Sample records for butyl benzyl phthalate

  1. Androgen Receptor Formation in Prenatally Endocrine Disrupted Mice 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irwin, Conor David

    2013-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    contributing to physical activity suggests that androgen receptors are key mediators in activity regulation (3,4). Current literature suggests that certain chemicals, like Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), disrupts androgen receptor formation prenatally (5, 6...

  2. Syntheses of Functionalized Benzylic Compounds: Development of Palladium-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Benzylation Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torregrosa, Robert Ryan P.

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon-carbon bond formation between the benzyl carbon and a functional group is important in organic synthesis because majority of the compounds in the chemical literature contain aromatic cores appended with different ...

  3. anaerobic syntrophic phthalate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Dissertations Summary: ??Phthalate plasticizers are added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) during manufacturing to increase resilience and softness, ease the processing, and...

  4. acetate phthalate film: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Dissertations Summary: ??Phthalate plasticizers are added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) during manufacturing to increase resilience and softness, ease the processing, and...

  5. acetate phthalate synergy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    other tools to navigate. Locate and use existing manuals Maxwell, Bruce D. 16 Life Cycle Assessment to Di-2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate (DEHP), Applications and Potential...

  6. DIETARY UPTAKE AND BIOTRANSFORMATION OF PHTHALATE ESTERS IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phthalate esters (PEs) are a group of organic chemicals used mainly as plasticizers. Due to their widespread that DPEs do not biomagnify in marine food webs. Biotransformation is believed to limit DPE bioaccumulation measured in the food, stomach, intestine, liver and muscle tissue over time. Results show that phthalate di

  7. The antiestrogen [2-(4-benzyl-phenoxy)ethyl]diethylammonium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The antiestrogen [2-(4-benzyl- phenoxy)ethyl]diethylammonium chloride Andrew Hempel,a * Norman Research, 8515C 35 Ave. NE, Seattle, WA 98115, USA Correspondence e-mail: andrew

  8. Photodegradation of dimethyl and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammargren, Thomas Fredric

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DATE DUE PHOTODEGRADATION OF DIMETHYL AND DI ? 2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATES A Thesis by THOMAS FREDRIC HA11MARGREN Submi. tted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Chemistry PHOTODEGRADATION OF DIMETHYL AND DI ? 2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATES A Thesis by THOMAS FREDRIC HAMMARGRL'N Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) (Member...

  9. Nickel-Catalyzed Heck-Type Reactions of Benzyl Chlorides and Simple Olefins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsubara, Ryosuke

    Nickel-catalyzed intermolecular benzylation and heterobenzylation of unactivated alkenes to provide functionalized allylbenzene derivatives are described. A wide range of both the benzyl chloride and alkene coupling partners ...

  10. Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Methyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Chris I.

    COORDINATOR'S REPORT FOR LIFETIME CARCINOGENICITY STUDY OF METHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SPRAGUE CARCINOGENICITY STUDY OF METHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS CONDUCTED AT THE CANCER

  11. antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Fusarium solani CiteSeer Summary: Fusarium solani degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenated compounds from gasoline including tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The...

  12. ammoniated glycyrrhizin butylated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Fusarium solani CiteSeer Summary: Fusarium solani degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenated compounds from gasoline including tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The...

  13. Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Ethyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Chris I.

    FOR LIFETIME CARCINOGENICITY STUDY OF ETHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (ETBE) IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS CONDUCTED STUDY OF ETHYL-TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER (ETBE) IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS CONDUCTED AT THE CANCER RESEARCH

  14. Phthalates and Their Alternatives: Health and Environmental Concerns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    PlasticsthatDoNotRequirePhthalates Petroleum-Based 13 Biobased 16 References 21 #12;4 · Lowell Center for Sustainable Production n i c a l b r i e f i n g The Lowell Center for Sustainable Production at the University that support a more sustainable world. #12;The Lowell Center for Sustainable Production at the University

