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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Exposure to di(n-butyl)phthalate and benzo(a)pyrene alters IL-1{beta} secretion and subset expression of testicular macrophages, resulting in decreased testosterone production in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Di(n-butyl)phthalate (DBP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are environmental endocrine disruptors that are potentially hazardous to humans. These chemicals affect testicular macrophage immuno-endocrine function and testosterone production. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects are not fully understood. It is well known that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1{beta}), which is secreted by testicular macrophages, plays a trigger role in regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The purpose of this study was to reveal the effects of co-exposure to DBP and BaP on testicular macrophage subset expression, IL-1{beta} secretion and testosterone production. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups; two groups received DBP plus BaP (DBP + BaP: 50 + 1 or 250 + 5 mg/kg/day) four groups received DBP or BaP alone (DBP: 50 or 250 mg/kg/day; BaP: 1 or 5 mg/kg/day), and one group received vehicle alone (control). After co-exposure for 90 days, the relative expression of macrophage subsets and their functions changed. ED2{sup +} testicular macrophages (reactive with a differentiation-related antigen present on the resident macrophages) were activated and IL-1{beta} secretion was enhanced. DBP and BaP acted additively, as demonstrated by greater IL-1{beta} secretion relative to each compound alone. These observations suggest that exposure to DBP plus BaP exerted greater suppression on testosterone production compared with each compound alone. The altered balance in the subsets of testicular macrophages and the enhanced ability of resident testicular macrophages to secrete IL-1{beta}, resulted in enhanced production of IL-1{beta} as a potent steroidogenesis repressor. This may represent an important mechanism by which DBP and BaP repress steroidogenesis.

Zheng Shanjun [Department of High Altitude Military Hygiene, College of High Altitude Military Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Laboratory of High Altitude Medicine, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Laboratory of High Altitude Physiology and High Altitude Disease, PLA, Chongqing 400038 (China); Tian Huaijun, E-mail: huaijunt@sohu.co [Department of High Altitude Military Hygiene, College of High Altitude Military Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Laboratory of High Altitude Medicine, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Laboratory of High Altitude Physiology and High Altitude Disease, PLA, Chongqing 400038 (China); Cao Jia [Department of Hygienic Toxicology, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Gao Yuqi, E-mail: yanhua007_007@hotmail.co [Department of High Altitude Military Hygiene, College of High Altitude Military Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Laboratory of High Altitude Medicine, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Laboratory of High Altitude Physiology and High Altitude Disease, PLA, Chongqing 400038 (China)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003 Bioaccumulation of Phthalate Esters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioaccumulation Factors BBP Butylbenzyl Phthalate BCFs Bioconcentration Factors BSAF Biota-Sediment Accumulation F

Gobas, Frank

3

Preparation of diallyl phthalate prepolymer solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is claimed for preparing prepolymers of a diallyl phthalate at room temperature. The process is characterized by the fact that the solution of a diallyl phthalate alone or a diallyl phthalate and another copolymerizable monomer, in a liquid ketone at ambient temperature, is heated in the presence of a free radical-forming catalyst, preferably hydrogen peroxide, as well as in the presence of a small amount of a strong acid until at least 60% and advantageously at least 90% of the monomer initially present has been converted to the prepolymer.

Not Available

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Phthalates and Their Alternatives: Health and Environmental Concerns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

petroleum-based and biobased plastics that do not require the use of phthalates and describes the known of Massachusetts Lowell developed this technical briefing to provide an overview of alternatives to phthalates used's products. The document describes uses of and products containing phthalates (Table 1) and outlines some

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

5

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetate phthalate synergy Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

14 Phthalates are a class of synthetic compounds used widely in polyvinyl chloride plastics, Summary: Phthalates are a class of synthetic compounds used widely in polyvinyl...

6

Synthesis and characterization of diallyl phthalate prepolymers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methods for the laboratory synthesis of diallyl phthalate prepolymers were evaluated. The chemical, physical, and molecular weight properties of several prepolymers synthesized were also evaluated and compared to those properties exhibited by Dapon 35 and Daiso 35, manufactured by FMC Corporation and Osaka-Soda, respectively. Glass-filled molding compounds from four of the prepolymers having molecular weight distributions ranging from 1.9 to 40.2 were prepared and tested at the Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility. The processing characteristics and physical and electrical properties of two molding compounds were found to be comparable to similar compounds made from Dapon 35 and Daiso 35.

Baker, G.K.; Parker, B.G.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

The antiestrogen [2-(4-benzyl-phenoxy)ethyl]diethylammonium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The antiestrogen [2-(4-benzyl- phenoxy)ethyl]diethylammonium chloride Andrew Hempel,a * Norman Research, 8515C 35 Ave. NE, Seattle, WA 98115, USA Correspondence e-mail: andrew

8

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Methyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COORDINATOR'S REPORT FOR LIFETIME CARCINOGENICITY STUDY OF METHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SPRAGUE CARCINOGENICITY STUDY OF METHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS CONDUCTED AT THE CANCER

Baker, Chris I.

9

antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by Fusarium solani CiteSeer Summary: Fusarium solani degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenated compounds from gasoline including tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The...

10

E-Print Network 3.0 - ammoniated glycyrrhizin butylated Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ammoniated glycyrrhizin butylated Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: ammoniated glycyrrhizin butylated Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1...

11

Phthalate exposure associated with self-reported diabetes among Mexican women  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals used as plasticizers in plastics made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility and durability. They are also present in products used for personal-care, industry and in medical devices. Phthalates have been associated with several adverse health effects, and recently it has been proposed that exposure to phthalates, could have an effect on metabolic homeostasis. This exploratory cross-sectional study evaluated the possible association between phthalate exposure and self-reported diabetes among adult Mexican women. Methods: As part of an on-going case-control study for breast cancer, only controls were selected, which constituted 221 healthy women matched by age ({+-}5 years) and place of residence with the cases. Women with diabetes were identified by self-report. Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites were measured by online solid phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Participants with diabetes had significantly higher concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) pththalate (DEHP) metabolites: mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) but lower levels of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) a metabolite of benzylbutyl phthalate, compared to participants without diabetes. A marginally significant positive associations with diabetes status were observed over tertiles with MEHHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.66; 95% CI: 0.97-7.33; p for trend=0.063) and MEOHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.27; 95% CI; 0.90-5.75; P for trend=0.079) even after adjusting for important confounders. Conclusions: The results suggest that levels of some phthalates may play a role in the genesis of diabetes. - Highlights: {yields} This study evaluated phthalate exposure and diabetes status among Mexican women. {yields} Urinary phthalates metabolite concentrations were used to determine association. {yields} Participants with diabetes had higher concentrations of three DEHP metabolites. {yields} A positive association with diabetes status was found with MEHHP and MEOHP metabolites. {yields} Results suggest phthalate exposure can have a role in diabetes.

Svensson, Katherine [Graduate School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR (Puerto Rico) [Graduate School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR (Puerto Rico); National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Burguete-Garcia, Ana [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)] [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Cebrian, Mariano E. [Departamento de Toxicologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico)] [Departamento de Toxicologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico); Calafat, Antonia M.; Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Claudio, Luz [Division of International Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States)] [Division of International Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth, E-mail: lizbeth@insp.mx [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)] [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

Photodegradation of dimethyl and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hexane and water was photodegraded by a 450-watt mercury vapor arc lamp in a quartz-cell. Several unidentified products were formed during the hexane solution photolysis. Aqueous solutions of DEHP were not good models for the study of phthalate photo... Effect of Solvents on the Band of Acetone. Position of the n~r* 19 Ultraviolet Spectral Energy Distribution of a 450-Watt Hanovia Mercury Vapor Arc Lamp. 23 IV Rate of Photodegradation of DEHP in Hexane 28 Rate of Photodegradation Hexane of DEHP...

Hammargren, Thomas Fredric

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater P.I. names,Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a contaminant of concernsubsurface environments. MTBE appears to be degraded readily

Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkynyl-substituted 6-benzyl group Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kinases with Summary: by Shokat et al. using rational engineering for N6 -benzyl ATP uptake.6,10 FIGURE 4 Groups of ATP... 6 -norbornyl ATP. Group B consisted of ITP, N6...

15

Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride towards Technetium-99 Extraction - 13016  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning processes, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, the UREX process has been developed in the United States to co-extract hexavalent uranium (U) and hepta-valent technetium (Tc) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Tc-99 is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radio-toxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t{sub 1/2} = 2.13 x 10{sup 5} years), and as such, is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste-form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flowsheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for ultimate disposal. In addition, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste-forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macro-compounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, quaternary ammonium salts, and resorcin-arenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} by benzyl tributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand's matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e. diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using an external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed. (authors)

Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Horkley, Jared; Campbell, Keri [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Street, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Street, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Roman, Audrey [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States)] [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States); Nunez, Ana; Espartero, Amparo [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040- Madrid (Spain)] [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040- Madrid (Spain)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-butyl ether (ETBE) for gasoline blending as a replacement for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) because and be blended with ETBE in the gasoline pool. Even for neat operation, if the conversion is low, the unconverted

Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

17

alkyl tert-butyl ether: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by Fusarium solani CiteSeer Summary: Fusarium solani degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenated compounds from gasoline including tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The...

18

active methyl tert-butyl: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by Fusarium solani CiteSeer Summary: Fusarium solani degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenated compounds from gasoline including tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The...

19

Catalyst system and process for benzyl ether fragmentation and coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dibenzyl ether can be readily cleaved to form primarily benzaldehyde and toluene as products, along with minor amounts of bibenzyl and benzyl benzoate, in the presence of a catalyst system comprising a Group 6 metal, preferably molybdenum, a salt, and an organic halide. Although useful synthetically for the cleavage of benzyl ethers, this cleavage also represents a key model reaction for the liquefaction of coal; thus this catalyst system and process should be useful in coal liquefaction with the advantage of operating at significantly lower temperatures and pressures.

Zoeller, J.R.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

20

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 2.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vapors of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive of great environmental concern MTBE treatment are discussed. Introduction The rapidly rising number of reports of groundwater con- taminated with the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has raised concerns about its

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Atmospheric Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) at a Rural Mountain Site in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) at a Rural Mountain Site in California Gunnar W. Schade,* Gabrielle B. Dreyfus, and Allen H. Goldstein ABSTRACT (CARB) measured MTBE in urban regions in 1995­ 1996, reporting a range of 0.4 to 13.2 ppbv in the LosMethyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE

Cohen, Ronald C.

22

Environmental Microbiology (2001) 3(6), 407416 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation by a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Microbiology (2001) 3(6), 407±416 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. Summary The widespread use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE is often proposed as the most promising alter- native after treatment. However, MTBE biodegradation appears

23

Shear viscosity measurements in the binary mixture butyl cellosolve-water near its upper and lower critical consolute points  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

has been measured for a two-component critical liquid system, butyl cellosolve-water, in the region to report measurements of the shear viscosity of critical binary mixture butyl cello- solve (2-n353 Shear viscosity measurements in the binary mixture butyl cellosolve-water near its upper

Boyer, Edmond

24

Oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) by ozone and combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this work was to study the reaction of ozone and combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide on oxygenated additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) in dilute aqueous solution using controlled experimental conditions. Experiments conducted in a semi-continuous reactor with MTBE and ETBE in combination (initial concentration: 2 mmol/L of each) showed that ETBE was better eliminated than MTBE with both ozone and combined O[sub 3]/H[sub 2]O[sub 2]. batch experiments led to the determination of the ratio of the kinetic constants for the reaction of OH[degree]-radical with MTBE and ETBE (k[sub OH[degree]/ETBE]/k[sub OH[degree]//MTBE] = 1.7). Tert-butyl formate and tert-butyl acetate were identified as the ozonation byproducts of MTBE an ETBE, respectively, while tert-butyl alcohol was found to be produced during the ozonation of both compounds. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Leitner, N.K.V.; Papailhou, A.L.; Croue, J.P.; Dore, M. (Univ. de Poitiers (France)); Peyrot, J. (British Petroleum, Harfleur (France))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Effect of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on steroid production of human granulosa cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The phthalate ester mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is the active metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a high-production-volume chemical used as a plasticizer and solvent in numerous consumer products. MEHP has been demonstrated to be a reproductive toxicant in rodents decreasing estradiol and progesterone production in preovulatory granulosa cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of MEHP on steroid production of human granulosa-lutein (GL) cells. Human GL cells collected from women undergoing in vitro fertilization were cultured in medium containing FSH, hCG and 8-Br-cAMP, respectively, together with various concentrations of MEHP (0-500 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). After incubation for 48 h estradiol and progesterone were assayed in the spent culture medium. Furthermore, aromatase activity and mRNA levels of GL cells were determined. Basal as well as FSH-, hCG- and 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated estradiol production of GL cells was suppressed by MEHP in a dose-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 105 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, 138 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, 49 {mu}mol L{sup -1} and 78 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). Furthermore aromatase activity and mRNA levels were reduced in GL cells cultured with MEHP. In contrast, MEHP did not alter the production of progesterone up to a concentration of 167 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. The present data indicate that MEHP is a specific inhibitor of estradiol production in human GL cells with a post-cAMP site of action. The inhibition of estradiol production obviously results from a reduction of aromatase activity on the transcript level. As the in vitro effective doses of MEHP are within the range of real environmental exposure levels an inhibitory effect on estrogen production in vivo seems to be possi0009b.

Reinsberg, Jochen [Department of Gynecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany)], E-mail: jochen.reinsberg@ukb.uni-bonn.de; Wegener-Toper, Petra [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Ven, Katrin van der; Ven, Hans van der [Department of Gynecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Klingmueller, Dietrich [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Inhibition of human platelet phospholipase A/sub 2/ by mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is evidence that the carcinogenic and teratogenic effects attributed to the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) are due to its major metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP). MEHP is also formed ex vivo by a plasma enzyme in blood products stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) DEHP plastic containers. People who receive large amounts of blood products, such as hemophiliacs or patients undergoing hemodialysis, cardiopulmonary bypass, or massive transfusion, are exposed to significant levels of plasticizer. In this study, the platelet was used to show that MEHP inhibits phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/), one of the enzymes important in the release of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. PLA/sub 2/ was measured by the liberation of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid from 1-stearoyl-2-(1-/sup 14/C)arachidonyl-L-3-phosphatidylcholine. MEHP inhibits PLA/sub 2/ activity noncompetitively in intact human platelets and lysates with a K/sub i/ of 3.7 x 10/sup -4/ M. DEHP does not inhibit PLA/sub 2/ in whole platelets. Inhibition of PLA/sub 2/ by MEHP occurs at only three times the circulating level of MEHP measured in neonates undergoing exchange transfusion and 20-fold the levels experienced by patients during cardiopulmonary bypass. Therefore, infants and adult patients with multisystem failure who accumulate MEHP in their blood may be at risk for decreased platelet function.

Labow, R.S.; Meek, E.; Adams, G.A.; Rock, G.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

68Ga-N,N'-bis[2-Hydroxy-5-(carboxyethyl)benzyl] ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid-polyethylene glycol-single-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

68Ga-N,N'-bis[2-Hydroxy-5-(carboxyethyl)benzyl] ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid-polyethylene-N,N'-bis[2-Hydroxy-5-(carboxyethyl)benzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N'- diacetic-polyethylene glycol-single-chain Cys,4,7,10- tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-scVEGF (64Cu-DOTA-PEG-scVEGF), 99m

Levin, Judith G.

29

.Research Module: Scheme 2. N-Benzylation of N-H Pyrazolidinones 3. 3 6. 60 Scheme 2 Procedure: N-Alkylation Using Aldehyde  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

folder. It will actually produce two NMR printouts for you. The first one will be dominated by methanol Scheme 1, add 10 mL of anhydrous methanol. · For 4-methoxy compoud 3c, add 20 mL of methanol, since the 4-Benzylation Synthesis of N-Benzyl Pyrazolidinones NH NH O R1 3a-e + H O 4 Methanol Solvent 0.05 CF3CO2H (catalyst) N N O

Jasperse, Craig P.

30

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE SURVEYS By Michael J. Moran, Rick M. Clawges, and John S. Zogorski U.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline

31

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Contaminated Water Using a Dense  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-butyl ether (MTBE) in a dense medium plasma (DMP) reactor utilizing gas chromatog- raphy-massspectrometryandgaschromatography-thermal conductivity techniques. A rate law is developed for the removal of MTBE from an aqueous solution in the DMP. The oxidation products from the treatment of MTBE-contaminated water in the DMP reactor were found

Dandy, David

32

Extraction of Plutonium into 30 Percent Tri-Butyl Phosphate from Nitric Acid Solution Containing Fluoride, Aluminum, and Boron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work consists of experimental batch extraction data for plutonium into 30 volume-percent tri-butyl phosphate at ambient temperature from such a solution matrix and a model of this data using complexation constants from the literature.

Kyser, E.A.

2000-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

33

Semiconductor electrodes. 40. Photoassisted hydrogen evolution at poly(benzyl viologen)-coated p-type silicon electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Poly(benzyl viologen) (PBV) shows two reduction waves in aqueous (at -0.37 and -0.88 V vvvs. SSCE) or N,N-dimethylformamide (at -0.22 and -0.64 V s. SSCE) solutions. A film of PBV on the surface of a p-type silicon electrode can be photoreduced at more positive potentials. When metallic Pt is incorporated into the film, the photoproduction of hydrogen occurs with an underpotential of ca. 0.4 V. The decrease in the photocurrent with time suggests that slow decomposition of the viologen occurs.

Abruna, H.D.; Bard, A.J.

1981-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

34

Multiple Pathways for Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation by Ru(V)?O3+ and Ru(IV)?O2+  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant rate enhancements are found for benzyl alcohol oxidation by the Ru{sup V}?O{sup 3+} form of the water oxidation catalyst [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH{sub 2})]{sup 2+} [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2?-bipyridine] compared to Ru{sup IV}?O{sup 2+} and for the Ru{sup IV}?O{sup 2+} form with added bases due to a new pathway involving concerted hydride proton transfer (HPT).

Paul, Amit; Hull, Jonathan F; Norris, Michael R; Chen, Zuofeng; Ess, Daniel H.; Concepcion, Javier J; Meyer, Thomas J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Multiple Pathways for Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation by RuV=O3+ and RuIV=O2+  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant rate enhancements are found for benzyl alcohol oxidation by the Ru{sup V}?O{sup 3+} form of the water oxidation catalyst [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH{sub 2})]{sup 2+} [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2?-bipyridine] compared to Ru{sup IV}?O{sup 2+} and for the Ru{sup IV}?O{sup 2+} form with added bases due to a new pathway, concerted hydride proton transfer (HPT).

Paul, Amit; Hull, Jonathan F; Norris, Michael R; Chen, Zuofeng; Ess, Daniel H; Concepcion, Javier J; Meyer, Thomas J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Aerobic mineralization of MTBE and tert-butyl alcohol by stream-bed sediment microorganisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microorganisms indigenous to the stream-bed sediments at two gasoline-contaminated groundwater sites demonstrated significant mineralization of the fuel oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Up to 73% of [U-{sup 14}C]-MTBE and 84% of [U-{sup 14}C]-TBA were degraded to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. No significant mineralization was observed under strictly anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that, under the mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions characteristic of stream-bed sediments, microbial processes may provide a significant environmental sink for MTBE and TBA delivered to surface water bodies by contaminated groundwater or by other sources.

Bradley, P.M.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H. [Geological Survey, Columbia, SC (United States)] [Geological Survey, Columbia, SC (United States)

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Aging of Weapon Seals An Update on Butyl O-ring Issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During testing under the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign in 2001, preliminary data detected a previously unknown and potentially serious concern with recently procured butyl o-rings on several programs. All butyl o-rings molded from a proprietary formulation throughout the period circa 1999 through 2001 had less than a full cure. Engineering judgment was that under curing is detrimental and could possibly lead to sub-optimum performance or, in the worst case, premature seal failure. An aging study was undertaken to ensure that suspect o-rings installed in the stockpile will retain sufficient sealing force for a minimum ten-year service life. A new prediction model developed for this study indicates suspect o-rings do not need to be replaced before the ten-year service life. Long-term testing results are reported on a yearly basis to validate the prediction model. This report documents the aging results for the period September 2002 to January 2011.

Wilson, Mark H.

2011-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

38

Multiple steady states during reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents results of computer simulations of the synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a fixed-bed reactor and in a reactive distillation column. These calculations clearly showed the advantages of MTBE synthesis in a catalytic distillation tower. Furthermore, the computer simulations showed that multiple steady states may occur in the reactive distillation column during MTBE synthesis in a broad range of operating conditions. An analysis of some sensitivity studies is presented.

Nijhuis, S.A. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Chemical Engineering Dept.); Kerkhof, F.P.J.M.; Mak, A.N.S. (Comprimo Engineers and Contractors, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Batch polymerization of styrene initiated by n-butyl lithium in a cyclohexane solvent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

anionic mechanism. A mathematical model is de- veloped and the predicted values are compared with their corresponding experimental values. Initiator and monomer concentrations are varied and their conversion time profiles are studied. A G&el... and Storage Vessels Purification of Monomer Purification of Solvent Polymerization Reaction Scavenger Level Analysis o f Butyl Lithium Analysis of Molecular Weight Distributions by the Use of Gel Permeation Technique 10 19 19 ZO Zl ZZ 24 25 25...

Landon, Thomas Rodman

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

Haugh, M. J., E-mail: haughmj@nv.doe.gov; Jacoby, K. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Wu, M.; Loisel, G. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Batch polymerization of styrene and isoprene by n-butyl lithium initiator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-20). Analysis of products consists of determining the point at which no free lithium alkyl remains. Thus if a butyl lithium initiated polymerization were terminated with water, butane would be evolved as long as the initiator were present. The butane...? agent were evaporated under a hood. Finally the polymer. was dried in a vacuum oven at about 50'C and under a vacuum of 30 inches of gg for about 30 hours. The weight of polymer formed was determined by final weighing. 25 The monomer conversion...

Hasan, Sayeed

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

A kinetic investigation of the reaction of dibutyl sodiophosphonate with n-butyl bromide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Texn~ in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the de ree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1955 Major Subject: Chemistry A KINETIC INVESTIGATION OF THE REACTION OF DIBUTYL SODIOPHOSPHONATE WITH N-BUTYL BROMIDE A Thesis By James Howard Shaffer... Concentrations o " Reactants and Calculated Second Order Specific Reaction pa, ". ;e Rate Constants Table 1, 40 C Table 2, 50 0 Table 3, BO C 3c II. Initial Concentrations of React iit : ?d Apparent Rate Constants of Erofosed Die er 1!echani sm Table 4...

Shaffer, James Howard

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Measurement of methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) in raw drinking water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to assess the pathways for human exposure to methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) and to understand the extent of MTBE contamination in watersheds, a purge and trap gas chromatographic mass spectrometric method to measure part-per-trillion (ppt) concentrations of MTBE in environmental waters was developed. A variety of California's raw drinking waters were analyzed. No detectable MTBE was found in deep groundwater (>1000 feet). However shallow groundwater ({approx}250 feet) contained MTBE concentrations of non-detect to 1300 ppt. MTBE concentrations measured in rivers and lakes ranged from non-detect to 3500 ppt. East (San Francisco) Bay area rain water contained approximately 80 ppt MTBE.

Davisson, M L; Koester, C J; Moran, J E

1999-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

44

Review of the environmental behavior and fate of methyl tert-butyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of pertinent equations and current research indicates that when gasoline oxygenated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) comes into contact with water, large amounts of MTBe can dissolve. At 25 C, the water solubility of MTBE is about 5,000 mg/L for a gasoline that is 10% MTBE by weight, whereas for a nonoxygenated gasoline, the total hydrocarbon solubility in water is typically about 120 mg/L. Methyl tert-butyl ether sorbs only weakly to subsurface solids; therefore, sorption does not substantially retard the transport of MTBE by ground water. In addition, MTBE generally resists biodegradation in ground water. The half-life of MTBE in the atmosphere can be as short as 3 d in a regional airshed. In the air, MTBE tends to partition into atmospheric water, including precipitation. However, the washing out of gas-phase MTBE by precipitation will not, by itself, greatly alter the gas-phase concentration of the compound in the air. The partitioning of MTBE to precipitation can nevertheless result in concentrations as high as 3 {micro}g/L or more in urban precipitation and can contribute to the presence of MTBE in surface and ground water.

Squillace, P.J.; Zogorski, J.S. [Geological Survey, Rapid City, SD (United States); Pankow, J.F. [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Korte, N.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Science Div.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Photoionization of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-octyl methyl ether (TOME) and analysis of their pyrolyses by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photoionization of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-octyl methyl ether (TOME) and analysis 1999; accepted 20 July 1999 Abstract The pyrolysis products of neutral methyl-d3 t-butyl ether (MTBE-d3 from thermal cracking patterns. MTBE and TOME both exhibit base peaks at m/z 73 (which shifts to m/z 76

Morton, Thomas Hellman

46

Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride Towards Technetium-99 Extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning process, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, low nitric acid concentration in the aqueous phase of a UREX based process will co-extract U(VI) and Tc(VII) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Technetium (Tc-99) is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radiotoxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t1/2 = 2.13 105 years), and as such, it is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flow sheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for ultimate disposal. Furthermore, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macrocompounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, and resorcinarenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO4- by benzyltributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligands matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e., diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed.

Jared Horkley; Audrey Roman; Keri Campbell; Ana Nunez; Amparo Espartero

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Treatment of methyl t-butyl ether contaminated water using a dense medium plasma reactor, a mechanistic and kinetic investigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and oxidation mechanisms of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in a dense medium plasma (DMP) reactor utilizing gas for the removal of MTBE from an aqueous solution in the DMP reactor. Rate constants are also derived for three reactor configurations and two pin array spin rates. The oxidation products from the treatment of MTBE

Dandy, David

48

Tests for mutagenic effects of ammoniated glycyrrhizin, butylated hydroxytoluene, and gum arabic in roden germ cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ammoniated glycyrrhizin, butylated hydroxytoluene, and gum Arabic are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substances that are used primarily as additives in foods. These substances were incorporated into rodent diets and fed to male rats and mice for 10 and 8 wk, respectively. The treated male mice and rats were then tested for dominant lethal effects. The mice were also tested for induced heritable translocation. Results of the rat studies indicated a statistically significant dominant lethal effect of each of the compounds tested; however, the biological significance of this response is not known. Results of the mouse dominant lethal and heritable translocation studies, on the other hand, indicated no adverse effects of the compounds tested.

Sheu, C.W.; Cain, K.T.; Rushbrook, C.J.; Jorgenson, T.A.; Generoso, W.M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Initiation Temperature for Runaway Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate/Nitric Acid Reaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a review of the safety basis for solvent extraction processes at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, a question was raised concerning the safety margin associated with a postulated accident involving a runaway tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/nitric acid reaction due to the inadvertent heating of a tank. The safety margin was based on studies which showed the maximum temperature would not exceed 128 degrees Celsius compared to 130 degrees Celsius, the minimum initiation temperature for runaway reaction established in the 1950's following damaging incidents at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. The reviewers were concerned the minimum temperature was not conservative since data for solutions containing 20 wt percent dissolved solids showed initiation temperatures at or below 130 degrees Celsius and process solutions normally contain some dissolved solids.

Rudisill, T.S.

2001-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

50

A thermodynamic model of nitric acid extraction by tri-n-butyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermodynamic model is presented for nitric acid extraction by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). This model is based on the formation of the organic phase species: TBP.HNO/sub 3/ and (TBP)/sub 2/.HNO/sub 3/. The model works successfully at TBP concentrations of 5 to 100 vol% and was found to be effective at predicting the extraction of HNO/sub 3/ from HNO/sub 3//NaNO/sub 3/ and HNO/sub 3//LiNO/sub 3/ solutions. Within the TBP concentration range of 5 to 30%, a single set of extraction constants was sufficient to fit extraction data. Stoichiometric activity coefficients of nitric acid in HNO/sub 3//NaNO/sub 3/ and HNO/sub 3//LiNO/sub 3/ mixtures were calculated using a model developed by Bromley.

Chaiko, D.J.; Vandegrift, G.F.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan as the polymer matrix and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Bmim][OAc] as charge carriers were prepared by solution casting technique. Complexes with various amount of ionic liquid loading were investigated as possible ionic conducting polymers. The ionic conductivity was found to increase with increasing weight percent of ionic liquid. The highest ionic conductivity of the charged chitosan-[Bmim][OAc] was 2.44 10{sup ?3} S cm{sup ?1} at 90 wt.% of [Bmim][OAc] content at ambient temperature. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has proven the interaction between chitosan and [Bmim][OAc]. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) has shown that the amorphosity of the complexes increase as the amount of [Bmim][OAc] increase.

Shamsudin, Intan Juliana [Chemistry Department, Centre for Defence Foundation Studies, National Defence University of Malaysia, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ahmad, Azizan; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

52

Why methyl tert-butyl ether production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an explanation of why methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions. Widely different composition profiles and conversions may, as already reported by Krishna and others, results with identical column specifications, depending on the initial estimates provided. A hypothesis yielding a qualitative understanding of this phenomenon has been developed. The inert n-butene plays a key role in the proposed explanation: As the reaction mixture is diluted with n-butene, the activity coefficient of methanol increases substantially and the temperature decreases. This dilution has a profound effect on the equilibrium conversion, enabling MTBE to escape from the reactive zone without decomposition. When methanol is fed below or in the lower part of the reactive zone of the column, the ``lifting capacity`` of the minimum boiling point MTBE-methanol azeotrope will also be important.

Hauan, S.; Hertzberg, T.; Lien, K.M. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Anhydrous aluminum chloride as an alkylation catalyst: identification of mono- and dialkyl-benzenes from the condensation of tertiary butyl alcohol with benzene.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LIBRARY a a w c"I. I. SI - O~ TI:YAf ANHYDROUS ALUMINUM CHLORIDE AS AN ALKYLATION CATALYST: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DIALKYIZENZENES FROM THE CONDENSATION QF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENKENE IACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS 4 A Thesis Submitted...: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DI~NZZNES FROM THE CONDENSATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENZENE A Thesis By LACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS Approved as to style and content hy: Chairman of Committee Head of Chemistry Department 1959 ACKNOWLEDGME1VTS The author...

Scoggins, Lacey E

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Initiation Temperature for Runaway Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate/Nitric Acid Reaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During a review of the H-Canyon authorization basis, Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) staff members questioned the margin of safety associated with a postulated tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/nitric acid runaway reaction due to the inadvertent heating of a canyon tank containing greater than 3000 lbs (1362 kg) of TBP. The margin of safety was partially based on experiments and calculations performed by the Actinide Technology Section (ATS) to support deletion of indication of tank agitation as a Safety Class System. In the technical basis for deletion of this system, ATS personnel conservatively calculated the equilibrium temperature distribution of a canyon tank containing TBP and nitric acid layers which were inadvertently heated by a steam jet left on following a transfer. The maximum calculated temperature (128 degrees C) was compared to the minimum initiation temperature for a runaway reaction (greater than 130 degrees C) documented by experimental work in the mid 195 0s. In this work, the initiation temperature as a function of nitric acid concentration was measured for 0 and 20 wt percent dissolved solids. The DNFSB staff members were concerned that data for 0 wt percent dissolved solids were not conservative given the facts that data for 20 wt percent dissolved solids show initiation temperatures at or below 130 degrees C and H-Canyon solutions normally contained a small amount of dissolved solids.

Rudisill, T.S.

2000-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

55

Thorium ions transport across Tri-n-butyl phosphate-benzene based supported liquid membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transport of Th(IV) ions across tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) benzene based liquid membranes supported in microporous hydrophobic polypropylene film (MHPF) has been studied. Various parameters such as variation of nitric acid concentration in the feed, TBP concentration in the membrane, and temperature on the given metal ions transport have been investigated. The effects of nitric acid and TBP concentrations on the distribution coefficient were also studied, and the data obtained were used to determine the Th ions-TBP complex diffusion coefficient in the membrane. Permeability coefficients of Th(IV) ions were also determined as a function of the TBP and nitric acid concentrations. The optimal conditions for the transport of Th(IV) ions across the membrane are 6 mol{sm_bullet}dm{sup -3} HNO{sub 3} concentration, 2.188 mol {center_dot} dm{sup -3} TBP concentration, and 25{degrees}C. The stoichiometry of the chemical species involved in chemical reaction during the transport of Th(IV) ions has also been studied.

Rasul, G.; Chaudry, M.A. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Islamabad (Pakistan); Afzal, M. [Quaid-I-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether and benzene among service station attendants and operators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concerns for atmospheric pollution from auto exhaust have led to the blending of {open_quotes}oxygenates{close_quotes} with motor fuels. The most common oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is currently required within several metropolitan areas (Denver and Phoenix) in the range of 12% of the motor fuel. Amendments to the Clean Air Act may expand this requirement to as many as 44 other areas of the United States in the near future. In consideration of the magnitude of potential uncontrolled exposures from its extensive use and a related concern involving the potential influence of MTBE blending on exposures to other constituents of gasoline (particularly benzene), an evaluation of exposures among service station attendants and operators was undertaken at the request, and in cooperation with, the American Petroleum Institute during the latter part of 1990. For application of the survey results to a broad audience, three categories or types of service stations were identified with regard to MTBE use and exposure potential: (a) service stations that do not use MTBE or use it only as an octane enhancer, (b) service stations with seasonal requirements to use 12-15% MTBE (the Denver, Colorado, and Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan areas), and (c) service stations equipped with stage II (active) vapor recovery systems (several coastal areas, most notably Southern California). 4 refs., 4 tabs.

Hartle, R. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether to Daphnia magna and photobacterium phosphoreum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a liquid organic compound added to gasoline to increase its oxygen content and to reduce the emission of carbon monoxide during combustion in many urban areas. In order to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, gasoline must contain 2.7% oxygen (by weight) or 15% (by volume) of MTBE in gasoline to meet the regulations for the control of carbon monoxide emissions. Health effects caused by inhalation of MTBE include headaches, dizziness, irritated eyes and nausea; MTBE is one of cancer--causing chemicals. Intracaval injection of MTBE (0.2 mg/kg) caused the highest mortality (100%) in rats. General anesthetic effect induced by MTBE was found at or above 1200 mg/kg body weight; Rosenkranz and Klopman (1991) predicted that MTBE is neither a genotoxicant nor a carcinogen. Nevertheless, the safety of using MTBE in oxygenated fuels is now being questioned from its potential as groundwater pollutant. This study measures the toxicity of MTBE to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum. 13 refs.

Gupta, G.; Lin, Y.J. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Reaction calorimetry study of the liquid-phase synthesis of tert-butyl methyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The liquid-phase addition of methanol to isobutene to give tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) on the ion-exchange resin Lewatit K2631 has been studied in a calorimetric reactor. Heat capacity of MTBE and enthalpy of the MTBE synthesis reaction in the temperature range 312--333 K have been determined. MTBE heat capacity in the liquid phase has been found to obey the equation c[sub P] (J/mol[center dot]K) = 472.34 [minus] 2.468(T/K) + 0.005071(T/K)[sup 2]. At 298 K the standard molar reaction enthalpy is [Delta]H[degree] = [minus]33.8 kJ/mol. A method to estimate apparent activation energies from heat flow rate in a given reaction has been developed and proved to be valid for the MTBE synthesis. Using this method, an apparent activation energy of 91.1--95.2 kJ/mol is calculated. A [minus]3.8 kJ/mol value has been found for the adsorption enthalpy of methanol on the ion-exchange resin Lewatit K2631 by a combination of reaction calorimetry and thermogravimetry. This allows the calculation of an activation energy on the gel phase of the resin of 91 kJ/mol.

Sola, L.; Pericas, M.A.; Cunill, F.; Iborra, M. (Univ. de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. d'Enginyeria Quimica)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Disposition, metabolism, and toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether, an oxygenate for reformulated gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of the toxicology of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were reviewed as a possible information base for evaluating the health effects of evaporative emissions from reformulated gasoline (RFG). Perirenal fat/blood MTBE concentration ratios ranged from 9.7 to 11.6 after 15 wk of intermittent exposure. During an oxyfuels program in Fairbanks, AK, blood levels of occupationally exposed workers were 0.2-31.5 {mu}g/L MTBE and 1.6 to 72.2 {mu}g/L TBA with a mean TBA:MTBE blood concentration ratio of 4.2. In patients who received MTBE by percutaneous, transhepatic puncture for the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones, concentrations of MTBE in fat tissue reached 60 and 300 {mu}g/g at a treatment time when mean blood MTBE was less than 20 {mu}g/ml. The results of laboratory and clinical studies indicate that metabolites of MTBE may contribute to the nephropathy, neoplasms, and other pathological changes associated with repeated exposure to MTBE in experimental animals. It is concluded that such studies can provide a well-defined database for quantitatitive safety comparisons and health risk-benefit analyses of MTBE and other oxygenates in RFG. 39 refs., 1 tab.

Hutcheon, D.E.; Hove, W. ten; Boyle, J. III [UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical Schook, Newark, NJ (United States)] [UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical Schook, Newark, NJ (United States); Arnold, J.D. [Arnold & Arnold, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)] [Arnold & Arnold, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

1996-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

60

Observation on the biodegradation and bioremediation potential of methyl t-butyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There have been few reports documenting evidence for the biodegradation of the fuel oxygenate alkyl ether, methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater, soils, and biosludges. Partial (or complete) microbial breakdown of MTBE has been observed in an anaerobic subsoil, a river sediment under methanogenic conditions, a cyclohexane-degrading bacterial consortium and a pure culture of the methylotroph, Methylisnus trichosporium OB3b. An aerobic bacterial enrichment (BC-1) isolated from an industrial transient (non-accumulating) metabolic intermediate. The studies suggest that MTBE is cleaved by BC-1 to TBA which is then metabolized via isopropanol and acetone. There is little information on the occurrence of indigenous MTBE-degraders in groundwater, soils and activated sludges. Preliminary evidence has been obtained, however, from a marketing terminal groundwater site that naturally-occurring MTBE-degraders are present in some monitoring wells. Microcosm experiments with groundwater from this aquifer show that MTBE is aerobically degraded (no TBA formed) with a first-order decay rate (0.31/day) similar to BTEX. Also, MTBE did not inhibit the intrinsic biodegradation potential of BTEX in groundwater microcosms. In summary, the data presented indicate that MTBE biodegradation has been observed in some environmental media. Further work is needed to assess the feasibility of using indigenous or derived aerobic and anaerobic MTBE-degrading cultures for treating fuel ethers in groundwaters or wastewater with in-situ or ex-situ bioremediation technologies.

Salanitro, J.; Wisniewski, H.; McAllister, P. [Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Acute toxicity of methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) to aquatic organisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to the recent amendment of the Clean Air Act, oxygenates are now being added to gasolines to boost octane and reduce air pollution from combustion in heavily populated areas. Oxygenates such as alcohols (i.e. methanol) and ethers (methyl-tertiary-butyl ether, MTBE) are commonly being used. A series of bioassay studies have been conducted with MTBE, one of the most commonly used octane-enhancing additives. Freshwater and marine studies were conducted with fish, invertebrates and algae to determine the impact of this material on the environment following accidental spills. Static-renewal studies were run to ensure maintenance of MTBE, a highly volatile material in the test containers. Chemical confirmation of exposure concentrations demonstrated the adequacy of the exposure system. Mysid shrimp were highly sensitive to MTBE, with significantly less effect observed with the other species evaluated. These data have implications for spill response, particularly since MTBE is slow to biodegrade and will rapidly move through groundwater. Comparative data for other oxygenates will also be discussed.

BenKinney, M.T.; Barbieri, J.F.; Gross, J.S.; Naro, P.A. [Stonybrook Labs. Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

62

E-Print Network 3.0 - apoptosis-associated reproductive defects...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reproduction and Development March 5, 2009 Summary: -98-1 Birth defects, Spontaneous abortion Known reproductive hazard for males and females. Butyl Benzyl... showed...

63

LIDEM unit for the production of methyl tert-butyl ether from butanes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the basic problems in the production of motor fuels is how to obtain high-octane unleaded gasolines that will meet today`s ecological requirements. The term {open_quotes}reformulated gasolines{close_quotes} has come into general use throughout the world to denote fuels with a certain chemical composition. These gasolines consist of preselected components; as shown by worldwide experience, they must include oxygen-containing compounds that are distinguished by high octane numbers and low reactivities. Standards in effect in the United States, Japan, and certain Western European countries require that automotive gasolines must contain at least 2-4% by weight of oxygen-containing compounds (calculated as oxygen). In the last 15 years, in order to meet these requirements, production has been set up in various countries for the manufacture of high-octane oxygen-containing components known as oxygenates. The most common of these is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), obtained by etherification of isobutene by methanol. Process technology developed by this last organization was used as the basis for constructing a unit in the Nizhnekamskneftekhim Production Association and at the Mazheikyai Petroleum Refinery in Lithuania. MTBE production has been held back mainly by a shortage of isobutene, which is obtained mainly from butane-butene cuts produced in cat crackers. In order to alleviate this shortage, it has been proposed that MTBE should be obtained from saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons that are recovered in processing oilfield associated gas, and also in the refinery from primary distillation units, catalytic reformers, and hydrocrackers. A working design was developed in 1991-1992 by Lengiproneftekhim for a basically new combination unit designed for the processing of saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, which has been termed the LIDEM unit (Leningrad - isomerization - dehydrogenation - MTBE).

Rudin, M.G.; Zadvornov, M.A.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether by a bacterial pure culture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A bacterial strain, PM1, which is able to utilize methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as its sole carbon and energy source, was isolated from a mixed microbial consortium in a compost biofilter capable of degrading MTBE. Initial linear rates of MTBE degradation by 2 x 10{sup 6} cells ml{sup {minus}1} were 0.07, 1.17, and 3.56 {mu}g ml{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1} for initial concentrations of 5, 50, and 500 {mu}g MTBE ml{sup {minus}1}, respectively. When incubated with 20 {mu}g of uniformly labeled [{sup 14}C]MTBE ml{sup {minus}1}, strain PM1 converted 46% to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and 19% to {sup 14}C-labeled cells within 120 h. This yield is consistent with the measurement of protein accumulation at different MTBE concentrations from which was estimated a biomass yield of 0.18 of cells mg MTBE{sup {minus}1}. Strain PM1 was inoculated into sediment core material collected from a contaminated groundwater plume at Port Hueneme, California, in which there was no evidence of MTBE degradation. Strain PM1 readily degraded 20 {micro}g of MTBE ml{sup {minus}1} added to the core material. The rate of MTBE removal increased with additional inputs of 20 {micro}g of MTBE ml{sup {minus}1}. These results suggest that PM1 has potential for use in the remediation of MTBE-contaminated environments.

Hanson, J.R.; Ackerman, C.E.; Scow, K.M.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Radical-anions of aromatic compounds. VII. Reaction of the products from the reduction of nitrobenzene by sodium with isopropyl and tert-butyl iodides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reaction of the products from the reduction of nitrobenzene by one and two equivalents of sodium with isopropyl iodide leads to the formation of N,O-diisopropylphenylhydroxylamine, while the reaction with tert-butyl iodide leads to p-(tert-butyl)nitrobenzene. Such a change in the nature of the reaction product in the transition from the primary and secondary alkyl halides to the tertiary alkyl halides clearly results from a change in the S/sub N/2 mechanism to the S/sub RN/1 mechanism, involving transfer of an electron from the radical-anion or dianion of nitrobenzene to the alkyl halide. The formation of considerable amounts of azoxybenzene in the reaction with tert-butyl iodide shows that the dianion and, to a lesser degree, the radical-anion of nitrobenzene exhibit basic characteristics.

