; Samuel J. Danishefsky

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

Solid-State NMR Molecular Dynamics Characterization of aHighly Chlorine-Resistant Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether sulfone) Random Copolymer Blended with Poly(ethylene glycol) Oligomers for Reverse Osmosis Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(3) However, PAs show a critical weakness to chlorine (e.g., NaOCl) that is added as an oxidizing biocide to remove microorganisms that accumulate on the membrane surface, blocking water flux. ... (6, 10, 11) Hence, BPS-20K, a relatively low DS material, was considered as an alternative RO membrane material owing to its excellent NaCl separation property being similar to that of commercial PA (>99%). ...

Chang Hyun Lee; Justin Spano; James E. McGrath; Joseph Cook; Benny D. Freeman; Sungsool Wi

2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

378

Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-[1,1,3,3- Tetramethylbutyl] phenol) 34 Triclosan (2,4,4'- Trichloro-2'-hydroxyphenyl ether) 38 Fungicides 40

379

Dispersed Polyphosphate in Fungal Vacuoles in Eucalyptus pilularis/Pisolithus tinctorius  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Stained sections of ether­acrolein freeze-substituted mycorrhizas also showed only dis- persed material

Vesk, Peter

380

Chemical behavior of degradation products of tributylphosphate in purex reprocessing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical behavior of butyl nitrate/butyl alcohol, degradation products from dealkylation of tri-n-butylphosphate(TBP) in PUREX reprocessing, which has not so far been reported, was investigated. No accumulation of those compounds in the organic phase of TBP(30%)-dodecane was observed in any separation cycle of PUREX despite the fact that the apparent distribution of the compounds lies to the organic phase at their high concentrations. The distribution of butyl nitrate/butyl alcohol between organic/aqueous phases is found to be dependent on their concentrations and on nitric acid concentration, which could explain the above phenomena. Only butyl nitrate of the above two compounds was slightly detected in the organic streams. It is probable from this investigation that butyl nitrate is removed into aqueous waste stream primarily through alkali scrubber.

Kuno, Y.; Sato, S.; Masui, J. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Nonphosphate Degradation Products of Tributyl Phosphate and Their Reactivities in Purex Media Under Extreme Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical degradation of tributyl phosphate (TBP) in liquid systems, where TBP was in contact with aqueous solutions containing nitric acid and/or uranyl nitrate, was studied experimentally to clarify the mechanisms of the formation and successive reactions of nonphosphate products under atmospheric pressure. Butyl nitrate, propionic acid, acetic acid, butric acid, and butyl alcohol were formed as the nonphosphate butyl products derived from the butyl-groups of TBP in an open system. The total amount of these products almost equals the amount of the major intermediate phosphate products reduced, i.e., di- and monobutyl phosphates and phosphoric acid. Butyl alcohol was found to be the precursor of the other nonphosphate products.Even when the extremely degraded solvent was further contacted with 10 M nitric acid at 90 deg. C, no significant heat evolution was observed at atmospheric pressure. Only butyl alcohol changed into carboxylic acids by exothermic oxidative reactions.

Tashiro, Yoshikazu [Sumitomo Metal Mining Company, Ltd. (Japan); Kodama, Ryuji [Sumitomo Metal Mining Company, Ltd. (Japan); Sugai, Hiroshi [Sumitomo Metal Mining Company, Ltd. (Japan); Suzuki, Katsuhiko [Japan Nuclear Fuel, Ltd. (Japan); Matsuoka, Shingo [Japan Nuclear Fuel, Ltd. (Japan)

2000-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

382

Effect of Carcass Grades and Fatness on Tenderness of Meat from Steers of Known History.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

percent separ- ? fat (Figure 19) and higher ether extract I -!nure 20). But some animals with less I, ~blil~g (as low as 3.8 percent ether extract) -1- Ire as tender as the one with the most marbling 1 '1.4 percent ether extract). -' The tati...

King, G. T.; Butler, O. D.; Cover, Sylvia

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

On the use of stochastic ordering to test for trend with clustered binary data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......1602-10. George J. , Price C., Marr M., Kimmel...Developmental toxicity of ethylene glycol diethyl ether...of responses from the ethylene glycol diethyl ether...160210. GEORGE, J., PRICE, C., MARR, M...Developmental toxicity of ethylene glycol diethyl ether......

Aniko Szabo; E. Olusegun George

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Tetrahedron Letters,Vol.26,No.8,Dp 997-1000,1985 0040-4039/85 $3.00 + .OO Printed in Great Britain 01985 Perqamon Press Ltd.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of 9a to lithium dimethyl copper (ether, 0°C) provided 90% of 10a containing the necessary cis-ring juncture. Removal of the carbomethoxyl was best accomplished by treating the O-ketoester with lithium of the trimethylsilyl enol ether followed by oxidation of the enol ether with palladium acetate and p

385

A Novel Method for Separation and Identification of Sulphur Compounds in Naphtha (30–200°C) and Middle Distillate (200–350°C) Fractions of Lloydminster Heavy Oil by GC/MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......5-diethylthiophene thiophene diethyl sulphide tetrahydrothiophene ethyl phenyl sulphide naphthalene...benzothiophene dibenzothiophene methyl tetrahydrothiophene methyl tetrahydrothiopyran dimethyl tetrahydrothiophene ethyl butyl sulphide amyl ethyl......

M.A. Poirier; G.T. Smiley

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Download  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aug 6, 1979 ... Photosynthetic bacterial production in lakes: The effects of ... bacterial production of total production .... water was injected into a butyl rubber-.

2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

387

Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution.

Dietz, Mark L. (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Bartsch, Richard A. (Lubbock, TX); Barrans, Jr., Richard E. (Downers Grove, IL); Rausch, David (Naperville, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale This article first appeared in the Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1995, Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA-0202(95) (Washington, DC, July 1995), pp. 33-42, 83-85. The regression results and historical data for production, inventories, and imports have been updated in this presentation. Contents * Introduction o Table 1. Oxygenate production capacity and demand * Oxygenate demand o Table 2. Estimated RFG demand share - mandated RFG areas, January 1998 * Fuel ethanol supply and demand balance o Table 3. Fuel ethanol annual statistics * MTBE supply and demand balance o Table 4. EIA MTBE annual statistics * Refinery balances

389

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

hydrogen Go hydrogen Go Hydrogen-stations Hydrogen Fueling Station Locations by State Hydrogen-stations View Map Graph Hydrogen_li_by_state Hydrogen Incentives and Laws, by State Hydrogen_li_by_state View Map Graph Generated_thumb20130810-31804-1c5lrlb Commuter Responses to the 2008 Oil Price Spike Generated_thumb20130810-31804-1c5lrlb Ways that workers changed their commutes in response to high gasoline prices Last update May 2012 View Graph Graph Download Data Generated_thumb20130810-31804-f64ffe U.S. Consumption of Ethanol and MTBE Oxygenates Generated_thumb20130810-31804-f64ffe Trend of ethanol and MTBE consumption as oxygenates and gasohol blends from 1992-2009 Last update February 2012 View Graph Graph Download Data Generated_thumb20130810-31804-14nv4j5 AFV Acquisitions by Regulated Fleets (by Fuel Type)

390

Inhibition of Cell Cycle Kinetics and Proliferation by the Androgen 5?-Dihydrotestosterone and Antiestrogen N,n-Butyl-N-methyl-11-[16??-chloro-3?,17?-dihydroxy-estra-1?,3?,5?-(10?)triene-7??-yl] Undecanamide in Human Breast Cancer ZR-75-1 Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Phila.), 47: 2319-2326, 1981. 3. Poulin, R., and Labrie, F. Stimulation of...London: McMillan Press, 1981. 8. Poulin, R., M rand,Y., Poirier, D...Endocrinology, 126: 3223-3231. 1989. 11. Poulin. R., Baker, D.. and Labrie. F...