  15. Phthalate exposure associated with self-reported diabetes among Mexican women

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svensson, Katherine [Graduate School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR (Puerto Rico) [Graduate School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR (Puerto Rico); National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Burguete-Garcia, Ana [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)] [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Cebrian, Mariano E. [Departamento de Toxicologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico)] [Departamento de Toxicologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico); Calafat, Antonia M.; Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Claudio, Luz [Division of International Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States)] [Division of International Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth, E-mail: lizbeth@insp.mx [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)] [National Institute of Public Health, Universidad No. 655, Col. Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, Cerrada los Pinos y Caminera, CP. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous industrial chemicals used as plasticizers in plastics made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to confer flexibility and durability. They are also present in products used for personal-care, industry and in medical devices. Phthalates have been associated with several adverse health effects, and recently it has been proposed that exposure to phthalates, could have an effect on metabolic homeostasis. This exploratory cross-sectional study evaluated the possible association between phthalate exposure and self-reported diabetes among adult Mexican women. Methods: As part of an on-going case-control study for breast cancer, only controls were selected, which constituted 221 healthy women matched by age ({+-}5 years) and place of residence with the cases. Women with diabetes were identified by self-report. Urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites were measured by online solid phase extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Participants with diabetes had significantly higher concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) pththalate (DEHP) metabolites: mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) but lower levels of monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) a metabolite of benzylbutyl phthalate, compared to participants without diabetes. A marginally significant positive associations with diabetes status were observed over tertiles with MEHHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.66; 95% CI: 0.97-7.33; p for trend=0.063) and MEOHP (OR{sub T3vs.T1}=2.27; 95% CI; 0.90-5.75; P for trend=0.079) even after adjusting for important confounders. Conclusions: The results suggest that levels of some phthalates may play a role in the genesis of diabetes. - Highlights: {yields} This study evaluated phthalate exposure and diabetes status among Mexican women. {yields} Urinary phthalates metabolite concentrations were used to determine association. {yields} Participants with diabetes had higher concentrations of three DEHP metabolites. {yields} A positive association with diabetes status was found with MEHHP and MEOHP metabolites. {yields} Results suggest phthalate exposure can have a role in diabetes.

  16. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater P.I. names,Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a contaminant of concernsubsurface environments. MTBE appears to be degraded readily

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of diethyl phthalate using TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singla, Pooja, E-mail: pooja.singla@thapar.edu; Pandey, O. P., E-mail: pooja.singla@thapar.edu; Singh, K., E-mail: pooja.singla@thapar.edu [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147004 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles predominantly in rutile phase are synthesized by ultrasonication assisted sol-gel method. TiO{sub 2} powder is characterized using X-ray powder diffraction and UV-vis diffuse reflectance. TiO{sub 2} is used as catalyst in photocatalytic degradation of Diethyl Phthalate. TiO{sub 2} exhibits good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of diethyl phthalate.

  18. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride towards Technetium-99 Extraction - 13016

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Horkley, Jared; Campbell, Keri [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Street, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Street, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Roman, Audrey [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States)] [University of Nevada - Las Vegas, Harry Reid Center, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Box 4009, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4009 (United States); Nunez, Ana; Espartero, Amparo [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040- Madrid (Spain)] [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 40, 28040- Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning processes, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, the UREX process has been developed in the United States to co-extract hexavalent uranium (U) and hepta-valent technetium (Tc) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Tc-99 is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radio-toxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t{sub 1/2} = 2.13 x 10{sup 5} years), and as such, is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste-form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flowsheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste-forms for ultimate disposal. In addition, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste-forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macro-compounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, quaternary ammonium salts, and resorcin-arenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} by benzyl tributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand's matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e. diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using an external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed. (authors)

  19. alkyl tert-butyl ether: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Fusarium solani CiteSeer Summary: Fusarium solani degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenated compounds from gasoline including tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The...

  20. active methyl tert-butyl: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Fusarium solani CiteSeer Summary: Fusarium solani degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other oxygenated compounds from gasoline including tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The...

  1. Catalyst system and process for benzyl ether fragmentation and coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Dibenzyl ether can be readily cleaved to form primarily benzaldehyde and toluene as products, along with minor amounts of bibenzyl and benzyl benzoate, in the presence of a catalyst system comprising a Group 6 metal, preferably molybdenum, a salt, and an organic halide. Although useful synthetically for the cleavage of benzyl ethers, this cleavage also represents a key model reaction for the liquefaction of coal; thus this catalyst system and process should be useful in coal liquefaction with the advantage of operating at significantly lower temperatures and pressures.