Danilova, N.K.; Shteingarts, V.D.

1986-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

66

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

67

Successful Pregnancy with a Full-Term Vaginal Delivery One Year After n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Embolization of a Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) causes significant morbidity with vaginal bleeding. Traditional therapy is a hysterectomy with no potential for future pregnancy. We present a case of successful superselective embolization of uterine AVM using n-butyl cyanoacrylate with subsequent normal term pregnancy and uncomplicated vaginal delivery in 1 year.

McCormick, Colleen C. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics (United States); Kim, Hyun S. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States)], E-mail: sikhkim@jhmi.edu

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

68

Kinetics and modeling of mixture effects during complete catalytic oxidation of benzene and methyl tert-butyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of a catalytic incinerator depends on the nature of the compounds being oxidized and cannot be predicted simply by knowing the performance of the incinerator with pure-component model compounds. Considering the importance of mixture effects, an attempt was made to develop a combined model to predict the conversion when benzene and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) are simultaneously oxidized. Complete catalytic oxidation of benzene and MTBE, singly and in mixtures, was investigated over a platinum catalyst. No inhibition effects were seen with benzene, but MTBE conversion was distinctly inhibited by benzene. A Mars-van Krevelen rate model was used to explain the results. Model parameters were obtained from pure-component experiments and then incorporated into a multicomponent model without any adjustment or additional rate parameters. The multicomponent model was able to predict the conversion of benzene and MTBE oxidation in the binary mixture using the pure-component data without adjustable parameters.

Dangi, S.; Abraham, M.A. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

The radiation crosslinking of poly(vinyl chloride) with trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate. III. Effect of diundecyl phthalate: chemical kinetics of a three-component system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiation chemistry of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) blended with trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and diundecyl phthalate (DUP) has been examined. This three-component mixture contains a base resin (PVC), a crosslinking sensitizer (TMPTMA), and a physical modifier (DUP). These are the basic components in any radiation-curable coating. The kinetics and mechanism of the crosslinking reactions were studied with reference to the dependence on radiation dose and blend composition. The polyfunctional TMPTMA underwent polymerization incorporating the PVC into a 3-dimensional network. DUP remained chemically inert during the irradiation, not being bound to the network. However, DUP by plasticizing the macromolecules and diluting the monomer, changed the kinetics extensively. DUP enhanced TMPTMA homopolymerization, TMPTMA grafting, and PVC crosslinking reaction rates. The effect of the competition between polymerization, grafting, and degradation reactions was examined in terms of enhanced mobility of the reacting species. The influence of these kinetics considerations in selecting a blend composition for a coating application was discussed.

Bowmer, T.N.; Vroom, W.I.; Hellman, M.Y.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Determination of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and tert-Butyl Alcohol in Water by Solid-Phase Microextraction/Head Space Analysis in Comparison to EPA Method 5030/8260B  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is now one of the most common groundwater contaminants in the United States. Groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also likely to be contaminated with tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), because TBA is a component of commercial grade MTBE, TBA can also be used as a fuel oxygenate, and TBA is a biodegradation product of MTBE. In California, MTBE is subject to reporting at concentrations greater than 3 {micro}g/L. TBA is classified as a ''contaminant of current interest'' and has a drinking water action level of 12 {micro}g/L. In this paper, we describe the development and optimization of a simple, automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water and demonstrate the applicability of this method for monitoring MTBE and TBA contamination in groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. In this method, the headspace (HS) of a water sample is extracted with a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, the MTBE and TBA are desorbed into a gas chromatograph (GC), and detected using mass spectrometry (MS). The method is optimized for the routine analysis of MTBE and TBA with a level of quantitation of 0.3 {micro}g/L and 4 {micro}g/L, respectively, in water. MTBE quantitation was linear for over two orders of concentration (0.3 {micro}g/L -80 {micro}g/L). TBA was found to be linear within the range of 4 {micro}g/L-7,900 {micro}g/L. The lower level of detection for MTBE is 0.03 {micro}g/L using this method. This SPME method using headspace extraction was found to be advantageous over SPME methods requiring immersion of the fiber into the water samples, because it prolonged the life of the fiber by up to 400 sample analyses. This is the first time headspace extraction SPME has been shown to be applicable to the measurement of both MTBE and TBA at concentrations below regulatory action levels. This method was compared with the certified EPA Method 5030/8260B (purge-and-trap/GC/MS) using split samples from laboratory bioreactors treating MTBE contaminated water and applied to environmental samples collected throughout the East Bay area of California. Results from the SPME-HS/GC/MS method were directly comparable to the EPA Method 5030/8260B. This method provides an simple, inexpensive, accurate, and sensitive alternative to EPA Method 5030/8260B for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water samples.

Oh, Keun-Chan; Stringfellow, William T.

2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

71

Use of ferric sulfate: acid media for the desulfurization of model compounds of coal. [Dibenzothiophene, diphenyl sulfide, di-n-butyl sulfide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work has been to investigate the ability of ferric sulfate-acid leach systems to oxidize the sulfur in model compounds of coal. Ferric iron-acid leach systems have been shown to be quite effective at removal of inorganic sulfur in coal. In this study, the oxidative effect of ferric iron in acid-leach systems was studied using dibenzothiophene, diphenyl sulfide, and di-n-butyl sulfide as models of organic sulfur groups in coal. Nitrogen and oxygen, as well as various transition metal catalysts and oxidants, were utilized in this investigation. Dibenzothiophene was found to be quite refractory to oxidation, except in the case where metavanadate was added, where it appears that 40% oxidation to sulfone could have occurred per hour at 150/sup 0/C and mild oxygen pressure. Diphenyl sulfide was selectively oxidized to sulfoxide and sulfone in an iron and oxygen system. Approximately 15% conversion to sulfone occurred per hour under these conditions. Some of the di-n-butyl sulfide was cracked to 1-butene and 1-butanethiol under similar conditions. Zinc chloride and ferric iron were used at 200/sup 0/C in an attempt to desulfonate dibenzothiophene sulfone, diphenyl sulfone, and di-n-butyl sulfone. Di-n-butyl sulfone was completely desulfurized on one hour and fragmented to oxidized parafins, while dibenzothiophene sulfone and diphenyl sulfone were unaffected. These results suggest that an iron-acid leach process could only selectively oxidize aryl sulfides under mild conditions, representing only 20% of the organic sulfur in coal (8% of the total sulfur). Removal through desulfonation once selective sulfur oxidation had occurred was only demonstrated for alkyl sulfones, with severe oxidation of the fragmented paraffins also occurring in one hour.

Clary, L.R.; Vermeulen, T.; Lynn, S.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Identification of volatile butyl rubber thermal-oxidative degradation products by cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical structure and physical properties of materials, such as polymers, can be altered as aging progresses, which may result in a material that is ineffective for its envisioned intent. Butyl rubber formulations, starting material, and additives were aged under thermal-oxidative conditions for up to 413 total days at up to 124 %C2%B0C. Samples included: two formulations developed at Kansas City Plant (KCP) (%236 and %2310), one commercially available formulation (%2321), Laxness bromobutyl 2030 starting material, and two additives (polyethylene AC-617 and Vanax MBM). The low-molecular weight volatile thermal-oxidative degradation products that collected in the headspace over the samples were preconcentrated, separated, and detected using cryofocusing gas chromatography mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS). The majority of identified degradation species were alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes. Observations for Butyl %2310 aged in an oxygen-18 enriched atmosphere (18O2) were used to verify when the source of oxygen in the applicable degradation products was from the gaseous environment rather than the polymeric mixture. For comparison purposes, Butyl %2310 was also aged under non-oxidative thermal conditions using an argon atmosphere.

Smith, Jonell Nicole; White, Michael Irvin; Bernstein, Robert; Hochrein, James Michael

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Kinetics and mechanism of the sonolytic destruction of methyl tert-butyl ether by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of ozone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics and mechanism of the sonolytic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have been investigated at an ultrasonic frequency of 205 kHz and power of 200 W L{sup {minus}1}. The observed first-order degradation rate constant for the loss of MTBE increased from 4.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} to 8.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} as the concentration of MTBE decreased from 1.0 to 0.01 mM. In the presence of O{sub 3}, the sonolytic rate of destruction of MTBE was accelerated substantially. The rate of MTBE sonolysis with ozone was enhanced by a factor of 1.5--3.9 depending on the initial concentration of MTBE. tert-Butyl formate, tert-butyl alcohol, methyl acetate, and acetone were found to be the primary intermediates and byproducts of the degradation reaction with yields of 8, 5, 3, and 12%, respectively. A reaction mechanism involving three parallel pathways that include the direct pyrolytic decomposition of MTBE, the direct reaction of MTBE with ozone, and the reaction of MTBE with hydroxyl radical is proposed.

Kang, J.W. [Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Industrial Environment and Health] [Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Industrial Environment and Health; Hoffmann, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.

1998-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. [801Methyl tert-butyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

75

Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) during motor vehicle refueling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study we present a sampling and analytical methodology that can be used to assess consumers` exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) that may result from routine vehicle refueling operations. The method is based on the collection of alveolar breath samples using evacuated one-liter stainless steel canisters and analysis using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a patented `valveless` cryogenic preconcentrator. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, a series of breath samples was collected from two individuals (the person pumping the fuel and a nearby observer) immediately before and for 64 min after a vehicle was refueled with premium grade gasoline. Results demonstrate low levels of MTBE in both subjects` breaths before refueling, and levels that increased by a factor of 35 to 100 after the exposure. Breath elimination models fitted to the post exposure measurements indicate that the half-life of MTBE in the first physiological compartment was between 1.3 and 2.9 min. Analysis of the resulting models suggests that breath elimination of MTBE during the 64 min monitoring period was approximately 155 {mu}g for the refueling subject while it was only 30 {mu}g for the nearby observer. This analysis also shows that the post exposure breath elimination of other gasoline constituents was consistent with previously published observations. 20 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Lindstrom, A.B.; Pleil, J.D. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Tri-n-butyl-phosphate/n-Dodecane Mixture: Thermophysical Properties and Molecular Structure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular dynamics simulations of tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane mixture in the liquid phase have been carried out using two recently developed TBP force field models (J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116, 305) in combination with the all-atom optimized potentials for liquid simulations (OPLS-AA) force field model for n-dodecane. Specifically, the electric dipole moment of TBP, mass density of the mixture, and the excess volume of mixing were computed with TBP mole fraction ranging from 0 to 1. It is found that the aforementioned force field models accurately predict the mass density of the mixture in the entire mole fraction range. Commensurate with experimental measurements, the electric dipole moment of the TBP was found to slightly increase with the mole fraction of TBP in the mixture. Also, in accord with experimental data, the excess volume of mixing is positive in the entire mole fraction range, peaking at TBP mole fraction range 0.3 0.5. Finally, a close examination of the spatial pair correlation functions between TBP molecules, and between TBP and n-dodecane molecules, revealed formation of TBP dimers through self-association at close distance, a phenomenon with ample experimental evidence.

de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL; Cui, Shengting [ORNL; Khomami, Bamin [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Radiation crosslinking of poly(vinyl chloride) with trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate. IV. Effect of diundecyl phthalate: dependence of physical properties on composition. [Electron beam ion sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Blends of poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC) with polyfunctional monomers may be crosslinked by ionizing radiation. The physical properties of PVC blended with trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and diundecyl phthalate (DUP) were studied. The TMPTMA monomer crosslinked the blend by homopolymerization and/or grafting to PVC. The plasticizer, DUP, was chemically inert under irradiation but, by plasticizing the macromolecules and diluting the monomer, changed the kinetics extensively. Characteristics of the glass transitions and the tensile mechanical properties have been correlated with blend composition and radiation dose. Before irradiation, poly(vinyl chloride) was plasticized by both DUP and TMPTMA monomer. The increase in glass transition temperature and mechanical strength following irradiation to 5 Mrad was correlated with the TMPTMA content of the blend. Both the molecular structure of the network and the DUP content of the blend were factors in determining the physical properties of the final crosslinked blend. The molecular structure was determined by the kinetics of the crosslinking reactions, which in turn were determined by the blend composition. A molecular interpretation consistent with the physical properties, chemical kinetics, and mechanism of the crosslinking system has been presented. 24 figures, 2 tables.

Bowmer, T.N.; Vroom, W.I.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Whole-genorne analysis of the methyl tert-butyl ether-degrading beta-proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 is a methylotroph distinguished by its ability to completely metabolize the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Strain PM1 also degrades aromatic (benzene, toluene, and xylene) and straight-chain (C, to C,,) hydrocarbons present in petroleum products. Whole-genome analysis of PM1 revealed an similar to 4-Mb circular chromosome and an similar to 600-kb megaplasmid, containing 3,831 and 646 genes, respectively. Aromatic hydrocarbon and alkane degradation, metal resistance, and methylotrophy are encoded on the chromosome. The megaplasmid contains an unusual t-RNA island, numerous insertion sequences, and large repeated elements, including a 40-kb region also present on the chromosome and a 29-kb tandem repeat encoding phosphonate transport and cobalamin biosynthesis. The megaplasmid also codes for alkane degradation and was shown to play an essential role in MTBE degradation through plasmid-curing experiments. Discrepancies between the insertion sequence element distribution patterns, the distributions of best BLASTP hits among major phylogenetic groups, and the G+C contents of the chromosome (69.2%) and plasmid (66%), together with comparative genome hybridization experiments, suggest that the plasmid was recently acquired and apparently carries the genetic information responsible for PM1's ability to degrade MTBE. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis with two PM1-like MTBE-degrading environmental isolates (similar to 99% identical 16S rRNA gene sequences) showed that the plasmid was highly conserved (ca. 99% identical), whereas the chromosomes were too diverse to conduct resequencing analysis. PM1's genome sequence provides a foundation for investigating MTBE biodegradation and exploring the genetic regulation of multiple biodegradation pathways in M. petroleiphilum and other MTBE-degrading beta-proteobacteria.

Kane, Staci R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Chakicherla, Anu Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Schmidt, Radomir [University of California, Davis; Shin, M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Legler, Tina C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Scow, Kate M. [University of California, Davis; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lucas, Susan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hristova, Krassimira R. [University of California, Davis

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether, benzene, and total hydrocarbons at the Singapore-Malaysia causeway immigration checkpoint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary aim of this study was to determine the extent and levels of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile emissions in a group of immigration officers at a busy cross-border checkpoint. A majority (80%) of the workers monitored were exposed to benzene at levels between 0.01 and 0.5 ppm, with only 1.2% exceeding the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration occupational exposure limit of 1 ppm. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 8-hr time-weighted average exposure were 0.03 ppm, 0.9 ppm, and 2.46 ppm for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, and total hydrocarbons (THC), respectively. The highest time-weighted average concentrations measured were 1.05 ppm for MTBE, 2.01 ppm for benzene, and 34 ppm for THC. It was found that motorbikes emitted a more significant amount of pollutants compared with motor cars. On average, officers at the motorcycle booths were exposed to four to five times higher levels of VOCs (GMs of 0.07 ppm, 0.23 ppm, and 4.7 ppm for MTBE, benzene, and THC) than their counterparts at the motor car booths (GMs of 0.01 ppm, 0.05 ppm, and 1.5 ppm). The airborne concentrations of all three pollutants correlated with the flow of vehicle traffic. Close correlations were also noted for the concentrations in ambient air for the three pollutants measured. Benzene and MTBE had a correlation coefficient of 0.97. The overall findings showed that the concentrations of various VOCs were closely related to the traffic density, suggesting that they were from a common source, such as exhaust emissions from the vehicles. The results also indicated that although benzene, MTBE, and THC are known to be volatile, a significant amount could still be detected in the ambient environment, thus contributing to our exposure to these compounds. 4 refs., 6 figs.

Tan, C.; Ong, H.Y.; Kok, P.W. [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

80

Solvent Extraction Behavior of Neptunium (IV) Ions between Nitric Acid and Diluted 30% Tri-butyl Phosphate in the Presence of Simple Hydroxamic Acids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Formo- and aceto-hydroxamic acids are very effective reagents for stripping tetravalent actinide ions such as Np(IV) and Pu(IV) ions from a tri-butyl phosphate phase into nitric acid. Distribution data for Np(IV) in the presence of these hydroxamate ions have now been accumulated and trends established. Stability constants for aceto-hydroxamate complexes of Np(IV) and Np(V) ions have also been determined in a perchlorate medium, and these reaffirm the affinity of hydroxamate ligands for actinide (IV) ions over actinyl (V,VI) ions.

Taylor, Robin J.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Choppin, Gregory R.; May, Iain

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

An evaluation of the 3M Organic Vapor Monitor #3500 as a short term exposure limit sampling device for acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl iso butyl ketone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. An exploded view of the monitor is illustrated in Figure 1. The theory of diffusive sampling considers a concentration gra- dient between the ambient air and the adsorbent to be the driving force for sampling. For the adsorption to be controlled by diffu...AN EVALUATION OF THE 3M ORGANIC VAPOR MONITOR 43500 AS A SHOR'I TERM EXPOSURE LIMIT SAMPLING DEVICE FOR ACETONE, METHYL ETHYL KETONE, AND METHYL ISO BUTYL KETONE A Thesis by LLOYD B. ANDREW III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM...

Andrew, Lloyd B.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

82

Manipulation of the HIFVegf pathway rescues methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-induced vascular lesions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be specifically anti-angiogenic in piscine and mammalian model systems at concentrations that appear non-toxic in other organ systems. The mechanism by which MTBE targets developing vascular structures is unknown. A global transcriptome analysis of zebrafish embryos developmentally exposed to 0.006255 mM MTBE suggested that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-regulated pathways were affected. HIF-driven angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) is essential to the developing vasculature of an embryo. Three rescue studies were designed to rescue MTBE-induced vascular lesions: pooled blood in the common cardinal vein (CCV), cranial hemorrhages (CH), and abnormal intersegmental vessels (ISV), and test the hypothesis that MTBE toxicity was HIFVegf dependent. First, zebrafish vegf-a over-expression via plasmid injection, resulted in significantly fewer CH and ISV lesions, 46 and 35% respectively, in embryos exposed to 10 mM MTBE. Then HIF degradation was inhibited in two ways. Chemical rescue by N-oxaloylglycine significantly reduced CCV and CH lesions by 30 and 32% in 10 mM exposed embryos, and ISV lesions were reduced 24% in 5 mM exposed zebrafish. Finally, a morpholino designed to knock-down ubiquitin associated von HippelLindau protein, significantly reduced CCV lesions by 35% in 10 mM exposed embryos. In addition, expression of some angiogenesis related genes altered by MTBE exposure were rescued. These studies demonstrated that MTBE vascular toxicity is mediated by a down regulation of HIFVegf driven angiogenesis. The selective toxicity of MTBE toward developing vasculature makes it a potentially useful chemical in the designing of new drugs or in elucidating roles for specific angiogenic proteins in future studies of vascular development. - Highlights: Global gene expression of MTBE exposed zebrafish suggested altered HIF1 signaling. Over expression of zebrafish vegf-a rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. Inhibiting PHD or knocking down VHL rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. HIF1-Vegf driven angiogenesis is a target for MTBE vascular toxicity.

Bonventre, Josephine A., E-mail: josephine.bonventre@oregonstate.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 1011 Agricultural and Life Sciences Bldg, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Kung, Tiffany S., E-mail: tiffany.kung@rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); White, Lori A., E-mail: lawhite@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Cooper, Keith R., E-mail: cooper@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of methyl tert-butyl ether and its metabolites on HL-60 cells in vitro  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widely used oxygenate in unleaded gasoline; however, few studies have been conducted on the toxicity of this compound. This study evaluates the cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of MTBE and its metabolites in a human haemopoietic cell line, HL-60. The metabolites of MTBE studied include tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), {alpha}-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA), and formaldehyde. Comet assay is used to assess DNA damage, and the cytotoxicity is investigated by lactate dehydrogenease (LDH) release. The results show no significant cytotoxic effects of MTBE, TBA, and HIBA over a concentration ranging from 1 to 30 mM. Formaldehyde, in contrast, causes a substantial LDH release at a concentration of 5 {mu}M. Hydrogen peroxide, a known oxidative agent, at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, produces a significant dose-related increase in DNA damage, whereas a much higher concentration of MTBE (1 to 30 mM) is required to produce a similar observation. The genotoxic effects of TBA and HIBA appear to be identical to that of MTBE. Conversely, DNA damage is observed for formaldehyde at a relatively low concentration range (5 to 100 {mu}M). These findings suggest that MTBE and its metabolites, except formaldehyde, have relatively low cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. 16 refs., 4 figs.

Tang, G.H. [Xian Medical Univ. (China); Shen, Y.; Shen, H.M. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

84

Derivation of a human equivalent concentration for n-butanol using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for n-butyl acetate and metabolites n-butanol and n-butyric acid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The metabolic series (family) approach for risk assessment uses a dosimetry-based analysis to develop toxicity information for a group of metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic (PK) data for each compound and toxicity data for the parent compound. An initial physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to support the implementation of the metabolic series approach for n-butyl acetate and its subsequent metabolites, n-butanol, and n-butyric acid (the butyl series) (Barton et al. 2000). In conjunction with pilot pharmacokinetic studies, the model was used to design the definitive intravenous (i.v.) PK studies. Rats were implanted with dual indwelling cannulae and administered test compounds by i.v. bolus dose, i.v. infusion, or by inhalation in a recirculating closed chamber. Hepatic, vascular and extravascular metabolic constants for metabolism were estimated by fitting the model to the blood time course data from these experiments. The respiratory bioavailability of n-butyl acetate and n-butanol was estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting butyl series PBPK model successfully reproduces the blood time course of these compounds following i.v. administration, and inhalation exposure to n-butyl acetate and n-butanol. A fully scaled human version of the model successfully reproduces arterial blood n-butanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to n-butanol. These validated i.v (rat) and inhalation route models (rat, butyl acetate, n-butanol; human, butanol only) can be used to support species and dose-route extrapolations required for risk assessment of butyl series family of compounds. Further, this work demonstrates the usefulness of i.v. kinetic data for parameterization of systemic metabolism and the value of collaboration between experimentalists and kineticists in the development of PBPK models. The product of this effort, validated rat and human PBPK models for the butyl series compounds, illustrates the effectiveness of broad multi-institutional public/private collaborations in the pursuit of developing state of the art tools for risk assessment.

Teeguarden, Justin G.; Deisinger, P. J.; Poet, Torka S.; English, J C.; Faber, W D.; Barton, H. A.; Corley, Rick A.; Clewell, III, H. J.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Modeling of the simultaneous extraction of nitric acid and uranyl nitrate with tri-n-butyl phosphate. Application to extraction operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A mathematical model developed for the equilibrium HNO{sub 3}-UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}-tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)-diluent is the basis of the computation of distribution isotherms. The isotherms are used to study the influence of TBP concentration on two chosen operation parameters, distribution coefficients and number of theoretical stages, for the selected flow sheets. It is established that an increase in TBP concentration leads to a decrease in the number of theoretical stages for the extraction flow sheets but to their increase for the striping flow sheets. Given diagrams can be used to determine the efficiency of extraction processes. Agreement with available literature calculations on the number of theoretical stages supports the use of the model in the computation of distribution isotherms, of the system quoted above, in a wide range of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and TBP concentrations.

Comor, J.J.; Tolic, A.S.; Kopecni, M.M.; Petkovic, D.M. [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Chemical Dynamics Lab.] [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Chemical Dynamics Lab.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether vapors in a biotrickling filters. 2. Analysis of the rate-limiting step and behavior under transient conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed experiments were performed with gas phase biotrickling filters treating vapors of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive of great environmental concern. A particular emphasis was placed on the analysis of the rate-limiting step, and it was found that the process was mostly limited by the biological reaction rather than by mass transfer. Further experiments involved the study of the dynamic behavior of the biotrickling filters under simulated field conditions. In all cases, the biotrickling filters adapted rapidly to the new conditions, and new steady states were obtained within hours. The relevance of the results and the implications as far as implementation of biotrickling filters for field MTBE treatment are discussed.

Fortin, N.Y.; Deshusses, M.A. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering] [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Thermally Switchable Thin Films of an ABC Triblock Copolymer of Poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermo-responsive behavior of polymer films consisting of novel linear triblock copolymers of poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate) (PnBuMA-PMMA-P2FEMA) are reported using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic forcing microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contacting angle (CA) measurements. The surface morphology, wettability and chemical structure of thin films of these triblock copolymers on silicon wafers as a function of temperature have been investigated. It has been shown that the wettability of the films is thermally switchable. Detailed structural analysis shows that thermo-responsive surface composition changes are produced. The underlying mechanism of the thermoresponsive behavior is discussed.

Zhang, Shanju [Georgia Institute of Technology; Liu, Zhan [Georgia Institute of Technology; Bucknall, David G. [Georgia Institute of Technology; He, Lihong [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Allen, Mark [Georgia Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Transport study of hafnium(IV) and zirconium(IV) ions mutual separation by using Tri-n-butyl phosphate-xylene-based supported liquid membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Hf transport study through supported liquid membranes has been carried out to determine flux and permeability data for this metal ion. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)-xylene-based liquid membranes supported in polypropylene hydrophobic microporous film have been used. These data for hafnium and the previous data for zirconium have furnished the Zr to Hf flux ratio (S) as a function of nitric acid and TBP concentrations of the order of 12 in a single stage at room temperature. Optimum conditions for the separation of these two metal ions appear to 5-6 TBP mol/dm{sup 3} HNO{sub 3}, concentrations {le} 2.93 mol/dm{sup 3}, and 10C. The value of S from an aqueous solution containing 2.4% Hf with respect to Zr has been found to be >125 at 10C and 1.78 mol/dm{sup 3} TBP concentration in the membrane. The technique appears to be feasible for purification of Zr respect to Hf or vice versa.

Chaudry, M.A.; Ahmed, B. (Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Fluctuating micro-heterogeneity in watertert-butyl alcohol mixtures and lambda-type divergence of the mean cluster size with phase transition-like multiple anomalies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Watertert-butyl alcohol (TBA) binary mixture exhibits a large number of thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies. These anomalies are observed at surprisingly low TBA mole fraction, with x{sub TBA} ? 0.030.07. We demonstrate here that the origin of the anomalies lies in the local structural changes that occur due to self-aggregation of TBA molecules. We observe a percolation transition of the TBA molecules at x{sub TBA} ? 0.05. We note that islands of TBA clusters form even below this mole fraction, while a large spanning cluster emerges above that mole fraction. At this percolation threshold, we observe a lambda-type divergence in the fluctuation of the size of the largest TBA cluster, reminiscent of a critical point. Alongside, the structure of water is also perturbed, albeit weakly, by the aggregation of TBA molecules. There is a monotonic decrease in the tetrahedral order parameter of water, while the dipole moment correlation shows a weak nonlinearity. Interestingly, water molecules themselves exhibit a reverse percolation transition at higher TBA concentration, x{sub TBA} ? 0.45, where large spanning water clusters now break-up into small clusters. This is accompanied by significant divergence of the fluctuations in the size of largest water cluster. This second transition gives rise to another set of anomalies around. Both the percolation transitions can be regarded as manifestations of Janus effect at small molecular level.

Banerjee, Saikat; Furtado, Jonathan; Bagchi, Biman, E-mail: bbagchi@sscu.iisc.ernet.in [SSCU, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)] [SSCU, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

90

Low-temperature CVD of iron, cobalt, and nickel nitride thin films from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin films of late transition metal nitrides (where the metal is iron, cobalt, or nickel) are grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia. These metal nitrides are known to have useful mechanical and magnetic properties, but there are few thin film growth techniques to produce them based on a single precursor family. The authors report the deposition of metal nitride thin films below 300?C from three recently synthesized M[N(t-Bu){sub 2}]{sub 2} precursors, where M?=?Fe, Co, and Ni, with growth onset as low as room temperature. Metal-rich phases are obtained with constant nitrogen content from growth onset to 200?C over a range of feedstock partial pressures. Carbon contamination in the films is minimal for iron and cobalt nitride, but similar to the nitrogen concentration for nickel nitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the incorporated nitrogen is present as metal nitride, even for films grown at the reaction onset temperature. Deposition rates of up to 18?nm/min are observed. The film morphologies, growth rates, and compositions are consistent with a gas-phase transamination reaction that produces precursor species with high sticking coefficients and low surface mobilities.

Cloud, Andrew N.; Abelson, John R., E-mail: abelson@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 201 Materials Science and Engineering Building, 1304 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Davis, Luke M.; Girolami, Gregory S., E-mail: girolami@scs.illinois.edu [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

Fluctuating micro-heterogeneity in water - tert-butyl alcohol mixtures and lambda-type divergence of the mean cluster size with phase transition-like multiple anomalies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water - tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) binary mixture exhibits a large number of thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies. These anomalies are observed at surprisingly low TBA mole fraction, with $x_{\\text{TBA}} \\approx 0.03 - 0.07$. We demonstrate here that the origin of the anomalies lies in the local structural changes that occur due to self-aggregation of TBA molecules. We observe a percolation transition of the TBA molecules at $x_{\\text{TBA}} \\approx 0.05$. We note that "islands" of TBA clusters form even below this mole fraction, while a large spanning cluster emerges above that mole fraction. At this percolation threshold, we observe a lambda-type divergence in the fluctuation of the size of the largest TBA cluster, reminiscent of a critical point. Alongside, the structure of water is also perturbed, albeit weakly, by the aggregation of TBA molecules. There is a monotonic decrease in the tetrahedral order parameter of water, while the dipole moment correlation shows a weak non-linearity. Interestingly, water molecules themselves exhibit a reverse percolation transition at higher TBA concentration, $x_{\\text{TBA}} \\approx 0.45$, where large spanning water clusters now break-up into small clusters. This is accompanied by significant divergence of the fluctuations in the size of largest water cluster. This second transition gives rise to another set of anomalies around. Both the percolation transitions can be regarded as manifestations of Janus effect at small molecular level.

Saikat Banerjee; Jonathan Furtado; Biman Bagchi

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

92

Treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether vapors in biotrickling filters. 1. Reactor startup, steady-state performance, and culture characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An aerobic microbial consortium able to biodegrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was enriched in two waste air biotrickling filters after continuous operation for 6 months. After this acclimation phase, the two laboratory-scale biotrickling filters were able to degrade up to 50 g of MTBE per cubic meter of reactor per hour, a value comparable to other gasoline constituents. Such high performance could be sustained for at least 4--6 weeks. After the acclimation phase, the MTBE degrading biotrickling filters were characterized by their almost full conversion of MTBE to carbon dioxide and the absence of any degradation byproducts in either the gas or the liquid phase. They also exhibited a very high specific degradation activity per amount of biomass, and a low rate of biomass accumulation. An observed biomass yield of 0.1 g g{sup {minus}1} and a specific growth rate of 0.025 day{sup {minus}1} were determined for the biotrickling filter process culture. Further data on MTBE mass transfer and on the dynamic behavior of the biotrickling filter are presented in part 2 of this paper. Overall, the results demonstrate that MTBE can be effectively biodegraded under carefully controlled environmental conditions.

Fortin, N.Y.; Deshusses, M.A. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering] [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Effect of Ethanol and Methyl-tert-Butyl Ether on Monoaromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation: Response Variability for Different Aquifer Materials Under Various Electron-Accepting Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aquifer microcosms were used to determine how ethanol and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MtBE) affect monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation under different electron-accepting conditions commonly found in contaminated sites experiencing natural attenuation. Response variability was investigated by using aquifer material from four sites with different exposure history. The lag phase prior to BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and ethanol degradation was typically shorter in microcosms with previously contaminated aquifer material, although previous exposure did not always result in high degradation activity. Toluene was degraded in all aquifer materials and generally under a broader range of electron-accepting conditions compared to benzene, which was degraded only under aerobic conditions. MtBE was not degraded within 100 days under any condition, and it did not affect BTEX or ethanol degradation patterns. Ethanol was often degraded before BTEX compounds, and had a variable effect on BTEX degradation as a function of electron-accepting conditions and aquifer material source. An occasional enhancement of toluene degradation by ethanol occurred in denitrifying microcosms with unlimited nitrate; this may be attributable to the fortuitous growth of toluene-degrading bacteria during ethanol degradation. Nevertheless, experiments with flow-through aquifer columns showed that this beneficial effect could be eclipsed by an ethanol-driven depletion of electron acceptors, which significantly inhibited BTEX degradation and is probably the most important mechanism by which ethanol could hinder BTEX natural attenuation. A decrease in natural attenuation could increase the likelihood that BTEX compounds reach a receptor as well as the potential duration of exposure.

Ruiz-Aguilar, G L; Fernandez-Sanchez, J M; Kane, S R; Kim, D; Alvarez, P J

2003-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

94

Is Embolization of the Pancreas Safe? Pancreatic Histological Changes after Selective Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate in a Swine Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety of selective transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in a swine model in terms of histological changes in the pancreas. Methods: Three groups of two female swine (58-64 kg) per group underwent TAE of the dorsal pancreatic artery, under anesthesia, with 1:1, 1:4, and 1:9 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil. Blood parameters were evaluated at days 1, 4, and 10 after TAE, after which the animals were sacrificed and pancreatic tissues were examined under light microscopy. Results: All of the animals were asymptomatic and survived for 10 days. Cone beam computed tomographic angiography revealed occlusion of the dorsal pancreatic artery and no enhancement in the embolized area. The white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level were elevated slightly on day 1 after TAE (mean {+-} SD: 252.7 {+-} 27.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2}/{mu}l and 0.15 {+-} 0.07 mg/l, respectively), but they normalized or remained near the upper normal limit thereafter. The serum amylase and lipase levels also were elevated on day 1 (8831.7 {+-} 2169.2 U/l and 130 {+-} 53.4 U/l, respectively) but normalized thereafter. Histologically, necrosis and fibrosis were noted only in the embolized segment, and necrosis and acute inflammatory reactions were absent in the nonembolized segment. The border between both segments was well defined. Lymphocytic infiltration and foreign body reaction were noted around the embolized vessels. Conclusions: Selective TAE with NBCA in the pancreas caused localized ischemic necrosis without clinically significant pancreatitis; therefore, this procedure is tolerable in swine.

Okada, Takuya, E-mail: okabone@gmail.com; Yamaguchi, Masato [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Takahashi, Takuya [Kobe Red Cross Hospital, Department of Pathology (Japan); Izaki, Kenta; Uotani, Kensuke; Sakamoto, Noriaki; Sugimura, Kazuro; Sugimoto, Koji [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Involvement of a chromatin modifier in response to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP)-induced Sertoli cell injury: Probably an indirect action via the regulation of NF?B/FasL circuitry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: MTA1 expression is upregulated in SCs upon MEHP treatment. Knockdown of MTA1 in SCs impairs the MEHP-induced NF?B signaling activation. Knockdown of MTA1 inhibits recruitment of NF?B onto FasL promoter in MEHP-treated SCs. -- Abstract: The Fas/FasL signaling pathway, controlled by nuclear factor-?B (NF?B) at the transcriptional level, is critical for triggering germ cell apoptosis in response to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP)-induced Sertoli cell (SC) injury, but the exact regulation mechanism remain unknown. Here, we discovered that expression level of Metastasis associated protein 1 (MTA1), a component of the Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex, was upregulated in SCs during the early recovery after MEHP exposure. This expression change was in line with the dynamic changes in germ cell apoptosis in response to MEHP treatment. Furthermore, a knockdown of MTA1 by RNAi in SCs was found to impair the MEHP-induced early activation of NF?B pathway and abolish the recruitment of NF?B onto FasL promoter, which consequently diminished the MEHP-triggered FasL induction. Considering that Fas/FasL is a well characterized apoptosis initiating signaling during SCs injury, our results point to a potential switch on effect of MTA1, which may govern the activation of NF?B/FasL cascade in MEHP-insulted SCs. Overall, the MTA1/NF?B/FasL circuit may serve as an important defensive/repairing mechanism to help to control the germ cell quality after SCs injury.

Chen, Shiwei [Department of Urology, 174th Hospital of PLA, Fujian 361001 (China)] [Department of Urology, 174th Hospital of PLA, Fujian 361001 (China); Dong, Yushu [Department of Neurosurgery, 463rd Hospital of PLA, Shenyang 110042 (China)] [Department of Neurosurgery, 463rd Hospital of PLA, Shenyang 110042 (China); Xu, Chun; Jiang, Liming; Chen, Yongjie; Jiang, Cheng [Department of Urology, 174th Hospital of PLA, Fujian 361001 (China)] [Department of Urology, 174th Hospital of PLA, Fujian 361001 (China); Hou, Wugang, E-mail: gangwuhou@163.com [Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xian 710032 (China)] [Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xian 710032 (China); Li, Wei, E-mail: liweipepeyato@163.com [Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xian 710032 (China)] [Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xian 710032 (China)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Sonolytic destruction of methyl tert-butyl ether by ultrasonic irradiation: The role of O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, frequency, and power density  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of ozone as functions of applied frequencies and applied power are investigated. Experiments are performed over the frequency range of 205--1,078 kHz. The higher overall reaction rates are observed at 358 and 618 kHz and then at 205 and 1,078 kHz. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constant, k{sub 0}, for MTBE degradation increases with increasing power density up to 250 W L{sup {minus}1}. A linear dependence of the first-order rate constant, k{sub O{sub 3}}, for the simultaneous degradation of O{sub 3} on power density is also observed. Naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) is shown to have a negligible effect on observed reaction rates.

Kang, J.W.; Hung, H.M.; Lin, A.; Hoffmann, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.

1999-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

97

Kinetics and mechanism of the thermal dissociation of O,O'-bis(1,3,5-TRI-tert-butyl-4-oxo-2,5-cyclo-hexadienyl)-p-benzoquinone dioxime in solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics and mechanism of the thermal dissociation of O,O'-bis(1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadienyl)-p-benzoquinone dioxime (quinol ether) in solutions in nonpolar solvents were investigated. The dissociation of the quinol ether is reversible two-stage process and involves the formation of an intermediate radical. In relation to the reaction conditions (initial concentration, temperature) the dissociation rate of the quinol ether obeys the kinetic equations omega = k/sub eff/ x c/sup 1/2/ or omega = k/sub 1/c. The change in the reaction order is due to the ratio of the rates of dissociation of the intermediate radical and of its reaction with the phenoxyl radical. The ESR spectra were recorded on a Varian E-9 radiospectrometer with high-frequency modulation of 100 kHz.

Khizhnyi, V.A.; Danilova, T.A.; Goloverda, G.Z.; Dobronravova, Z.A.

1987-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

98

{gamma}-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}) receptor regulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat hippocampus in high doses of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-induced impairment of spatial memory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental and occupational exposure to Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) has been reported to induce neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral effects, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, and disorientation, etc. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in MTBE-induced neurotoxicity are still not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MTBE on spatial memory and the expression and function of GABA{sub A} receptor in the hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that intraventricular injection of MTBE impaired the performance of the rats in a Morris water maze task, and significantly increased the expression of GABA{sub A} receptor {alpha}1 subunit in the hippocampus. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased after the MTBE injection. Furthermore, the decreased ability of learning and the reduction of phosphorylated ERK1/2 level of the MTBE-treated rats was partly reversed by bicuculline injected 30 min before the training. These results suggested that MTBE exposure could result in impaired spatial memory. GABA{sub A} receptor may play an important role in the MTBE-induced impairment of learning and memory by regulating the phosphorylation of ERK in the hippocampus.

Zheng Gang; Zhang Wenbin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Zhang Yun [465 Hospital, Jilin Medical College, Jilin 132001 (China); Chen Yaoming; Liu Mingchao; Yao Ting; Yang Yanxia; Zhao Fang [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Li Jingxia; Huang Chuanshu [Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, New York 10987 (United States); Luo Wenjing [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)], E-mail: luowenj@fmmu.edu.cn; Chen Jingyuan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)], E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

Mode of action of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether hepatotumorigenicity in the rat: Evidence for a role of oxidative stress via activation of CAR, PXR and PPAR signaling pathways  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To elucidate possible mode of action (MOA) and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), male F344 rats were administered ETBE at doses of 0, 150 and 1000 mg/kg body weight twice a day by gavage for 1 and 2 weeks. For comparison, non-genotoxic carcinogen phenobarbital (PB) was applied at a dose of 500 ppm in diet. Significant increase of P450 total content and hydroxyl radical levels by low, high doses of ETBE and PB treatments at weeks 1 and 2, and 8-OHdG formation at week 2, accompanied accumulation of CYP2B1/2B2, CYP3A1/3A2 and CYP2C6, and downregulation of DNA oxoguanine glycosylase 1, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes, respectively. Up-regulation of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1 at weeks 1 and 2, and peroxisome proliferation at week 2 were found in high dose ETBE group. Results of proteome analysis predicted activation of upstream regulators of gene expression altered by ETBE including constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). These results indicate that the MOA of ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats may be related to induction of oxidative stress, 8-OHdG formation, subsequent cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis, suggesting regenerative cell proliferation after week 2, predominantly via activation of CAR and PXR nuclear receptors by a mechanism similar to that of PB, and differentially by activation of PPARs. The MOA for ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats is unlikely to be relevant to humans. - Highlights: We focus on MOA and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ETBE. ETBE was administered to F344 rats for 1 and 2 weeks. Oxidative stress formation, proliferation and apoptosis in the liver are analyzed. ETBE-induced changes of gene and protein expression in the liver are examined. The effects are compared with those induced by non-genotoxic carcinogen PB.

Kakehashi, Anna, E-mail: anna@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio [DIMS Institute of Medical Science, Inc., 64 Goura, Nishiazai, Azai-cho, Ichinomiya, Aichi 491-0113 (Japan); Nagano, Kasuke [Nagano Toxicologic-Pathology Consulting, Ochiai, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0025 (Japan); Nishimaki, Fukumi [Biofuel Assessment Group, New Fuels Dept., Japan Petroleum Energy Center (JPEC), 4-3-9 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan); Banton, Marcy [Toxicology and Risk Assessment, LyondellBasell Industries, LyondellBasell Corporate HSE/Product Safety, One Houston Center, Suite 700, 1221 McKinney Street, Houston, TX 770 10 (United States); Wei, Min [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Shoji [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 2445 Hirasawa, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0011 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Hideki [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

LANXESS Global Butyl Rubber Research Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Park, in partnership with Surface Science Western $10million City of London Investment in Fraunhofer- fraunhofer Agreement chosen to highlight celebrations for 40th Anniversary of Canada-Germany cooperation fuel cluster in Sarnia-Lambton, said Sarnia Mayor Mike Bradley, noting the Bioindustrial Innovation

Denham, Graham

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Distribution of Phthalate Esters in a Marine Aquatic Food Web  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and polyurethanes, and as nonplasticizers in products such as lubricating oils, automobile parts, paints, glues

Gobas, Frank

102

Synthesis and characterization of hybrid materials based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid and Dawson-type tungstophosphate K{sub 7}[H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}].18H{sub 2}O and K{sub 6}[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}].13H{sub 2}O  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we synthesized hybrid materials using well-Dawson polyoxometalates (POMs), K{sub 7}[H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}].18H{sub 2}O or K{sub 6}[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}].13H{sub 2}O and a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF{sub 4}]). K, W, P and CHN elemental analysis showed that one mole of [H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}]{sup 7-} reacts with 6 moles of BMIM{sup +} and one mole of [P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}]{sup 6-} reacts with 4 moles of BMIM{sup +} to form, respectively, K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. X-ray diffraction illustrated amorphous structure of the hybrid materials. FT-IR spectra showed the presence of both 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and the Dawson anion. TG analysis displayed a relative thermal stability of the hybrid materials compared to the parents Dawson POMs. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the reduction peak potentials of the Dawson anion in the hybrid materials shift towards negative values and the shift is more pronounced for K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} compared to K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. This was attributed to a decrease in the acidity of the Dawson POM anion in the hybrid material. -- Graphical abstract: Powder XRD patterns of (a) PW{sub 18}, (b) K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}, (c) P{sub 2}W{sub 18}, and (d) K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate([BMIM][BF{sub 4}]) reacts with K{sub 7}[H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}].18H{sub 2}O to form K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62}. {yields} [BMIM][BF{sub 4}] reacts with K{sub 6}[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}].13H{sub 2}O to form K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. {yields} K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62} displayed amorphous structures. {yields} K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62} illustrated low water content. {yields} K[BMIM]{sub 6}H{sub 4}PW{sub 18}O{sub 62} and K{sub 2}[BMIM]{sub 4}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62} showed improved thermal stability.