Yvan de Launoit; Sophie Dauvois; Maurice Dufour; Jacques Simard; Fernand Labrie

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Effect of xenobiotics on the respiratory activity of rat heart mitochondria and the concomitant formation of superoxide radicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of the xenobiotics atrazine, benzene, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), lindane, toluene, and xylenol on the respiration of isolated rate heart mitochondria were studied. Bioenergetic parameters such as respiratory control (RC) and ATP/oxygen (P/O) values decreased considerably in the presence of these substances, and a concomitant increase of superoxide radical (O[sub 2][sup [minus

Stolze, K.; Nohl, H. (Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Pharmacology and Toxicology)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

2D Kagom´e ordering in the 3D frustrated spinel Li2Mn2O4  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

12.5 ml of 16 M n-butyl lithium in 40 ml of sodium-dried hexane. This provides a slight excess of n-butyl lithium. After gentle heating at 40 C for 5 days, the final product...

393

Inhibition of biofilm formation and swarming of Bacillus subtilis by (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)- 3-butyl-2(5H)-furanone D. Ren1 , J.J. Sims2 and T.K. Wood1 1 Departments of Chemical Engineering. REN, J.J. SIMS AND T.K. WOOD. 2002. Aims: (5Z)-4-Bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-3-butyl-2(5H

Wood, Thomas K.

394

Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO{sub 2} from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([bmim][DCA]) as the absorbent on the shell side of a membrane module containing either a porous hydrophobized ceramic tubule or porous hydrophobized polyether ether ketone (PEEK) hollow fiber membranes, studies for CO{sub 2} removal from hot simulated pre-combustion shifted syngas were carried out by a novel pressure swing membrane absorption (PSMAB) process. Helium was used as a surrogate for H{sub 2} in a simulated shifted syngas with CO{sub 2} around 40% (dry gas basis). In this cyclic separation process, the membrane module was used to achieve non-dispersive gas absorption from a high-pressure feed gas (689-1724 kPag; 100-250 psig) at temperatures between 25-1000C into a stationary absorbent liquid on the module shell side during a certain part of the cycle followed by among other cycle steps controlled desorption of the absorbed gases from the liquid in the rest of the cycle. Two product streams were obtained, one He-rich and the other CO{sub 2}-rich. Addition of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer of generation 0 to IL [bmim][DCA] improved the system performance at higher temperatures. The solubilities of CO{sub 2} and He were determined in the ionic liquid with or without the dendrimer in solution as well as in the presence or absence of moisture; polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 was also studied as a replacement for the IL. The solubility selectivity of the ionic liquid containing the dendrimer for CO{sub 2} over helium was considerably larger than that for the pure ionic liquid. The solubility of CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}-He solubility selectivity of PEG 400 and a solution of the dendrimer in PEG 400 were higher than the corresponding ones in the IL, [bmim][DCA]. A mathematical model was developed to describe the PSMAB process; a numerical solution of the governing equations described successfully the observed performance of the PSMAB process for the pure ionic liquid-based system.

Sirkar, Kamalesh; Jie, Xingming; Chau, John; Obuskovic, Gordana

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

395

[Research and workshop on alternative fuels for aviation. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University was granted U. S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) funds for research and development to improve the efficiency in ethanol powered aircraft, measure performance and compare emissions of ethanol, Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) and 100 LL aviation gasoline. The premise of the initial proposal was to use a test stand owned by Engine Components Inc. (ECI) based in San Antonio, Texas. After the grant was awarded, ECI decided to close down its test stand facility. Since there were no other test stands available at that time, RAFDC was forced to find additional support to build its own test stand. Baylor University provided initial funds for the test stand building. Other obstacles had to be overcome in order to initiate the program. The price of the emission testing equipment had increased substantially beyond the initial quote. Rosemount Analytical Inc. gave RAFDC an estimate of $120,000.00 for a basic emission testing package. RAFDC had to find additional funding to purchase this equipment. The electronic ignition unit also presented a series of time consuming problems. Since at that time there were no off-the-shelf units of this type available, one had to be specially ordered and developed. FAA funds were used to purchase a Super Flow dynamometer. Due to the many unforeseen obstacles, much more time and effort than originally anticipated had to be dedicated to the project, with much of the work done on a volunteer basis. Many people contributed their time to the program. One person, mainly responsible for the initial design of the test stand, was a retired engineer from Allison with extensive aircraft engine test stand experience. Also, many Baylor students volunteered to assemble the. test stand and continue to be involved in the current test program. Although the program presented many challenges, which resulted in delays, the RAFDC's test stand is an asset which provides an ongoing research capability dedicated to the testing of alternative fuels for aircraft engines. The test stand is now entirely functional with the exception of the electronic ignition unit which still needs adjustments.

NONE

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride towards Technetium-99 Extraction - 13016  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning processes, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, the UREX process has been developed in the United States to co-extract hexavalent uranium (U) and hepta-valent technetium (Tc) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Tc-99 is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radio-toxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t{sub 1/2} = 2.13 x 10{sup 5} years), and as such, is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste-form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flowsheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for ultimate disposal. In addition, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste-forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macro-compounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, quaternary ammonium salts, and resorcin-arenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} by benzyl tributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand's matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e. diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using an external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed. (authors)

Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Horkley, Jared; Campbell, Keri [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Street, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Street, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Roman, Audrey [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States)] [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States); Nunez, Ana; Espartero, Amparo [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040- Madrid (Spain)] [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040- Madrid (Spain)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride Towards Technetium-99 Extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning process, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, low nitric acid concentration in the aqueous phase of a UREX based process will co-extract U(VI) and Tc(VII) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Technetium (Tc-99) is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radiotoxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t1/2 = 2.13 × 105 years), and as such, it is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flow sheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for ultimate disposal. Furthermore, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macrocompounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, and resorcinarenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO4- by benzyltributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand’s matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e., diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed.

Jared Horkley; Audrey Roman; Keri Campbell; Ana Nunez; Amparo Espartero

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

CF4 Plasma Treatment of Poly(dimethylsiloxane): Effect of Fillers and Its Application to High-Aspect-Ratio UV Embossing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Surface treatment of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) by O2, H2, N2, He, Ne, Ar, and CF4 nonisothermal glow discharges has been investigated by XPS and at.-force microscopy. ... CF4 plasma treatment of a range of polymers (polyethylene, polypropylene, polyisoprene, polystyrene, poly(ether ether ketone), polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate, polysulfone, and poly(ether sulfone)) has been investigated by XPS (XPS). ... CF4 Plasma Treatment of Asymmetric Polysulfone Membranes ...

Y. H. Yan; M. B. Chan-Park; C. Y. Yue

2005-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

399

Electronic and Steric Effects on the Lewis Acidities of Transient Silylenes and Germylenes: Equilibrium Constants for Complexation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and their germanium homologues (GeMe2, GePh2, and GeMes2) with diethyl ether (Et2O), tetrahydrothiophene (THT

Leigh, William J.