  2. Butyl Fuel LLC formerly Environmental Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen Energy Information BurkinaButyl Fuel LLC formerly

  3. An approach for integrating toxicogenomic data in risk assessment: The dibutyl phthalate case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Euling, Susan Y., E-mail: euling.susan@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., 23501 Cinco Ranch Blvd., Suite G265, Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Chiu, Weihsueh A. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Benson, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8, Mail code 8P-W, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An approach for evaluating and integrating genomic data in chemical risk assessment was developed based on the lessons learned from performing a case study for the chemical dibutyl phthalate. A case study prototype approach was first developed in accordance with EPA guidance and recommendations of the scientific community. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was selected for the case study exercise. The scoping phase of the dibutyl phthalate case study was conducted by considering the available DBP genomic data, taken together with the entire data set, for whether they could inform various risk assessment aspects, such as toxicodynamics, toxicokinetics, and dose–response. A description of weighing the available dibutyl phthalate data set for utility in risk assessment provides an example for considering genomic data for future chemical assessments. As a result of conducting the scoping process, two questions—Do the DBP toxicogenomic data inform 1) the mechanisms or modes of action?, and 2) the interspecies differences in toxicodynamics?—were selected to focus the case study exercise. Principles of the general approach include considering the genomics data in conjunction with all other data to determine their ability to inform the various qualitative and/or quantitative aspects of risk assessment, and evaluating the relationship between the available genomic and toxicity outcome data with respect to study comparability and phenotypic anchoring. Based on experience from the DBP case study, recommendations and a general approach for integrating genomic data in chemical assessment were developed to advance the broader effort to utilize 21st century data in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Performed DBP case study for integrating genomic data in risk assessment • Present approach for considering genomic data in chemical risk assessment • Present recommendations for use of genomic data in chemical risk assessment.

  4. Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj Department structures for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) reactive distillation columns are studied. Two process The use of reactive distillation has grown in recent years because it results in less expensive and more

  5. Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 2.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    vapors of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive of great environmental concern MTBE treatment are discussed. Introduction The rapidly rising number of reports of groundwater con- taminated with the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has raised concerns about its

  6. Atmospheric Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) at a Rural Mountain Site in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Atmospheric Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) at a Rural Mountain Site in California Gunnar W. Schade,* Gabrielle B. Dreyfus, and Allen H. Goldstein ABSTRACT (CARB) measured MTBE in urban regions in 1995­ 1996, reporting a range of 0.4 to 13.2 ppbv in the LosMethyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE

  7. Environmental Microbiology (2001) 3(6), 407416 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation by a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental Microbiology (2001) 3(6), 407±416 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. Summary The widespread use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE is often proposed as the most promising alter- native after treatment. However, MTBE biodegradation appears

  8. Oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) by ozone and combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitner, N.K.V.; Papailhou, A.L.; Croue, J.P.; Dore, M. (Univ. de Poitiers (France)); Peyrot, J. (British Petroleum, Harfleur (France))

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work was to study the reaction of ozone and combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide on oxygenated additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) in dilute aqueous solution using controlled experimental conditions. Experiments conducted in a semi-continuous reactor with MTBE and ETBE in combination (initial concentration: 2 mmol/L of each) showed that ETBE was better eliminated than MTBE with both ozone and combined O[sub 3]/H[sub 2]O[sub 2]. batch experiments led to the determination of the ratio of the kinetic constants for the reaction of OH[degree]-radical with MTBE and ETBE (k[sub OH[degree]/ETBE]/k[sub OH[degree]//MTBE] = 1.7). Tert-butyl formate and tert-butyl acetate were identified as the ozonation byproducts of MTBE an ETBE, respectively, while tert-butyl alcohol was found to be produced during the ozonation of both compounds. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  9. State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

  10. Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, they have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F{trademark}), polytetrafluoro-ethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to approximately 3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using Vapor Transport Rate measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. The authors have developed a chemical compatibility program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be incorporated in packaging for transporting mixed waste forms. From the data analyses performed to date, they have identified the thermoplastic, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, as having the greatest chemical compatibility after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the poor performance of polytetrafluoroethylene under these conditions. In the evaluation of the two elastomeric materials they have concluded that while both materials exhibit remarkable resistance to these environmental conditions, EPDM has a greater resistance to this corrosive simulant mixed waste.

  11. Accurate Computer Simulation of Phase Equilibrium for Complex Fluid Mixtures. Application to Binaries Involving Isobutene, Methanol, Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    to Binaries Involving Isobutene, Methanol, Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, and n-Butane Martin Li´sal,*,, William R + methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and the binaries formed by methanol with isobutene, MTBE, and n

  12. IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline. In 1998, 11.9 billion liters of MTBE were produced in the U.S. MTBE has been detected frequently

  13. Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An aerobic microbial consortium able to biodegrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was enriched in two waste, the two laboratory- scale biotrickling filters were able to degrade up to 50 g of MTBE per cubic meter be sustained for at least 4-6 weeks. After the acclimation phase, the MTBE degrading biotrickling filters were

  14. Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Contaminated Water Using a Dense

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    -butyl ether (MTBE) in a dense medium plasma (DMP) reactor utilizing gas chromatog- raphy-massspectrometryandgaschromatography-thermal conductivity techniques. A rate law is developed for the removal of MTBE from an aqueous solution in the DMP. The oxidation products from the treatment of MTBE-contaminated water in the DMP reactor were found

  15. Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

  16. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haugh, M. J., E-mail: haughmj@nv.doe.gov; Jacoby, K. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Wu, M.; Loisel, G. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  17. Extraction of Plutonium into 30 Percent Tri-Butyl Phosphate from Nitric Acid Solution Containing Fluoride, Aluminum, and Boron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.A.

