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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

By the end of 2005, 25 States had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of MTBE in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some State laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). AEO2006 assumes that all State MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

Information Center

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB ...

3

Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

5

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

6

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. [801Methyl tert-butyl ether  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

7

Determination of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and tert-Butyl Alcohol in Water by Solid-Phase Microextraction/Head Space Analysis in Comparison to EPA Method 5030/8260B  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is now one of the most common groundwater contaminants in the United States. Groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also likely to be contaminated with tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), because TBA is a component of commercial grade MTBE, TBA can also be used as a fuel oxygenate, and TBA is a biodegradation product of MTBE. In California, MTBE is subject to reporting at concentrations greater than 3 {micro}g/L. TBA is classified as a ''contaminant of current interest'' and has a drinking water action level of 12 {micro}g/L. In this paper, we describe the development and optimization of a simple, automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water and demonstrate the applicability of this method for monitoring MTBE and TBA contamination in groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. In this method, the headspace (HS) of a water sample is extracted with a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, the MTBE and TBA are desorbed into a gas chromatograph (GC), and detected using mass spectrometry (MS). The method is optimized for the routine analysis of MTBE and TBA with a level of quantitation of 0.3 {micro}g/L and 4 {micro}g/L, respectively, in water. MTBE quantitation was linear for over two orders of concentration (0.3 {micro}g/L -80 {micro}g/L). TBA was found to be linear within the range of 4 {micro}g/L-7,900 {micro}g/L. The lower level of detection for MTBE is 0.03 {micro}g/L using this method. This SPME method using headspace extraction was found to be advantageous over SPME methods requiring immersion of the fiber into the water samples, because it prolonged the life of the fiber by up to 400 sample analyses. This is the first time headspace extraction SPME has been shown to be applicable to the measurement of both MTBE and TBA at concentrations below regulatory action levels. This method was compared with the certified EPA Method 5030/8260B (purge-and-trap/GC/MS) using split samples from laboratory bioreactors treating MTBE contaminated water and applied to environmental samples collected throughout the East Bay area of California. Results from the SPME-HS/GC/MS method were directly comparable to the EPA Method 5030/8260B. This method provides an simple, inexpensive, accurate, and sensitive alternative to EPA Method 5030/8260B for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water samples.

Oh, Keun-Chan; Stringfellow, William T.

2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

8

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Ethyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a plantation about 15-year-old in the Les Cedres area, near Montreal (45820H N, 73854H W). Trees in open

Bandettini, Peter A.

9

Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates -- Substituted ethers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE).

Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

PURIFICATION OF ETHER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

BS>A process for removing peroxides from ethers by sorption on a strong- base anion exchange resin in its hydroxyl form is described. Incorporation of the resin for storage is also covered. (AEC)

Feinstein, R.N.

1961-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

EU Metric Directive  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... View EU Metric Directive Commission Services Working Document PDF ... of European Union (EU) Meeting on Metric Directives (2005); Packaging ...

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

12

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 2.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

will controlled by diffusion in the biofilm near the outlet of the reactor. A fundamental parameter and control in bioreactors equipped with some degree of instrumentation, fundamental knowledge for the proper handbook of physical-chemical properties and environmental fate for organic chemicals, Volume III. Volatile

13

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, weed-eater, shovel, and a rake. A chipper, compost bin, or a large rented trash dumpster may be useful

14

EU | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EU EU Dataset Summary Description These datasets include GHG and CO2 emissions statistics for the European Union (EU). The statistics are available from the European Commission. Source European Commission Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords Biofuels CO2 emissions EU GHG emissions Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon Total GHG and CO2 Emissions for EU (xls, 853.5 KiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon GHG Emissions by Sector, all member countries (xls, 2 MiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon GHG Emissions from Transport, all member countries (xls, 1.3 MiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon CO2 emissions by sector, all member countries (xls, 2.1 MiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon CO2 emissions by transport, all member countries (xls, 1.5 MiB) Quality Metrics

15

Catalytic distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Catalytic Distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) is investigated in this thesis. The solvent, ethylene glycol, is proposed as a means of… (more)

Safinski, Tomasz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

17

Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors  

SciTech Connect

A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Oing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY)

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

18

French Vote on EU Constitution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

compensate the losers of liberalisation by regional help,aversion to economic liberalisation which rhymes badly withdirective on services liberalisation, on limiting the EU

Deubner, Christian

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of benzene to phenol, catechol, and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzeneof benzene to phenol (and catechol), and toluene toa multi-component PH, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase and the meta-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by pure cultures of butane-degrading bacteria. Appl.of K s values for MTBE by butane- degrading bacteria (52).

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Energy Research (NIPER), 2) the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA), and 3) the U interested in fuel comparisons Thousands each year Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) National gasoline survey Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association 23 cities throughout the U.S. Summer of 1988

22

EU approves food labeling rules  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New food-labeling regulations are in place in the European Union after the European Parliament (EP) approved rules aimed at helping consumers make “better informed, healthier [sic] choices.” EU approves food labeling rules Inform Magazine Inform Archives

23

Comparative Environmental Performance of Two-Diesel-Fuel Oxygenates: Dibutyl Maleate (DBM) and Triproplyene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (TGME)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many studies have shown that the addition of oxygen bearing compounds to diesel fuel can significantly reduce particulate emissions. To assist in the evaluation of the environmental performance of diesel-fuel oxygenates, we have implemented a suite of diagnostic models for simulating the transport of compounds released to air, water, and soils/groundwater as well as regional landscapes. As a means of studying the comparative performance of DBM and TGME, we conducted a series of simulations for selected environmental media. Benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were also addressed because they represent benchmark fuel-related compounds that have been the subject of extensive environmental measurements and modeling. The simulations showed that DBM and TGME are less mobile in soil because of reduced vapor-phase transport and increased retention on soil particles. The key distinction between these two oxygenates is that DBM is predicted to have a greater potential than TGME for aerobic biodegradation, based on chemical structure.

Layton, D.W.; Marchetti, A.A.

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

The EU's external energy security policy : A comparative analysis of the EU's external energy relations.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis analyses the EU´s external energy security policy through a comparative analysis of the energy relations between the EU and important producers of natural… (more)

Cook, Hanne

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Room Temperature Aging Study of Butyl O-rings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During testing under the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign in 2001, preliminary data detected a previously unknown and potentially serious concern with recently procured butyl o-rings. All butyl o-rings molded from a proprietary formulation throughout the period circa 1999 through 2001 had less than a full cure. Tests showed that sealing force values for these suspect o-rings were much lower than expected and their physical properties were very sensitive to further post curing at elevated temperatures. Further testing confirmed that these o-rings were approximately 50% cured versus the typical industry standard of > 90% cured. Despite this condition, all suspect o-rings fully conformed to their QC acceptance requirements, including their individual product drawing requirements.

Mark Wilson

2009-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

26

Divinyl ether synthase gene and protein, and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

Howe, Gregg A. (East Lansing, MI); Itoh, Aya (Tsuruoka, JP)

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

27

EU Energy Shriram EPC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Name EU Energy - Shriram EPC Place United Kingdom Sector Wind energy Product Joint venture set up for the acquisition of DeWind GmbH from FKI. References EU Energy -...

28

Process for producing dimethyl ether form synthesis gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Process for producing dimethyl ether from synthesis gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

Pierantozzi, R.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

30

Solvent Effects on Metal Complexation with Crown Ethers from Liquid to Supercritical Fluids (DE-FG07-98ER 149 13)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to study the salvation effects of metal-crown ether complexation in different solvents. It has been suggested in the literature that supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) is a tunable solvent because its salvation environment can be varied with the fluid density. In this project, spectroscopic techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) were used to evaluate salvation effects of metal crown complexation in organic solvents and in SF-CO2. In most solvent extraction systems, water is often involved in the extraction processes. We have carried out extensive studies of water-crown ether interactions in different solvents and in SF-CO2 using NMR and FTIR techniques. Water molecules can be attached to crown ethers through hydrogen bonding of H-0-H to the oxygen atoms of crown ether cavities. This type of interaction is like a Lewis acid-Lewis base complexation. During the course of this project, we noticed that some CO2 soluble Lewis base such as tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) can also form such Lewis acid-Lewis base complexes with water and other inorganic acids including nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Inorganic acids (e.g. nitric acid) are normally not soluble in SF-CO2. However, because TBP is highly soluble in SF-CO2, an inorganic acid bound to TBP via hydrogen bonding becomes CO2 soluble. This Lewis acid-Lewis base complex approach provides a method of introducing inorganic acids into supercritical fluid CO2 for chemical reactions.

Wai, C.M.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Crown Ethers in Nonaqueous Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The effects of three crown ethers, 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, and 18-crown-6, as additives and co-solvents in non-aqueous electrolytes on the cell performance of primary Li/air batteries operated in a dry air environment were investigated. Crown ethers have large effects on the discharge performance of non-aqueous electrolytes in Li/air batteries. A small amount (normally less than 10% by weight or volume in electrolytes) of 12-Crown-4 and 15-crown-5 reduces the battery performance and a minimum discharge capacity appears at the crown ether content of ca. 5% in the electrolytes. However, when the content increases to about 15%, both crown ethers improve the capacity of Li/air cells by about 28% and 16%, respectively. 15-Crown-5 based electrolytes even show a maximum discharge capacity in the crown ether content range from 10% to 15%. On the other hand, the increase of 18-crown-6 amount in the electrolytes continuously lowers of the cell performance. The different battery performances of these three crown ethers in electrolytes are explained by the combined effects from the electrolytes’ contact angle, oxygen solubility, viscosity, ionic conductivity, and the stability of complexes formed between crown ether molecules and lithium ions.

Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiguang

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

32

Contribution of Eu 4f states to the magnetic anisotropy of EuO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anisotropic x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (AXMLD) provides a novel element-, site-, shell-, and symmetry-selective techniques to study the magnetic anisotropy induced by a crystalline electric field. The weak Eu2+ M4,5 AXMLD observed in EuO(001) indicates that the Eu 4f states are not rotationally invariant and hence contribute weakly to the magnetic anisotropy of EuO. The results are contrasted with those obtained for 3d transition metal oxides.

Arenholz, E.; Schmehl, A.; Schlom, D.G.; van der Laan, G.

2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

33

Removal of technetium from alkaline nuclear-waste media by a solvent-extraction process using crown ethers  

SciTech Connect

Crown ethers dissolved in suitably modified aliphatic kerosene diluents can be employed to extract technetium as pertechnetate anion (TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) with good extraction ratios from realistic simulants of radioactive alkaline nitrate waste. The modifiers utilized are non-halogenated and non-volatile, and the technetium can be removed from the solvent by stripping using water. The crown ethers bis-4,4{prime}(5{prime})[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 (di-t-BuCH18C6) and dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) provide stronger TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} extraction than dicyclohexano-21-crown-7 and 4-tert-butylcyclohexano 15-crown-5. Whereas DCH18C6 provides somewhat higher TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} extraction ratios than the more lipophilic di-t-BuCH18C6 derivative, the latter was selected for further study owing to its lower distribution to the aqueous phase. Particularly good extraction and stripping results were obtained with di-t-BuCH 18C6 at 0.02 M in a 2:1 vol/vol blend of tributyl phosphate and Isopar{reg_sign} M. Using this solvent, 98.9% of the technetium contained (at 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} M) in a Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) Hanford tank waste simulant was removed following two cross-current extraction contacts. Two cross-current stripping contacts with deionized water afforded removal of 99.1% of the technetium from the organic solvent.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Presley, D.J.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Alkaline-side extraction of technetium from tank waste using crown ethers and other extractants  

SciTech Connect

The chemical development of a new crown-ether-based solvent-extraction process for the separation of (Tc) from alkaline tank-waste supernate is ready for counter-current testing. The process addresses a priority need in the proposed cleanup of Hanford and other tank wastes. This need has arisen from concerns due to the volatility of Tc during vitrification, as well as {sup 99}Tc`s long half-life and environmental mobility. The new process offers several key advantages that direct treatability--no adjustment of the waste composition is needed; economical stripping with water; high efficiency--few stages needed; non-RCRA chemicals--no generation of hazardous or mixed wastes; co-extraction of {sup 90}Sr; and optional concentration on a resin. A key concept advanced in this work entails the use of tandem techniques: solvent extraction offers high selectivity, while a subsequent column sorption process on the aqueous stripping solution serves to greatly concentrate the Tc. Optionally, the stripping solution can be evaporated to a small volume. Batch tests of the solvent-extraction and stripping components of the process have been conducted on actual melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) waste as well as simulants of MVST and Hanford waste. The tandem process was demonstrated on MVST waste simulants using the three solvents that were selected the final candidates for the process. The solvents are 0.04 M bis-4,4{prime}(5{prime})[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 (abbreviated di-t-BuCH18C6) in a 1:1 vol/vol blend of tributyl phosphate and Isopar{reg_sign} M (an isoparaffinic kerosene); 0.02 M di-t-BuCH18C6 in 2:1 vol/vol TBP/Isopar M and pure TBP. The process is now ready for counter-current testing on actual Hanford tank supernates.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Moyer, B.A.; Presley, D.J.; Armstrong, V.S.; Haverlock, T.J.; Counce, R.M.; Sachleben, R.A.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

EU Actorship in the Non-Proliferation area.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The threat of nuclear weapons is depicted by the EU as the potentially greatest threat to security. How then does the EU counter this… (more)

Pettersson, Ylva

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Multipodal coordination of a tetracarboxylic crown ether with NH 4 + : A vibrational spectroscopy and computational study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The elucidation of the structural requirements for molecular recognition by the crown ether (18–crown–6)-2

Paola Hurtado; Francisco Gámez; Said Hamad; Bruno Martínez–Haya; Jeffrey D. Steill; Jos Oomens

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

EU Energy Wind Limited | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

company will be concentrating initially on bringing an innovative composite wind tower to market. References EU Energy (Wind) Limited1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No...

38

Eutricity Eu-Max ADR LED System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Eutricity Eu-Max ADR LED System Speaker(s): Brent Marsh Date: September 13, 2013 - 12:00pm - 1:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Francis Rubinstein Eutricity...

39

Solvent extraction of technetium from alkaline waste media using bis-4,4{prime}(5{prime})[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6  

SciTech Connect

The crown ether bis-4,4`(5`)[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 can be utilized in a solvent-extraction process for the removal of technetium as pertechnetate ion, TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from solutions simulating highly radioactive alkaline defense wastes (``tank wastes``) stored at several sites in the United States. The process employs non-halogenated and non-volatile diluents and modifiers and includes an efficient stripping procedure using only water. More than 95% of the pertechnetate present at 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} M in Melton Valley (Oak Ridge, TN) and Hanford (Washington) tank-waste simulants was removed following two cross-current extraction contacts using 0.02 M bis-4,4`(5`)[(tertbutyl)cyclohexano]- 18-crown-6 in 2:1 vol/vol TBP/Isopar{reg_sign} M diluent at 25 C. Similarly, for both simulants, more than 98% of the pertechnetate contained in the solvent was back-extracted following two cross-current stripping contacts using deionized water.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Presley, D.J.; Moyer, B.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, they have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F{trademark}), polytetrafluoro-ethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to approximately 3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using Vapor Transport Rate measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. The authors have developed a chemical compatibility program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be incorporated in packaging for transporting mixed waste forms. From the data analyses performed to date, they have identified the thermoplastic, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, as having the greatest chemical compatibility after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the poor performance of polytetrafluoroethylene under these conditions. In the evaluation of the two elastomeric materials they have concluded that while both materials exhibit remarkable resistance to these environmental conditions, EPDM has a greater resistance to this corrosive simulant mixed waste.

Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed appropriate and excellent catalysts for direct DME synthesis. The catalysts, Cu-Zn/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method, produce DME with high DME activity and high DME selectivity under milder reaction ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, direct synthesis, hydrogen, sol-gel method, syngas

Kaoru Takeishi; Yoshimi Akaike

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

The interactions of water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have studied the interactions of water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100) in order to model the effects of surface structure and humidity on the bonding and decomposition of perfluoroalkyl ether lubricants with metal surfaces. In order to understand the interactions on Ru(100), we have first investigated the interactions of each of these adsorbates alone on the clean surface. The interactions of water with Ru(100) have been studied using both thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). From these studies we conclude that a small amount of water dissociates on this surface (5--10% of a monolayer), but water is adsorbed in a predominantly molecular form on this surface with an increasing degree of hydrogen-bonding with increasing coverage. The effects of hydrogen and oxygen coadsorption on the interactions of water with this surface have also been studied using TDS. Finally, the interactions of coadsorbed water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100) have been investigated using TDS.

Leavitt, P.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

43

Energy Department Partners with EU on Electric Vehicle and Smart...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Partners with EU on Electric Vehicle and Smart Grid Coordination Energy Department Partners with EU on Electric Vehicle and Smart Grid Coordination July 19, 2013 - 5:17pm Addthis...

44

Support of Industry Compliance with the EU Directive on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Support of Industry Compliance with the EU Directive on Restriction of Certain Hazardous Substances (RoHS). Summary: ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

45

Romanian power systems engineering towards EU integration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evolution of electric power system analysis methods followed the present technical problems and business needs of electric utilities in Romania, before EU integration. Present technical requirements and the current stage of power system analysis ... Keywords: computer applications, computer simulation, fourier analysis, modelling, power systems, training

Stefania Popadiuc; Bogdan Popa; Frangiskos Topalis; Cristiana Geambasu

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

T.A. Semelsberger

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

AirShares EU Carbon Allowances Fund | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AirShares EU Carbon Allowances Fund AirShares EU Carbon Allowances Fund Jump to: navigation, search Name AirShares EU Carbon Allowances Fund Place New York, New York Zip 10170 Product AirShares is a commodity pool for exchange-traded futures contracts for EUAs. References AirShares EU Carbon Allowances Fund[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. AirShares EU Carbon Allowances Fund is a company located in New York, New York . References ↑ "AirShares EU Carbon Allowances Fund" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=AirShares_EU_Carbon_Allowances_Fund&oldid=341942" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes

48

CATALYSTS FOR HIGH CETANE ETHERS AS DIESEL FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A tungstena-zirconia (WZ) catalyst has been investigated for coupling methanol and isobutanol to unsymmetrical ethers, i.e. methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and compared with earlier studied sulfated-zirconia (SZ) and Nafion-H catalysts. In all cases, the ether synthesis mechanism is a dual site S{sub N}2 process involving competitive adsorption of reactants on proximal acid sites. At low reaction temperatures, methylisobutylether (MIBE) is the predominant product. However, at temperatures >135 C the WZ catalyst is very good for dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The surface acid sites of the WZ catalyst and a Nafion-H catalyst were diagnosed by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of N 1s shifts after adsorption of amines. Using pyridine, ethylenediamine, and triethylamine, it is shown that WZ has heterogeneous strong Broensted acid sites. Theoretical study located the transition state of the alcohol coupling reaction on proximal Broensted acid sites and accounted well for XPS core-level shifts upon surface acid-base interactions. While computations have not been carried out with WZ, it is shown that the SZ catalyst is a slightly stronger acid than CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}H (a model for Nafion-H) by 1.3-1.4 kcal/mol. A novel sulfated zirconia catalyst having proximal strong Broensted acid sites was synthesized and shown to have significantly enhanced activity and high selectivity in producing MIBE or isobutene from methanol/isobutanol mixtures. The catalyst was prepared by anchoring 1,2-ethanediol bis(hydrogen sulfate) salt precursor onto zirconium hydroxide, followed by calcination to remove the -(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2})- bridging residues.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Heock-Hoi Kwon; James G. C. Shen; Qisheng Ma; Robert A. Hunsicker; Andrew P. Butler; Scott J. Bollinger

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. Within the Combustion Laboratory of the Penn State Energy Institute, they have installed and equipped a Navistar V-8 direct-injection turbodiesel engine for measurement of gaseous and particulate emissions and examination of the impact of fuel composition on diesel combustion. They have also reconfigured a high-pressure viscometer for studies of the viscosity, bulk modulus (compressibility) and miscibility of blends of diesel fuel, dimethyl ether and lubricity additives. The results include baseline emissions, performance and combustion measurements on the Navistar engine for operation on a federal low sulfur diesel fuel (300 ppm S). Most recently, they have examined blends of an oxygenated fuel additive (a liquid fuel called CETANER{trademark}) produced by Air Products, for comparison with dimethyl ether blended at the same weight of oxygen addition, 2 wt.%. While they have not operated the engine on DME yet, they are now preparing to do so. A fuel system for delivery of DME/Diesel blends has been configured and initial investigations at low DME blend ratios (around 5-10 vol%) will begin shortly. They have also performed viscosity measurements on diesel fuel, DME and 50-50 blends of DME in diesel. These tests have verified that DME has a much lower viscosity than the diesel fuel and that the viscosity of the blended fuel is also much lower than the diesel base fuel. This has implications for the injection and atomization of the DME/diesel blends.

Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Andre L. Boehman; David Klinikowski

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Use of a Balloon and N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate for Treatment of Arteriovenous Fistula  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report a patient who developed a large arteriovenous fistula in right lower extremity after gunshot injury. Because other endovascular methods failed, the patient was successfully treated with concomitant use of detachable latex balloon and N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). The combination of detachable balloon and NBCA can be effectively used for endovascular treatment of peripheral arteriovenous fistulas in selected cases when effective embolization could not be achieved with other embolizing agents or their various combinations.

Doenmez, Halil, E-mail: hdonmez68@yahoo.com; Mavili, Ertugrul [Erciyes University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Toker, Birguel; Oztuerk, M. Halil; Soylu, Serra O.; Hekimoglu, Baki [SB Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

51

High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols  

SciTech Connect

The temperature dependence of ether synthesis, particularly unsymmetric methylisobutylether (MIBE), was carried out over the Nafion-H microsaddles (MS) catalyst. The principal product formed under the rather severe reaction conditions of 1100 psig pressure and temperatures in the range of 123--157{degree}C was the expected MIBE formed directly by coupling the methanol/isobutanol reactants. In addition, significantly larger quantities of the dimethylether (DME) and hydrocarbon products were observed than were obtained under milder reaction conditions. Deactivation of the Nafion-H MS catalyst was determined by periodically testing the catalyst under a given set of reaction conditions for the synthesis of MIBE and MTBE from methanol/isobutanol = 2/1, i.e. 123{degree}C, 1100 psig, and total GHSV = 248 mol/kg cat/hr. After carrying out various tests over a period of 2420 hr, with intermittant periods of standing under nitrogen at ambient conditions, the yields of MIBE and MTBE had decreased by 25% and 41%, respectively. In order to gain insight into the role of the surface acidity in promoting the selective coupling of the alcohols to form the unsymmetric ether, the strengths of the acid sites on the catalysts are still being probed by calorimetric titrations in non-aqueous solutions. 11 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; DeTavernier, S.; Johannson, M.; Kieke, M.; Bastian, R.D.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Interactions between Ether Phospholipids and Cholesterol as Determined by Scattering and Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Cholesterol and ether lipids are ubiquitous in mammalian cell membranes, and their interactions are crucial in ether lipid mediated cholesterol trafficking. We report on cholesterol s molecular interactions with ether lipids as determined using a combination of small-angle neutron and Xray scattering, and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A scattering density profile model for an ether lipid bilayer was developed using MD simulations, which was then used to simultaneously fit the different experimental scattering data. From analysis of the data the various bilayer structural parameters were obtained. Surface area constrained MD simulations were also performed to reproduce the experimental data. This iterative analysis approach resulted in good agreement between the experimental and simulated form factors. The molecular interactions taking place between cholesterol and ether lipids were then determined from the validated MD simulations. We found that in ether membranes cholesterol primarily hydrogen bonds with the lipid headgroup phosphate oxygen, while in their ester membrane counterparts cholesterol hydrogen bonds with the backbone ester carbonyls. This different mode of interaction between ether lipids and cholesterol induces cholesterol to reside closer to the bilayer surface, dehydrating the headgroup s phosphate moiety. Moreover, the three-dimensional lipid chain spatial density distribution around cholesterol indicates anisotropic chain packing, causing cholesterol to tilt. These insights lend a better understanding of ether lipid-mediated cholesterol trafficking and the roles that the different lipid species have in determining the structural and dynamical properties of membrane associated biomolecules.

Pan, Jianjun [ORNL; Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Mostofian, Barmak [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Dimethyl ether (DME): a clean fuel of the 21st century and catalysts for it  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is a substitute of LNG and light oil. DME burns without particulate matters and SOx, so DME is a clean fuel. DME is a storage and carrier of hydrogen. For these usages, useful catalysts such as DME steam reforming catalysts and DME ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, direct synthesis, hydrogen, sol-gel method, steam reforming

Kaoru Takeishi

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Catalysts for hydrogen production by steam reforming of dimethyl ether (DME)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is expected as one of clean fuels. We have been studying on DME steam reforming for hydrogen production. Copper alumina catalysts prepared by a sol-gel method produced large quantities of H2 with DME steam reforming. The reason was ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, sol-gel method, steam reforming

Kaoru Takeishi

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Development of single type copper alumina catalysts for hydrogen production from dimethyl ether (DME)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is expected as one of clean fuels. We have been studying on DME steam reforming for hydrogen production. Copper alumina catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method produced large quantities of H2 with DME steam reforming. Aiming at ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, sol-gel method, steam reforming

Kaoru Takeishi; Atsushi Ban

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Comprehensive testing to measure the response of butyl rubber to Hanford tank waste simulant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the authors performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to {approximately}143, 286, 571, and 3,670 krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Butyl rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. From the analyses, they determined that butyl rubber has relatively good resistance to radiation, this simulant, and a combination of these factors. These results suggest that butyl rubber is a relatively good seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study.

NIGREY,PAUL J.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate Title Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2005 Authors Sun, Xiao-Guang, Jun Hou, and John B. Kerr Journal Electrochimica Acta Volume 50 Pagination 1139-1147 Keywords ionic conductivity, plasticizer, polyacrylate ethers, single ion conductor Abstract Comb-shaped single ion conductors have been synthesized by sulfonation of small molecule chloroethyleneglycols, which, after ion exchange to the Li+ salt were then converted to the acrylate by reaction with acryloyl chloride and copolymerized with polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether acrylate (Mn = 454, n = 8) (PAE8-co-E3SO3Li);

58

Evidence of Eu{sup 2+} 4f electrons in the valence band spectra of EuTiO{sub 3} and EuZrO{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect

We report on optical band gap and valence electronic structure of two Eu{sup 2+}-based perovskites, EuTiO{sub 3} and EuZrO{sub 3} as revealed by diffuse optical scattering, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and valence-band x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The data show good agreement with the first-principles studies in which the top of the valence band structure is formed by the narrow Eu 4f{sup 7} electron band. The O 2p band shows the features similar to those of the Ba(Sr)TiO{sub 3} perovskites except that it is shifted to higher binding energies. Appearance of the Eu{sup 2+} 4f{sup 7} band is a reason for narrowing of the optical band gap in the title compounds as compared to their Sr-based analogues.

Kolodiazhnyi, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Valant, M. [Materials Research Laboratory, University of Nova Gorica, Vipavska 13, 5000 Nova Gorica (Slovenia); Williams, J. R. [International Center for Young Scientists (ICYS), MANA, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Bugnet, M.; Botton, G. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Ohashi, N. [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, MANA, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Sakka, Y. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

59

Rusland-Ukraine-EU Trianglen - strategier og konflikter.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Projektet søger at belyse hvilke strategier og interesser der ligger bag Rusland og EU's udenrigspolitiske tilgang til Ukraine samt hvordan disse konflikter med hinanden. Dette… (more)

Abild, Kasper

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Quantum ether: photons and electrons from a rotor model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give an example of a purely bosonic model -- a rotor model on the 3D cubic lattice -- whose low energy excitations behave like massless U(1) gauge bosons and massless Dirac fermions. This model can be viewed as a ``quantum ether'': a medium that gives rise to both photons and electrons. It illustrates a general mechanism for the emergence of gauge bosons and fermions known as ``string-net condensation.'' Other, more complex, string-net condensed models can have excitations that behave like gluons, quarks and other particles in the standard model. This suggests that photons, electrons and other elementary particles may have a unified origin: string-net condensation in our vacuum.

Michael Levin; Xiao-Gang Wen

2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

A New Combustion Synthesis Method for GaN:Eu3+ and Ga2O3 :Eu3+  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A New Combustion Synthesis Method for GaN:Eu3+ and Ga2O3 :Eu3+ Luminescent Powders G. A. Hirata1 between the precursors. The preparation of Eu-doped Ga2O3 powders was achieved using a new combustion)3 and Ga(NO3)3 as the precursors and hydrazine as (non-carbonaceous) fuel. A spontaneous combustion

McKittrick, Joanna

62

E.U. environmental policies: a document - based qualitative research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climate change has become a reality with many consequences in different fields. The European Union (EU) has been at the forefront of international action to combat climate change since 1990, when the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) ... Keywords: EU policy, European legislation, climate change, environment, greenhouse gas emissions, qualitative research

Iuliana Pop; Madalina-Teodora Andrei; Charlotte Valentine Ene; Florin Vartolomei; Petronela-Sonia Nedea; Radita Alexe

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

EU Energy Statistics 2010 (1990 - 2007)

These two datasets...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EU Energy Statistics 2010 (1990 - 2007)

These two datasets include energy statistics for the European Union (EU). The statistics are available from the 

64

DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the work and challenges continued as it has been difficult to maintain operability of the shuttle bus due to fuel and component difficulties. In late June 2002, the pump head itself developed operational problems (loss of smooth function) leading to excessive stress on the magnetic coupling and excessive current draw to operate. A new pump head was installed on the system to alleviate this problem and the shuttle bus operated successfully on DME blends from 10-25 vol% on the shuttle bus loop until September 30, 2002. During the period of operation on the campus loop, the bus was pulled from service, operated at the PTI test track and real-time emissions measurements were obtained using an on-board emissions analyzer from Clean Air Technologies International, Inc. Particulate emissions reductions of 60% and 80% were observed at DME blend ratios of 12 vol.% and 25 vol.%, respectively, as the bus was operated over the Orange County driving cycle. Increases in NOx, CO and HC emissions were observed, however. In summary, the conversion of the shuttle bus was successfully accomplished, particulate emissions reductions were observed, but there were operational challenges in the field. Nonetheless, they were able to demonstrate reliable operation of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel blends.

Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

EU Energy Statistics 2010 (1990 - 2007) | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

43 43 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142278043 Varnish cache server EU Energy Statistics 2010 (1990 - 2007) Dataset Summary Description These two datasets include energy statistics for the European Union (EU). The statistics are available from the European Commission. The data includes detailed information about: production, net imports, gross inland consumption, and electricity generation for the EU as a whole, as well as the individual member countries, for the period between 1990 and 2007. Also included is annual gross electricity generation from renewables (hydro, pumped storage, wind, biomass, PV, and geothermal) for all EU member countries, 1990 - 2007.

66

Plug-in electric vehicle introduction in the EU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) could significantly reduce gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU's transport sector. However, PEV well-towheel (WTW) emissions depend on improvements in vehicle ...

Sisternes, Fernando J. de $q (Fernando José Sisternes Jiménez)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Hydrogen Oxidation Catalysis by a Nickel Diphosphine Complex with Pendant tert-Butyl Amines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A bis-diphosphine nickel complex with t-butyl functionalized pendant amines [Ni(PCy2Nt-Bu2)2]2+ has been synthesized. It is a highly active electrocatalyst for the oxidation of hydrogen in the presence of base. The turn-over rate of 50 s 1 under 1.0 atm H2 at a potential of –0.77 V vs the ferrocene couple is 5 times faster than the rate reported heretofore for any other molecular H2 oxidation catalyst. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. Computational resources were provided by the Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL) and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

Yang, Jenny Y.; Chen, Shentan; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Bullock, R. Morris; DuBois, Daniel L.; Raugei, Simone; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dupuis, Michel; Rakowski DuBois, Mary

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

68

Method for photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate by tri-N-butyl phosphate and application of this method to nuclear fuel reprocessing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Uranyl ion in solution in tri-n-butyl phosphate is readily photochemically reduced to U(IV). The product U(IV) may effectively be used in the Purex process for treating spent nuclear fuels to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III). The Pu(III) is readily separated from uranium in solution in the tri-n-butyl phosphate by an aqueous strip.

De Poorter, Gerald L. (Los Alamos, NM); Rofer-De Poorter, Cheryl K. (Los Alamos, NM)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Grid4EU (Smart Grid Project) (Italy) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Grid4EU (Smart Grid Project) (Italy) Grid4EU (Smart Grid Project) (Italy) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Grid4EU Country Italy Coordinates 41.910454°, 12.65625° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.910454,"lon":12.65625,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

70

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers and Isostructural  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers of the enolization of 2-methylcyclohexanone mediated by lithium hexameth- yldisilazide (LiHMDS; TMS2NLi) solvated- bine to make lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS) one of the most important Bro¨nsted bases in organic

Collum, David B.