400

E-Print Network 3.0 - androgenic endocrine disruptors Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

University Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 99 The antimicrobial agents triclosan (TCS; 2,4,4-trichloro-2-hydroxydiphenyl ether) Summary: testosterone action: a new...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Observation of green emission from Ce3+ doped gadolinium oxide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

freshly-prepared Gd2O3 undoped nanoparticles which is attributed to the stabilizer, polyethylene glycol biscarboxymethyl ether. Upon aging, the undoped particles show similar...

402

Research on Fuels & Lubricants | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuels lDimethyl Ether Rheology and Materials Studies Natural Oils - The Next Generation of Diesel Engine Lubricants? Combined Heat and Power, Waste Heat, and District Energy...

403

E-Print Network 3.0 - asymmetric dimethyl arginine-dimethylarginine...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

methyl acetate is selectively produced by reaction of dimethyl ether with carbon monoxide... .; "Superacid-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methane, Methyl Halides, Methyl Alcohol,...

404

E-Print Network 3.0 - acoustic wave vapor Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(6). While previous systems have demonstrated success in chemical... striking visual identification of a range of ligating vapors (including alcohols, amines, ethers... ,...

405

E-Print Network 3.0 - asymmetric dimethylarginine adma Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with ethene. The substrates used in this study include AEE (Allyl Ethyl Ether), ADMA (Acrolein... which mechanism is operative in this case. 3.4. Functional monomer - allyl...

406

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid receptor complex Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Action for Endocrine-Disrupting Michelle M. Tabb and Bruce Blumberg Summary: ; EGME, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether; ER, estrogen receptor; MAA, methoxyacetic acid; PCB... ,...

407

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid receptor detection Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Action for Endocrine-Disrupting Michelle M. Tabb and Bruce Blumberg Summary: ; EGME, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether; ER, estrogen receptor; MAA, methoxyacetic acid; PCB... ,...

408

The enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-Symbioimine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

producing ethyl sulfide 45, followed by CSA-catalyzed silyl-ether methanolysis and acetal formation, and PPTS-catalyzed condensation/elimination of methanol

Born, Stephen Christopher

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

10  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ethanol were added and the solution was kept at OC for 2 hr. ... same way and the combined ethanol-ether extracts constituted ..... metabolic energy. Thus, the ...

410

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

compressed and liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), hydrogen, electricity, and fuels containing at least 85% ethanol, methanol, ether, or another alcohol....

411

Desorption of carbon monoxide from nickel using mercaptans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An IR spectroscopic study on the displacement of carbon monoxide with 1-propyl, 2-propyl-, 1-butyl-, 2-butyl-, and tert.-butyl mercaptan from nickel foil and silica-supported nickel showed that at low carbon monoxide coverage on supported nickel, mercaptan adsorption initially converted bridged to linear carbon monoxide surface species. At higher mercaptan pressures, carbon monoxide desorbed into the gas phase. A small amount of carbon monoxide remained on the surface when the poisoned sample was evacuated, and additional carbon monoxide adsorbed when 5 mm Hg of carbon monoxide was added to the evacuated sample.

Neff, L.D.; Sturdivant, A.E.; Wallace, J.L.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Verification of the need for optical purity measurement of chiral pesticide standards as agricultural reference materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, optical purity measurement was performed on eight kinds of commercially available pesticide, namely, Dimethenamid-P, Dichlorprop-P, Fluazifop-P butyl, Indoxacarb, Metalaxyl-M, Mecoprop-P, Quizal...

Koichi Saito; Masakazu Yato; Takeshi Ito…

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Synthesis and elaboration of polyethylene surfaces modified via anionic grafting chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) was grafted to polyethylene films using these initiators. Hydrolysis of poly(tert-butyl acrylate) grafted polyethylene films led to a poly(acrylic acid) grafted polyethylene surfaces. Characterization of the grafted films by surface selective techniques...

Bandella, Ashok Krishangopal

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

414

Soluble hyperbranched grafts on polyethylene surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Here we report two methods to synthesize hyperbranched poly(acrylic acid) grafts on polyethylene films and powders. The previously reported route using ?,[]-diaminopoly(tert-butyl acrylate) was repeated and all previous results were confirmed...

Britton, Danielle M

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

415

High-resolution infrared measurements on HSOH: Analysis of the OH fundamental vibrational mode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-wave spectroscopy on HSOH and H34 SOH [1]. The authors used flash vacuum pyrolysis of di-tert-butyl sulfoxide] identified five of six fundamental vibrational modes of matrix isolated HSOH formed by pyrolysis of di

Giesen, Thomas

416

Combination Scattering Meter and Fluorometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-butyl tin (TBT), marine anti- fouling paint, ablative coatings, etc. Please ensure any anti beyond the normal wear and tear of field deployment, or in the event the pressure cans have been opened

Boss, Emmanuel S.

417

A BRIEF HISTORY OF INDUSTRIAL CATALYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

More recently, Air Products and Chemicals Corporation hasProcess Division of Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. HC Q)air oxidation of isobutane. T-butyl alcohol is a co- product

Heinemann, Heinz

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Metal catalyzed copolymerization processes involving carbon oxides as substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

backbone and electron donating tert-butyl groups in the phenolate rings. This catalyst was used to investigate the effect of altering the nature of the cocatalyst and its concentration. The coupling of carbon monoxide and aziridines has been shown...

Phelps, Andrea Lee

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Cathodic disbondment resistance with reactive ethylene terpolymer blends and composite coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

capability of organo-modified nanoclay offered significantnBA n-butyl acrylate NC natural nanoclay NR natural rubberOC organically modified nanoclay PA6 polyamide 6 (nylon 6)

Love, Corey T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Download Full-text PDF  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Production of the compounds ... leased. The rates of CHBr3 and C2H2Br2 production were neg- ... with PTFE-coated butyl rubber seals were equilibrated in the.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Selectivity Changes During Organic Photooxidation on TiO2: Role...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

but the t-butyl radical has several options for thermal chemistry. In ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), where the O2 partial pressure is <1x10-10 torr, the TMA photodecomposition results...

422

Tribological Properties of Ionic Liquids Lubricants Containing Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is to describe the tribological and rheological properties of mixtures of nanoparticles (NPs) and ionic liquids (ILs), specifically the mixture of bare SiO_(2) (silica) nanoparticles and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (trifluoromethysulfony...

Lu, Wei

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

423

Chiral Separations by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......epoxides 76 Scheme 5. Synthesis of oxazolidone CSP...microcrystalline cellulose tri acetate (CTA) can be used...sparteine-n- butyl lithium catalyst. This led...in stere oselective synthesis coupled with ingenious...methods, Asymmetric Synthesis, 1: 87224 (1983......

David R. Taylor; Kevin Maher

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

(front end fuel cycle) 2.1 (CANDU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.2.1. , , , , . UNH(Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate) . UNH TBP(Tri-Butyl Phosphate) TBP . TBP UNH . UNH ADU(Ammonium Diuranate) AUC(Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate) UO2 . #12; UO2 3.3% U

Hong, Deog Ki

425

Permanently charged tamoxifen derivatives: Chemical characterization, transcriptional activity, and biological effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...methyl iodide, methyl bromide, ethyl bromide, isopropyl bromide, propyl bromide and butyl bromide) were obtained by SN2 reaction. Chemical structures were determined by NMR, electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction. Biological effects: Binding...