Ammam, Malika, E-mail: m78ammam@yahoo.f [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (MTM), K.U Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Fransaer, Jan [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (MTM), K.U Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

Reactivity of the Quinone Methide of Butylated hydroxytoluene in Solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BHT is a common antioxidant in pharmaceutical formulations and when oxidized it forms a quinone methide (QM). QM is a highly reactive electrophilic species which can undergo nucleophilic addition. This research investigated ...

Willcockson, Maren Gulsrud

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

104

Determination of methyl tert. butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A GLC-acid extraction method is described for the determination of MTBE in gasolines. The method consists of a programmed GLC analysis starting at about room temperature conducted before and after extraction with cold 85% phosphoric acid. This treatment results in the preferential solubility of ethers and other oxygenated compounds while minimizing the reaction of olefins and aromatics which may be present in the gasolines. Plotting various known concentrations of MTBE in gasolines against the concentrations determined in the same samples by the authors methodology results in a straight line relationship. The concentration of MTBE in any sample of gasoline may thus be determined using their GLC-extraction procedure and the calibration line. The analysis can accommodate a wide choice of standard GLC columns and programs. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Feldman, J.; Orchin, M. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Butyl Acrylate  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate EarthEnergy Contractor&3-1Program Managers

106

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali iodide molecules Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to be benzyl ) 1.9 10-17 cm2 molecule-1... with toluene, benzyl iodide, benzyl chloride, and methyl benzyl ketene as benzyl precursors. Their series Source: Oehlschlaeger,...

107

Organometallics1994,13, 385-396 386 Functionalization of Benzylic Carbon-Hydrogen Bonds.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Scope of the Catalytic Synthesis of Indoles with [Ru(dmpe)z] Grace C. HSU,Walter P. Kosar, and William D, 1999 A unique route for the synthesis of indoles from o-tolyl isocyanides using Ru(dmpe)z(H)- (naphthyl alsoformed with substituted indoles, pyrrole, pyrazole, indazole, and pyrrolidine. Blockingthe N-H position

Jones, William D.

108

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkyl dimethyl benzyl Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

acceptable, but models show that it Summary: -Alder reaction of dimethyl 1,2,4,5-tetrazine-3,6-dicarboxylateand a subsequent in- tramolecular Diels... : the inverse electron...

109

Mild and selective vanadium-catalyzed oxidation of benzylic, allylic, and propargylic alcohols using air  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention concerns processes for oxidizing an alcohol to produce a carbonyl compound. The processes comprise contacting the alcohol with (i) a gaseous mixture comprising oxygen; and (ii) an amine compound in the presence of a catalyst, having the formula: ##STR00001## where each of R.sup.1-R.sup.12 are independently H, alkyl, aryl, CF.sub.3, halogen, OR.sup.13, SO.sub.3R.sup.14, C(O)R.sup.15, CONR.sup.16R.sup.17 or CO.sub.2R.sup.18; each of R.sup.13-R.sup.18 is independently alkyl or aryl; and Z is alkl or aryl.

Hanson, Susan Kloek; Silks, Louis A; Wu, Ruilian

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

110

Sensitization and quenching in the conversion of light energy into chemical energy. Progress report, February 1, 1980-January 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extensive data from Stern-Volmer, Lamola-Hammond, and Ilenda-Daughenbaugh-Cristol quenching kinetics have now been accumulated on photosolvolysis in t-butyl alcohol for benzyl chloride and a number of meta and para substituted benzyl chlorides. Evidence for the existence of two triplet states, one relatively short-lived (tau 0-2 nsec) which gives solvolysis product and a second, relatively long-lived (tau 5-26 nsec), which does not give product, but instead is energy wasting, has been accumulated. The system, p-acetobenzyl chloride, has been investigated in detail. A method for quenching of singlet states for measurement of singlet lifetimes in the 100 picosecond to nanosecond range is being developed. Preliminary work on benzyl acetate photosolvolysis has been conducted. Some work on the goemetrical requirements for intra-molecular excitation transfer in bichromophoric molecules has been conducted. Several dienes related to norbornadiene have been prepared and preparative photoisomerizations to quadricyclene analogues have been carried out. Considerable attention has been given to certain di-..pi..-methane rearrangements, work on most of which is still in progress. One system, the ethyl ester of dibenzobarrelene-7-carboxylic acid, has been scrutinized in detail.

Cristol, S.J.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid phthalate crystals Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Acetaldehyde 250g 6 A 2 Acetyl acetone 4 fl. Oz 6 A 5 Acid oxalic, crystal 1lbs 2 E 1 Acrolein 25ml 6 A 1... Dihydrate, crystals 500g 1 D 1 Cupric Sulfate, fine crystals 1lbs 1 D 1...

112

A simple and direct analytical method for dialkyl phthalates in air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) (43) (44) (45) (46) (47) (48) (49) (50 ) (51) (52) (53) Dregval, G. F. , Snitkovskaya, T. M. , T1tovskaya, V. N. , Gig. Primen. PoLim. Mater. 1sdeLii. Nikh, 482 (Russ. ) (1969). Druyan, E. A. , Gig. Sanit. , 37 (2), 100-102 (Russ. ) (1972...

Roorda, Curtis Allen

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetate phthalate film Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

insecticides... acetate, tetrahydrofuran, cyclohexanone, organic tin compounds, and vinyl chloride TeflonTM nothing... polypropylene and polyethylene plasticizers and...

114

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic syntrophic phthalate Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of marine and freshwater... not previously been achieved. Many natural microbial community structures, such as viral loops and syntrophic... ); and chemical extremes (eg:...

115

Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of a Series of Dialkyl Phthalates by Correlation Gas Chromatography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chromatography Chase Gobble and James Chickos* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis Missouri 63121, United States Sergey P. Verevkin Department of Physical Chemistry: Experimental vapor pressures, vaporization, fusion and sublimation enthalpies of a number of dialkyl

Chickos, James S.

116

Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project title: Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production oftert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as ainvestigate the effect of ethanol release on existing MTBE

Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

THERMODYNAMICS OF EXTRACTION OF NITRIC ACID BY TRI-n-BUTYL PHOSPHATE--HYDROCARBON DILUENT SOLUTIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the mean act ivi ty coefficient T of TBP and TBP.H20 i n the acid-free, water-saturated organic phase

Wallace Davis

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Safe conditions for contacting nitric acid or nitrates with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to a request from DOE-SR, the current state of knowledge of the reactions between TBP and aqueous nitrate solutions is critically reviewed, and recommendations are made for the safe operation of SRS separations equipment in which this combination of chemicals may be present. The existing limits for evaporation are validated. Guidelines are presented for cases in which general limits do not apply. The rate of reaction between nitric acid and TBP appears to be controlled by the rate of TBP hydrolysis. The hydrolysis reaction produces dibutyl phosphate and n-butanol. The hydrolysis rate is a strong function of temperature, and becomes very fast at temperatures in the range 130{degrees} to 150{degrees}C. The resulting n-butanol is volatile at high temperatures, boiling at 117.5{degrees}C, but is also subject to exothermic oxidation by nitric acid or nitrates. If oxidation occurs before the n-butanol evaporates, the heat of oxidation may exceed local cooling by convection. The resulting heating will further accelerate the reaction, leading to an energetic runaway and possibly (in confined systems) an explosion. Extensive experiments and practice have shown that in a well-mixed and well-vented aqueous system such as an evaporator, at moderate acidities and temperatures below 130{degrees}C, the heat of reaction is adequately removed by vaporization of steam. In general, the heating will be so slow that natural processes provide adequate cooling at temperatures below 80{degrees}C. Above this temperature, care should be taken to ensure that adequate cooling is available for the amount of TBP that may be present. Experiments suggest that in well-ventilated systems n-butanol evaporation and convective cooling are sufficient to control the reaction at temperatures up to 120{degrees}C.

Hyder, M.L

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

because of its low cost and blending characteristics. Depending on the season, reformulated gasoline of reactor per hour, a value comparable to other gasoline constituents. Such high performance could enhancer in gasoline. The use of MTBE increased rapidly after the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required

120

Optical fibers by butyl methacrylate reactive extrusion Berthet Romuald, Chalamet Yvan, Taha Mohamed*, Zerroukhi Amar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

limitations. Reactive extrusion experiments were carried out in a twin-screw extruder and the effect optical fibbers, polymethacrylate. Introduction Twin screw extruders are playing an increasing role of reactive extrusion is explained by the different advantages offered by the use of the twin-screw extruders

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum triso-ethylphosphonate butylate...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resistance Advancements: Dr. Dragan CurcijaDr. Dragan Curcija Summary: -Expanded (EPS) Pine or Douglas Fir Frame Cavity Polyfoam tape Urethane Sealant Silicone...

122

The K-band microwave spectra of t-butyl halides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

result of centrifugal distortion of the mole? cule, and (c) a group of lines from either the hindered internal rotation of the CH^ groups or torsional vibration along the C-CH-j bonds, or both. In an attempt to determine the sources of the indi... absorption lines in the microwave re? gion were reported by Cleeton and Williams (2) in 1934* No more papers on this subject appeared in the literature until 1946. Since this latter date, however, some 400 papers relating to miorowave absorption spectra...

Crook, George Hardy

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

E-Print Network 3.0 - acaricide tri-n-butyl tin Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of California, Davis; Seybold, Steven J. - Departments of Entomology and Forest Resources, University of Minnesota Collection: Biotechnology ; Environmental Sciences and...

124

Biodegradation of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) using a granular activated carbon trickling filter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A pilot scale trickling filter was constructed using granular activated carbon (GAC) as the packing medium and inoculated with a microbial culture known to degrade MTBE. The packing dimensions were 0.076 m in diameter and 0.22 m deep. The unit operated with recycling flow for two months before a biofilm was observed on the GAC. After two additional months the biofilm had visibly spread throughout the packing. A few pieces of GAC were placed in a sealed bottle with MTBE-contaminated water and nutrients. Headspace analysis performed over 14 days confirmed that MTBE degradation was occurring. The trickling filter was converted to continuous flow and operated for one month at a nominal flow rate of 0.1 L/min and a hydraulic loading rate of 32 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}-d. Samples were collected for analysis at the spray nozzle and at the bottom of the trickling filter. Fractional removal varied with influent MTBE concentration, temperature and liquid flow rate. Percent MTBE removal was as high as 85%. A mechanical failure resulted in the trickling filter bed drying and percent removal dropping to less than 1 percent. However, the system recovered within five days.

Converse, B.M.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Saponification rates of isomeric butyl esters in aqueous 1,4-dioxane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Jensen, G. M. Watson and J. B. Beckham, Anal. Chem., 23, 1711-8(1951). (21). F. Daniels, J. H. Mathews and J, W. Williams, "Experimental Physical Chemistry," 3rd. ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, N. Y., 19*4-1, p. 167. (22). S. Glasstone...

Ruhnke, Edward Vincent

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene with tert-butyl hydro peroxide in a photochemical micro-reactor.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Sulfur content in fuels is an increasingly critical environmental issue. Hydrodesulfurization removes sulfur from hydrocarbons; however, further desulfurization is necessary in fuels. New methods are (more)

Hebert, Eilleen M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Thermal and Photochemistry of tert-Butyl Iodide on Rutile TiO(110). | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 andThe1 MembersStability of MnBi

128

E-Print Network 3.0 - antagonist o-4-ethoxyl-butyl-berbamine...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kim, Elliot Hawkes, Kyujin Cho, Matthew Jolda, Joe Foley and Robert Wood Summary: of micro-coil spring, we present a novel mesh-worm prototype that utilizes bio-inspired...

129

acid t-butyl ester: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

stable thermodynamically and hydration free energies obtained Yu, Fangqun 189 ANTIBODY PURIFICATION USING CAPRYLIC ACID In mildly acidic conditions, the addition of short-chain...

130

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetone-butyl alcohol fermentation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

then extended this approach to alcoholic fermentation and demonstrated clearly that the process required... the presence of yeast. Alcoholic fermentation was ... Source: Centre...

131

Biofuel cells: Electro-enzymatic oxidation of formate using formate dehydrogenase, NAD{sup +}, diaphorase, benzyl viologen, and graphite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have developed an effective electrochemical method to regenerate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) from NADH. Diaphorase (D) was used to oxidize NADH to NAD{sup +} with the concomitant reduction of two equivalents of benzylviologen (BV{sup 2+}) to the mono cation, BV{sup +} to the mono cation, BV{sup +}. The BV{sup +} was then electrochemically oxidized to BV{sup 2+} at a carbon-felt anode: NADH + 2BV{sup 2+} --(D)--> NAD{sup +} + 2BV{sup +} 2BV{sup +}-->(anode)-->2BV{sup 2+}. This system was incorporated into an enzymatic fuel cell that used formate as fuel. Formate dehydrogenase (FDH) was used to oxidize formate to CO{sub 2} with the concomitant 2 e{sup {minus}}, 2H{sup +} reduction of NAD{sup +} to NADH. The NADH was then regenerated using the system described above. The anode of the fuel cell was used to oxidize BV{sup +} to BV{sup 2+}. Blackened Pt gauze as used as the cathode of the fuel cell. The working parameters of the formate/O{sub 2} biofuel cell will be presented including methods to develop this system into the more complex methanol/O{sub 2} biofuel cell.

Palmmore, G.T.R.; Bertschy, H.; Bergens, S.H.; Whitesides, G.M. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

Role of Benzyl Alcohol in Controlling the Growth of TiO2 on Carbon Nanotubes David J. Cooke,*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to produce hydrogen for energy applications,4,5 as well as in dye-sensitized solar cells3,6,7 and gas sensing, which are typically encapsulated within the CNTs during their synthesis as metal source for a new doping

Elliott, James

133

Phthalates and Male Reproductive Health: Estimation of Daily Intake Doses in Pregnant Womenfrom an Epidemiologic Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

environmental chemicals in the developmental basis of reproductive disease andto Environmental Chemicals. Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease

Marsee, Kevin E

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Impacts of Venturi Turbulent Mixing on the Size Distributions of Sodium Chloride and Dioctyl-Phthalate Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Internal combustion engines are a major source of airborne particulate matter (PM). The size of the engine PM is in the sub-micrometer range. The number of engine particles per unit volume is high, normally in the range of 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 14}. To measure the size distribution of the engine particles dilution of an aerosol sample is required. A diluter utilizing a venturi ejector mixing technique is commercially available and tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if turbulence created by the ejector in the mini-dilutor changes the size of particles passing through it. The results of the NaCl aerosol experiments show no discernible difference in the geometric mean diameter and geometric standard deviation of particles passing through the ejector. Similar results were found for the DOP particles. The ratio of the total number concentrations before and after the ejector indicates that a dilution ratio of approximately 20 applies equally for DOP and NaCl particles. This indicates the dilution capability of the ejector is not affected by the particle composition. The statistical analysis results of the first and second moments of a distribution indicate that the ejector may not change the major parameters (e.g., the geometric mean diameter and geometric standard deviation) characterizing the size distributions of NaCl and DOP particles. However, when the skewness was examined, it indicates that the ejector modifies the particle size distribution significantly. The ejector could change the skewness of the distribution in an unpredictable and inconsistent manner. Furthermore, when the variability of particle counts in individual size ranges as a result of the ejector is examined, one finds that the variability is greater for DOP particles in the size range of 40-150 nm than for NaCl particles in the size range of 30 to 350 nm. The numbers or particle counts in this size region are high enough that the Poisson counting errors are small (<10%) compared with the tail regions. This result shows that the ejector device could have a higher bin-to-bin counting uncertainty for ''soft'' particles such as DOP than for a solid dry particle like NaCl. The results suggest that it may be difficult to precisely characterize the size distribution of particles ejected from the mini-dilution system if the particle is not solid.

Cheng, M-D.

2000-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

135

Impacts of Venturi Turbulent Mixing on the Size Distribution of Sodium Chloride and Dioctyl-Phthalate Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Internal combustion engines are a major source of airborne particulate matter (PM). The size of the engine PM is in the sub-micrometer range. The number of engine particles per unit volume is high, normally in the range of 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 14}. To measure the size distribution of the engine particles dilution of an aerosol sample is required. A diluter utilizing a venturi ejector mixing technique is commercially available and tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if turbulence created by the ejector in the mini-dilutor changes the size of particles passing through it.

Cheng, M.-D.; Wainman, T.; Storey, J.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

13310 J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99, 13310-13320 FEATURE ARTICLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-methyltetrahydrofuran, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform. The experiments were conducted

Fayer, Michael D.

137

On the structural and impedance characteristics of Li- doped PEO, using n-butyl lithium in hexane as dopant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nowadays polymer based solid state electrolytes for applications in rechargeable battery systems are highly sought after materials, pursued extensively by various research groups worldwide. Numerous methods are discussed in literature to improve the fundamental properties like electrical conductivity, mechanical stability and interfacial stability of polymer based electrolytes. The application of these electrolytes in Li-ion cells is still in the amateur state, due to low ionic conductivity, low lithium transport number and the processing difficulties. The present work is an attempt to study the effects of Li doping on the structural and transport properties of the polymer electrolyte, poly-ethelene oxide (PEO) (Molecular weight: 200,000). Li doped PEO was obtained by treating PEO with n-Butyllithium in hexane for different doping concentrations. Structural characterization of the samples was done by XRD and FTIR techniques. Impedance measurements were carried out to estimate the ionic conductivity of Li doped PEO samples. It is seen that, the crystallinity of the doped PEO decreases on increasing the doping concentration. XRD and FTIR studies support this observation. It is inferred that, ionic conductivity of the sample is increasing on increasing the doping concentration since less crystallinity permits more ionic transport. Impedance measurements confirm the results quantitatively.

Anand, P. B., E-mail: anandputhirath@gmail.com, E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in; Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: anandputhirath@gmail.com, E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Division for Research in Advanced Materials Department of Physics Cochin University of Science and Technology Cochin 22, Kerala (India)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

138

Safety of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and nitric acid solutions in two-phase systems at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper addresses the prevention of self-accelerating oxidation of nitric acid and tributyl phosphate (TBP). An accident of this type, which occurred at Tomsk-7, Russia, in 1993, resulted from a slow chemical reaction occurring initially at sub-boiling temperatures. The accumulating heat and vapors overpressurized and burst a process tank. Two safety issues are addressed in this summary of experimental data: circumstances under which convection or radiation cooling of vessels will exceed reaction heat, and measures which can prevent or mitigate such reactions. Heat generations rates have been found to range widely. Thermodynamic calculations confirm that heat generation is reduced by a large factor when nitrogen oxides are able to escape from the reaction mixure. Scoping calculations show that the evaporation of water is potentially the most effective mechanism for heat removal in a large vessel, and experiments have demonstrated that water evaporation is effective for preventing runaway reactions in a vented, two-phase system operated below about 120 C. These data indicate that venting is the key to controlling runaway reactions. However, other experiments have indicated that the self-heating reaction did not present a danger, even if reaction heating led to an accelerating reaction, in a sufficiently vented system. To determine how much venting was required, experiments were performed with pure organic phase and two-phase TBP-nitric acid mixtures. Data show a critical ratio of organic mass to vent area, above which the reacting system can reach potentially dangerous pressures. Experiments show runaway reactions occurring in vented systems only as the temperature approaches 130 C. These results clearly indicate that adequate venting of vessels containing heated TBP and nitrate is the key to controlling their reaction.

Hyder, M.L.; Paddleford, D.F.; Thompson, M.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

139

Supporting Information A scalable synthesis of the (S)-4-(tert-butyl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)-4,5-dihydrooxazole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with a three-pitched curved blade, an internal thermometer, and a reflux condenser equipped with a two a steam of N2. The flask was charged with (S)-tert-leucine (15.08 g, 115.0 mmol, 1.00 equv, 99% ee and replaced by a condenser and the reaction was heat to reflux (80 °C oil bath). After 20 h the reaction

Stoltz, Brian M.

140

An experimental system for the n-butyl-lithium initiated polymerization of styrene in a multi-sampled batch reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The power to the water heater is controlled by a Fisher Proportional Temperature Control (Catalog P3 TENPERATURE CONTROLLER CONSTANT TENPERATURE BATH P2 CHILLER ELECTRICAL HEATER Figure 3. Schematic of Reactor Temperature Control System 20... successful column; i, e, , extremely high pressure drops and low plate counts were observed in these columns. As a last measure, the gel was stirred in a hot, concen- trated sodium hydroxide solution (approximately pH 13) for ten hours. The excess sodium...

Cox, James Harvey

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MtBE) contamination of the City of Santa Monica drinking water supply  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the summer of 1996, the City of Santa Monica ceased pumping groundwater from two Well Fields (Charnock and Arcadia) used for public drinking water supply due to persistent and increasing concentrations of MtBE in all seven municipal water supply wells. This lost production accounted for 50% of the City`s total drinking water supply. In late 1996, the City, in cooperation with State and Federal agencies, initiated an investigation of MtBE contamination at the two well fields. The objectives of the investigation were as follows: (1) Review available data on the production, use, chemical characteristics, fate and transport, toxicology, and remediation of MtBE; (2) Identify locations of potential sources of MtBE groundwater contamination at the well fields; (3) Develop an understanding of the hydrologic pathways from the potential sources to the drinking water wells; and (4) Evaluate alternative treatment technologies for the removal of MtBE from drinking water. In addition to a review of available information about MtBE, the investigation included an extensive review of literature and available data relevant to the well fields, including well field production histories, site and regional hydrogeology, all well logs and production in the groundwater basins, general groundwater quality, and the record of MtBE detection. Based upon the review of background information, conceptual hydrogeologic models were developed. A detailed review of agency files for over 45 potential source sites was conducted. The information from this review was summarized, and source site screening and ranking criteria were developed. A field program was conducted at the major well field (Charnock), including soil gas surveys, CPTs, soil borings and well installations, geophysics, and aquifer testing. The field program provided site data which allowed the conceptual hydrogeologic model to be refitted to actual site conditions.

Brown, A.; Farrow, J.R.C. [Komex H2O Science, Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Rodriguez, R.A. [City of Santa Monica, CA (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D. J. Slomczynski. 2003. BTEX/MTBE bioremediation: BionetsScow, and L. Alvarez-Cohen. MTBE and benzene biodegradationinteractions in BTEX and MTBE mixtures by an MTBE-degrading

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Review of potential technologies for the treatment of Methyl tertiary butyl Ether (MtBE) in drinking water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At present, the state of knowledge on effective treatment technologies for MtBE in drinking water, and groundwater in general, is limited. Research by others is focusing on the remediation of MtBE close to the point of release. The City of Santa Monica, MWD, Komex and USC are currently conducting research into different technologies that could be used to remove MtBE from drinking water supplies. The objectives of the research are to evaluate different treatment technologies to identify cost-effective and technically feasible alternatives for the removal of MtBE from drinking water. The evaluation is considering moderate to high water flow rates (100 to 2,000+ gpm) and low to moderate MtBE concentrations (<2,000 {mu}g/l). The research program includes four phases: (1) Literature Review; (2) Bench Scale Study; (3) Field Scale Pre-pilot Study; and (4) Summary Evaluation. This paper presents some preliminary information and findings from the first phase of this research - the literature review. The review discusses the chemical properties of MtBE and how they affect remediation and thus, an evaluation of alternative treatment technologies. The review of available literature, and the applicability and limitations of the following technologies are presented in detail.

Brown, A.; Browne, T.E. [Komex H2O Science, Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Devinny, J.S. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

144

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkylphenol polyethoxylate degradation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemicals are mammary carcinogens... (alkylphenolic compounds, phthalates, PCBs and dioxins) were ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection:...

145

Coal anion structure and chemistry of coal alkylation. Final report, March 1, 1979-February 29, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In accord with Task 1, some ether cleavage reactions were carried out in two different media - potassium/naphthalene/tetrahydrofuran and potassium/ ammonia - so that the merits and demerits of the two methods could be compared. Preliminary results suggest that both systems yield the same products, and that the ammonia medium is more convenient to work with, because of the absence of by-products such as reduced naphthalenes and tetralin. Dialkyl ethers were found to be least reactive compounds while the benzyl and phenyl ethers were found to be most reactive, as would be expected. The reductive alkylation of coal was carried out in ammonia at 25/sup 0/C. The tetrahydrofuran solubility of the reaction product was surprisingly low. We have obtained additional /sup 13/C)/sup 1/H) nmr data for tetrahydrofuran-soluble butylated coal and some model compounds; obtained additional Styragel(R) chromatography data of tetrahydrofuran-soluble coal labelled with 98%-enriched butyl-1,1-d/sub 2/ iodide; and obtained /sup 2/D nmr spectra of all the deuterium-labelled, tetrahydrofuran-soluble coal products. In accord with Task 4, we have undertaken a review of the information now available concerning the nature of Illinois No. 6 coal. Also, the effects of organic additives on the exchange reactions between tetralin-d/sub 12/ and diphenyl-methane and on the thermal cleavage reactions of several model compounds in tetralin were investigated to probe the relationship between structure and reactivity. The exchange reaction can be accelerated by coal, asphaltene-preasphaltene fractions derived from coal, compounds with labile bonds, or compounds which can be reduced readily. The pyridine-insoluble coal product, acids, and bases are inactive toward the exchange reaction.

Stock, L.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Covalently Linked Plasticizers: Triazole Analogues of Phthalate Plasticizers Prepared by Mild Copper-Free ??Click? Reactions with Azide-Functionalized PVC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with Azide-functionalized PVC 1 Aruna Earla and RebeccaE-mail: rbraslau@ucsc.edu Tel: (831) 459-3087 PVC N 3 RO 2C CO 2 R PVC N 3 RT, 27 h Cl copper-free N N "click" N Cl CO

Earla, Aruna; Braslau, Rebecca

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute cadmium chloride Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chloride 100-44-7) and benzoyl chloride 98-88-4 (combined exposures) IARC-2A Acrolein Acutely... CalOSHAReproToxin Benzyl chloride AcutelyHazardousWaste Benzyl violet 4B...

148

ch3probs Page 1 of 9 http://www.jbpub.com/fox/supplementalproblems/ch3pr.htm 11/18/2003  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ethyl-2-pentanone e. 3-methylbutanal f. ethanoic anhydride (acetic anhydride) g. ethyl butanoate h. 2. oxidation d. reduction 3.29 a. primary b. tertiary c. primary d. benzylic e. benzylic f. allylic g

Walba, David

149

Method of recovering uranium from aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anion exchange resin derived from insoluble crosslinked polymers of vinyl benzyl chloride which are prepared by polymerizing vinyl benzyl chloride and a crosslinking monomer are particularly suitable in the treatment of uranium bearing leach liquors.

Albright, R.L.

1980-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

150

The Effect of the Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines: Key Research andJ. Girard, and R. Dibble, "HCCI in a CFR Engine: ExperimentsRyan III, and J.S. Souder, "HCCI Operation of a Dual-Fuel

Mack, John Hunter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Flowers, Daniel L; Dibble, Robert W

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

The Effect of the Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

diethyl ether (DEE) in ethanol fuel blends for a range ofbio-derived fuel components (ethanol) in emission productsHCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether

Mack, John Hunter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Flowers, Daniel L; Dibble, Robert W

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Analysis of dissolved benzene plumes and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) plumes in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandate the addition of oxygenates to gasoline products to abate air pollution. Currently, many areas of the country utilize oxygenated or reformulated fuel containing 15- percent and I I-percent MTBE by volume, respectively. This increased use of MTBE in gasoline products has resulted in accidental point source releases of MTBE containing gasoline products to ground water. Recent studies have shown MTBE to be frequently detected in samples of shallow ground water from urban areas throughout the United States (Squillace et al., 1995). Knowledge of the subsurface fate and transport of MTBE in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites and the spatial extent of MTBE plumes is needed to address these releases. The goal of this research is to utilize data from a large number of LUFT sites to gain insights into the fate, transport, and spatial extent of MTBE plumes. Specific goals include defining the spatial configuration of dissolved MTBE plumes, evaluating plume stability or degradation over time, evaluating the impact of point source releases of MTBE to ground water, and attempting to identify the controlling factors influencing the magnitude and extent of the MTBE plumes. We are examining the relationships between dissolved TPH, BTEX, and MTBE plumes at LUFT sites using parallel approaches of best professional judgment and a computer-aided plume model fitting procedure to determine plume parameters. Here we present our initial results comparing dissolved benzene and MTBE plumes lengths, the statistical significance of these results, and configuration of benzene and MTBE plumes at individual LUFT sites.

Happel, A.M.; Rice, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Beckenbach, E. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Savalin, L.; Temko, H.; Rempel, R. [California State Water Resources Control Board, Sacramento, CA (United States); Dooher, B. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE By Michael J. Moran, Mike J. Halde, Rick M. Clawges and John S. Zogorski U in the United States as an octane enhancer and oxygenate in gasoline. Octane enhancement began in the late 1970's with the phase-out of tetraethyl lead from gasoline. The use of oxygenates was expanded

154

alkyl-tert alkyl ethers: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

TREAT METHYL- TERT-BUTYL ETHER CONTAMINATED CiteSeer Summary: Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a commonly used gasoline additive. Leaking underground storage tank systems,...

155

Comparison of SPME headspace analysis to U.S. EPA method5030/8260B for MTBE monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel method for analysis of methyl tert-butyl ether andtert-butyl alcohol using solid phase microextraction is described andcompared to a standard method.

Stringfellow, William T.; Oh, Kuen-Chan

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethylene dichloride 1 MTBE 2 Vinylchloride 3 Ethylbenzene 1Methyl- Tertiary-Butyl-Ether (MTBE) or Ethyl-Tertiary-Butyl-Styrene Vinylchloride MTBE Benzene, Toluene, Xylene Acetone

Neelis, Maarten

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

8180 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 81808185 This journal is c the Owner Societies 2011 Cite this: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 81808185  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

photofragment translational spectroscopy. The tert-butyl radical was produced from flash pyrolysis of azo

Neumark, Daniel M.

158

he U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assess-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the wells included methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tetrachloroethene (PCE), dichlorodifluoromethane, 1

159

asthma systematic review: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Meta-analysis CiteSeer Summary: BACKGROUND: Phthalates from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics may have adverse effects on airways and immunologic systems, but the evidence...

160

allergy quantitative exposure: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Meta-analysis CiteSeer Summary: BACKGROUND: Phthalates from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics may have adverse effects on airways and immunologic systems, but the evidence...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Chemical Emissions of Residential Materials and Products: Review of Available Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emission of phthalates from PVC and other materials. Indoorof esters contained in PVC flooring and adhesive. Buildingemissions from individual PVC materials, adhesives and from

Willem, Henry

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Electrochemical investigations of product deposition and dissolution of the reduced forms of alkyl viologens on glassy carbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reductions of several alkyl viologens in aqueous solutions at a glassy carbon working electrode were investigated. All of the viologens studied exist as colorless dication salts (V[sup 2+]) which are easily reduced to the violet cation radical (V[sup +.]) by a one electron process. The dications can be reduced directly to the yellow-brown, quinoidal neutral species (V[sup 0]) by a two electron process, or to neutral via the cation radical by two successive one electron transfers. In the absence of sodium n-alkyl sulfates, all but one displayed reversible, diffusion-controlled electron transfers for the V[sup 2+]/V[sup +.] couple. With addition of sodium decyl, undecyl and dodecyl sulfates at concentrations below their critical micelle concentrations (cmc), the cation radical product of methyl and ethyl viologen deposits on the electrode surface. The addition of these surfactants at concentrations below their cmc's precipitated the dicationic species of butyl, benzyl, and heptyl viologens. All redox forms of the viologens are solubilized by the onset of micelles. Double potential step chronocoulometry showed the deposition mechanism to be governed by solubility product equilibria. Open-circuit rotating ring-disk electrode (OC-RRDE) voltammetric experiments revealed that two forms of deposit exist. Above the cmc, little or no deposition of neutral forms occurs as V[sup 0] is solubilized in the hydrocarbon interior of the micelles. Cyclic voltammetric investigations revealed that there are also two forms of deposit for neutral viologens. For heptyl viologen, there may be more than two forms of both the V[sup +.] and V[sup 0] deposits. Deposition of the neutral form is governed by nucleation and subsequent growth. From RRDE voltammetry lower limits of solubility of neutral viologens were estimated. OC-RRDE voltammetric experiments showed that dissolution occurred by extremely fast conproportionation reaction which caused the process to be mass-transfer controlled.

Engelman, E.E.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Numerical study of the effect of oxygenated blending compounds on soot formation in shock tubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This numerical study deals with the influence of blends on the amount of soot formed in shock tubes, which were simulated by assuming a homogeneous plug flow reactor model. For this purpose, first, the reaction model used here was validated against experimental results previously obtained in the literature. Then, the soot volume fractions of various mixtures of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-benzene, isobutene-benzene, methanol-benzene, and ethanol-benzene diluted in argon were simulated and compared to the results of benzene-argon pyrolysis at 1721 K and 5.4 MPa. For MTBE, isobutene, methanol, and ethanol, small amounts of additives to benzene-argon mixtures promoted soot formation, for the shock tube model assumed, while higher concentrations of these additives led to smaller soot volume fractions in comparison to pure benzene-argon pyrolysis. The most significant soot promotion effect was found for the additives MTBE and isobutene. The channel for MTBE decomposition producing isobutene and methanol is very effective at temperatures beyond 1200 K. Thus, both MTBE-benzene and isobutene-benzene mixtures diluted in argon showed rather similar behavior in regard to soot formation. Special emphasis was directed toward the causes for the concentration-dependent influence of the blends on the amount of soot formed. Aromatic hydrocarbons and acetylene were identified as key gas-phase species that determine the trends in the formation of soot of various mixtures. From reaction flux analysis for phenanthrene, it was deduced that the combinative routes including phenyl species play a major role in forming PAHs, especially at early reaction times. It is found that the additives play an important role in providing material to grow side chains, such as by reaction channels including phenylacetylene or benzyl, which are confirmed to form aromatic hydrocarbons and thus to influence the amount of soot formed, particularly when the concentrations of the blends are increased. (author)

Boehm, H. [Physikalische Chemie I, Universitaet Bielefeld (Germany); Braun-Unkhoff, M. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

164

Fluorinated Compounds DOI: 10.1002/anie.201301097  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Traditionally, benzylic fluorides can be prepared by halogen exchange, electrochemical methods was a marked preference for methylene C?H bonds in carbocyclic rings, apparently owing to steric

Groves, John T.

165

Human Biodistribution and Radiation Dosimetry of the Tachykinin NK1 Antagonist Radioligand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­receptor quantifier ([18F]SPA- RQ) [2-fluoromethoxy-5-(5-trifluoromethyl-tetrazol-1-yl)-benzyl]- [(2S,3S)-2-phenyl

Shen, Jun

166

Mechanism of the Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols by Palladium Complexes of N-Heterocyclic Carbenes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reductive elimination of acetic acid, which yields a slightly higher calculated activation barrier-catalyzed aerobic oxidations of benzylic and allylic secondary alcohols, routinely fostering selectivity factors (k

Goddard III, William A.

167

Computational Analysis of Receptor-Odor Interactions and Prediction of Behavior-Modifying Chemical Space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spikes/sec Prenyl acetate Propyl propionate Allyl Propionate1-Furfurylpyrrole Allyl 2-furoate Benzyl acetate Anisylmethacrylate Allyl propionate 5-hexen-2-on propyl acetate

Boyle, Sean Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

acidic conjugate cleavage: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Studies on Persistent Intramolecular CHX (X O, S, Br, Cl, and F) Hydrogen Bonds Involving Benzyl Meldrums Acids. Open Access Theses and Dissertations...

169

Health risks associated with exposure to gasoline additives-methyl tertiary butyl ether [MTBE]. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, Special Hearing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This hearing focuses on an Alaskan study by the Centers for Disease Control which examines possible health risks associated with exposure to gasoline additive know as MTBE. Testimony is given by Dr. William Roper, Director, CDC.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

The Scientific Basis for the Regulation of Nanoparticles: Challenging Paracelsus and Pare  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NANOTECHNOILOGY 402 (2007). 20. MTBE unquestionably causesTertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-a Gasoline Additive-CausesMethyl Tertiary-butyl Ether (MTBE) in CD-I Mice and F-344

Goldstein, Bernard D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

QUANTIFYING NON-POINT SOURCES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN STORMWATER FROM A PARKING LOT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-butyl ether (MTBE) on urban particles indicates a site- specific interaction between MTBE and a particulate is a possible source only for the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Lopes and Bender (1998

172

Life-cycle Environmental Inventory of Passenger Transportation in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methyltert?ButylEther(MTBE);http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/MethylTertiaryButyl Ether (MTBE), which was easilyaccountingwasnotperformedonMTBEandtheresult of

Chester, Mikhail V

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3and SO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

K. : Atmospheric chemistry of gasoline-related emissions:chemistry. Methyl tert-butyl ether is a solvent and gasoline

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

E-Print Network 3.0 - acrylic acid grafted Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

& acronyms 11 PPPP PAA Poly(acrylic acid) PBMA Poly(butyl methacrylate) PE Polyethylene PHEMA Poly... ......

175

An elusive species with many different traits.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Pase detection of HSOH: Synthesis by Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis of ditert-butyl-sulfoxide and rotational- torsional

Giesen, Thomas

176

Center for Water Resources Annual Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from MTBE in Groundwater Kate M. Scow, Douglas

177

MTBE Production Economics (Released in the STEO April 2001)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the causes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) price increases in 2000.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Vol. 83, No. 2, 2006 121 Analysis of Heat Transfer Fouling by Dry-Grind Maize Thin Stillage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a petroleum derivative, and ethanol. In recent years, MTBE has been phased out due

179

Eur. J. Biochem. 234, 766-772 (1995) 0 FEBS 1995  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

catalyse the reduction of niirate with artificial electron donors such as benzyl viologen, so that it is suitable for studying the transfer of electrons between these two types of redox centre. To examine whether the electrons from reduced benzyl viologen are initially delivered to the Fe-S centres, or directly

180

Studies of a Series of [Ni(PR2NPh2)2(CH3CN)]2+ Complexes as Electrocatalysts for H2 Production: Substituent Variation at the Phosphorus Atom of the P2N2 Ligand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of [Ni(PR2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 complexes containing the cyclic diphosphine ligands (PR2NPh2 = 1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane; R = benzyl (Bn), n-butyl (n-Bu), 2-phenylethyl (PE), 2,4,4-trimethylpentyl (TP), and cyclohexyl (Cy)) have been synthesized and characterized. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the cations of [Ni(PBn2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 and [Ni(Pn-Bu2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 have distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometries. The Ni(0) complex [Ni(PBn2NPh2)2 (CH3CN)] was also synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction studies and shown to have a distorted tetrahedral structure. These complexes, with the exception of [Ni(PCy2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2, all exhibit reversible electron transfer processes for both the Ni(II/I) and Ni(I/0) couples and are electrocatalysts for the production of H2 in acidic acetonitrile solutions. The heterolytic cleavage of H2 by [Ni(PR2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 complexes in the presence of p-anisidine or p-bromoaniline was used to determine the hydride donor abilities of the corresponding [HNi(PR2NPh2)2](BF4) complexes. However, the failure to observe a strong correlation between the turnover frequencies for H2 production and the hydride donor abilities, along with structural features of [Ni(PBn2NPh2)2(CH3CN)], suggest that steric interactions between the alkyl substituents on phosphorus and the nitrogen atom of the pendant amines play an important role in determining the overall catalytic rate. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

Kilgore, Uriah J.; Stewart, Michael P.; Helm, Monte L.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Rakowski DuBois, Mary; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

organic | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in a smog chamber in the absence and in the presence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and lubricating oil seed aerosol. These particles serve as surrogates for urban hydrophobic POA....

182

chemical ionization | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in a smog chamber in the absence and in the presence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and lubricating oil seed aerosol. These particles serve as surrogates for urban hydrophobic POA....

183

aquatic food webs: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to choose from. However, even within this morass it is clear that aquatic food-web research has 2 Distribution of Phthalate Esters in a Marine Aquatic Food Web...

184

Chemical behavior of degradation products of tributylphosphate in purex reprocessing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical behavior of butyl nitrate/butyl alcohol, degradation products from dealkylation of tri-n-butylphosphate(TBP) in PUREX reprocessing, which has not so far been reported, was investigated. No accumulation of those compounds in the organic phase of TBP(30%)-dodecane was observed in any separation cycle of PUREX despite the fact that the apparent distribution of the compounds lies to the organic phase at their high concentrations. The distribution of butyl nitrate/butyl alcohol between organic/aqueous phases is found to be dependent on their concentrations and on nitric acid concentration, which could explain the above phenomena. Only butyl nitrate of the above two compounds was slightly detected in the organic streams. It is probable from this investigation that butyl nitrate is removed into aqueous waste stream primarily through alkali scrubber.

Kuno, Y.; Sato, S.; Masui, J. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Nonphosphate Degradation Products of Tributyl Phosphate and Their Reactivities in Purex Media Under Extreme Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical degradation of tributyl phosphate (TBP) in liquid systems, where TBP was in contact with aqueous solutions containing nitric acid and/or uranyl nitrate, was studied experimentally to clarify the mechanisms of the formation and successive reactions of nonphosphate products under atmospheric pressure. Butyl nitrate, propionic acid, acetic acid, butric acid, and butyl alcohol were formed as the nonphosphate butyl products derived from the butyl-groups of TBP in an open system. The total amount of these products almost equals the amount of the major intermediate phosphate products reduced, i.e., di- and monobutyl phosphates and phosphoric acid. Butyl alcohol was found to be the precursor of the other nonphosphate products.Even when the extremely degraded solvent was further contacted with 10 M nitric acid at 90 deg. C, no significant heat evolution was observed at atmospheric pressure. Only butyl alcohol changed into carboxylic acids by exothermic oxidative reactions.

Tashiro, Yoshikazu [Sumitomo Metal Mining Company, Ltd. (Japan); Kodama, Ryuji [Sumitomo Metal Mining Company, Ltd. (Japan); Sugai, Hiroshi [Sumitomo Metal Mining Company, Ltd. (Japan); Suzuki, Katsuhiko [Japan Nuclear Fuel, Ltd. (Japan); Matsuoka, Shingo [Japan Nuclear Fuel, Ltd. (Japan)

2000-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

E-Print Network 3.0 - aryl hydrazide linkers Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

halide aryl triflate or benzyl halide Pd(O), 11CO THF, 180-190oC R11COOH... Carbon Monoxide - For preparation of 11C-labeled primary amides or hydrazides The method is...