71

Direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas containing oxygen gas considering of biomass gasfication gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed appropriate and excellent catalysts for direct DME synthesis from syngas. The catalysts, Cu-Zn/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method, produce DME with high DME activity and high DME selectivity with long ... Keywords: DME, biomass, catalyst, clean fuel, dimethyl ether, direct synthesis, gasification gas, hydrogen, sol-gel method, syngas

Kaoru Takeishi; Akane Arase

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Epitaxial EuO thin films on GaAs  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the epitaxial growth of EuO on GaAs by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Thin films are grown in an adsorption-controlled regime with the aid of an MgO diffusion barrier. Despite the large lattice mismatch, it is shown that EuO grows well on MgO(001) with excellent magnetic properties. Epitaxy on GaAs is cube-on-cube and longitudinal magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements demonstrate a large Kerr rotation of 0.57 deg., a significant remanent magnetization, and a Curie temperature of 69 K.

Swartz, A. G.; Ciraldo, J.; Wong, J. J. I.; Li Yan; Han Wei; Lin Tao; Shi, J.; Kawakami, R. K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Mack, S.; Awschalom, D. D. [Center for Spintronics and Quantum Computation, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2010-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

73

Initiation Temperature for Runaway Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate/Nitric Acid Reaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During a review of the H-Canyon authorization basis, Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) staff members questioned the margin of safety associated with a postulated tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/nitric acid runaway reaction due to the inadvertent heating of a canyon tank containing greater than 3000 lbs (1362 kg) of TBP. The margin of safety was partially based on experiments and calculations performed by the Actinide Technology Section (ATS) to support deletion of indication of tank agitation as a Safety Class System. In the technical basis for deletion of this system, ATS personnel conservatively calculated the equilibrium temperature distribution of a canyon tank containing TBP and nitric acid layers which were inadvertently heated by a steam jet left on following a transfer. The maximum calculated temperature (128 degrees C) was compared to the minimum initiation temperature for a runaway reaction (greater than 130 degrees C) documented by experimental work in the mid 195 0s. In this work, the initiation temperature as a function of nitric acid concentration was measured for 0 and 20 wt percent dissolved solids. The DNFSB staff members were concerned that data for 0 wt percent dissolved solids were not conservative given the facts that data for 20 wt percent dissolved solids show initiation temperatures at or below 130 degrees C and H-Canyon solutions normally contained a small amount of dissolved solids.

Rudisill, T.S.

2000-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

74

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Tri-n-Butyl-Phophate Liquid: A Force Field Comparative Study  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were conducted to compare the performance of four force fields in predicting thermophysical properties of tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) in the liquid phase. The intramolecular force parameters used were from the Assisted Model Building with Energy Refinement (AMBER) force field model. The van der Waals parameters were based on either the AMBER or the Optimized Potential for Liquid Simulation (OPLS) force fields. The atomic partial charges were either assigned by performing quantum chemistry calculations or utilized previously published data, and were scaled to approximate the average experimental value of the electric dipole moment. Canonical ensemble computations based on the aforementioned parameters were performed near the atmospheric pressure and temperature to obtain the electric dipole moment, mass density, and self-diffusion coefficient. In addition, the microscopic structure of the liquid was characterized via pair correlation functions between selected atoms. It has been demonstrated that the electric dipole moment can be approximated within 1% of the average experimental value by virtue of scaled atomic partial charges. The liquid mass density can be predicted within 0.5-1% of its experimentally determined value when using the corresponding charge scaling. However, in all cases the predicted self- diffusion coefficient is significantly smaller than a commonly quoted experimental measurement; this result is qualified by the fact that the uncertainty of the experimental value was not available.

Cui, Shengting [ORNL; de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL; Ye, Xianggui [ORNL; Khomami, Bamin [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Assessment of ether and alcohol fuels from coal. Volume 2. Technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A unique route for the indirect liquefaction of coal to produce transportation fuel has been evaluated. The resultant fuel includes alkyl tertiary alkyl ethers and higher alcohols, all in the gasoline boiling range. When blended into gasoline, the ether fuel provides several advantages over the lower alcohols: (1) lower chemical oxygen content, (2) less-severe water-separation problems, and (3) reduced front-end volatility effects. The ether fuel also has high-octane quality. Further, it can be utilized as a gasoline substitute in all proportions. Production of ether fuel combines several steps, all of which are or have been practiced on an industrial scale: (1) coal gasification, (2) gas cleanup and shift to desired H/sub 2/:CO ratio, (3) conversion of synthesis gas to isobutanol, methanol, and higher alcohols, (4) separation of alcohols, (5) chemical dehydration of isobutanol to isobutylene, and (6) etherification of isobutylene with methanol. A pilot-plant investigation of the isobutanol synthesis step was performed. Estimates of ether-fuel manufacturing costs indicate this process route is significantly more costly than synthesis of methanol. However, the fuel performance features provide incentive for developing the necessary process and catalyst improvements. Co-production of higher-molecular-weight co-solvent alcohols represents a less-drastic form of methanol modification to achieve improvement in the performance of methanol-gasoline blends. Costs were estimated for producing several proportions of methanol plus higher alcohols from coal. Estimated fuel selling price increases regularly but modestly with higher alcohol content.

Not Available

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Annual Trilateral U.S. - EU - Japan Conference on Critical Materials...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Annual Trilateral U.S. - EU - Japan Conference on Critical Materials for a Clean Energy Future, October 4-5, 2011 Annual Trilateral U.S. - EU - Japan Conference on Critical...

77

EU, CHINA AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGE IN AFRICA A case study from timber industry in Gabon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 EU, CHINA AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGE IN AFRICA A case study from timber industry: .....................................................................................................................................................2 Part I: The EU, China and the external environmental dimension....................................................................3 1.1 China as a competitor normative power in the environmental sector

78

The future role of renewable energy sources in European electricity supply : A model-based analysis for the EU-15.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ambitious targets for the use of renewable electricity (RES-E) have been formulated by the EU Commission and the EU Member States. Taking into account technical,… (more)

Rosen, Johannes

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

The EU’s CAP, the Doha Round and Developing Countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Political Economy of Beef Liberalisation: A collection ofTrade: Effects of trade liberalisation and EU enlargement on

Halderman, Michael; Nelson, Michael

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Oxygen off-stoichiometry and phase separation in EuO thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on our study on the influence of the growth conditions on the europium/oxygen stoichiometry, morphology, magnetic properties, and electrical conductivity of EuO thin films. SQUID magnetometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were utilized as complementary techniques to determine the oxygen content of EuO{sub 1{+-}x} thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy with and without the employment of the so-called Eu distillation process. We found indications for phase separation to occur in Eu-rich as well as in over-oxidized EuO for films grown at substrate temperatures below the Eu distillation temperature. Only a fraction of the excess Eu contributes to the metal-insulator transition in Eu-rich films grown under these conditions. We also observed that the surfaces of these films were ill defined and may even contain more Eu excess than the film average. Only EuO films grown under distillation conditions are guaranteed to have the same magnetic and electrical properties as stoichiometric bulk EuO, and to have surfaces with the proper Eu/O stoichiometry and electronic structure.

Altendorf, S. G.; Efimenko, A.; Oliana, V. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, DE-50937 Koeln (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Noethnitzerstr. 40, DE-01187 Dresden (Germany); Kierspel, H. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, DE-50937 Koeln (Germany); Rata, A. D.; Tjeng, L. H. [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Noethnitzerstr. 40, DE-01187 Dresden (Germany)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Regulations and Audit Opinions: Evidence from EU Banking Institutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, we empirically investigate the relationship between financial and auditing requirements, capital requirements, official supervisory power, and the likelihood of receiving a qualified audit opinion. The sample consists of 71 qualified financial ... Keywords: Banking institutions, EU, Qualified audit opinion, Regulations

Chrysovalantis Gaganis; Fotios Pasiouras; Charalambos Spathis

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Modeling EU electricity market competition using the residual supply index  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An econometric approach to related hourly Residual Supply Index to price-cost margins in the major EU electricity generation markets suggests that market structure, as measured by the RSI, is a significant explanatory factor for markups, even when scarcity and other explanatory variables are included. (author)

Swinand, Gregory; Scully, Derek; Ffoulkes, Stuart; Kessler, Brian

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

EU signs ITER deal Negotiations on the ITER international nuclear  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Korea and the US, the agreement aims to develop a project that will test the feasibility of nuclearEU signs ITER deal Negotiations on the ITER international nuclear fusion project have been parties will contribute up to ten per cent. European Greens, fiercely opposed to nuclear energy, have

84

Butyl benzyl phthalate suppresses the ATP-induced cell proliferation in human osteosarcoma HOS cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), an endocrine disruptor present in the environment, exerts its genomic effects via intracellular steroid receptors and elicits non-genomic effects by interfering with membrane ion-channel receptors. We previously found that BBP blocks the calcium signaling coupled with P2X receptors in PC12 cells (Liu and Chen, 2006). Osteoblast P2X receptors were recently reported to play a role in cell proliferation and bone remodeling. In this present study, the effects of BBP on ATP-induced responses were investigated in human osteosarcoma HOS cells. These receptors mRNA had been detected, named P2X4, P2X7, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y5, P2Y9, and P2Y11, in human osteosarcoma HOS cells by RT-PCR. The enhancement of cell proliferation and the decrease of cytoviability had both been shown to be coupled to stimulation via different concentrations of ATP. BBP suppressed the ATP-induced calcium influx (mainly coupled with P2X) and cell proliferation but not the ATP-induced intracellular calcium release (mainly coupled with P2Y) and cytotoxicity in human osteosarcoma HOS cells. Suramin, a common P2 receptor's antagonist, blocked the ATP-induced calcium signaling, cell proliferation, and cytotoxicity. We suggest that P2X is mainly responsible for cell proliferation, and P2Y might be partially responsible for the observed cytotoxicity. BBP suppressed the calcium signaling coupled with P2X, suppressing cell proliferation. Since the importance of P2X receptors during bone metastasis has recently become apparent, the possible toxic risk of environmental BBP during bone remodeling is a public problem of concern.

Liu, P.-S., E-mail: pslediting@mail.scu.edu.t [Department of Microbiology, Soochow University, Shihlin, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-Y. [Department of Microbiology, Soochow University, Shihlin, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Phase equilibrium and intermediate phases in the Eu-Sb system  

SciTech Connect

Rapid heating rate thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, fluorescence spectrometry, and differential dissolution method were used to study the high-temperature phase equilibrium in the Eu-Sb system within the composition range between 37 and 96 at% Sb. The techniques were effective in determination of the vapor-solid-liquid equilibrium since intermediate phases except Eu{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} evaporated incongruently after melting. A thermal procedure was developed to determine the liquidus and solidus lines of the T-x diagram. Six stable phases were identified: two phases, EuSb{sub 2} and Eu{sub 4}Sb{sub 3}, melt congruently at 1045{+-}10 deg. C and 1600{+-}15 deg. C, the Eu{sub 2}Sb{sub 3}, Eu{sub 11}Sb{sub 10}, Eu{sub 5}Sb{sub 4}, and Eu{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} phases melt incongruently at 850{+-}8 deg. C, 950{+-}10 deg. C, 1350{+-}15 deg. C, and 1445{+-}15 deg. C, respectively. The exact composition shifting of Sb-rich decomposable phases towards Eu{sub 4}Sb{sub 3}, the most refractory compound, was determined. The topology of the Eu-Sb phase diagram was considered together with that of the Yb-Sb system. - Graphical abstract: The high-temperature range of the T-x phase diagram for the Eu-Sb system. Highlights: > The phase relations in the Eu-Sb system were studied over a large composition and temperature scale. > The liquidus and solidus lines of the T-x diagram were well established using effective techniques. > In the system, six binary phases are stable and they melt incongruently except EuSb{sub 2} and Eu{sub 4}Sb{sub 3}. > Incongruent evaporation was found to be typical of all the phases besides Eu{sub 4}Sb{sub 3}.

Abdusalyamova, M.N. [Institute of Chemistry of Tajik Academy of Sciences, Ajni Str. 299/2, 734063 Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Vasilyeva, I.G., E-mail: kamarz@niic.nsc.ru [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Lavrentiev Avenue, 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Rejai, Bahman (Lakewood, CO); Bain, Richard L. (Golden, CO); Overend, Ralph P. (Lakewood, CO)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

1996-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

88

Modeling the Nanophase Structural Dynamics of Phenylated Sulfonated Poly Ether Ether Ketone Ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) Membranes as a Function of Hydration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solvated phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) membranes in the presence of hydronium ions were modeled by classical molecular dynamics simulations. The characterization of the nanophase structure and dynamics of such membranes was carried out as a function of the water content lambda, where lambda is the number of water molecules per sulfonate group, for lambda values of 3.5, 6, 11, 25, and 40. Analysis of pair correlation functions supports the experimental observation of membrane swelling upon hydration as well the increase in water and hydronium ion diffusion with increasing lambda. While the average number of hydrogen bonds between hydronium ions and sulfonate groups is dramatically affected by the hydration level, the average lifetime of the hydrogen bonds remains essentially constant. The membrane is found to be relatively rigid and its overall flexibility shows little dependence on water content. Compared to Nafion, water and ion diffusion coefficients are considerably smaller at lower hydration levels and room temperature. However, at higher lambda values of 25 and 40 these coefficients are comparable to those in Nafion at a lambda value of 16. This study also shows that water diffusion in Ph-SPEEKK membranes at low hydration levels can be significantly improved by raising the temperature with important implications for proton conductivity.

Lins, Roberto D.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Dupuis, Michel

2011-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

89

2' and 3' Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed a process for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. Said carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of said compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells.

Soloway, Albert H. (Worthington, OH); Barth, Rolf F. (Columbus, OH); Anisuzzaman, Abul K. (Columbus, OH); Alam, Fazlul (Anaheim, CA); Tjarks, Werner (Columbus, OH)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

2[prime] and 3[prime] Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. The carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of the compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells. No Drawings

Soloway, A.H.; Barth, R.F.; Anisuzzaman, A.K.; Alam, F.; Tjarks, W.

1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

Ce-doped EuO: Magnetic properties and the indirect band gap  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have prepared and investigated thin films of EuO doped with the rare-earth element cerium. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were used to determine the quality of these films prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Ce doping leads to an enhanced Curie temperature near 150 K, close to that seen for oxygen-deficient EuO{sub 1-x}. However, the magnetization of Ce-doped EuO exhibits differences from that observed for Gd-doped and oxygen-deficient samples. The high-resolution angular-resolved photoemission from Ce-doped EuO reveals filling of conduction-band states near the X point. This indicates that the band gap in EuO is indirect, and that at 2% doping Ce-doped EuO{sub 1-x} is at least semimetallic.

Liu Pan; Tang Jinke [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 (United States); Colon Santana, Juan A.; Belashchenko, Kirill D.; Dowben, Peter A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0299 (United States)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Eu{sub 3}F{sub 4}S{sub 2}: Synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of the mixed-valent europium(II,III) fluoride sulfide EuF{sub 2}.(EuFS){sub 2}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the method to synthesize rare-earth metal(III) fluoride sulfides MFS (M=Y, La, Ce-Lu), in some cases we were able to obtain mixed-valent compounds such as Yb{sub 3}F{sub 4}S{sub 2} instead. With Eu{sub 3}F{sub 4}S{sub 2} another isotypic representative has now been synthesized. Eu{sub 3}F{sub 4}S{sub 2} (tetragonal, I4/mmm, a=400.34(2), c=1928.17(9) pm, Z=2) is obtained from the reaction of metallic europium, elemental sulfur, and europium trifluoride in a molar ratio of 5:6:4 within seven days at 850 deg. C in silica-jacketed gas-tightly sealed platinum ampoules. The single-phase product consists of black plate-shaped single crystals with a square cross section, which can be obtained from a flux using equimolar amounts of NaCl as fluxing agent. The crystal structure is best described as an intergrowth structure, in which one layer of CaF{sub 2}-type EuF{sub 2} is followed by two layers of PbFCl-type EuFS when sheeted parallel to the (001) plane. Accordingly there are two chemically and crystallographically different europium cations present. One of them (Eu{sup 2+}) is coordinated by eight fluoride anions in a cubic fashion, the other one (Eu{sup 3+}) exhibits a monocapped square antiprismatic coordination sphere with four F{sup -} and five S{sup 2-} anions. Although the structural ordering of the different charged europium cations is plausible, a certain amount of charge delocalization with some polaron activity has to take place, which is suggested by the black color of the title compound. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements of Eu{sub 3}F{sub 4}S{sub 2} show Curie-Weiss behavior with an experimental magnetic moment of 8.19(5) mu{sub B} per formula unit and a paramagnetic Curie temperature of 0.3(2) K. No magnetic ordering is observed down to 4.2 K. In accordance with an ionic formula splitting like (Eu{sup II})(Eu{sup III}){sub 2}F{sub 4}S{sub 2} only one third of the europium centers in Eu{sub 3}F{sub 4}S{sub 2} carry permanent magnetic moments. {sup 151}Eu-Moessbauer spectroscopic experiments at 4.2 K show one signal at an isomer shift of -12.4(1) mm/s and a second one at 0.42(4) mm/s. These signals occur in a ratio of 1:2 and correspond to Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+}, respectively. The spectra at 78 and 298 K are similar, thus no change in the Eu{sup 2+}/Eu{sup 3+} fraction can be detected. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure and {sup 151}Eu-Moessbauer spectra of mixed-valent Eu{sub 3}F{sub 4}S{sub 2}.

Grossholz, Hagen; Hartenbach, Ingo [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kotzyba, Gunter [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Poettgen, Rainer, E-mail: pottgen@uni-muenster.d [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Trill, Henning; Mosel, Bernd D. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Schleid, Thomas, E-mail: schleid@iac.uni-stuttgart.d [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

Argentina-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Argentina-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Argentina-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Argentina-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Secretariat of Environment and Sustainable Development (SESD), Secretariat of Industry Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, - Industrial Processes

94

Costa Rica-EU-UNDP Climate Change Capacity Building Program | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Costa Rica-EU-UNDP Climate Change Capacity Building Program Costa Rica-EU-UNDP Climate Change Capacity Building Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Costa Rica-EU-UNDP Climate Change Capacity Building Program Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind Topics Background analysis, Baseline projection, Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access, - Environmental and Biodiversity, GHG inventory, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, -Roadmap, -TNA, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment

95

Innovation and Market Definition under the EU Regulatory Framework for Electronic Communications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

European Telecommunications market, Oxford University Press,Relevant Product and Service Markets within the ElectronicInnovation and Market Definition under the EU Regulatory

Madiega, Tambiama

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Export Potential of U.S. - Produced Switchgrass and Wood Pellets for the EU Market.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??European Union’s (EU) dependence on fossil fuel imports strongly affects its energy supply and economic and national stability. In order to reduce its dependence and… (more)

Grbovic, Mladen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Civil society and democratic consolidation in Poland : ENGOs and the programming of EU funds.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Poland and the other post-communist EU Member States are benefiting from large amounts of financial aid through the Cohesion and Structural Funds. This aid is… (more)

Cockbain, Paul Erik

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

R&D Programs for Hydrogen: US and EU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The possibility of a future economy based on H2 and fuel cells is both promising and uncertain. As a consequence, in the US and in the EU significant actions, with similarities as well as differences, related to hydrogen R&D are being undertaken. Efforts are focused in both cases primarily on applied research, development and demonstration. Some striking differences result from the leading role of the Department of Energy (DOE) in the US, as opposed to the more unstructured, nation-based approach in the EU. R&D activities conducted both in America and Europe are reviewed and compared, and some tentative conclusions are advanced. The case for hydrogen Hydrogen (H2) is, among other things, an energy carrier very abundant in nature in combination with other chemical elements. Molecular hydrogen (H2) can be synthesized by energy intensive processes. H2 must then be stored, distributed and finally utilised for energy generation. Internal combustion engines (ICE), in the form of reciprocating machines or gas turbines (GT), as well as electrochemical devices, known as fuel cells

Steven Stoft; Cesar Dopazo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Research Article Rapeseed Oil Monoester of Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether as a New Biodiesel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Copyright © 2011 Jiang Dayong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. A novel biodiesel named rapeseed oil monoester of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether is developed. This fuel has one more ester group than the traditional biodiesel. The fuel was synthesized and structurally identified through FT-IR and P 1P H NMR analyses. Engine test results show that when a tested diesel engine is fueled with this biodiesel in place of 0 # diesel fuel, engine-out smoke emissions can be decreased by 25.0%–75.0%, CO emissions can be reduced by 50.0%, and unburned HC emissions are lessened significantly. However, NOx emissions generally do not change noticeably. In the area of combustion performance, both engine in-cylinder pressure and its changing rate with crankshaft angle are increased to some extent. Rapeseed oil monoester of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether has a much higher cetane number and shorter ignition delay, leading to autoignition 1.1 ? CA earlier than diesel fuel during engine operation. Because of certain amount of oxygen contained in the new biodiesel, the engine thermal efficiency is improved 13.5%–20.4 % when fueled with the biodiesel compared with diesel fuel. 1.

Jiang Dayong; Wang Xuanjun; Liu Shuguang; Guo Hejun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process. Peroxide formation of dimethyl ether in methanol mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Organic peroxides could form when dimethyl ether in methanol is stored for three to six months at a time. The objective of this work was to determine the level of peroxide formation from dimethyl ether in reagent grade methanol and raw methanol at room temperature under 3 atmospheres (45 psig) of air. Raw methanol is methanol made from syngas by the LPMEOH Process without distillation. Aliphatic ethers tend to react slowly with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides. However, there are no reports on peroxide formation from dimethyl ether. After 172 days of testing, dimethyl ether in either reagent methanol or raw methanol at room temperature and under 60--70 psig pressure of air does not form detectable peroxides. Lack of detectable peroxides suggests that dimethyl ether or dimethyl ether and methanol may be stored at ambient conditions. Since the compositions of {approximately} 1.3 mol% or {approximately} 4.5 mol% dimethyl ether in methanol do not form peroxides, these compositions can be considered for diesel fuel or an atmospheric turbine fuel, respectively.

Waller, F.J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

EU obiective of 120g CO2/km emission for new cars, a challenge for tribology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Passenger cars produce about 12 % of overall EU greenhouse gas -GHG- emissions (CO2) and transport sector with about 20 % is the second biggest emitter of GHG among all sources. Since 1990, EU has reduced transport emissions by 5 % but the contribution ... Keywords: GHG emissions, friction modifiers, fuel efficiency, structured surfaces, surface treatment

Ivan Iliuc

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

EU in push for support on nuclear fusion reactor September 26, 2004  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EU in push for support on nuclear fusion reactor September 26, 2004 Page Tool EU ministers have agreed to try to win broad international support for a plan to build a futuristic nuclear reactor to obtain power through nuclear fusion, a clean energy source. But views are split on where the ITER reactor

104

Sorption of Eu(III) on Attapulgite Studied by Batch, XPS and EXAFS Techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sorption of Eu(III) on Attapulgite Studied by Batch, XPS and EXAFS Techniques Q.H. FAN,, , X.L. TAN, , J.X. LI , X.K. WANG* , W.S. WU* , G. Montavon&* Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, the sorption of Eu(III) at the solid-water interface is important for the performance assessment of nuclear

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

105

The EU-Services Directive: An eFramework to Optimize Public Administration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Point of Single Contact, proposed by the EU Services Directive, is a reliable source of electronic processing of information that facilitates the interaction of citizens with the public administration. This paper presents an eFramework designed to ... Keywords: EU-Services Directive, Point of Single Contact, Public Administration, eFramework for Public Administration, eGovernment

Ciprian Dobre, Florin Pop, Valentin Cristea

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

feed-in tariffs IT Feed-in tariffs US Tax relief InvestmentSE SI SK UK EU-25 US Japan Feed-in tariff Quota / TGC TenderNL PL UK EU-Avg US Japan Feed-in tariff Quota / TGC Tender

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Multivariate analysis of structural economic indicators for Croatia and EU 27  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The last (5th) wave of EU enlargement ended on 1st January 2007 with the accession of Romania and Bulgaria. Many countries of the South-Eastern Europe aspire to join the EU. Croatia appears to be the next prospective member, so the aim of this paper ... Keywords: Ward's method, classification, cluster analysis, k-means method, multivariate method, structural economic indicators

Natasa Kurnoga Zivadinovic; Ksenija Dumicic; Anita Ceh Casni

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

-News Home Help EU presses Japan to compromise on nuclear project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-News Home Help EU presses Japan to compromise on nuclear project 2 hours, 23 minutes ago BRUSSELS to resolve a standoff over who will host a revolutionary nuclear reactor project, a key EU official said Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which has been billed as a test bed for a safe and inexhaustible

109

NO-assisted molecular-beam epitaxial growth of nitrogen substituted EuO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have investigated a method for substituting oxygen with nitrogen in EuO thin films, which is based on molecular beam epitaxy distillation with NO gas as the oxidizer. By varying the NO gas pressure, we produce crystalline, epitaxial EuO{sub 1-x}N{sub x} films with good control over the films' nitrogen concentration. In situ x-ray photoemission spectroscopy reveals that nitrogen substitution is connected to the formation Eu{sup 3+}4f{sup 6} and a corresponding decrease in the number of Eu{sup 2+}4f{sup 7}, indicating that nitrogen is being incorporated in its 3{sup -} oxidation state. While small amounts of Eu{sup 3+} in over-oxidized Eu{sub 1-{delta}}O thin films lead to a drastic suppression of the ferromagnetism, the formation of Eu{sup 3+} in EuO{sub 1-x}N{sub x} still allows the ferromagnetic phase to exist with an unaffected T{sub c}, thus providing an ideal model system to study the interplay between the magnetic f{sup 7} (J = 7/2) and the non-magnetic f{sup 6} (J = 0) states close to the Fermi level.

Wicks, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Altendorf, S. G.; Caspers, C.; Kierspel, H.; Sutarto, R. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Tjeng, L. H. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Damascelli, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Quantum Matter Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

110

Exhaust Emissions and Combustion Performances of Rapeseed Oil Monoester of Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether as a Novel Biodiesel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a novel biodiesel named rapeseed oil monoester of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether has been developed, which has one more ester group than traditional biodiesel. It was synthesized and structurally identified through FT-IR, 1H NMR analyses. ... Keywords: component, rapeseed oil monoester, synthesis, exhaust emissions, combustion performances

Jiang Dayong; Wang Xuanjun; Wang Wenguo; Han Qilong

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

EcoGrid EU (Smart Grid Project) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(Smart Grid Project) (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EcoGrid EU Country Denmark Headquarters Location Bornholm, Denmark Coordinates 55.160427°, 14.866884° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":55.160427,"lon":14.866884,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

112

EU Funded Research Activities on NPPS Operational Safety  

SciTech Connect

The 5. framework programme (FP-5), the pluri-annual research programme of the European Union (EU), covers the period 1998-2002. Research on nuclear energy, fusion and fission, is covered by the EURATOM part of the FP-5. An overview of the Euratom's research on Nuclear Reactor Safety, managed by the DG-RTD of the European Commission (EC), is presented. This concerns 70 multi-partner projects of approximately euro 82.5 million total contract value that have been selected and co-financed during the period 1999-2001. They form the three clusters of projects dealing with the 'Operational Safety of Existing Installations'. 'Plant Life Extension and Management' (PLEM), 'Severe Accident Management' (SAM) and 'Evolutionary concepts' (EVOL). Emphasis is given here to the projects of the PLEM cluster. (authors)

Manolatos, P.; Van Goethem, G. [European Commission, DG Research J.4 Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection, 1049 Brussels (Belgium)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

114

Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Use of aluminum phosphate as the dehydration catalyst in single step dimethyl ether process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present invention pertains to a process for the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) directly from a synthesis gas in a single step (hereafter, the "single step DME process"). In this process, the synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon oxides is contacted with a dual catalyst system comprising a physical mixture of a methanol synthesis catalyst and a methanol dehydration catalyst. The present invention is an improvement to this process for providing an active and stable catalyst system. The improvement comprises the use of an aluminum phosphate based catalyst as the methanol dehydration catalyst. Due to its moderate acidity, such a catalyst avoids the coke formation and catalyst interaction problems associated with the conventional dual catalyst systems taught for the single step DME process.

Peng, Xiang-Dong (Allentown, PA); Parris, Gene E. (Coopersburg, PA); Toseland, Bernard A. (Allentown, PA); Battavio, Paula J. (Allentown, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of Dinethyl Ether and Methanol  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for fuel cell applications. Methanol has long been considered as a fuel for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds due to its high energy density, low reforming temperature, and zero impurity content. However, it has not been accepted as the fuel of choice due its current limited availability, toxicity and corrosiveness. While methanol steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds has been extensively studied, the steam reforming of DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + 3H{sub 2}O = 2CO{sub 2} + 6H{sub 2}, has had limited research effort. DME is the simplest ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) and is a gas at ambient conditions. DME has physical properties similar to those of LPG fuels (i.e. propane and butane), resulting in similar storage and handling considerations. DME is currently used as an aerosol propellant and has been considercd as a diesel substitute due to the reduced NOx, SOx and particulate emissions. DME is also being considered as a substitute for LPG fuels, which is used extensively in Asia as a fuel for heating and cooking, and naptha, which is used for power generation. The potential advantages of both methanol and DME include low reforming temperature, decreased fuel proccssor startup energy, environmentally benign, visible flame, high heating value, and ease of storage and transportation. In addition, DME has the added advantages of low toxicity and being non-corrosive. Consequently, DME may be an ideal candidate for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for both automotive and portable power applications. The steam reforming of DME has been demonstrated to occur through a pair of reactions in series, where the first reaction is DME hydration followed by MeOH steam reforming to produce a hydrogen rich stream.

Semelsberger, T. A. (Troy A.); Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Understanding the redox shuttle stability of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene (DBDB) has been synthesized as a new redox shuttle additive for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries. DBDB can easily dissolve in carbonate-based electrolytes, which facilitates its practical use in lithium-ion batteries; however, it has poor electrochemical stability compared to 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB). The structures of DBDB and DDB were investigated using X-ray crystallography and density functional calculations. The structures differ in the conformations of the alkoxy bonds probably due to the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond in the case of DBDB. We investigated reaction energies for decomposition pathways of neutral DBDB and DDB and their radical cations and found little difference in the reaction energies, although it is clear that kinetically, decomposition of DBDB is more favorable.

Zhang, Z.; Zhang, L.; Schlueter, J. A.; Redfern, P. C.; Curtiss, L.; Amine, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Identification of volatile butyl rubber thermal-oxidative degradation products by cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS).  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical structure and physical properties of materials, such as polymers, can be altered as aging progresses, which may result in a material that is ineffective for its envisioned intent. Butyl rubber formulations, starting material, and additives were aged under thermal-oxidative conditions for up to 413 total days at up to 124 %C2%B0C. Samples included: two formulations developed at Kansas City Plant (KCP) (%236 and %2310), one commercially available formulation (%2321), Laxness bromobutyl 2030 starting material, and two additives (polyethylene AC-617 and Vanax MBM). The low-molecular weight volatile thermal-oxidative degradation products that collected in the headspace over the samples were preconcentrated, separated, and detected using cryofocusing gas chromatography mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS). The majority of identified degradation species were alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes. Observations for Butyl %2310 aged in an oxygen-18 enriched atmosphere (18O2) were used to verify when the source of oxygen in the applicable degradation products was from the gaseous environment rather than the polymeric mixture. For comparison purposes, Butyl %2310 was also aged under non-oxidative thermal conditions using an argon atmosphere.