Claudia Rivera Guevara; Rocio Garcia; Fernando Larrea; Martha S. Morales-Rios; Elizabeth Hermandez-Gallegos; David Barrera; Sandra Valencia; Victor Perez; and Javier Camacho

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY 81,2 13-2 19 ( 1985) Role of Extracellular Ca*+ in Toxic Liver Injury: Comparative Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

perfused liver and isolated hepatocytes. The toxins t-butyl- hydroperoxide and carbon tetrachloride on extracellular Ca2+ for cytotoxic injury to cultured hepato- cytes caused by carbon tetrachloride (CC&) and 2

California at Berkeley, University of

427

A PROTEOMIC STUDY OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to oxidative stress with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) contained 17% less carbonylated proteins than the non-fat loaded control. Mass spectrometric analysis of carbonylated proteins indicated that known classical markers of protein carbonylation (e...

Newton, Billy W.

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

428

Partial Characterization of C-type Particles in a Cell Line (WR-9) Derived from a Rat Epidermoid Carcinoma of Spontaneous Origin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...separations, using the Model K or RK air turbine-driven continuous-flow ultracentrifuge...extracted a final time with fresh ether. Residual ether was removed from the aqueous phase by bubbling nitrogen gas through the preparation for 40 to 60 rain...

P. Sottong; J. Woo; P. S. Sarma; and Z. Vaituzis

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

The Preparation and Purification of Tritiated Carcinogenic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...or methanol :ether :water (4:4:1) or (2...the above methods of purification were not satisfactory...with methanol:ether:water (4:4:1 and 4...ethanohacetic acid:water: benzene (15:15...general rule, that all purification procedures be carried...

Beppino C. Giovanella; C. W. Abell; and Charles Heidelberger

1962-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Gohdes, J.W.

1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

431

United States Department of the Interior, J. A. Krug, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Albert r~:. Day, Director  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the use of the formula~ suppose that 3.00 g. of crayfish liver is shaken vlith 100. ml. of petroleum ether of the livers, but the use of R large ' volume of petroleum ether and B small sample renders the error, aweighed sample of the liver is shaken with a measured quantity of petroleum Elther; an aliquot

432

Modeling simple amphiphilic solutes in a Jagla solvent Zhiqiang Su, Sergey V. Buldyrev, Pablo G. Debenedetti, Peter J. Rossky, and H. Eugene Stanley  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of phase equilibria and structure for dimethyl ether + sulfur dioxide and dimethyl ether + carbon dioxide J. Chem. Phys. 136, 044514 (2012) Reorientation dynamics of nanoconfined water: Power-law decay, hydrogen; published online 25 January 2012) Methanol is an amphiphilic solute whose aqueous solutions exhibit

Stanley, H. Eugene

433

Testing the hypothesis that amphiphilic antineoplastic lipid analogues act through reduction of membrane curvature elastic stress  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Hanauske et al. 1992). SRI 62.834 (13), which differs...developmental antitumor ether lipid SRI 62-834 in EMT6 mouse mammary...Jaeggi1987Antitumor activity of SRI 62-834, a cyclic ether analog...biosynthesisIn Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Phospholipids...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

Janke, Christopher J. (Powell, TN); Lopata, Vincent J. (Manitoba, CA); Havens, Stephen J. (Knoxville, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); Moulton, Richard J. (Lafayette, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Method for cleaning solution used in nuclear fuel reprocessing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nuclear fuel processing solution consisting of tri-n-butyl phosphate and dodecane, with a complex of uranium, plutonium, or zirconium and with a solvent degradation product such as di-n-butyl phosphate therein, is contacted with an aqueous solution of a salt formed from hydrazine and either a dicarboxylic acid or a hydroxycarboxylic acid, thereby removing the aforesaid complex from the processing solution.

Tallent, O.K.; Crouse, D.J.; Mailen, J.C.

1980-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

436

Non-phosphate degradation products of tributyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tributyl phosphate(TBP) was compulsively degraded with nitric acid and/or uranium nitrate at elevated temperature around 105{degrees}C. Experimental results indicates major non-phosphate degradation products are butyl nitrate (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}NO{sub 3}), propionic acid (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}COOH), acetic acid (CH{sub 3}COOH), butyric acid (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}COOH) and butyl alcohol (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}OH) in ascending order of quantity. Degrading rate in uranium free system is less than that in uranium coexisting system. Carboxylic acids were not produced in uranium free system, and only acetic acid was identified in case of without supplying nitric acid from aqueous phase. Moreover, from the experimental study on the reactivity of each non-phosphate product with nitric acid, carboxylic acids were identified as byproducts of butyl alcohol and butyl nitrate, and each carboxylic acid was stable in these degrading conditions. Finally, butyl alcohol is considered as one of intermediate products to butyl nitrate and carboxylic acids. From this study, the non-phosphate degradation products of TBP is identified and the degrading reaction pass is proposed. Extraction behavior of each non-phosphate product and reactivity of degraded TBP are also elucidated.

Tashiro, Y.; Kodama, R.; Sugai, H. [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., Aomori (Japan)] [and others

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Efficient Energy Usage in Butane Splitters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PEN*ANE + I n-BUTANE ISOMERISATION i/n-BUTANE FLOW DIAGRAM 2 ALKYLATE PROCESS PROPANE n?BUTANE i/n?BUTANE I * Incorporates C4 Splitter With environmental pressure to remove lead from gas oline expected to continue, the use of MTBE, TBA... ALKYLATION I I I . n?BUTANE FRACTIONATION ISOMERISATION 1sPEL AJKYLATI ACID CONVENTIONAL FRACTIONATOR Fllctionetor Reboil_ n?C4 Prod... 783 ESL-IE-82-04-142 Proceedings from the Fourth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April...

Barnwell, J.; Morris, C. P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Cumene by Catalytic Distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The novel concept of Catalytic Distillation has been commercialized in the CRandL MTBE process, in which combined reaction and distillation provide energy savings over conventional processes. This concept has now been extended to production of cumene from benzene and propylene. In this case the advantages of the technique are not only energy savings but significant reductions in by-product losses and capital requirements. In this paper the development of the process is discussed and the economics of commercial operation are presented.

Jones, E.M.; Mawer, J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form high level liquid wastes and a general actinide clean-up procedure. The selectivity of the standard extractant for tetravalent actinides, (N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide (CMPO), was markedly improved by the attachment of three CMPO-like functions onto a triphenoxymethane platform, and a ligand that is both highly selective and effective for An(IV) ions was isolated. A 10 fold excess of ligand will remove virtually all of the 4+ actinides from the acidic layer without extracting appreciable quantities of An(III) and Ln(III) unlike simple CMPO ligands. Inspired by the success of the DIAMEX industrial process for extractions, three new tripodal chelates bearing three diglycolamide and thiodiglycolamide units precisely arranged on a triphenoxymethane platform have been synthesized for an highly efficient extraction of trivalent f-element cations from nitric acid media. A single equivalent of ligand will remove 80% of the Ln(III) ion from the acidic layer since the ligand is perfectly suited to accommodate the tricapped trigonal prismatic geometry preferred by the metal center. The ligand is perhaps the most efficient binder available for the heavier lanthanides and due to this unique attribute, the extraction event can be easily followed by 1H NMR spectroscopy confirming the formation of a TPP complex. The most lipophilic di-n-butyl tris-diglycolamide was found to be a significantly weaker extractant in comparison to the di-isopropyl analogs. The tris-thiodiglycolamide derivative proved to be an ineffective chelate for f-elements and demonstrated the importance of the etheric oxygens in the metal binding. The results presented herein clearly demonstrate a cooperative action of these three ligating groups within a single molecule, confirmed by composition and structure of the extracted complexes, and since actinides prefer to have high coordination numbers, the ligands should be particularly adept at binding with three arms. The use of such an extractant permits the extraction of metal ions form highly acidic environment through the ability

Scott, M.J.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

VERA version 1.3 user manual and documentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

VERA is a visualization tool for analyzing compiled executables. It is built on an OpenGL framework with the wxWidgets package. The current version is only for use with the Windows XP and higher operating system. This manual will detail the steps that are needed to run and analyze a sample of malware. VERA is meant to be used in conjunction with the Ether hypervisor framework. Ether is a set of patches made to the Xen hypervisor that allows for covert analysis of running processes. It makes an ideal environment to monitor and trace running programs. More information is available from the Ether website.