187

E-Print Network 3.0 - array fluorescence hplc Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Polypeptides at Amino-Terminal Cysteine Residues Using Cy5-benzyl Thioester Summary: photodiode array absorbance detector. Preparative HPLC was run on a Vydac C4 column (214TP1022,...

188

Study of the peroxidation mechanism of diethyl ether (DEE) International Symposium on Loss Prvention  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and in allylic and benzylic structures. In figure 23 are presented peroxidizable moieties in order of decreasing hazard. l.Ethers and acetals with a-hvdroaen H -i-o-

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

189

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute whole-body exposure Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

benzyl chloride 100-44-7) and benzoyl chloride 98-88-4 (combined exposures) IARC-2A Acrolein Acutely... toxins, biotoxins and acutely toxic substances is not exhaustive...

190

Progress in transition metal-based enantioselective catalysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In Chapter 1, the first enantioselective cross-coupling reactions of racemic secondary benzylic halides are described (eq 1). This method was applied to the syntheses of intermediates employed by other groups in the ...

Arp, Forrest O

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous alcohol injection Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

min. The injection volume was 10 l. Salicin and salicyl alcohol were analyzed with methanol-water (25... .32 mg benzyl alcohol in 1 ml 25% aqueous methanol), and water to 5...

192

Rapid brain scanning radiopharmaceutical  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detecting the blood flow in animals, particularly in the brain, is provided wherein a detectable amount of a novel radioactive compound of the formula I is administered to one animal: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are independently alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms or benzyl; R.sub.3 is alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, benzyl, cyclopropylalkyl of 4 to 6 carbon atoms, or cyanoalkyl of 2 to 6 carbon atoms; R.sub.4 is hydrogen, benzyl or alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms; with the provisos that R.sub.4 is not isopropyl and when R.sub.4 is methyl, R.sub.3 is not benzyl; and X is a radioactive halogen.

Sargent, III, Thornton W. (Berkeley, CA); Shulgin, Alexander T. (Lafayette, CA); Mathis, Chester A. (Oakland, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Rapid brain scanning radiopharmaceutical  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detecting the blood flow in animals, particularly in the brain, is provided wherein a detectable amount of a novel radioactive compound of the formula 1 is administered to one animal: as given in figure in patent wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are independently alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms or benzyl; R[sub 3] is alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, benzyl, cyclopropylalkyl of 4 to 6 carbon atoms, or cyanoalkyl of 2 to 6 carbon atoms; R[sub 4] is hydrogen, benzyl or alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms; with the provisos that R[sub 4] is not isopropyl and when R[sub 4] is methyl, R[sub 3] is not benzyl; and X is a radioactive halogen. 2 figs.

Sargent, T.W. III; Shulgin, A.T.; Mathis, C.A.

1987-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

194

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

which can lead to public health problems. * MtBE (Methyl tert Butyl Ether), a gasoline additive, has begun to contaminate ground water supplies. * Similarly, perchlorate has...

195

agents ionising radiation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(n-butyl acrylate) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl (more) Bennet, Francesca 2009-01-01 85 Transcriptomic and Secretomic Profiling of Isolated...

196

aux rayonnements ionisants: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(n-butyl acrylate) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl (more) Bennet, Francesca 2009-01-01 138 Factories: The Ionising Radiations (Sealed Sources)...

197

E-Print Network 3.0 - allyl methacrylate styrene Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tetrachloroethylene () Cyclohexanol () Cyclohexanone ()1- 1-Butyl alcohol ()2... ;() Acrolein () Acrylic acid () Allyl zlcohol () Allyl chloride () Allyl glycidyl ether(AGE) ()2-...

198

Biomass IBR Fact Sheet: Archer Daniels Midland  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Archer Daniels Midland will develop a pilot plant to demonstrate the continuous production of cellulosic ethanol and butyl acrylate from densified corn stover.

199

Identification of a haloalkaliphilic and thermostable cellulase with improved ionic liquid tolerance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acetate ([Emim]Ac), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Emim]Cl), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) and 1-allyl-

Zhang, Tao

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Multiple Objective Stormwater Management For the Coliseum Complex  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) remain in the soil around5.2 ppb xylenes, and 160 ppb MTBE remain in the groundwater

Jones, Jesse; Kraai, Rachel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences - an ongoing science and policy story  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), lubricating oil and itsthe environment. Use of the MTBE additive in gasoline wasof gasoline laced with MTBE into groundwater resulted in

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

The Drinking Water Security and Safety Amendments of 2002: Is America's Drinking Water Infrastructure Safer Four Years Later?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

355 tertiary butyl ether ("MTBE"). 43 8 Amazingly, even "[c]Water: Study Estimates Cost of MTBE Remedia- tion At Up to $

Shermer, Steven D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Agricultural and Resource Economics Update  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a natural-gas derivative, werebattle between advocates for ethanol and those for MTBE.MTBE became the dominant additive because it was less

Smith, Aaron; Zilberman, David; Saitone, Tina; Sexton, Richard J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the urban tracers (e.g. C 2 H 2 , MTBE, toluene) are highlymethyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) because their shorter atmo-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Effects of water chemistry on NF/RO membrane structure and performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, ethylbenzene,TCE** Industrial C 2 HCl 3 MTBE** [48] Industrial C 5 H 12 O

Mo, Yibing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Cometabolic bioremediation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Intrinsic bioremediation of MTBE-contaminated groundwater atcontaminants, e.g. PCE, TCE, MTBE, TNT, dioxane, atrazine,Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has also been remediated

Hazen, Terry C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

First Annual U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Joint Genome Institute User Meeting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Genome Analysis of MTBE-Degrading Beta- Proteobacteriummethyl tert- butyl ether (MTBE). Strain PM1 can alsooften co-contaminants with MTBE in groundwater, including

Various

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Material Safety Data Sheet 2407/2457 Series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measures Suitable Extinguishing Media: Carbon dioxide. Dry chemical. Water spray. #12;Material Safety Data. Evaporation Rate (butyl Acetate=1): Not applicable. Viscosity: Not applicable. Section 10. Stability

Rollins, Andrew M.

209

Effect of xenobiotics on the respiratory activity of rat heart mitochondria and the concomitant formation of superoxide radicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of the xenobiotics atrazine, benzene, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), lindane, toluene, and xylenol on the respiration of isolated rate heart mitochondria were studied. Bioenergetic parameters such as respiratory control (RC) and ATP/oxygen (P/O) values decreased considerably in the presence of these substances, and a concomitant increase of superoxide radical (O[sub 2][sup [minus

Stolze, K.; Nohl, H. (Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Pharmacology and Toxicology)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Monitoring synaptic protein dynamics with higher temporal, spatial, and molecular resolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spectrometry mSOG MiniSOG MTBE Methyl tert-butyl ether mTORMethyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, 1.4 mL) was then added for1,000 g, 5 min). The MTBE layer was collected into a 1.5-mL

Butko, Margaret

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Effects of oxygenate concentration on species mole fractions in premixed n-heptane flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-heptane/oxygenate mixtures were 2.7 and 3.4. Three different fuel oxygenates (i.e. MTBE, methanol, and ethanol) were tested tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME)) were considered as possible fuel oxygenates. MTBE and ethanol are the most common oxygenates currently used

Senkan, Selim M.

212

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Santa Barbara  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, B. Dooher, and D. Rice, Analysis of dissolved benzene plumes and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE, An evaluation of MTBE impacts to California groundwater resources, pp. 68 p., Lawrence Livermore National, Temporal Analysis of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Plumes at California Leaking Underground Fuel tank

California at Santa Barbara, University of

213

OCCURRENCE AND POTENTIAL ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN STREAMBED SEDIMENT, UNITED STATES, 1992-95  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Carson City, NV U.S. Geological Survey, National Water-Quality Laboratory, Box 25046, Denver Federal of trade names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Concentrations of PAHs and phthalates were about 10 times higher at sites influenced by urban activities than

214

Revised version Water Practice & Technology, Vol 2 (1) 2007. doi10.2166/wpt.2007.0008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compounds for sewage sludge spreading on agricultural land, and also the central role of the sewage sludge of organic pollutants after sewage sludge spreading on agricultural soils: a 30-years field-scale recording 1) and residues derived from plastics (PAE-phthalates) end up in sewage sludge. In order to evaluate and quantify

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

215

Toxicology Letters 203 (2011) 219226 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on human health. Numerous diseases are known to be caused by these environmental toxins (Betarbet et al Industrialization, anthropogenic activities, natural phenomena and increased use of man-made chemicals, have., 2000; Briggs, 2003; Sherer et al., 2002). While phthalates, chemicals widely utilized in consumer

Appanna, Vasu

216

Non-Metallic Materials List The LSG Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ink, Marking Foams & Sponge Urethane Lubricants & Grease Compound, Heat Sink SECTION Non Epoxy-Glass, Cu Clad II !I II II Epoxy-Glass, B-Stage Nylon- Phenolic Epoxy-Glass Potting Compounds) Phthalate 52-01 Mesa Plastics D 4 2/25/71 5527 3/23/71 704 Glass fi

Rathbun, Julie A.

217

Desorption of carbon monoxide from nickel using mercaptans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An IR spectroscopic study on the displacement of carbon monoxide with 1-propyl, 2-propyl-, 1-butyl-, 2-butyl-, and tert.-butyl mercaptan from nickel foil and silica-supported nickel showed that at low carbon monoxide coverage on supported nickel, mercaptan adsorption initially converted bridged to linear carbon monoxide surface species. At higher mercaptan pressures, carbon monoxide desorbed into the gas phase. A small amount of carbon monoxide remained on the surface when the poisoned sample was evacuated, and additional carbon monoxide adsorbed when 5 mm Hg of carbon monoxide was added to the evacuated sample.

Neff, L.D.; Sturdivant, A.E.; Wallace, J.L.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

A BRIEF HISTORY OF INDUSTRIAL CATALYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

More recently, Air Products and Chemicals Corporation hasProcess Division of Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. HC Q)air oxidation of isobutane. T-butyl alcohol is a co- product

Heinemann, Heinz

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Metal catalyzed copolymerization processes involving carbon oxides as substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

backbone and electron donating tert-butyl groups in the phenolate rings. This catalyst was used to investigate the effect of altering the nature of the cocatalyst and its concentration. The coupling of carbon monoxide and aziridines has been shown...

Phelps, Andrea Lee

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

9900 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1993,115, 9900-9906 Structural Analysis of Covalent Peptide Dimers,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Mabel Beckman Laboratories of Chemical Synthesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena. Tethering two 2-PyN ligands through the nitrogens of the central pyrrole rings with propyl, butyl, pentyl

Mrksich, Milan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydride-vinyl methyl ether Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4-Methyl-2-pentanol Other secondary alcohols... - quire handling with precautions. Acrolein tert-Butyl methyl ether Di(1-propynl) ether n... Methoxy-1,3,5,7- cyclooctatetraene...

222

Accelerated Luminophore Discovery through Combinatorial Michael S. Lowry, William R. Hudson, Robert A. Pascal, Jr., and Stefan Bernhard*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. There are three electrochemical stages associated with light emission in a diode-type device: (1) charge injection,4-di-tert-butyl-2,2-dipyridyl), marking the highest emission energy from a single-layer device, to date

Bernhard, Stefan

223

High-resolution infrared measurements on HSOH: Analysis of the OH fundamental vibrational mode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-wave spectroscopy on HSOH and H34 SOH [1]. The authors used flash vacuum pyrolysis of di-tert-butyl sulfoxide] identified five of six fundamental vibrational modes of matrix isolated HSOH formed by pyrolysis of di

Giesen, Thomas

224

APPENDXD.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Report The Form EIA-819, "Monthly Oxygenate Report" provides production data for fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). End-of-month stock data held at ethanol...

225

Incorporation of silica into baroplastic core-shell nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Core-shell baroplastics are nanophase materials that exhibit pressure-induced flow at low temperatures and high pressures. Core-shell baroplastics used in this work are comprised of a low Tg poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) core ...

Hewlett, Sheldon A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Original article Novel attractants of Galleria mellonella L  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 1957). Methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, allyl esters of octanoic and decanoic acids were synthesized via the reaction of the corre- sponding acid chlorides and alcohols. Decyl and octyl acetates, methyl, ethyl

Boyer, Edmond

227

() Trichloromethane ()1,1,2,2-1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acetate () Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether () Ethylene glycol monomethy ether ()- O-dichlorobenzene ( ) Xylenes(o-,m-,p- isomers) () Cresol - 19 - #12;() Chlorobenzene () Amyl acetate () Isoamyl acetate () Isobutyl acetate () Isopropyl acetate () Ethyl acetate () Propyl acetate () Butyl acetate () Methyl acetate

Huang, Haimei

228

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), from gasoline by 2004.MTBE was used to meet a requirement for gasoline to containbeginning in 2002, replacing MTBE with ethanol. According to

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methyl-tertiary-butyl- ether (MTBE) and the biomass burningfrom all source categories. MTBE is a gasoline additive andwith the fuel tracer MTBE (e.g. 0.82 for MTBE/benzene).

Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D. D; Blake, D. R; Wiedinmyer, C.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methanol Ethanol Acetone MEK MTBE CO Methane UCI UCI TOGA/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), and toluene all ratioedthe observed decay. For MTBE, also a species that is not

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Soil type, crop and irrigation technique affect nitrogen leaching to groundwater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water contamination with MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether,that areas vulnerable to MTBE are also vulner- able tothat affect the movement of MTBE. If only a small amount of

Letey, John; Vaughan, Peter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) at 57 amu has been previouslyby a fragment of MTBE (62%) with minor contributions fromFortner and Knighton, 2008). MTBE also in- terfered (16%)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3and SO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methyl tertiary- butyl ether (MTBE) and its effect on plasmaand three VOCs (propyne, furan, MTBE) remained below their 3Ethanol Acetone MEK MAC MVK MTBE Furan CH 3 OH C 2 H 5 OH C

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Synthesis of higher alcohols on copper catalysts supported on alkali-promoted basic oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-butyl-ether (MTBE) after isobutanol dehydration to form isobutene. An equimolar ratio of methanol to isobutanol would be preferred for MTBE synthesis. Methanol and higher alcohols can also be used for direct blending

Iglesia, Enrique

235

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), from gasoline by 2004.MTBE was used to meet a requirement for gasoline to containbeginning in 2002, replacing MTBE with ethanol. According to

Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) biodegradation in batchCometabolic degradation of MTBE by a cyclohexane-oxidizingof 49 Biological Treatment of MTBE Fortin, N. Y. , and M. A.

Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Pyrolysis of Organic Molecules Relevant to Combustion as Monitored by Photoionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is observed, which is similar to MTBE in this system whichisobutene formed from MTBE, is found to occur. REFERENCES [methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (

Weber, Kevin Howard

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Finding the missing stratospheric Bry: a global modeling study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methanol Ethanol Acetone MEK MTBE CO Methane UCI UCI TOGA/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), and toluene all ratioedthe observed decay. For MTBE, also a species that is not

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Aug. 2004, p. 47204726 Vol. 70, No. 8 0099-2240/04/$08.00 0 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.70.8.47204726.2004  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contamination of surface and groundwater resources by the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is leading to its phaseout. Ethanol, a likely candidate to substitute MTBE, is increasingly being used

Alvarez, Pedro J.

240

Assessing the Effectiveness of California's Underground Storage Tank Annual Inspection Rate Requirements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive. Thefor the lions share of MTBE contamination, as well asIn response to the MTBE crisis, California increased the

Cutter, W. Bowman

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Trichloroethene Removal From Waste Gases in Anaerobic Biotrickling Filters Through Reductive Dechlorination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) vapors into water was used.MTBE is highly soluble in water (dimensionless Henrysgas stream was laden with MTBE vapors (200-300 mg m -3 )

Popat, Sudeep Chandrakant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drinking Water: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE).http://www.epa.gov/mtbe/water.htm (11/30/10), Chiu, Y. W. ;LCFS LCI LP LPG MED MRO MSF MTBE MWD MWDOC NAICS NERC NETL

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Soluble hyperbranched grafts on polyethylene surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Here we report two methods to synthesize hyperbranched poly(acrylic acid) grafts on polyethylene films and powders. The previously reported route using ?,[]-diaminopoly(tert-butyl acrylate) was repeated and all previous results were confirmed...

Britton, Danielle M

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY 81,2 13-2 19 ( 1985) Role of Extracellular Ca*+ in Toxic Liver Injury: Comparative Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

perfused liver and isolated hepatocytes. The toxins t-butyl- hydroperoxide and carbon tetrachloride on extracellular Ca2+ for cytotoxic injury to cultured hepato- cytes caused by carbon tetrachloride (CC&) and 2

California at Berkeley, University of

245

Method for cleaning solution used in nuclear fuel reprocessing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nuclear fuel processing solution consisting of tri-n-butyl phosphate and dodecane, with a complex of uranium, plutonium, or zirconium and with a solvent degradation product such as di-n-butyl phosphate therein, is contacted with an aqueous solution of a salt formed from hydrazine and either a dicarboxylic acid or a hydroxycarboxylic acid, thereby removing the aforesaid complex from the processing solution.

Tallent, O.K.; Crouse, D.J.; Mailen, J.C.

1980-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

246

Non-phosphate degradation products of tributyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tributyl phosphate(TBP) was compulsively degraded with nitric acid and/or uranium nitrate at elevated temperature around 105{degrees}C. Experimental results indicates major non-phosphate degradation products are butyl nitrate (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}NO{sub 3}), propionic acid (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}COOH), acetic acid (CH{sub 3}COOH), butyric acid (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}COOH) and butyl alcohol (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}OH) in ascending order of quantity. Degrading rate in uranium free system is less than that in uranium coexisting system. Carboxylic acids were not produced in uranium free system, and only acetic acid was identified in case of without supplying nitric acid from aqueous phase. Moreover, from the experimental study on the reactivity of each non-phosphate product with nitric acid, carboxylic acids were identified as byproducts of butyl alcohol and butyl nitrate, and each carboxylic acid was stable in these degrading conditions. Finally, butyl alcohol is considered as one of intermediate products to butyl nitrate and carboxylic acids. From this study, the non-phosphate degradation products of TBP is identified and the degrading reaction pass is proposed. Extraction behavior of each non-phosphate product and reactivity of degraded TBP are also elucidated.

Tashiro, Y.; Kodama, R.; Sugai, H. [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., Aomori (Japan)] [and others

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Decarboxylative Arylation of Amino Acids via Photoredox Catalysis: A One-Step Conversion of Biomass to Drug  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Decarboxylative Arylation of Amino Acids via Photoredox Catalysis: A One-Step Conversion of Biomass. This method offers rapid entry to prevalent benzylic amine architectures from an abundant biomass the worldwide abundance of biomass6 that incorporates carboxylate functionality (e.g., amino acids, -hydroxy

MacMillan, David W. C.

248

Publications by Postdoctoral Fellows November 2010 Thompson Group Dalhousie University1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research Programme). 1. Microwave-accelerated Synthesis of Benzyl 3,5-Dimethyl-pyrrole-2-carboxylate Molecules Containing the Pyrrole Framework. Thirumalairajan, S.; Pearce, B.M.; Thompson, A.; Chem. Commun-Functionalised Prodigiosenes: Synthesis and Anticancer Properties. Sez Daz, R.I.; Bennett, S.M.; Thompson, A. Chem

Dellaire, Graham

249

SIGMA-ALDRICH MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.6 Section 1 - Product and Company Information Product Name BENZYL ALCOHOL, ANHYDROUS, 99.8% Product Number 305197 Brand ALDRICH Company Sigma-Aldrich Street Address 3050 Spruce Street City, State Tension 39 mN/m 20 °C Partition Coefficient Log Kow: 1.1 Decomposition Temp. N/A Flash Point 204.8 °F 96

Choi, Kyu Yong

250

A Practical and Highly Stereoselective Umpolung Alternative to the Alkylation of Chiral Enolates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, acetates, carbonates, and epoxides.9,10 Thus, in principle, the displacement reaction of a chiral allyl reactive electrophiles such as methyl, ethyl, and some primary alkyl iodides and benzyl or allyl halides. s-silyl ketene acetals, and s-alkyl electrophiles are poor electrophiles with this method.7,8 In this paper, we

Spino, Claude

251

Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (-)-Isolaurallene Michael T. Crimmins* and Kyle A. Emmitte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exposed to Brown's asymmetric allylation18 to generate a 96:4 mixture of the two diastereomeric secondary alcohols in 93% yield. The major isomer was subsequently converted to the corresponding acetate 9. Removal of the benzyl ethers of 9 under oxidative conditions19 also resulted in oxidation of the allylic alcohol

252

Biocbonicd Pharmacology. Vol. 3.5. No. 18. pp. 3095-3101. 1986 Printed in Great Britain.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-2952/86 53.00 + 0.W Pergamon Journals Ltd. ROLE OF REDOX CYCLING AND LIPID PEROXIDATION IN BIPYRIDYL that these compounds are potent generators of active oxygen speciesby redox cyclingand that they stimulate lipid herbicides, diquat (DQ), paraquat (PQ) and benzyl viologen (BV), to generate superoxide anion radical (07

California at Berkeley, University of

253

Random and Sequential Radical Cotelomerizations of 3,3,3-Trifluoropropene (TFP, H2C=CHCF3) with Vinylidene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is quite reactive in contrast to longer perfluorinated chain vinyl-type monomers (e.g. CnF2n+1-CH=CH2, benzyl chloride, under redox complexes (e.g. Fe(CO)5), UV or gamma rays initiatons.7-19 In addition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

254

Effect of Feed-Stream Configuration on Gas-Phase Chlorination Reactor Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that is mixed with pure chlorine. The product mixture also contains carbon tetrachloride (which is the competing. Introduction Chlorinated hydrocarbons are an important class of industrial chemicals. Chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, allyl chloride, benzyl chloride, and trichloroethene are some of the common products that belong

Raman, Venkat

255

Three-dimensional flow visualization in a centrifugal compressor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analogy studies. Soyce (1) utilized a mixture of kerosene and dibutyl phthalate colored with black paint. These liquids were mixed to yield a neutral density mixture which formed globules when injected into water. The globules were tracked on high speed... to determine points of extreme turbulence and separation. The mapping process was aided by watching the deformation of the kerosene- dibutyl globules. Globules would change from their normally spherical shape when flowing into high velocity streamlines...

Trevillion, William Lee

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 41 (2010) ISSN 0911-7806 Chemical State Analysis of Al Contained in Iron and Steel Slag  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;41 179 X Al X Al K 4 6 4 6 0.1 eV 6 Al O 4 6 4 Al 6 Al 7 X 2. XRF EPMA K K XRF X ZSXPrimus2 EPMA JXA-8200 XRF PET pentaery- thritol Rh X ADP Cr X EPMA TAP thallium acid phthalate 15 kV 0.1 µA 50 µm 4

Jun, Kawai

257

Factors affecting the lipase activity of milk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

inhibit lipase. Citrate, acetate, and phthalate buffers impaired the enzymic activity, but borate and barbiturate buffers did not (6, 72). The interaction of formaldehyde with milk lipase has been studied by some investigators (56, 67) . Tarassuk... and Richardson (67) reported that aging of milk containing formaldehyde nullified the inhibitory effect of formaldehyde. Schwartz et al, (56) observed that the extent of inhibition of milk lipase by formaldehyde depends upon the time formaldehyde is added...

Tallamy, Paul Thomas

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

A study of organic pollutant transfer processes in the estuarine environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and sensitive analytical procedures were developed for the determination of ultra-low levels of DDT, DDE, DDD, polychlori- nated biphenyls, dibutyl- and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalates in sedi- ment, suspended matter and water in the Mississippi River Delta... and near-shore area of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The pollutants in the water samples were associated virtually with the suspended matter. The concentrations of the pollutants did not exceed 325 pptrillion. This finding is signifi- cantly lower than...

Kakareka, Joseph Phillip

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Reactivity of tributyl phosphate degradation products with nitric acid: Relevance to the Tomsk-7 accident  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reaction of a degraded tributyl phosphate (TBP) solvent with nitric acid is thought to have caused the chemical explosion at the Tomsk-7 reprocessing plant at Tomsk, Russia in 1993. The estimated temperature of the organic layer was not high eneough to cause significant reaction of nitric acid with TBP or hydrocarbon diluent compounds. A more reactive organic compound was likely present in the organic layer that reacted with sufficient heat generation to raise the temperature to the point where an autocatalytic oxidation of the organic solvent was initiated. Two of the most likely reactive compounds that are present in degraded TBP solvents are n-butanol and n-butyl nitrate. The reactions of these compounds with nitric acid are the subject of this study. The objective of laboratory-scale tests was to identify chemical reactions that occur when n-butanol and n-butyl nitrate contact heated nitric acid solutions. Reaction products were identified and quantitified, the temperatures at which these reactions occur and heats of reaction were measured, and reaction variables (temperature, nitric acid concentration, organic concentration, and reaction time) were evaluated. Data showed that n-butyl nitrate is less reactive than n-butanol. An essentially complete oxidation reaction of n-butanol at 110-120 C produced four major reaction products. Mass spectrometry identified the major inorganic oxidation products for both n-butanol and n-butyl nitrate as nitric oxide and carbon dioxide. Calculated heats of reaction for n-butanol and n-butyl nitrate to form propionic acid, a major reaction product, are -1860 cal/g n-butanol and -953 cal/g n-butyl nitrate. These heats of reaction are significant and could have raised the temperature of the organic layer in the Tomsk-7 tank to the point where autocatalytic oxidation of other organic compounds present resulted in an explosion.

Barney, G.S.; Cooper, T.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

260

Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Test was conducted to validate the use of the Butyl material as a primary seal throughout the required temperature range. Three tests were performed at (1) 233 K ({minus}40 {degrees}F), (2) a specified operating temperature, and (3) 244 K ({minus}20 {degrees}F) before returning to room temperature. Helium leak tests were performed at each test point to determine seal performance. The two major test objectives were to establish that butyl rubber material would maintain its integrity under various conditions and within specified parameters and to evaluate changes in material properties.

Adkins, H.E.; Ferrell, P.C.; Knight, R.C.

1994-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Emission Control and Elimination Through The Use Of Condensation and Heat Recovery Technologies- A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be no addition of water in the process, the level of water in the condensate would falloff dramatically. A prototype unit capable of handling three ovens with a total air flow of 1200 ft 3 /min (cfm) was installed. The unit performed as expected... ether (butyl cellosolve) and propylene glycol monomethyl ether. Butyl cellosolve is a regulated glycol ether (which is a HAP). At the oven process temperatures, the vapor pressure of the solvent mixture is 250 rom Hg. This corresponds to a saturated...

Madewell, A. E.; Bullock, W. N.

262

Hydrogen sulfide decomposition into hydrogen and sulfur by quinone cycles. First annual report, June 1989-May 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research is evaluating the fundamental mechanisms for recovery of sulfur and H{sub 2} from H{sub 2}S, using mild condition cycles based on oxidation of H{sub 2}S by quinones. During this first year, the research focused on the reaction of H{sub 2}S with tertiary butyl anthraquinone to form tertiary butyl anthrahydroquinone. The progress achieved included extending the quinone conversion from 60-80% to complete conversion, significantly increasing the rate of conversion by varying the solvent, and developing a proposed mechanism for this part of the process.

Plummer, M.A.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

A study of the multiplication and rooting in vitro of shoot tips from mature guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

10 mL Glacial acetic acid overnight Dehydration Series, Tertiary Butyl Alcohol 1. 50% Dehydration Solution 50 mL distilled water 40 mL 95% Ethyl alcohol 10 mL Tertiary butyl alcohol (t-BuOH) . 2. 70% dehydration solution 30 mL distilled water... alcohol 75 mL -BuOH 2 hours overnight 1 hour 1 hour 1 hour 37 6. Pure t-BuOH 7. Pure t-BuOH 8. Pure t-BuOH 9. Equal volumes t-BuOH and parrifin oil 1 hour overnight 1 hour 24 hours 10. Fill small vials half full with melted parrifin...

Callin, Jeffrey Michael

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

265

Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

266

Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

267

Ion exchange selectivity of a perfluorosulfonate ionomer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Advisory Committee: Dr. C. R. Martin The ion exchange selectivity of Nafion was evaluated. Two separate series of homologous cations were separated. A series of viologens, methyl, benzyl, and heptyl, were sepa- rated by utilizing tetramethyl ammonium... which demonstrated X m the ionic exchange characteristic of the system. Comparison of the elution volumes of methyl viologen on ODS (1. 80 ml) and on Nafion coated ODS (9. 50 ml) also indicates the ionic characteristic of the Nafion column...

Wilkerson, James Edward

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

The preparation and characterization of linear and cross-linked poly(fluorenyl)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Retrogressive reactions in coal processing are that class of reactions that lead to the formation of high molecular weight materials that are more intractable than those present in the coal prior to processing. This outcome almost always is regarded as deleterious. The present work focuses on the characterization of the acid-catalyzed polymerization of benzylic fluorides, and in particular the synthesis of poly(fluorenyl), as an example of the type of chemistry that may occur in the cross-linked organic matrix of coals when in contact with strong acids. Solution and solid state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize the soluble and insoluble polymers. The change in the value of the fraction of aromatic carbon that is protonated is the criterion used to monitor the extent of cross-linking in these polymer preparations. Benzylic fluorides are sensitive substances, prone to further reaction via acid catalyzed heterolytic scission of the C-F bond. The electron deficient reactive intermediate formed in this reaction undergoes electrophilic aromatic substitution. This reaction can be started with catalytic traces of acid and is self-sustaining as HF is generated in equivalent concentrations as the reaction proceeds. The relevance of this naturally non-occurring functional group in coal processing stems from the similar reaction pathway followed by both benzylic fluorides and benzylic alcohols. In the coal matrix, the operation of two exogenous processes--air oxidation and strong acid treatment of the coal (demineralization) creates a situation in which the polymerization discussed herein may occur in the coal. In addition to the polymerization reactions that produce poly(fluorenyl), the subsequent cross-linking of the linear polymer is also reported. In subsequent work, similar chemistry will be applied to soluble lignin as a model more similar to low rank coals.

Hagaman, E.W.; Lee, S.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Ternary liquid scintillator for optical fiber applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multicomponent liquid scintillator solution for use as a radiation-to-light converter in conjunction with a fiber optic transmission system. The scintillator includes a quantity of 5-amino-9-diethylaminobenz (a) phenoxazonium nitrate (Nile Blue Nitrate) as a solute in a fluor solvent such as benzyl alcohol. The use of PPD as an additional solute is also disclosed. The system is controllable by addition of a suitable quenching agent, such as phenol.

Franks, Larry A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lutz, Stephen S. (Santa Barbara, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

The Reaction of bis(1,2,4-tri-t-butylcyclopentadienyl)ceriumbenzyl, Cp'2CeCH2Ph with Methylhalides: a Metathesis Reaction that does not proceed by a Metathesis Transition State  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental reaction between [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeCH2Ph and CH3X, X = F, Cl, Br, and I, yields the metathetical exchange products, [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeX and CH3CH2Ph. The reaction is complicated by the equilibrium between the benzyl derivative and the metallacycle [[1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2] [(Me3C)2C5H2C(CH3)2CH2]Ce, plus toluene since the metallacycle reacts with CH3X. Labelling studies show that the methyl group of the methylhalide is transferred intact to the benzyl group. The mechanism, as revealed by DFT calculations on (C5H5)2CeCH2Ph and CH3F, does not proceed by way of a four-center mechanism, (sigma-bond metathesis) but a lower barrier process involves a haptotropic shift of the Cp2Ce fragment so that at the transition state the para-carbon of the benzene ring is attached to the Cp2Ce fragment while the CH2 fragment of the benzyl group attacks CH3F that is activated by coordination to the metal ion. As a result the mechanism is classified as an associative interchange process.

Werkema, Evan; Andersen, Richard; Maron, Laurent; Eisenstein, Odile

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

271

An investigation of the burning rates of thin films of some selected composite propellants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ammoni a/Perch 1 ori c Aci d Aluminum Atmospheres butyl Acetate Carbon Glass Cyclo tetramethylenetetrani tr amine L ad Azide IicCormick-Selph Methyl Fthyl Ketone IIitrocelIulose Oxidizer/Fue'I x-104, x-164 NcCormick-Selph material 300, 104...

Sawyer, Miles Lee

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Reverse Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China Received 14, the removal and recycling of the catalytic materials become important. It is expected that using ionic liquids as ATRP media. They performed the copper(I)-mediated ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in 1-butyl-3

Wan, Xin-hua

273

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis Lekha Gupta, 2008 Ortholithiations of a range of arenes mediated by lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at -78 C protocols with unpurified commercial samples of n-butyl- lithium to prepare LDA or commercially available

Collum, David B.

274

Analysis of Steam Heating of a Two-Layer TBP/N-Paraffin/Nitric Acid Mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents an analysis of steam heating of a two-layer tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/n-paraffin-nitric acid mixture.The purpose of this study is to determine if the degree of mixing provided by the steam jet or by bubbles generated by the TBP/nitric acid reaction is sufficient to prevent a runaway reaction.

Laurinat, J.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Hassan, N.M.; Rudisill, T.S.; Askew, N.M.

1998-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

275

Synthesis of molybdenum olefin metatheses catalysts through protonation reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The attempted syntheses of molybdenum imido alkylidene complexes of the type Mo(NArc,)(CH-t-Bu)[Biphen] and Mo(N-2-CF3C6H4)(CHCMe2Ph)[Biphen] (Biphen2 = 3,3'-di-t-butyl-5,5',6,6'-tetramethyl- 1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-diolate) ...

Sinha, Amritanshu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1994,116, 1983-1988 7983 Hairpin Peptide Motif. A New Class of Oligopeptides for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and Peter B. Dewan. Contributionfrom the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Laboratories of Chemical Synthesis in the minor groove of DNA.14 An imidazole pyrrole-pyrrole tripeptide, 1-methylimidazole-2-carboxamide tethered through thecentral pyrrole rings with a butyl linker bind with increased affinity and specificity

Dervan, Peter B.

277

J. Am. Chem. SOC.1994,116. 3663-3664 3663 Design of a Covalent Peptide Heterodimer for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laboratories of Chemical Synthesis California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91I25 Received pyrrole rings with a butyl linker, was synthesized in 12 steps from commercially available precursorsN-C4-P3 wherein the two peptides 2-1" and P3 areconnected through thenitrogens of thecentral pyrrole

Mrksich, Milan

278

Features of gadolinium and ytterbium extraction by tributyl phosphate from concentrated nitric acid solutions. I. Compositions of extracted complexes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Distribution of macroquantity (0.3-1.3 M) of Gd and Yb between neat tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and 5-12 M nitric acid solutions has been studied. The species extracted by TBP from 7-12 M nitric acid solutions are rare-earth metal (REM) nitrate trisolvates containing one or several nitric molecules.

Nikitna, G.P.; Seredkina, N.V.; Listopadov, A.A. [Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Role of Volatilization in Changing TBA and MTBE Concentrations at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a low affinity for gasoline (low Kfw, Table 1). Therefore, minute amounts of TBA in the MTBE blended tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) added to gasoline. Frequent observations of high TBA, and especially rising TBA/MTBE concentration ratios, in groundwater at gasoline spill sites are generally attributed to microbial conversion

280

Water Research 37 (2003) 37563766 Seasonal and daily variations in concentrations of methyl-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by volume to gasoline from November to February, and blending 11% MTBE by volume during the rest of the year; accepted 24 March 2003 Abstract Methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), an additive used to oxygenate gasoline of gasoline-powered watercraft. This paper documents and explains both seasonal and daily variations in MTBE

Toran, Laura

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

SIGMA-ALDRICH MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 Section 1 - Product and Company Information Product Name BUTYL ACRYLATE, 99+% Product Number 234923 Brand ALDRICH Company Sigma-Aldrich Street Address 3050 Spruce Street City, State, Zip, Country °C Partition Coefficient Log Kow: 2.38 Decomposition Temp. N/A Flash Point 96.8 °F 36 °C Method

Choi, Kyu Yong

282

Published Ahead of Print 1 July 2011. 2011, 193(17):4549. DOI: 10.1128/JB.00415-11.J. Bacteriol.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laboratory, Joint Genome Institute, Biosciences Division Genome Science B6, Los Alamos, New Mexico 875454 ; U and energy source (9, 10, 11, 14). This strain can also grow on other ethers (e.g., 2-methyl-1,3- dioxolane and butyl methyl ether), alcohols, and benzene as the sole carbon and energy source, and it can grow

Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

283

Cytoprotective Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Oxidative Stress in Hepatocytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

common dietary fatty acids to subsequent inflammation and stress. Hepatocytes (HepG2 cell line) were treated with oleic, linoleic and palmitic acid at different concentrations and exposed to the pro-oxidant tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) to induce...

Richardson, Thomas C

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

284

Interaction forces between oilwater particle interfaces--Non-DLVO forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

silica sphere and a butyl or octyl acetate droplet was measured in an aqueous environment using atomic of the water solubility of the organic liquid, in that the same force­distance characteristics were obtained in industrial applications. They include formulation, stability, and rheological properties of emulsions

Chan, Derek Y C

285

Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

untitled  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3,054 Fuel Ethanol (FE) 1,019 97 1,116 2,133 528 393 3,054 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 561 0 561 0 0 0 0 All Other Oxygenates a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp....

287

PROOF COPY [023113] 008209QEE [023113]008209QEE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a replacement for the gasoline oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether MTBE , may lead to indirect impacts related facilitate the migration of pre-existing contamination. MTBE 25 mg/L influent was not degraded inlet by one order of magnitude relative to columns fed BTEX alone or with MTBE. However, 16S

Alvarez, Pedro J.

288

7198 J. Org. Chem. 1995,60, 7198-7208 Gas Phase Decomposition of Conjugate Acid Ions of Simple  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(MTBE),ethyl (ETBE),n-propyl,isopropyl,and isobutyl tert-butyl ethers have been examined experimentally spectroscopy (MIKES) experiments on deuterated ions from MTBE and ETBE. Mechanistic possibilities are probed tert-amyl ether and its deuterated analogues. Protonated MTBE displays a single unimolecular

Morton, Thomas Hellman

289

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 21, No. 12, pp. 26312639, 2002 Printed in the USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

--Aquifer microcosms were used to determine how ethanol and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MtBE) affect monoaromatic compared to benzene, which was degraded only under aerobic conditions. The MtBE was not degraded within 100 to phase out MtBE as a gasoline oxy- genate is likely to significantly increase the use of ethanol

Alvarez, Pedro J.

290

PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

11,352 13 1,309 15,181 42 Fuel Ethanol (FE) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 234 928 10,251 0 21 11,434 31 Other Oxygenates 955 390 1,101 13 1,288 3,747 10 Motor...

291

90% of new cars have engines specially designed to run on hydrous ethanol. This avoids the expense of remov-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

competes with gasoline (petrol), diesel and MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether, added to gasoline to MTBE, however, ethanol is comparable regarding price per energy unit and has considerable environmental advantages. MTBE is added to gasoline as an octane booster, replac- ing the lead formerly used

292

Physico-chemical and biological characterization of an aquifer polluted with Yves Benoit (1)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to in order to meet specific requirements. Oxygenates such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) or ethyl tert on groundwater was not estimated prior to their utilization and the actual level of MTBE and ETBE contamination of MTBE- and ETBE-biodegradation is quite poor. Two directives have been adopted in the EU to promote

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

293

Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 00(0):000000 (2001) 1064-3389/01/$.50  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water contamination by methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have made policymakers more cognizant of the need reformulated gasoline (RFG) (2% oxygen) year-round to reduce emissions that contribute to ozone formation. MTBE-making process that lead to the widespread use of MTBE over the last decade is now quite controversial (BRP, 1999

Alvarez, Pedro J.

294

Author's personal copy Automobile proximity and indoor residential concentrations of BTEX and MTBE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Author's personal copy Automobile proximity and indoor residential concentrations of BTEX and MTBE to indoor benzene and MTBE concentrations appeared to have been dominated by car exhaust concentrations of other BTEX components and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have been reported [5,6]. Up until

Siegel, Jeffrey

295

I. Pt-Catalyzed Tandem Epoxide Fragmentation/Pentannulation of Propargylic Esters II. Progress Toward the Kopsia Family of Indole Alkaloids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), a much more environmentallyPhMe, reflux POCl 3 , Et 3 N CN MTBE Scheme 3.3: OptimizedO H NH POCl 3 , Et 3 N CN MTBE 1-Isocyanocyclohex-1-ene (

Pujanauski, Brian Gerard

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co-contaminants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co November 2005 Key words: aerobic, biodegradation, BTEX, co-contaminant, MTBE, TBA Abstract Contamination of groundwater with the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is often accompanied by many aromatic

297

Canada could get three MTBE plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article reports on the proposed development of three methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plants in Canada. MTBE is used as an oxygenated fuel additive. The author discusses how demand for MTBE is increasing due to the regulation of leaded gasoline by the U.S. and Canadian governments. The exportation of MTBE from Canada to the U.S. is highlighted.

Anderson, E

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Atmosphere-Water Interaction of Chloroform, Toluene, and MTBE in Small Perennial Urban Streams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmosphere-Water Interaction of Chloroform, Toluene, and MTBE in Small Perennial Urban Streams-butyl ether (MTBE) are frequently detected VOCs in the atmosphere, surface water, and ground water in urban not be the predominant source of chloroform and toluene in the two urban streams. In contrast, MTBE may be coming from

299

By Martman Cohen News Office staff  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tertiary butyl ether, or MTBE (another hazardous gasoline component that is hazardous to health the benzene-removal technol- ogy to sites contaminated with MTBE. That gasoline additive tends to mi- grate of MTBE- contaminated sites from around the U.S. By simulating an anaerobic pro- cess similar to what

Lovley, Derek

300

UMass builds bugs to eat MTBE ByAuriaCimino  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UMass builds bugs to eat MTBE ByAuriaCimino STAfFWRITER An area university's process to destroy with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), which is found in gasoline. Once the first field trial is complete in particular has suffered from MTBE contamination because of the abundance of groundwater in the state, said

Lovley, Derek

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FTIR - 1 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy FTIR DETERMINATION OF MTBE IN GASOLINE AND ETHANOL FTIR DETERMINATION OF MTBE IN GASOLINE AND ETHANOL IN VODKA AND MOUTHWASH INTRODUCTION As a part has contained MTBE (methyl tert­butyl ether) as its primary oxygenate. However, there has been

Nizkorodov, Sergey

302

International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 249250 (2006) 303310 Pyrolysis of 2-methoxy-2,3,3-trimethylbutane (MTMB) monitored by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

used fuel oxygenates MTBE and TAME), the predominance of bond homolysis at temperatures >900 K suggests homologues ­ methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) ­ present a new set of problems discussed as alternatives to MTBE and TAME, because they are expected to be much less soluble in water. More

Morton, Thomas Hellman

303

MTBE still facing pressure from ethanol under latest fuel proposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US EPA's finalized reformulated gasoline rule, part of Phase II of the 1990 Clean Air Act, signals a possible turnaround for the sluggish methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) market. But if a 30% renewable fuels proposal favoring ethanol passes, pressure could continue for MTBE.