Smith, Jonell Nicole; White, Michael Irvin; Bernstein, Robert; Hochrein, James Michael

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Bhutan-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bhutan-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Bhutan-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Bhutan-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

120

Tanzania-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tanzania-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Tanzania-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Tanzania-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Vietnam-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vietnam-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Vietnam-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

122

Chile-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Chile-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Chile-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Chile-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

123

U.S. and EU Unite to Strengthen Economic Integration and Boost Jobs, Growth  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EU Unite to Strengthen Economic Integration and Boost EU Unite to Strengthen Economic Integration and Boost Jobs, Growth and Competitiveness U.S. and EU Unite to Strengthen Economic Integration and Boost Jobs, Growth and Competitiveness November 9, 2006 - 9:25am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Today, the Bush Administration hosted the second informal U.S.-EU economic ministerial meeting to discuss transatlantic economic integration and shared economic challenges. Commerce Secretary Carlos M. Gutierrez and Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman met with European Union Commission Vice President Günter Verheugen and Finnish Minister for Trade and Industry Mauri Pekkarinen to review joint progress in the most significant areas of the transatlantic economy, including innovation, intellectual property rights (IPR), regulatory cooperation, and energy

124

EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) (Redirected from UNDP/EC-China-Climate Change Capacity Building Program) Jump to: navigation, search Name EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

125

Democratic Republic of Congo-EU-UNDP Climate Change Capacity Building  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Democratic Republic of Congo-EU-UNDP Climate Change Capacity Building Democratic Republic of Congo-EU-UNDP Climate Change Capacity Building Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Democratic Republic of Congo-EU-UNDP Climate Change Capacity Building Program Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind Topics Background analysis, Baseline projection, Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access, - Environmental and Biodiversity, GHG inventory, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, -Roadmap, -TNA, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment

126

Ecuador-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ecuador-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Ecuador-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Ecuador-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

127

Egypt-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Egypt-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Egypt-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Egypt-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

128

Colombia-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Colombia-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Colombia-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Colombia-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

129

Trinidad and Tobago-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Trinidad and Tobago-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme Trinidad and Tobago-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Trinidad and Tobago-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

130

Microsoft Word - EU-US Smart Grid assessment - final report -online version.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

JRC 73070 JRC 73070 EUR 25522 EN Assessing Smart Grid Benefits and Impacts: EU and U.S. Initiatives Joint Report EC JRC - US DOE Vincenzo Giordano Steven Bossart European Commission US Department of Energy-DOE Joint Research Centre (JRC) Office of Electricity and Energy Reliability Institute for Energy and Transport 2012 2 European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) Institute for Energy and Transport (IET) Contact information Gianluca Fulli Address: Joint Research Centre, Westerduinweg 3, NL-1755 LE Petten E-mail: gianluca. fulli@ec.europa.eu Tel.: +00312245266 http://iet.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ http://www.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ Steven Bossart Address: US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory,

131

Uganda-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Uganda-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Uganda-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Uganda-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

132

Moldova-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Moldova-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Moldova-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Moldova-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

133

Thailand-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thailand-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Thailand-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Thailand-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

134

Mexico-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mexico-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Mexico-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

135

Peru-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Peru-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Peru-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Peru-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

136

Malaysia-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Malaysia-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Malaysia-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Malaysia-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

137

Zambia-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zambia-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Zambia-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Zambia-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

138

Morocco-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Morocco-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Morocco-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Morocco-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

139

CO2 Abatement in the UK Power Sector: Evidence from the EU ETS Trial Period  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper provides an empirical assessment of CO2 emissions abatement in the UK power sector during the trial period of the EU ETS. Using an econometrically estimated model of fuel switching, it separates the impacts of ...

Ellerman, A. Denny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Solvothermal synthesis of Gd2O3: Eu3+ luminescent nanowires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uniform Gd2O3 : Eu3+ luminescent nanowires were prepared on a large scale by a facile solvothermal method using polyethylene glycol (PEG-2000) as template and ethanol as solvent; the properties and the structure were ...

Guixia Liu; Song Zhang; Xiangting Dong; Jinxian Wang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Luminescent properties of Y2O3:Eu3+ nanocrystals prepared by molten salt synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of red phosphors Y2O3:Eu3+ were prepared by the molten salt method with different surfactants. Their structures, morphologies, and the photoluminescent properties were investigated at room temperature. The particles ...

Lijun Luo, Fenfen Hu, Li Xiong, Xiaofan Li, Meili Zhou, Zhengliang Wang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

The EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme: A Proto-Type Global System?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The European Union's Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the world's first multinational cap-and-trade system for greenhouse gases. As an agreement between sovereign nations with diverse historical, institutional, and ...

Ellerman, A. Denny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

The EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme: A Prototype Global System?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The European Union's Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the world's first multinational cap-and-trade system for greenhouse gases. As an agreement between sovereign nations with diverse historical, institutional, and ...

Ellerman, A. Denny

144

Compliance Behavior in the EU-ETS: Cross Border Trading, Banking and Borrowing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper exploits a little used data resource within the central registry of the European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to analyze cross border flows of allowances for compliance purposes during the first ...

Ellerman, A. Denny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Synthesis and Luminescent Properties of Sr3Al8SiO17:Eu3+  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The optical properties suggest that Sr3Al8SiO17 :Eu3+ is an efficient red-emitting phosphor for light emitting diode (LED) applications. Proceedings Inclusion?

146

Philippines-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Philippines-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Philippines-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Philippines-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

147

Kenya-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Kenya-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Kenya-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

148

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachates from selected landfill sites in South Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The last few decades have seen dramatic growth in the scale of production and the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants. Consequently, PBDEs such as BDE -28, -47, -66, -71, -75, -77, -85, -99, -100, -119, -138, -153, -154, and -183 have been detected in various environmental matrices. Generally, in South Africa, once the products containing these chemicals have outlived their usefulness, they are discarded into landfill sites. Consequently, the levels of PBDEs in leachates from landfill sites may give an indication of the general exposure and use of these compounds. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and concentrations of most common PBDEs in leachates from selected landfill sites. The extraction capacities of the solvents were also tested. Spiked landfill leachate samples were used for the recovery tests. Separation and determination of the PBDE congeners were carried out with a gas chromatograph equipped with Ni{sup 63} electron capture detector. The mean percentage recoveries ranged from 63% to 108% (n = 3) for landfill leachate samples with petroleum ether giving the highest percentage extraction. The mean concentrations of PBDEs obtained ranged from ND to 2670 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 6638 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 7230 pg l{sup -1}, 41 to 4009 pg l{sup -1}, 90 to 9793 pg l{sup -1} for the Garankuwa, Hatherly, Kwaggarsrand, Soshanguve and Temba landfill sites, respectively. Also BDE -28, -47, -71 and BDE-77 were detected in the leachate samples from all the landfill sites; and all the congeners were detected in two of the oldest landfill sites. The peak concentrations were recorded for BDE-47 at three sites and BDE-71 and BDE-75 at two sites. The highest concentration, 9793 {+-} 1.5 pg l{sup -1}, was obtained for the Temba landfill site with the highest BOD value. This may suggest some influence of organics on the level of PBDEs. Considering the leaching characteristics of brominated flame retardants, there is a high possibility that with time these compounds may infiltrate into the groundwater around the sites since most of the sites are not adequately lined.

Odusanya, David O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Okonkwo, Jonathan O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: OkonkwoOJ@tut.ac.za; Botha, Ben [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

Decrease of intracellular pH as possible mechanism of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites  

SciTech Connect

Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites using the methoxyacetic acid (MAA) metabolite of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether as the model compound. The results obtained demonstrate an MAA-induced decrease of the intracellular pH (pH{sub i}) of embryonic BALB/c-3T3 cells as well as of embryonic stem (ES)-D3 cells, at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation. These results suggest a mechanism for MAA-mediated embryotoxicity similar to the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the drugs valproic acid and acetazolamide (ACZ), known to decrease the pH{sub i}in vivo, and therefore used as positive controls. The embryotoxic alkoxyacetic acid metabolites ethoxyacetic acid, butoxyacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid also caused an intracellular acidification of BALB/c-3T3 cells at concentrations that are known to inhibit ES-D3 cell differentiation. Two other embryotoxic compounds, all-trans-retinoic acid and 5-fluorouracil, did not decrease the pH{sub i} of embryonic cells at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation, pointing at a different mechanism of embryotoxicity of these compounds. MAA and ACZ induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of ES-D3 cell differentiation, which was enhanced by amiloride, an inhibitor of the Na{sup +}/H{sup +}-antiporter, corroborating an important role of the pH{sub i} in the embryotoxic mechanism of both compounds. Together, the results presented indicate that a decrease of the pH{sub i} may be the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the alkoxyacetic acid metabolites of the glycol ethers.

Louisse, Jochem, E-mail: jochem.louisse@wur.n [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE Wageningen (Netherlands); TNO Quality of Life, PO Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist (Netherlands); WUR/TNO Centre for Innovative Toxicology, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands); Bai Yanqing [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE Wageningen (Netherlands); Verwei, Miriam; Sandt, Johannes J.M. van de [TNO Quality of Life, PO Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist (Netherlands); WUR/TNO Centre for Innovative Toxicology, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands); Blaauboer, Bas J. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE Wageningen (Netherlands); WUR/TNO Centre for Innovative Toxicology, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

EU promises new biofuel rules won't harm the environment http://www.pr-inside.com/eu-promises-new-biofuel-rules-won-t-r385258.htm 1 of 2 1/16/2008 12:32 PM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the Earth Europe on Monday called for the EU to step away from its 10 percent biofuel target unless it couldEU promises new biofuel rules won't harm the environment http://www.pr-inside.com/eu-promises-new-biofuel promises new biofuel rules won't harm the environment © AP 2008-01-14 16:21:49 - BRUSSELS, Belgium (AP

151

Properties of molecular beam epitaxy grown Eu{sub x}(transition metal){sub y} films (transition metals: Mn, Cr)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electronic and crystallographic structures, as well as the magnetic properties, of Eu{sub x}(transition metal){sub y} (transition metals: Mn, Cr) thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy were studied. Relative changes of the Eu/Mn and Eu/Cr ratios derived from the XPS lines, as well as x-ray reflectivity, indicate mixing of the Eu/Mn and Eu/Cr layers. Valency transitions from Eu{sup 2+} to Eu{sup 3+} were observed in both systems for most studied stoichiometries. A transition to a magnetically ordered phase was observed at 15 K, 40 K, and 62 K for selected films in the Eu-Mn system, and at 50 K for the film with a Eu/Cr ratio of 0.5.

Balin, K. [A. Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice, 40-007 (Poland); Center for Magnetism and Magnetic Nanostructures, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States); Nowak, A. [A. Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice, 40-007 (Poland); Laboratoire de Physique de l'Etat Condense, University du Maine, Le Mans Cedex, 72085 (France); Gibaud, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de l'Etat Condense, University du Maine, Le Mans Cedex, 72085 (France); Szade, J. [A. Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice, 40-007 (Poland); Celinski, Z. [Center for Magnetism and Magnetic Nanostructures, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Residual 152Eu and 60Co activities induced by neutrons from the Hiroshima atomic bomb  

SciTech Connect

Specific activities of 152Eu:Eu in stone samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb were determined for 70 samples up to a 1,500-m slant range from the epicenter. The specific activities of 60Co:Co were also determined for six samples near the Hiroshima hypocenter. First, the 152Eu data were investigated to find out the directional dependence of neutron activation. Directional anisotropy was not definite; however, there was an indication that the activation in the west-southwest was lower than in other directions. Second, measured 152Eu and 60Co radioactivity data were compared with activation calculations based on DS86 neutrons. It is clearly shown that the measured data are lower than the calculation near the hypocenter and vice versa at long distances beyond 1,000 m. The calculated-to-measured ratios of 152Eu are 1.6 at the hypocenter, 1.0 at approximately 900 m, and 0.05 at a 1,500-m slant range. Present results indicate that systematic errors exist in the DS86 neutrons concerning the source-term spectrum, neutron transport calculations in air, and/or activation measurements.

Shizuma, K.; Iwatani, K.; Hasai, H.; Hoshi, M.; Oka, T.; Morishima, H. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Mechanistic Investigation of Acid-Catalyzed Cleavage of Aryl-Ether Linkages: Implications for Lignin Depolymerization  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-oxygen bonds are the primary inter-monomer linkages lignin polymers in plant cell walls, and as such, catalyst development to cleave these linkages is of paramount importance to deconstruct biomass to its constituent monomers for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. For many decades, acid catalysis has been used to depolymerize lignin. Lignin is a primary component of plant cell walls, which is connected primarily by aryl-ether linkages, and the mechanism of its deconstruction by acid is not well understood, likely due to its heterogeneous and complex nature compared to cellulose. For effective biomass conversion strategies, utilization of lignin is of significant relevance and as such understanding the mechanisms of catalytic lignin deconstruction to constituent monomers and oligomers is of keen interest. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the acid catalysis of a range of dimeric species exhibiting the b-O-4 linkage, the most common inter-monomer linkage in lignin. We demonstrate that the presence of a phenolic species dramatically increases the rate of cleavage in acid at 150 degrees C. Quantum mechanical calculations on dimers with the para-hydroxyl group demonstrate that this acid-catalyzed pathway differs from the nonphenolic dimmers. Importantly, this result implies that depolymerization of native lignin in the plant cell wall will proceed via an unzipping mechanism wherein b-O-4 linkages will be cleaved from the ends of the branched, polymer chains inwards toward the center of the polymer. To test this hypothesis further, we synthesized a homopolymer of b-O-4 with a phenolic hydroxyl group, and demonstrate that it is cleaved in acid from the end containing the phenolic hydroxyl group. This result suggests that genetic modifications to lignin biosynthesis pathways in plants that will enable lower severity processes to fractionate lignin for upgrading and for easier access to the carbohydrate fraction of the plant cell wall.

Sturgeon, M. R.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

The lightness of being: mass, ether, and unification of the forces  

SciTech Connect

How can an electron be both a wave and a particle? At the same time? Because it is a quantum field. That key insight seems to be underappreciated, given the awe and mysticism that permeate most nontechnical discussions of modern physics. Perhaps the root of the problem is that most popularizations of quantum mechanics and of particle physics shy away from quantized fields, the natural language for microscopic phenomena. In 'The Lightness of Being: Mass, Ether, and the Unification of Forces', Frank Wilczek confronts quantum field theory head on, demystifying not only wave-particle duality but also the origin of mass for hadrons (that is, everyday matter). Wilczek is the Herman Feshbach Professor of Physics at MIT and a co-recipient of the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. His research has spanned almost all aspects of theoretical particle physics, with significant forays into condensed-matter physics and dense nuclear matter (condensed quark matter, one might say). Recurring themes are the richness of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the alluring ideas of unification. His breadth and depth make him a sought after speaker for colloquia and public lectures. Wilczek also contributes an occasional Reference Frame column to 'Physics Today'. The material in 'The Lightness of Being' reflects the scope of the author's research. The book consists of three parts: the quantum fields of QCD (the ether that makes mass), gravitation (the ether that feels mass), and unification. Part 1, which traces notions of mass from Isaac Newton's time through theoretical and computational results of the past 40 years, is the most substantial and original; it is rich, modern, and rooted in observed phenomena. Part 2 continues in the same vein as it connects gravity, also an observed phenomenon, to QCD. Part 3 is more conventional, for a popularization of particle physics, in its focus on speculative ideas that (still) await direct experimental tests. Readers of 'Physics Today' will know that Wilczek can write with wit, grace, and an uncanny facility for using lightweight language to express heavy-duty ideas. They will find much of that kind of writing in 'The Lightness of Being'. Wilczek addresses subtle ideas with vim and vigor. He avoids some of the jargon of quantum field theory; for example, he calls the vertex in a Feynman diagram a hub. In more ambitious terminology, he refers to space-filling, everfluctuating quantum fields--be they electrons, quarks, gluons, or gravity--as 'the Grid'. The term is supposed to be short and familiar, evoking the ubiquitous electric grid (and soon-to-beubiquitous computing grid). It also, for the expert, cleverly alludes to lattice gauge theory. Indeed, after vividly explaining how the dynamics of QCD and the constraints of Heisenberg uncertainty conspire to create mass from the Grid, Wilczek emphasizes that the picture is backed by lattice QCD computations of 'heroic' proportions. Unfortunately, too much of 'The Lightness' is laden with clunky affectation: silly names (a pulsed electron accelerator is called the 'ultrastroboscopic nanomicroscope'), sophomoric jokes ('hadron' is 'not a typo'), references to pop culture (Wilczek might have called quantum fields 'the Matrix, but the sequels tarnished that candidate'), and many pointless footnotes. In a public lecture the audience may guffaw at such jokes, but on the printed page they fall flat. Wilczek explains physics so well that the inappropriate humor is the biggest unexplained puzzle of the book. It is fine to be silly, even crude, as long as the reader's path to understanding is made easier. A joke can inform with an unexpected perspective or simply give the mind a pause to refresh. Some of the humor achieves such aims, but too many gags impede the pace of the otherwise fine exposition. Three appendices, a glossary, and a set of endnotes are crisp and sober. They are excellent. 'The Lightness of Being' is not unbearable, but it is weighed down with too much clutter to rank as a masterpiece. It's a pity: Wilczek's best writing--some of it in this book--is l

Kronfeld, Andreas S.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Democratic Republic of Congo-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Democratic Republic of Congo-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Democratic Republic of Congo-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

156

Energy Department Partners with EU on Electric Vehicle and Smart Grid  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Partners with EU on Electric Vehicle and Smart Partners with EU on Electric Vehicle and Smart Grid Coordination Energy Department Partners with EU on Electric Vehicle and Smart Grid Coordination July 19, 2013 - 5:17pm Addthis Yesterday, representatives from the Energy Department, the European Commission and Argonne National Lab celebrated the launch of the Electric Vehicle-Smart Grid Interoperability Center. From left to right: Mr. Giovanni De Santi, Director of the JRC Institute for energy and transport (IET); Mr. Dominique Ristori, Director-General of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC); Dr. Phyllis Yoshida, DOE Deputy Assistant Secretary for Europe, Asia and the Americas; Dr. Eric Isaacs, Director of Argonne National Laboratory. | Photo courtesy of Argonne National Lab. Yesterday, representatives from the Energy Department, the European

157

Lebanon-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Lebanon-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name Lebanon-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind

158

Climate for Collaboration: Analysis of US and EU Lessons and Opportunities in Energy and Climate Policy  

SciTech Connect

A deepening of cooperation between the United States and the European Union requires mutual trust, and understanding of current policies, challenges and successes. Through providing such understanding among policymakers, industry and other stakeholders in both economies, opportunities for transatlantic cooperation on climate change and energy policy emerge. This paper sets out by discussing the environmental, legislative, and economic contexts of the EU and US as related to climate. This context is essential to understanding how cap-and-trade, renewable energy and sustainable transportation policies have taken shape in the EU and the US, as described in Chapter 3.1. For each of these policies, a barrier analysis and discussion is provided. Chapter 4 builds off this improved understanding to listobservations and possible lessons learned. The paper concludes with recommendations on topics where EU and US interests align, and where further cooperation could prove beneficial.

De Vita, A.; de Connick, H.; McLaren, J.; Cochran, J.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Temperature dependent band offsets in PbSe/PbEuSe quantum well heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The band offsets of PbSe/Pb{sub 1-x}Eu{sub x}Se multi-quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy are determined as a function of temperature and europium content using temperature-modulated differential transmission spectroscopy. The confined quantum well states in the valence and conduction bands are analyzed using a k{center_dot}p model with envelope function approximation. From the fit of the experimental data, the normalized conduction band offset is determined as 0.45{+-}0.15 of the band gap difference, independently of Eu content up to 14% and temperature from 20 to 300 K.

Simma, M.; Bauer, G.; Springholz, G. [Institut fuer Halbleiter und Festkoerperphysik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

160

Separation of Dimethyl Ether from Syn-Gas Components by Poly(dimethylsiloxane) and Poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Permeability and selectivity in gas transport through poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (TPX) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using variable temperature mixed gas experiments is reported. Selected gases include H2, CO, CH4, CO2, and dimethyl ether (DME). The DME data is the first to be reported through these membranes. In this paper, the chosen polymers reflect both rubbery and crystalline materials. Rubbery polymers tend to be weakly size sieving, which, in this work, has resulted in larger permeabilities, lower separation factors, and lower activation energies of permeation (Ep). Conversely, the crystalline TPX membranes showed much greater sensitivity to penetrant size; although the gas condensability also played a role in transport.

Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Renewable energy research 1995---2009: a case study of wind power research in EU, Spain, Germany and Denmark  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper reports the developments and citation patterns over three time periods of research on Renewable Energy generation and Wind Power 1995---2011 in EU, Spain, Germany and Denmark. Analyses are based on Web of Science and incorporate journal articles ... Keywords: Citation analyses, Collaboration analyses, Denmark, EU, Germany, Publication analyses, Renewable energy research, Spain, Wind Power research

Elias Sanz-Casado; J. Carlos Garcia-Zorita; Antonio Eleazar Serrano-López; Birger Larsen; Peter Ingwersen

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Wednesday November 10, 4:01 AM Tokyo 3RD LD: Japan-EU row delays decision on nuke reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wednesday November 10, 4:01 AM Tokyo 3RD LD: Japan-EU row delays decision on nuke reactor site (EDS the location to host a global nuclear fusion project during the latest round of talks in Vienna with four other ministry's nuclear fusion development office, told reporters that neither Japan nor the EU is in a mood

163

EU could go it alone on nuclear fusion plant 29.11.2004 -10:02 CET | By Richard Carter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

research ministers. Talks over the world's first nuclear fusion reactor have stalled because Japan to house the ITER project", said the official. Whereas today's nuclear reactors work by smashing atomsEU could go it alone on nuclear fusion plant 29.11.2004 - 10:02 CET | By Richard Carter The EU

164

Synthesis of Cyclic Aza-Ether Compounds and Studies of Their Use as Anion Receptors in Non-Aqueous Lithium Halide Salt Solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of new anion receptors, based on cyclic aza-ether compounds, have been synthesized. In all of these cyclic aza-ether compounds, the electron-withdrawing group CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2} was attached to each of the nitrogen atoms. When used as additives, all of them can significantly increase the ionic conductivity of lithium halide salts in THF solutions. This is due to the complexation between these compounds and halide anions. Ionic conductivity studies show that the complexation behavior is related to both the ring structure of the cyclic compounds and the characteristics of the halide anions. X-ray diffraction data show that the diffraction patterns of the complex crystals are different from the pure cyclic aza-ether compounds. New Bragg peaks representing a large d-spacing ({approx}15 {angstrom}) are observed for the complex crystals which provides a clear evidence for complexation.

Lee, H. S.; Sun, X.; Yang, X. Q.; McBreen, J.; Callahan, J. H.; Choi, L. S.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S. 517 Requested by Sens. Daschle & Murkowski  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Additional analysis of the impact of the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban provisions of S. 517.

Information Center

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S.1766  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

SR/OIAF/2002-06 Release date: March 2002 This report analyzes the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS)/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) provisions of S. 1766.

167

xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a
real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

The Effect of Time dealumination and Solvent Concentration in Synthesis of Zeolite Catalyst and Catalytic Test for DiEthyl Ether Production Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ethanol is an alternative energy, but its has three distinct disadvantages as a transportation fuel. Its availability is currently limited, and it has a lower volumetric heating value and a lower Reid vapour pressure (RVP) than gasoline. This paper focuses for this disadvantages and to solve this problem can do with converts ethanol to DiEthyl Ether product. This research produced DiEthyl Ether by ethanol dehydration process with zeolite as catalyst. The catalyst synthesis from natural material from District Gunung Kidul, Indonesia. The catalyst produced with dealumination, neutralization, drying and calcination processes. The zeolite catalyst was analysed of Si/Al, X-ray Diffraction and specific surface area. The catalyst product then used for ethanol dehydration to produce DiEthyl Ether. The results shown the biggest surface area is 184,52 m{sup 2}/gram at catalyst production at 10 hours for time dealumination. The crystallite of catalyst product is similar like shown at diffractogram of XRD analysis. The ratio Si/Al biggest is 313.7 that obtaining at catalyst production with 7 hours for time dealumination. The catalytic test use fixed bed reactor with 1 inci diameter and ethanol fermentation both as feed. The operation condition is 150 deg. C at temperature and atmosphere pressure. The compounds product in liquid phase are diethyl ether, methanol and water.

Widayat [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Diponegoro University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industry Technology Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya Indonesia, Kampus Sukolilo Surabaya Indonesia (Indonesia); Roesyadi, A.; Rachimoellah, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industry Technology Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya Indonesia, Kampus Sukolilo Surabaya Indonesia (Indonesia)

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

182

Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

183

First evidence of asymmetric cost pass-through of Eu emissions allowances : examining wholesale electricity prices in Germany  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper applies the literature on asymmetric price transmission to the emerging commodity market for EU emissions allowances (EUA). We utilize an error correction model and an autoregressive distributed lag model to ...

Zachmann, Georg

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Comparison of the Evolution of Energy Intensity in Spain and in the EU15. Why is Spain Different?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy intensity in Spain has increased since 1990, while the opposite has happened in the EU15. Decomposition analysis of primary energy intensity ratios has been used to identify which are the key sectors driving the ...

Ocaña, Carlos

185

Solution Phase Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of Nanocrystal LaPO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+}  

SciTech Connect

Nanocrystal, 6.8 sized, of LaPO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} has been successfully synthesized via a simple solution phase method. The influence of temperature preparation on the photoluminescent properties of LaPO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+}(700, 900, 1000 and 1100 deg. C) was investigated under UV radiation. It was observed from the photoluminescence spectra for LaPO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+}, the emission transition {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 1} was found to be more prominent over the normal red emission transition {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 2}. The temperature of 1100 deg. C did not achieve the temperature quenching of luminescent properties of as-prepared LaPO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+}.

Panatarani, C.; Anggoro, D.; Faizal, F. [SPe Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran Jl. Singaperbangsa No. 2 Bandung (Indonesia)

2010-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

186

Over-allocation or abatement? : a preliminary analysis of the EU ETS based on the 2005 emission data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper provides an initial analysis of the EU ETS based on the installation-level data for verified emissions and allowance allocations in the first trading year. Those data, released on May 15, 2006, and subsequent ...

Ellerman, A. Denny

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Over-Allocation or Abatement? A Preliminary Analysis of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme Based on the 2005 Emissions Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper provides an initial analysis of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) based on the installation-level data for verified emissions and allowance allocations in the first trading year. Those data, ...

Ellerman, A. Denny.

188

EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(LECBP) (LECBP) Jump to: navigation, search Name EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE), Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Goods and Materials, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind Topics Background analysis, Baseline projection, Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access, - Environmental and Biodiversity, Finance, GHG inventory, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, -Roadmap, Market analysis, Pathways analysis, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment

189

Photon Physics and Plasma Research, WILGA 2012; EuCARD Sessions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wilga Sessions on HEP experiments, astroparticle physica and accelerator technology were organized under the umbrella of the EU FP7 Project EuCARD – European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. This paper is the third part (out of five) of the research survey of WILGA Symposium work, May 2012 Edition, concerned with Photon Physics and Plasma Research. It presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from different technical universities from this country during the Jubilee XXXth SPIE-IEEE Wilga 2012, May Edition, symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET tokamak and pi-of-the sky experiments ...

Romaniuk, R S

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

A nuclear magnetic resonance probe of Fe-Al and Al20V2Eu intermetallics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Al-rich Fe-Al systems (FeAl2, Fe2 Al5 and Fe4Al13) and Al20V2Eu have complicated structures with quasicrystal-like features making these materials potentially of interest for magnetic behavior. However, there is not much work on these materials. To study the variety of magnetic properties, we use NMR, magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and other methods in this work. The microscopic electronic and magnetic properties of the Al-rich Fe-Al system and Al20V2Eu have been studied via 27Al NMR at temperatures between 4 and 500 K. The results of spin lattice relaxation rates reveal a pseudogap in Fe4Al13 and Fe2Al5 around the Fermi-level in the density of states. Besides, a square well gap with a width of 2 meV and center at Fermi energy was detected by specific heat measurements in Fe2Al5. Both Fe4 Al13 and Fe2Al5 are non-magnetic systems with dilute magnetic defects, while FeAl2 is a concentrated local magnetic moment system. In Al20V2Eu, a crossover was observed in NMR, magnetization and transport measurements. Above 40 K, Eu(2+) local magnetic moments dominate; below 40 K, a transition to a Kondo regime is observed, where the Kondo effect leads to the reduction of localized moments due to the formation of a spin-compensated Kondo cloud. With increasing magnetic field, f electrons participate more and more in excitations near the Fermi level and a heavy-Fermion state was observed through specific heat measurements at high magnetic field.

Chi, Ji

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

THE EFFECTS OF FLAME TEMPERATURE, PARTICLE SIZE AND EUROPIUM DOPING CONCENTRATION ON THE PROPERTIES OF Y2O3:EU PARTICLES FORMED IN A FLAME AEROSOL PROCESS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Y2O3:Eu particles are phosphors that have found wide applications. Flamesynthesized Y2O3:Eu particles may have either the cubic or the monoclinic structure. The effects of particle size and Eu doping concentration on crystal structure and the surface elemental composition of the flame-synthesized Y2O3:Eu particles had not been previously reported. In this study, a flame aerosol process was used to generate polydisperse Y2O3:Eu particle. H2 was used as the fuel gas, with either air or O2 gas as the oxidizer. The precursor was aqueous solutions of the metal nitrates, atomized using a 1.7-MHz ultrasonic atomizer. The product particles were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fluorescence spectrophotometer, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The Y2O3:Eu particles generated in H2/O2 flames were spherical and fully dense, with diameters in the range of 10~3000 nm. In particle samples with lower Eu doping concentrations, a critical particle diameter was found, whose value increased with increasing Eu doping concentration. Particles well below the critical diameter had the monoclinic structure; those well above the critical diameter had the cubic structure. At sufficiently high Eu doping concentrations, all Y2O3:Eu generated in H2/O2 flames had the monoclinic structure. On the other hand, all particles generated in the H2/air flames had the cubic structure. For the Y2O3:Eu particles generated in H2/O2 flames, XPS results showed that the surface Eu concentration was several times higher than the doping concentration. For Y2O3:Eu particles generated in H2/air flames, the surface Eu concentration was equal to the doping concentration. For both types of particles, the photoluminescence intensity reached a maximum corresponding to a surface Eu concentration 40~50%. The photoluminescence intensity then decreased rapidly with higher Eu doping concentration. The effect of particle size and Eu doping concentration on crystal structure may be explained by the interplay between surface energy and polymorphism. A mechanism for this surface enrichment phenomenon was proposed based on the binary Eu2O3-Y2O3 phase diagram.

Yim, Hoon

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Purposes, paradigms and pressure groups: Accountability and sustainability in EU environmental assessment, 1985-2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Twenty five years since the introduction of the European Union (EU) environmental impact assessment (EIA) Directive in 1985 this paper reflects on the extent to which environmental assessment (EA) processes, over the course of their evolution over the last 25 years in the EU, have provided a platform for enhancing accountability and sustainability. Surprisingly-in the context of legal mandates for EA-there is little reference in the EA literature explicitly to the literature on accountability and the role EA may play in this increasingly important aspect of governance. The paper explores EA implementation principally from an environmentalist perspective and particularly the way in which NGOs and other advocates for the environment in the UK and EU have used the EA legislation as a lever for increasing democratic, corporate and professional accountability of proponents and decision-makers alike. From an a historical analysis, including two historical EIA case studies and two contemporary SEA case studies, it becomes clear that EA has had an important role to play-at the legislative level in providing the requirements for accountability, and at the implementation level as the lever that can be used to hold individuals, organisations and authorities to account for their actions. The relationship with the shift to sustainability is a close one, since sustainable development demands greater public involvement in decision-making and greater accountability of executive decisions to the public. The lessons from this analysis allow the development of a nascent policy-oriented theory regarding EA's role in accountability, which provides a framework for a distinctive new area of EA research and policy analysis. Moreover, an accountability perspective on EA could help re-frame EA for policy makers from being purely an informational and procedural instrument to one which promotes better accountability and sustainability simultaneously. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Little attention in the literature to environmental assessment (EA) and accountability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evolution of EA in the EU influenced by shifting policy paradigms and demands for accountability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EIA and SEA, as formal procedures, can provide platforms for accountability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four case studies illustrate how NGOs and others have used EA to further accountability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A policy-oriented theory provides a basis for considering future evolution of EA in the EU.

Sheate, William R., E-mail: w.sheate@imperial.ac.uk

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

Effect of Gradient Sequencing on Copolymer Order?Disorder Transitions: Phase Behavior of Styrene/n-Butyl Acrylate Block and Gradient Copolymers  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effect of gradient sequence distribution in copolymers on order-disorder transitions, using rheometry and small-angle X-ray scattering to compare the phase behavior of styrene/n-butyl acrylate (S/nBA) block and gradient copolymers. Relative to block sequencing, gradient sequencing increases the molecular weight necessary to induce phase segregation by over 3-fold, directly consistent with previous predictions from theory. Results also suggest the existence of both upper and lower order-disorder transitions in a higher molecular weight S/nBA gradient copolymer, made accessible by the shift in order-disorder temperatures from gradient sequencing. The combination of transitions is speculated to be inaccessible in S/nBA block copolymer systems due to their overlap at even modest molecular weights and also their location on the phase diagram relative to the polystyrene glass transition temperature. Finally, we discuss the potential impacts of polydispersity and chain-to-chain monomer sequence variation on gradient copolymer phase segregation.