Quist, Daniel Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

E-Print Network 3.0 - agonist-activated trpc5 channels Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Emory University Collection: Biology and Medicine 92 The antimicrobial agents triclosan (TCS; 2,4,4-trichloro-2-hydroxydiphenyl ether) Summary: concentra- tion), E2 (1 nM),...

442

Spectroscopic, kinetic and dosimetric features of the radical species produced after radiodegradation of solid triclosan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present work, spectroscopic, kinetic and dosimetric features of the radicalic intermediates produced after gamma irradiation at room temperature of solid triclosan (2,4,4-trichloro-2-hydroxydiphenyl ether....

?lknur Ozkirim Üstünda?; Mustafa Korkmaz

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Human Colon Adenocarcinomas Express a MUC1-associated Novel Carbohydrate Epitope on Core Mucin Glycans Defined by a Monoclonal Antibody (A10) Raised against Murine Ehrlich Tumor Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...enzymatic treatments) once bound...Mini-Protean Cell Electrophoresis; Bio-Rad...deionized water. Enzymatic Treatments. These treatments...4, and dialysis; (b) phenol...ether and dialysis against distilled water; (d) alkali treatment (b-elimination...

Maite Medina; Desireé Vélez; José A. Asenjo; Gustavo Egea; Francisco X. Real; Juana Gil; and José L. Subiza

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Societies and Academies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... with methyl sulphate gives methyl ether and the sulphate of the metal.—M. Delpech: Flameless powders. An account of experiments on the effect of adding charcoal, vaseline, and ...

1919-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

445

Sodalite ion exchange in polyethylene oxide oligomer solvents Gina M. Canfield,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sodalite ion exchange in polyethylene oxide oligomer solvents Gina M. Canfield,a Michael Bizimisb and rare earth ions. Ethylene oxide-based oligomers (polyethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol methyl ether

Latturner, Susan

446

Membranen aus [(A)n(B)m]x-Multiblockcopolymeren für den Einsatz in der Direkt-Methanol-Brennstoffzelle (DMFC).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Aramide and arylene ether multiblock copolymers of (AB)n-type with various degrees of sulfonation have been prepared for use in direct methanol fuel cells. Aramid- und… (more)

Taeger, Antje

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetric studies on nanoclay-filled TPU/PP blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal stability of ester-thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/polypropylene (PP) and ether-TPU/PP blends was evaluated by thermogravimetric studies. Thermal studies were made as a function of blend ratio. Effect...

Murugasamy Kannan; S. S. Bhagawan…

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Effect of nanoclay and carboxyl-terminated (butadiene-co-acrylonitrile) (CTBN) rubber on the reaction induced phase separation and cure kinetics of an epoxy/cyclic anhydride system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of nano clay, carboxyl-terminated (butadiene-co-acrylonitrile) (CTBN) liquid rubber and the combination of both on the cure kinetics of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA)-based epoxy resin/nadic ...

P. Poornima Vijayan; Debora Puglia; P. Jyotishkumar…

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Cyanogenesis in Plants and the Constitution of Phaseolunatin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... is the lotoflavin ether of maltose cyanohydrin, lotoflavin being a yellow colouring matter isomeric with fisetin and luteolin, and belonging, like these, to the quercetin group of dyes. Dhurrin ...

1907-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

450

The palladium-catalyzed synthesis of organic amines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 1. The chelating ligand bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl] ether (DPEphos), in combination with palladium acetate, forms a highly active catalyst system for the coupling of anilines with aryl bromides. The bisphosphine ...

Harris, Michele C., 1975-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

GMD Fokus 1 Audio and Video Over Packet Networks --Issues,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

March 28, 1995 #12;GMD Fokus 7 Integration of Real-Time and Data Traffic TCP (and TP4, ...) not suited.tex March 28, 1995 GMD Fokus 10 Isochronous Ethernet (Iso-Ether) as alternative? Offers fixed

Schulzrinne, Henning

452

EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL USE GRANT REVIEW FORM ECU policy requires that all grant proposals involving the use of hazardous chemicals be reviewed by an institutional review committee or  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-benezene 4-Aminodiphenyl Asbestos Coal tar pitch volatiles Methyl chloromethyl ether Formaldehyde Vinyl chloride Coke oven emissions 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane Lead Cadmium Benzene Cotton dust Chromium VI

453

E-Print Network 3.0 - aflatoxin b1 pharmacokinetics Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

standards (B1, B2, G1, G2) on silica gel plates... . After development in diethyl ether methanolwater (96:3:1), aflatoxin B1 was quantified directly... and the pellet was...

454

NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY VOLUME 25 NUMBER 12 DECEMBER 2007 1405 Recent patent applications in antivirals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an envelope, involving using diethyl ether or a substance such as pan- creas lipase, bile acid, chitosan a viral entry inhibitor and an adjunctive agent selected from glycosylation modulator, alkovir

Cai, Long

455

DDT and some other EDCs, such as the insecticides chlordane and dieldrin and polychlorinated biphe-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants, chlorinated dioxins, the synthetic under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act as impaired by PCBs, chlorinat- ed dioxins, furans, DDT

456

Changes in Olive and Olive Oil Characteristics During Maturation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Preparation of unsaponifiable matter and determination of the sterol composition were performed according to AOCS Official Method Ch 6-91 [15]. Derivatives of the sterols (silyl ethers) were analyzed using a gas ...

Asl? Yorulmaz; Hakan Erinc; Aziz Tekin

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Separation of trivalent americium and europium by purified Cyanex 301 immobilized in macro porous polymer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present work confirms the high separation ability of purified Cyanex 301 towards trivalent americium over europium in liquid-liquid extraction. Solvent 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) lowered the partitio...

Jing Chen; A. C. Veltkamp; A. S. Booij

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

THE REVIVAL OF ALCHEMY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Lyons, Bordeaux and other cities. III. Faculte Spirite...before the as-* The Groupe Independant d'Etudes Esoteriques...This ether is condensed energy, and hence all matter is resolved into energy. Energy, matter and motion form...

H. CARRINGTON BOLTON

1897-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

459

Purifying contaminated water. [DOE patent application  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Process is presented for removing biorefactory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

Daughton, C.G.

1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

460

Purifying contaminated water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

High-temperature in situ magic-angle spinning NMR studies of chemical reactions on catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature jump to 623 K. Important differences observed in this study relative to previous investigations at lower temperatures include well-resolved signals for adsorbed versus exogenous (gas phase) methanol and dimethyl ether, and a higher yield... described in the text. 29 Expanded view of the first three spectra in Figure 7 showing the regions containing methanol and dimethyl ether. In the high- temperature spectra two peaks are present for both species; gas phase (48. 0 ppm) and adsorbed (53. 1...