Lucas, A.

1994-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

304

untitled  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Fuel Ethanol (FE) 1,229 108 1,337 2,369 724 497 3,590 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 292 0 292 0 0 0 0 All Other Oxygenates a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp....

305

(distillation) (Le Chatelier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acetate(methyl-, ethyl-, butyl-) , methanol isobutene MTBE , ethanol isobutene ETBE , methanol 2-methyl-1% MTBE 3 DMC . 2% 1990 MTBE 1999 3 2002 MTBE . [ 1-1 ] Phosgene process polycarbonate(PC) 50/ . DMC DMC MTBE / . ( : Amoco, "Review of DMC Manufacture and its

Hong, Deog Ki

306

JOURNALDE PHYSIQUEIV ColloqueC8, supplbmentau Journal de Physique I, Volume 3,dicembre1993  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Telechelic Polymers (HTP) has been prepared. Prelerninary SAXS results on a,w - carboxy poly (tert. butyl acrylate patterns. A new class of model ionomers has been developed in Liege: the Halato-Telechelic Polymers. HTP and discussion All the experimentsperformed until now confirm the multi-peak structure of the new HTP's at low

Boyer, Edmond

307

letters to nature NATURE |VOL 408 |23 NOVEMBER 2000 |www.nature.com 453  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, although further pro- gress may give better resolution, we expect no future change to the present containing 0.5 g of the gemini surfactant 18B4-3±1 (N,N,N,N9N9-pentamethyl-N9- [4-(4-octadecyloxyphenoxy)-butyl]-propane

Siegel, David A.

308

Accelerated ageing of solar control IGUs EN1279-3 compared to climate cabinet, CliSim  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

glazing. The influence of the dimensions of the IGU with regard to the gas leakage rate was also tested System description Glass ­ outer 4 mm SKN 172 ­ Cool Lite Glass ­ inner 4 mm float G6 Cavity 16 mm Spacer Swiss spacer Outer sealing Fenzi Butyl Fenzi Corner connection 4 pieces of plastic Desiccant Phonosorb

309

Adsorption and desorption of atrazine on a melamine-based soil amendment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adsorption kinetics and adsorption-desorption of atrazine on organoclay composites prepared with the surfactant 6-piperazin-1-yl-N,N'-bis-(1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-butyl)-(1,3,5)triazine-2,4-diamine and Houston Black clay were studied using the indirect...

Neitsch, Susan Lynn

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

310

Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Act mandated oxygenated gasoline containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) in certain areas percent. The State of Maine elected to use reformulated gasoline (RFG) that contained at least 11 percent and by 1995, oxygenated gasoline use was common in the northeast. Soon after the widespread use of gasoline

311

he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert- butyl, the September 15, 1999, Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Oxygenates in Gasoline (1) states that between 5 with large releases (e.g., LUFTs). Unprecedented growth in use Use of MTBE as a gasoline additive began

312

Mechanisms of growth inhibition induced by methylene-substituted and ring-substituted dims in breast cancer cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cell growth was inhibited after treatment with a novel series of methylenesubstituted DIMs (C-DIMs), namely 1,1-bis(3-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl) methanes containing trifluoromethyl (DIM-C-pPhCF3), t-butyl (DIM...

Vanderlaag, Kathryn Elisabeth

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

Simultaneous Efficiency, NOx, and Smoke Improvements through Diesel/Gasoline Dual-Fuel Operation in a Diesel Engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, biogas, hydrogen, and alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, iso-propanol, and n-butanol), and fuel additives (MTBE or methyl tertiary-butyl ether, H2O2 or hydrogen peroxide, 2-EHN or ethylhexyl nitrate and DTBP or di...

Sun, Jiafeng

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

314

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electroluminescent property of copolyfluorenes containing a pendent anthraquinone-2,3-dicarboxylic imide Wenqiang-controlled multicolor Light-emitting diodes Excimer emission Copolyfluorenes Anthraquinone-2,3-dicarboxylic imide a b,9-dihexylfluorene- 2,7-dibromofluorene and N-butyl 6-[3-(2,5-dibromothienyl)]anthraquinone-2,3-dicarboxylic imide

Wan, Xin-hua

315

CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A task was undertaken to characterize glovebox gloves that are currently used in the facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as some experimental and advanced compound gloves that have been proposed for use. Gloves from four manufacturers were tested for permeation in hydrogen and air, thermal stability, tensile properties, puncture resistance and dynamic mechanical response. The gloves were compared to each other within the type and also to the butyl rubber glove that is widely used at the SRS. The permeation testing demonstrated that the butyl compounds from three of the vendors behaved similarly and exhibited hydrogen permeabilities of .52‐.84 x10{sup ‐7} cc H{sub 2}*cm / (cm{sup 2}*atm). The Viton? glove performed at the lower edge of this bound, while the more advanced composite gloves exhibited permeabilities greater than a factor of two compared to butyl. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the amount of material lost under slightly aggressive conditions. Glove losses are important since they can affect the life of glovebox stripper systems. During testing at 90, 120, and 150?C, the samples lost most of the mass in the initial 60 minutes of thermal exposure and as expected increasing the temperature increased the mass loss and shortened the time to achieve a steady state loss. The ranking from worst to best was Jung butyl‐Hypalon? with 12.9 %, Piercan Hypalon? with 11.4 %, and Jung butyl‐Viton? with 5.2% mass loss all at approximately 140?C. The smallest mass losses were experienced by the Jung Viton? and the Piercan polyurethane. Tensile properties were measured using a standard dog bone style test. The butyl rubber exhibited tensile strengths of 11‐15 MPa and elongations or 660‐843%. Gloves made from other compounds exhibited lower tensile strengths (5 MPa Viton) to much higher tensile strengths (49 MPa Urethane) with a comparable range of elongation. The puncture resistance of the gloves was measured in agreement with an ASTM standard. The Butyl gloves exhibited puncture resistance from 183 ? 296 lbs/in for samples of 0.020 ? 0.038? thick. Finally, the glass transition temperature and the elastic and viscoelastic properties as a function of temperature up to maximum use temperature were determined for each glove material using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. The glass transition temperatures of the gloves were ‐60?C for butyl, ‐30?C for polyurethane, ‐ 16?C Hypalon?, ‐16?C for Viton?, and ‐24?C for polyurethane‐Hypalon?. The glass transition was too complex for the butyl‐Hypalon? and butyl‐Viton? composite gloves to be characterized by a single glass transition temperature. All of the glass transition temperatures exceed the vendor projected use temperatures.

Korinko, P.

2013-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

316

Calibrating Curved Crystals Used for Plasma Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The throughput and resolving power of an X-ray spectrometer that uses a curved crystal as the diffraction element is determined primarily by the crystal X-ray reflectivity properties. This poster presents a measurement technique for these crystal parameters using a simple diode source to produce a narrow spectral band. The results from measurements on concave elliptical polyethylene terephthalate (PET) crystals and convex potassium acid phthalate (KAP) crystals show large variations in the key parameters compared to those from the flat crystal.

Haugh, M. J., Jacoby, K. D., Ross, P. W., Rochau, G. Wu, M., Regan, S. P., Barrios, M. A.

2012-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

317

New electrolyte systems for capillary zone electrophoresis of metal cations and non-ionic organic compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Excellent separations of metal ions can be obtained very quickly by capillary electrophoresis provided a weak complexing reagent is incorporated into the electrolyte to alter the effective mobilities of the sample ions. Indirect photometric detection is possible by also adding a UV-sensitive ion to the electrolyte. Separations are described using phthalate, tartrate, lactate or hydroxyisobutyrate as the complexing reagent. A separation of twenty-seven metal ions was achieved in only 6 min using a lactate system. A mechanism for the separation of lanthanides is proposed for the hydroxyisobutyrate system.

Shi, Y.

1995-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

318

Coal-transformation chemistry. Fourth quarterly progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pyrene, perylene, anthracene, 9,10-diphenylanthracene, naphthalene and biphenyl have been employed as electron transfer agents in the reduction of Illinois No. 6 coal with potassium in tetrahydrofuran. These electron transfer agents are about equally effective for the reduction of this coal at short reaction times (3 hours). We conclude that the anions of biphenyl and naphthalene achieve a greater degree of electron transfer to the coal molecules and that the use of these anions enhances the fragmentation reactions of the coal. Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal and Colorado subbituminous coal were reacted with potassium dissolved in a mixture of monoglyme and triglyme at -50/sup 0/C. The reduction reaction proceeded via solvated electrons rather than by an electron transfer reaction. The coals were then alkylated with methyl iodide and their solubilities in tetrahydrofuran were determined. The Illinois coal reductively alkylated via solvated electrons was considerably less soluble in tetrahydrofuran than the same coal reductively alkylated with potassium and naphthalene in tetrahydrofuran. A sample of Illinois No. 6 coal which had been reductively butylated with n-butyl-1-/sup 13/C iodide was hydrolyzed. Carbon nmr spectroscopy of the hydrolyzed coal revealed that the resonances previously assigned either to the presence of n-butyl carboxylates or to n-butyl tertiary ethers were removed. This observation provides definite evidence that only carboxylates were present in the original alkylated product. Selective alkylation of the acidic hydroxyl groups in Illinois No. 6 coal was carried out using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as a phase transfer catalyst and iodomethane or 1-iodobutane as alkylating agent as described by Liotta. The tetrahydrofuran solubility of the product was significantly improved in a reaction where reductively butylated coal was subsequently coal was subsequently methylated using Liotta's procedure.

Stock, Leon M.; Blain, D. A.; Handy, C. I.; Heimann, P.; Huang, C. B.; King, H. -H.; Landschulz, W.; Willis, R. S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Ring fission of anthracene by a eukaryota  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ligninolytic fungi are unique among eukaryotes in their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but the mechanism for this process is unknown. Although certain PAHs are oxidized in vitro by the fungal lignin peroxidases (LiPs) that catalyze ligninolysis, it has never been shown that LiPs initiate PAH degradation in vivo. To address these problems, the metabolism of anthracene (AC) and its in vitro oxidation product, 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ), was examined by chromatographic and isotope dilution techniques in Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The fungal oxidation of AC to AQ was rapid, and both AC and AQ were significantly mineralized. Both compounds were cleaved by the fungus to give the same ring-fission metabolite, phthalic acid, and phthalate production from AQ was shown to occur only under ligninolytic culture conditions. These results show that the major pathway for AC degradation in Phanerochaete proceeds AC -> AQ -> phthalate + CO2 and that it is probably mediated by LiPs and other enzymes of ligninolytic metabolism.

Hammel, K.E.; Green, B.; Gai, W.Z.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Ring fission of anthracene by a eukaryote  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ligninolytic fungi are unique among eukaryotes in their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but the mechanism for this process is unknown. Although certain PAHs are oxidized in vitro by the fungal lignin peroxidases (LiPs) that catalyze ligninolysis, it has never been shown that LiPs initiate PAH degradation in vivo. To address these problems, the metabolism of anthracene (AC) and its in vitro oxidation product, 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ), was examined by chromatographic and isotope dilution techniques in Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The fungal oxidation of AC to AQ was rapid, and both AC and AQ were significantly mineralized. Both compounds were cleaved by the fungus to give the same ring-fission metabolite, phthalic acid, and phthalate production from AQ was shown to occur only under ligninolytic culture conditions. These results show that the major pathway for AC degradation in Phanerochaete proceeds AC {yields} AQ {yields} phthalate + CO{sub 2} and that it is probably mediated by LiPs and other enzymes of ligninolytic metabolism.

Hammel, K.E.; Green, B.; Wen Zhi Gai (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse (United States))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Altered electron flow in continuous cultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum induced by viologen dyes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The physiological response of Clostridium acetobutylicum to methyl and benzyl viologen was investigated. Viologen dyes at low concentrations (at levels of parts per million (micrograms per milliliter)) caused significant metabolic shifts. Altered electron flow appeared to direct carbon flow from acid to alcohol production accompanied by decreased hydrogen evolution. Reducing equivalents normally released as free hydrogen were directed toward formation of NADH which, in turn, resulted in increased alcohol production. In addition, it was shown that solvent production can take place at pH 6.3. Contrary to previous reports, butanol production appears to be independent of high levels of acetate-butyrate and glucose.

Rao, G.; Mutharasan, R.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Participation of free radicals in the photodecomposition of active dyes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates the effect of the free radicals in the medium on the photodecomposition of these active azo and anthraquinone dyes. The semilogarithmic anamorphoses of the kinetic curves showed that the rate of consumption of nitroxyl radical decreased in time in the presence of the dyes. The efficiency of the photodecomposition of the active dyes in an ETC film in the presence and absence of benzyl was studied to evaluate the role of free radicals in the photobleaching of the dies. The kinetic dependences obtained for active yellow 2KT are shown. The relative efficiency of the photoinitiation of free radicals by some active dyes was determined.

Anisimov, V.M.; Anisimova, O.M.; Dzhanashvilli, M.E.; Krichevskii, G.E.

1985-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

323

Mode of action of antibiotics in stimulating growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at 15 pounds) were injected at a level of 1.2 mg per bird per week. Sodium potassium benzyl- penilloate, sodium benzylpenicilloate, and beta-diethylamino- ethanol were administered parenterally at a level of 1.5, 1.2, and 0.43 mg, respectively, per... The addition of penicillin to the basal diet (orally or parenterally) produced an increase in the growth of the chicks (table 1). The administration of inactivated penicil? lin parenterally produced a similar increase but failed to do so when fed orally...

Elam, James Fletcher

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Synthetic and Biosynthetic Studies of Natural Products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to 2'-Deoxyguanosine Figure 9 OH Intramolecular Trapping Experiment with O and N Nucleophlles 2e* 2H + OCH3O OH Odaunosamine 15 Z - 0 16 Z - - N - C O N H 2 17 Z - O cyclooxime 18 Z - - N H C O N H - cyclosemicarbazone Figure 10 14.... The synthesis of the 9a-homo analog started from known 1,4-dimethoxy-2,3-dimethylbenzene. Friedel- Crafts acylation of 27 with phthalic anhydride afforded 28 in 76% yield. Introduction of the benzylic hydroxy! group at carbon 7 of 32 failed during...

Ve?liz Chanis, Eduardo Alberto

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Some Reactions of Formamidines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.1028 x .01401 11.36 % H. HCH*0CHCeH5 Theoretical for HC ' or C 3 4H 2 70 9H5 N HECeH*OCH*CeHs H = 70.05 v 10.99 $ nitrogen found - H.36 $ 19 Preparation of oyanaoetio derivatives of di-p~benzyl-oxy-di-phenyl- formamidin. Heat molecular... as hydrochloride b.- Piorates o.- Chloroplatinates. 2.- Reaction with compounds containing methylene hydrogen. a.- Reaction of oyanacetio ethyl ester with a substi tuted formamidine. OH OH I R I CHa * HO = 0 * HCHH R ^ R M a I * HER I COOCaHs COOCa...

Malleis, Otto Oscar

1913-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

Radioisotope thermoelectric generator package o-ring seal material validation testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Test was conducted to validate the use of the Butyl material as a primary seal throughout the required temperature range. Three tests were performed at (I) 233 K ({minus}40 {degree}F), (2) a specified operating temperature, and (3) 244 K ({minus}20 {degree}F) before returning to room temperature. Helium leak tests were performed at each test point to determine seal performance. The two major test objectives were to establish that butyl rubber material would maintain its integrity under various conditions and within specified parameters and to evaluate changes in material properties. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

Adkins, H.E.; Ferrell, P.C.; Knight, R.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, P. O. Box 1970, MSIN N1-25, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

1995-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

327

Composition and method for encapsulating photovoltaic devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition and method for encapsulating a photovoltaic device which minimizes discoloration of the encapsulant. The composition includes an ethylene-vinyl acetate encapsulant, a curing agent, an optional ultraviolet light stabilizer, and/or an optional antioxidant. The curing agent is preferably 1,1-di-(t-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane; the ultraviolet light stabilizer is bis-(N-octyloxy-tetramethyl) piperidinyl sebacate and the antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of tris (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) phosphite, tetrakis methylene (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate) methane, octadecyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate, and 2,2'-ethylidene bis(4,6-di-t-butylphenyl) fluorophosponite. The composition is applied to a solar cell then cured. The cured product contains a minimal concentration of curing-generated chromophores and resists UV-induced degradation.

Pern, Fu-Jann (Golden, CO)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Texas plant will use new process to coproduce propylene oxide, MTBE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Texaco Chemical Co. is building a $400 + million facility to produce 1.2 billion lb/year (14,000 b/d) methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and 400 million lb/year (about 500 metric tons/day) propylene oxide (PO). The facility-under construction at Port Neches, Tex.-will utilize a newly developed Texaco process that coproduces the two chemicals. The process produces propylene oxide and tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) from the reaction of isobutane with oxygen in one step, then in a second step with propylene. The TBA is then reacted with methanol in a one-step process that synthesizes MTBE. The paper describes the Port Neches facilities, construction schedule, feedstocks, product uses, and auxiliary equipment.

Rhodes, A.K.

1993-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

329

Equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of liquid-phase ethyl tert-butylether (ETBE) synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is now the second largest volume organic chemical, only behind ethylene, produced in the U.S. This is remarkable since its commercial production began barely two decades ago. Although MTBE is currently the industry standard, it has been proposed that ethanol and other renewable additives make up to 30% of the oxygenate market. As a result, ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, or 2-ethyoxy 2-methyl propane), derived from renewable ethanol and isobutylene, has emerged as a promising new oxygenate. ETBE also has a somewhat lower blending Reid vapor pressure as well as a higher octane number than MTBE. This paper describes the thermodynamic equilibrium constant for the production of ETBE.

Jensen, K.L.; Datta, R. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

330

Free radical formation in vivo and hepatotoxicity due to anesthesia with halothane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In vivo studies were undertaken to determine whether free radical formation in the liver during administration of various halogenated anesthetics is associated with hepatotoxicity of these agents in an animal model. In addition to the anesthetics halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane, carbon tetrachloride was studied as an example of a hepatotoxic halogenated compound acting by a free radical mechanism. Free radicals were trapped in vivo during anesthesia as stable adducts using the spin trap, alpha-phenyl-t-butyl nitrone. These adducts were extracted from the liver and studied by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Free radicals were detected after administration of halothane or carbon tetrachloride, compounds which were hepatotoxic under the conditions of the experiment, but were not found after anesthesia induced with enflurane or isoflurane, anesthetics which were not hepatotoxic under identical conditions. The free radical trapped after alpha-phenyl-t-butyl nitrone treatment of halothane-anesthetized rats appeared to be a metabolic intermediate of halothane.

Plummer, J.L.; Beckwith, A.L.; Bastin, F.N.; Adams, J.F.; Cousins, M.J.; Hall, P.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Bulk Gold-Catalyzed Reactions of Isocyanides, Amines, and Amine N-Oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bulk gold powder (550 ?m particles) catalyzes the reactions of isocyanides with amines and amine N-oxides to produce ureas. The reaction of n-butyl isocyanide (nBuN?C) with di-n-propylamine and N-methylmorpholine N-oxide in acetonitrile, which was studied in the greatest detail, produced 3-butyl-1,1-dipropylurea (O?C(NHnBu)(NnPr2)) in 99% yield at 60 C within 2 h. Sterically and electronically different isocyanides, amines, and amine N-oxides react successfully under these conditions. Detailed studies support a two-step mechanism that involves a gold-catalyzed reaction of adsorbed isocyanide with the amine N-oxide to form an isocyanate (RN?C?O), which rapidly reacts with the amine to give the urea product. These investigations show that bulk gold, despite its reputation for poor catalytic activity, is capable of catalyzing these reactions.

Klobukowski, Erik; Angelici, Robert; Woo, Keith L.

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

332

Anion effects in the extraction of lanthanide 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone complexes into an ionic liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The extraction of trivalent lanthanides from an aqueous phase containing 1 M NaClO{sub 4} into the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nonafluoro-1-butane sulfonate by the beta-diketone extractant 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) was studied. Radiotracer distribution, absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements point to the extraction of multiple lanthanide species. At low extractant concentrations, fully hydrated aqua cations of the lanthanides are present in the ionic liquid phase. As the extractant concentration is increased 1:2 and 1:3 lanthanide:tta species are observed. In contrast, 1:4 Ln:tta complexes were observed in the extraction of lanthanides by Htta into 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. (authors)

Jensen, Mark P.; Beitz, James V.; Rickert, Paul G. [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Borkowski, Marian [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Los Alamos Natl Lab, Earth and Environm Sci Div, Carlsbad, NM, (United States); Laszak, Ivan [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Commisariat Energie Atom, DEN DPC SERC LANIE, Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Dietz, Mark L. [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Wisconsin-Milwaukee Univ, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Milwaukee, WI, (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

Tucker, Mark D. (Albuqueruqe, NM); Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

334

Safe venting of ``red oil`` runaway reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Calorimetry testing of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) saturated with strong nitric acid was performed to determine the relationship between vent size and pressure buildup in the event of a runaway reaction. These experiments show that runaway can occur in an open system, but that even when runaway is induced in the TBP/HN0{sub 3} system, dangerous pressure buildup will be prevented with practical vent size.

Paddleford, D.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Fauske, H.K. [Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)

1994-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

335

Saudi MTBE project revived  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alujain Corp., a member of the Xenel group of Saudi Arabia, is going ahead with plans to build an 800,000-m.t./year methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plant. Bechtel has been appointed project manager for the plant, which will be owned by a new company, National Fuel Additives (Tahseen). Bechtel will help evaluate proposals already submitted for the lump sum turnkey job.

NONE

1996-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

336

Race to license new MTBE and TAME routes heats up  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With refineries and petrochemical manufacturers continuing to gear up production of oxygenates for use in reformulated fuels, new routes to methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) are clearly hot items in the licensing market. And probably nowhere has the competition become as intense as in offerings for skeletal isomerization technologies to boost ethers production from fluid catalytic cracking and steam cracking.

Rotman, D.

1993-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

337

MTBE from butadiene-rich C/sub 4/s  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), is made by reacting methanol with isobutylene. The preferred source of isobutylene is a steam cracker C/sub 4/ cut from which butadiene has been removed. However, moving the MTBE synthesis upstream of the butadiene extraction will improve the extraction step. The following is a review of conditions imposed on the MTBE unit's design and operation when placed in this new location.

Ancillotti, F.; Pescarollo, E.; Szatmari, E.; Lazar, L.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Two US markets, or one? How the MTBE-gasoline relationship is evolving  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This issue of Energy Detente features the price sensitivity of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether. Data is presented for US wholesale gasoline prices vs. MTBE for the 20-month period beginning in June 1994 and ending in January 1996, and the data is discussed. Also contained in this issue is the refining netback data and the fuel price/tax data for the period ending January 5, 1996.

NONE

1996-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

339

Statoil outlines MTBE development program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that Norway's state oil company Den Norkse state Oljeselskap AS has outlined plans to become one of the major European producers of methyl tertiary butyl ether in the 1990s. Statoil predicts European demand for MTBE will jump to 4.5 million metric tons/year by 2000 from 2.5 million tons in 1990. Europe currently is a net importer of MTBE, with a productive capacity of 2.2 million tons/year.

Not Available

1991-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

340

Batch polymerization of styrene initiated by alkyl lithiums  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-butyl lithium using cyclohexane as the solvent, The polymerization is carried out in an isothermal batch reactor at a temperature of. 5D C. The proposed reaction proceeds by a homogenous anionic mechanism. The mathematical model developed by Edgar (6.... Bottles for Polymerization Reaction The reaction bottles used were twenty-six ounce coke bottles. The following procedure was adopted: First, clean the bottles thoroughly with soap and water. Then, rinse them with distilled water. Dry them overnight...

Desai, Rashmi R

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectral analysis of a volatile uranyl derivative  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quadrupole mass spectral analysis of the volatile uranium ligand complex bis (1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato) dioxouranium-di-n-butyl sulfoxide is described utilizing electron impact (EI) and methane chemical ionization (CI) ion sources. All major ions are tentatively identified and the potential usefulness of this complex for determining uranium isotope /sup 235/U//sup 238/U abundance is demonstrated.

Reutter, D.J.; Hardy, D.R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Biodiesel Safety and Best Management Practices for Small-Scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The following gear should be on hand each time you produce biodiesel: Chemical-resistant gloves (butyl rubber is best for methanol and lye) Chemistry goggles (indirect vented) and face shield Dust mask or cartridge respirator Eyewash bottle with saline solution Small spray bottle with vinegar for neutralizing lye spills Access to running water Telephone in case of emergency and emergency telephone numbers Fire extinguishers (ABC or CO) 2

Noncommercial Use

343

The Use of pH to Influence Regio-and Chemoselectivity in the Asymmetric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

L of acetonitrile. The solution was cooled in a water-ice bath (0-4 o C) and under efficient stirring a cold minutes, and then the cold solution of t-butyl hypochlorite (134.4 mg, 1.24 mmol) in 1 mL of acetonitrile and stirred for 3 min. The cold acetonitrile/buffer mixture was then added to a total volume of 28 m

Hergenrother, Paul J.

344

Method for the concentration and separation of actinides from biological and environmental samples  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for the quantitative recover of actinide values from biological and environmental sample by passing appropriately prepared samples in a mineral acid solution through a separation column of a dialkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate on an inert substrate which selectively extracts the actinide values. The actinide values can be eluted either as a group or individually and their presence quantitatively detected by alpha counting. 3 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1989-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

345

DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the characterization of various glovebox glove material from four vendors, the permeability of gas through each type as a function of temperature was determined and a discontinuity in the permeability with temperature was revealed. A series of tests to determine the viscoelastic properties of the glove materials as a function of temperature using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was initiated. The glass transition temperature and the elastic and viscoelastic properties as a function of temperature up to maximum use temperature were determined for each glove material. The glass transition temperatures of the gloves were -60 C for butyl, -30 C for polyurethane, -16 C Hypalon{reg_sign}, - 16 C for Viton{reg_sign}, and -24 C for polyurethane-Hypalon{reg_sign}. The glass transition was too complex for the butyl-Hypalon{reg_sign} and butyl-Viton{reg_sign} composite gloves to be characterized by a single glass transition temperature. All of the glass transition temperatures exceed the vendor projected use temperatures.

Korinko, P.

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

346

Capture isobutylene with glycol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The separation of butenes present in C-4 streams (generated as a result of steam or catalytic cracking) is becoming increasingly important as the butenes find expanded applications in the production of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE), methyl methacrylate, butyl rubber, and linear low-density polyethylene. Available methods of separation include selective extraction with a liquid solvent (usually an acid); the use of addition reactions with suitable alcohols, acids, or water; selective polymerization and physical separation by absorbents. Three currently important separation processes for isobutylene production are an extraction route using mineral acid, the dehydration of tert-butanol, and the cracking of MTBE. As part of the research into solid acid catalysis for the generation of glycol tert-butyl monoethers, the authors have demonstrated an alternative C-4 separation process using solid inorganic acid catalysts and involving the intermediate preparation of glycol ethers. This new C-4 separation scheme could be particularly attractive to existing glycol producers who may also have a market, or internal need, for glycol monoalkyl ethers, as well as those who do not have MTBE capacity but still require pure isobutylene as a chemical intermediate or comonomer building block. The process is described.

Knifton, J.F. (Texaco Chemical's Austin Research Lab. TX (United States))

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Oxygenates du`jour...MTBE? Ethanol? ETBE?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many different liquids that contain oxygen which could be blended into gasoline. The ones that have been tried and make the most sense are in the alcohol (R-OH) and ether (R-O-R) chemical family. The alcohols considered are: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). The ethers are: methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). Of the eight oxygenates listed above, the author describes the five that are still waiting for widespread marketing acceptance (methanol, TBA, TAME, TAEE, and DIPE). He then discusses the two most widely used oxygenates in the US, MTBE and ethanol, along with the up-and-coming ethanol ether, ETBE. Selected physical properties for all of these oxygenates can be found in Table 2 at the end of this paper. A figure shows a simplified alcohol/ether production flow chart for the oxygenates listed above and how they are interrelated.

Wolfe, R.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

348

Infrared spectroscopy of organic free radicals related to combustion processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary long-term goal of this work is to develop new techniques for measuring vibrational spectra of polyatomic neutral free radicals. The authors explore a variation of resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) in which tunable {omega}{sub IR} excites the radical vibrationally and {omega}{sub UV} selectively ionizes only the vibrationally excited molecules. Development of the IR + UV R2PI experiment is underway. In the meantime, the authors have used optical R2PI and pulsed field ionization (PFI) detection to obtain new vibrational spectra of species such as the benzyl and phenylsilane cations. In benzyl, a great deal was learned about the vibronic coupling mechanism in the mixed q{sup 2}A{sub 2}-2{sup 2}B{sub 2} system near 450 nm by projecting the mixed states onto the manifold of cation vibrational states. In phenylsilane{sup +}, we find that the sixfold barrier to internal rotation of the silyl group is small (V{sub 6} = +19 cm{sup {minus}1}). We are beginning to understand the mechanisms of coupling of torsional states with vibration, overall rotation, and other electronic states. In addition, we are developing a new model of internal rotation in aromatic compounds based on Prof. Frank Weinhold`s natural resonance theory.

Weisshaar, J.C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 84-239-1586, Ashland Super Valu, Ashland, Wisconsin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental and brathing zone samples were analyzed for di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate, hydrogen-chloride, cyclohexanol, dicyclohexyl-phthalate, phthalic-anhydride, and total particulates at Ashland Super Valu, Ashland, Wisconsin in June, 1984. The evaluation was requested by a company representative due to complaints of respiratory problems by one of the meat department employees. Four meat department employees were interviewed. The authors conclude that it is not possible to determine whether or not the symptoms reported by the meat packer are due to emissions from heated meat wrap or label adhesive. Recommendations included not operating the cool rod cutter at a temperature above 280 degrees-F and installing local exhaust ventilation.

Daniels, W.J.; Donohue, M.T.; Singal, M.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Interaction of Uranium(VI) with Phthalic Acid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phthalic acid, a ubiquitous organic compound found in soil, water, and in domestic and nuclear wastes can affect the mobility and bioavailability of metals and radionuclides. We examined the complexation of uranium with phthalic acid by potentiometric titration, electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. Potentiometric titration of a 1:1 U/phthalic acid indicated uranyl ion bonding with both carboxylate groups of phthalic acid; above pH 5 the uranyl ion underwent hydrolysis with one hydroxyl group coordinated to the inner-sphere of uranium. In the presence of excess phthalic acid, ESI-MS analysis revealed the formation of both 1:1 and 1:2 U/phthalic acid complexes. EXAFS studies confirmed the mononuclear biligand 1:2 U/phthalic acid complex as the predominant form. These results show that phthalates can form soluble stable complexes with uranium and may affect its mobility.

Vazquez, G.; Dodge, C; Francis, A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Preparation, characterization and catalytic properties of MCM-48 supported tungstophosphoric acid mesoporous materials for green synthesis of benzoic acid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

MCM-48 and tungstophosphoric acid (HPW) were prepared and applied for the synthesis of HPW/MCM-48 mesoporous materials. The characterization results showed that HPW/MCM-48 obtained retained the typical mesopore structure of MCM-48, and the textural parameters decreased with the increase loading of HPW. The catalytic oxidation results of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde with 30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} indicated that HPW/MCM-48 was an efficient catalyst for the green synthesis of benzoic acid. Furthermore, 35 wt% HPW/MCM-48 sample showed the highest activity under the reaction conditions. Highlights: 545 wt% HPW/MCM-48 mesoporous catalysts were prepared and characterized. Their catalytic activities for the green synthesis of benzoic acid were investigated. HPW/MCM-48 was approved to be an efficient catalyst. 5 wt% HPW/MCM-48 exhibited the highest catalytic activity.

Wu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Chen, Xi; Chen, Ya; Zheng, Xiu-Cheng, E-mail: zhxch@zzu.edu.cn

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

Method for detecting toxic gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed which is capable of detecting low concentrations of a pollutant or other component in air or other gas. This method utilizes a combination of a heating filament having a catalytic surface of a noble metal for exposure to the gas and producing a derivative chemical product from the component. An electrochemical sensor responds to the derivative chemical product for providing a signal indicative of the product. At concentrations in the order of about 1-100 ppm of tetrachloroethylene, neither the heating filament nor the electrochemical sensor is individually capable of sensing the pollutant. In the combination, the heating filament converts the benzyl chloride to one or more derivative chemical products which may be detected by the electrochemical sensor. 6 figures.

Stetter, J.R.; Zaromb, S.; Findlay, M.W. Jr.

1991-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

353

Development of libraries inspired by sparteine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

amine 18i 80 96 10 16 methyl amine 18j 100 100 11 16 n-propyl amine 18k 100 99 12 16 isopropyl amine 18l 75 93 13 16 ethanolamine 18m 100 99 14 16 N, N-dimethylamino-1, 3-propanediamine 18n 100 99 15 16 pyridine-3-yl-methanamine 18o 38 100 16 16 2-(1H...-methylphenyl 20j 70 98 11 19 4-bromomethylphenyl 20k 88 99 12 19 3-bromomethylphenyl 20l 84 99 13 19 4-cyanophenyl 20m 90 98 14 19 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)phenyl 20n 40 33 15 19 benzyl 20o 90 97 16 19 4-ethylphenethyl 20p 92 92 17 19 cyclohexyl 20q 84 92 18 19 n...

Singh, Gurpreet

2011-21-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

Solvent for urethane adhesives and coatings and method of use  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solvent for urethane adhesives and coatings, the solvent having a carbaldehyde and a cyclic amide as constituents. In some embodiments the solvent consists only of miscible constituents. In some embodiments the carbaldehyde is benzaldehyde and in some embodiments the cyclic amide is N-methylpyrrolidone (M-pyrole). An extender may be added to the solvent. In some embodiments the extender is miscible with the other ingredients, and in some embodiments the extender is non-aqueous. For example, the extender may include isopropanol, ethanol, tetrahydro furfuryl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, Gamma-butyrolactone or a caprolactone. In some embodiments a carbaldehyde and a cyclic amide are heated and used to separate a urethane bonded to a component.

Simandl, Ronald F. (Knoxville, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN); Holt, Jerrid S. (Knoxville, TN)

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

355

Photochemical oxidation of coals and some selected model compounds by using copper(II) chloride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The H-donor ability of different rank coals was examined by using a copper(II)chloride-acetonitrile system as the dehydrogenator. A bituminous coal and two lignites were irradiated in the UV in the presence of copper(II)chloride in acetonitrile. The coal was dehydrogenated while the Cu(II) was reduced to CU(I). Considerable amounts of aliphatic or alicyclic hydrogen were removed from the coals. In the process, while the oxygen contents of coals do not increase, more condensed aromatic products occur. It was concluded that lignites are better reducing agents than bituminous coals. A photooxidation mechanism is proposed on the basis of the model compound reaction. Photooxidation of alcohols (ethanol, 2-propanol, benzyl alcohol, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, and diphenyl carbinol), a hydroaromatic compound (tetrahydronaphthalene), and an aromatic ether (dibenzyl ether) was performed under similar reaction conditions.

Yilmaz, M.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Reaction network and kinetics for the catalytic oxidation of toluene over V sub 2 O sub 5  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation of three methyl-diphenylmethane isomers and of bibenzyl, benzyl alcohol, and benzaldehyde, which are intermediates in the catalytic oxidation of toluene over V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, has been studied to elucidate the reaction network and relative importance of various reactions. Selectivity dependences reveal that the network is composed mainly of three parallel reaction routes: (1) side-chain oxidation with consecutive reactions, (2) oxidative coupling with both parallel and consecutive reactions, and (3) carbon oxide formation. Coupling products are not negligible, with an initial selectivity of 29% (400{degree}C). Anthraquinone is produced mainly from o-methyl-diphenylmethane conditions and catalyst used. Selectivity dependences suggested product lumping and a simplified network. Kinetic analysis of this reaction network indicates that higher temperatures favor route 2 over route 1. The same initial intermediates for route 1 of side-chain oxidation and for route 2 of oxidative coupling are suggested.

Zhu, J.; Andersson, L.T. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Computational Modeling of Degradation of Substituted Benzyltrimethyl Ammonium: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The degradation of cations on the alkaline exchange membranes is the major challenge for alkaline membrane fuel cells. In this paper, we investigated the degradation barriers by density functional theory for substituted benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA+) cations, which is one of the most commonly used cations for alkaline exchange membranes. We found that substituted cations with electron-releasing substituent groups at meta-position of the benzyl ring could result in improved degradation barriers. However, after investigating more than thirty substituted BTMA+ cations with ten different substituent groups, the largest improvement of degradation barriers is only 1.6 kcal/mol. This implies that the lifetime of alkaline membrane fuel cells could increase from a few months to a few years by using substituted BTMA+ cations, an encouraging but still limited improvement for real-world applications.

Long, H.; Pivovar, B. S.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Testing of a model to estimate vapor concentration of various organic chemicals. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model developed by Dr. Parker C. Reist to predict the build-up and decay rates of vapor concentrations following a chemical spill and clean-up was tested. The chemicals tested were: acetone, butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, hexane, methylene chloride, methyl ethyl ketone, and toluene. The evaporation rates of these chemicals were determined both by prediction, using a model developed by I. Kawamura and D. Mackay, and empirically and these rates were used in the Reist model. Chamber experiments were done to measure actual building-up and decay of vapor concentrations for simulated spills and simulated clean-up.

Bakalyar, S.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4 reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices.

Ajayi, O. A., E-mail: oaa2114@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; Wong, C. W., E-mail: oaa2114@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu [Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Center for Integrated Science and Engineering, Solid-State Science and Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Anderson, N. C.; Wolcott, A.; Owen, J. S. [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Cotlet, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, New York 11973 (United States); Petrone, N.; Hone, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Gu, T.; Gesuele, F. [Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Center for Integrated Science and Engineering, Solid-State Science and Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

360

Fluorescent temperature sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Overview of ''Red Oil'' Frequency Analyses for F-Canyon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A very small potential exists in the Savannah River Site (SRS) separations operations for an uncontrolled reaction between tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and nitric acid that could result in unacceptable damage to separations facilities and a significant release of radioactive materials. The recent ''red oil'' (TBP and nitric acid) accident in Tomsk, Russia, resulted in considerable damage and radioactive release. Explosions have also occurred at SRS during the early years of operations. While the SRS separations facilities have operated without incident for many years, it is prudent to revisit the SRS defense-in-depth approach to preventing such an accident and to upgrade preventive procedures and hardware as appropriate.

Lux, C.R.

2000-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

362

Effect of temperature on the extraction of uranium(VI) from nitric acid by tri-n-amyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies have been carried out on the effect of temperature on the extraction of U(VI) from nitric acid medium by tri-n-amyl phosphate/n-dodecane, measured as a function of the extractant concentration and aqueous phase acidity. The results indicate that the extraction is exothermic as in the case of tri-n-butyl phosphate. From the data available an effort has been made to calculate the equilibrium constant, the Gibbs energy change and the entropy changes of the extraction reaction. 21 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Srinivasan, T.G.; Rao, P.R.V. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Sood, D.D. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)]|[BARC, Mumbai (India)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Sorption of uranium from nitric acid solution using TBP-impregnated activated carbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concept of extraction chromatography has been used to study the sorption of uranium from nitric acid solutions using tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) impregnated activated carbons. Batch equilibrium data and kinetic and breakthrough column behavior of uranium are reported. Wood based activated carbon has shown better capacity and breakthrough characteristics than shell based activated carbon. Sorption rate on impregnated carbons was relatively slow indicating that diffusion is the rate controlling step within the pore structure of the activated carbon. Uranium distribution on impregnated activated carbons is compared with equivalent bulk liquid extraction and a mechanism of uranium sorption is discussed.

Abbasi, W.A. [Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, Islamabad (Pakistan). Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology; Streat, M. [Loughborough Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

DEGRADED TBP SOLVENT REGENERATION TECHNOLOGY USING BUTYLAMINE AS A SOLVENT WASHING TO REDUCE SOLID SALT WASTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Normal butylamine compounds are studied as salt-free wash reagents for degraded solvent used in PUREX process in spent fuel reprocessing. The solvent wash tests were carried out with two types of butylamine compounds, n-butylamine oxalate and n-butylamine bicarbonate, by counter-current mode using a small size mixer-settler composed of two 4-stage wash steps. Di-n-butyl phosphoric acid (HDBP), the main degradation product from TBP, was removed from real degraded solvent with decontamination factor of 2.5 {approx} 7.9. The study on electrolytic decomposition of butylamine compounds was also conducted for waste treatment.

Asakura, T.; Itoh, Y.; Hotoku, S.; Morita, Y.; Uchiyama, G.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

365

Solvent Extraction Behavior of Plutonium (IV) Ions in the Presence of Simple Hydroxamic Acids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Formo-and aceto-hydroxamic acids are very effective reagents for stripping Pu(IV) ions from a tri-butyl phosphate phase into nitric acid. Distribution data for Pu(IV) in the presence of these hydroxamate ions have been obtained and trends established. The affinity of aceto-hydroxamic acid for Pu(IV) ions and its selectivity over U(VI) ions is demonstrated by the values of the stability constants in HCIO4. These data support the applications of simple hydroxamic acids in advanced Purex-type solvent extraction systems.

Carrott, M. J.; Fox, O. D.; Maher, C. J.; Mason, C.; Taylor, Robin J.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Choppin, Gregory R.

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

PUNCTURE TEST CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experiment was conducted to determine the puncture resistance of 15 gloves that are used or proposed for use in the Tritium Facility at Savannah River Site (SRS). These data will serve as a baseline for characterization and may be incorporated into the glove procurement specification. The testing was conducted in agreement with ASTM D120 and all of the gloves met or exceeded the minimum requirements. Butyl gloves exhibited puncture resistance nearly 2.5 times the minimum requirements at SRS while Polyurethane was nearly 7.5x the minimum.

Korinko, P.; Chapman, G.

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

367

Carbenium ion intermediates in catalytic cracking  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

C, (d) 300 C, (e) 400 C C HNR spectra of sec-butyl chloride antimony pentafluoride mixture 16 13C NMR spectrum of C- ethene on H-ZSN5 . . . . 19 C CPNAS spectrum of tri-phenylmethyl chloride adsorbed on silica-alumina Schematic representation... &Vdk' 800 me )OO 0 - 100 -200 PPll Fig. 5 l~C CPNAS spectrum of tri-phenylmethyl chloride adsorbed on silica-alumina. 21 times, techniques which allow for moderately higher reso- lution are required. One such technique is combined cross...

Zardkoohi, Minoo

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

California's Move Toward E10 (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In Annual Energy Outlook 2009, (AEO) E10a gasoline blend containing 10% ethanolis assumed to be the maximum ethanol blend allowed in California erformulated gasoline (RFG), as opposed to the 5.7% blend assumed in earlier AEOs. The 5.7% blend had reflected decisions made when California decided to phase out use of the additive methyl tertiary butyl ether in its RFG program in 2003, opting instead to use ethanol in the minimum amount that would meet the requirement for 2.0% oxygen content under the Clean Air Act provisions in effect at that time.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Lipid extraction from microalgae using a single ionic liquid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A one-step process for the lysis of microalgae cell walls and separation of the cellular lipids for use in biofuel production by utilizing a hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium. The hydrophilic ionic liquid both lyses the microalgae cell walls and forms two immiscible layers, one of which consists of the lipid contents of the lysed cells. After mixture of the hydrophilic ionic liquid with a suspension of microalgae cells, gravity causes a hydrophobic lipid phase to move to a top phase where it is removed from the mixture and purified. The hydrophilic ionic liquid is recycled to lyse new microalgae suspensions.

Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

371

Comparison of Tamspan 90 peanut component lines for aflatoxin production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acid, 73 ml ha ') were applied ppi, and Fusilade (fluazifop-butyl, 1. 75 I ha '), Cobra (lactefin, 17 g ha'), and Basagran (bentozan, 2. 3 I ha ') were applied post-emergence (July 8 and 9, and August 12, respectively) for control of speciTic weed... and absence of visible Aspergillus mycelia, random pod samples were taken from 60 random plots for determination of extent of fungal infection. At the conclusion of eight days at 28. 5 C and 95% relative humidity, only 3% of the samples were found...

Lopez, Yolanda

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

The design of new ligands and transition metal compounds for the oxidation of organic compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dehydrated by heating under dynamic vacuum at 150?C for 3 hours. The anhydrous materials were stored in a dry box under nitrogen. (R)-binaphthol was obtained from ABCR Chemical and 3,5-di-tert-butyl salicylaldehyde was obtained from Advanced Asymmetrics.... All other reagents were used as received. All NMR chemical shifts are given in ppm and were recorded on a Mercury-300BB spectrometer ( 1 H, 299.91 MHz; 13 C { 1 H} 75.41 MHz) using the solvent as an internal standard (CDCl 3 (or residual CHCl 3...

Grill, Joseph Michael

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

373

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Health studies indicate MTBE is safe gasoline additive  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Implementation of the oxygenated fuels program by EPA in 39 metropolitan areas, including Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska, in the winter of 1992, encountered some unexpected difficulties. Complaints of headaches, dizziness, nausea, and irritated eyes started in Fairbanks, jumped to Anchorage, and popped up in various locations in the lower 48 states. The suspected culprit behind these complaints was the main additive for oxygenation of gasoline is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). A test program, hastily organized in response to these complaints, has indicated that MTBE is a safe gasoline additive. However, official certification of the safety of MTBE is still awaited.

Anderson, E.V.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Veba in MTBE project, cutting aromatics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new owners of the refinery and petrochemical complex at Schwedt in eastern Germany-RWE-DEA (Hamburg), Veba Oel (Gelsenkirchen), Agip (Rome), Total (Paris), and Elf-Aquitaine (Paris)-plan to build a 60,000-m.t./year methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plant at the site for 1994-1995 completion. The MTBE project forms part of the consortium`s announced DM1.5-billion ($500 million) investment program for the complex that aims to raise refinery throughput from 8 million m.t./year to 12 million m.t./year by 1994 and hike production of naphtha and benzene.

Young, I.; Roberts, M.

1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Evaluation and Optimization of MTBE Biodegradation in Aquifers, Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was focused on meeting the following objectives concerning the process of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) biodegradation, with the goal of optimizing this process in situ: 1. Assess whether intrinsic bioattenuation of MTBE is feasible under aerobic conditions across several contaminated sites. 2. Determine the effect of co-contaminants, specifically water-soluble gasoline components (most notably benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes [BTEX]) on MTBE biodegradation. 3. Determine whether microbial and/or chemical factors contribute to different MTBE degradative activities. 4. Isolate and characterize MTBE-degrading microorganisms from sediments in which MTBE biodegradation was observed.

Legler, T; Balser, L; Koester, C; Wilson, W

2004-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

377

Austrian refiner benefits from advanced control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OeMV-AG Energy implemented advanced process controls on 27 units at its refinery in Schwechat, Austria. A variety of controls were implemented on the butadiene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) units in January 1993. After more than 1 year of operation, the butadiene/MTBE project has shown a number of benefits, including reduced energy consumption and increased capacity in both units. The paper discusses the process, advanced control, the simple model predictive controller, control objectives, the butadiene unit, the MTBE unit, and benefits of the advanced controllers.

Richard, L.A.; Spencer, M. [Setpoint Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Schuster, R.; Tuppinger, D.M.; Wilmsen, W.F. [OeMV-AG Energy, Schwechat (Austria)

1995-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

378

Petrochem industry expands North American MTBE capacity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that petrochemical manufacturers continue to increase methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) capacity in North America. The action reflects refiners' reformulation of gasoline to help reduce auto emissions. Demand for gasoline blending oxygenates such as MTBE is expected to increase as U.S. refiners reconfigure processing trains to produce fuels meeting requirements of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990. Recent progress includes plans to build an MTBE plant in Mexico and start-ups of plants on the U.S. Gulf Coast and in Canada.

Not Available

1992-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

379

MTBE growth limited despite lead phasedown in gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This month's legislated reduction of the allowable amount of lead additives in gasoline will increase demand strongly for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as an octane enhancer, but the economics of the refinery business and the likelihood of rapidly increasing high-octane gasoline imports probably will limit the size of the business in coming years. MTBE will be used to fill the octane gap now, but economics and imports of gasoline later on could hold down demand. The limited growth in sales of MTBE is discussed.

Storck, W.

1985-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

A near infrared regression model for octane measurements in gasolines which contain MTBE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has emerged as a superior technique for the on-line determination of octane during the blending of gasoline. This results from the numerous advantages that NIR spectroscopy has over conventional on-line instrumentation. Methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) is currently the oxygenated blending component of choice. MTBE is advantageous because it has a high blending octane, a low Reid vapor pressure, is relatively cheap, and does not form peroxides (1). The goal of this project was to develop a NIR regression model that could be used to predict pump octanes regardless of whether they contained MTBE.

Maggard, S.M. (Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Synthesis of octane enhancer during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1991-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

382

MTBE: Capacity boosts on hold amid demand concerns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uncertainty reigns in the methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) market. {open_quotes}We have no choice but to put our expansion plans on the back burner,{close_quotes} says one producer. {open_quotes}Because of government actions, there are no MTBE plants being built or expanded.{close_quotes} Spot MTBE prices have risen ti 82 cts- 83 cts/gal from 76 cts-78 cts/gal earlier this month as the demand for octane enhancement increases for the summer driving season. Some observers say EPA may relax different oxygen requirements for gasoline in different seasons. That would simplify production and supply for MTBE makers.

NONE

1995-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

383

Methanex considers methanol, MTBE in Qatar  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CW has learned that Methanex Corp. is considering entering one of two methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) projects in Qatar. Executive v.p. Michael Wilson says that part of the company`s New Zealand plant could be moved to a site in Qatar, which would lower capital costs for the possible project by $75 million-$100 million. Both Qatar General Petroleum Corp. and Qatar Fuel Additives are developing methanol and MTBE projects at Umm Said, Qatar. Methanex says its goal is to ensure low-cost feedstocks.

NONE

1995-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

384

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

385

Economics of new MTBE design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) is produced industrially by catalytic reaction between methanol and isobutene. The catalyst that is widely used is an acidic ion exchange resin. This article explores design and economics when sulfuric acid is the catalyst. The profitability of MTBE production depends mainly on the cost of butenes and methhanol. Thus, the example shows MTBE made with a catalyst of sulfuric acid was profitable at a Saudi Arabian location, even though it was not profitable at a U.S. Gulf Coast location.

Al-Jarallah, A.M.; Lee, A.K.K.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

MTBE: Wild card in groundwater cleanup  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Subsurface releases of the gasoline oxygenate, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) seriously compromise the remediation and closure of properties that have ground water contaminated with BTEX and other conventional fuel hydrocarbon components. Although a manageable protocal for BTEX remediation is being set up, the MTBE problem continues to be difficult. This article discusses a new magnesium peroxide compound which could be part of the solution. Covered topics include oxygen release compound (ORC) enhance bioremediation and the role of oxygen and ORC in MTBE remediation. 1 fig.

Koenigsberg, S. [Regenesis Bioremediation Products, San Juan Capistrano, CA (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Total to withdraw from Qatar methanol - MTBE?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Total is rumored to be withdrawing from the $700-million methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Qatar Fuel Additives Co., (Qafac) project. The French company has a 12.5% stake in the project. Similar equity is held by three other foreign investors: Canada`s International Octane, Taiwan`s Chinese Petroleum Corp., and Lee Change Yung Chemical Industrial Corp. Total is said to want Qafac to concentrate on methanol only. The project involves plant unit sizes of 610,000 m.t./year of MTBE and 825,000 m.t./year of methanol. Total declines to comment.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

New etherification process commercialized in Finland  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The phase-out of leaded fuels in Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa and Latin America is increasing demand for octane and octane-bearing fuel components such as ethers. Early solutions to the problem of increasing octane while reducing tailpipe emissions involved use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). According to Neste, using both tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) and MTBE can give refiners increased blending flexibility for volatility control. But the economics associated with TAME production often make TAME units difficult to justify. The paper discusses the NExTAME process, the unit at the Porvoo refinery and process improvements.

NONE

1997-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

389

Method for measuring surface temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

390

Autoignition of toluene reference fuels at high pressures modeled with detailed chemical kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed chemical kinetic model for the autoignition of toluene reference fuels (TRF) is presented. The toluene submechanism added to the Lawrence Livermore Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) mechanism was developed using recent shock tube autoignition delay time data under conditions relevant to HCCI combustion. For two-component fuels the model was validated against recent high-pressure shock tube autoignition delay time data for a mixture consisting of 35% n-heptane and 65% toluene by liquid volume. Important features of the autoignition of the mixture proved to be cross-acceleration effects, where hydroperoxy radicals produced during n-heptane oxidation dramatically increased the oxidation rate of toluene compared to the case when toluene alone was oxidized. Rate constants for the reaction of benzyl and hydroperoxyl radicals previously used in the modeling of the oxidation of toluene alone were untenably high for modeling of the mixture. To model both systems it was found necessary to use a lower rate and introduce an additional branching route in the reaction between benzyl radicals and O{sub 2}. Good agreement between experiments and predictions was found when the model was validated against shock tube autoignition delay data for gasoline surrogate fuels consisting of mixtures of 63-69% isooctane, 14-20% toluene, and 17% n-heptane by liquid volume. Cross reactions such as hydrogen abstractions between toluene and alkyl and alkylperoxy radicals and between the PRF were introduced for completion of chemical description. They were only of small importance for modeling autoignition delays from shock tube experiments, even at low temperatures. A single-zone engine model was used to evaluate how well the validated mechanism could capture autoignition behavior of toluene reference fuels in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The model could qualitatively predict the experiments, except in the case with boosted intake pressure, where the initial temperature had to be increased significantly in order to predict the point of autoignition. (author)

Andrae, J.C.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Shell Global Solutions, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom); Bjoernbom, P. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Cracknell, R.F.; Kalghatgi, G.T. [Shell Global Solutions, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Responses of the L51781Y tk/sup +//tk/sup -/ mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay: III. 72 coded chemicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Seventy-two chemicals were tested for their mutagenic potential in the L51781Y tk/sup +///sup -/ mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay, using procedures based upon those described previously. Cultures were exposed to the chemicals for 4 hr, then cultured for 2 days before planting in soft agar with or without trifluorothymidine (TFT), 3 ..mu..g/ml. The chemicals were tested at least twice. Significant responses were obtained with allyl isothiocyanate, p-benzoquinone dioxime, benzyl acetate, 2-biphenylamine HCl, bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl)ether, cadmium chloride, chlordane, chlorobenzene, chlorobenzilate, 2-chloroethanol, chlorothalonil, cytarabine x HCl, p,p'-DDE, diazinon, 2,6-dichloro-p-phenylenediamine, N,N-diethylthiourea, diglycidylresorcinol ether, 2,4-dimethoxy aniline x HCl, disperse yellow 3, endosulfan, 1,2-epoxyhexadecane, ethyl acrylate, ethyl benzene, ethylene thiourea, F D and C yellow Number 6, furan, heptachlor, isophorone, mercuric chloride, 4,4'-methylenedianiline x 2 HCl, methyl viologen, nickel sulfate x 6H/sub 2/O, 4,4'-oxydianiline, pentachloroethane, piperonyl butoxide, propyl gallate, quinoline, rotenone, 2,4,5,6-tetrachloro-4-nitro-anisole, 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane, trichlorfon, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, 1,1,3-trimethyl-2-thiourea, 1-vinyl-3-cyclopetene dioxide, vinyl toluene, and ziram. The assay was incapable of providing a clear indication of whether some chemicals were mutagens; these benzyl alcohol, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, phenol, succinic acid-2,2-dimethyl hydrazide, and toluene.

McGregor, D.B.; Brown, A.; Cattanach, P.; Edwards, I.; McBride, D.; Riach, C.; Caspary, W.J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Synthesis and characterization of redox active polymers at surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chapter 1. This chapter presents the basic elements of cyclic voltammetry of electroactive solution and surface confined species, surface attachment of siloxane reagents, the electrochemistry of quinones and viologens, and charge trapping phenomenon associated with molecular reagents confined at electrode surfaces. Chapter II. Electrochemical characterization of electrode-confined siloxane polymers (NQ-BV[sup 3+])[sub n] and (NQ-BV-BV[sup 5+])[sub n], derived from monomers which contain both napthoquinone (NQ) and benzyl viologen (BV[sup 2+]) subunits, is presented. Chapter III. The author reports the studies of chemical mechanisms for release of charge trapped in the pH-dependence rectifying polymers, (NQ-BV[sup 3+]/siloxane)[sub n] and (NQ-BV-BV[sup 5+]/siloxane)[sub n]. The polymers are derived from monomers which contain both naphthoquinone (NQ) and benzyl viologen (BV[sup 2+]) subunits. Particular to these types of surface confined homopolymers is the ability to trap charge at low pH in the form of reduced quinone. Chapter IV. A methylene linked chromophore-acceptor complex consisting of a rhenium tricarbonyl bipyridine chromophore and a benzylviologen acceptor, BV[sup 2+], were confined to a metal oxide surface via a trimethoxysilyl functional group at the BC[sup 2+] terminus. Photocurrent quantum yield was determined for irradiated electrodes derivatized with either the linked chromophore-acceptor complex, SRe(CO)[sub 3] [4-methyl-4'-[l brace]N-methyl-N'-(4 trimethoxysilyl phenylmethyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium[r brace]-2,2'-bipyridine][sup 2+] [Br[sup [minus

Palmore, G.T.R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

A detailed kinetic modeling study of toluene oxidation in a premixed laminar flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved chemical kinetic model for the toluene oxidation based on experimental data obtained in a premixed laminar low-pressure flame with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) techniques has been proposed. The present mechanism consists of 273 species up to chrysene and 1740 reactions. The rate constants of reactions of toluene, decomposition, reaction with oxygen, ipso-additions and metatheses with abstraction of phenylic H-atom are updated; new pathways of C{sub 4} + C{sub 2} species giving benzene and fulvene are added. Based on the experimental observations, combustion intermediates such as fulvenallene, naphtol, methylnaphthalene, acenaphthylene, 2-ethynylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, 1-methylphenanthrene, pyrene and chrysene are involved in the present mechanism. The final toluene model leads to an overall satisfactory agreement between the experimentally observed and predicted mole fraction profiles for the major products and most combustion intermediates. The toluene depletion is governed by metathese giving benzyl radicals, ipso-addition forming benzene and metatheses leading to C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 3} radicals. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the unimolecular decomposition via the cleavage of a C-H bond has a strong inhibiting effect, while decomposition via C-C bond breaking, ipso-addition of H-atom to toluene, decomposition of benzyl radicals and reactions related to C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 3} radicals have promoting effect for the consumption of toluene. Moreover, flow rate analysis is performed to illustrate the formation pathways of mono- and polycyclic aromatics.

Tian, Z; Pitz, W J; Fournet, R; Glaude, P; Battin-Leclerc, F

2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

394

Thermal decomposition of nitrated tributyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), nitric acid and water mixtures are subject to thermal decomposition. The gaseous and liquid decomposition product yields are highly path dependent. Higher temperatures accelerate decomposition rates, but may result in lower extent of reaction than comparable low temperature cases. Actual extent of reaction, and gaseous by-products generation, are affected by the presence of Zr(IV), condensate reflux back into the reaction vessel, the water/HNO{sub 3} and the HNO{sub 3}/TBP molar ratios, and whether the decomposition occurs at isobaric or constant volume conditions. Higher gaseous production results from condensate reflux, lower H{sub 2}O/HNO{sub 3} ratios, and with excess HNO{sub 3} and water present as a second liquid phase. Principal gaseous products include N{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO and N{sub 2}O. Measurable concentrations of NO{sub 2} were not observed, although gas coloration indicative of NO{sub 2} were obsessed during the beginning of decomposition measurements. Principal liquid products are dibutyl phosphoric acid and butyl nitrate. Air sparging of TBP solutions (e.g., thru transfers using air lift pumps) may increase the hazards of TBP decomposition reactions by lowering the H{sub 2}O/HNO{sub 3} molar ratios. Runaway reactions were not observed under the conditions of this study. Possible reaction mechanisms and pathways are discussed.

Hou, Y.; Barefield, E.K.; Tedder, D.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

395

Development of alternate extractant systems for fast reactor fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to the limitations of TBP in processing of high burn-up, Pu-rich fast reactor fuels, there is a need to develop alternate extractants for fast reactor fuel processing. In this context, our Centre has been examining the suitability of alternate tri-alkyl phosphates. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(IV) by TBP, tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP) and tri-2-methyl-butyl phosphate (T2MBP) from nitric acid media has been investigated under various conditions to derive conclusions on their application for extraction of Pu at macro levels. The chemical and radiolytic degradation of tri-n-amyl-phosphate (TAP) diluted in normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) in the presence of nitric acid has been investigated by the measurement of plutonium retention in organic phase. The potential application of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been explored. Extraction of uranium (VI) and palladium (II) from nitric acid medium by commercially available RTIL and tri-n-butyl phosphate solution in RTIL have been studied and the feasibility of electrodeposition of uranium as uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) and palladium (II) as metallic palladium from the loaded organic phase have been demonstrated. This paper describes results of the above studies and discusses the suitability of the systems for fast reactor fuel reprocessing. (authors)

Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Suresh, A.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Raj, Baldev [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603 102 (India)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Uranium(VI) extraction by TBP in the presence of HDBP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of di-n-butyl phosphoric acid (HDBP) upon extraction of uranium(VI) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) from 0.5--3.0 M nitric acid solutions has been studied. It has been shown that the uranium(VI) distribution coefficient D{sub U} for extraction by 1.1 M TBP in tri-decane or xylene is increased when HDBP is present in the organic phase. For iso-molar solutions of (TBP + HDBP) with a total concentration of 0.36 M, and Uranium(VI) aqueous concentration up to 10--20 g/l, a maximum value of D{sub U} is observed when TBP/HDBP = 1; for higher U(VI) concentration the maximum gradually disappears, with D{sub U} growing monotonically with the HDBP content in the organic phase. Uranium(VI) absorption spectra for 1.1 M TBP in tri-decane or xylene, containing HDBP, provide evidence for the formation of compounds, of which composition is intermediate between uranyl nitrate--TBP disolvate and the U(VI)--HDBP complex. It is proposed that these intermediate compounds are UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}HDBP.TBP and UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(HDBP){sub 2}.

Fedorov, Yu.S.; Zilberman, B.Ya.; Kulikov, S.M.; Blazheva, I.V.; Mishin, E.N. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Wallwork, A.L.; Denniss, I.S.; May, I. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield (United Kingdom); Hill, N.J. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Risley (United Kingdom)

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (third edition). Fourth supplement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 3rd edition, was updated for the following chemicals: allyl-glycidyl-ether, 2-aminopyridine, aspartame, bromine, chlorine, n-butylamine, n-butyl-glycidyl-ether, carbon-dioxide, carbon-monoxide, chlorinated-camphene, chloroacetaldehyde, p-chlorophenol, crotonaldehyde, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, dinitro-o-cresol, ethyl-acetate, ethyl-formate, ethylenimine, sodium-fluoride, hydrogen-fluoride, cryolite, sodium-hexafluoroaluminate, formic-acid, hexachlorobutadiene, hydrogen-cyanide, hydrogen-sulfide, isopropyl-acetate, isopropyl-ether, isopropyl-glycidyl-ether, lead, lead-oxide, maleic-anhydride, methyl-acetate, methyl-acrylate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, methyl-cellosolve-acetate, methylcyclohexanol, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, monomethylaniline, monomethylhydrazine, nitric-oxide, p-nitroaniline, phenyl-ether, phenyl-ether-biphenyl mixture, phenyl-glycidyl-ether, phenylhydrazine, phosphine, ronnel, sulfuryl-fluoride, talc, tributyl-phosphate, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, trimellitic-anhydride, triorthocresyl-phosphate, triphenyl-phosphate, and vinyl-acetate.

Not Available

1990-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

Preparation and characterization of gradient polymer films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gradient polymers are multicomponent polymers whose chemical constitution varies with depth in the sample. Although these polymers may possess unique mechanical, optical, and barrier properties they remain relatively unexplored. This work is a study of the preparation of gradient polymers by sequential exposure of films to a diffusing monomer followed by electron beam irradiation. Initial experiments involved immersion of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films in styrene or n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) for various time periods followed by irradiation with 1 or 10 megarads of accelerated electrons. A significant amount of poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) formed in PVC/BMA systems, but little polystyrene could be found in the PVC/styrene films. A second set of experiments involved immersion of PVC and polyethylene (PE) films in BMA for 20, 40, 60, and 720 minutes followed by irradiation with 10 megarads of electrons. These films were then characterized using optical microscopy, quantitative transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and a depth profiling procedure based on quantitative attenuated total reflection (ATR) FTIR. It was concluded that the mechanism of PBMA formation in the polyethylene films was a result of events immediately following irradiation. Atmospheric oxygen diffusing into irradiated films trapped free radicals at the film surfaces. This was followed by storage in an evacuated desiccator where unintentional exposure to BMA vapor took place. This BMA reacted with free radicals that remained within the film cores, polymerizing to PBMA.

Smith, S.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes - phase V. Topical report, February 1993--October 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have made excellent progress toward a practical route from field butanes to MTBE, the oxygenate of choice for high-octane, clean-burning, environmentally acceptable reformulated gasoline. We have evaluated two proprietary process possibilities with a potential commercial partner and have conducted a joint catalyst evaluation program. The first of the two potential processes considered during the past quarter utilizes a two-step route from isobutane to tert-butyl alcohol, TBA. Not only is TBA an intermediate for MTBE production but is equally applicable for ETBE-an oxygenate which utilizes renewable ethanol in its` manufacture. In the two-step process, isobutane is oxidized in a non-catalytic reaction to a roughly equal mixture of TBA and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. TBHP, eq. 1. We have developed an inexpensive new catalyst system based on an electron-deficient macrocyclic metal complex that selectively converts TBHP to TBA, eq. 2, and meets or exceeds all of the process criteria that we have set.

NONE

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

400

Arco chimie focuses on PA at FOS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Arco Chimie France (Fos-sur-Mer), at a recent meeting at its southern France manufacturing site, emphasized that future strategy is strongly focused on its propylene oxide (PO) and derivatives activities. The F2.5 billion ($466 million)-Fe billion/year operation manufactures 200,000 m.t./year of PO, about 70% for captive use and the balance for the merchant market; 550,000 m.t./year of methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE); 97,000 m.t./year of polyols; and 70,000 m.t./year of propylene glycols. There has been talk of Arco modifying its Fos MTBE plant to make it flexible for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) output; the parent company already operates an MTBE/ETBE pilot unit at Corpus Christi, TX. But Arco Chimie notes there is insufficient bioethanol feedstock availability to convert all production to ETBE. The company would also require investment in new storage capacity for ethanol and ETBE. However, France's biofuels program is not yet clearly defined, and it is politically sensitive because it depends heavily on government subsidies offered to farmers. That, says Arco, makes it impossible to have an accurate idea of how much ethanol will be available.

Jackson, D.

1992-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Health concerns fuel EPA study of ETBE and TAME  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citing possible health risks associated with the use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in winter-blend gasoline and requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA), EPA has called for testing the health effects of ethyl tert-butyl ether (EBTE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). The program calls for toxicity testing to develop data on the health effects of ETBE and TAME. EPA may require chemical manufacturers and processors to provide the data. A public meeting will be held this week to begin working on an agreement. EPA says most of the data should be collected in 1995 and expects the program to cost approximately $3 million. In December, EPA floated a proposal to require 30% of the oxygenates used in the reformulated gasoline program to come from renewable sources such as ETBE and ethanol. Although EPA found no serious health risks associated with MTBE, questions remain, which is why EPA says it will test the use of ETBE and TAME. William Piel, business manager for oxygenated fuels at Arco Chemical (Newtown Square, PA), says testing is {open_quotes}just a formality.{close_quotes} There should be no difference in results among MTBE, ETBE, or TAME, he says. But ETBE and TAME have much lower volatility than MTBE, which would mean significantly less exposure to these oxygenates, Piel says. Arco is the biggest producer of MTBE but also has capability to make ETBE.

Lucas, A.

1994-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

402

Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates -- Substituted ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE).

Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

Fused ring and linking groups effect on overcharge protection for lithium-ion batteries.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The derivatives of 1,3-benzodioxan (DBBD1) and 1,4-benzodioxan (DBBD2) bearing two tert-butyl groups have been synthesized as new redox shuttle additives for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries. Both compounds exhibit a reversible redox wave over 4 V vs Li/Li{sup +} with better solubility in a commercial electrolyte (1.2 M LiPF{sub 6}) dissolved in ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate (EC/EMC 3/7) than the di-tert-butyl-substituted 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB). The electrochemical stability of DBBD1 and DBBD2 was tested under charge/discharge cycles with 100% overcharge at each cycle in MCMB/LiFePO{sub 4} and Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/LiFePO{sub 4} cells. DBBD2 shows significantly better performance than DBBD1 for both cell chemistries. The structural difference and reaction energies for decomposition have been studied by density functional calculations.

Weng, W.; Zhang, Z.; Redfern, P. C.; Curtiss, L. A.; Amine, K.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Investigation of coal structure. Quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the present work is to conduct multi-stage sequences of extraction experiments and direct solvent swelling measurements of raw and extracted coal to study in a greater depth the role of intra- and intermolecular interactions in the structure of coal. One of the possible ways to investigate the structure of coal is to extract it with a series of procedures. The individual extraction step chosen will be such that it weaken or disrupt intra- and intermolecular interactions that are particular to the rank of the test coal. To date, we attempted to extract raw and pyridine extracted (PI) DECS 16 coal with two solvents; 1:1 volume percent carbon disulfide & 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMEP) mixed solvent and 1:3 volume percent 1M tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) in methanol & pyridine. Also, raw DECS 16 coal was o-butylated followed by pyridine extraction in a soxhlet apparatus and the ultimate extraction yields were compared with o-butylated pyridine extracted coal.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Manmade organic compounds in the surface waters of the United States: A review of current understanding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On the basis of their aqueous solubilities, nonionic organic compounds partition themselves between water, dissolved organic matter, particulate organic matter, and the lipid reservoirs of aquatic organisms. Ionized organic compounds can be adsorbed to sediments, thereby reducing their aqueous concentrations. Transformation processes of photolysis, hydrolysis, biodegradation, and volatilization can attenuate organic compounds, and attenuation rates commonly follow a first-order kinetic process. Eight groups of manmade organic compounds are discussed: (1) polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticides; (2) carbamate and organophosphorus; (3) herbicides; (4) phenols; (5) halogenated aliphatic and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; (6) phthalate esters; (7) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and (8) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For each compound group, data pertaining to use, production, and properties are presented and discussed. Process that influence the environmental fate of each group, as determined primarily through laboratory studies, are reviewed, and important fate process are identified. Environmental concentrations of compounds from each group in water, biota, and sediment are given to demonstrate representative values for comparison to concentrations determined during ongoing research. Finally, where sufficient data exist, regional and temporal contamination trends in the US are discussed. 699 refs., 26 figs., 47 tabs.

Smith, J.A.; Witkowski, P.J.; Fusillo, T.V.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Pair Interaction Potentials of Colloids by Extrapolation of Confocal Microscopy Measurements of Collective Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A method for measuring the pair interaction potential between colloidal particles by extrapolation measurement of collective structure to infinite dilution is presented and explored using simulation and experiment. The method is particularly well suited to systems in which the colloid is fluorescent and refractive index matched with the solvent. The method involves characterizing the potential of mean force between colloidal particles in suspension by measurement of the radial distribution function using 3D direct visualization. The potentials of mean force are extrapolated to infinite dilution to yield an estimate of the pair interaction potential, $U(r)$. We use Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to test and establish our methodology as well as to explore the effects of polydispersity on the accuracy. We use poly-12-hydroxystearic acid-stabilized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PHSA-PMMA) particles dispersed in the solvent dioctyl phthalate (DOP) to test the method and assess its accuracy for three different repulsive systems for which the range has been manipulated by addition of electrolyte.

Christopher R. Iacovella; Reginald R. Rogers; Sharon C. Glotzer; Michael J. Solomon

2010-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

407

Sensitivity of once-shocked, weathered high explosives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Effects caused by stimulating once-shocked, weathered high explosives (OSW-HE) are investigated. The sensitivity of OSW-HE to mechanical stimuli was determined using standard industry tests. Some initial results are given. Pieces of OSW-HE were collected from active and inactive firing sites and from an area surrounding a drop tower at Los Alamos where skid and spigot tests were done. Samples evaluated were cast explosives or plastic bonded explosive (PBX) formulations containing cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), mock or inert HE [tris(beta-chloroethyl)phosphate (CEF)], barium nitrate, cyanuric acid, talc, and Kel-F. Once-shocked, weathered LX-10 Livermore explosive [HMX/Viton A, (95/5 wt %)], PBX 9011 [HMX/Estane, (90/10 wt %)], PBX 9404 [HMX/nitrocellulose, tris(beta-chloroethyl) phosphate, (94/3/3 wt %)], Composition B or cyclotol (TNT/RDX explosives), and PBX 9007 (90% RDX, 9.1% styrene, 0.5% dioctyl phthalate, and 0.45 resin) were subjected to the hammer test, the drop-weight impact sensitivity test, differential thermal analysis (DTA), the spark test, the Henkin`s critical temperature test, and the flame test. Samples were subjected to remote, wet cutting and drilling; remote, liquid-nitrogen-cooled grinding and crushing; and scanning electron microscope (SEM) surface analyses for morphological changes.

Williams, K.L.; Harris, B.W.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity ofbis(1,2,4-tri-t-butylcyclopentadienyl) Complexes of Cerium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sterically demanding 1,2,4-tri-t-butylcyclopentadienylligand (1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2, hereafter Cp') has been used to preparemonomeric cerium metallocenes, Cp 2CeX (X = Cl, I, OSO2CF3), which areused to synthesize the benzyl, Cp'2CeCH2C6H5. The benzyl is a usefulstarting material for preparing other complexes in the Cp'2CeZ system (Z= BF4, F, NH2, C6H5, H). X-ray crystal structures of Cp'2CeOSO2CF3,Cp'2CeF, Cp'2CeCH2C6H5, and Cp'2CeH are presented. The benzyl slowlydecomposes in solution to toluene and a metallacycle,[Cp'][(Me3C)2C5H2(CMe2CH2)]Ce. The ring CMe3 groups of both themetallacycle and the hydride, Cp'2CeH, can be fully deuterated byprolonged exposure to C6D6, providing a useful labeling tool inmechanistic studies.The hydride activates C-F and/or C-H bonds influorobenzenes, C6HxF6-x , x = 0-5. The reactions are selective, with theselectivity depending on the presence of two fluorines ortho to thereaction site more than on the type of bond activated. Complexes of thetype Cp'2CeC6HxF5-x , x = 0-4, are formed as intermediates, which slowlydecompose in solution to Cp'2CeF and fluorobenzynes, C6HxF4-x, x = 0-4,which are trapped. The rate at which Cp'2CeC6HxF5-x complexes decomposeincreases as the number of fluorines decreases. Complexes with oneortho-fluorine decompose much faster than those with two ortho-fluorines.The metallacycle activates only C-H bonds in fluorobenzenes, permittingthe synthesis of specific Cp'2CeC6HxF5-x complexes. The crystal structureof Cp'2CeC6F5 is presented. The hydride and the metallacycle react withfluoromethanes, CH4-xFx, x = 1-3, through postulated Cp'2CeCH3-xFxintermediates to generate Cp'2CeF and other products. The other products,CH4, tri-t-butylbenzenes, tri-t-butylfluorobenzenes, and a presumedmetallocene cerium fluoride with one Cp' and one (Me2EtC)(Me3C)2C5H2ligand, suggest a decomposition pathway for Cp'2CeCH3-xFx , x = 1-3, thatinvolves carbenes or carbenoids, which are trapped. The hydridepolymerizes ethylene, but hydrogenates other olefins. The metallacycleactivates C-H bonds in olefins and aromatics to generate new complexeswith Ce-C bonds. The hydride reacts with one equivalent of CO in pentaneto generate (Cp'2Ce)2CH2O, whose crystal structure shows the presence ofa bridging dianionic formaldehyde ligand. (Cp'2Ce)2CH2O reacts H2 to givethe hydride and Cp'2CeOMe, or with a mixture of H2 and CO to generateCp'2CeOMe exclusively. (Cp'2Ce)2CH2O or the hydride can react with anadditional equivalent of CO to generate dimeric enediolate,(Cp'2CeCHO)2.

Werkema, Evan L.

2005-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

409

Anion exchange polymer electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

410

EPA`s proposed renewable oxygenate requirement (ROR): Pros and cons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In December 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its final rule that sets for the details for requirements to sell reformulated gasoline (RFG) in certain ozone non-attainment areas. At the same time, EPA also issued a proposed rule to require that 30% of the oxygen required in RFG be based on a renewable oxygenate. Renewables include ethanol and its ether derivatives such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). The RFG rule is a final rule, while the Renewable Oxygenate Requirement (ROR) rule is a proposed rule yet to be finalized and subject to revision. Included in this paper are brief reviews of Ashland petroleum Company`s ethanol usage, oxygenated fuel and reformulated gasoline blending economics, and some comments on the EPA proposed renewable oxygenate requirement.

Czeskleba, H.M. [Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

411

Low emissions diesel fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); West, Brian H. (Kingston, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Low emissions diesel fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

413

Pool octanes via oxygenates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasingly stringent antipollution regulations placed on automobile exhaust gases with consequent reduction or complete lead ban from motor gasoline result in octane shortage at many manufacturing sites. Attractive solutions to this problem, especially in conjunction with abundant methanol supplies, are the hydration and etherification of olefins contained in light product streams from cracking unit or produced by field gas dehydrogenation. A comparison is made between oxygenates octane-volume pool contributions and established refinery technologies. Process reviews for bulk manufacture of fuel-grade isopropanol (IPA), secondary butanol (SBA), tertiary butanol (TBA), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) are presented together with the characteristic investment and operating data. The implantation of these processes into a typical FCCU refinery complex with the resulting octane-pool improvement possibilities is descried.

Prezelj, M.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Third phase formation in nitric acid extraction by n-octyl(phenyl)-n,n-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The third phase formation was studied as a function of n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) concentrations and temperature in the extraction of nitric acid. The concentration fractions of CMPO and TBP in the second and the third phases were determined by gas chromatography. Both CMPO and TBP were found to be enriched in the third phase. The concentrations of nitric acid in the second and the third phases relatively agreed with the calculated concentrations based on the extraction equilibrium constants of nitric acid by CMPO and TBP. The extraction of Np with the third phase formation was also discussed. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Nagasaki, S.; Wisnubroto, D.S.; Enokida, Y.; Suzuki, A. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Extraction equilibria between organic CMPO-n-dodecane and aqueous nitric acid phases for selected tank waste components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of the transuranium elements from tank-stored wastes is an important step in the cost effective treatment and preparation of these wastes for permanent disposal. One promising method of treatment involves dissolving the tank sludges in acid, followed by extraction of the transuranium species. The TRUEX process, which uses an extracting medium composed of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) dissolved in an organic solvent such as n-dodecane, is being tested for this purpose. Although CMPO is a powerful extractant for all the actinides, concern arises that certain process chemicals present in the waste will compete for the CMPO. Data will be presented on the pure component equilibrium characteristics of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate and bismuth nitrate partitioned between a nitric acid aqueous phase and a CMPO-n-dodecane organic phase.

Spencer, B.B.; Egan, B.Z. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Counce, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Salt Effect Model for Aqueous Solubility of TBP in a 5 to 100% TBP/n-Dodecane-Nitric Acid-Water Biphasic System at 298.2 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solubilities of nonelectrolytes in aqueous electrolyte solutions have traditionally been modeled by using the Setschenow equation for salt effect. The aqueous solubility of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) during operating conditions of the Purex process is an important parameter for safety considerations. Use of the Setschenow equation for aqueous solubility of TBP under limited conditions has been reported in the literature. However, there is no general model available to account for the presence of the diluent and for the case of multicomponent electrolyte solutions in which only some electrolytes are solvated and extracted by TBP. An extended salt effect model is proposed for predicting the aqueous solubility of TBP in a 5 to 100% TBP/n-dodecane-nitric acid-water biphasic system at 298.2 K. The literature data on TBP solubility were correlated to aqueous acid concentration, diluent concentration in the solvents, and an interaction parameter for electrolytic solutes (extracted or not extracted by TBP)

Kumar, Shekhar; Koganti, Sudhir Babu [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (India)

2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

Haze Formation and Behavior in Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aqueous haze formation and behavior was studied in the liquid-liquid system tri-n-butyl phosphate in odorless kerosene and 3M nitric acid with uranyl nitrate and cesium nitrate representing the major solute and an impurity, respectively. A pulsed column, mixer-settler and centrifugal contactor were chosen to investigate the effect of different turbulence characteristics on the manifestation of haze since these contactors exhibit distinct mixing phenomena. The dispersive processes of drop coalescence and breakage, and water precipitation in the organic phase were observed to lead to the formation of haze drops of {approx}1 um in diameter. The interaction between the haze and primary drops of the dispersion was critical to the separation efficiency of the liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Conditions of high power input and spatially homogeneous mixing enabled the haze drops to become rapidly assimilated within the dispersion to maximize the scrub performance and separation efficiency of the equipment.

Arm, Stuart T.; Jenkins, J. A.

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

418

One electron oxygen reduction in room temperature ionic liquids: A comparative study of Butler-Volmer and Symmetric Marcus-Hush theories using microdisc electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The voltammetry for the reduction of oxygen at a microdisc electrode is reported in two room temperature ionic liquids: 1-butyl-1-methylpyyrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([Bmpyrr][NTf2]) and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis9trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([P14,6,6,6][NTf2]) at 298 K. Simulated voltammograms using Butler-Volmer theory and Symmetric Marcus-Hush (SMH) theory were compared with experimental data. Butler-Volmer theory consistently provided experimental parameters with a higher level of certainty than SMH theory. A value of solvent reorganisation energy for oxygen reduction in ionic liquids was inferred for the first time as 0.4-0.5 eV, which is attributable to inner-sphere reorganisation with a negligible contribution from solvent reorganisation. The developed Butler-Volmer and Symmetric Marcus-Hush programs are also used to theoretically study the possibility of kinetically limited steady state currents, and to establish an approximate equivalence relationship between microdisc el...

Tanner, Eden E L; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

energy savings by the use of mtbe to replace alkylate in automotive gasolines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents data on the differences in energy consumption in the production of leaded and unleaded AI-93 gasolines with various blend components. The authors investigate as high-octane components certain products that are more effective in use and less energy-consuming in production in comparison with alkylate. In particular, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is discussed; it is not poisonous, it has a high heat of combustion, and it does not attack materials of construction. The addition of 11% MTBE to gasoline lowers the cold start temperature of engines by 10-12 degrees. Moreover, no adjustment of the carburetor is required for the changeover to gasoline with 11% MTBE.

Englin, B.A.; Emel'yanov, V.E.; Terent'ev, G.A.; Vinogradov, A.M.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Bis(fluoromalonato)borate (BFMB) Anion Based Ionic Liquid As an Additive for Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Propylene carbonate (PC) is a good solvent for lithium ion battery applications due to its low melting point and high dielectric constant. However, PC is easily intercalated into graphite causing it to exfoliate, killing its electrochemical performance. Here we report on the synthesis of a new ionic liquid electrolyte based on partially fluorinated borate anion, 1-butyl-1,2-dimethylimidazolium bis(fluoromalonato)borate (BDMIm.BFMB), which can be used as an additive in 1 M LiPF6/PC electrolyte to suppress graphite exfoliation and improve cycling performance. In addition, both PC and BDMIm.BFMB can be used synergistically as additive to 1.0M LiPF6/methyl isopropyl sulfone (MIPS) to dramatically improve its cycling performance. It is also found that the chemistry nature of the ionic liquids has dramatic effect on their role as additive in PC based electrolyte.

Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL] [ORNL; Liao, Chen [ORNL] [ORNL; Baggetto, Loic [ORNL] [ORNL; Guo, Bingkun [ORNL] [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL] [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL] [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

High pressure chemistry of substituted acetylenes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High pressure in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments were performed on substituted polyacetylenes: tert-butyl acetylene [TBA: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-C{triple_bond}CH] and ethynyl trimethylsilane [ETMS: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-Si{triple_bond}CH] to investigate pressure-induced chemical reactions. The starting samples were the low temperature crystalline phases which persisted metastably at room temperature and polymerized beyond 11 GPa and 26 GPa for TBA and ETMS respectively. These reaction onset pressures are considerably higher than what we observed in the shockwave studies (6.1 GPa for TBA and 6.6 GPa for ETMS). Interestingly, in the case of ETMS, it was observed with fluid ETMS as starting sample, reacts to form a semi-crystalline polymer (crystalline domains corresponding to the low-T phase) at pressures less than {approx}2 GPa. Further characterization using vibrational spectroscopy is in progress.

Chellappa, Raja [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dattelbaum, Dana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robbins, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

422

Removal of MTBE and other organic contaminants from water by sorption to high silica zeolites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Select zeolites with high SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios were shown to effectively remove methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), chloroform, and trichloroethylene (TCE) from water. In laboratory studies using batch sorption equilibria, high Si large-port mordenite and ZSM-5 (silicalite) were found to have sorption properties for MTBE and TCE superior to activated carbon. for example, at an equilibrium solution concentration of 100 {micro}g/L, high Si mordenite retained 8--12x more MTBE than either of two powdered activated carbons used as reference sorbents. Sorption results also highlight the importance of pore size and SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ration on contaminant removal efficiencies by zeolites.

Anderson, M.A.

2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

423

Production of methyl tert-alkyl ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transition to the use of unleaded gasolines has required the replacement of tetraethyl lead by oxygen-containing compounds such as methanol, ethanol, and ethers, which are termed {open_quotes}oxygenates{close_quotes} in the technical literature. These may be used in commercial gasolines in amounts of 10-15% by volume, equivalent to 2% oxygen by weight. When methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is used, the oxygen content may amount to 2.7% by weight. This oxygenate gives a significant improvement of knock resistance of naphtha fractions, the greatest effects being observed for straight-run naphthas and reformer naphthas produced under normal conditions; the MTBE also improves the engine power and economy characteristics and lowers the carbon monoxide content in the exhaust by 15-30% and the hydrocarbon content by 7-8%. This paper describes methods for the production of MTBE and also methyl tert-alkyl ethers.