Mok, Michelle M.; Ellison, Christopher J.; Torkelson, John M. (NWU); (UMM)

2012-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

194

Liver Hypertrophy After Percutaneous Portal Vein Embolization: Comparison of N-Butyl-2-Cyanocrylate Versus Sodium Acrylate-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer Particles in a Swine Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Percutaneous portal vein embolization (PPVE) induces hypertrophy of the future liver remnant before hepatic resection. The ideal embolic material has not yet been determined. We compared N-butyl-2-cyanocrylate (NBCA) with sodium acrylate-vinyl alcohol copolymer particles using a swine model. Materials and Methods: Twelve pigs underwent PPVE. Six pigs (group A) were embolized with NBCA, and 6 pigs (group B) were embolized with sodium acrylate-vinyl alcohol copolymer particles. Computed tomographic volumetry of the embolized lobe (EL) and the nonembolized lobe (NEL), along with liver function tests, was performed before and at 14 and 28 days after embolization. Tissue samples from both lobes were taken 14 and 28 days after PPVE. Results: NEL-volume and NEL-ratio increases were significantly higher in group A at 14 and 28 days after PPVE (78 and 52% and 91 and 66%, respectively) than in group B (32 and 12% and 28 and 10%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Percent change of the EL-volume was significantly higher for group A at 28 days after PPVE. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups regarding hepatocyte proliferation on the NEL and apoptosis on the EL at both time intervals. Conclusion: PPVE using NBCA is more efficient and causes more NEL hypertrophy than microspheres.

Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 2nd Department of Radiology, Medical School, General University Hospital Attikon (Greece); Theocharis, Stamatis, E-mail: theocharis@ath.forthnet.gr [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School (Greece); Ptohis, Nikolaos, E-mail: nikptohis@yahoo.gr; Alexopoulou, Efthimia, E-mail: ealex64@hotmail.com [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 2nd Department of Radiology, Medical School, General University Hospital Attikon (Greece); Mantziaras, George, E-mail: gmantziaras@yahoo.com [Academy of Athens, Biomedical Research Foundation (Greece); Kelekis, Nikolaos L., E-mail: kelnik@med.uoa.gr; Brountzos, Elias N., E-mail: ebrountz@med.uoa.gr [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 2nd Department of Radiology, Medical School, General University Hospital Attikon (Greece)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

195

Unpaving the Way to Creek Restoration in Lower Sausal Creek Watershed: Applying the EU Water Framework Directive to a US Urban Watershed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

European Water Framework Directive to the Russian River. UCthe EU Water Framework Directive to a US Urban Watershed byUnion Water Framework Directive (WFD) provides a strategy

Li, Hong; Wardani, Jane

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Annual Trilateral U.S. – EU – Japan Conference on Critical Materials for a Clean Energy Future, October 4-5, 2011  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Agenda from the first meeting of the Annual Trilateral U.S. – EU – Japan Conference on Critical Materials for a Clean Energy Future

197

Branch-shaped NaGdF{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nanocrystals: Selective synthesis, and photoluminescence properties  

SciTech Connect

The branch-shaped NaGdF{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized by using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent in ethylene glycol (EG) solution. The NCs were readily dispersed into water or ethanol to form a relatively stable suspension, which may facilitate their applications in biological fields. Meanwhile, the crystal structures of the NCs were tunable from the mixture of the {alpha}-(cubic) and {beta}-(hexagonal) phases to the pure {beta}-phase by varying the F{sup -}/Ln{sup 3+} molar ratio or the reaction temperature. The pure {beta}-phase NCs were obtained at relatively high F{sup -}/Ln{sup 3+} molar ratio and reaction temperature. In addition, the Eu{sup 3+}-doping concentration-dependent optical properties of the NaGdF{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} NCs were investigated in detail. The result shows that the emissions from high energy level transitions (e.g., {sup 5}D{sub 1}, {sup 5}D{sub 2}, and {sup 5}D{sub 3}) are significantly impaired with increasing the Eu{sup 3+}-doping concentration due to the cross-relaxation process, and the emission at 612 nm is predominant since the doped Eu{sup 3+} ions locate in the crystal fields without inversion center.

Wang Shangbing, E-mail: wsb1978@mail.ustc.edu.cn [School of Metallurgy and Resources, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Anhui University of Technology, Ma'anshan, Anhui, 243002 (China); Li Qing; Pei Lizhai [School of Metallurgy and Resources, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Anhui University of Technology, Ma'anshan, Anhui, 243002 (China); Zhang Qianfeng, E-mail: zhangqf@ahut.edu.cn [School of Metallurgy and Resources, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Anhui University of Technology, Ma'anshan, Anhui, 243002 (China)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

198

EU-UNDP Climate Change Capacity Building Program | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Building Program Building Program Jump to: navigation, search Name UNDP/EC Climate Change Capacity Building Program Agency/Company /Organization The European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Partner Multiple Ministries Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Greenhouse Gas, Industry, Land Use, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar, Transportation, Water Power, Wind Topics Background analysis, Baseline projection, Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access, - Environmental and Biodiversity, GHG inventory, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, -Roadmap, -TNA, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment Website http://www.lowemissiondevelopm

199

Allocation, incentives and distortions: the impact of EU ETS emissions allowance allocations to the electricity sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NE allocation is used. The allocation results in accelerated construction and operation of combined cycle gas turbines and thus lower CO2 emissions. For our given set of input parameters, the results for uniform-benchmark or fuel-specific benchmark... allocation on activities in Phase I is explicitly prohibited by the EU Directive, some MSs update allocations using fuel-specific benchmarks (FSB) where the benchmark is set higher for coal-fired plants than for gas-fired plants. Here, we assess the impact...

Neuhoff, Karsten; Keats, Kim; Sato, Misato

200

Heat Capacity Uncertainty Calculation for the Eutectic Mixture of Biphenyl/Diphenyl Ether Used as Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main objective of this study was to calculate the uncertainty at 95% confidence for the experimental values of heat capacity of the eutectic mixture of biphenyl/diphenyl ether (Therminol VP-1) determined from 300 to 370 degrees C. Twenty-five samples were evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to obtain the sample heat flow as a function of temperature. The ASTM E-1269-05 standard was used to determine the heat capacity using DSC evaluations. High-pressure crucibles were employed to contain the sample in the liquid state without vaporizing. Sample handling has a significant impact on the random uncertainty. It was determined that the fluid is difficult to handle, and a high variability of the data was produced. The heat capacity of Therminol VP-1 between 300 and 370 degrees C was measured to be equal to 0.0025T+0.8672 with an uncertainty of +/- 0.074 J/g.K (3.09%) at 95% confidence with T (temperature) in Kelvin.

Gomez, J. C.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Mehos, M.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Electrochemical Investigation of Li-Al Anodes in Oligo (ethylene glycol) Dimethyl ether/LiPF6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight 5 g mol{sup -1} was investigated as a new electrolyte (OEGDME5, 1 M LiPF{sub 6}) for metal deposition and battery applications. At 25 C a conductivity of .48 x 1{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} was obtained and at 85 C, 3.78 x 1{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}. The apparent activation barrier for ionic transport was evaluated to be 3.7 kJ mol{sup -1}. OEGDME5, 1 M LiPF{sub 6} allows operating temperature above 1 C with very attractive conductivity. The electrolyte shows excellent performance at negative and positive potentials. With this investigation, we report experimental results obtained with aluminum electrodes using this electrolyte. At low current densities lithium ion reduction and re-oxidation can be achieved on aluminum electrodes at potentials about 28 mV more positive than on lithium electrodes. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements collected during electrochemical lithium deposition on aluminum electrodes show that the shift to positive potentials is due to the negative Gibbs free energy change of the Li-Al alloy formation reaction.

Y Zhou; X Wang; H Lee; K Nam; X Yang; O Haas

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

202

Electrochemical Investigation of Li–Al Anodes in Oligo(ethylene glycol) Dimethyl Ether/LiPF6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

1 M LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight 500 g mol{sup -1} was investigated as a new electrolyte (OEGDME500, 1 M LiPF{sub 6}) for metal deposition and battery applications. At 25 C a conductivity of 0.48 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} was obtained and at 85 C, 3.78 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}. The apparent activation barrier for ionic transport was evaluated to be 30.7 kJ mol{sup -1}. OEGDME500, 1 M LiPF{sub 6} allows operating temperature above 100 C with very attractive conductivity. The electrolyte shows excellent performance at negative and positive potentials. With this investigation, we report experimental results obtained with aluminum electrodes using this electrolyte. At low current densities lithium ion reduction and re-oxidation can be achieved on aluminum electrodes at potentials about 280 mV more positive than on lithium electrodes. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements collected during electrochemical lithium deposition on aluminum electrodes show that the shift to positive potentials is due to the negative Gibbs free energy change of the Li-Al alloy formation reaction.

Zhou, Y.N.; Yang, X.; Wang, X.J.; Lee, H.S.; Nam, K.W.; Haas, O.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

{sup 152}Eu depths profiles granite and concrete cores exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb  

SciTech Connect

Two granite and two concrete core samples were obtained within 500 m from the hypocenter of the Hiroshima atomic bomb, and the depth profile of {sup 152}Eu was measured to evaluate the incident neutron spectrum. The granite cores were obtained from a pillar of the Motoyasu Bridge located 101 m from the hypocenter and from a granite rock in the Shirakami Shrine (379 m); the concrete cores were obtained from a gate in the Gokoku Shrine (398 m) and from top of the Hiroshima bank (250 m). The profiles of the specific activities of the cores were measured to a depth of 40 cm from the surface using low background germanium (Ge) spectrometers. According to the measured depth profiles, relaxation lengths of incident neutrons were derived as 13.6 cm for Motoyasu Bridge pillar (granite), 12.2 cm for Shirakami Shrine core (granite), and 9.6 cm for concrete cores of Gokoku Shrine and Hiroshima Bank. In addition, a comparison of the granite cores in Hiroshima showed good agreement with Nagasaki data. Present results indicates that the depth profile of {sup 152}Eu reflects incident neutrons not so high but in the epithermal region. 19 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Iwatani, Kazuo [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Oka, Takamitsu [Kure Univ. (Japan)] [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

202-328-5000 www.rff.orgEU-ETS and Nordic Electricity: A CVAR Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cointegrated vector autoregressive (CVAR) model is estimated to determine the dynamic relationship between Nordic wholesale electricity prices and EU emissions trading scheme (EU-ETS) CO2 allowance prices. An impulse response analysis reveals that electricity prices have large short-term responses to CO2 price shocks, but that this response dampens over time. Using hourly Nordic electricity spot market prices, I find that the value of short-term response of electricity prices to a shock in CO2 prices in off-peak hours is consistent with expected values for near complete pass-through of CO2 emission costs when coal-generated power is at the margin. Likewise, the estimates reveal that peak hour electricity price responses to CO2 price shocks are as expected for a market that has near complete passthrough of CO2 emission costs when natural gas-generated power is at the margin. These results further suggest the Nordic electricity market is pricing as a competitive market.

A Cvar Analysis; Harrison Fell

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

EU Energy Renewables Ltd now part of DeWind | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ltd now part of DeWind Ltd now part of DeWind Jump to: navigation, search Name EU Energy (Renewables) Ltd (now part of DeWind) Place Irvine, California Zip 92614 Sector Renewable Energy Product Previously a subsidiary of EU Energy plc focused on researching renewable energy technologies, until acquisition by Composite Technology Corporation in 2006. Coordinates 41.837752°, -79.268594° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.837752,"lon":-79.268594,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

206

Is Embolization of the Pancreas Safe? Pancreatic Histological Changes after Selective Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate in a Swine Model  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety of selective transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in a swine model in terms of histological changes in the pancreas. Methods: Three groups of two female swine (58-64 kg) per group underwent TAE of the dorsal pancreatic artery, under anesthesia, with 1:1, 1:4, and 1:9 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil. Blood parameters were evaluated at days 1, 4, and 10 after TAE, after which the animals were sacrificed and pancreatic tissues were examined under light microscopy. Results: All of the animals were asymptomatic and survived for 10 days. Cone beam computed tomographic angiography revealed occlusion of the dorsal pancreatic artery and no enhancement in the embolized area. The white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level were elevated slightly on day 1 after TAE (mean {+-} SD: 252.7 {+-} 27.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2}/{mu}l and 0.15 {+-} 0.07 mg/l, respectively), but they normalized or remained near the upper normal limit thereafter. The serum amylase and lipase levels also were elevated on day 1 (8831.7 {+-} 2169.2 U/l and 130 {+-} 53.4 U/l, respectively) but normalized thereafter. Histologically, necrosis and fibrosis were noted only in the embolized segment, and necrosis and acute inflammatory reactions were absent in the nonembolized segment. The border between both segments was well defined. Lymphocytic infiltration and foreign body reaction were noted around the embolized vessels. Conclusions: Selective TAE with NBCA in the pancreas caused localized ischemic necrosis without clinically significant pancreatitis; therefore, this procedure is tolerable in swine.

Okada, Takuya, E-mail: okabone@gmail.com; Yamaguchi, Masato [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Takahashi, Takuya [Kobe Red Cross Hospital, Department of Pathology (Japan); Izaki, Kenta; Uotani, Kensuke; Sakamoto, Noriaki; Sugimura, Kazuro; Sugimoto, Koji [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Review of EU airport energy interests and priorities with respect to ICT, energy efficiency and enhanced building operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper gives an overview on EU airport energy interests and priorities with respect to ICT, energy efficiency and enhanced building operation. To achieve this objective the paper begins with an overview on airports role on energy consumption, then novel review of airport energy consumption figures and energy efficiency actions at the EU level is presented. The research covers also interest and requirements of two Italian airports (MXP and FCO) in relation to enhanced operation which include: sub-metering and visualisation needed to better understand the end energy use, data analysis for benchmarking and correlation with operational and weather data, action management for maintenance operation support.

Costa, A.; Blanes, L. M.; Donnelly, C.; Keane, M. M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Europium-152 depth profile of a stone bridge pillar exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb: /sup 152/Eu activities for analysis of the neutron spectrum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The /sup 152/Eu activity depth profile of a granite pillar of the Motoyasu bridge located 132 m from the Hiroshima atomic bomb hypocenter was assessed. The pillars each measured 82 cm in depth, 82 cm in width and 193 cm in height. One of the pillars was bored and 6.8-cm-diameter core samples were removed and cut into 2-cm-thick disks. Two gamma rays of /sup 152/Eu, 122 keV and 344 keV, in each disk were measured using a low background, gamma-ray spectrometer, and the activity distribution was determined as a function of depth in the granite. A concentration of stable Eu in the granite was determined by activation analysis. The specific radioactivity of /sup 152/Eu and /sup 154/Eu at the pillar surface was determined to have been 117 and 24 Bq per mg Eu, respectively, at the time of detonation. The value of /sup 152/Eu agrees within 20% of that calculated by Loewe. The depth profile of /sup 152/Eu in granite demonstrates a distinct difference from the estimates made only by thermal neutrons. Present data provide valuable information for the analysis of the neutron spectrum of the Hiroshima atomic bomb and its intensity.

Hasai, H.; Iwatani, K.; Shizuma, K.; Hoshi, M.; Yokoro, K.; Sawada, S.; Kosako, T.; Morishima, H.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Japan hopes for rapid accord with EU on nuclear reactor Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi said Monday that he hopes to resolve a dispute with the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Japan hopes for rapid accord with EU on nuclear reactor 02/05/2005 Japanese Prime Minister nuclear reactor as soon as possible. Koizumi discussed the row over plans for the International Terms and Conditions 5/2/05 8:59 AMEUbusiness - Japan hopes for rapid accord with EU on nuclear reactor

210

Auto-ignition during instationary jet evolution of dimethyl ether (DME) in a high-pressure atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The auto-ignition process during transient injection of gaseous dimethyl ether (DME) in a constant high-pressure atmosphere is studied experimentally by laser-optical methods and compared with numerical calculations. With different non-intrusive measurement techniques jet properties and auto-ignition are investigated at high temporal and spatial resolution. The open jet penetrates a constant pressure oxidative atmosphere of up to 4 MPa. During the transient evolution, the fuel jet entrains air at up to 720 K. The subsequent auto-ignition of the ignitable part of the jet occurs simultaneously over a wide spatial extension. The ignition delay times are not affected by variation of the nozzle exit velocity. Thus, the low-temperature oxidation is slow compared with the shorter time scales of mixing, so that chemical kinetics is dominating the process. The typical two-stage ignition is resolved optically with high-speed shadowgraphy at a sampling rate of 10 kHz. The 2D fields of jet velocity and transient mixture fraction are measured phase-coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Tracer Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) during the time-frame of ignition. The instationary Probability Density Functions (PDF) of mixture fraction are described very well by Beta functions within the complete area of the open jet. Additional 1D flamelet simulations of the auto-ignition process are computed with a detailed reaction mechanism for DME [S. Fischer, F. Dryer, H. Curran, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 713-740; H. Curran, S. Fischer, F. Dryer, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 741-759]. Calculated ignition delay times are in very good agreement with the measured mean ignition delay times of 3 ms. Supplemental flamelet simulations address the influence of DME and air temperature, pressure and strain. Underneath a critical strain rate the air temperature is identified to be the most sensitive factor on ignition delay time. (author)

Fast, G.; Kuhn, D.; Class, A.G. [Institut fuer Kern- und Energietechnik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Weberstrasse 5, D-76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Maas, U. [Institut fuer Technische Thermodynamik, Universitat Karlsruhe (TH), Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

A Top-down and Bottom-up look at Emissions Abatement in Germany in response to the EU ETS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper uses top-down trend analysis and a bottom-up power sector model to define upper and lower boundaries on abatement in Germany in the first phase of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (2005-2007). Long-term trend ...

Feilhauer, Stephan M. (Stephan Marvin)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

REFUEL: an EU road map for biofuels , E. Deurwaarder and S. Lensink, ECN policy Studies, the Netherlands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REFUEL: an EU road map for biofuels M. Londo1 , E. Deurwaarder and S. Lensink, ECN policy Studies), Poland K. Könighofer, Joanneum Research, Austria Abstract A successful mid-term development of biofuels calls for a robust road map. REFUEL assesses inter alia least-cost biofuel chain options, their benefits

213

EU Framework 6 Project: Predictive Toxicology (PredTox)-overview and outcome  

SciTech Connect

In this publication, we report the outcome of the integrated EU Framework 6 Project: Predictive Toxicology (PredTox), including methodological aspects and overall conclusions. Specific details including data analysis and interpretation are reported in separate articles in this issue. The project, partly funded by the EU, was carried out by a consortium of 15 pharmaceutical companies, 2 SMEs, and 3 universities. The effects of 16 test compounds were characterized using conventional toxicological parameters and 'omics' technologies. The three major observed toxicities, liver hypertrophy, bile duct necrosis and/or cholestasis, and kidney proximal tubular damage were analyzed in detail. The combined approach of 'omics' and conventional toxicology proved a useful tool for mechanistic investigations and the identification of putative biomarkers. In our hands and in combination with histopathological assessment, target organ transcriptomics was the most prolific approach for the generation of mechanistic hypotheses. Proteomics approaches were relatively time-consuming and required careful standardization. NMR-based metabolomics detected metabolite changes accompanying histopathological findings, providing limited additional mechanistic information. Conversely, targeted metabolite profiling with LC/GC-MS was very useful for the investigation of bile duct necrosis/cholestasis. In general, both proteomics and metabolomics were supportive of other findings. Thus, the outcome of this program indicates that 'omics' technologies can help toxicologists to make better informed decisions during exploratory toxicological studies. The data support that hypothesis on mode of action and discovery of putative biomarkers are tangible outcomes of integrated 'omics' analysis. Qualification of biomarkers remains challenging, in particular in terms of identification, mechanistic anchoring, appropriate specificity, and sensitivity.

Suter, Laura, E-mail: Laura.suter-dick@roche.com [Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Basel (Switzerland); Schroeder, Susanne [Nycomed GmbH, Barsbuettel (Germany); Meyer, Kirstin [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Gautier, Jean-Charles [Sanofi aventis R and D, Disposition, Safety and Animal Research, Vitry sur Seine (France); Amberg, Alexander [Sanofi aventis R and D, Disposition, Safety and Animal Research, Frankfurt (Germany); Wendt, Maria; Gmuender, Hans [Genedata AG, Basel (Switzerland); Mally, Angela [University of Wuerzburg, Institut fuer Toxikologie, Wuerzburg (Germany); Boitier, Eric [Sanofi aventis R and D, Disposition, Safety and Animal Research, Vitry sur Seine (France); Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Wuppertal (Germany); Matheis, Katja [Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co. KG, Biberach (Germany); Pfannkuch, Friedlieb [Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Basel (Switzerland)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally similar chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) disrupt the function of multiple endocrine systems. PCBs and PBDEs disrupt the secretion of vasopressin (VP) from the hypothalamus during osmotic activation. Since the peripheral and central vasopressinergic axes are critical for osmotic and cardiovascular regulation, we examined whether perinatal PBDE exposure could impact these functions during physiological activation. Rats were perinatally dosed with a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71. Dams were given 0 (corn oil control), 1.7 (low dose) or 30.6 mg/kg/day (high dose) in corn oil from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21 by oral gavage. In the male offspring exposed to high dose PBDE plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were reduced at PND 21 and recovered to control levels by PND 60 when thyroid stimulating hormone levels were elevated. At 14-18 months of age, cardiovascular responses were measured in four groups of rats: Normal (Oil, normosmotic condition), Hyper (Oil, hyperosmotic stress), Hyper PBDE low (1.7 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress), and Hyper PBDE high (30.6 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress). Systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and heart rate (HR) were determined using tail cuff sphygmomanometry and normalized to pretreatment values (baseline) measured under basal conditions. Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. Hyper PBDE low and high dose rats showed 36.1 and 64.7% greater systolic BP responses at 3 h post hyperosmotic injection relative to pretreatment baseline, respectively. No treatment effects were measured for diastolic BP and HR. Hyper and Hyper PBDE rats showed increased mean plasma osmolality values by 45 min after injection relative to normosmotic controls. In contrast to Hyper rats, Hyper PBDE (high) rats showed a further increase in mean plasma osmolality at 3 h (358.3 {+-} 12.4 mOsm/L) relative to 45 min post hyperosmotic injection (325.1 {+-} 11.4 mOsm/L). Impaired osmoregulation in PBDE-treated animals could not be attributed to decreased levels of plasma vasopressin. Our findings suggest that developmental exposure to PBDEs may disrupt cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulatory responses to physiological activation in late adulthood. - Highlights: > We examined whether PBDE exposure could impact osmotic and cardiovascular regulation. > Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. > PBDEs may disrupt cardiovascular and osmoregulatory responses to physiological activation.

Shah, Ashini [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Coburn, Cary G. [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Watson-Siriboe, Abena; Whitley, Rebecca; Shahidzadeh, Anoush; Gillard, Elizabeth R.; Nichol, Robert [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Leon-Olea, Martha [Neuromorfologia Funcional, Direccion de Investigaciones en Neurociencias, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatria Ramon de la Fuente Muniz, Mexico City (Mexico); Gaertner, Mark [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S. [Neurotoxicology Branch, NHEERL/ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Curras-Collazo, Margarita C., E-mail: margarita.curras@ucr.edu [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

A Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was developed for the synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas. Studied were temperatures of operation ranging from 250°C to 380°C. High temperatures (e.g. 380°C) are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst, utilized industrially for the synthesis of methanol at 220-280°C, suffers from a rapid deactivation when the reaction is conducted at high temperature (>320°C). On the contrary, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be highly stable for methanol and DME synthesis at 380°C. The Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was thus further investigated for methanol and DME synthesis at P=34-69 bars, T= 250-380°C, GHSV= 5 000-18 000 h-1, and molar feeds H2/CO= 1, 2, and 3. Selectivity to DME increased with decreasing operating temperature, and increasing operating pressure. Increased GHSV’s and H2/CO syngas feed ratios also enhanced DME selectivity. Undesirable CH4 formation was observed, however, can be minimized through choice of process conditions and by catalyst design. By studying the effect of the Pd loading and the Pd:Zn molar ratio the formulation of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was optimized. A catalyst with 5% Pd and a Pd:Zn molar ratio of 0.25:1 has been identified as the preferred catalyst. Results indicate that PdZn particles are more active than Pdº particles for the synthesis of methanol and less active for CH4 formation. A correlation between DME selectivity and the concentration of acid sites of the catalysts has been established. Hence, two types of sites are required for the direct conversion of syngas to DME: 1) PdZn particles are active for the synthesis of methanol from syngas, and 2) acid sites which are active for the conversion of methanol to DME. Additionally, CO2 formation was problematic as PdZn was found to be active for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction, under all the conditions evaluated.

Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

IMPACTS OF MARKET LIBERALISATION ON THE EU GAS INDUSTRY Paper for the 1 st Austrian-Czech-German Conference on Energy Market Liberalisation in Central and Eastern Europe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper presents an analysis of the effects of the EU Gas Directive on the EU gas industry in the next ten years. First, it briefly reviews the current driving factors for increasing competition in the EU gas markets. Second, the different directions of implementation of EU Gas Directive are discussed. Finally we give an assessment of impacts of the different directions of implementation of the Gas Directive, thereby focusing on structural changes of the gas industry and the scope for reduction of consumer gas prices. Note that our assessment of the impacts is partly based on an analysis of recent trends in the EU gas market and partly on calculations with a recently developed model of the EU gas market on company level. The paper summarises the main observations of a study conducted by ECN last year in the framework of a larger scenario study for the EC, DG17, in the Shared Analysis Project, ‘Economic Foundations for Energy Policy in Europe to 2020 ’ managed by FhG-ISI. For the complete results of the ECN study, see report ‘Impacts of Market Liberalisation on the EU Gas Industry’, September 1999, forthcoming. Note that the analysis is limited to the gas market and does not include other impacts, i.e. on energy conservation, emissions, etc. Acknowledgement

F. Van Oostvoorn; M. G. Boots Abstract

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Luminescence, energy transfer, and upconversion mechanisms of Y2O3nanomaterials doped with Eu3+, Tb3+, Tm3+, Er3+, and Yb3+Ions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Luminescence, energy transfer, and upconversion mechanisms of nanophosphors (Y2O3:Eu3+, Tb3+, Y2O3:Tm3+, Y2O3:Er3+, Yb3+) both in ...

TranKim Anh; Paul Benalloul; Charles Barthou; Lam ThiKieu Giang; Nguyen Vu; LeQuoc Minh

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Study of optical parameters of the Se-As chalcogenide semiconductor system containing EuF{sub 3} impurities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical properties of chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors of composition Se{sub 95}As{sub 5} containing different amounts of rare-earth metal fluorides (EuF{sub 3}) are studied, and, on this basis, the fundamental parameters, such as the refractive index and extinction coefficient, are determined. The dependences of these parameters on the content of EuF{sub 3} molecules are nonmonotonic: the low content (below 0.25 at %) aids in decreasing the parameters, whereas the high content tends to increase them. From the analysis of the results with consideration for the structural features of chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors of the Se{sub 95}As{sub 5} system (the presence of ordered high-coordinated microregions separated from each other by regions with a lower atomic density), it is concluded that the optical properties of the chalcogenide vitreous semiconductor system under study can be described in the context of Penn's model.

Isayev, A. I.; Mekhtiyeva, S. I.; Garibova, S. N., E-mail: sgaribova@rambler.ru; Alekperov, R. I.; Zeynalov, V. Z. [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Abdullaev Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

Luminescence Spectroscopy of Eu-doped (Ca,Sr)TiO{sub 3} Nanocrystals Prepared by Using Sonochemical Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Perovskite-type compounds (ABO{sub 3}) of (Ca,Sr)TiO{sub 3} doped with trivalent europium (Eu{sup 3+}) were synthesized by sonochemical techniques. Powder X-ray diffraction measurement on (Ca,Sr)TiO{sub 3} were used to identify the perovskite crystal structure. The photoluminescence property in (Ca,Sr)TiO{sub 3} with europium substitution several atoms in the host lattice was also studied. Further, the photoluminescence spectra were taken at room temperature. The structural difference between fourth kinds of doped samples with different heating temperatures accounts for the intensification of the luminescence intensity. The presented measurements monitor the emission wavelengths of the Eu{sup 3+} with emission peaks at 593, 615 and 700 nm. The obtained results were discussed with respect to developed preparation method.

Kurniawan, C. [Chemistry Department of Semarang State University, Jl. Raya Sekaran Semarang (Indonesia); Prijamboedi, B. [Chemistry Department of Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia)

2010-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

220

Reforming TSOs: using the 'third package' Legislation to promote efficiency and accelerate regional integration in EU wholesale power markets  

SciTech Connect

The EU is developing new legislation - the so-called ''Third Package'' - to foster competition in its electric power markets. These proposals could be improved by adding more focus on regional integration of wholesale power markets, allowing more leeway for arrangements that fit the diverse existing patterns of transmission ownership and control, and addressing upfront new regulatory concerns that arise when transmission is divested as an independent, for-profit business. (author)

Moselle, Boaz

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Annual Energy Outlook 1999 - Acronyms  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

acronyms.gif (3491 bytes) acronyms.gif (3491 bytes) AD - Associated/dissolved natural gas AEO98 - Annual Energy Outlook 1998 AEO99 - Annual Energy Outlook 1999 AFVs - Alternative-fuel vehicles AGA - American Gas Association API - American Petroleum Institute BTAB - BT Alex Brown CAAA90 - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 CCAP - Climate Change Action Plan CDM - Clean Development Mechanism CFCs - Chlorofluorocarbons CNG - Compressed natural gas CO - Carbon monoxide CO2 - Carbon dioxide DOE - U.S. Department of Energy DRI - DRI/McGraw-Hill EIA - Energy Information Administration EOR - Enhanced oil recovery EPA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPACT - Energy Policy Act of 1992 ETBE - Ethyl tertiary butyl ether EU - European Union FERC - Federal Energy Regulatory Commission GDP - Gross domestic product

222

Gibbs free energy of formation of Eu{sub 1+y}Ba{sub 2-y}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} and related phases in the Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CuO-BaO system  

SciTech Connect

The Gibbs energies of formation of the ternary phases in the Eu-Ba-Cu-O system have been obtained from solid state electrochemical measurements in the temperature range 973 to 1173 K. Cells employing single-crystal calcium fluoride as an electrolyte were used in studies of CuBaO{sub 2}, Eu{sub 2}CuBaO{sub 5}, and Eu{sub 1+y}Ba{sub 2-y}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (y = 0, 0.5). Based on the results of emf measurements the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of respective phases from the constituent oxides was derived.

Przybylo, W.; Onderka, B.; Fitzner, K. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Bridgman Growth of Large SrI2:Eu2+ Single Crystals: A High-performance Scintillator for Radiation Detection Applications  

SciTech Connect

Single-crystal strontium iodide (SrI2) doped with relatively high levels (e.g., 3 - 6 %) of Eu2+ exhibits characteristics that make this material superior, in a number of respects, to other scintillators that are currently used for radiation detection. Specifically, SrI2:Eu2+ has a light yield that is significantly higher than LaBr3:Ce3+ -a currently employed commercial high-performance scintillator. Additionally, SrI2:Eu2+ is characterized by an energy resolution as high as 2.6% at the 137Cs gamma-ray energy of 662 keV, and there is no radioactive component in SrI2:Eu2+ - unlike LaBr3:Ce3+ that contains 138La. The Ce3+-doped LaBr3 decay time is, however, faster (30 nsec) than the 1.2 sec decay time of SrI2:Eu2+. Due to the relatively low melting point of strontium iodide (~515 oC), crystal growth can be carried out in quartz crucibles by the vertical Bridgman technique. Materials-processing and crystal-growth techniques that are specific to the Bridgman growth of europium-doped strontium iodide scintillators are described here. These techniques include the use of a porous quartz frit to physically filter the molten salt from a quartz antechamber into the Bridgman growth crucible and the use of a bent or bulb grain selector design to suppress multiple grain growth. Single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+ scintillators with good optical quality and scintillation characteristics have been grown in sizes up to 5.0 cm in diameter by applying these techniques. Other aspects of the SrI2:Eu2+ crystal-growth methods and of the still unresolved crystal-growth issues are described here.

Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Kolopus, James A [ORNL; Hawrami, Rastgo [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Higgins, William [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Van Loef, Edgar [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Glodo, J. [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Shah, Kanai [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA; Bhattacharya, P. [Fisk University, Nashville, TN; Tupitsyn, E [Fisk University, Nashville, TN; Groza, Michael [Fisk University, Nashville, TN; Burger, Arnold [Fisk University, Nashville, TN

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Emerging Weak Localization Effects on Topological Insulator-Insulating Ferromagnet (Bi_2Se_3-EuS) Interface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thin films of topological insulator Bi_2Se_3 were deposited directly on insulating ferromagnetic EuS. Unusual negative magnetoresistance was observed near the zero field below the Curie temperature (T_C), resembling the weak localization effect; whereas the usual positive magnetoresistance was recovered above T_C. Such negative magnetoresistance was only observed for Bi_2Se_3 layers thinner than t~4nm, when its top and bottom surfaces are coupled. These results provide evidence for a proximity effect between a topological insulator and an insulating ferromagnet, laying the foundation for future realization of the half-integer quantized anomalous Hall effect in three-dimensional topological insulators.