Oliver, F. Gregory

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

462

Canine osteosarcoma: an immunologic study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of canine osteosarcoma tissue and neoplastic lung. Antrsera were evaluated by Ouchterlony double diffusron and indirect fluorescent antibody methods. Recognition of specific tumor antigens wa demonstrated with the use of allogeneic canine sera. Sera from... Preparation of cell membrane ant ether-extracted and non-ether- tissues of canine osteosarcoma static lung specimens Analysis of antigen preparations Production of immune sera Gel diffusion patterns Fluorescent antibody studies igens from extracted...

Nairn, Catherine Kodosky

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

463

Reactivity of tributyl phosphate degradation products with nitric acid: Relevance to the Tomsk-7 accident  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reaction of a degraded tributyl phosphate (TBP) solvent with nitric acid is thought to have caused the chemical explosion at the Tomsk-7 reprocessing plant at Tomsk, Russia in 1993. The estimated temperature of the organic layer was not high eneough to cause significant reaction of nitric acid with TBP or hydrocarbon diluent compounds. A more reactive organic compound was likely present in the organic layer that reacted with sufficient heat generation to raise the temperature to the point where an autocatalytic oxidation of the organic solvent was initiated. Two of the most likely reactive compounds that are present in degraded TBP solvents are n-butanol and n-butyl nitrate. The reactions of these compounds with nitric acid are the subject of this study. The objective of laboratory-scale tests was to identify chemical reactions that occur when n-butanol and n-butyl nitrate contact heated nitric acid solutions. Reaction products were identified and quantitified, the temperatures at which these reactions occur and heats of reaction were measured, and reaction variables (temperature, nitric acid concentration, organic concentration, and reaction time) were evaluated. Data showed that n-butyl nitrate is less reactive than n-butanol. An essentially complete oxidation reaction of n-butanol at 110-120 C produced four major reaction products. Mass spectrometry identified the major inorganic oxidation products for both n-butanol and n-butyl nitrate as nitric oxide and carbon dioxide. Calculated heats of reaction for n-butanol and n-butyl nitrate to form propionic acid, a major reaction product, are -1860 cal/g n-butanol and -953 cal/g n-butyl nitrate. These heats of reaction are significant and could have raised the temperature of the organic layer in the Tomsk-7 tank to the point where autocatalytic oxidation of other organic compounds present resulted in an explosion.

Barney, G.S.; Cooper, T.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

464

Synthesis and Opioid Activity of [d-Pro10]Dynorphin A-(1?11) Analogues with N-Terminal Alkyl Substitution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tyrosine tert-butyl ester (0.5?1.0 g, Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO) was dissolved in DMF (2 mL/mmol TyrOtBu), and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIEA, 2.5 equiv) was added to the solution dropwise, followed by alkyl bromide (6?7 equiv). ... The tert-butyl group was cleaved as described above and the free acid crystallized from Et2O (142 mg, 20%):? mp 243?244 °C; FAB-MS 222 (M + 1); HPLC tR = 3.6 min (99% purity). ...

Heekyung Choi; Thomas F. Murray; Gary E. DeLander; William K. Schmidt; Jane V. Aldrich

1997-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Test was conducted to validate the use of the Butyl material as a primary seal throughout the required temperature range. Three tests were performed at (1) 233 K ({minus}40 {degrees}F), (2) a specified operating temperature, and (3) 244 K ({minus}20 {degrees}F) before returning to room temperature. Helium leak tests were performed at each test point to determine seal performance. The two major test objectives were to establish that butyl rubber material would maintain its integrity under various conditions and within specified parameters and to evaluate changes in material properties.

Adkins, H.E.; Ferrell, P.C.; Knight, R.C.

1994-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

466

Slide 1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Howard Gruenspecht Howard Gruenspecht Deputy Administrator Energy Information Administration 2008 Energy Conference 30 Years of Energy Information and Analysis Washington, DC April 7, 2008 EIA's Mission and Budget: Priority-Setting in the Short Run EIA is the Primary Activity Within DOE Concerned with Current Energy Markets and Issues * When energy issues are front and center, the Nation looks to the Department of Energy to interpret the current energy market situation * EIA is the main DOE entity involved in current energy markets and issues * In many settings, such as the situation following the 2005 hurricanes, the MTBE/ethanol transition in the spring of 2006, and the current oil price increases, both the Congress and the Administration directly rely on and benefit from EIA's role as a trusted source of energy information and

467

Annual Energy Outlook 2001 - Legislation and Regulations  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Legislation & Regulations Legislation & Regulations Nitrogen Oxide Emission Caps Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions and Diesel Fuel Quality Standards FERC Order 2000 Banning or Reducing the Use of MTBE in Gasoline Updates on State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Renewable Energy Mandates Proposed Changes to RFG Oxygen Standard FERC Order 637 Proposed Limits on Benzene in Gasoline Royalty Rules Low-Emission Vehicle Program Tier 2 Vehicle Emissions and Gasoline Sulfur Standards Appliance Efficiency Standards Petroleum Reserves Introduction Because analyses by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) are required to be policy-neutral, the projections in this Annual Energy Outlook 2001 (AEO2001) are based on Federal, State, and local laws and regulations in effect on July 1, 2000. The potential impacts of pending or

468

Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environmental Regulations and Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale Contents * Introduction * Motor Gasoline Summer Volatility (RVP) Regulations o Table 1. Summer Volatility Regulations for Motor Gasoline o Table 2. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Figure 1. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Table 3. Price Relationship Between Normal Butane and Motor Gasoline o Table 4. Market Price Premium for Low Vapor Pressure (RVP) Gasoline * Oxygenate Content of Motor Gasoline o Figure 2. Oxygenate Content of Motor Gasoline o Table 5. Oxygenated and Conventional Motor Gasoline Price Relationship o Table 6. Reformulated and Conventional Motor Gasoline Price Relationship o Figure 3. Price Differences Between RFG or MTBE and Conventional Gasoline

469

Net Imports of Total Crude Oil and Products into the U.S. by Country  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Total Crude Oil and Products Crude Oil Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Conventional Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reformulated Gasoline Blend. Comp. Conventional Gasoline Blend. Comp. MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel Other Renewable Diesel Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 500 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem. Feed. Use Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Lubricants Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

470

Microsoft Word - rfsreport.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S. 1766 March 2002 This Service Report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or of any other organization. Service Reports are prepared by the Energy Information Administration upon special request and are based on assumptions specified by the requestor. ii Contacts This report was prepared by the staff of the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration. General questions concerning the report may be directed to Mary J. Hutzler (202/586-2222, mhutzler@eia.doe.gov), Director,

471

Annual Energy Outlook 2001 - Issues in Focus  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Issues in Focus Issues in Focus Macroeconomic Forecasting with the Revised National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) Phasing Out MTBE in Gasoline World Oil Demand and Prices Distributed Electricity Generation Resources Natural Gas Supply Availability Restructuring of State Retail Markets for Electricity Carbon Dioxide Emissions in AEO2001 Macroeconomic Forecasting with the Revised National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) The NIPA Comprehensive Revision Economic activity is a key determinant of growth in U.S. energy supply and demand. The derivation of the forecast of economic activity is therefore a critical step in developing the energy forecast presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 2001 (AEO2001). In turn, the forecast of economic activity is rooted fundamentally in the historical data series maintained by a