Trofimov, V.A.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Economics for iso-olefin production using the fluid catalytic cracking unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires use of oxygenates in some gasolines to improve both CO and hydrocarbon auto tailpipe emissions. Various oxygenates are currently being used by the refining industry. For the fully integrated refinery having a fluid catalytic cracking unit, the most commonly used oxygenates are methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl ether (TAME). The FCC unit produces the isobutylene and iso-amylases need for manufacture of both MTBE and TAME. The economics for an assumed refinery processing scheme for several FCC cases are examined giving estimates of income and investments for each case. Up to one-third of the total gasoline pool can be made in reformulated gasoline using TAME and MTBE with the FCC unit as the sole source of feedstock. This processing route is much more economical than the alternative scheme using butane isomerization/iosbutane dehydrogenation.

McClung, R.G.; Witoshkin, A.; Bogert, D.C.; Winkler, W.S. [Englehard Corp., Iselin, NJ (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

425

APPLICATIONS OF LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES IN REMOVING OXYANIONS FROM OIL REFINING AND COAL MINING WASTEWATER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a study of using the layered double hydroxides (LDH) as filter material to remove microorganisms, large biological molecules, certain anions and toxic oxyanions from various waste streams, including wastewater from refineries. Results demonstrate that LDH has a high adsorbing capability to those compounds with negative surface charge. Constituents studied include model bacteria, viruses, arsenic, selenium, vanadium, diesel range hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mixed petroleum constituents, humic materials and anions. This project also attempted to modify the physical structure of LDH for the application as a filtration material. Flow characterizations of the modified LDH materials were also investigated. Results to date indicate that LDH is a cost-effective new material to be used for wastewater treatment, especially for the treatment of anions and oxyanions.

Song Jin; Paul Fallgren

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Coadsorption of methanol and isobutene on HY zeolite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to develop a better understanding of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis on zeolites, the coadsorption of methanol and isobutene on HY zeolite was investigated using IR spectroscopy. Initial adsorption of isobutene alone at 35{degree}C led to rapid oligomerization yielding strongly bound oligomers. The subsequent coadsorption of methanol did not induce any changes in the zeolite-adsorbate complexes. TPD following the coadsorption showed that the Bronsted acid sites could be restored by temperature treatment above approximately 300{degree}C. When methanol was adsorbed first and isobutene was subsequently coadsorbed, MTBE was formed even at 35{degree}C on the catalyst surface. MTBE desorbed easily at a temperature of 70{degree}C, restoring a major fraction of the Bronsted acid sites. Methanol was concluded to decrease the probability of oligomerization by effectively competing for the acid sites. 34 refs., 6 figs.

Kogelbauer, A.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lercher, J.A. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

1995-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

427

US refiners choose variety of routes to MTBE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that refiners and merchant manufacturers in the U.S. are gearing up to produce the large volumes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) needed to comply with oxygenated gasoline requirements. The 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments specify that, as of the first of this coming November, gasoline containing a minimum of 2.7 wt % oxygen must be sold in 39 CO-nonattainment cities. Refiners and others are scurrying to bring MTBE capacity on line in time to meet this requirement. Many U.S. refiners already have some operating MTBE capacity, but this will not be nearly enough to meet the looming increase in demand. As a result, additional capacity is being constructed worldwide.

Rhodes, A.K.

1992-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

428

MTBE will be a boon to U. S. gas processors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that the advent of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as the primary oxygenate blending component for oxygenated and reformulated motor fuels promises significant benefits for the U.S. gas-processing industry. Increased demand for isobutane as MTBE-plant feedstock will buoy both normal butane and isobutane pricing in U.S. gulf Coast during the 1990s. Elimination of the need to crack normal butane in U.S. olefin plants will also strengthen competitive feedstocks somewhat, including ethane and propane. And increased use of normal butane as isomerization feedstock will result in wider recognition of the premium quality of gas plant normal butane production compared to most refinery C[sub 4] production.

Otto, K.W. (Purvin and Gertz, Inc. Dallas, TX (United States))

1993-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

429

Effect of lower feedstock prices on economics of MTBE complex  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Economic evaluation of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) complex was carried out starting from n-butane and by captive production of methanol from natural gas. The processing steps consist of isomerization of n-butane to isobutane, dehydrogenation of isobutane to make isobutene, and finally, the reaction of isobutene with methanol to produce MTBE. Two different plant sizes were considered, and the effect of 30% lower feedback prices on profitability was studied. It was found that the raw materials cost is a dominant component, composing about 55% of the total production cost. An internal rate of return of 19% could be realized for 500,000 tons per annum MTBE complex based on economic data in mid-1993. The payback period estimated at this capacity was 3.8 years, and the break-even capacity was 36.6%.

Rahman, F.; Hamid, S.H.; Ali, M.A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Autoignition behavior of lean mixtures: Chemical and thermodynamics effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Knock characteristics of natural gas (NG), 89 octane unleaded gasoline, 2,2-dimethyl butane (22DMB), and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in stoichiometric and lean fuel-air mixtures were studied in a production 4-cylinder automotive engine. The Intake Temperature at the Knock Limit (ITKL) was different for each fuel but always higher in lean mixtures. Gasoline and 22DMB exhibited much greater increases in ITKL than MTBE and NG at lean conditions. Surprisingly, for lean mixtures 22DMB exhibited higher ITKL than MTBE and was almost as high as NG. Comparison with detailed numerical modelling was very favorable. Computations show that both differences in chemistry and end-gas temperature and pressure histories are responsible for these trends. This behavior is interpreted in terms of the Negative Temperature Coefficient behavior of hydrocarbon oxidation. The implication of these results for the specification of optimal fuels for lean-burn engine is discussed.

Ronney, P.D.; Shoda, M.; Waida, S.T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1992-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Korean oxygenates rule sparks MTBE capacity plans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Korean government`s strict standard for gasoline sold domestically is expected to have a significant impact on the methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) market. The mandate-requiring gasoline oxygen content of 0.5% this year, 0.75% by 1996, and 1.0% by 1998-has sparked a rush by Korean refineries to build new MTBE plants. If expansion plans are carried out, Korea`s MTBE capacity will increase from 280,000 m.t./year to 650,000 m.t./year by 1996, far surpassing predicted demand. Honam Oil, part of the Lucky Group, plans startup of a 100,000-m.t./year unit at Yeochon by early 1996. In addition, by the end of 1996 Ssangyong Oil will bring a 100,000-m.t./year unit onstream.

Kim, Hyung-Jin

1994-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

Ecofuel plans MTBE plant in Italy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ecofuel (Milan), an ENI company, is evaluating construction of a new methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plant in Italy, but has shelved plans for a world-scale MTBE unit in Mexico. The Italian unit is tied to ethylene expansion now under way. Later this year EniChem (Milan), a sister company, is due to complete construction of a 360,000-m.t./year cracker at Brindisi. The C{sub 4} stream available there and from the existing cracker at Priolo in Sicily should provide enough feed for a unit of up to 100,000 m.t./year of MTBE capacity. Some of the feedstock could also come from the Ravenna cracker.

Alperowicz, N.

1992-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

433

Proton NMR analysis of octane number for motor gasoline: Part V  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method to predict the octane number of automobile gasoline containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by proton magnetic resonance (PMR) spectrometry was studied. Samples of gasoline whose octane numbers had been identified according to the ASTM standards (commercially available premium gasoline to which MTBE was added at rates of 7 vol % and 14 vol %) were used in this investigation of the effect of MTBE on the octane number. The findings were utilized to introduce a term regarding MTBE into the previously reported linear regression equation for estimating the octane number from the PMR spectrum, and the appropriateness of the linear regression equation was assessed. As a result the MTBE contents in the sample were determined with satisfactory accuracy by using a standard addition method, and a linear regression equation reflecting the effect of MTBE was obtained. These achievements are reported. 11 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Ichikawa, M.; Nonaka, N.; Amano, H.; Takada, I.; Ishimori, S. [Suzuki Motor Corp., Hamamatsu (Japan); Andoh, H.; Kumamoto, K. [Showa Shell Sikiyu Tokyo (Japan)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

A screening model for evaluating the degradation and transport of MTBE and other fuel oxygenates in the subsurface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has received high attention as it contributed to cleaner air and contaminated thousands of underground storage tank sites. Because MTBE is very water soluble, it is more difficult to remove from water by conventional remediation techniques. Therefore, biodegradation of MTBE has become a remediation alternative. In order to understand the transport and transformation processes, they present a closed form solution as a screening tool in this paper. The possible reaction pathways of first-order reactions are described as a reaction matrix. The singular value decomposition is conducted analytically to decouple the partial differential equations of the multi-species transport system coupled by the reaction matrix into multiple independent subsystems. Therefore, the complexity of mathematical description for the reactive transport system is significantly reduced and analytical solutions may be previously available or easily derived.

Sun, Y; Lu, X

2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

435

MTBE, ethanol rules come under fire  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

EPA is facing stiff challenges to the mandates for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol in its reformulated gasoline (RFG) program. Wisconsin officials are receiving hundreds of complaints about the alleged health effects and other problems with MTBE added to gasoline, and Gov. Tommy Thompson is demanding that EPA suspend the RFG program until April 1. Rep. James Sensenbrenner (R., WI) is threatening to introduce a bill to repeal the program in Wisconsin if EPA does not comply. However, EPA administrator Carol Browner says the agency will {open_quotes}defer any decision{close_quotes} on the request. EPA has sent technical experts to Milwaukee to respond to and monitor citizens` complaints.

Begley, R.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Lyondell develops one step isobutylene process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that Lyondell Petrochemical Co., Houston, has developed a one step process to convert normal butylenes to isobutylene, a key component of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). MTBE is expected to become the additive of choice among U.S. refiners to blend oxygenated gasolines required by 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act. Lyondell Pres. and Chief Executive Officer Bob Gower the the new process could help assure adequate supplies of MTBE to meet U.S. demand for cleaner burning fuels. Lyondell estimates the capital cost of building a grassroots plant to produce isobutylene with the new process would be less than half the cost of a grassroot plant to produce isobutylene with existing technology starting with normal butane.

Not Available

1992-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

437

Ecological hazards of MTBE exposure: A research agenda  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel oxygenates are used in metropolitan areas across the United States in order to reduce the amount of carbon monoxide released into the atmosphere during the winter. The most commonly used fuel oxygenate is Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Its widespread use has resulted in releases into the environment. To date there has been only minimal effort to investigate ecological impacts caused by exposure to concentrations of MTBE typically found in environmental media. Research into the potential for MTBE to adversely affect ecological receptors is essential. Acquisition of such baselines data is especially critical in light of continuing inputs and potential accumulation of MTBE in environmental media. A research Agenda is included in this report and addresses: Assessing Ecological Impacts, Potential Ecological Impacts of MTBE (aquatic organisms, terrestrial organisms), Potential Ecological Endpoints, and A Summary of Research Needs.

Carlsen, T.; Hall, L.; Rice, D.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Gas phase synthesis of MTBE on triflic-acid-modified zeolites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gas phase synthesis of MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) was studied using three series of triflic acid (TFA)-modified zeolites, the parent materials being HY, H-mordenite, and HZSM-5. Impregnation with TFA was found to enhance MTBE synthesis activity only for the large-pore zeolite Y and only up to a certain extent of modification. A high level of TFA modification caused a reduction in activity, apparently due to blockage of the active sites by TFA molecules and extra-lattice Al formed during the modification process. The mechanism of activity enhancement by TFA modification appears to be related to the formation of extra-lattice Al rather than the direct presence of TFA. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Nikolopoulos, A.A.; Kogelbauer, A.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); and others

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

MTBE: The headache of cleaner air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasoline with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has been sold in the United States since 1979, when it was added to fuels as an octane enhancer after lead was phased out of motor fuels. Recently it has been introduced as a means of reducing carbon monoxide emissions during the winter months in targeted US cities. However, there is concern over health complaints including headaches, dizziness and nausea from residents of some areas. These reports have launched an era of assidious research by scientists and public health officials across the country to learn more about MTBE`s short-term and long-term, and possibly carcinogenic, health effects. New research should help weigh the risk of MTBE as a possible carcinogen and the effectiveness of MTBE-blended fuels in reducing carbon monoxide levels. The question is whether, in minimizing one risk, is another risk - however small - being introduced?

Kneiss, J.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Rates and products of degradation for MTBE and other oxygenate fuel additives in the subsurface environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recent realization that oxygenated fuel additives such as MTBE are becoming widely distributed groundwater contaminants has created a sudden and pressing demand for data on the processes that control their environmental fate. Explaining and predicting the subsequent environmental fate of these compounds is going to require extrapolations over long time frames that will be very sensitive to the quality of input data on each compound. To provide such data, they have initiated a systematic study of the pathways and kinetics of fuel oxygenate degradation under subsurface conditions. Batch experiments in simplified model systems are being performed to isolate specific processes that may contribute to MTBE degradation. A variety of degradation pathways can be envisioned that lead to t-butyl alcohol (TBA) as the primary or secondary product. However, experiments to date with a facultative iron reducing bacteria showed no evidence for TBA formation. Continuing experiments include mixed cultures from a range of aquifer materials representative of NAWQA study sites.

Tratnyek, P.G.; Church, C.D.; Pankow, J.F. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Toxicological and performance aspects of oxygenated motor vehicle fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the request of the Environmental Protection Agency, the committee reviewed a draft of a federal report that assesses the effects of oxygenated fuels on public health, air quality, fuel economy, engine performance, and water quality. The committee determined that much of the federal report adequately represents what is known about the effects of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) -- the most commonly used additive in the federal oxygenated-fuels program -- on health, the environment, and motor vehicles. MTBE, a chemical added to gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide pollution, appears not to pose a substantial human health risk, but more-definitive data are needed to assess short-term health effects and to determine whether this additive is effective in reducing carbon monoxide pollution in cold environments.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

442

Lyondell`s new isobutylene route could fuel an MTBE capacity boost  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Driven by the hot growth prospects for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), Lyondell Petrochemical (Houston) has developed a route to isobutylene it claims can produce the MTBE feedstock at half the capital cost of alternative synthesis technology. If proved, the process will be used in a new 7500-10,000 bbl/day MTBE plant at Channelview, TX. Lyondell also hopes to license the technology. {open_quotes}With expanding MTBE capacity, we will have to have new routes to isobutylene,{close_quotes} says Bob G. Gower, president and CEO of Lyondell. {open_quotes}We think this is a good fit within Lyondell, but also that it is important technology.{close_quotes} Gower declines to detail its specifics, but says it is a one-step isomerization of n-butenes to isobutylene. The firm has tested the process at a pilot unit and plans a demonstration unit in 1992.

Rotman, D.; Wood, A.

1992-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

443

Photocatalytic reactions of oxygenates on tropospheric oxide particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygenates such as ethanol and tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) are finding increased use as additives to fuels. The relative merits of ethanol and MTBE have become the focus of intense debate with their ultimate fate as fugitive emissions representing one aspect of this controversy. Both species are known to react homogeneously with photogenerated OH radicals. Here we show that both can also photoreact on suspended solid particulates in the atmosphere with rates comparable to those of OH reactions. Heterogeneous reactions of ethanol yield acetaldehyde and those of MTBE give isobutene and formaldehyde (carcinogenic). Experiments by spectroscopic and kinetic techniques show that the active phases in fly ash are Fe and Ti oxides. In addition, the effects of humidity and alkali addition on the activity and selectivity of these reactions are also discussed. This work appears to be the first demonstration that volatile organic compounds can react as fast by a heterogeneous mechanism as by a homogeneous one in the atmosphere.

Idriss, H.; Seebauer, E.G.; Miller, A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Snamprogetti signs MTBE contracts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Snamprogetti (Milan) will use a Russian-developed dehydrogenation process in a world-scale methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plant it is to build at Arzew, Algeria for a previously announced joint venture of Sonatrach (Algiers), Total (Paris), and Ecofuel (Milan). The 600,000-m.t./year plant will be the first in the West to use the improved Snamprogetti-Yarsintez fluidized-bed dehydrogenation (FBD) technology proven on a demonstration plant at Yaroslavl, Russia. The process has also been selected for use in Oxyfuel Corp.`s 500,000-m.t./year MTBE plant near Beaumont, TX. Although the environmental permit is already in place, final agreement for this project has not yet been signed.

Alperowicz, N.

1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

EPA proposal sets MTBE back  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) producers were looking for a boost from the official New Year`s start of EPA`s reformulated gasoline (RFG) program. But that prospect has been dimmed by an EPA-proposal-in reaction to concerns about RFG prices-to allow states to withdraw from the program. The states that have opted to out make up 5%-6% of the total RFG pool says Arthur Zadronzy, director/government outreach for MTBE producer Arco Chemical. {open_quotes}This is not a major hit, but it is one we have felt,{close_quotes} he says. Despite the state and EPA actions, MTBE producers are not worried about long-term consequences.

Lucas, A.

1995-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

446

Vapor-liquid equilibria of hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates. 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) + 1-heptene, MTBE + four-component gasoline prototype, ethanol + four-component gasoline prototype, and separately MTBE and ethanol with the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Gasoline Blend A are reported. Small additions of MTBE have a very small effect on the total equilibrium pressure of this gasoline blend, and at most temperatures will decrease this pressure. In contrast, small additions of ethanol to this gasoline blend result in a significant increase in the equilibrium pressure at all temperatures. Analysis shows that the vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the MTBE-containing systems are easily correlated using a modified Peng-Robinson equation of state with conventional van der Waals one-fluid mixing rules. Data for mixtures containing ethanol cannot be accurately correlated in this way.

Bennett, A.; Lamm, S.; Orbey, H.; Sandler, S.I. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

MTBE movements between Texas Gulf Coast plants to be enhanced  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that Texas Eastern Products Pipeline Co. (Teppco), Houston, has begun construction of its shuttle pipeline, a 10-mile, 6 and 8-in. line to move methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) between producers and refiners along the Houston Ship Channel. Funding for the project has been approved, rights-of-way are secured, and procurement of materials is under way, according to Teppco. The line will flow from the western edge of Shell's refinery eastward to storage facilities of Teppco's Baytown terminal. The shuttle pipeline anticipates the US requirement for oxygenated gasolines that takes effect Nov. 1. Approximately 70% of the available US merchant capacity for MTBE is located along the shuttle's path, Teppco says.

Not Available

1992-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

448

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Comparative Environmental Performance of Two-Diesel-Fuel Oxygenates: Dibutyl Maleate (DBM) and Triproplyene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (TGME)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many studies have shown that the addition of oxygen bearing compounds to diesel fuel can significantly reduce particulate emissions. To assist in the evaluation of the environmental performance of diesel-fuel oxygenates, we have implemented a suite of diagnostic models for simulating the transport of compounds released to air, water, and soils/groundwater as well as regional landscapes. As a means of studying the comparative performance of DBM and TGME, we conducted a series of simulations for selected environmental media. Benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were also addressed because they represent benchmark fuel-related compounds that have been the subject of extensive environmental measurements and modeling. The simulations showed that DBM and TGME are less mobile in soil because of reduced vapor-phase transport and increased retention on soil particles. The key distinction between these two oxygenates is that DBM is predicted to have a greater potential than TGME for aerobic biodegradation, based on chemical structure.

Layton, D.W.; Marchetti, A.A.

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Acetonitrile Drastically Boosts Conductivity of Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We apply a new methodology in the force field generation (PCCP 2011, 13, 7910) to study the binary mixtures of five imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) with acetonitrile (ACN). The investigated RTILs are composed of tetrafluoroborate (BF4) anion and dialkylimidazolium cations, where one of the alkyl groups is methyl for all RTILs, and the other group is different for each RTILs, being ethyl (EMIM), butyl (BMIM), hexyl (HMIM), octyl (OMIM), and decyl (DMIM). Specific densities, radial distribution functions, ionic cluster distributions, heats of vaporization, diffusion constants, shear viscosities, ionic conductivities, and their correlations are discussed. Upon addition of ACN, the ionic conductivity of RTILs is found to increase by more than 50 times, that significantly exceeds an impact of most known solvents. Remarkably, the sharpest conductivity growth is found for the long-tailed imidazolium-based cations. This new fact motivates to revisit an application of these binary systems as a...

Chaban, Vitaly V; Kalugin, Oleg N; Prezhdo, Oleg V

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

High temperature concrete composites containing organosiloxane crosslinked copolymers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to high temperature polymer concrete composites comprising about 10-30% by weight of a liquid monomer mixture consisting essentially of an organosiloxane polymer crosslinked with an olefinically unsaturated monomer selected from the group consisting of styrene, methyl methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, triallyl cyanurate, n-phenylmalimide, divinyl benzene and mixtures theroef; and about 70-90% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and preferably a member selected from the group consisting of portland cement, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, carbon black and mixtures thereof; and optionally a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide and other organic peroxides to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of the inorganic filler.

Zeldin, Arkady (Rego Park, NY); Carciello, Neal (Patchogue, NY); Kukacka, Lawrence (Port Jefferson, NY); Fontana, Jack (Shoreham, NY)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Iran plans huge private sector MTBE plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An export-oriented 1-million m.t./year methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plant is planned as one of Iran`s private sector investment projects. State-owned National Petrochemical Co (NPC; Tehran) and the Dubai-based Iranian businessman Abdul Wahab Galadari have signed a letter of intent allowing Galadari to develop the venture. Colt Engineering (Calgary, AL) is assisting Galadari with costs, planning and technology selection for the estimated $300-million plus venture. An important meeting with NPC is scheduled end of this month, says Galadari, and a financial package should be put together by end of March or April. The facility will most likely be wholly-owned by the Galadari family, roughly 50% by members resident in Iran and the remainder by the Dubai-based concern A.W. Galadari Sons. NPC says it may take a token shareholding in the venture.

Alperowicz, N.

1992-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

454

Synthesis and physical properties of novel perfluorinated methylene oxide oligomers. The ultimate low temperature fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Perfluorinated polyethers are a class of substances which are extremely inert and have both extraordinary high temperature stability and low temperature properties. The synthesis of perfluorinated polyformaldehydes with the highest oxygen content was designed to give the maximum liquid range and low temperature properties. Novel low molecular weight perfluorinated polyformaldehydes with stable and unreactive perfluoro-n-butyl end groups were prepared by liquid-phase direct fluorination. The boiling point of these compounds increases by approximately 20{degree}C with the addition of each difluoromethylene oxide unit. This trend does not continue for longer chain lengths (n > 4) where the increase in boiling point per CF{sub 2}O unit diminishes. The average increase of melting temperature is approximately 1-2{degree}C as the perfluorinated polyformaldehyde chain increases one difluoromethylene oxide unit. The new perfluoropolyether fluids produced have melting points ranging from -145 to -152{degree}C. 33 refs., 3 tabs.

Sung, K.; Lagow, R.J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1995-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

455

Metabolic patterns of substrate removal in multi-component aqueous systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 25 8. 35 8. 45 8. 4o 8. 45 8. 50 8. 5o 8. 50 8. 45 8. 5o 86 Bo 84 86 50 FIGURE 3 'S I CRGANIC CONPONENT ANALYSES SI 0-STR! PPI NG ip ethyl ethanoate ethanol In Ph 30 L C3 CC 20 C) 7 ' 5 7. 0 IO 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 I] 12.... 5 W 8. 0 7 ' 5 7. 0 10 6. 5 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 TIME (hours) TABLE TEST 6 ANALYSIS DATA SUHNARY T ime hrs. -min. ethyl ethanoate mg/I A B propyl etnanoate mg/I A B butyl ethanoate mg/I A B pentyl ethanoate hexyl...

Richards, Paul Allen

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Chemical factors affecting insolubles formation in shale derived diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detrimental changes in fuel properties with time have been a continuing problem in the use of middle distillate fuels. Instability of diesel fuels is usually defined by the formation of insoluble sediments and gums. Gravimetric stability tests have been conducted at 43/sup 0/ and 80/sup 0/C, respectively, using three model nitrogen heterocycles, 2-methylpyridine, 2,6-di methyl quinoline, and dodecahydrocarbazole, as dopants in an otherwise stable shale diesel fuel. Potential interactive effects have been defined for these three model nitrogen heterocycles in the stable fuel in the presence of a second model dopant, t-butyl hydroperoxide. 2-Methyl pyridine and 2,6-dimethyl quinoline were inactive and only 2-methyl pyridine showed slight positive interactive effects. Dodecahydrocarbazole formed large amounts of insolubles by itself and exhibited positive interactive effects.

Beal, E.J.; Mushrush, G.W.; Cooney, J.V. (Fuels Section, Code 6180 Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (US)); Watkins, J.M. (Geo-Centers, Ft. Washington, MD (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

The importance of ion size and electrode curvature on electrical double layers in ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging class of electrolytes for supercapacitors. We investigate the effects of ion size and electrode curvature on the electrical double layers (EDLs) in two ILs 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM][Cl] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF{sub 6}], using a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The sizes of the counter-ion and co-ion affect the ion distribution and orientational structure of EDLs. The EDL capacitances near both planar and cylindrical electrodes were found to follow the order: [BMIM][Cl] (near the positive electrode) > [BMIM][PF{sub 6}] (near the positive electrode) ? [BMIM][Cl] (near the negative electrode) ? [BMIM][PF{sub 6}] (near the negative electrode). The EDL capacitance was also found to increase as the electrode curvature increases. These capacitance data can be fit to the Helmholtz model and the recently proposed exohedral electrical double-cylinder capacitor (xEDCC) model when the EDL thickness is properly parameterized, even though key features of the EDLs in ILs are not accounted for in these models. To remedy the shortcomings of existing models, we propose a Multiple Ion Layers with Overscreening (MILO) model for the EDLs in ILs that takes into account two critical features of such EDLs, i.e., alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions and charge overscreening. The capacitance computed from the MILO model agrees well with the MD prediction. Although some input parameters of the MILO model must be obtained from MD simulations, the MILO model may provide a new framework for understanding many important aspects of EDLs in ILs (e.g., the variation of EDL capacitance with the electrode potential) that are difficult to interpret using classical EDL models and experiments.

Feng, G.; Qiao, R.; Huang, J; Dai, S.; Sumpter, B. G.; Meunier, V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

The Importance of Ion Size and Electrode Curvature on Electrical Double Layers in Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging class of electrolytes for supercapacitors. We investigate the effects of ion size and electrode curvature on the electrical double layers (EDLs) in two ILs 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM][Cl] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF(6)], using a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The sizes of the counter-ion and co-ion affect the ion distribution and orientational structure of EDLs. The EDL capacitances near both planar and cylindrical electrodes were found to follow the order: [BMIM][Cl] (near the positive electrode) > [BMIM][PF(6)] (near the positive electrode) {approx} [BMIM][Cl] (near the negative electrode) {approx} [BMIM][PF(6)] (near the negative electrode). The EDL capacitance was also found to increase as the electrode curvature increases. These capacitance data can be fit to the Helmholtz model and the recently proposed exohedral electrical double-cylinder capacitor (xEDCC) model when the EDL thickness is properly parameterized, even though key features of the EDLs in ILs are not accounted for in these models. To remedy the shortcomings of existing models, we propose a 'Multiple Ion Layers with Overscreening' (MILO) model for the EDLs in ILs that takes into account two critical features of such EDLs, i.e., alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions and charge overscreening. The capacitance computed from the MILO model agrees well with the MD prediction. Although some input parameters of the MILO model must be obtained from MD simulations, the MILO model may provide a new framework for understanding many important aspects of EDLs in ILs (e.g., the variation of EDL capacitance with the electrode potential) that are difficult to interpret using classical EDL models and experiments.

Feng, Guang [Clemson University; Qiao, Rui [ORNL; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Thermal decomposition of nitrated tributyl phosphate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extended contact between heated mixtures of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and aqueous solutions of nitric acid and/or heavy metal nitrate salts at elevated temperatures can lead to exothermic reactions of explosive violence. Most solvent extraction operations are conducted at ambient conditions without heating TBP and have been performed safely for decades, but several explosions involving TBP have occurred in the US, Canada, and the former Soviet Union. This investigation was undertaken to characterize the products of thermal decomposition of both single- and two-phase mixtures of TBP, nitric acid, and water under a variety of conditions. The data indicate that the extent of reaction and the rate of gaseous product formation are affected by the presence of Zr{sup 4+}, distillation compared with reflux conditions, temperature, water/HNO{sub 3} and HNO{sub 3}/TBP ratios, and whether the decomposition occurs under constant pressure or constant volume conditions. Higher reaction temperatures accelerate the rate of decomposition, but the extent of decomposition, as measured by the quantity of gaseous products, was greater at lower temperatures when the decomposition was performed under distillation conditions. Higher gas production occurs under reflux conditions, lower H{sub 2}O/HNO{sub 3} ratios, and when a separate water-HNO{sub 3} phase is initially present. The major gaseous products include N{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, and N{sub 2}O. Measurable amounts of NO{sub 2} were not present in the final product mixture, although an orange color suggesting the presence of NO{sub 2} was observed in the early stages of decomposition. The major liquid products were dibutyl phosphoric acid, butyl nitrate, and water. Small amounts of C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} carboxylic acids were also present. Because of the small sample sizes that were employed and the isothermal conditions of the decomposition, runaway reactions were not observed. Some possible reaction pathways are considered.

Hou, Y.; Barefield, E.K.; Tedder, D.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Self-ignition of S.I. engine model fuels: A shock tube investigation at high pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The self-ignition of several spark-ignition (SI) engine fuels (iso-octane, methanol, methyl tert-butyl ether and three different mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane), mixed with air, was investigated experimentally under relevant engine conditions by the shock tube technique. Typical modes of the self-ignition process were registered cinematographically. For temperatures relevant to piston engine combustion, the self-ignition process always starts as an inhomogeneous, deflagrative mild ignition. This instant is defined by the ignition delay time, {tau}{sub defl}. The deflagration process in most cases is followed by a secondary explosion (DDT). This transition defines a second ignition delay time, {tau}{sub DDT}, which is a suitable approximation for the chemical ignition delay time, if the change of the thermodynamic conditions of the unburned test gas due to deflagration is taken into account. For iso-octane at p = 40 bar, a NTC (negative temperature coefficient), behavior connected with a two step (cool flame) self-ignition at low temperatures was observed. This process was very pronounced for rich and less pronounced for stoichiometric mixtures. The results of the {tau}{sub DDT} delays of the stoichiometric mixtures were shortened by the primary deflagration process in the temperature range between 800 and 1,000 K. Various mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane were investigated. The results show a strong influence of the n-heptane fraction in the mixture, both on the ignition delay time and on the mode of self-ignition. The self-ignition of methanol and MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) is characterized by a very pronounced initial deflagration. For temperatures below 900 K (methanol: 800 K), no secondary explosion occurs. Taking into account the pressure increase due to deflagration, the measured delays {tau}{sub DDT} of the secondary explosion are shortened by up to one order of magnitude.

Fieweger, K.; Blumenthal, R.; Adomeit, G. [RWTH, Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Allegemeine Mechanik] [RWTH, Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Allegemeine Mechanik

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Task 4.9 -- Value-added products from syngas. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work on advanced fuel forms in 1996 focused on the synthesis of higher alcohols from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon dioxide (syngas) from coal gasification. Initial work in this project utilized a novel molybdenum sulfide catalyst previously shown to be active for hydrodesulfurization reactions of coal liquids. A pressurized fixed-bed flow-through reactor was constructed, and the MoS{sub 2} catalysts were tested with syngas under a variety of conditions. Unfortunately, the catalysts, even with higher molybdenum loading and addition of promoters, failed to give alcohol products. A batch reactor test of the catalyst was also conducted, but did not produce alcohol products. Group VIII metals have been used previously in catalysts for syngas reactions. Ruthenium and rhodium catalysts were prepared by impregnation of a hydrotalcite support. Tests with these catalysts in flow-through reactors also did not produce the desired alcohol products. The formation of higher alcohols from smaller ones, such as methanol and ethanol, could be commercially important if high selectivity could be achieved. The methanol and ethanol would be derived from syngas and fermentation, respectively. Based on previous work in other laboratories, it was hypothesized that the hydrotalcite-supported MoS{sub 2} or Ru or Rh catalysts could catalyze the formation of butyl alcohols. Although the desired 1-butanol was obtained in batch reactions with the promoted ruthenium catalyst, the reaction was not as selective as desired. Product suitable for a lower-vapor-pressure gasoline oxygenate additive was obtained, but it may not be economical to market such products in competition with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). Flow-through catalytic bed reactions were not successful.

Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Determining diffusion coefficients of ionic liquids by means of field cycling nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Field Cycling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FC NMR) relaxation studies are reported for three ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3- methylimidazolium thiocyanate (EMIM-SCN, 220258 K), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM-BF{sub 4}, 243318 K), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF{sub 6}, 258323 K). The dispersion of {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation rate R{sub 1}(?) is measured in the frequency range of 10 kHz20 MHz, and the studies are complemented by {sup 19}F spin-lattice relaxation measurements on BMIM-PF{sub 6} in the corresponding frequency range. From the {sup 1}H relaxation results self-diffusion coefficients for the cation in EMIM-SCN, BMIM-BF{sub 4}, and BMIM-PF{sub 6} are determined. This is done by performing an analysis considering all relevant intra- and intermolecular relaxation contributions to the {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation as well as by benefiting from the universal low-frequency dispersion law characteristic of Fickian diffusion which yields, at low frequencies, a linear dependence of R{sub 1} on square root of frequency. From the {sup 19}F relaxation both anion and cation diffusion coefficients are determined for BMIM-PF{sub 6}. The diffusion coefficients obtained from FC NMR relaxometry are in good agreement with results reported from pulsed- field-gradient NMR. This shows that NMR relaxometry can be considered as an alternative route of determining diffusion coefficients of both cations and anions in ionic liquids.

Kruk, D. [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, S?oneczna 54, PL-10710 Olsztyn (Poland); Universitt Bayreuth, Experimentalphysik II, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Meier, R.; Rssler, E. A. [Universitt Bayreuth, Experimentalphysik II, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Rachocki, A. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Pozna? (Poland); Korpa?a, A. [Department of Biophysics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, ?azarza 16, 31-530 Krakw, Poland and Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakw (Poland); Singh, R. K. [Ionic Liquid and Solid State Ionics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India)

2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

463

The Influence of MSI (Metal-Support Interactions) and the Solvent in Liquid-Phase Reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results were repeatedly obtained that were consistent with a hypothesis proposed at the beginning of this program, i.e., due to Metal-Support Interactions (MSI), unique active sites can be created in the metal-support interfacial region to enhance activity and improve selectivity in certain types of reactions, especially those involving the hydrogenation of carbonyl and unsaturated C=C bonds. Higher turnover frequencies (TOF-molecule/s/site) and increased selectivity for C=O bond versus C=C bond hydrogenation was established in the hydrogenation reactions of: acetone, crotonaldehyde, acetophenone, phenylethanol, acetylcyclohexane, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, phenylacetaldehyde and citral over Pt/TiO{sub 2} MSI catalysts. Higher rates of hydrogenation benzene, toluene and xylene could be obtained over certain supported Pt and Pd catalysts. Au/TiO{sub 2} catalysts were developed that were active for CO hydrogenation at subambient temperatures. The influence of support and metal crystallite size were established for the adsorption of H{sub 2}, CO and O{sub 2} on families of Pt and Pd catalysts.

Vannice, M. A.

2003-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

464

Three-stage autoignition of gasoline in an HCCI engine: An experimental and chemical kinetic modeling investigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The alternative HCCI combustion mode presents a possible means for decreasing the pollution with respect to conventional gasoline or diesel engines, while maintaining the efficiency of a diesel engine or even increasing it. This paper investigates the possibility of using gasoline in an HCCI engine and analyzes the autoignition of gasoline in such an engine. The compression ratio that has been used is 13.5, keeping the inlet temperature at 70 C, varying the equivalence ratio from 0.3 to 0.54, and the EGR (represented by N{sub 2}) ratio from 0 to 37 vol%. For comparison, a PRF95 and a surrogate containing 11 vol% n-heptane, 59 vol% iso-octane, and 30 vol% toluene are used. A previously validated kinetic surrogate mechanism is used to analyze the experiments and to yield possible explanations to kinetic phenomena. From this work, it seems quite possible to use the high octane-rated gasoline for autoignition purposes, even under lean inlet conditions. Furthermore, it appeared that gasoline and its surrogate, unlike PRF95, show a three-stage autoignition. Since the PRF95 does not contain toluene, it is suggested by the kinetic mechanism that the benzyl radical, issued from toluene, causes this so-defined ''obstructed preignition'' and delaying thereby the final ignition for gasoline and its surrogate. The results of the kinetic mechanism supporting this explanation are shown in this paper. (author)

Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D'Alembert (France)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

Electrophilic Metal Alkyl Chemistry in New Ligand Environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of this project were to design new electrophilic metal alkyl complexes and to exploit these systems in fundamental studies of olefin polymerization and other important and new catalytic reactions. A key target reaction is insertion copolymerization of olefins and polar CH2=CHX vinyl monomers such as vinyl halides and vinyl ethers. During the period covered by this report we (i) investigated the properties of ortho-alkoxy-arylphosphine ligands in Ni-based olefin polymerization catalysts, (ii) studied the synthesis of double-end-capped polyethylene using group 4 metal catalysts that contain tris-pyrazolylborate ligands, (iii) explored the ethylene insertion reactivity of group 4 metal tris-pyrazolyl-borate complexes, (iv) showed that (?-diimine)PdMe{sup +} species undergo multiple insertion of silyl vinyl ethers, (v) synthesized and explored the reactivity of base-free Ni benzyl complexes that contain ortho-phosphino-arene sulfonate ligands, (vi) established the mechanism of the reaction of vinyl chloride with (?-diimine)PdMe{sup +} catalysts, (vii) explored the role of cationic polymerization and insertion chemistry in the reactions of vinyl ethers with (?-diimine)PdMe{sup +} species, (viii) discovered a new class of self-assembled tetranuclear Pd catalysts that produce high molecular weight linear polyethylene and copolymerize ethylene and vinyl fluoride, and (ix) developed model systems that enabled investigation of cis-trans isomerization of {phosphine-sulfonate}Pd(II) complexes.

Jordan, Richard F. [University of Chicago] University of Chicago

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

466

Isolation and characterization of mutant strains of Escherichia coli altered in H/sub 2/ metabolism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A positive selection procedure is described for the isolation of hydrogenase-defective mutant strains of Escherichia coli. Mutant strains isolated by this procedure can be divided into two major classes. Class II mutants produced hydrogenase activity (determined by using a tritium-exchange assay) and formate hydrogenlyase activity but lacked the ability to reduce benzyl viologen or fumarate with H/sub 2/ as the electron donor. Class I mutants failed to produce active hydrogenase and hydrogenase-dependent activities. All the mutant strains produced detectable levels of formate dehydrogenase-1 and -2 and fumarate reductase. The mutation in class I mutants mapped near 65 min of the E. coli chromosome, whereas the mutation in class II mutants mapped between srl and cys operons (58 and 59 min, respectively) in the genome. The class II Hyd mutants can be further subdivided into two groups (hydA and hydB) based on the cotransduction characteristics with cys and srl. These results indicate that there are two hyd operons and one hup operon in the E. coli chromosome. The two hyd operons are needed for the production of active hydrogenase, and all three are essential for hydrogen-dependent growth of the cell.

Lee, J.H.; Patel, P.; Sankar, P.; Shanmugam, K.T.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Photooxidation of tetraanionic sensitizer ions by dihexadecyl phosphate vesicle-bound viologens  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Triplet state lifetimes of several photoredox-active anions were shortened by adding N-alkyl-N-methyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (C/sub n/MV/sup 2 +/) ions in the presence of dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP) vesicles. Optical spectroscopic measurements indicate that the predominant reaction mechanism is one-electron oxidative quenching. For (5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphinato)zinc(II) (ZnTPPS/sup 4 -/) ion, yields of charge-separated product ions are high, so that overall quantum yields exceeding 0.5 redox pairs per photon absorbed can be realized; for tetrakis(diphosphito)diplatinate(II), tris(4,7-bis(4-sulfonato-benzyl)-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenate(II), and tris(4,4'-dicarboxylato-2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenate(II) yields are markedly less, a consequence of their shorter intrinsic triplet lifetimes and poor cage escape yields. In the absence of vesicles, product formation is negligible because ion pairing of viologens with sensitizers is extensive, giving rise to static quenching of the photoexcited states. The ionic strength dependence of the kinetics of /sup 3/ZnTPPS/sup 4 -/ ion oxidation by C/sub n/MV/sup 2 +/-DHP particles suggests a diffusion-controlled mechanism with electron transfer occurring over a distance of separation approximating the hard-sphere collision diameter of sensitizer and viologen.

Hurst, J.K.; Thompson, D.H.P.; Connolly, J.S.

1987-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

468

Photoinduced and redox-induced transmembrane processes with vesicle-stabilized colloidal cadmium sulfide and multicharged viologen derivatives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Colloidal cadmium sulfide (CdS) and methylviologen (MV{sup 2+}) or new viologen derivatives carrying more positive charges were placed at specific sites of dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP) vesicles. Benzyl alcohol was used as a sacrificial electron donor to promote reduction of the viologens by photoexcited CdS colloid majority carriers. Transmission electron microscopy, {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance, and differential scanning calorimetry were used for physical characterization. Photochemical events were followed by in situ optical and electrochemical monitoring. Redox-induced transmembrane diffusion, which had been found with MV{sup 2+}, could be reduced by a factor 18 by using a triply charged viologen derivative and by a further factor of 30 in a configuration involving transmembrane electron transfer. In that case the quantum yield was ca. 0.05 at 410 nm, while virtually no reduced viologen leaking could be observed during at least 10 min. Physical evidence was found for a partial penetration of the CdS colloids into the DHP membrane.

Tricot, Y.M.; Porat, Z.; Manassen, J. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel))

1991-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

469

Evidence for a radical relay mechanism during reaction of surface-immobilized molecules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impact of restricted mass transport on high-temperature, free-radical reactions has been explored through the use of organic compounds immobilized on silica surfaces by a thermally robust Si-O-C{sub aromatic} linkage. The rate of thermolysis of surface-immobilized 1,3-diphenylpropane(=DPP) at 375{degree}C under vacuum, by a free-radical chain pathway, was found to be very sensitive (factor of 40 variation) to the structure and orientation of a second, neighboring spacer molecule on the surface. Compared with the inert aromatic spacers, (e.g., biphenyl) it was found that spacer molecules containing reactive benzylic C-H bonds (e.g., diphenylmethane) are capable of accelerating the =DPP thermolysis by a process that is unique to diffusionally constrained systems. A mechanism involving rapid serial hydrogen transfer steps on the surface is proposed, which results in radical intermediates being relayed across the surface and hence overcoming classical diffusional limitations. 33 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Buchanan, A.C. III; Britt, P.F.; Thomas, K.B.; Biggs, C.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

470

A general time-dependent route to Resonance-Raman spectroscopy including Franck-Condon, Herzberg-Teller and Duschinsky effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a new formulation of the time-dependent theory of Resonance-Raman spectroscopy (TD-RR). Particular attention has been devoted to the generality of the framework and to the possibility of including different effects (Duschinsky mixing, Herzberg-Teller contributions). Furthermore, the effects of different harmonic models for the intermediate electronic state are also investigated. Thanks to the implementation of the TD-RR procedure within a general-purpose quantum-chemistry program, both solvation and leading anharmonicity effects have been included in an effective way. The reliability and stability of our TD-RR implementation are validated against our previously proposed and well-tested time-independent procedure. Practical applications are illustrated with some closed- and open-shell medium-size molecules (anthracene, phenoxyl radical, benzyl radical) and the simulated spectra are compared to the experimental results. More complex and larger systems, not limited to organic compounds, can be also studied, as shown for the case of Tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chloride.