Qi I. Yang; Merav Dolev; Li Zhang; Jinfeng Zhao; Alexander D. Fried; Elizabeth Schemm; Min Liu; Alexander Palevski; Ann F. Marshall; Subhash H. Risbud; Aharon Kapitulnik

2013-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

225

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Area: Period-Unit: Download Series History ... 51: 64: 59: 70: 70: 62: 2009-2013: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 41: 44: 49: 61: 49: 50: 2004-2013: Other ...

226

U.S. Oxygenate Production - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Area: Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History; Fuel Ethanol: 855: 877: 891: 868: 849: 852: 1981-2013: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 48: 55: 54: 51 ...

227

Radiation Chemistry of MTBE in Aqueous Solution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methyl-tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Aqueous Solution Stephen P. Mezyk, Jace Jones, William J. Cooper, Thomas Tobien, Michael G. Nickelsen, J. Wesley Adams, Kevin E. O'Shea, David M....

228

Preparations for Meeting New York and Connecticut MTBE Bans  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In response to a Congressional request, EIA examined the progress being made to meet the bans on the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) being implemented in New York and Connecticut at the end of 2003.

Joanne Shore

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

35461,"AECTRA REFG & MKTG",1,152,"MOTOR GAS, OTHER FINISHED"...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE)",2809,"SANFRANCISCO, CA","CALIFORNIA",5,515,"KOREA, REPUBLIC OF",32,0,0,"WICKLAND OIL CO","SELBY TERM","CA","CALIFORNIA",5...

230

Nonlinear luminescence response of CaF2:Eu and YAlO3:Ce to single-ion excitation  

SciTech Connect

Pulse-height of CaF2:Eu and YAlO3:Ce scintillators to single H+, He+ and O3+ ions are measured over a continuous energy range using a time-of-flight (TOF) - scintillator - photoelectric multiplier tube (PMT) apparatus. A nonlinear response of the scintillators under ionizing ion irradiation is quantitatively evaluated by considering energy partitioning process. The results show that, in a differential energy deposition region with negligible displacement damage, the low, medium and high excitation energy deposition density (Dexci) produced by H+, He+ and O3+ ions irradiation, respectively, have significantly different impacts on the response characteristics of these two benchmark scintillators. For CaF2:Eu, the scintillation efficiency under ion irradiation monotonically decreases with increasing excitation-energy density. In contrast, the response efficiency of YAlO3:Ce scintillation initially increases with excitation-energy density at low excitation-energy densities, goes through a maximum, and then decreases with further increasing excitation-energy density. The fundamental mechanism causing these different response behaviours in the scintillators is based on the competition between the scintillation response and the nonradiative quenching process under different excitation densities, which is also the main origin of the nonlinear response of scintillators to irradiation.

Liu, Peng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL] [ORNL; Xiao, Haiyan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Xiang, Xia [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC)] [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC); Wang, Xuelin [Shandong University, Jinan, China] [Shandong University, Jinan, China; Weber, William J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Electrochemical Investigation of Al–Li/LixFePO4 Cells in Oligo(ethylene glycol) Dimethyl Ether/LiPF6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

1 M LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight, 500 g mol{sup -1} (OEGDME500, 1 M LiPF{sub 6}), was investigated as an electrolyte in experimental Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells. More than 60 cycles were achieved using this electrolyte in a Li-ion cell with an Al-Li alloy as an anode sandwiched between two Li x FePO{sub 4} electrodes (cathodes). Charging efficiencies of 96-100% and energy efficiencies of 86-89% were maintained during 60 cycles at low current densities. A theoretical investigation revealed that the specific energy can be increased up to 15% if conventional LiC{sub 6} anodes are replaced by Al-Li alloy electrodes. The specific energy and the energy density were calculated as a function of the active mass per electrode surface (charge density). The results reveal that for a charge density of 4 mAh cm{sup -2} about 160 mWh g{sup -1} can be reached with Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} batteries. Power limiting diffusion processes are discussed, and the power capability of Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells was experimentally evaluated using conventional electrolytes.

Wang, X.J.; Zhou, Y.N.; Lee, H.S.; Nam, K.W.; Yang, X.Q.; Haas, O.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) from aqueous ammonium thiocyanate by dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamolymethylphosphonate and related compounds  

SciTech Connect

The extraction behavior and separation factors of Am(III) and Eu(III) from low acid ammonium thiocyanate solutions were studied using dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP) and related compounds. It was found that very dilute (<0.1 M) solutions of ammonium thiocyanate were sufficient to allow quantitative extraction of Am(III) with DHDECMP. Significant differences between DHDECMP and dibutylbutylphosphonate (DB(BP)) in the extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) from thiocyanate were found and indicate chelation is occurring with DHDECMP, unlike the situation in the low acid lithium nitrate system. Infrared spectroscopy of the extracted complexes of La(III) and extraction studies with dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylethylphosphonate (DHDECEP), dihexyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDIBCMP), and di-(2-ethylbutyl)-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DEBDECMP) confirm that chelation occurs with thiocyanate complexes of Am(III) and Eu(III). Separation factors, ..cap alpha.., for Am(III) and Eu(III) were the lowest with DB(BP) (..cap alpha.. = 5.84) and the highest with DHDIBCMP (..cap alpha.. = 10.8).

Muscatello, A.C.; Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Fiscal Year 2008 Phased Construction Completion Report for EU Z2-33 in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Record of Decision for Soil, Buried Waste, and Subsurface Structure Actions in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/OR/01-2161&D2) (Zone 2 ROD) acknowledged that most of the 800 acres in Zone 2 were contaminated, but that sufficient data to confirm the levels of contamination were lacking. The Zone 2 ROD further specified that a sampling strategy for filling the data gaps would be developed. The Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan for Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/OR/01-2224&D3) (Zone 2 RDR/RAWP) defined the sampling strategy as the Dynamic Verification Strategy (DVS), generally following the approach used for characterization of the Zone 1 exposure units (EUs). The Zone 2 ROD divided the Zone 2 area into seven geographic areas and 44 EUs. To facilitate the data quality objectives (DQOs) of the DVS process, the Zone 2 RDR/RAWP regrouped the 44 EUs into 12 DQO scoping EU groups. These groups facilitated the DQO process by placing similar facilities and their support facilities together and allowing identification of data gaps. The EU groups were no longer pertinent after DQO planning was completed and characterization was conducted as areas became accessible. As the opportunity to complete characterization became available, the planned DVS program and remedial actions (RAs) were completed for EU Z2-33. Remedial action was also performed at two additional areas in adjacent EU Z2-42 because of their close proximity and similar nature to a small surface soil RA in EU Z2-33. Remedial actions for building slabs performed in EU Z2-33 during fiscal year (FY) 2007 were reported in the Fiscal Year 2007 Phased Construction Completion Report for the Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/OR/01-2723&D1). Recommended RAs for EU Z2-42 were described in the Fiscal Year 2006 Phased Construction Completion Report for the Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/OR/01-2317&D2). Remedial actions performed in the Balance of Site (BOS) Laboratory Area of EU Z2-33 and two small areas in EU Z2-42 are described in Sects. 5 through 10 of this Phased Construction Completion Report (PCCR). The purpose of this PCCR is to address the following: (1) Document DVS characterization results for EU Z2-33; (2) Describe and document the risk evaluation and determine if the EU meets the Zone 2 ROD requirements for unrestricted industrial use to 10 ft bgs; (3) Identify additional areas not defined in the Zone 2 ROD that require remediation based on the DVS evaluation results; and (4) Describe RAs performed in the EU Z2-33 BOS Laboratory Area and two small areas in EU Z2-42. Approximately 18 acres in EU Z2-33 are addressed in this PCCR. Based on the results of the DVS evaluation and RAs performed, all 18 acres are recommended for unrestricted industrial use to 10 ft bgs. Three Federal Facility Agreement sites are addressed and recommended for no further action within this acreage, including: (1) K-1004-L Recirculating Cooling Water Lines Leak Sites; (2) K-1044 Heavy Equipment Repair Shop; and (3) K-1015-A Laundry Pit. Remedial actions for EU Z2-33 were developed in response to DVS characterization results described in the EU Z2-33 Technical Memorandum (Appendix A) and to support reindustrialization of the East Tennessee Technology Park as a commercial industrial park. Remediation criteria were designed for the protection of a future industrial worker who normally would not have the potential for exposure to soil below 10ft bgs. Accordingly, the Zone 2 ROD required land use controls to prevent disturbance of soils below 10 ft deep and to restrict future land use to industrial/commercial activities. In response to stakeholder comments, the U.S. Department of Energy agreed to re-evaluate the need for such land use restrictions. This document includes a screening evaluation to determine the likel

Bechtel Jacobs

2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

234

The European Forest Institute and the Finnish Forest Research Institute: The supply of woody biomass from the forests in the EU can be  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

biomass from the forests in the EU can be significantly increased The supply of woody biomass from. The theoretical biomass potential from the European forests in 2010 is nearly 1.3 billion m3 including bark and woody biomass from early thinnings in young forests. The potential is, however, reduced to about 750

235

CONVNIOS, PROJETOS, COOPERAES INTERNACIONAIS 2012-2013: Projeto MCT/CNPq No. 066/2010 (FP7-2011-EU-Brazil) "Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/2010 (FP7-2011-EU-Brazil) "Technology platform for point-of-care diagnostics for tropical deseases. 2010 - 2014: Titulo: P116M100008 - Sustainable Energy and Aeronautical Engineering - U.S.-Brazil Higher of Pittsburgh; Brazil Lead: Universidade Federal de Itajuba & Brazil Partner: Federal University of Parana

Paraná, Universidade Federal do

236

Space-charge-limited currents in an Se{sub 95}As{sub 5} chalcogenide glass-like semiconductor system containing EuF{sub 3} impurities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is established that charge carrier (hole) transport in the Al-Se{sub 95}As{sub 5} Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket EuF{sub 3} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket -Te structure is effected by unipolar injection currents limited by space charges with the involvement of two capture trap groups. Shallow traps corresponding to charged intrinsic defects C{sub 1}{sup -} are related to broken selenium bonds. Deep traps corresponding to charged intrinsic defects P{sub 2}{sup -} are formed by arsenic atoms with broken coordination. It is shown that the EuF{sub 3} impurity strongly affects the concentration of the capture traps, especially those localized near the Fermi level.

Isayev, A. I.; Mekhtiyeva, S. I.; Qaribova, S. N., E-mail: sqaribova@rambler.ru [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Abdullaev Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

Photoluminescence properties of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+},Dy{sup 3+} thin phosphor films grown by pulsed laser deposition  

SciTech Connect

Thin films of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+},Dy{sup 3+} phosphor were deposited on silicon [Si (100)] substrates using a 248 nm KrF pulsed laser. Deposition parameters, such as substrate temperature, pulse repetition rate, number of laser pulses, and base pressure, were varied during the film deposition process. Based on the x-ray diffraction data, all the films were amorphous but were emitting visible light when excited by a monochromatic xenon lamp. The chemical composition and the stoichiometry of the films determined by the Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy were consistent with the commercial SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+},Dy{sup 3+} powder used to prepare the films. Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of the films were characterized by major green emission with a maximum at {approx}520 nm and minor red emission with a maximum at 630 nm. The green and red photoluminescence at 520 and 630 nm are associated with the 4f{sup 6}5d{yields}4f{sup 7}({sup 8}S{sub 7/2}) and {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 2} transitions of Eu{sup 2+} and residual Eu{sup 3+} ions, respectively. Brighter films were shown to have relatively higher values of the root mean square surface roughness, which were determined from the atomic force microscopy data. The effects of processing parameters on the PL intensity are discussed.

Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Nsimama, P. D.; Pitale, Shreyas; Nagpure, I. M.; Kumar, Vinay; Coetsee, E.; Terblans, J. J.; Swart, H. C.; Sechogela, P. T. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Materials Research Department, Ithemba Labs, Somerset West ZA7130 (South Africa)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of the high-brightness Eu{sup 3+}-doped M{sub 2}Gd{sub 4}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 7} (M=Li, Na) red phosphors  

SciTech Connect

A series of red-emitting phosphors Eu{sup 3+}-doped M{sub 2}Gd{sub 4}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 7} (M=Li, Na) have been successfully synthesized at 850 Degree-Sign C by solid state reaction. The excitation spectra of the two phosphors reveal two strong excitation bands at 396 nm and 466 nm, respectively, which match well with the two popular emissions from near-UV and blue light-emitting diode chips. The intensity of the emission from {sup 5}D{sub 0} to {sup 7}F{sub 2} of M{sub 2}(Gd{sub 1-x}Eu{sub x}){sub 4}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 7} phosphors with the optimal compositions of x=0.85 for Li or x=0.70 for Na is about five times higher than that of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}. The quantum efficiencies of the entitled phosphors excited under 396 nm and 466 nm are also investigated and compared with commercial phosphors Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+} and Y{sub 3}A{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+}. The experimental results indicate that the Eu{sup 3+}-doped M{sub 2}Gd{sub 4}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 7} (M=Li, Na) phosphors are promising red-emitting phosphors pumped by near-UV and blue light. - Graphical Abstract: The intensity of the red emission of M{sub 2}(Gd{sub 1-x}Eu{sub x}){sub 4}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 7} (M=Li, Na) phosphors with the optimal compositions is about five times higher than that of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two novel Eu{sup 3+}-doped red phosphors (Na{sub 2}Gd{sub 4}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2}, Li{sub 2}Gd{sub 4}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 7}) were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their emission intensities are about five times higher than that of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their quantum efficiencies are higher than that of commercial red phosphor Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+}.

Zhao Chengchun [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Yin Xin [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Huang Fuqiang, E-mail: huangfq@mail.sic.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Hang Yin, E-mail: yhang@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

239

Syntheses, structures and luminescent properties of zero-/two-dimensional Cd(II) and Eu(III) complexes  

SciTech Connect

Three metal-organic complexes Cd(HBIDC)(phen){sub 2}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O (1), [Cd(BIC)(phen)]{sub n} (2) and {l_brace}[Eu(HBIDC)(H{sub 2}BIDC)(H{sub 2}O)]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} (3) (H{sub 3}BIDC=benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxylic acid, H{sub 2}BIC=benzimidazole-6-carboxylic acid, phen=1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectrum, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. With similar reaction conditions, reactions of the same ligand with different metal cations selected from different blocks (d-block and f-block) result in different coordination modes of carboxylate groups and final frameworks of complexes 1 and 3. The decarboxylation was observed in complex 2 and resulted in the formation of BIC{sup 2-} ligand. Complexes 1-3 have intense fluorescent emissions at room temperature in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution and in the solid-state, which indicate they are potential fluorescence materials. The quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes of these three complexes were systematically studied. - Graphical abstract: With similar reaction conditions, reactions of the same ligand with different metal cations selected from different blocks (d-block and f-block) result in different coordination modes of carboxylate groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three metal-organic complexes have been synthesized under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reactions of the same ligand with different metal cations result in different coordination modes of carboxylate groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexes 1-3 have intense fluorescent emissions in DMSO solution and in the solid-state.

Fan, Rui-Qing, E-mail: fanruiqing@hit.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92, West Da-Zhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92, West Da-Zhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Li-Yuan; Wang, Ping; Chen, Hong; Sun, Cun-fa; Yang, Yu-Lin [Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92, West Da-Zhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 92, West Da-Zhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Su, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, School of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, School of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

Synthesis, crystal structure and photoluminescence of a new Eu-doped Sr containing sialon (Sr{sub 0.94}Eu{sub 0.06})(Al{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.7}){sub 4}(N{sub 0.8}O{sub 0.2}){sub 6}  

SciTech Connect

Colorless transparent platelet single crystals of a novel Eu{sup 2+}-doped strontium silicon aluminum oxynitride, (Sr{sub 0.94}Eu{sub 0.06})(Al{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.7}){sub 4}(N{sub 0.8}O{sub 0.2}){sub 6}, were prepared at 1800 Degree-Sign C and 0.92 MPa of N{sub 2}. Fundamental reflections of electron and X-ray diffraction of the crystals were indexed with a face-centered orthorhombic unit cell (a=5.8061(5) A, b=37.762(3) A, c=9.5936(9) A). Diffuse streaks elongated in the b-axis direction were observed around the fundamental reflections hkl with h=2n+1 of the electron and X-ray diffraction, indicating stacking faults of (0 1 0)[1 0 0]/2. A crystal structure model without the stacking faults was obtained using the X-ray diffraction data of the fundamental reflections with the space group Fdd2. A SiN{sub 4}-tetrahedron double layer of [SiN{sub 2}]{sub 2} and a Sr/Eu double layer of [(Sr{sub 0.94}Eu{sub 0.06})Al{sub 1.2}Si{sub 0.8}N{sub 0.8} O{sub 1.2}]{sub 2} are stacked alternately along the b-axis direction. The title compound showed an emission with a peak wavelength of 490 nm under 334 nm excitation at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Single crystals of a novel Eu{sup 2+}-doped strontium silicon aluminum oxynitride, (Sr{sub 0.94}Eu{sub 0.06})(Al{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.7}){sub 4}(N{sub 0.8}O{sub 0.2}){sub 6}, having stacking faults on the (0 1 0) plane of an orthorhombic cell, were prepared at 1800 Degree-Sign C and 0.92 MPa of N{sub 2}. The compound showed emission with a peak wavelength of 490 nm under 334 nm excitation at room temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new compound Eu{sup 2+}-doped (Sr{sub 0.94}Eu{sub 0.06})(Al{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.7}){sub 4}(N{sub 0.8}O{sub 0.2}){sub 6} was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stacking faults in the compound were clarified by electron and X-ray diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A basic crystal structure model was obtained based on the X-ray diffraction data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An emission of 490 nm under 334 nm excitation at room temperature was observed.

Yamane, Hisanori, E-mail: yamane@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Shimooka, Satoshi; Uheda, Kyota [Mitsubishi Chemical Group, Science and Technology Research Center, Inc. 1000 Kamoshida-cho, Aoba-ku, Yokohama 227-8502 (Japan)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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241

Densities and viscosities for binary mixtures of N-methyldiethanolamine + triethylene glycol monomethyl ether from 25 C to 70 C and N-methyldiethanolamine + ethanol mixtures at 40 C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent studies done on the absorption and desorption of acid gases (CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S) from natural gas, petroleum, and ammonia synthesis streams have shown that aqueous solutions of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) can be used effectively for the selective removal of H{sub 2}S. This paper reports the measured values of the density and viscosity of binary mixtures of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (TEGMME) at five temperatures in the range 25 C to 70 C over the whole concentration range. The authors also report the density and viscosity of the binary mixture MDEA + ethanol at 40 C. The results are compared with data for aqueous mixtures and other alkanolamines when these are available. The derived excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations were correlated as a function of composition. The Grunberg-Nissan interaction energy constants are also reported.

Henni, A.; Maham, Y.; Tontiwachwuthikul, P.; Chakma, A.; Mather, A.E.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Photoionization thresholds of rare-earth impurity ions. EuS :CaF2, CeT :YAG, and SmS :CaF2  

SciTech Connect

The spectral dependence of the photoionization energy of EuS :CaF2, CeT :YAG, and SmS :CaF2 systems have been measured and thresholds experimentally determined and compared with theoretical values calculated from electrostatic models. It is shown that the excited state absorption transitions or the persistent hole burning observed by other authors occur above the threshold energy of photoionization of the impurities and that the states of the crystal which form the bottom of the conduction band may play an important role in the strong probability of these processes. A review of thresholds now known is also given.

Pedrini, C.; Rogemond, F.; McClure, D.S.

1986-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

Print Story: Japan has told EU it is giving up on nuclear reactor bid:... http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20050622/wl_asia_afp/japaneufrancenuc... 1 of 1 6/22/05 12:12 AM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Print Story: Japan has told EU it is giving up on nuclear reactor bid:... http it is giving up on nuclear reactor bid: report 1 hour, 51 minutes ago Japan has told the European Union it will give up on hosting a revolutionary nuclear energy reactor after securing large deals in turn

244

ABC News: EU Threatens to Go It Alone on Nuclear Fusion http://abcnews.go.com/US/print?id=237927 1 of 2 11/9/04 8:33 AM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Union warned on Tuesday it may go ahead and build the world's first nuclear fusion reactor with whatever's nuclear reactors and weapons, which produce energy by blowing atoms apart. However, 50 years of researchABC News: EU Threatens to Go It Alone on Nuclear Fusion http://abcnews.go.com/US/print?id=237927 1

245

R u e d e l a L o i 1 7 5 B 1 0 4 8 B R U S S E L S T e l . : + 3 2 ( 0 ) 2 2 8 5 8 2 3 9 / 6 3 1 9 F a x : + 3 2 ( 0 ) 2 2 8 5 8 0 2 6 press.office@consilium.eu.int http://ue.eu.int/Newsroom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) EU-U.S. JOINT PROGRAMME OF WORK ON THE NONPROLIFERATION OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION Washington, 20. Building Global Support for Nonproliferation: We will enhance information sharing, discuss assessments of proliferation risks, and work together to broaden global support for and participation in nonproliferation

Sussex, University of

246

R u e d e l a L o i 1 7 5 B 1 0 4 8 B R U S S E L S T e l . : + 3 2 ( 0 ) 2 2 8 1 6 2 1 9 / 6 3 1 9 F a x : + 3 2 ( 0 ) 2 2 8 1 8 0 2 6 press.office@consilium.europa.eu http://www.consilium.europa.eu/Newsroom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that the savings potential and targets for renewables and biofuels referred to below should be achieved with a view % binding minimum target to be achieved by all Member States for the share of biofuels in overall EU character of this target is appropriate subject to production being sustainable, second-generation biofuels

247

FCC LPG olefinicity and branching enhanced by octane catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Refiners are increasingly recognizing the downstream opportunities for fluid catalytic cracking LPG olefins for the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, if the ethanol subsidy is extended to the production of ETBE), and as petrochemical feedstocks. Some of new gasoline FCC octane-enhancing catalysts can support those opportunities because their low non-framework alumina (low NFA) preserve both LPG olefinicity and promote branching of the LPG streams from the FCCU. The combined effect results in more isobutane for alkylate feed, more propylene in the propane/propylene stream, and more isobutene - which makes the addition of an MTBE unit very enticing.

Keyworth, D.A.; Reid, T.A.; Kreider, K.R.; Yatsu, C.A.

1989-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

248

High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

249

Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, vegetation, workshop-floor dust, and electronic shredder residue from an electronic waste recycling facility and in soils from a chemical industrial complex in eastern China  

SciTech Connect

In this study, 11 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were determined in electronic shredder waste, workshop-floor dust, soil, and leaves (of plants on the grounds of the facility) from a large-scale electronic wastes (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical-industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) as well as agricultural areas in eastern China. Total PBDD/F concentrations in environmental samples were in the range of 113-818 pg/g dry wt (dw) for leaves, 392-18,500 pg/g dw for electronic shredder residues, 716-80,0000 pg/g dw for soil samples, and 89,600-14,3000 pg/g dw for workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility and in a range from nondetect (ND) to 427 pg/g dw in soil from the chemical-industrial complex. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDD/Fs were found in soil samples and workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (measured as TEQ) concentrations of PBDD/Fs were greater than the TEQs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) reported in our previous study for the same set of samples. The concentrations of PBDFs were several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of PBDDs in samples from the e-waste facility or from soil from the chemical-industrial complex. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of {Sigma}PBDD/Fs and {Sigma}PBDEs (r = 0.769, p < 0.01) and between SPBDD/Fs and the previously reported SPCDD/F concentrations (r = 0.805, p < 0.01). The estimated daily human intakes of TEQs contributed by PBDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposures in e-waste recycling facilities were higher than the intakes of TEQs contributed by PCDD/Fs, calculated in our previous study. 45 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Jing Ma; Rudolf Addink; Sehun Yun; Jinping Cheng; Wenhua Wang; Kurunthachalam Kannan [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China). School of Environmental Science and Engineering

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Development of Supported Polymeric Liquid Membrane Technology for Aqueous MTBE Mitigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) as a gasoline additive has generated a serious, widespread groundwater contamination problem in California. This study evaluated the use of supported polymeric liquid membrane technology in the remediation of MTBE contaminated groundwater.

2002-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

251

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending State bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

Information Center

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Sealed Gravitational Capillary Viscometry of Dimethyl Ether ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Huber, and MO McLinden, NIST Standard Reference Database 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties-REFPROP, Version ...

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

253

Sealed Gravitational Capillary Viscometry of Dimethyl Ether ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... RF Hafer, Viscosity of Fluorinated Propane Isomers. ... EW Lemmon, An Equation of State for the ... Dense Fluids, Plenum Press, New York and London ...

2013-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

254

Development of alternative fuels from coal derived syngas. Topical report: Task 2.2, Demonstration of a one-step slurry-phase process for the production of dimethyl ether/methanol mixtures at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit  

SciTech Connect

This report documents engineering, modification, and operations efforts of demonstration of dimethyl-ether/methanol coproduction in a slurry-phase reactor, carried out in a 2-ft diameter bubble column reactor. Equipment modifications made it possible to remove the product DME and by-product CO{sub 2} from the reactor effluent. Coproduction of dimethyl-ether (DME) and methanol (MeOH) was accomplished in the slurry reactor by physically mixing two different catalysts. The catalyst used to produce MeOH from syngas was manufactured by BASF (type S3-86); the catalyst used to convert MeOH to DME was Catapal {gamma}-alumina. Ratio of MeOH to DME catalysts determined the selectivity towards DME. The demonstration sought to study effect of cocatalyst ratio on product selectivity. Three different proportions of DME catalyst were examined: 0, 6.6, and 19.3 wt % alumina. At each catalyst proportion, the plant was operated at two different gas space velocities. Some process variables were maintained at fixed conditions; most important variables included: reactor temperature (482F), reactor pressure (750 psig), and reactor feed gas composition (35% H{sub 2}, 51% CO,13% CO{sub 2} 1% other, nominal-molar basis).

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Ethanol Plant Production Ethanol Plant Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous alcohol (ethanol with less than 1% water) intended for gasoline blending as described in the Oxygenates definition. Oxygenates Substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol are common oxygenates. Fuel Ethanol: Blends of up to 10 percent by volume anhydrous ethanol (200 proof) (commonly referred to as the "gasohol waiver"). Methanol: Blends of methanol and gasoline-grade tertiary butyl alcohol (GTBA) such that the total oxygen content does not exceed 3.5 percent by weight and the ratio of methanol to GTBA is less than or equal to 1. It is also specified that this blended fuel must meet ASTM volatility specifications (commonly referred to as the "ARCO" waiver).

256

Implementing the EU Renewables Directive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on technol o g y choice , priv ate sector actors would focus on the least-c o s t renewab l e energy technol o g i e s , curre n t l y on-sh o r e wind, bioma s s and biogas from sewage and landfill s . Cost of other renewable energy technologies, howeve r...

Neuhoff, Karsten

257

Preparing the EU Innovation Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the continuing comparative growth of the Asian economies, ever more research will be carried out outside the European Union. Europe needs, therefore to consolidate the development of the knowledge-based society, fostering the European Research Area and launching a renewed effort on innovation. For these reasons the Spanish Presidency wants to promote the ‘three Is ’ that define our priorities: Integration, Involvement and Inclusion. By Integration we mean placing R&D and innovation policies at the centre of the European project and improving the ERA governance structures and synergies. By Involvement

unknown authors

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Characterization of photoluminescent (Y{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin-films prepared by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Europium doped yttrium oxide, (Y{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3}, thin-films were deposited on silicon and sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The films were grown in a MOCVD chamber reacting yttrium and europium tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5,-heptanedionates) precursors in an oxygen atmosphere at low pressures (5 Torr) and low substrate temperatures (500--700 C). The films deposited at 500 C were flat and composed of nanocrystalline regions of cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, grown in a textured [100] or [110] orientation to the substrate surface. Films deposited at 600 C developed from the flat, nanocrystalline morphology into a plate-like growth morphology oriented in the [111] with increasing deposition time. Monoclinic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} was observed in x-ray diffraction for deposition temperatures {ge}600 C on both (111) Si and (001) sapphire substrates. This was also confirmed by the photoluminescent emission spectra.

McKittrick, J.; Bacalski, C.F.; Hirata, G.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Hubbard, K.M.; Pattillo, S.G.; Salazar, K.V.; Trkula, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Adipose tissue stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 index is increased and linoleic acid is decreased in obesity-prone rats fed a high-fat diet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the adipose tissue and whether these changes occur simul- taneously across lipid fractions. It has previously been found that a HFD, especially a diet rich in SFA, decreases SCD expression in both rat liver and adipose tissue [33,34]. A HFD has also been shown... of petroleum ether containing 0.005% butylated hydroxytolvene after addition of 1.5 ml distilled water. The phases were separated after thorough mixing and centrifugation at 1500 × g for 10 min. The petroleum ether phase was pipetted off and the solvent...

Cedernaes, Jonathan; Alsiö, Johan; Västermark, Åke; Risérus, Ulf; Schiöth, Helgi B

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

260

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

262

Synchrotron x-ray spectroscopy of Eu/HNO{sub 3} aqueous solutions at high temperatures and pressures and Nb-bearing silicate melt phases coexisting with hydrothermal fluids using a modified hydrothermal diamond anvil cell and rail assembly  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modified hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) rail assembly has been constructed for making synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, and x-ray mapping measurements on fluids or solid phases in contact with hydrothermal fluids up to {approx}900 deg. C and 700 MPa. The diamond anvils of the HDAC are modified by laser milling grooves or holes, for the reduction of attenuation of incident and fluorescent x rays and sample cavities. The modified HDAC rail assembly has flexibility in design for measurement of light elements at low concentrations or heavy elements at trace levels in the sample and the capability to probe minute individual phases of a multiphase fluid-based system using focused x-ray microbeam. The supporting rail allows for uniform translation of the HDAC, rotation and tilt stages, and a focusing mirror, which is used to illuminate the sample for visual observation using a microscope, relative to the direction of the incident x-ray beam. A structure study of Eu(III) aqua ion behavior in high-temperature aqueous solutions and a study of Nb partitioning and coordination in a silicate melt in contact with a hydrothermal fluid are described as applications utilizing the modified HDAC rail assembly.

Mayanovic, Robert A.; Anderson, Alan J.; Bassett, William A.; Chou, I-Ming [Department of Physics, Astronomy and Materials Science, Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri 65897 (United States); Department of Earth Sciences, St. Francis Xavier University, P.O. Box 5000, Antigonish, Nova Scotia B2G 2W5 (Canada); Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); MS 954, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia 20192 (United States)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

New concept for coal wettability evaluation and modulation. Technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This project is concerned concept for coal surface wettability evaluation and modulation. The objective of the work are to study the fundamental surface chemistry feature about the evaluation of the surface of coal, pyrite and coal pyrite, and also establish a new separation strategy which could contribute to the advanced coal cleaning for premium fuel application. In this quarter, the capillary rise of three coals, colorado mineral pyrite, and coal pyrite in butanol, pentanol, and butyl ether have been tested. The test results shown that the kinetic wettability of the five samples in the alcohol homolog are dependent on the carbon chain length, as the length of the carbon chain is shorter, the surface wettability is the better. Another test results shown that the kinetic wettability of coals are better than mineral pyrite and coal pyrite in the butyl ether.

Hu, Weibai

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

264

Two US markets, or one? How the MTBE-gasoline relationship is evolving  

SciTech Connect

This issue of Energy Detente features the price sensitivity of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether. Data is presented for US wholesale gasoline prices vs. MTBE for the 20-month period beginning in June 1994 and ending in January 1996, and the data is discussed. Also contained in this issue is the refining netback data and the fuel price/tax data for the period ending January 5, 1996.

1996-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

265

An approach to catalytic asymmetric electrocyclization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

petroleum ether 40-60 Ph phenyl ppm parts per million Pr propyl q quartet Rf retention factor rt room temperature s singlet sept septet t triplet t tertiary TBAF tetrabutylammonium fluoride TBS tert... demonstrated by Nelson.73 In this case, we observed the formation of lactone 75 by vinyl nucleophile addition to the corresponding aldehydes 71 and 72. We require a less basic source of vinyl anion, or a bulkier ester such as tert-butyl, to prevent any...

Kothari, Abhishek

2010-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

266

Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Assessment for New York and Connecticut  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In October 2003, EIA published a review of the status of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban transition in New York (NY) and Connecticut (CT) that noted significant uncertainties in gasoline supply for those States for the summer of 2004. To obtain updated information, EIA spoke to major suppliers to the two States over the past several months as the petroleum industry began the switch from winter- to summer-grade gasoline.