472

No Slide Title  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and Summer Fuels Outlook Guy Caruso Administrator, Energy Information Administration 2006 Summer Transportation Fuels Outlook Conference April 11, 2006 Washington, DC Several Key Factors Drive the Short-Term Fuels Forecast 1) Rising world oil consumption; 2) Low global surplus production capacity and tight crude oil supply relative to demand; 3) Supply concerns in international oil markets (such as in Nigeria, Iraq, and Iran); 4) The challenges of:  Stricter sulfur standards under the Tier 2 Gasoline program;  MTBE phase-out;  A shift to ultra low sulfur diesel. All these factors contribute to higher prices for petroleum products, particularly in the coming months. World Oil Consumption Growth Slowed in 2005; Projected to Increase in 2006-2007 Source: EIA, Short-Term Energy Outlook, April 2006

473

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur Residual F.O., Greater than 1% Sulfur Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem. Feed. Use Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Lubricants Miscellaneous Products Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

474

Environmental Energy Technologies Division News  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2000: 2000: Vol. 2, No. 1 Electrochromic Window Tests in U.S. Office Show Promise CLASP Helps Developing Nations Implement Energy Standards EETD Scientists Aid Research Efforts Leading to MTBE Ban Power Outage Study Team Examines Electricity Reliability Research Highlights Sources and Credits PDF of EETD News Electrochromic Window Tests in U.S. Office Show Promise Electrochromic glazings promise to be the next major advance in energy-efficient window technology, helping to achieve the goal of transforming windows and skylights from an energy liability in buildings to an energy source for the nation's building stock. The glazing can be reversibly switched from clear to a transparent, colored state by applying a low voltage, resulting in dynamically controllable thermal and optical

475

Influence of the nature of FCC feed on the production of light olefins by catalytic cracking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1990 Clean Air Act has act rules for gasoline reformulation, which requires major compositional changes, Including a higher contribution of oxygenated compounds to the gasoline pool. This explains why FCC units are expected to play a major role in the coming years as a producer of light olefins (propylene, butenes and amylenes) to be used as feedstock for oxygenate (MTBE/TAME) production. The impact of the nature of FCC feedstock on light olefins production (C3 to C5 olefins) has been studied using a MAT unit running at various operating conditions (C/O ratio, reactor temperature). Paraffinic feeds are potentially efficient to produce light olefins by catalytic cracking. Heavier paraffinic feeds like mixtures VGO + reside and pure reside have also been evaluated, and compared to naphthenic and aromatic feeds.

Chapus, Th.; Cauffriez, H.; Marcilly, Ch. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Catalytic distillation extends its reach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the early 1980s, catalytic distillation processes have been selected by more than a hundred operators for various applications. Since such a unit performs both reaction and distillation simultaneously, a combined column can replace a separate, fixed-bed reactor and distillation column, thereby eliminating equipment and reducing capital costs. And, compared to the conventional approach, catalytic distillation may also improve other factors, such as reactant conversion, selectivity, mass transfer, operating pressure, oligomer formation and catalyst fouling. The constant washing of the catalyst by liquid flowing down the column and the distillation of high-boiling foulants results in extended catalyst life. Four selective hydrogenation applications of catalytic distillation are discussed: Butadiene selective hydrogenation combined within an MTBE unit; Pentadiene selective hydrogenation; C{sub 4} acetylene conversion; and Benzene saturation.

Rock, K.; McGuirk, T. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Houston, TX (United States); Gildert, G.R. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Pasadena, TX (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Effects of Some Oxygenated Substitutes on Gasoline Properties, Spark Ignition Engine Performance, and Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is worthwhile to mention that eucalyptol which can be steam-extracted from eucalyptus leaves has been tested as a co-solvent that prevents alcohol?gasoline blended fuels from phase separation. ... In this table, the compound along with the concentration in the respective base fuel, BRON, and its accuracy as well as relative effectiveness on a molar (RE-M) and a weight (RE-W) basis in comparison with MTBE are shown. ... All the compounds studied exhibited enhanced ignition quality, expressed with their capability to suppress engine knock, performance that can be confirmed from the BRON values of Table 3. From the data in the table, and given the accuracy of the BRON values, which is ±10/x, where x is the w/v % concentration of the compound in the fuel, a decrease of BRON values with the increase of the RON of the base fuel is observed. ...

S. Gouli; E. Lois; S. Stournas

1998-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

478

Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes: identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Annual report, March 20, 1979-March 19, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial phase has been completed in the project to evaluate alternative fuels for highway transportation from synthetic crudes. Three refinery models were developed for Rocky Mountain, Mid-Continent and Great Lakes regions to make future product volumes and qualities forecast for 1995. Projected quantities of shale oil and coal oil syncrudes were introduced into the raw materials slate. Product slate was then varied from conventional products to evaluate maximum diesel fuel and broadcut fuel in all regions. Gasoline supplement options were evaluated in one region for 10% each of methanol, ethanol, MTBE or synthetic naphtha in the blends along with syncrude components. Compositions and qualities of the fuels were determined for the variation in constraints and conditions established for the study. Effects on raw materials, energy consumption and investment costs were reported. Results provide the basis to formulate fuels for laboratory and engine evaluation in future phases of the project.

Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Motiva Refinery | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Refinery Refinery Motiva Refinery May 18, 2006 - 10:45am Addthis Remarks Prepared for Energy Secretary Bodman Much of my time lately has been devoted to explaining why the price of gasoline has risen so sharply. President Bush understands the pinch this is creating for American consumers and has come forward with a variety of steps to address the problem. Rapid economic growth in emerging economies like China and India-and the growth here in the U.S.-have pushed up demand. Political unrest in some oil-producing regions has tightened supply. The transition from winter gasoline to summer blends, and the phase out of the additive MTBE in favor of ethanol, have increased the pressure on the market. Most significantly, we have very little spare refining capacity in this

480

East Coast (PADD 1) Total Crude Oil and Products Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

MTBE (Oxygenate) Other Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Biomass-Based Diesel (Renewable) Other Renewable Diesel Other Renewable Fuels Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., 501 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Kerosene Finished Aviation Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Special Naphthas Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., 0.31 to 1% Sulfur Residual F.O., Greater than 1% Sulfur Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem. Feed. Use Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Lubricants Miscellaneous Products Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether mtbe" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Metal–organic frameworks of the MIL-101 family as heterogeneous single-site catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of hydrocarbons with green oxidants-O2 and tert-butyl...resistance to common solvents and thermal stability...dAcetone was used as solvent. Table 4. Cyclic carbonate...and Y. Ikushima 2008 Solvent-free allylic oxidation...as starting material. Green Chem 5, 497-507...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Mechanisms of growth inhibition induced by methylene-substituted and ring-substituted dims in breast cancer cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cell growth was inhibited after treatment with a novel series of methylenesubstituted DIMs (C-DIMs), namely 1,1-bis(3’-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl) methanes containing trifluoromethyl (DIM-C-pPhCF3), t-butyl (DIM...

Vanderlaag, Kathryn Elisabeth

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

483

Fatty Acids from Plasmodium falciparum Down-Regulate the Toxic Activity of Malaria Glycosylphosphatidylinositols  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...PI) and less sphingomyelin than the plasma membrane of normal uninfected erythrocytes...volume) by sonication (Branson 3200; 47 MHz), and recovered in the n-butyl alcohol...medium, and incubated at 37C in a 5% CO2 atmosphere for 24 h with medium containing the molecules...