Baiardi, Alberto; Barone, Vincenzo [Scuola Normale Superiore, piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Bloino, Julien [Scuola Normale Superiore, piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Chimica dei Composti OrganoMetallici (ICCOM-CNR), UOS di Pisa, Area della Ricerca CNR, Via G. Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)

2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

471

Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber o-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile o-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fuIly synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fueL

Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber a-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile a-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fully synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fuel.

Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Chemically grafted polymeric filters for chemical sensors: Hyperbranched poly(acrylic acid) films incorporating {Beta}-cyclodextrin receptors and amine-functionalized filter layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors report a new molecular-filter approach for enhancing the selectivity of chemical sensors. Specifically, they describe electrochemical sensors prepared from Au electrodes coated with {beta}-cyclodextrin-functionalized, hyperbranched poly(acrylic acid)(PAA) films capped with a chemically grafted, ultrathin polyamine layer. The hyperbranched PAA film is a highly functionalized framework for covalently binding the {beta}-cyclodextrin molecular receptors. The thin, grafted polyamine overlayer acts as a pH-sensitive molecular filter that selectively passes suitably charged analytes. Poly(amidoamine) dendrimers or poly-D-lysine is used as 10--15-nm-thick filter layers. The results show that at low pH, when the polyamines are fully protonated, positively charged redox probe molecules, such as benzyl viologen (BV), do not permeate the filter layer. However, at high pH, when the filter layer is uncharged, BV penetrates the filter layer and is reduced at the electrode. The opposite pH dependence is observed for negatively charged redox molecules such as anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS). Both BV and AQS specifically interact with the {beta}-cyclodextrin receptors underlying the polyamine filter layers.

Dermody, D.L.; Peez, R.F.; Bergbreiter, D.E.; Crooks, R.M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

474

A high pressure cell for supercritical CO{sub 2} on-line chemical reactions studied with x-ray techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A versatile high pressure X-ray sample cell has been developed for conducting in situ time-resolved X-ray scattering experiments in the pressure and temperature regime required (pressures up to 210 bars and temperatures up to 120 C) for chemical reactions in supercritical fluids. The large exit opening angle of the cell allows simultaneous performance of SAXS-WAXS experiments. Diamond windows are used in order to benefit from the combination of maximum strength, minimal X-ray absorption and chemical inertia. The sample cell can also be utilised for X-ray spectroscopy experiments over a wide range of photon energies. Results of the online synthesis of a block copolymer, poly(methyl methacrylate-block-poly(benzyl methacrylate), by Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) in a supercritical CO{sub 2} dispersion polymerisation will be discussed. The contribution of the density fluctuations, as function of temperature, to the X-ray scattering signal has been quantified in order to allow appropriate background subtractions.

Hermida-Merino, Daniel; Portale, Giuseppe; Bras, Wim, E-mail: Wim.Bras@esrf.eu, E-mail: Steve.Howdle@nottingham.ac.uk [DUBBLE@ESRF, Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (N.W.O.), CS40220, 38043, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Fields, Peter; Wilson, Richard; Bassett, Simon P.; Jennings, James; Dellar, Martin; Howdle, Steven M., E-mail: Wim.Bras@esrf.eu, E-mail: Steve.Howdle@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Gommes, Cedric [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Lige B6A, alle du 6 Aot 3, B-4000 Lige (Belgium); Vrolijk, Benno C. M. [Element Six BV, P.O. Box 119, 5430 AC Cuijk (Netherlands)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

475

Indoor Pollutants Emitted by Electronic Office Equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The last few decades have seen major changes in how people collect and process information at work and in their homes. More people are spending significant amounts of time in close proximity to computers, video display units, printers, fax machines and photocopiers. At the same time, efforts to improve energy efficiency in buildings by reducing leaks in building envelopes are resulting in tighter (i.e., less ventilated) indoor environments. Therefore, it is critical to understand pollutant emission rates for office equipment because even low emissions in areas that are under-ventilated or where individuals are in close proximity to the pollutant source can result in important indoor exposures. We reviewed existing literature reports on pollutant emission by office equipment, and measured emission factors of equipment with significant market share in California. We determined emission factors for a range of chemical classes including volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs), ozone and particulates. The measured SVOCs include phthalate esters, brominated and organophosphate flame retardants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements were carried out in large and small exposure chambers for several different categories of office equipment. Screening experiments using specific duty cycles in a large test chamber ({approx}20 m{sup 3}) allowed for the assessment of emissions for a range of pollutants. Results from the screening experiments identified pollutants and conditions that were relevant for each category of office equipment. In the second phase of the study, we used a smaller test chamber ({approx}1 m{sup 3}) to measure pollutant specific emission factors for individual devices and explored the influence of a range of environmental and operational factors on emission rates. The measured emission factors provide a data set for estimating indoor pollutant concentrations and for exploring the importance of user proximity when estimating exposure concentrations.

Maddalena, Randy L.; Destaillats, Hugo; Russell, Marion L.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; McKone, Thomas E.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in distinct ontogenetic windows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adipogenic impact depends strongly on the window of exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bisphenol A reduces the potential of MSC to differentiate into adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP and TBT trigger the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BPA, DEHP and TBT did not affect adipogenesis in embryonic stem cells. -- Abstract: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) like bisphenol A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tributyltin (TBT) are ubiquitously present in the environment and in human tissues. They bind to nuclear hormone receptors and affect cellular and developmental processes. In this study, we show that BPA, DEHP and TBT affect the adipogenic differentiation of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, C3H/10T1/2) in a concentration-, stage- and compound-specific manner. C3H/10T1/2 cells and embryonic stem cells (CGR8) were exposed to BPA, DEHP or TBT at different stages of cell determination and differentiation (undifferentiated growth, adipogenic induction and terminal adipogenic differentiation). The final amount of differentiated adipocytes, cellular triglyceride content and mRNA expression of adipogenic marker genes (adiponectin, FABP4, PPAR{gamma}2, LPL) were quantified and compared with corresponding unexposed cells. BPA (10 {mu}M) decreased subsequent adipogenic differentiation of MSC, when cells were exposed during undifferentiated growth. In contrast, DEHP (100 {mu}M) during the hormonal induction period, and TBT (100 nM) in all investigated stages, enhanced adipogenesis. Importantly, exposure of undifferentiated murine embryonic stem cells did not show any effect of the investigated EDC on subsequent adipogenic differentiation.

Biemann, Ronald, E-mail: ronald.biemann@medizin.uni-halle.de [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany)] [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Navarrete Santos, Anne [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany)] [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Navarrete Santos, Alexander [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany)] [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Riemann, Dagmar [Department of Immunology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany)] [Department of Immunology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Knelangen, Julia [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany)] [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Blueher, Matthias [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)] [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Koch, Holger [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-University Bochum (IPA), Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany)] [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-University Bochum (IPA), Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Fischer, Bernd [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany)] [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany)

2012-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

477

Remediation of contaminated soils and sediments using Daramend bioremediation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soils and sediments containing polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy oils, chlorinated phenols, pesticides, herbicides and phthalates, either individually or in combination, have been difficult to remediate in the past. Not only the species of contaminant, but contaminant concentrations were roadblocks to successful use of bioremediation. Daramend{sup Tm} remediation has removed many of these obstacles through extensive research. Bench-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale demonstrations have been conducted at a variety of industrial sites. At a manufactured gas site, 295 days of Daramend remediation reduced concentrations of chrysene and fluoranthene from 38.9 mg/kg to 5.9 mg/kg and 84.6 mg/kg to 7.8 mg/kg respectively. Elsewhere, the total PAH concentration in a silty soil was reduced from 1,442 mg/kg to 36 mg/kg. Concentrations of even the most refractory PAHs (e.g. pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene) were reduced to below the established clean-up guidelines. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel fuel) have also been reduced from 8,700 mg/kg to 34 mg/kg after 182 days of treatment. Similarly, in a clay soil contaminated by crude oil processing, the concentrations of high molecular weight aliphatic hydrocarbons were rapidly reduced (138 days) to below the remediation criteria. Demonstrations with wood treatment site soils have proven Daramend remediation effective in enhancing the target compound degradation rates. Soils containing 2170 mg PCP/kg were shown to contain only 11 mg PCP/kg after 280 days of Darmend remediation. The issue of toxicity of soil containing increased amounts of pentachlorophenols was solved. Performance data collected during these projects indicate that Daramend remediation provides a cost effective method for clean-up of soils and sediments containing a variety of organic compounds.

Burwell, S.W.; Bucens, P.G.; Seech, A.G.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Final report, September 25, 1992--July 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of the research program were to (1) identify and develop polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focused on four types of gel systems--KUSP1 systems that contain an aqueous polysaccharide designated KUSP1, phenolic-aldehyde systems composed of resorcinol and formaldehyde, colloidal-dispersion systems composed of polyacrylamide and aluminum citrate, and a chromium-based system where polyacrylamide is crosslinked by chromium(III). Gelation behavior of the resorcinol-formaldehyde systems and the KUSP1-borate system was examined. Size distributions of aggregates that form in the polyacrylamide-aluminum colloidal-dispersion gel system were determined. Permeabilities to brine of several rock materials were significantly reduced by gel treatments using the KUSP1 polymer-ester (monoethyl phthalate) system, the KUSP1 polymer-boric acid system, and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system were also shown to significantly reduce the permeability to supercritical carbon dioxide. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the behavior of a chromium redox-polyacrylamide gel system that is injected through a wellbore into a multi-layer reservoir in which crossflow between layers is allowed. The model describes gelation kinetics and filtration of pre-gel aggregates in the reservoir. Studies using the model demonstrated the effect filtration of gel aggregates has on the placement of gel systems in layered reservoirs.

Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Buller, C.; McCool, S.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Laser wakefield generated X-ray probe for femtosecond time-resolved measurements of ionization states of warm dense aluminum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a laser wakefield generated X-ray probe to directly measure the temporal evolution of the ionization states in warm dense aluminum by means of absorption spectroscopy. As a promising alternative to the free electron excited X-ray sources, Betatron X-ray radiation, with femtosecond pulse duration, provides a new technique to diagnose femtosecond to picosecond transitions in the atomic structure. The X-ray probe system consists of an adjustable Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope for focusing the Betatron emission to a small probe spot on the sample being measured, and a flat Potassium Acid Phthalate Bragg crystal spectrometer to measure the transmitted X-ray spectrum in the region of the aluminum K-edge absorption lines. An X-ray focal spot size of around 50 ?m was achieved after reflection from the platinum-coated 10-cm-long KB microscope mirrors. Shot to shot positioning stability of the Betatron radiation was measured resulting in an rms shot to shot variation in spatial pointing on the sample of 16 ?m. The entire probe setup had a spectral resolution of ?1.5 eV, a detection bandwidth of ?24 eV, and an overall photon throughput efficiency of the order of 10{sup ?5}. Approximately 10 photons were detected by the X-ray CCD per laser shot within the spectrally resolved detection band. Thus, it is expected that hundreds of shots will be required per absorption spectrum to clearly observe the K-shell absorption features expected from the ionization states of the warm dense aluminum.

Mo, M. Z.; Chen, Z.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Fedosejevs, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Fourmaux, S.; Saraf, A.; Otani, K.; Kieffer, J. C. [INRS-EMT, Universit du Qubec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Qubec J3X 1S2 (Canada)] [INRS-EMT, Universit du Qubec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Qubec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Ng, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

480

Electron-transfer photochemistry of thianthrene. Nucleophile-assisted photooxidation to sulfoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The photochemistry of thianthrene (1) in the presence of a variety of electron acceptors in acetonitrile/water has been investigated. Diffusion-limited rates of fluorescence quenching were observed on excitation of 1 (with fumaronitrile and with methyl phthalate). Alternatively, addition of 1 led to quenching of the fluorescence emission of ketones, biacetyl, and fluorenone and to the quenching of the excited triplet states of quinones such as 2,5-dichloro-p-benzoquinone (5) and 9,10-anthraquinone (3). Steady irradiation of 1 with selected acceptors results in photooxidation yielding the sulfoxide (2) and the expected photoreduction products. The electron-transfer mechanisms were further studied by laser flash photolysis. The quenching of ketone triplets by 1 resulted in formation of the radical cation of 1([lambda][sub max]540 nm). The decay of this species and its dependence on the concentration of water present were determined; the bimolecular rate constant for trapping of 1[sup [center dot]+] by water in acetonitrile-water solution is 4.9 x 10[sup 4] M[sup [minus]1]s[sup [minus]1] under conditions in which 5 acts as a sensitizer. The nucleophilic trapping of the 1 radical cation by imidazole ([kappa] = 3.6 x 10[sup 7] M[sup [minus]1] s[sup [minus]1]) was also investigated. The mechanism of photoinduced two-electron oxidation of 1 and the role played by nucleophiles in facilitating the reaction are discussed in detail. 37 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Jones, G. II; Huang, B.; Griffin, S.F. (Boston Univ., MA (United States))

1993-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butyl benzyl phthalate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Group 4 Metalloporphyrin diolato Complexes and Catalytic Application of Metalloporphyrins and Related Transition Metal Complexes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the first examples of group 4 metalloporphyrin 1,2-diolato complexes were synthesized through a number of strategies. In general, treatment of imido metalloporphyrin complexes, (TTP)M=NR, (M = Ti, Zr, Hf), with vicinal diols led to the formation of a series of diolato complexes. Alternatively, the chelating pinacolate complexes could be prepared by metathesis of (TTP)MCl{sub 2} (M = Ti, Hf) with disodium pinacolate. These complexes were found to undergo C-C cleavage reactions to produce organic carbonyl compounds. For titanium porphyrins, treatment of a titanium(II) alkyne adduct, (TTP)Ti({eta}{sup 2}-PhC{triple_bond}CPh), with aromatic aldehydes or aryl ketones resulted in reductive coupling of the carbonyl groups to produce the corresponding diolato complexes. Aliphatic aldehydes or ketones were not reactive towards (TTP)Ti({eta}{sup 2}-PhC{triple_bond}CPh). However, these carbonyl compounds could be incorporated into a diolato complex on reaction with a reactive precursor, (TTP)Ti[O(Ph){sub 2}C(Ph){sub 2}O] to provide unsymmetrical diolato complexes via cross coupling reactions. In addition, an enediolato complex (TTP)Ti(OCPhCPhO) was obtained from the reaction of (TTP)Ti({eta}{sup 2}-PhC{triple_bond}CPh) with benzoin. Titanium porphyrin diolato complexes were found to be intermediates in the (TTP)Ti=O-catalyzed cleavage reactions of vicinal diols, in which atmospheric oxygen was the oxidant. Furthermore, (TTP)Ti=O was capable of catalyzing the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and {alpha}-hydroxy ketones to benzaldehyde and {alpha}-diketones, respectively. Other high valent metalloporphyrin complexes also can catalyze the oxidative diol cleavage and the benzyl alcohol oxidation reactions with dioxygen. A comparison of Ti(IV) and Sn(IV) porphyrin chemistry was undertaken. While chelated diolato complexes were invariably obtained for titanium porphyrins on treatment with 1,2-diols, the reaction of vicinal diols with tin porphyrins gave a number of products, including mono-, bis-alkoxo, and chelating diolato complexes, depending on the identity of diols and the stoichiometry employed. It was also found that tin porphyrin complexes promoted the oxidative cleavage of vicinal diols and the oxidation of {alpha}-ketols to {alpha}-diketones with dioxygen. In extending the chemistry of metalloporphyrins and analogous complexes, a series of chiral tetraaza macrocyclic ligands and metal complexes were designed and synthesized. Examination of iron(II) complexes showed that they were efficient catalysts for the cyclopropanation of styrene by diazo reagents. Good yields and high diastereoselectivity were obtained with modest enantioselectivity. A rationalization of the stereoselectivity was presented on the basis of structural factors in a carbene intermediate.

Guodong Du

2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

482

Activation of the S-H Group in Fe(2-SH)Fe Clusters: S-H Bond Strengths and Free Radical Reactivity of the Fe(2-SH)Fe Cluster  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Absolute rate constants were determined for the abstraction of hydrogen atom from (OC)3Fe(?-SH)2Fe(CO)3 (Fe2S2H2) and (OC)3Fe(?-SCH3)(?-SH)Fe(CO)3 (Fe2S2MeH) by benzyl radical in benzene. From the temperature dependent rate data for Fe2S2H2, ?H and ?S were determined to be 2.03 ? 0.56 kcal/mol and 19.3 ? 1.7 cal/mol K, respectively, giving kabs = 1.2 ? 107 M 1 s 1 at 25?C. For Fe2S2MeH, ?H and ?S were determined to be 1.97 ? 0.46 kcal/mol and 18.1 ? 1.5 cal/mol K, respectively, giving kabs = 2.3 ? 107 M 1 s 1 at 25?C. Temperature dependent rate data are also reported for hydrogen atom abstraction by benzyl radical from thiophenol (?H = 3.62 ? 0.43 kcal/mol, ?S = 21.7 ? 1.3 cal/mol K) and H2S (?H = 5.13 ? 0.99 kcal/mol, ?S = 24.8 ? 3.2 cal/mol K), giving kabs at 25?C of 2.5 ? 105 and 4.2 ? 103 M 1 s 1, respectively. DFT calculations predict S-H bond strengths of 73.1 and 73.2 kcal/mol for Fe2S2H2 and Fe2S2MeH, respectively. Free energy and NMR chemical shift calculations confirm the NMR assignments and populations of Fe2S2H2 and Fe2S2MeH isomers. Derived radicals Fe2S2H and Fe2S2Me exhibit singly occupied HOMOs with unpaired spin density distributed between the two Fe atoms, a bridging sulfur, and d?-bonding between Fe centers. The S-H solution bond dissociation free energy (SBDFE) of Fe2S2MeH was found to be 69.4 1.7 kcal/mol by determination of its pKa (16.0 0.4) and the potential for the oxidation of the anion, Fe2S2Me- of 0.26 0.05 V vs. ferrocene in acetonitrile (corrected for dimerization of Fe2S2Me). This SBDFE for Fe2S2MeH corresponds to a gas phase bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) of 74.2 kcal/mol, in satisfactory agreement with the DFT value of 73.2 kcal/mol. Replacement of the Fe-Fe bond in Fe2S2MeH with bridging ?-S (Fe2S3MeH) or ?-CO (Fe2S2(CO)MeH) groups leads to (DFT) BDEs of 72.8 and 66.2 kcal/mol, the latter indicating dramatic effects of choice of bridge structure on S-H bond strengths. These results provide a model for the reactivity of hydrosulfido sites of low-valent heterogeneous FeS catalysts. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Franz, James A.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Bowden, Thomas A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Appel, Aaron M.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Bitterwolf, Thomas E.; Dupuis, Michel

2009-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

483

Preparation and Characterization of Paints and Coatings from Soy and Corn Oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was highly successful. A series of new waterborne polyurethane (PU)/acrylic hybrid latexes were successfully synthesized by the emulsion polymerization of acrylic monomers (butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate) in the presence of a soybean oil-based waterborne PU dispersion using potassium persulfate as an initiator. The waterborne PU dispersion was synthesized by a polyaddition reaction of toluene 2,4-diisocyanate and a soybean oil-based polyol (SOL). The resulting hybrid latexes, containing 15-60 wt % SOL as a renewable resource, are very stable and exhibit uniform particle sizes of {approx}125 nm as determined by transmittance electronic microscopy. The structure, thermal, and mechanical properties of the resulting hybrid latex films have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, extraction, and mechanical testing. Grafting copolymerization of the acrylic monomers onto the PU network occurs during the emulsion polymerization, leading to a significant increase in the thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting hybrid latexes. This work provides a new way of utilizing renewable resources to prepare environmentally friendly hybrid latexes with high performance for coating applications. In addition, a novel soybean oil-based vinyl-containing waterborne polyurethane (VPU) dispersion has been successfully synthesized from toluene 2,4-diisocyanate, dimethylol propionic acid and a 90:10 mixture of chlorinated soybean oil-based polyol and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO). Then, a series of VPU/acrylic grafted latexes were prepared by emulsion graft copolymerization of acrylic monomers (40 wt% butyl acrylate and 60 wt% methyl methacrylate) in the presence of the VPU dispersion using potassium persulfate as an initiator. The structure, morphology, and thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting latexes, containing 15-60 wt% soybean oil-based polyols as a renewable resource, were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis and mechanical testing. The results indicated that graft copolymerization of the acrylic monomers onto the VPU network occurs during emulsion polymerization, leading to a significant increase in the thermal stability and mechanical properties of the resulting miscible grafted latexes. This work provides new environmentally-friendly latexes from a renewable resource with high performance for coating applications.

Larock, Richard C.

2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

484

Metal carbonyl-hydrosilane reactions and hydrosilation catalysis. Final report for period May 1, 1995 - August 14, 1999  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Manganese carbonyl complexes serve as hydrosilation precatalysts for selectively transforming a carbonyl group into a doxy methylene or a fully reduced methylene group. Substrates of interest include (1) aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, silyl esters, and esters, and (2) their organometallic acyl counterparts. Two types of manganese precatalysts have been reported: (a) alkyl and acyl complexes (L)(CO){sub 4}MnR [L = CO, PPh{sub 3}; R = COCH{sub 3}, COPh, CH{sub 3}] and (b) halides (CO){sub 5}MnX and [(CO){sub 4}MnX]{sub 2} (X = Br, I). The former promote hydrosilation and deoxygenation catalysis; the latter promote dehydrogenative silation of alcohols and carboxylic acids as well as hydrosilation and deoxygenation of some metallocarboxylic acid derivatives. In every case studied, these Mn precatalysts are far more reactive or selective than traditional Rh(l) precatalysts. The reaction chemistry of the above and other Mn alkyl complexes with hydrosilanes was studied in order to probe catalysis mechanism(s). Thus, Mn(CO){sub 5} methyl, benzyl, acetyl, and benzoyl (4 p-substituents) complexes reacted with hydrosilines by four different mechanisms, which were established. A noteworthy development was that the methyl and benzoyl complexes gave moderate yields of a new ({eta}{sup 2}-Si-H) silane adduct (CO){sub 4}Mn(SiMe{sub 2}Ph)(H-SiMe{sub 2}Ph), which is stable in the presence of excess silane. This silane adduct promotes all three catalytic reactions; its extraordinary activity and potential selectivity are under study.

Cutler, Alan R.

2001-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

485

Molecular level control of nanoscale composition and morphology: Toward photocatalytic nanocomposites for solar-to-chemical energy conversion of biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the factors influencing nanocrystal formation is a challenge yet to be realized. In comparison to the large number of studies on nanocrystal synthesis and their applications, the number of studies on the effect of the precursor chemistry on nanocrystal composition and shape remains low. Although photochemical fabrication of metalsemiconductor nano-heterostructures is reported in literature, control over the free particle formation and the site of metal deposition have not been achieved. Moreover, utilization of metal- semiconductor nano-heterostructures in photocatalytic reactions other than water splitting is hardly explored. In this thesis, we studied the effect of chalcogenide precursor reactivity on the composition, morphology and the axial anisotropy of cadmiumchalcogenide nanocrystals. We also investigated the influence of the irradiation wavelength in synthesizing metal-semiconductor nano-heterostructures. Finally, we showed that metal semiconductor nano-heterostructures can be used as a photocatalyst for alcohol dehydrogenation reactions. We explored the pathways for the formation of Pt and Pd nanoparticles on CdS and CdS{sub 0.4}Se{sub 0.6} nanorods. This study revealed that the wavelength of irradiation is critical to control free-standing vs. bound metal (Pt and Pd) nanoparticles to semiconductor. Additionally, we observed that metal photodeposition occurs on specific segments of axially anisotropic, compositionally graded CdS0.4Se0.6 nanorods due to the band-gap differential between their nano-domains. We used semiconductor-metal heterostructures for sunlightdriven dehydrogenation and hydrogenolysis of benzyl alcohol. Heterostructure composition dictates activity (turnovers) and product distribution. A few metal (Pt, Pd) islands on the semiconductor surface significantly enhance activity and selectivity and also greatly stabilize the semiconductor against photoinduced etching and degradation.

Ruberu, Thanthrige P. [Ames Laboratory] [Ames Laboratory

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

486

Radioiodinated fatty acid analogs for myocardial imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fatty acids are the preferred substrate for the normoxic heart. About sixty percent of the energy required by the myocardium is provided by fatty acid [beta]-oxidation. Many scientists have focused on the alterations in fatty acid metabolism in the ischemic heart for the development of radiolabelled fatty acids for functional imaging of the heart. Three main categories of compounds were synthesized: tetrazoles (1 and 2), glycidic and [alpha]-methylene acids (3-5), and analogs of oleic acid (6,7 and 7A). The tetrazole group has a similar pKa and size to that of a carboxyl group; however, such fatty acid analogs cannot undergo normal fatty acid metabolism. Glycidic and [alpha]-methylene analogs are potential irreversible inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism. Oleic acid analogs were investigated to assess the affect of stereochemical consequences on biodistribution. The key intermediates in the synthesis of the target compounds were [omega]-nitrophenyl alkylcarboxylic acids and alcohols, which were made using a variety of cross-coupling reactions. The Wittig reaction, which was used in the synthesis of tetrazole 1 and glycidic acid 3, gave low yields of the cross-coupled products. The remaining target compounds were synthesized by condensation of appropriate RCu (CN) ZnI and substituted benzyl bromides or by Pd[sup II] catalyzed cross-coupling of substituted arylhalides with suitable alkynes. The latter two reactions produced much higher yields of the desired products. All of the target compounds were radiolabeled with [sup 125]I by various Cu(I) catalyzed radioiodine exchange procedures and were then subjected to tissue biodistribution (TD) studies in rats. Except for the 15-(4-iodophenyl)-2-methylene-pentadecanoic acid (5), all of the fatty acid analogs failed to surpass clinically-used 15-(4-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in their ability to be taken up and retained by the rat myocardium.

Ruyan, M.K.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity. Final technical report, September 1990--February 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent research efforts in direct coal liquefaction are focused on lowering the level of reaction severity, identification and determination of the causes of retrogressive reactions, and improving the economics of the process. Ambient pretreatment of coals using methanol and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid was extensively studied in connection with low severity coal liquefaction. Ambient pretreatment of eight Argonne coals using methanol/HCl improved THF-soluble conversions 24.5 wt % (maf basis) for Wyodak subbituminous coal and 28.4 wt % for Beulah-Zap lignite with an average increase of 14.9 wt % for the eight Argonne coals at 623 K (350{degrees}C) reaction temperature and 30 minutes reaction time. Optimal pretreatment conditions were determined using Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coals. Acid concentration was the most important pretreatment variable studied; liquefaction reactivity increased with increasing acid concentration up to 2 vol %. The FTIR spectra of treated and untreated Wyodak coal samples demonstrated formation of carboxylic functional groups during pretreatment, a result of divalent (Ca, Mg) cationic bridge destruction. The extent of liquefaction reactivity directly correlated with the amount of calcium removed during pretreatment, and results from calcium ``addback`` experiments supported the observation that calcium adversely affected coal reactivity at low severity reaction conditions. Model compound studies using benzyl phenyl ether demonstrated that calcium cations catalyzed retrogressive reactions, inhibited hydrogenation reactions at low severity reaction conditions, and were more active at higher reaction temperatures. Based on kinetic data, mechanisms for hydrogenation-based inhibition and base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are proposed. The base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are shown to occur via a hydrogen abstraction mechanism where hydrogenation inhibition reactions are shown to take place via a surface quenching mechanism.

Miller, R.L.; Shams, K.G.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Chemically induced release of charge from a rectifying polymer based on viologen and quinone subunits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Charge associated with the reduction of quinone, 2e{sup {minus}} + 2H{sup +} + Q {yields} QH{sub 2}, can be trapped at low pH in the electrode-confined siloxane polymer, (BV-Q-BV{sup 6+}){sub n}, which is derived from a monomer that consists of a benzoquinone unit flanked by two benzyl viologen units. 2ne{sup {minus}} can be released from the polymer by raising the solution pH to neutral or basic pH where the viologen can reoxidize the QH{sub 2} to Q, ultimately delivering the charge to the electrode. Chemical redox reagents, added to the polymer film, can also be used to release the charge and deliver it to the electrode. The use of I{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/I{sup {minus}} and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3{minus}/4{minus}} as charge-release mediators is demonstrated. Oxidation of QH{sub 2} centers occurs when the potential of an electrode modified with (BV-Q-BV{sup 6+}){sub n} is brought close to E{degree}{prime}(I{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/I{sup {minus}}) or E{degree}{prime}(Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3{minus}/4{minus}}). Because Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3{minus}/4{minus}} is concentrated by the polycationic (BV-Q-BV{sup 6+}){sub n} polymer, only very small solution concentrations, approximately 1 {mu}M, are required to effectively mediate the oxidation of QH{sub 2}. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Smith, D.K.; Tender, L.M.; Lane, G.A.; Licht, S.; Wrighton, M.S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Surface modification of n-MoS[sub 2] electrodes with a viologen based redox polymer. Persistent attachment of a polysiloxane via a thin SnO[sub 2] adhesion layer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A procedure for surface modification of n-MoS[sub 2] electrodes with a polymer formed hydrolysis of N,N[prime]-bis[p-(trimethoxysilyl)benzyl]-4,4[prime]-bipyr idinium, BPQ[sup 2+], is described. (BPQ[sup 2+])[sub n] is persistently confined onto the surface of n-MoS[sub 2] crystals in a sandwich structure, n-MoS[sub 2]/SnO[sub 2](BPQ[sup 2+])[sub n]. Then n-MoS[sub 2] crystal is first modified by electrochemical deposition of small islands of tin, followed by oxidation to give islands of SnO[sub 2]. The (BPQ[sup 2+])[sub n] is confined onto the resulting surface via standard procedures for this polysiloxane system: electrochemical reduction of the violgen in aqueous electrolyte. The SnO[sub 2] at the interface between n-MoS[sub 2] crystal and (BPQ[sup 2+])[sub n] functions as an adhesive layer to bind the polymer to the MoS[sub 2]. Without SnO[sub 2], the attachment of the coating of (BPQ[sup 2+])[sub n] on MoS[sub 2] is not durable. Although a coating of SnO[sub 2] shifts the flat band potential of the electrode approximately 0.1 V negatively depending on pH and (SnO[sup 2] coverage) the essential behavior of the semiconductor/elestrolyte interface is not significantly altered. 14 refs., 12 figs.

Huang, J.; Wrighton, M.S. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Polymerization of trialkoxysilanes. Effect of the organic substituent on the formation of gels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrolysis and condensation of trialkoxysilanes, R-Si(OR{prime}){sub 3}, generally leads to the formation of silsesquioxane oligomers and polymers. These polymers are composed of a monomer repeat unit, [R-SiO{sub 1.5}]{sub n}, with a single silicon atom attached to other repeat units in the polymer through one to three siloxane bonds. The remaining substituent is an organic group attached to the silicon through a silicon-carbon single bond. Silsesquioxanes have been the subject of intensive study in the past and are becoming important again as a vehicle for introducing organic functionalities into hybrid organic-inorganic materials through sol-gel processing. Despite all of this interest, there has not been a systematic study of the ability of trialkoxysilanes to form gels through the sol-gel process. In fact, it has been noted that silsesquioxanes are generally isolated as soluble resins rather than the highly crosslinked network polymers (gels) one would expect from a tri-functional monomer. In this study, the authors have examined the sol-gel chemistry of a variety of trialkoxysilanes with different organic substituents (R = H, Me, Et, n-Pr, i-Pr, n-Bu, i-Bu, t-Bu, n-octadecyl, n-dodecyl, cyclohexyl, vinyl, phenyl, benzyl, phenethyl), with methoxide or ethoxide substituents on silicon, at varying monomer concentrations ranging up to neat monomer, and with different catalysts (HCl, NaOH, formic acid, fluoride). Gels were prepared from tetramethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane at identical concentrations for purposes of comparison.

Loy, D.A.; Baugher, B.M.; Schneider, D.A.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Reactions of the CN Radical with Benzene and Toluene: Product Detection and Low-Temperature Kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low temperature rate coefficients are measured for the CN + benzene and CN + toluene reactions using the pulsed Laval nozzle expansion technique coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection. The CN + benzene reaction rate coefficient at 105, 165 and 295 K is found to be relatively constant over this temperature range, 3.9 - 4.9 x 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. These rapid kinetics, along with the observed negligible temperature dependence, are consistent with a barrierless reaction entrance channel and reaction efficiencies approaching unity. The CN + toluene reaction is measured to have a slower rate coefficient of 1.3 x 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 105 K. At room temperature, non-exponential decay profiles are observed for this reaction that may suggest significant back-dissociation of intermediate complexes. In separate experiments, the products of these reactions are probed at room temperature using synchrotron VUV photoionization mass spectrometry. For CN + benzene, cyanobenzene (C6H5CN) is the only product recorded with no detectable evidence for a C6H5 + HCN product channel. In the case of CN + toluene, cyanotoluene (NCC6H4CH3) constitutes the only detected product. It is not possible to differentiate among the ortho, meta and para isomers of cyanotoluene because of their similar ionization energies and the ~;; 40 meV photon energy resolution of the experiment. There is no significant detection of benzyl radicals (C6H5CH2) that would suggest a H-abstraction or a HCN elimination channel is prominent at these conditions. As both reactions are measured to be rapid at 105 K, appearing to have barrierless entrance channels, it follows that they will proceed efficiently at the temperatures of Saturn?s moon Titan (~;;100 K) and are also likely to proceed at the temperature of interstellar clouds (10-20 K).

Trevitt, Adam J.; Goulay, Fabien; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Leone, Stephen R.

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

492

Synthesis and reactivity of compounds containing ruthenium-carbon, -nitrogen, and -oxygen bonds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The products and mechanisms of the thermal reactions of several complexes of the general structure (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(X)(Y) and (DMPM){sub 2}Ru(X)(Y) where X and Y are hydride, aryl, and benzyl groups, have been investigated. The mechanism of decomposition depends critically on the structure of the complex and the medium in which the thermolysis is carried out. The alkyl hydride complexes are do not react with alkane solvent, but undergo C-H activation processes with aromatic solvents by several different mechanisms. Thermolysis of (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(Ph)(Me) or (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(Ph){sub 2} leads to the ruthenium benzyne complex (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru({eta}{sup 2}-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}) (1) by a mechanism which involves reversible dissociation of phosphine. In many ways its chemistry is analogous to that of early rather than late organo transition metal complexes. The synthesis, structure, variable temperature NMR spectroscopy and reactivity of ruthenium complexes containing aryloxide or arylamide ligands are reported. These complexes undergo cleavage of a P-C bond in coordinated trimethylphosphine, insertion of CO and CO{sub 2} and hydrogenolysis. Mechanistic studies on these reactions are described. The generation of a series of reactive ruthenium complexes of the general formula (PMe{sub 3}){sub 4}Ru(R)(enolate) is reported. Most of these enolates have been shown to bind to the ruthenium center through the oxygen atom. Two of the enolate complexes 8 and 9 exist in equilibrium between the O- and C-bound forms. The reactions of these compounds are reported, including reactions to form oxygen-containing metallacycles. The structure and reactivity of these ruthenium metallacycles is reported, including their thermal chemistry and reactivity toward protic acids, electrophiles, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and trimethylsilane. 243 refs., 10 tabs.

Hartwig, J.F.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

pH-dependent charge trapping by quinones electrostatically bound in an electrode confined benzylviologen polymer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate, 2,6-AQ, and anthraquinone-2-sulfonate, 2-AQ, have been electrostatically bound in an electrode-confined N,N{prime}-bis(p-(trimethoxysilyl)benzyl)-4,4{prime}-bipyridinium-based polymer, (BPQ{sup 2+/+}){sub n}. Under all conditions in aqueous electrolyte it appears that charge transport via the quinone redox system, AQ/AQH{sub 2}, is too slow to allow direct access to all quinone centers in the polymer. Generally, all quinone centers are electrode accessible only via the BPQ{sup 2+/+} redox mediator. At pH 6.5 the electrochemistry of ((BPQ{sup 2+}){sub n}{center dot}(AQ){sub m}){sub surf} is approximately the superposition of the AQ solution electrochemistry and the electrochemistry of surface-confined (BPQ{sup 2+/+}){sub n} examined separately. At pH 1.0 the reduction potential of AQ shifts positive and (BPQ{sup 2+/+}){sub n} can only mediate the reduction of AQ to the 2e{sup {minus}}/2H{sup +} reduced form, AQH{sub 2}, since the oxidation of AQH{sub 2} by BPQ{sup 2+} is thermodynamically uphill. Therefore, the charge associated with the reduced quinone, AQH{sub 2}, remains trapped in analogy to previous reports of charge trapping in bilayer systems. The trapped charge is released from the ((BPQ{sup 2+}){sub n}{center dot}(AQ){sub m}){sub surf} system by a sudden increase in pH which changes the thermodynamics to allow oxidation of the AQH{sub 2} by the BPQ{sup 2+}.

Not Available

1989-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

494

Reductive Dissolution of Goethite and Hematite by Reduced Flavins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The abiotic reductive dissolution of goethite and hematite by the reduced forms of flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) and riboflavin (RBFH2), electron transfer mediators (ETM) secreted by the dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella, was investigated under stringent anaerobic conditions. In contrast to the rapid redox reaction rate observed for ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite (Shi et al., 2012), the reductive dissolution of crystalline goethite and hematite was slower, with the extent of reaction limited by the thermodynamic driving force at circumneutral pH. Both the initial reaction rate and reaction extent increased with decreasing pH. On a unit surface area basis, goethite was less reactive than hematite between pH 4.0 and 7.0. AH2DS, the reduced form of the well-studied synthetic ETM anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), yielded higher rates than FMNH2 under most reaction conditions, despite the fact that FMNH2 was a more effective reductant than AH2DS for ferryhydrite and lepidocrocite. Two additional model compounds, methyl viologen and benzyl viologen, were investigated under similar reaction conditions to explore the relationship between reaction rate and thermodynamic properties. Relevant kinetic data from the literature were also included in the analysis to span a broad range of half-cell potentials. Other conditions being equal, the surface area normalized initial reaction rate (ra) increased as the redox potential of the reductant became more negative. A non-linear, parabolic relationship was observed between log ra and the redox potential for eight reducants at pH 7.0, as predicted by Marcus theory for electron transfer. When pH and reductant concentration were fixed, log ra was positively correlated to the redox potential of four Fe(III) oxides over a wide pH range, following a non-linear parabolic relationship as well.

Shi, Zhi; Zachara, John M.; Wang, Zheming; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

495

Selecting activated carbon for water and wastewater treatability studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of follow-up investigations were performed to produce data for improving the four-indicator carbon selection method that we developed to identify high-potential activated carbons effective for removing specific organic water pollutants. The carbon's pore structure and surface chemistry are dependent on the raw material and the activation process. Coconut carbons have relatively more small pores than large pores; coal and apricot nutshell/walnut shell fruit carbons have the desirable pore structures for removing adsorbates of all sizes. Chemical activation, excessive activation, and/or thermal reactivation enlarge small pores, resulting in reduced phenol number and higher tannic acid number. Activated carbon's phenol, iodine, methylene blue, and tannic acid numbers are convenient indicators of its surface area and pore volume of pore diameters < 10, 10-15, 15-28, and > 28 angstrom, respectively. The phenol number of a carbon is also a good indicator of its surface acidity of oxygen-containing organic functional groups that affect the adsorptive capacity for aromatic and other small polar organics. The tannic acid number is an indicator of carbon's capacity for large, high-molecular-weight natural organic precursors of disinfection by-products in water treatment. The experimental results for removing nitrobenzene, methyl-tert-butyl ether, 4,4-bisphenol, humic acid, and the organic constituents of a biologically treated coking-plant effluent have demonstrated the effectiveness of this capacity-indicator-based method of carbon selection.

Zhang, W.; Chang, Q.G.; Liu, W.D.; Li, B.J.; Jiang, W.X.; Fu, L.J.; Ying, W.C. [East China University of Chemical Technology, Shanghai (China)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

496

Milestone Report - Complete New Adsorbent Materials for Marine Testing to Demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg Adsorbent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-14OR03100115 (8/20/2014) entitled, Complete new adsorbent materials for marine testing to demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent. This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed two new families of fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. One adsorbent was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile onto high surface area polyethylene fibers followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. This fiber showed a capacity of 4.6 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. The second adsorbent was prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization of t-butyl acrylate and acrylonitrile onto halide-functionalized round fibers followed by amidoximation and base hydrolysis. This fiber demonstrated uranium adsorption capacity of 5.4 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL.

Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Das, Sadananda [ORNL; Oyola, Yatsandra [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T. [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Brown, Suree [ORNL; Gill, Gary [PNNL; Kuo, Li-Jung [PNNL; Wood, Jordana [PNNL

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1- Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?] ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC); Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; L.Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam; Leone, Stephen R.

2012-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

498

CRC fuel rating program: road octane performance of oxygenates in 1982 model cars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of the widespread interest in the use of alcohols and ethers as gasoline blending components, this program was conducted to evaluate the effects of several oxygenates on gasoline octane performance and to evaluate the effects of car design features such as engine and transmission type. Five oxygenates were evaluated at two nominal concentrations, 5 and 10 volume%, at both regular- and premium-grade octane levels: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (ETOH), isopropanol (IPA), tertiary butanol (TBA), and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). A blend of 5% MeOH and 5 percent TBA was also tested at both octane levels. Twenty-eight unleaded fuels, including four hydrocarbon fuels, two hydrocarbon fuels plus toluene, and twenty-two oxygenated fuels, were rated in duplicate in thirty-eight cars using the Modified Uniontown Technique (CRC Designation F-28-75 described in Appendix C), plus some additional instructions. All testing was done on chassis dynamometers. Ratings were obtained at full throttle with all thirty-eight cars, and at the most critical part-throttle condition (occurring with manifold vacuum of 4 in. Hg (13.5 kPa) or greater above the full-throttle vacuum) with nine cars.

Not Available

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Speciation of plutonium and other metals under UREX process conditIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The extractability of various Pu and Np species into tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) was investigated. The concentration effects of aceto-hydroxamic acid, nitric acid and nitrate on the distribution ratio of U, Pu and Np were investigated. The considerable ability of AHA to form complexes with the studied elements even under strong acidic conditions was found. While the difference in the extraction of uranyl in the presence and absence of AHA is minimal, extraction yields of Pu and Np decrease significantly. The UV-Vis-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopic investigations of uranium, plutonium, and neptunium species in the presence and absence of AHA in both aqueous and organic extraction phase were also performed. Spectroscopic analysis showed that the organic phase can contain a substantial amount of metal-hydroxamate species. A solvated ternary complex of uranium UO{sub 2}.AHA.NO{sub 3}.2TBP was observed only after prolonged contact between the aqueous and organic phases, whereas the plutonium hydroxamate species, presumably Pu(AHA){sub x}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4-x}.2TBP, appeared in the organic phase after a four minute extraction. (authors)

Paulenova, Alena; Tkac, Peter [Radiation Center, Oregon State University 100 Radiation Center, Corvallis, OR 97331-5903 (United States); Matteson, Brent S. [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University 100 Radiation Center, Corvallis, OR 97331-5903 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z<