Information Center

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Synthesis and structural characterization of the ternary Zintl phases AE{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Pn{sub 4} and AE{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Pn{sub 4} (AE=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu; Pn=P, As)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ten new ternary phosphides and arsenides with empirical formulae AE{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Pn{sub 4} and AE{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Pn{sub 4} (AE=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu; Pn=P, As) have been synthesized using molten Ga, Al, and Pb fluxes. They have been structurally characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction to form with two different structures-Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}P{sub 4}, Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}As{sub 4}, Eu{sub 3}Al{sub 2}P{sub 4}, Eu{sub 3}Al{sub 2}As{sub 4}, Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}P{sub 4}, Sr{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}P{sub 4}, Sr{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}As{sub 4}, and Eu{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}As{sub 4} crystallize with the Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}As{sub 4} structure type (space group C2/c, Z=4); Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 2}P{sub 4} and Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 2}As{sub 4} adopt the Na{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}S{sub 4} structure type (space group Pnma, Z=4). The polyanions in both structures are made up of TrPn{sub 4} tetrahedra, which share common corners and edges to form {sup 2}{sub {infinity}}[TrPn{sub 2}]{sub 3-} layers in the phases with the Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}As{sub 4} structure, and {sup 1}{sub {infinity}}[TrPn{sub 2}]{sub 3-} chains in Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 2}P{sub 4} and Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 2}As{sub 4} with the Na{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}S{sub 4} structure type. The valence electron count for all of these compounds follows the Zintl-Klemm rules. Electronic band structure calculations confirm them to be semiconductors. - Graphical abstract: AE{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Pn{sub 4} and AE{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Pn{sub 4} (AE=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu; Pn=P, As) crystallize in two different structures-Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}P{sub 4}, Sr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}As{sub 4}, Eu{sub 3}Al{sub 2}P{sub 4}, Eu{sub 3}Al{sub 2}As{sub 4}, Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}P{sub 4}, Sr{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}P{sub 4}, Sr{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}As{sub 4}, and Eu{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}As{sub 4}, are isotypic with the previously reported Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}As{sub 4} (space group C2/c (No. 15)), while Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 2}P{sub 4} and Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 2}As{sub 4} adopt a different structure known for Na{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}S{sub 4} (space group Pnma (No. 62). The polyanions in both structures are made up of TrPn{sub 4} tetrahedra, which by sharing common corners and edges, form {sup 2}{sub {infinity}}[TrPn{sub 2}]{sub 3-}layers in the former and {sup 1}{sub {infinity}}[TrPn{sub 2}]{sub 3-} chains in Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 2}P{sub 4} and Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 2}As{sub 4}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AE{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Pn{sub 4} (AE=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu; Pn=P, As) are new ternary pnictides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 2}P{sub 4} and Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 2}As{sub 4} adopt the Na{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}S{sub 4} structure type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Sr- and Ca-compounds crystallize with the Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}As{sub 4} structure type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The valence electron count for all title compounds follows the Zintl-Klemm rules.

He, Hua; Tyson, Chauntae; Saito, Maia [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bobev, Svilen, E-mail: bobev@udel.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

P-SimonUS_EU-DOE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electrochemical Capacitors for Power Grid Storage Electrochemical Capacitors for Power Grid Storage technology: State of the art and next challenges" Trans-Atlantic Workshop on Storage Technologies for Power Grids Washington, October 19th-20th 2010 Trans-Atlantic Workshop on Storage technologies for Power Grids, October 19th-20th State of the art and next challenges" Patrice Simon Univ. Paul Sabatier, CIRIMAT, UMR 5085, Toulouse - FRANCE simon@chimie.ups-tlse.fr Electrochemical Capacitors performance between capacitors and batteries Electrochemical Capacitors: - high power (10-20 kW/kg) - medium energy density (5 Wh/kg) - time constant about 1 - 5 s Trans-Atlantic Workshop on Storage technologies for Power Grids, October 19th-20th Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLCs) 95% of the commercialized cells high surface area carbons as active materials

269

EU Energy Situations and Supply Security.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Energy supply security is a hot topic today. It highly influences energy market, national security and also residents’ daily lives. However, due to different… (more)

Xu, Chen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

September 2004 Nanotechnology in the EU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RNA from samples to be tested are labelled, usually with a fluorescent dye, and then applied to the chip to fluorescence, which can be read by optical means (fluorescence imager). The location and the intensity of fluorescent spots provide information about which genes have been expressed by the cell and to what degree

Mosegaard, Klaus

271

The Value of the EU Public Domain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

% No. of Items (Pbk) % N 56857 88.95 39605 93.21 Y 3868 6.05 1873 4.41 Y? 235 0.37 56 0.13 YN 12 0.02 0 0.0 YT 2864 4.48 940 2.21 YT? 80 0.13 17 0.04 Unknown 1 0.0 1 0.0 Total 63917 100 42492 100 PD (Broad) 7059 11.04 2886 6.79 Table 2. PD Status Counts... for Nielsen Dataset. N=No, Y=Yes, YT=Translation of PD work (may or may not be PD itself), YN=PD work with notes, ‘?’ indicates there may be some uncertainty. The first results from this dataset are shown in Table 2 which shows the number of items with each PD...

Pollock, Rufus; Stepan, Paul; Välimäki, Mikko

272

EU, EWEA og IEA strategier ENS strategimde  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

& safety; integration into the European electricity transmission and distribution system; and resource the equivalent needs of 10.3 million European households, 25.7 million people Supplied 2% of European electricity industry in the last five years has been 35% Total available wind resource is 3 times the total electricity

273

EU Gas Supply Security: Unfinished Business  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

country in Europe for shale gas production. Exploration work was suspended after hydraulic fracturing-induced seismic activity was reported but the government allowed companies to resume work in late 2012. The UK enjoys a relatively wide political... of factors: rapid growth in Europe’s natural gas consumption until 2005; even more rapid growth of imports as European production declined; Europe’s reliance on a very small number of external suppliers; dominance of long- term, bilateral contracts between...

Noël, Pierre

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

De-Carbonizing California and the EU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sources. Investment subsidy and a variable “green bonus”investment program), has a renewable portfolio requirement for electric generators (analog of green

Berck, Peter; Brannlund, Runar

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

De-Carbonizing California and the EU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that economically little corn based ethanol will begallons. ) )Ethanol in the US is produced from corn, aproduced from corn grown in CA. Thus CA ethanol is most

Berck, Peter; Brannlund, Runar

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

The EU Black Sea Synergy : An Analysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Black Sea is an enclosed sea, which is situated between Europe and Asia and is surrounded by Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey and Ukraine.… (more)

Varol, Songul

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Climate Actions in EU and Globally  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

largest stationary source of direct emissions at 2,324 million metric tons CO 2 e * Refineries are second at 183 million metric tons CO 2 e * 100 facilities reported over 7...

278

De-Carbonizing California and the EU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

second is the advanced biofuels and partial hybrid electricexample. The third is the biofuels and hydrogen fuel cellin the availability of advanced biofuels and the reliance on

Berck, Peter; Brannlund, Runar

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

De-Carbonizing California and the EU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is the advanced biofuels and partial hybrid electric vehicleadvanced biofuels and the reliance on partial hybrid electric or fuel cell vehicles.

Berck, Peter; Brannlund, Runar

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL AND ETHER ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

essential oil from R. rugosum was investigated for further development and application. The chemical and class composition of the oils are presented in Table 1.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants  

SciTech Connect

An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocalello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

282

Direct Dimethyl Ether Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells for Portable Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Kosek, C. Cropley, and A. LaConti, in Proceedings of the 32nd Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering

283

Internet: http://ue.eu.int/ E-mail: press.office@consilium.eu.int  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Liquefied Natural Gas carriers. It was originally launched as a measure for the period foreseen.............................................................................................................11 REGULATION ON CONSUMER PROTECTION CO-OPERATION ...........................................12 regulation, which are crucial to the success of the relevant Community Action Plans and measures; 5

284

Predicting EU Energy Industry Excess Returns on EU Market Index via a Constrained Genetic Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article introduces an automated procedure to simultaneously select variables and detect outliers in a dynamic linear model using information criteria as objective functions and diagnostic tests as constraints for the distributional properties of ... Keywords: C32, C52, C53, C61, C63, Excess return, Genetic algorithm, Information criteria, Model selection, Penalty function method

Massimiliano Kaucic

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 results: 7 results: BibTex RIS RTF XML Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year (Desc) ] Filters: Author is Elton J. Cairns [Clear All Filters] 2008 Shin, Joon Ho, Pratyay Basak, John B. Kerr, and Elton J. Cairns. "Rechargeable Li/LiFePO4 Cells Using N-Methyl-N-butyl pyrrolidinium Bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide-LiTFSI Electrolyte Incorporating Polymer Additives." Electrochimica Acta 54, no. 2 (2008): 410-414. Shin, Joon Ho, and Elton J. Cairns. "N-Methyl-(n-butyl)pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-LiTFSI-poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether mixture as a Li/S cell electrolyte." Journal of Power Sources 177 (2008): 537-545. 2007 Nakahara, Kentaro, Jiro Iriyama, Shigeyuki Iwasa, Masahiro Suguro, Masaharu Satoh, and Elton J. Cairns. "Al-laminated film packaged organic radical

286

Molecular motions in a viscous organic liquid: ferrocene in cold butyl phthalate  

SciTech Connect

The two main purposes of this work were to learn (a) if rotational diffusion can be seen along with translational, and (b) is (x(T)/sup 2/) unusual as the sample is heated from a glass to a liquid. Our observations show that (a) rotational molecular diffusion is not likely ever to be observed by quadrupole relaxation and (b) that there is indeed a fast increase in (x/sup 2/) above T/sub g/. This increase is correlated with a rapid and linear increase of the number of ''soft modes'' for the liquid above the glass transition temperature.

Ruby, S.L.; Zabransky, B.J.; Flinn, P.A.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Spinning Carbon Fiber Precursors from 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Cellulose Solutions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Cellulose is an abundant natural renewable polymer that is used in the production of many materials. However, limited processibility and reduced solubility have restricted its… (more)

Gelderloos-Sammons, Rhea J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Inputs & Utilization Inputs & Utilization Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline.

289

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

Information Center

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

Information Center

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

California's Move Toward E10 (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In AEO2009, E10a gasoline blend containing 10 percent ethanolis assumed to be the maximum ethanol blend allowed in California RFG, as opposed to the 5.7-percent blend assumed in earlier AEOs. The 5.7-percent blend had reflected decisions made when California decided to phase out use of the additive methyl tertiary butyl ether in its RFG program in 2003, opting instead to use ethanol in the minimum amount that would meet the requirement for 2.0 percent oxygen content under the CAA provisions in effect at that time

Information Center

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

292

Why Sequence Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans? Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans? Ethers such as 1,4-dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, and methyl tert-butyl ether are widespread contaminants of groundwater resources. 1,4-Dioxane is widely used as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA). 1,4-Dioxane is a carcinogen, and causes acute toxic effects on the nervous system, liver, and kidneys. One promising approach for remediating 1,4-dioxane-impacted water supplies is in-situ bioremediation using aerobic bacteria. Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 is a unique bacterial strain that can grow using 1,4-dioxane as a sole source of carbon and energy. It can degrade several other water contaminants and also fix dinitrogen, making it an attractive bioaugmentation culture even for nitrogen-limited

293

Total Refinery Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Alaskan Crude Oil Receipts Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

294

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

296

Total Blender Net Input of Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Input Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquid Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Oxygenates/Renewables Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

297

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

298

Synthesis and structure of a new family of 3d-4f heterometallic compounds Rb{sub 7}LnFe{sub 6}O{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 8} (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy): Magnetic properties of the Sm-, Gd-, Dy-derivatives  

SciTech Connect

A new family of mixed lanthanide(III) and iron(III) oxo-phosphate phases, Rb{sub 7}LnFe{sub 6}O{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 8} (Ln=Sm 1, Eu 2, Gd 3, Dy 4), was isolated by using a high-temperature, solid-state method in molten-salt media. The X-ray single-crystal structure analysis shows that these isomorphic derivatives crystallize in a triclinic space group P-1 (no. 2); Z=1. The 3-D framework of these 3d-4f oxo-phosphates are comprised of LnO{sub 6} octahedral, FeO{sub 5} trigonal bipyramidal (tbp), and {mu}{sub 3}-oxo [Fe{sub 4}O{sub 18}] tetrameric units interconnected through PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The preliminary results of the temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements for selected compounds (1, 3, 4) reveal antiferromagnetic-like behavior. 1 shows a weak antiferromagnetric ordering at T{sub N}={approx}7 K while others show little evidence of long-range magnetic order down to 2 K. All three compounds have measured magnetic moments significantly smaller than the expected values. - Graphical abstract: The extended framework is described by the connectivity of three distinct types of paramagnetic units. The temperature-dependent, lower than expected effective magnetic moments are reported. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new family of mixed lanthanide(III) and iron(III) oxo-phosphates is isolated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Features PO{sub 4}-linked paramagnetic units of LnO{sub 6}, FeO{sub 5}, and {mu}{sub 3}-oxo [Fe{sub 4}O{sub 18}]. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sm-derivative orders at T{sub N}{approx}7 K while Gd- and Dy-derivatives show absence of order.

Sanjeewa, Liurukara D.; Palmer West, J. [Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States); Hwu, Shiou-Jyh, E-mail: shwu@clemson.edu [Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

299

Arco chimie focuses on PA at FOS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Arco Chimie France (Fos-sur-Mer), at a recent meeting at its southern France manufacturing site, emphasized that future strategy is strongly focused on its propylene oxide (PO) and derivatives activities. The F2.5 billion ($466 million)-Fe billion/year operation manufactures 200,000 m.t./year of PO, about 70% for captive use and the balance for the merchant market; 550,000 m.t./year of methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE); 97,000 m.t./year of polyols; and 70,000 m.t./year of propylene glycols. There has been talk of Arco modifying its Fos MTBE plant to make it flexible for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) output; the parent company already operates an MTBE/ETBE pilot unit at Corpus Christi, TX. But Arco Chimie notes there is insufficient bioethanol feedstock availability to convert all production to ETBE. The company would also require investment in new storage capacity for ethanol and ETBE. However, France's biofuels program is not yet clearly defined, and it is politically sensitive because it depends heavily on government subsidies offered to farmers. That, says Arco, makes it impossible to have an accurate idea of how much ethanol will be available.

Jackson, D.

1992-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

300

Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 View History U.S. 27,197 26,722 26,923 26,320 25,564 27,995 1981-2013 East Coast (PADD 1) 628 784 836 842 527 636 2004-2013 Midwest (PADD 2) 25,209 24,689 24,786 24,186 23,810 26,040 2004-2013 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 523 404 487 460 431 473 2004-2013 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 450 432 430 432 415 429 2004-2013 West Coast (PADD 5)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Microsoft PowerPoint - Soloveichik US-EU workshop 2010  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

G.Soloveichik 10/19/2010 Grigorii Soloveichik GE Global Research Trans-Atlantic Workshop on Storage Technologies for Power Grids Washington, DC, October 19-20, 2010 A Novel Concept for Energy Storage This work supported as part of the Center for Electrocatalysis, Transport Phenomena, and Materials for Innovative Energy Storage, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001055 2 / G.Soloveichik 10/19/2010 Acknowledgements GE EFRC team P. Bonitatibus M. Doherty H. Lam L. Lewis T. Miebach R. Perry A. Peters J. Presley O. Siclovan D. Simone J. Stein A. Usyatinsky G. Yeager G. Zappi K. Zarnoch Yale team V. Batista R. Crabtree S. Konezny O. Luca T. Wang Stanford team C. Chidsey

302

Grid4EU (Smart Grid Project) (Spain) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and technologies in order to highlight and help to remove some of the barriers to the smart grids deployment (technical, economic, societal, environmental or regulatory). It...

303

Grid4EU (Smart Grid Project) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and technologies in order to highlight and help to remove some of the barriers to the smart grids deployment (technical, economic, societal, environmental or regulatory). It...

304

Grid4EU (Smart Grid Project) (SVEZIA) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and technologies in order to highlight and help to remove some of the barriers to the smart grids deployment (technical, economic, societal, environmental or regulatory). It...

305

Grid4EU (Smart Grid Project) (France) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and technologies in order to highlight and help to remove some of the barriers to the smart grids deployment (technical, economic, societal, environmental or regulatory). It...

306

EU-15 Gasoline & Distillate Demand - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The European refining system is not well matched to its demand slate. Unlike the United States, Europe produces more gasoline than it can use, which ...

307

Polish plant beats the odds to become model EU generator  

SciTech Connect

Once a Soviet satellite, Poland is now transforming into a thoroughly modern nation. To support its growing economy, this recent European Union member country is modernizing its power industry. Exemplifying the advances in the Polish electricity generation market is the 460 MW Patnow II power plant - the largest, most efficient (supercritical cycle) and environmentally cleanest lignite-fired unit in the country. 3 photos.

Neville, A.

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Limited Sectoral Trading between the EU ETS and China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the negotiations of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), new market mechanisms are proposed to involve Non-Annex I countries in the carbon markets developed by Annex I countries, beyond ...

Gavard, Claire

2013-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

309

Subject: Meeting with EU Representatives on the Metric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... great interest in the Handbook 130 Uniform ... faucet washers), plumbing pipes, and electrical ... Piping, conduit, fixtures, and supplies needed to ...

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

310

An Overview of EU Programs Related to Conversational ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Himarnnet (Study of Hidden Markov models and Neural ... a first detailed reference model of best ... Volkswagen (DE), Renault (F), PSA (F), Lernout & ...

2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

311

An Overview of EU Programs Related toConversational ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Study of Hidden Markov models andNeural Networks ... a first detailed reference model of best ... C,DE), Volkswagen(DE), Renault (F), PSA (F), Lernout ...

2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

312

OWL-Eu: Adding customised datatypes into OWL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although OWL is rather expressive, it has a very serious limitation on datatypes; i.e., it does not support customised datatypes. It has been pointed out that many potential users will not adopt OWL unless this limitation is overcome, and the W3C Semantic ... Keywords: Customised Datatypes, Description Logics, Ontologies, Semantic Web, Unary datatype groups

Jeff Z. Pan; Ian Horrocks

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

The ICT standardisation policy of the EU: changes ahead!?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper first briefly discusses the current situation in the field of ICT standardisation, with a certain focus on Europe. Here, the perceived diminishing influence of Europe in the international standards arena has led to first (minor) initiatives ... Keywords: ICT standardisation, standardisation policy

Kai Jakobs; Knut Blind

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

EuMC: Radiation, Multimode Propagation, and Substrate ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and their impact on vector-network-analyzer calibrations ... mode in [5]), thus radiating power and causing ... the sole reason for the loss increase seen ...

2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

315

EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya, Lebannon, Malaysia, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Peru, Philippines, Tanzania, Thailand, Trindand and Tobago, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia South America, Southern Asia, South...

316

Microsoft Word - EU-US Smart Grid assessment - final report ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

stronger and more direct involvement of consumers in their energy usage and management Enable active participation by customers Improving market functioning and customer...

317

EU Energy Voith Turbo JV | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

energy Product Joint co-operation agreement for the development of the Voith WinDrive power transmission component for use in the new 60Hz DeWind D8.2 wind turbine. References...

318

www.planets-project.eu/publications MOVING ON TO IMPLEMENTATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Throughout its third project year, Planets has made strong progress towards meeting its goal of helping content holders to ensure access to digital material for the long term and enabling a marketplace of digital preservation tools and services. Several partner institutions are moving towards implementing the Planets technology as part of their internal digital preservation activities. I hinted at this in Planetarium 6. Now we have begun to see some real progress in this area, as discussed in this issue. Of course, the project is learning as much as possible from the experiences of partners as they take the tools and methods out for a test drive. We are fortunate to see these projects move forward in very different implementation contexts including a home-grown digital library system, the Fedora open-source repository software, and commercial products. This will ensure that the integration capabilities are thoroughly tested.

Planets Programme; Dr. Adam Farquhar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Differentiation and Dynamics of Competitiveness Impacts from the EU ETS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Edition available from http://www.statistics.gov.uk/about/methodology_by_theme/inputoutput/. Fuel inputs for electricity generation taken from DTI’s DUKES 5.1.1 available at http://www.dti.gov.uk/energy/statistics/source/electricity/page18527.html... from heavy industry in Europe. It is by far the largest ETS, covering 45% of Europe’s total CO2 emissions released from 11,500 installations of the energy intensive sectors. Its major role in establishing a price for carbon has been an achievement...

Sato, Misato; Grubb, Michael; Cust, J; Chan, Katie; Korppoo, Anna; Ceppi, Pablo

320

Auctioning of EU ETS Phase II allowances: how and why?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

 practice, of course, these factors vary  considerably between sectors, and indeed, companies and facilities within sectors.  Non? participating  sectors with  high  electricity  consumption  (such  as  aluminium) will  face  substantially higher costs due to higher electricity...   auctioned  5%  and  used  the  revenue  to  purchase  JI/CDM  credits,  Hungary  auctioned  2.4%,  Lithuania  auctioned  1.5%,  and  Ireland  auctioned  0.75%,  with  European?wide  eligibility,  to  cover  the  administrative costs of the scheme. 3 In the year...

Hepburn, Cameron; Grubb, Michael; Neuhoff, Karsten; Matthes, Felix; Tse, Maximilien

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Climate for Collaboration: Analysis of US and EU Lessons and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

coal, nuclear, or hydroelectric power, may have less incen- tive to invest in local non-hydro renewable energy (RE) resources than states that must import elec- tricity or fuels...

322

Reducing energy use comes at a costReducing energy use comes at a cost ----the EU casethe EU case  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

YOUR LOGO HERECGES Reducing energy use comes at a costReducing energy use comes at a costDeputy Director and Chief Economist Centre for Global Energy StudiesCentre for Global Energy Studies AthensAthens ---- 88thth May 2008May 2008 Nuclear Energy WorkshopNuclear Energy Workshop ---- National Research Centre

323

EU,EU, EnergyEnergy, and Global, and Global ClimateClimate ChangeChange Kirsten Halsns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2095 Carbon Capture Energy Efficiency Wind Solar Biomass Hydro Nuclear Gas Oil India 550 ppmv emission 2095 Carbon Capture Energy Efficiency Wind Solar Biomass Hydro Nuclear Gas Oil India 550 ppmv emission Energy Efficiency Wind Solar Biomass Hydro Nuclear Gas Oil India 550 ppmv emission 550 PPMV550 PPMV 400

324

Regenerative mode photo electrochemical cells in molten salt electrolytes. 1st four monthly report (1/31/80)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The most promising photoelectrodes selected for use in the butyl pyridinium chloride-aluminum chloride room temperature molten salt are n-type silicon, gallium arsenide and cadmium telluride. The solubilities of these semiconductors are low, and their conduction and valence band edges are favorably located. Cadmium selenide and sulfide showed significant solubility in the melt, and the conduction band edge for p-type cadmium telluride was too close to the aluminum deposition potential. Several reversible redox couples have been identified, which could potentially be used in a photoelectrochemical cell. These include W/sup 5 +//W/sup 6 +/ and Eu/sup 2 +//Eu/sup 3 +/ as well as ferrocene and its derivatives.

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Influence of temperature on the extraction of Pu(IV) by tri-n-butyl phosphate from acidic nitrate solutions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The goal of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative program is to efficiently separate and recover actinides in attempts to reprocess irradiated nuclear fuel and reduce the… (more)

[No author

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

The Friction and Wear Behaviors of (quinazolin-4-ones)-3-methyl-butyl Borate as Additive in Liquid Paraffin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been growing concern for the use of mineral oils because of the worldwide interest in environmental issues. This has promoted the use of ash less additives as environmental friendly lubricants. A potential ash less additive containing N, B, ... Keywords: Synthesis, Quinazolin-4-ones, Borate, Additive, Friction and wear behaviors

Ouyang Ping; Zhang Xianming

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Direct Detection of Products from the Pyrolysis of 2-Phenethyl Phenyl Ether Mark W. Jarvis,*,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Pyrolysis." In Biomass Handbook; C. W. Hall, ed. Gordon and Breach: New York, 1989; pp. 379-385. (with Pyrolysis of Biomass Derived Volatile Matter." In Fundamentals of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion; R. P. "Biomass Pyrolysis. A Review of the Literature - Part 1: Carbohydrate Pyrolysis." In Advances in Solar

Dean, Anthony M.

328

Chlorine resistant desalination membranes based on directly sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present invention provides a membrane, kit, and method of making a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane includes a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer includes one or more hydrophilic monomers having a sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer and a second monomer and one or more hydrophobic monomers having a non-sulfonated third monomer and a fourth monomer. The sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer introduces a sulfonate into the hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer prior to polymerization.

McGrath, James E. (Blacksburg, VA); Park, Ho Bum (Austin, TX); Freeman, Benny D. (Austin, TX)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

329

Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and Resulting Concentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

include wood framing with plywood underlying the floor, twowith low-VOC paint. The plywood subfloor was covered with

Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Measurements of flatflame velocities of diethyl ether in air Fiona Gillespiea,b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is being drawn towards bioderived fuels, the most common of which is bioethanol. Bioethanol. %; however, bioethanol is produced primarily from food sources (corn, sugarcane, etc.) and its energy output to allow a sufficient flow of oxygen through the burner plate. Bronkhorst conversion coefficient factors

331

A New Biarylphosphine Ligand for the Pd-Catalyzed Synthesis of Diaryl Ethers under Mild Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new bulky biarylphosphine ligand (L8) has been developed that allows the Pd-catalyzed C–O cross-coupling of a wide range of aryl halides and phenols under milder conditions than previously possible. A direct correlation ...

Salvi, Luca

332

The potential for alcohols and related ethers to displace conventional gasoline components  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy is required by law to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace 30 percent of the projected United States consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including alcohols, natural gas and certain other components. A linear program has been used to study refinery impacts for production of ``low petroleum`` gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and major contributors to cost increase can include investment in processes to produce olefins for etherification with alcohols. High oxygenation can increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon, with substantial decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in some cases. Cost estimates are sensitive to assumptions about extrapolation of a national model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues. Reduction in crude oil use, a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program, is 10 to 17 percent in the analysis.

Hadder, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); McNutt, B.D. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

MTBE Production Economics  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MTBE Production MTBE Production Economics Tancred C. M. Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Production Costs 3. Relationship between price of MTBE and Reformulated Gasoline 4. Influence of Natural Gas Prices on the Gasoline Market 5. Regression Results 6. Data Sources 7. End Notes 1. Summary Last year the price of MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) increased dramatically on two occasions (Figure 1) (see Data Sources at end of article.): 1. Between April and June 2000, the price (U.S. Gulf Coast waterborne market) of MTBE rose from $1.00 per gallon to over $1.60 per gallon. This represented an increase in the price premium for MTBE over the wholesale price of conventional gasoline from its normal (1995 though 2000 average) $0.26 per gallon to $0.60 per gallon. The MTBE

334

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Total Stocks Total Stocks Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton.

335

Annual Energy Outlook 2005-Acronyms  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AD AD Associated-dissolved (natural gas) AEO2004 Annual Energy Outlook 2004 AEO2005 Annual Energy Outlook 2005 Altos Altos Partners AMT Alternative Minimum Tax ANWR Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Btu British thermal unit CAFE Corporate average fuel economy CAMR Clean Air Mercury Rule CARB California Air Resources Board CBECS Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (EIA) CBO Congressional Budget Office CCCC Climate Change Credit Corporation CH 4 Methane CHP Combined heat and power CO 2 Carbon dioxide CTL Coal-to-liquids DB Deutsche Bank, A.G. E85 Fuel containing a blend of 70 to 85 percent ethanol and 30 to 15 percent gasoline by volume EEA Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. EIA Energy Information Administration EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPACT Energy Policy Act of 1992 ETBE Ethyl tertiary butyl ether EVA Energy Ventures Analysis, Incorporated FERC

336

Status and Impact of State MTBE Bans  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Status and Impact of State MTBE Bans Status and Impact of State MTBE Bans Background As a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90), the year-round use of reformulated gasoline (RFG) has been required in cities with the worst smog problems since 1995 (Figure 1). One of the requirements of RFG specified by CAAA90 is a 2- percent oxygen requirement, which is met by blending "oxygenates," 1 including methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol, into the gasoline. MTBE is the oxygenate used in almost all RFG outside of the Midwest. Ethanol is currently used in the Midwest as an oxygenate in RFG and as an octane booster and volume extender in conventional gasoline. Several years ago, MTBE was detected in water supplies scattered throughout the country, but predominantly in areas using RFG. MTBE from RFG was apparently

337

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MTBE, Oxygenates, and MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an

338

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Motor Gasoline Outlook Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans Tancred Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Supply and Demand 3. Ethanol Supply 4. Gasoline Supply 5. Gasoline Prices A. Long-Term Equilibrium Price Analysis B. Short-Term Price Volatility 6. Conclusion 7. Appendix A. Estimating MTBE Consumption by State 8. Appendix B. MTBE Imports and Exports 9. Appendix C. Glossary of Terms 10. End Notes 11. References 1. Summary The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending State bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year. Three impending State bans on MTBE blending could significantly affect gasoline

339

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Imports & Exports Imports & Exports Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock.

340

Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

02/22/2006 02/22/2006 Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006 Summary In 2005, a number of petroleum companies announced their intent to remove methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) from their gasoline in 2006. Companies' decisions to eliminate MTBE have been driven by State bans due to water contamination concerns, continuing liability exposure from adding MTBE to gasoline, and perceived potential for increased liability exposure due to the elimination of the oxygen content requirement for reformulated gasoline (RFG) included in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. EIA's informal discussions with a number of suppliers indicate that most of the industry is trying to move away from MTBE before the 2006 summer driving season. Currently, the largest use of MTBE is in RFG consumed on the East Coast outside of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Why sequence ethene and vinyl chloride-oxidizing Mycobacterium strains?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

sequence ethene and vinyl sequence ethene and vinyl chloride-oxidizing Mycobacterium strains? Mycobacteria are known for causing human and animal diseases but they are also important degraders of hard-to-break-down water contaminants such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). So far the handful of bacterial species representing the Mycobacterium genus that have been sequenced all break down PAHs. In this project, researchers focus on the genomes of mycobacterial species isolated from soil, freshwater and marine environments that use the alkene compounds ethene and vinyl chloride as carbon sources. Chlorinated ethene compounds are difficult to remove from contaminated groundwater but necessary because of their toxicity. Additionally these compounds reduce the ozone levels in the atmosphere.

342

Assessment of Summer RBOB Supply for NY & CT  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Assessment for New York and Connecticut May 5, 2004 In October 2003, EIA published a review of the status of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban transition in New York (NY) and Connecticut (CT) 1 that noted significant uncertainties in gasoline supply for those States for the summer of 2004. To obtain updated information, EIA spoke to major suppliers to the two States over the past several months as the petroleum industry began the switch from winter- to summer-grade gasoline. As discussed on our earlier report, the NY and CT bans on MTBE mainly affect reformulated gasoline (RFG), which in recent years has been provided by domestic refineries on the East Coast (PADD 1) and imports. Our recent findings indicate that

343

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

APPLICATIONS OF LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES IN REMOVING OXYANIONS FROM OIL REFINING AND COAL MINING WASTEWATER  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a study of using the layered double hydroxides (LDH) as filter material to remove microorganisms, large biological molecules, certain anions and toxic oxyanions from various waste streams, including wastewater from refineries. Results demonstrate that LDH has a high adsorbing capability to those compounds with negative surface charge. Constituents studied include model bacteria, viruses, arsenic, selenium, vanadium, diesel range hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mixed petroleum constituents, humic materials and anions. This project also attempted to modify the physical structure of LDH for the application as a filtration material. Flow characterizations of the modified LDH materials were also investigated. Results to date indicate that LDH is a cost-effective new material to be used for wastewater treatment, especially for the treatment of anions and oxyanions.

Song Jin; Paul Fallgren

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

MTBE movements between Texas Gulf Coast plants to be enhanced  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Texas Eastern Products Pipeline Co. (Teppco), Houston, has begun construction of its shuttle pipeline, a 10-mile, 6 and 8-in. line to move methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) between producers and refiners along the Houston Ship Channel. Funding for the project has been approved, rights-of-way are secured, and procurement of materials is under way, according to Teppco. The line will flow from the western edge of Shell's refinery eastward to storage facilities of Teppco's Baytown terminal. The shuttle pipeline anticipates the US requirement for oxygenated gasolines that takes effect Nov. 1. Approximately 70% of the available US merchant capacity for MTBE is located along the shuttle's path, Teppco says.