Françoise Debierre-Grockiego; Louis Schofield; Nahid Azzouz; Jörg Schmidt; Cristiana Santos de Macedo; Michael A. J. Ferguson; Ralph T. Schwarz

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Cytoprotective Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Oxidative Stress in Hepatocytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

common dietary fatty acids to subsequent inflammation and stress. Hepatocytes (HepG2 cell line) were treated with oleic, linoleic and palmitic acid at different concentrations and exposed to the pro-oxidant tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) to induce...

Richardson, Thomas C

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

485

An investigation of the burning rates of thin films of some selected composite propellants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ammoni a/Perch 1 ori c Aci d Aluminum Atmospheres butyl Acetate Carbon Glass Cyclo tetramethylenetetrani tr amine L ad Azide IicCormick-Selph Methyl Fthyl Ketone IIitrocelIulose Oxidizer/Fue'I x-104, x-164 NcCormick-Selph material 300, 104...

Sawyer, Miles Lee

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

A recoverable versatile photo-polymerization initiator catalyst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A photo-polymerization initiator based on an imidazolium and an oxometalate, viz., (BMIm)2(DMIm) PW12O40 (where, BMIm = 1-butyl-3-methylimizodium, DMIm = 3,3'-Dimethyl-1,1'-Diimidazolium) is reported. It polymerizes several industrially important monomers and is recoverable hence can be reused. The Mn and PDI are controlled and a reaction pathway is proposed.

Chen, Dianyu; Roy, Soumyajit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Analysis of Steam Heating of a Two-Layer TBP/N-Paraffin/Nitric Acid Mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents an analysis of steam heating of a two-layer tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/n-paraffin-nitric acid mixture.The purpose of this study is to determine if the degree of mixing provided by the steam jet or by bubbles generated by the TBP/nitric acid reaction is sufficient to prevent a runaway reaction.

Laurinat, J.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Hassan, N.M.; Rudisill, T.S.; Askew, N.M.

1998-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

488

Electrolysed palladium has the potential to increase methane production by a mixed rumen population in vitro  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrolysed palladium has the potential to increase methane production by a mixed rumen population the proportion of protozoa with attached methanogens decreased, however no estimate of CH4 production under were re-filled with H2:CO2, sealed with butyl rubber stoppers and incubated at 39�C with shaking

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

489

Features of gadolinium and ytterbium extraction by tributyl phosphate from concentrated nitric acid solutions. I. Compositions of extracted complexes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Distribution of macroquantity (0.3-1.3 M) of Gd and Yb between neat tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and 5-12 M nitric acid solutions has been studied. The species extracted by TBP from 7-12 M nitric acid solutions are rare-earth metal (REM) nitrate trisolvates containing one or several nitric molecules.

Nikitna, G.P.; Seredkina, N.V.; Listopadov, A.A. [Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Investigation of the Performance and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuel Containing Butanol under the Conditions of Diesel Engine Operation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(17) However, emissions of engines fueled with multicomponent fuels containing fossil diesel, butanol, and rapeseed oil butyl/methyl esters have not been tested. ... Break specific fuel consumption when engine is fuelled with fossil diesel fuel (n = 1500 min?1). ... For all cases, engine torque was retained the same by adjusting fueling rate. ...

Sergejus Lebedevas; Galina Lebedeva; Egle Sendzikiene; Violeta Makareviciene

2010-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

491

War on Weeds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...4,5-T, Sizz-weeder, mechanical shredder, 2,4-dinitro-6-sec-butyl phenol...killers. To avoid chronic injury only light-weight oils are used. The best are...accepting a lot and the true quality (fraction defective) of the lot. For most sampling...

E. M. Hildebrand

1946-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

492

High-spin polymeric arylamines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...polymer 14 could be doped with a large excess of reagent without bipolaron formation...chloroform was oxidized with a 20-fold excess of powdered NOBF4. The UV spectrum of...rigorously dry conditions, n-butyl lithium in hexane (24.5 cm3 , 1.6 M, 37...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Copyright H. J. Reich 2002 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY ACRONYMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-t-butyl-4-methylphenol) BINALH Lithium 2,2'-dihydroxy-1,1'-binaphthylethoxyaluminum hydride BINAP 2,2'-Bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane de Diastereomeric excess DEADCAT Diethyl Azodicarboxylate DET Diethyl Tartrate (opposite, trans) E Methoxycarbonyl CO2CH3 EDTA Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ee Enantiomeric Excess EE 1

Meagher, Mary

494

Adsorption and desorption of atrazine on a melamine-based soil amendment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adsorption kinetics and adsorption-desorption of atrazine on organoclay composites prepared with the surfactant 6-piperazin-1-yl-N,N'-bis-(1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-butyl)-(1,3,5)triazine-2,4-diamine and Houston Black clay were studied using the indirect...

Neitsch, Susan Lynn

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

495

Initial-phase optimization for bioremediation of munition compound-contaminated soils.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the aqueous phase and washing of the residue with methanol...COMPOUND-CONTAMINATED SOIL 2175 TABLE 1. '4C label...1992. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with 2-sec-butyl-4...6-Trinitrotoluene- surfactant complexes: decomposition, mutagenicity, and soil leaching studies. Environ...

S B Funk; D J Roberts; D L Crawford; R L Crawford

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Bibliography and Index of the Literature on Gas Chromatography—1964 November 1, 1963 to November 1, 1964  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......CHROMATOG- RAPHY AND GAS-LIQUID CHROMATOGRA...Meyer, A. S., AEC Report ORNL-3619 for period...May 1964) 215 GAS-LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC...6-DI-tert-BUTYL- p-CRESOL IN TURBINE OILS, Braithwaite...July 1964) 757 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY OF...Sweeley, C. C., Progress in the Chemistry......

Mignon Gill; Seaton T. Preston; Jr.

1964-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Rapid optical method for logging dust concentration versus depth in glacial ice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to a cable that can lower the device down a 3-in. 7.5-cm borehole filled with butyl acetate. LED photons to the attenuation by particles.6 The AMANDA collaboration recently completed a large observatory, buried in deep a hot-water drilling tech- nique, they melted cylindrical holes down to depths of 2000 m in which were

Price, P. Buford

498

Interaction forces between oilwater particle interfaces--Non-DLVO forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

silica sphere and a butyl or octyl acetate droplet was measured in an aqueous environment using atomic of the water solubility of the organic liquid, in that the same force­distance characteristics were obtained in industrial applications. They include formulation, stability, and rheological properties of emulsions

Chan, Derek Y C

499

J.Org. Chem. 1991,56,4435-4439 4435 themally equilibrated reaction solutioncontained in the cwette  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

constant with potasaium chloride (I = 1.0M), had their pHs adjusted with HC1and sodium acetate (1X l0-l, W. E.J. Chem. Educ. 1966,42,96. On the Structure and Reactivity of Lithium Diisopropylamide (LDA-1301 Received January 9, 1991 Enolizations of ketones, tert-butyl esters, and carboxamidesby solventfree lithium

Collum, David B.

500

Published: December 10, 2010 r 2010 American Chemical Society 933 dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja108205q |J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 933940  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Additive-Free Synthesis, Remarkable Crystalline-Phase Stability, and Improved Lithium Insertion Behavior in the tetrabutyl titanate-acetic acid system without any additives under solvothermal conditions. A complex, and entrapment of in situ produced butyl acetate as a porogen was put forward for the formation of the anatase

Qi, Limin