Not Available

1992-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

347

Ecological hazards of MTBE exposure: A research agenda  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel oxygenates are used in metropolitan areas across the United States in order to reduce the amount of carbon monoxide released into the atmosphere during the winter. The most commonly used fuel oxygenate is Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Its widespread use has resulted in releases into the environment. To date there has been only minimal effort to investigate ecological impacts caused by exposure to concentrations of MTBE typically found in environmental media. Research into the potential for MTBE to adversely affect ecological receptors is essential. Acquisition of such baselines data is especially critical in light of continuing inputs and potential accumulation of MTBE in environmental media. A research Agenda is included in this report and addresses: Assessing Ecological Impacts, Potential Ecological Impacts of MTBE (aquatic organisms, terrestrial organisms), Potential Ecological Endpoints, and A Summary of Research Needs.

Carlsen, T.; Hall, L.; Rice, D.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Weekly Supply Estimates Weekly Supply Estimates Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus. Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton.

349

Annual Energy Outlook 2000 - Acronyms  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Homepage Homepage ACEEE American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy AD Associated-dissolved (natural gas) AEO Annual Energy Outlook AGA American Gas Association ANWR Arctic National Wildlife Refuge API American Petroleum Institute BRP Blue Ribbon Panel Btu British thermal unit CAAA90 Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 CARB California Air Resources Board CCAP Climate Change Action Plan CDM Clean Development Mechanism CECA Comprehensive Electricity Competition Act CIDI Compression ignition direct injection CO Carbon monoxide DBAB Deutsche Banc Alex. Brown DOE U.S. Department of Energy DRI Standard & PoorÂ’s DRI EIA Energy Information Administration EOR Enhanced oil recovery EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPACT Energy Policy Act of 1992 ETBE Ethyl tertiary butyl ether

350

Appendix A - Acronyms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A - ACRONYMS A - ACRONYMS AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials CNG Compressed Natural Gases CVO Commercial Vehicle Operation DOE Department of Energy DOT Department of Transportation E85 85% Ethanol, 15% Gasoline EPA Environmental Protection Agency ExFIRS Excise Files Information Retrieval System ExSTARS Excise Summary Terminal Activity Reporting System FHWA Federal Highway Administration FTA Federation of Tax Administrators GAO General Accounting Office HTF Highway Trust Fund IFTA International Fuel Tax Agreement IM Interstate Maintenance IRS Internal Revenue Service LNG Liquid Natural Gases LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gases M85 85% Methanol, 15% Gasoline MTBE Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether NHS National Highway System ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory STP Surface Transportation Program

351

Children's residential exposures to flame retardants, pesticides and pesticide degradation products, and the relationship of pesticides with autonomic nervous system functioning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

diphenyl ethers: a flame-retardant additive in severaldiphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. Neurotoxicology. 28,diphenyl ethers: a flame-retardant additive in several

Quiros Alcala, Lesliam

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

PhD student suitable for position ESR 11 -see http://www.glacerco.eu/vacancies ITN within the EU project GlaCERCo (see www.glacerco.eu)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Ceramic Composites for High Technology Applications), funded by the Marie Curie actions under the FP7. Composite materials are fast becoming a material of choice for different industry branches, including petrochemical industry, primarily because of their excellent resistance to aggressive chemicals. Other

Fitze, Patrick

353

Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Ether* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Reformulated Blended with Fuel Ethanol Reformulated, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Less than 0.31 Percent Sulfur 0.31 to 1.00 Percent Sulfur Greater than 1.00 Percent Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Marketable Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Units: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

354

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

355

Enantiomeric recognition of organic ammonium salts by chiral crown ethers based on the pyridino-18-crown-6 structure  

SciTech Connect

Enantiomeric recognition by several chiral dimethyl-substituted macrocycles of the pyridino-18-crown-6 type for chiral organic ammonium salts has been studied by titration calorimetry in CH/sub 3/OH, temperature-dependent /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy in CD/sub 2/CL/sub 2/, and selective crystallization. Results from the three procedures are consistent in demonstrating either host-guest recognition or nonrecognition in the systems investigated. Futhermore, enaniomeric recognition by one chiral host for a pair of chiral guests is correlated with X-ray crystallographic data for the same system. The chiral dimethyl-substituted ligands used in the study include three dimethyl diester pyridino-18-crown-6 ligands, dimethyl thiono diester pyridino-18-crown-6, and dimethyl-pyridino-18-crown-6 ligands. All of these ligands exhibited chiral recognition. Dimethylpyridino-18-crown-6 in complexation with (R)- and (S)-(..cap alpha..-(1-naphthyl)ethyl)ammonium perchlorate exhibited the largest ratio of ..delta..G/sub c/+ yet observed by the /sup 1/H NMR technique. A diphenyl-substituted diester pyridino-18-crown-6 where the phenyl substituents are in less rigid portion of the macrocycle failed to show chiral recognition.

Davidson, R.B.; Bradshaw, J.S.; Jones, B.A.; Dalley, N.K.; Christensen, J.J.; Izatt, R.M.

1984-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

356

Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Synthesis and Characterization of Phenylethynyl Terminated Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s as Thermosetting Structural Adhesives and Composite Matrices.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Abstract High temperature, solvent resistant materials which also display good mechanical properties are desired for use as aerospace structural adhesives and polymer matrix/carbon fiber composites.… (more)

Mecham, Sue Jewel

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Aggregation behavior of hexaoxyethyleneglycol myristate and hexaoxyethyleneglycol mono (1-methyltridecane) ether and dynamics of their micelles in aqueous solution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The title surfactants have similar critical micelle concentrations and cloud temperatures. Their micellar solutions have been investigated by time resolved fluorescence quenching in the range 2--25 c. The micelle aggregation numbers of both surfactants do not differ much, and increase with temperature. Aggregation numbers are large, suggesting anisotropic micelles, and the results show that the micelles are polydisperse. Fast intermicellar exchange of material becomes detectable on the fluorescence timescale ([approximately]1 [mu]s) above T [approx] 10 C, i.e., some 35--40 C below the cloud temperature of the solution. This exchange probably occurs via micelle collisions with temporary merging. Overall the behavior of these two surfactants is very similar to that of the other ethoxylated nonionic surfactants previously examined.

Alami, E.; Zana, R. (Inst. Charles Sadron, Strasbourg (France)); Van Os, N.M.; Jong, B. de; Kerkhof, F.J.M. (Koninklijke/Shell Lab., Amsterdam, (Netherlands)); Rupert, L.A.M. (Thornton Research Centre, Chester, (United Kingdom))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Experimental Determinations of Henry's Law Constants of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) to Evaluate Exposure to Aquatic Biota  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

correlated to the degree of chlorine substitution, PCB K Hincreased with ortho- chlorine substitution. In contrast,their high abundance. Both chlorine isotopes (amu 35 and 37)

Charles, M. Judith; Destaillats, Hugo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Extraction of Am(III) from nitric acid by octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide-tri-n-butyl phosphate mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The extraction behavior of Am(III) from nitric acid by octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyphosphine oxides, O0D(IB)CMPO, in the presence of tributylphosphate, TBP, has been studied using diethylbenzene, decalin, and normal aliphatic hydrocarbon diluents. Relative to O0D(IB)CMPO alone, mixtures of TBP and O0D(IB)CMPO show a slight enhancement in the extraction of Am(III) from nitric acid solution above 2 M and a moderate decrease in extraction for lower acid concentrations. The net effect of TBP addition to O0D(IB)CMPO (as well as other selected carbamoylmethylphosphoryl extractants) is a relative insensitivity of the distribution ratio of Am(III) to HNO/sub 3/ concentration in the range of 0.5 M to 6 M and facilitated stripping of Am(III) with dilute acid. Since a continuous variation study of Am(III) extraction using mixtures of O0D(IB)CMPO and TBP at a fixed total concentration revealed no evidence of a mixed complex, the TBP appears to be behaving primarily as a phase modifier. The most significant benefit gained from addition of TBP to O0D(IB)CMPO is the increased metal ion loading capacity and extractant compatibility with alicyclic and aliphatic diluents. The use of TBP to overcome phase compatibility with other bifunctional extractants of the carbamoylmethylphosphoryl type and the use of other phase modifiers with O0D(IB)CMPO have also been investigated. 15 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Microsoft Word - US-EU WORKSHOP on RARE EARTHS Program 20101206  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Trans-Atlantic Workshop Trans-Atlantic Workshop on Rare Earth Elements and Other Critical Materials for a Clean Energy Future Hosted by the MIT Energy Initiative Massachusetts Institute of Technology 400 Main Street, Building E19-307, Cambridge, Massachusetts December 3, 2010 Workshop Background Rare earth elements and other critical raw materials are essential to our industrial production, particularly for clean energy options like wind turbines, solar cells, electric vehicles, and energy- efficient lighting. Wind turbines are the most rapidly growing source of electricity generation in both Europe and the United States. Solar photovoltaic cells are steadily declining in cost, and their widespread, cost-effective use on power grids is anticipated within the coming decade.

362

The Phase Diagram of the Almost Multiferroic System Eu1-xSrxTiO3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Nanostructured Magnetoelectrics & Multiferroics. Presentation Title, The Phase ...

363

Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Transformations in One Dimensional Ag-Eu Helical System  

SciTech Connect

Single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation of 1-D 4d-4f coordination polymers have been investigated for the first time. It displays high selectivity for Mg2+ and can be used as magnesium ion-selective luminescent probe. More importantly, we observed the transformation of meso-helical chain to rac-helical chain as a function of temperature.

Cai, Yue-Peng; Zhout, Xiu-Xia; Zhout, Zheng-Yuan; Zhu, Shi-Zheng; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Liu, Jun

2009-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

364

Maximizing the adoption of fixed number portability within the EU: An empirical analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Number portability (NP) is considered by the European Commission as a key measure for promoting competition within the telecom sector especially regarding network access infrastructure. However, NP requires several modifications to the network architecture ... Keywords: Bitstream, Broadband access, Local loop unbundling, NRDBP, Number portability

G. N. Prezerakos; S. E. Polykalas

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Thermomechanical Performance of the EU TBMs Under a Typical ITER Transient  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ITER Systems / Proceedings of the Nineteenth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (TOFE) (Part 1)

F. Cismondi; G. Aiello; S. Kecskes; G. Rampal

366

Services for High Energy Physics EGI-InSPIRE EU deliverable: MS603  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The computing systems of the LHC experiments at CERN are probably the most complex grid-integrated applications currently in production. This milestone describes the critical services on which the computing systems are based and how they interact with each other. This description represents the current state of the art in the high energy physics community.

Sciaba, A; Barreiro Megino, F; Lanciotti, E; Santinelli, R; Spiga, D; Trentadue, R; Valassi, A; Van Der Ster, D C; Cinquilli, M; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

HEAT ROADMAP EUROPE 2050 SECOND PRE-STUDY FOR THE EU27  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research Centre for 4th Generation District Heating (4DH), which has received funding from The Danish. However, this pre-study outlines the previously unconsidered potential of district heating and cooling requirements of district heating and cooling as technologies. The authors intend to continue developing

Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

368

Grid4EU (Smart Grid Project) (Czech Republic) | Open Energy Informatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and technologies in order to highlight and help to remove some of the barriers to the smart grids deployment (technical, economic, societal, environmental or regulatory). It...

369

A Green Urban Mobility System Solution from the EU Ingrid Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... from wind/solar sources and a re-charging point for full battery electric cars. ... Recovery of Zinc and Iron from Steel Mill Dusts by the Use of a TBRC: A ...

370

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of large-scale integration of wind power in the electricityintegration in buildings") up to 550 €/MWh; Sewage and landfill gas: 45-60 €/MWh; Wind

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and J. Hamrin. 2005. “Renewable Energy Policies and Marketspromoting the development of renewable energy". In: Energyand optimisation of renewable support schemes in the

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Subsidy schemes in EU t i M ti ti dcountries: Motivations and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

increase the flexible generation becomes more important and sometimes scarce CHP and otherimportant and sometimes scarce ­ CHP and other DG must behave flexible · Variations in market prices will also affect the - Slovakia FIT Investment subsidies Slovenia FIT CO2 taxation non RES 5 25/04/2008 #12;Certificates

373

Metal Oxide Doped SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ Phosphors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

How to Control Strength and Grain Structure of 304L Stainless Steel during Forging · Improved ... Process Modeling and Reduction of Copper Loss in Smelting Slag ... Use of Polymeric Residues from the Footwear Industry in Layers of Asphalt ...

374

The Big Curve: Trends in University Fees and Financing in the EU and US  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Series Douglass and Keeling – Trends in University Fees andUniversity, revised. College Board (2008). Trends in CollegePricing: 2008, Trends in Higher Education Series, College

Douglass, John Aubrey; Keeling, Ruth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Conference-EC-US Task Force Joint US-EU Workshop on Metabolomics and Environmental Biotechnology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since 1990, the EC-US Task Force on Biotechnology Research has been coordinating transatlantic efforts to guide and exploit the ongoing revolution in biotechnology and the life sciences. The Task Force was established in June 1990 by the European Commission and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. The Task Force has acted as an effective forum for discussion, coordination, and development of new ideas for the last 18 years. Task Force members are European Commission and US Government science and technology administrators who meet annually to enhance communication across the Atlantic, and to encourage collaborative research. Through sponsoring workshops, and other activities, the Task Force also brings together scientific leaders and early career researchers from both sides of the Atlantic to forecast research challenges and opportunities and to promote better links between researchers. Over the years, by keeping a focus on the future of science, the Task Force has played a key role in establishing a diverse range of emerging scientific fields, including biodiversity research, neuroinformatics, genomics, nanobiotechnology, neonatal immunology, transkingdom molecular biology, biologically-based fuels, and environmental biotechnology. The EC-US Task Force has sponsored a number of Working Groups on topics of mutual transatlantic interest. The idea to create a Working Group on Environmental Biotechnology research was discussed in the Task Force meeting of October 1993. The EC-US Working Group on Environmental Biotechnology set as its mission 'To train the next generation of leaders in environmental biotechnology in the United States and the European Union to work collaboratively across the Atlantic.' Since 1995, the Working Group supported three kinds of activities, all of which focus one early career scientists: (1) Workshops on the use of molecular methods and genomics in environmental biotechnology; (2) Short courses with theoretical, laboratory and field elements; and (3) Short term exchange fellowships. The short term exchange fellowships were created to enable young scientists to develop collaborations with colleagues across the Atlantic and to learn a new skill or expertise in the area of environmental biotechnology.

PI: Lily Y. Young Co-PI: Gerben J. Zylstra

2009-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

376

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

certificate market. In: Energy Policy, 31, 21-32. Lopez A. ,Early Assessment. In: Energy Policy, 31, 527-535. Martinot,Hamrin. 2005. “Renewable Energy Policies and Markets in the

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

certification procedure for wind turbines as early as 1978electricity from onshore wind turbines between 2003 and 2005from abroad, may own wind turbines in Denmark. At the end of

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Renewable Energy Policies and Markets in the United States. ” Prepared for the Energy Foundation’s China

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

The EU’s CAP, the Doha Round and Developing Countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Policy and Food Security, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Paris Economist, InternationalAffairs, (DEFRA), London Director, Development Strategy and Governance Division, International Food Policy

Halderman, Michael; Nelson, Michael

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technologies except hydro and Power Generation “non pure”PV), solid biomass, hydro power and biogas. Other optionsnew picture emerges if hydro power is excluded (Figure 2).

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

An EIE/Altener project Co-funded by the EU Commission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

area was selected in order to have favorable preconditions for anaerobic digestion. In the particular Assessment of a Centralised co-digestion Plant hypothetically sited in Sparta, Laconia Peloponese, Greece, environmental and energy aspects of the biogas production by centralised co-digestion in selected areas of six

382

An EIE/Altener project Co-funded by the EU Commission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The centralised anaerobic co-digestion plant concept 3. The PROBIOGAS project. 4. Technical description anaerobic co-digestion technology has been developed in Denmark since the early 1980s. This development and remove the existing non-technical barriers. #12;5 2. The centralised anaerobic co-digestion plant concept

383

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

biomass, hydro power and biogas. Other options with vastTechnologies addressed Wind, biogas All technologies (exceptelectricity, Biomass, Biogas, Landfill gas, Sewage gas,

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

The ExoMet Project: EU/ESA Research on High-Performance Light ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

First-Principles Investigation of Mg-Rare Earth Precipitates and LPSO ... Mg Sheet and Tube Warm Forming: from Incremental to Electromagnetic Forming.

385

-News Home Help Chirac defends planned EU arms sales to China to nervous Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, most of them on Okinawa near Taiwan -- have agreed to work together to oppose the lifting of the ban

386

An analysis of the performance of Ghanaian canned tuna export to EU market (1999-2009) .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The tuna fishery is an important sector in Ghana. In 2009, total landing of tuna in Ghana represented about 24% of total catches in the… (more)

Mensah, Isaac

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

prices per TGC (in size of 1MWh) of: offshore wind 90 €, on-shore wind 50€, hydro: 50€, solar energy:

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

NIST GCR 01-814 A Guide to the EU Machinery Directive  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the manufacturer might avoid symmetrical parts. ... information from suppliers (of components for example ... the absence of the energy supply to actuate ...

2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

389

Potential for meeting the EU new passenger car CO? emissions targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2009, the European Parliament agreed to limit the CO2 emissions from new passenger cars sold in the European Union to an average of 130g/km by 2015. Further, a probable longer-term CO2 emissions target of 95g/km is ...

Bhatt, Kandarp

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Enlargement and the EU Periphery: The Impact of Changing Market Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at 5% level 12 #12;manufacturing baseline specification to include three additional market potential-access induced gains in regional GDP and manufacturing employment are up to seven times larger in regions hand, regional per-capita GDP and regional manufacturing employment, and, on the other hand, computed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

An Institutional Frame to Compare Alternative Market Designs in EU Electricity Balancing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

their fallout. It reveals that balancing designs, which are typically presented as simple variants on technical security, are in actuality alternative institutional frameworks having at least four potential economic consequences: a distortion of the forward...

Glachant, Jean-Michel; Saguan, Marcelo

392

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and J. Hamrin. 2005. “Renewable Energy Policies and Marketsexperience with renewable energy obligation supportM. (2001): REBUS: Renewable Energy Burden Sharing (Main

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

year] Wind onshore Hydro small-scale Solid biomass PV Hydroonshore Biogas Biowaste Hydro small-scale Solid biomass PV

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

incentives, TGC) PV feed in “Renewable energy act” “Renewables Portfolio Standards” Selected technologies “Clean Energy

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tradable Green Certificate system Investment focused •hydro plants. Investment security for generators of greengreen energy. There are two main categories: • Investment

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

schemes in the European electricity market. Scheer H. , ThePromoting electricity from renewable energy sources –2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cost reductions. Moreover, PV prices have been fluctuatingalong side rebate levels; PV prices increasing with rises inPV offered by power companies: The current purchase price is

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

most renewable energy technologies currently are at a costRenewable energy advocates argue that RES deserve similar subsidies to overcome their current cost-costs while and minimizing the financial subsidies; and Ensure sustainable growth of the renewable energy

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of wind energy even under a stable policy environmentwind year. and ensured that the overall energy policy did

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the last two off-shore wind farms) and the UK, as well as intwo tenders for offshore wind farms of 200 MW each, together

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

The Big Curve: Trends in University Fees and Financing in the EU and US  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

more a part of the higher education landscape in Europe, andNicholas (2004). "Higher Education Funding," Oxford Review1980). The Costs of Higher Education, Carnegie Council for

Douglass, John Aubrey; Keeling, Ruth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass, Biogas, Landfill gas, Sewage gas, Geothermal)€/MWh; Sewage and landfill gas: 45-60 €/MWh; Wind OnshoreMWh; Landfill-, Sewage- & Landfill gas: 64.5-74.4 €/MWh; PV:

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

An EIE/Altener project Co-funded by the EU Commission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Effect on green house gas emissions 7. Economic performance of the plant 8. Socio-economic analysis 9 will process organic waste that is otherwise disposed of to landfill. By removing this waste from landfill, there is a significant saving in greenhouse gas emissions. There- fore because the CAD in Ireland cannot take this waste

404

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The promotion of electricity generated from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) has recently gained high priority in the energy policy strategies of many countries in response to concerns about global climate change, energy security and other reasons. This chapter compares and contrasts the experience of a number of countries in Europe, states in the US as well as Japan in promoting RES, identifying what appear to be the most successful policy measures. Clearly, a wide range of policy instruments have been tried and are in place in different parts of the world to promote renewable energy technologies. The design and performance of these schemes varies from place to place, requiring further research to determine their effectiveness in delivering the desired results. The main conclusions that can be drawn from the present analysis are: (1) Generally speaking, promotional schemes that are properly designed within a stable framework and offer long-term investment continuity produce better results. Credibility and continuity reduce risks thus leading to lower profit requirements by investors. (2) Despite their significant growth in absolute terms in a number of key markets, the near-term prognosis for renewables is one of modest success if measured in terms of the percentage of the total energy provided by renewables on a world-wide basis. This is a significant challenge, suggesting that renewables have to grow at an even faster pace if we expect them to contribute on a significant scale to the world's energy mix.

Haas, Reinhard; Meyer, Niels I.; Held, Anne; Finon, Dominique; Lorenzoni, Arturo; Wiser, Ryan; Nishio, Ken-ichiro

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Ternary rare earth-lanthanide sulfides. [Re = Eu, Sm or Yb  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a new ternary rare earth sulfur compound having the formula La/sub 3-x/M/sub x/S/sub 4/, where M is europium, samarium, or ytterbium, with x = 0.15 to 0.8. The compound has good high-temperature thermoelectric properties and exhibits long-term structural stability up to 1000/sup 0/C.

Takeshita, Takuo; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Beaudry, B.J.

1986-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

406

An institutional frame to compare alternative market designs in EU electricity balancing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The so-called "electricity wholesale market" is, in fact, a sequence of several markets. The chain is closed with a provision for "balancing," in which energy from all wholesale markets is balanced under the authority of ...

Glachant, Jean-Michel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Technical memorandum on analysis of the EU ETS using the community independent transaction log  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This memorandum provides an overview of three deficiencies within the current presentation of the Community Independent Transaction Log (CITL) data that have implications for researchers' ability to accurately analyze the ...

McGuinness, Meghan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

onshore. Tendering for offshore wind. Biomass and biogasof operation, e.g. in case of offshore wind in size of 90 €/Skies Scheme, DTI´s Offshore Wind Capital Grant Scheme, the

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Pages that link to "EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

( links) Argentina ( links) Egypt ( links) Moldova ( links) Thailand ( links) Colombia ( links) Peru ( links) Malaysia (...

410

What's needed next to refine the EU directive on cogeneration regulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Efforts to develop a more precise definition and measurement of cogenerated electricity than those contained in the European Union's 2004 Directive have made real progress, but additional improvements are needed to yield a better-founded, more transparent methodology. The author offers suggestions on how to complete this important job. (author)

Verbruggen, Aviel

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

U.S. and EU Unite to Strengthen Economic Integration and Boost...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and agreed to support innovation in areas such as health-related industries, nanotechnology and automotives. Participants further discussed a range of other critical economic...

412

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

biomass fraction of MSW, conventional geothermal). Maximum priceprice. Electricity generation [GWh/year] Wind onshore Hydro small-scale Solid biomassbiomass st Federal: The Royal Decree of 10 July 2002 (operational from 1 of July 2003) sets minimum prices (

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Riso-R-742(EN) EU-CISJoint Study Project 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- suming an effective half-life of the annual exposure of 10 years and a dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) of 2. A risk model is being developed in Russia for the assessment of risks to the exposed populations from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the Semipalatinsk region (Altai region) in the forties

414

Ris-R-742(EN) EU-CIS Joint Study Project 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Risk quantifications 23 3.1 Risk assessments 24 3.2 Risks around the Semipalatinsk nuclear weapons test an effective half-life of the annual exposure of 10 years and a dose and dose rate effec- tiveness factor (DDREF) of 2. A risk model is being developed in Russia for the assessment of risks to the exposed

415

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

encouraging 3,000 MW of new solar PV systems through a long-Wind on- & offshore, PV, Solar thermal electricity, Biomass,38.3 €/MWh (premium); Solar thermal & PV 28 : 229.8-440.4 €/

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

NIST GCR 01-812 A Guide to the EU Low Voltage Directive  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Tests on gases evolved during combustion ofmaterials from cables — Part 2-1: Procedures — Determination of the amount of halogen acid gas ...

2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

417

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the 1990s in France (for wind energy and biomass), Ireland (of bidding vs FITs for wind energy in Europe prior to 20013000 DKK of income from wind energy are tax free. Deduction

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Print this article Close This Window EU OKs India joining ITER nuclear reactor project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Delhi on the project was a separate issue from India's avoidance of the nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, she said. "There is the non-proliferation issue and we are pursuing that with the Indians as part despite its refusal to sign a global treaty barring the spread of atomic weapons. That move was seen

419

Old Wine in a New Bottle: Growth Convergence Dynamics in the EU  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 21, 2010 ... programs as well as in setting priorities in their implementation. ... Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus, ..... to firms to provide training to temporary workers, and the adoption of product.

420

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

landfill gas and biomass co-firing dominate. In Wales and1MWh] Landfill gas Biomass co-firing Biomass (others) Sewagea cheap technology – e.g. co-firing or burning waste – may

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Trinidad and Tobago-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE),...

422

Democratic Republic of Congo-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE),...

423

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

purchase Voluntary net-metering PV menu” Various brands "FITs and Premiums, Net metering for PV No Estonia Finlandthe next 10 years. Net metering for PV used for individual

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

building science into EU policy The current status of biofuels in the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to: EASAC Secretariat Deutsche Akademie ethanol plant in southern Germany: http://www.sud-chemie.com/ scwww/web/content.jsp?nodeIdPath=7803&lang

425

Establishing an EU-China consortium on traditional Chinese medicine research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ltd Estonia Ms. Janne Üksti Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices Germany Dr. Werner Knöss University of Düsseldorf Germany Prof. Peter Proksch University of Munich Germany Prof. Angelika Vollmar University of Bonn Germany Prof. Gabriele... UK Prof. Elizabeth Williamson Guy’s & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust UK Prof. Debbie Shaw University of Nottingham UK Prof. Sue Watson University of Warwick UK Prof. Kenneth Muir University of Westminster UK Dr. Volker Scheid University of Lincoln UK...

Uzuner, Halil; Fan, Tai-Ping; Dias, Alberto; Guo, De-an; El-Nezami, Hani S; Xu, Qihe

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

426

An EIE/Altener project Co-funded by the EU Commission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, of course, poses in a competitive situation biogas technology and thus CAD. The extensive and detailed of PROBIOGAS is to asses the economic, environmental and energy aspects of the biogas production by centralised for the implementation of biogas systems in those areas and will help identify and remove the existing non technical

427

Allocation and competitiveness in the EU emissions trading scheme: policy overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

these approaches create distortions that can prevent entry from third parties and undermine the attendant incentives for companies to reduce CO2 emissions and for consumers to reduce electricity consumption. In other sectors, pricing responses may be influenced... ETS were built on many years of economic research into theories of emissions trading, combined with practical experience of emission trading schemes principally in the USA. Yet the analogies are far from exact, and the emerging experience...

Grubb, Michael; Neuhoff, Karsten

428

Deliberalization in Jordan the roles of Islamists and U.S.-EU assistance in stalled democratization .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Despite some political openings in Jordan during the 1980s, the democratization process is presently stalled. What explains the lack of continuous democratization in Jordan while… (more)

Hammerstein, Ralf P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

EuMC: Multi-Frequency Approach to Vector-Network-Analyzer ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Digest, 2009. [17] B. Stuckman, C. Perttunen, J. Usher, and B. McLaughlin, “Stochastic modeling of calibration drift in electrical meters ...

2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

430

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and wind energy plants at favourable locations, most renewable energy technologies currently are at a costwind energy are tax free. Deduction of 15% investment costs

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wind, Biomass, Small hydro, for Energy and Competitiveness”half of the non-hydro renewable energy capacity additionsshore wind 50€, hydro: 50€, solar energy: 150€, biomass: 20

Haas, Reinhard

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Task 4.9 -- Value-added products from syngas. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work on advanced fuel forms in 1996 focused on the synthesis of higher alcohols from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon dioxide (syngas) from coal gasification. Initial work in this project utilized a novel molybdenum sulfide catalyst previously shown to be active for hydrodesulfurization reactions of coal liquids. A pressurized fixed-bed flow-through reactor was constructed, and the MoS{sub 2} catalysts were tested with syngas under a variety of conditions. Unfortunately, the catalysts, even with higher molybdenum loading and addition of promoters, failed to give alcohol products. A batch reactor test of the catalyst was also conducted, but did not produce alcohol products. Group VIII metals have been used previously in catalysts for syngas reactions. Ruthenium and rhodium catalysts were prepared by impregnation of a hydrotalcite support. Tests with these catalysts in flow-through reactors also did not produce the desired alcohol products. The formation of higher alcohols from smaller ones, such as methanol and ethanol, could be commercially important if high selectivity could be achieved. The methanol and ethanol would be derived from syngas and fermentation, respectively. Based on previous work in other laboratories, it was hypothesized that the hydrotalcite-supported MoS{sub 2} or Ru or Rh catalysts could catalyze the formation of butyl alcohols. Although the desired 1-butanol was obtained in batch reactions with the promoted ruthenium catalyst, the reaction was not as selective as desired. Product suitable for a lower-vapor-pressure gasoline oxygenate additive was obtained, but it may not be economical to market such products in competition with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). Flow-through catalytic bed reactions were not successful.

Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Observation of green emission from Ce3+ doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Green emission at around 500 nm is observed in Gd2O3:Ce3+ nanoparticles and the intensity is highly dependent on the concentration of Ce3+ in the nanoparticles. The luminescence of this emission displays both picosecond and millisecond lifetimes. The msec lifetime is over four orders of magnitude longer than typical luminescence lifetimes (10-40 ns) of Ce3+ in traditional Ce3+ doped phosphors and therefore likely originates from defect states. The picosecond lifetime is shorter than the typical Ce3+ value and is also likely due to defect or surface states. When the samples are annealed at 700 oC, this emission disappears possibly due to changes in the defect moieties or concentration. In addition, a blue emission at around 430 nm is observed in freshly-prepared Gd2O3 undoped nanoparticles which is attributed to the stabilizer, polyethylene glycol biscarboxymethyl ether. Upon aging, the undoped particles show similar emission to the doped particles with similar luminescence lifetimes. When Eu3+ ions are co-doped in Gd2O3:Ce nanoparticles, both the green emission and the emission at 612 nm from Eu3+ are observed.

Woo, Boon K.; Joly, Alan G.; Chen, Wei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Annual Energy Outlook 2000 - Legislation & Regulations  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

leg_reg.gif (4810 bytes) Climate Change Action Plan Comprehensive Electricity Competition Act Tier 2 Vehicle Emissions and Gasoline Sulfur Standards California Ban of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Low-Emission Vehicle Program Introduction Because analyses by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) are required to be policy-neutral, the projections in this Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AEO2000) are based on Federal, State, and local laws and regulations in effect on July 1, 1999. The potential impacts of pending or proposed legislation, regulations, and standards and sections of existing legislation for which funds have not been appropriated are not reflected in the projections. Federal legislation incorporated in the projections includes the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, which adds 4.3 cents per gallon to the Federal tax on highway fuels [1]; the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987; the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90); the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT); the Outer Continental Shelf Deep Water Royalty Relief Act of 1995; the Tax Payer Relief Act of 1997; and the Federal Highway Bill of 1998, which includes an extension of the ethanol tax credit. AEO2000 assumes the continuation of the ethanol tax credit through 2020.

435

The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2000 - International  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

international energy module (IEM) consists of four submodules (Figure 4) that perform the following functions: international energy module (IEM) consists of four submodules (Figure 4) that perform the following functions: world oil market submodule—calculates the average annual world oil price (imported refiner acquisition cost) that is consistent with worldwide petroleum demand and supply availability crude oil supply submodule—provides im- ported crude oil supply curves for five crude oil quality classes petroleum products supply submodule—pro- vides imported refined product supply curves for eleven types of refined products oxygenates supply submodule—provides imported oxygenates supply curves for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and methanol. Figure 4. International Energy Module Structure The world oil price that is generated by the world oil market submodule is used by all the modules of NEMS as well as the other submodules of IEM. The import supply curves for crude oils, refined products, and oxygenates are used by the petroleum market module.

436

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Table 10.5 Estimated Number of Alternative-Fueled Vehicles in Use and Fuel Consumption, 1992-2010 Year Alternative and Replacement Fuels 1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases Compressed Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Methanol, 85 Percent (M85) 3 Methanol, Neat (M100) 4 Ethanol, 85 Percent (E85) 3,5 Ethanol, 95 Percent (E95) 3 Elec- tricity 6 Hydro- gen Other Fuels 7 Subtotal Oxygenates 2 Bio- diesel 10 Total Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether 8 Ethanol in Gasohol 9 Total Alternative-Fueled Vehicles in Use 11 (number) 1992 NA 23,191 90 4,850 404 172 38 1,607 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1993 NA 32,714 299 10,263 414 441 27 1,690 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1994 NA 41,227 484 15,484 415 605 33 2,224 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1995 172,806 50,218 603 18,319 386 1,527

437

U.S. Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total Input 1,184,435 1,522,193 1,850,204 2,166,784 2,331,109 2,399,318 2005-2012 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 3,445 5,686 6,538 7,810 10,663 2008-2012 Pentanes Plus 2,012 474 1,808 1,989 2,326 4,164 2005-2012 Liquid Petroleum Gases 2,971 3,878 4,549 5,484 6,499 2008-2012 Normal Butane 2,943 2,971 3,878 4,549 5,484 6,499 2005-2012 Isobutane 2005-2006 Other Liquids 1,518,748 1,844,518 2,160,246 2,323,299 2,388,655 2008-2012 Oxygenates/Renewables 234,047 274,974 286,837 295,004 2009-2012 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 2005-2006 Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) 234,047 274,974 286,837 295,004 2009-2012 Fuel Ethanol 131,810 182,772 232,677 273,107 281,507 287,433 2005-2012

438

What's New in the Computational Biology Section  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What's New? What's New? Kane, SR, Chakicherla, AY, Chain, PSG, Schmidt, R, Shin, MW, Legler, TC, Scow, KM, Larimer, FW, Lucas, SM, Richardson, PM, and Hristova, KR. (2007). Whole-Genome Analysis of the Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1. J. Bacteriol. 189(5): 1931-1945. PubMed Scott KM, Sievert SM, Abril FN, Ball LA, Barrett CJ, Blake RA, Boller AJ, Chain PS, Clark JA, Davis CR, Detter C, Do KF, Dobrinski KP, Faza BI, Fitzpatrick KA, Freyermuth SK, Harmer TL, Hauser LJ, Hugler M, Kerfeld CA, Klotz MG, Kong WW, Land M, Lapidus A, Larimer FW, Longo DL, Lucas S, Malfatti SA, Massey SE, Martin DD, McCuddin Z, Meyer F, Moore JL, Ocampo LH, Paul JH, Paulsen IT, Reep DK, Ren Q, Ross RL, Sato PY, Thomas P, Tinkham LE, Zeruth GT. (2006). The Genome of Deep-Sea Vent Chemolithoautotroph Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2. PLoS Biol. 4(12): e383. PubMed

439

U.S. Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total Input 206,541 217,867 212,114 216,075 219,783 208,203 2005-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 891 352 376 196 383 1,397 2008-2013 Pentanes Plus 261 301 313 67 287 393 2005-2013 Liquid Petroleum Gases 630 51 63 129 96 1,004 2008-2013 Normal Butane 630 51 63 129 96 1,004 2005-2013 Isobutane 2005-2006 Other Liquids 205,650 217,515 211,738 215,879 219,400 206,806 2008-2013 Oxygenates/Renewables 25,156 26,576 26,253 26,905 27,788 25,795 2009-2013 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 2005-2006 Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) 25,156 26,576 26,253 26,905 27,788 25,795 2009-2013 Fuel Ethanol 24,163 25,526 24,804 25,491 25,970 24,116 2005-2013

440

Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

2001-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to develop a new catalyst; the kinetics for this catalyst; reactor models for trickle bed, slurry and fixed bed reactors; and to simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for conversion of a hydrogen lean synthesis gas to isobutylene. A hydrogen-lean synthesis gas with a ratio of H{sub 2}/CO of 0.5 to 1.0 is produced from the gasification of coal, lignite, or biomass. Isobutylene is a key reactant in the synthesis of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and of isooctanes. MTBE and isooctanes are high octane fuels used to blend with low octane gasolines to raise the octane number required for modern automobiles. The production of these two key octane boosters is limited by the supply of isobutylene. MTBE, when used as an octane enhancer, also decreases the amount of pollutants emitted from the exhaust of an automobile engine.

Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project has been the pursuit of a catalyst system which would allow the selective production from syngas of methanol and isobutanol. It is desirable to develop a process in which the methanol to isobutanol weight ratio could be varied from 70/30 to 30/70. The 70/30 mixture could be used directly as a fuel additive, while, with the appropriate downstream processing, the 30/70 mixture could be utilized for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis. The indirect manufacture of MTBE from a coal derived syngas to methanol and isobutanol process would appear to be a viable solution to MTBE feedstock limitations. To become economically attractive, a process fro producing oxygenates from coal-derived syngas must form these products with high selectivity and good rates, and must be capable of operating with a low-hydrogen-content syngas. This was to be accomplished through extensions of known catalyst systems and by the rational design of novel catalyst systems.

Dombek, B.D.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Final report, September 1, 1990--January 31, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was initiated because the supply of isobutylene had been identified as a limitation on the production of methyl-t-butyl ether, a gasoline additive. Prior research on isobutylene synthesis had been at low conversion (less than 5%) or extremely high pressures (greater than 300 bars). The purpose of this research was to optimize the synthesis of a zirconia based catalyst, determine process conditions for producing isobutylene at pressures less than 100 bars, develop kinetic and reactor models, and simulate the performance of fixed bed, trickle bed and slurry flow reactors. A catalyst, reactor models and optimum operating conditions have been developed for producing isobutylene from coal derived synthesis gas. The operating conditions are much less severe than the reaction conditions developed by the Germans during and prior to WWII. The low conversion, i.e. CO conversion less than 15%, have been perceived to be undesirable for a commercial process. However, the exothermic nature of the reaction and the ability to remove heat from the reactor could limit the extent of conversion for a fixed bed reactor. Long residence times for trickle or slurry (bubble column) reactors could result in high CO conversion at the expense of reduced selectivities to iso C{sub 4} compounds. Economic studies based on a preliminary design, and a specific location will be required to determine the commercial feasibility of the process.

Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.; Philip, C.V.; Erkey, C.; Feng, Z.; Postula, W.S.; Wang, J.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Exports Exports Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Naphtha for Petro. Feed. Use Other Oils Petro. Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

445

Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In experimental animals fed standard laboratory diets, penta-BDE mixtures can decrease circulating thyroid hormone and liver vitamin A concentrations. A substantial number of pregnant women and their children have marginal vitamin A status, potentially increasing their risk of adverse effects to penta-BDE exposure. The current study investigated the effects of maternal gestational and lactational penta-BDE exposure on thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis in rats of sufficient vitamin A (VAS) or marginal vitamin A (VAM) status and their offspring. Dams were administered daily oral doses of 18 mg/kg DE-71 (a penta-BDE mixture) or a corn oil vehicle from gestation day 6 through lactation day (LD) 18. Thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis were assessed in plasma and tissues of LD 19 dams and postnatal day (PND) 12, 18, and 31 pups. DE-71 exposure induced hepatomegaly in VAS and VAM pups at all timepoints and increased testes weights at PND 31. While liver vitamin A concentrations were low in DE-71 treated dams and pups, plasma retinol concentrations and plasma retinol binding protein levels were only low in VAM animals exposed to DE-71. DE-71 exposure lowered plasma thyroxine concentrations in VAS and VAM dams and pups. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were high in VAM dams exposed to DE-71, suggesting that marginal vitamin A status enhances the susceptibility to thyroid hormone axis disruption by DE-71. These results support the concept that marginal vitamin A status in pregnant women may increase the risk for PBDE-induced disruptions in vitamin A and thyroid hormone homeostasis.

Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Cherr, Gary N. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California-Davis, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Hanna, Lynn A. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Keen, Carl L. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States) and Department of Internal Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: clkeen@ucdavis.edu

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(poly (ether ether ketone)) Products ranging from membrane separation filters to heat transfer devices Not-for-profit research company, providing energy and natural gas...

447

Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 35, No. 5, October 2012, pp. 767772. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Anti-tumor activity of self-charged (Eu,Ca):WO3 and Eu:CaWO4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Beijing, Beijing 100083, China Peking University Health Science Centre, Beijing 100191, China School of Applied Science, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China #Department. In recent years, studies of anti-tumor drugs mainly focused on nanomaterials. Seve- ral nanomaterials

Volinsky, Alex A.

448

Structural and Magnetothermal Properties of Compounds: Yb5SixGe4-x,Sm5SixGe4-x, EuO, and Eu3O4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The family of R{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} alloys demonstrates a variety of unique physical phenomena related to magneto-structural transitions associated with reversible breaking and reforming of specific bonds that can be controlled by numerous external parameters such as chemical composition, magnetic field, temperature, and pressure. Therefore, R{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} systems have been extensively studied to uncover the mechanism of the extraordinary magneto-responsive properties including the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and colossal magnetostriction, as well as giant magnetocaloric effect (GMCE). Until now, more than a half of possible R{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} pseudobinary systems have been completely or partially investigated with respect to their crystallography and phase relationships (R = La, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Lu, Y). Still, there are other R{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} systems (R = Ce, Sm, Ho, Tm, and Yb) that are not studied yet. Here, we report on phase relationships and structural, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties in the Yb{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} and Sm{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} pseudobinary systems, which may exhibit mixed valence states. The crystallography, phase relationships, and physical properties of Yb{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} alloys with 0 {le} x {le} 4 have been examined by using single crystal and powder x-ray diffraction at room temperature, and dc magnetization and heat capacity measurements between 1.8 K and 400 K in magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 7 T. Unlike the majority of R{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} systems studied to date, where R is the rare earth metal, all Yb-based germanide-silicides with the 5:4 stoichiometry crystallize in the same Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 4}-type structure. The magnetic properties of Yb{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} materials are nearly composition-independent, reflecting the persistence of the same crystal structure over the whole range of x from 0 to 4. Both the crystallographic and magnetic property data indicate that Yb{sub 5}Si{sub x}Ge{sub 4-x} alloys are mixed valence systems, in which the majority (60%) of Yb atoms is divalent, while the minority (40%) is trivalent. This finding is supported by recent Moessbauer spectroscopy data.

Kyunghan Ahn

2007-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

449

Impact of European Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS) on carbon emissions and investment decisions in the power sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This masters thesis assesses the impact of a emissions trading on short-term carbon abatement and investment decisions in the power sector. Environmental benefits from carbon abatement due to emissions trading are quantified ...

Feilhauer, Stephan M. (Stephan Marvin)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Lessons Learned from the TOF-Benchmark Intercomparison Exercise Within EU CONRAD Project (How Not to Misinterpret a TOF Benchmark)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Miscellaneous / Special Issue on the 11th International Conference on Radiation Shielding and the 15th Topical Meeting of the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division (PART 3) / Radiation Measurements and Instrumentation

I. Kodeli; A. Milocco; A. Trkov

451

This booklet is part of the `Couldn't be without it!' educational project from EIROFORUM, a Eu-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the first uses of solar power had a mili- taryapplication: It is said that Archimedes used a large mirror,peopleexperimented on generating electricity by windmills. Solar power was first developed by the French AugusteMouchout, in1860 using solar panels Fusion power gives the sun it's energy. Scientist try to harness this energy source

452

Human Security as a Political Strategy: The Road to Peace? : The Role of the EU in Bosnia and Herzegovina.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this master’s thesis is to study the concept of human security in a relationship with peace. Human security has the power to… (more)

Rozborová, Lubica

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

The Effectiveness of the EU as a Peace Actor in Post-conflict Bosnia Herzegovina: An Evaluative Study .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The dissertation evaluates the effectiveness of the European Union as an actor of peace in post-conflict Bosnia Herzegovina. While doing that it discusses the use… (more)

Eralp, Ulas Doga

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Design Update and Mock-Up Test Strategy for the Validation of the EU-HCPB-TBM Concept  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tritium, Safety, and Environment / Eighteenth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (Part 1)

F. Cismondi et al.

455

Smart Grids in the European data protection legal framework : Smart metering implications for the EU data protection.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Abstract Smart Grids are electricity networks of tomorrow that offer many benefits to its users. As with any other technology, there are also problematic issues… (more)

Havlikova, Daniela

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Biofuel and Biomass Subsidies in the U.S., EU and Brazil: Towards a Transparent System of Notification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IPC finds practical solutions that support the more open and equitable trade of food & agricultural products to meet the worlds growing needs. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Pedro de Camargo Neto, Stefan Tangermann, Rolf Moehler, Willem-Jan

Tim Josling; David Bl; Jane Earley Biofuel; Brazil Towards; Transparent System Notification; Robbin Johnson; Charlotte Hebebr; Alan Swinbank; David Orden; Geraldine Kutas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Role of Bioenergy in the Kyoto Protocol, in the EU-ETS and in future Climate Agreements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in existing plants (co-firing) is already competitive with other fuels at a CO2 price of about 20 Euros

458

Thermoset epoxy polymers from renewable resources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel thermoset epoxy polymers using the bisglycidyl ethers of anhydrosugars, such as isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide, are disclosed. The bisglycidyl ethers are useful as substitutes for bisphenol A in the manufacture of thermoset epoxy ethers. The anhydrosugars are derived from renewable sources and the bisglycidyl ethers are not xenoestrogenic and the thermoset curing agents are likewise derived form renewable resources.

East, Anthony (Madison, NJ); Jaffe, Michael (Maplewood, NJ); Zhang, Yi (Harrison, NJ); Catalani, Luiz H (Carapicuiba, BR)

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

459

May 2012Volunteer Volunteer 11  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Glutamic acid Anaerobic digestion mass Cellulose Biogas Bio oil Gasoline Diesel Butanol Dimethyl ether

Sharp, Kim

460

AOCS Official Method Ba 3-38  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This method determines the substances extracted by petroleum ether under the conditions of the test.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl ether eu" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by weight [6]. The potential improvements in energy efficiency within the transportation section, particularly in sport utility vehicles and light-duty trucks, that can be provided by deployment of diesel engines in passenger cars and trucks is a strong incentive to develop cleaner burning diesel engines and cleaner burning fuels for diesel engines. Thus, serious consideration of oxygenated diesel fuels is of significant practical interest and value to society. In the present work, a diesel fuel reformulating agent, CETANERTM, has been examined in a popular light-medium duty turbodiesel engine over a range of blending ratios. This additive is a mixture of glycol ethers and can be produced from dimethyl ether, which itself can be manufactured from synthesis gas using Air Products' Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME TM) technology. CETANERTM is a liquid, has an oxygen content of 36 wt.%, has a cetane number over 100 and is highly miscible in diesel fuel. This combination of physical and chemical properties makes CETANERTM an attractive agent for oxygenating diesel fuel. The present study considered CETANERTM ratios from 0 to 40 wt.% in a California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel. Particulate matter emissions, gaseous emissions and in-cylinder pressure traces were monitored over the AVL 8-Mode engine test protocol [7]. This paper presents the results from these measurements and discusses the implications of using high cetane number oxygenates in diesel fuel reformulation.

Boehman, Andre L.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

462

Task 4.9 -- Value-added products from syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work on advanced fuel forms in 1996 focused on the synthesis of higher alcohols from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon dioxide (syngas) from coal gasification. The conversion of coal gasification products to commercially valuable alcohols will provide an important new market for current and future gasification plants. Initial work in this project utilized a novel molybdenum sulfide catalyst previously shown to be active for hydrodesulfurization reactions of coal liquids. The support for the active metal sulfide is a layered mixed oxide (hydrotalcite) capable of interaction with the metal sites for catalysis of carbon monoxide reductions. These catalysts have a high surface area, are highly porous, and have basic and acidic functionality. A pressurized fixed-bed flow-through reactor was constructed, and the MoS{sub 2} catalysts were tested with syngas under a variety of conditions. Unfortunately, the catalysts, even with higher molybdenum loading and addition of promoters, failed to give alcohol products. A batch reactor test of the catalyst was also conducted, but did not produce alcohol products. Group 8 metals have been used previously in catalysts for syngas reactions. Ruthenium and rhodium catalysts were prepared by impregnation of a hydrotalcite support. Tests with these catalysts in flow-through reactors also did not produce the desired alcohol products. The formation of higher alcohols from smaller ones, such as methanol and ethanol, could be commercially important if high selectivity could be achieved. The methanol and ethanol would be derived from syngas and fermentation, respectively. Based on previous work in other laboratories, it was hypothesized that the hydrotalcite supported MoS{sub 2} or Ru or Rh catalysts could catalyze the formation of butyl alcohols. Although the desired 1-butanol was obtained in batch reactions with the promoted Ru catalyst, the reaction was not as selective as desired. Product suitable for a lower-vapor-pressure gasoline oxygenate additive was obtained, but it may not be economical to market such products in competition with methyl tertiary-butyl-ether. Flow-through catalytic bed reactions were not successful.

Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a furnished room a furnished room Title Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-53943 Year of Publication 2004 Authors Singer, Brett C., Kenneth L. Revzan, Toshifumi Hotchi, Alfred T. Hodgson, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 38 Start Page Chapter Issue 16 Pagination 2483-2494 Abstract We present experimental data and semi-empirical models describing the sorption of organic gases in a simulated indoor residential environment. Two replicate experiments were conducted with 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a 50-m3 room finished with painted wallboard, carpet and cushion, draperies and furnishings. The VOCs span a wide volatility range and include ten Hazardous Air Pollutants. VOCs were introduced to the static chamber as a pulse and their gas-phase concentrations were measured during a net adsorption period and a subsequent net desorption period. Three sorption models were fit to the measured concentrations for each compound to determine the simplest formulation needed to adequately describe the observed behavior. Sorption parameter values were determined by fitting the models to adsorption period data then checked by comparing measured and predicted behavior during desorption. The adequacy of each model was evaluated using a goodness of fit parameter calculated for each period. Results indicate that sorption usually does not greatly affect indoor concentrations of methyl-tert-butyl ether, 2-butanone, isoprene and benzene. In contrast, sorption appears to be a relevant indoor process for many of the VOCs studied, including C8-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons (HC), terpenes, and pyridine. These compounds sorbed at rates close to typical residential air change rates and exhibited substantial sorptive partitioning at equilibrium. Polycyclic aromatic HCs, aromatic alcohols, ethenylpyridine and nicotine initially adsorbed to surfaces at rates of 1.5 to >6 h-1 and partitioned 95 to >99% in the sorbed phase at equilibrium

464

Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

Hadder, G.R.

2000-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

465

Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental data and semi-empirical models describing the sorption of organic gases in a simulated indoor residential environment. Two replicate experiments were conducted with 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a 50-m{sup 3} room finished with painted wallboard, carpet and cushion, draperies and furnishings. The VOCs span a wide volatility range and include ten Hazardous Air Pollutants. VOCs were introduced to the static chamber as a pulse and their gas-phase concentrations were measured during a net adsorption period and a subsequent net desorption period. Three sorption models were fit to the measured concentrations for each compound to determine the simplest formulation needed to adequately describe the observed behavior. Sorption parameter values were determined by fitting the models to adsorption period data then checked by comparing measured and predicted behavior during desorption. The adequacy of each model was evaluated using a goodness of fit parameter calculated for each period. Results indicate that sorption usually does not greatly affect indoor concentrations of methyl-tert-butyl ether, 2-butanone, isoprene and benzene. In contrast, sorption appears to be a relevant indoor process for many of the VOCs studied, including C{sub 8}-C{sub 10} aromatic hydrocarbons (HC), terpenes, and pyridine. These compounds sorbed at rates close to typical residential air change rates and exhibited substantial sorptive partitioning at equilibrium. Polycyclic aromatic HCs, aromatic alcohols, ethenylpyridine and nicotine initially adsorbed to surfaces at rates of 1.5 to >6 h{sup -1} and partitioned 95 to >99% in the sorbed phase at equilibrium.

Singer, Brett C.; Revzan, Kenneth L.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Brown, Nancy J.

2003-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

466

Predicted concentrations in new relocatable classrooms of volatile organic compounds emitted from standard and alternate interior finish materials  

SciTech Connect

Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are widely employed by California school districts to satisfy rapidly expanding space requirements due to population growth and class size reduction policies. There is public concern regarding indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in schools, particularly in RCs, but very little data to support or dispel these concerns. Several studies are investigating various aspects of IEQ in California schools. This laboratory-based study focused on evaluating the emissions of toxic and/or odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, from materials used to finish the interiors of new RCs. Furthermore, the study implemented a procedure for VOC source reduction by testing and selecting lower-emitting materials as substitutes for standard materials. In total, 17 standard and alternate floor coverings, wall panels and ceiling panels were quantitatively tested for emissions of VOCs using smallscale environmental chambers. Working with the largest northern California manufacturer of conventional RCs and two school districts, specifications were developed for four new RCs to be produced in early summer 2001. Two of these will be predominantly finished with standard materials. Alternate carpet systems, an alternate wall panel covering and an alternate ceiling panel were selected for the two other RCs based on the results of the laboratory study and considerations of cost and anticipated performance and maintenance. Particular emphasis was placed on reducing the concentrations of VOCs on California agency lists of toxic compounds. Indoor concentrations of toxic and odorous VOCs were estimated for the four classrooms by mass balance using the measured VOC emission factors, exposed surface areas of the materials in the RCs, and three ventilation rate scenarios. Results indicate that reductions in the concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde phenol, di(ethylene glycol) butyl ether, vinyl acetate, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone should be achieved as the result of the source reduction procedure.

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Fisk, William J.; Shendell, Derek G.; Apte, Michael G.

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

The feasibility of ethanol production in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agricultural interests across Texas are looking at the possibility of an ethanol industry in Texas. Continued conflict in the Middle East, the ban of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in California, and low commodity prices have all lead to increased interest in ethanol throughout the state of Texas. There have been several ethanol feasibility studies conducted. Most studies have been focused in other states, and only one incorporated risk on input and output prices. Very little research has been done in Texas. Previous studies are typically for a generic location and only looked at ethanol production from corn. This study looks at four different plant sizes in three different regions using corn and grain sorghum. This study incorporates risk on input prices (corn, grain sorghum, natural gas, and electricity) and the output prices of ethanol and dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS). The regions that were analyzed in the study are the Texas Panhandle, the Central Texas region, and the Southeast Texas region. The results indicate that the only plants expected to generate a positive net present value (NPV) were the larger grain sorghum based plants in the Texas Panhandle. The smaller sorghum based plants in the Panhandle did not have a positive NPV. The only other plants that were close to having a positive net present value were the grain sorghum plants in the Central Texas Region. Sorghum in the Southeast Texas Region was not feasible. Using corn as the feedstock was not as feasible in any region. The results of a sensitivity analysis show that a small increase in the net income in the form of increased revenue or reduced costs would make all the plants profitable.

Herbst, Brian Keith

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

The origin and fate of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to determine the impact of alternative fuels on air quality, particularly ozone formation. The objective will be met through three steps: (1) qualitative identification of alternative fuel combustion products, (2) quantitative measurement of specific emission levels of these products, and (3) determination of the fate of the combustion products in the atmosphere. The alternative fuels of interest are methanol, ethanol, natural gas, and LP gas. The role of the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) in this project is two-fold. First, fused silica flow reactor instrumentation is being used to obtain both qualitative identification and quantitative data on the thermal degradation products from the fuel-lean (oxidative), stoichiometric, and fuel-rich (pyrolytic) decomposition of methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, and natural gas. Secondly, a laser photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence (LP/LIF) apparatus is being used to determine the rates and mechanisms of reaction of selected degradation products under atmospheric conditions. This draft final report contains the results of the second year of the study. The authors initially discuss the results of their flow reactor studies. This is followed by a discussion of the initial results from their LP/LIF studies of the reaction of hydroxyl (OH) radicals with methanol and ethanol. In the coming year, they plan to obtain quantitative data on the oxidation of methyl-t-butyl-ether and reformulated gasoline under fuel-lean, stoichiometric, and fuel-rich conditions. They also plan to conduct a mechanistic analysis of the reaction of OH with acetaldehyde and formaldehyde over an extended temperature range.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene in a slurry reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The April 1990 Alternative Fuels Proposal to the Department of Energy involved the development of new technology, based on the liquid phase process, for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels, fuel additives, and fuel intermediates. The objective of this work was to develop a slurry reactor based process for the dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The isobutene can serve as a feedstock for the high octane oxygenated fuel additive methyl tertiary-butyl either (MTBE). Alumina catalysts were investigated because of their wide use as a dehydration catalyst. Four commercially available alumina catalysts (Catapal B, Versal B, Versal GH, and Al-3996R) were evaluated for both activity and selectivity to the branched olefin. All four catalysts demonstrated conversions greater than 80% at 290 C, while conversions of near 100% could be obtained at 330 C. The reaction favors low pressures and moderate to low space velocities. A yield of 0.90 mole isobutene per mole reacted isobutanol or better was obtained at conversions of 60--70% and higher. From 75 to 98% conversion, the four catalysts all provide isobutene yields ranging from 0.92 to 0.94 with the maximum occurring around 90% conversion. At low conversions, the concentration of diisobutyl ether becomes significant while the concentration of linear butenes is essentially a linear function of isobutanol conversion. Doping the catalyst with up to 0.8 wt % potassium showed a modest increase in isobutene selectivity; however, this increase was more than offset by a reduction in activity. Investigations using a mixed alcohols feed (consistent with isobutanol synthesis from syngas) demonstrated a small increase in the C4 iso-olefin selectivity over that observed for a pure isobutanol feed. 55 refs.

Latshaw, B.E.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. Final report, August 26, 1993--August 26, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Motivated by the goal of finding improved catalysts for low- temperature conversion of light alkanes into fuel components or precursors of fuel components, the researchers have investigated sulfated zirconia and promoted sulfated zirconia for conversion of butane, propane, and ethane. Catalyst performance data for sulfated zirconia promoted with iron and manganese show that it is the most active noncorrosive, nonhalide catalyst known for n-butane isomerization, and it is an excellent candidate catalyst for new low- temperature n-butane isomerization processes to make isobutane, which can be converted by established technology into methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). Various transition metals have been found to work as promoters of sulfated zirconia for n-butane isomerization. The combination of iron and manganese is the best known combination of promoters yet discovered. The iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia is also a catalyst for conversion of propane and of ethane. Ethane is converted into ethylene and butanes in the presence of the iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia; propane is also converted into butane, among other products. However, the activities of the catalyst for these reactions are orders of magnitude less than the activity for n-butane conversion, and there is no evidence that the catalyst would be of practical value for conversion of alkanes lighter than butane. The product distribution data for ethane and propane conversion provide new insights into the nature of the catalyst and its acidity. These data suggest the involvement of Olah superacid chemistry, whereby the catalyst protonates the alkane itself, giving carbonium ions (as transition states). The mechanism of protonation of the alkane may also pertain to the conversion of butane, but there is good evidence that the butane conversion also proceeds via alkene intermediates by conventional mechanisms of carbenium ion formation and rearrangement.

Gates, B.C.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

471

Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Second annual report  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe second year efforts in synthesis, characterization, and rheology to develop polymers with significantly improved efficiency in mobility control and conformance. These advanced polymer systems would maintain high viscosities or behave as virtual gels under low shear conditions and at elevated electrolyte concentrations. At high fluid shear rates, associates would deaggregate yielding low viscosity solutions, reducing problems of shear degradation or face plugging during injection. Polymeric surfactants were also developed with potential for use in higher salt, higher temperature reservoirs for mobilization of entrapped oil. Chapters include: Ampholytic terpolymers of acrylamide with sodium 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride; Hydrophilic sulfobetaine copolymers of acrylamide and 3-(2-acrylamido-methylpropane-dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate; Copolymerization of maleic anhydride and N-vinylformamide; Reactivity ratio of N-vinylformamide with acrylamide, sodium acrylate, and n-butyl acrylate; Effect of the distribution of the hydrophobic cationic monomer dimethyldodecyl(2-acrylamidoethyl)ammonium bromide on the solution behavior of associating acrylamide copolymers; Effect of surfactants on the solution properties of amphipathic copolymers of acrylamide and N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecyl-N-(2-acrylamidoethyl)ammonium bromide; Associative interactions and photophysical behavior of amphiphilic terpolymers prepared by modification of maleic anhydride/ethyl vinyl ether copolymers; Copolymer compositions of high-molecular-weight functional acrylamido water-soluble polymers using direct-polarization magic-angle spinning {sup 13}C NMR; Use of factorial experimental design in static and dynamic light scattering characterization of water soluble polymers; and Porous medium elongational rheometer studies of NaAMB/AM copolymer solutions.

McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

Tyson, K.S.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

DIVALENT LANTHANIDE CHEMISTRY; BIS (PENTAMETHYLCYCLOPENTADIENYL) EUROPIUM(II) AND YTTERBIUM(II) DERIVATIVES: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF BIS(PENTAMETHYLCYCLOPENTADIENYL) YTTERBIUM (II)TETRAHYDROFURAN HEMI (TOLUENE) AT 176K  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Red, paramagnetic ({mu}{sub B} = 7.99 B.M., 5-50K) bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) europium (II)(tetrahydrofuran)(diethylether), (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}Eu(THF)(Et{sub 2}O) is isolated from reaction of three molar equivalents of sodium pentamethylcyclopentadienide and europium trichloride in refluxing tetrahydrofuran, after crystallization from diethyl ether. The monotetrahydrofuran complex, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}Eu(THF), may be isolated by use of toluene rather than diethyl ether as the crystallization solvent. Red, diamagnetic bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)ytterbium(II)(tetrahydrofuran) is isolated from the reaction of ytterbium dichloride and sodium pentamethylcyclopentadienide in refluxing tetrahydrofuran. The diethyl ether complex, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}Yb(OEt{sub 2}), may be isolated by crystallization of the tetrahydrofuran complex from diethylether, The hemi-toluene complex, (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2} Yb(THF) {center_dot} 1/2 toluene, can be isolated by recrystallization of the tetrahydrofuran complex from toluene. As these divalent metallocenes are the first hydrocarbon-soluble lanthanide derivatives to be isolated we have examined the latter complex by X-ray crystallography. Crystals of (Me{sub 5}C{sub 5}){sub 2}Yb(OC{sub 4}H{sub 8}) {center_dot} 1/2(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}cH{sub 3}) crystalline in the monoclinic system, P2{sub 1}/n, with a = 11.358(8) {angstrom}, b = 21.756(19) {angstrom}, c = 10.691(7) {angstrom}, and {beta} = 101.84(5){sup o} at 176K. For Z = 4 the calculated density is 1.37 g cm{sup -3}. The ytterbium atom is coordinated to the oxygen atom of a tetrahydrofuran molecule and to two pentamethyl cyclopentadienyl rings. The molecule has approximate c{sub 2} symmetry about the Yb-0 bond. The Yb-0 distance is 2.41 {angstrom}, the Yb-C distances average 2.66 {angstrom}, and the Yb-Cp (centroid) distances average 2.37 {angstrom}. The Me{sub 5}C{sub 5} rings are in a staggered configuration with respect to each other. The methyl groups of the Me{sub 5}C{sub 5} groups are displaced by .03 to .21 {angstrom} from the planes of the five-membered rings away from the ytterbium atom. The toluene molecule is not coordinated to the complex and is on a center of symmetry in a disordered configuration. The 3466 data with F{sup 2} > 3{sigma} refined by full matrix least-squares to a conventional R factor of 0.036.

Tilley, T.Don; Andersen, Richard A.; Spencer, Brock; Ruben, Helena; Zalkin, Allan; Templeton, David H.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

PUTTING THE CART BEFORE THE HORSE : E-Money and Regulation in the EU: Lessons from Japan. What Does the Future Hold for E-Money in Europe?.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??While regulation is not the only factor responsible for the development of the e-money market, it is generally believed that the original E-Money Directive in… (more)

Boiadjiev, Stanislav

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

The EU's raison d'être in the world 2020-2030 : submission to the Reflection Group on the Future of Europe, 2020-2030.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??While Europe may never have been so prosperous, so secure or so free, it does not feel this way to most of its citizens, its… (more)

Manners, Ian

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Realisation of the full potential of PV Extract of report from workgroup 4 in EU's PV Technology Platform by Peter Ahm.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Realisation of the full potential of PV as an important and integral part of our energy supply exploitation and to continue to innovate as the industry moves towards being a major contributor to energy of the use of energy from renewable sources recognises this (box right)2 . This chapter considers

477

Presentation 1.1: An overview of existing and emerging EU policies relating to energy from biomass and their effects on forest based industries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is the driver of the modern society, allowing for transforming raw materials and resources into "useful design like power plants with CO2 capture, fuel cell systems and biofuels production and in the study of urban energy systems. In the presentation, examples of the biofuel production process design

478

http://www.digitalocean.eu : FP7 262160 (2010-2012) Human-Robot-Interfaces based on Mixed Reality for Underwater Robot  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Underwater Robot Teleoperation Christophe Domingues*, Mouna Essabbah*, Nader Cheaib* and Samir Otmane* Alain two Human-Robot interfaces for underwater robot teleoperation. This work is in the context of the Digital Ocean Europe project1 that aims at digitalizing seafloor sites in 3D imagery using underwater

Paris-Sud XI, Université de