    2000-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This work consists of experimental batch extraction data for plutonium into 30 volume-percent tri-butyl phosphate at ambient temperature from such a solution matrix and a model of this data using complexation constants from the literature.

  18. Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethyl-tert butyl ether (ETBE), occurs via a cytochrome P450protein complexes involved in ETBE degradation from R. rubernot been shown to degrade ETBE. Many pollutant degradation

  19. Semiconductor electrodes. 40. Photoassisted hydrogen evolution at poly(benzyl viologen)-coated p-type silicon electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abruna, H.D.; Bard, A.J.

    1981-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Poly(benzyl viologen) (PBV) shows two reduction waves in aqueous (at -0.37 and -0.88 V vvvs. SSCE) or N,N-dimethylformamide (at -0.22 and -0.64 V s. SSCE) solutions. A film of PBV on the surface of a p-type silicon electrode can be photoreduced at more positive potentials. When metallic Pt is incorporated into the film, the photoproduction of hydrogen occurs with an underpotential of ca. 0.4 V. The decrease in the photocurrent with time suggests that slow decomposition of the viologen occurs.

  20. Multiple Pathways for Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation by RuV=O3+ and RuIV=O2+

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, Amit; Hull, Jonathan F; Norris, Michael R; Chen, Zuofeng; Ess, Daniel H; Concepcion, Javier J; Meyer, Thomas J

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant rate enhancements are found for benzyl alcohol oxidation by the Ru{sup V}?O{sup 3+} form of the water oxidation catalyst [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH{sub 2})]{sup 2+} [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2?-bipyridine] compared to Ru{sup IV}?O{sup 2+} and for the Ru{sup IV}?O{sup 2+} form with added bases due to a new pathway, concerted hydride proton transfer (HPT).

  1. Multiple Pathways for Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation by Ru(V)?O3+ and Ru(IV)?O2+

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, Amit; Hull, Jonathan F; Norris, Michael R; Chen, Zuofeng; Ess, Daniel H.; Concepcion, Javier J; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant rate enhancements are found for benzyl alcohol oxidation by the Ru{sup V}?O{sup 3+} form of the water oxidation catalyst [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH{sub 2})]{sup 2+} [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2?-bipyridine] compared to Ru{sup IV}?O{sup 2+} and for the Ru{sup IV}?O{sup 2+} form with added bases due to a new pathway involving concerted hydride proton transfer (HPT).

  2. Aerobic mineralization of MTBE and tert-butyl alcohol by stream-bed sediment microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, P.M.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H. [Geological Survey, Columbia, SC (United States)] [Geological Survey, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microorganisms indigenous to the stream-bed sediments at two gasoline-contaminated groundwater sites demonstrated significant mineralization of the fuel oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Up to 73% of [U-{sup 14}C]-MTBE and 84% of [U-{sup 14}C]-TBA were degraded to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. No significant mineralization was observed under strictly anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that, under the mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions characteristic of stream-bed sediments, microbial processes may provide a significant environmental sink for MTBE and TBA delivered to surface water bodies by contaminated groundwater or by other sources.

  3. Recanalization of Splenic Artery Aneurysm After Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Using N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, Keiji; Ushijima, Yasuhiro, E-mail: ushijima@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Nishie, Akihiro; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Ishigami, Kousei [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Yamaji, Yukiko [Kyushu University, Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan)

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 65-year-old woman who had been diagnosed as having microscopic polyangiitis developed sudden abdominal pain and entered a state of shock. Abdominal CT showed massive hemoperitoneum, and emergent angiography revealed a ruptured splenic artery aneurysm. After direct catheterization attempts failed due to tortuous vessels and angiospasm, transcatheter arterial embolization using an n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-lipiodol mixture was successfully performed. Fifty days later, the patient developed sudden abdominal pain again. Repeated angiography demonstrated recanalization of the splenic artery and splenic artery aneurysm. This time, the recanalized aneurysm was embolized using metallic coils with the isolation method. Physicians should keep in mind that recanalization can occur after transcatheter arterial embolization using N-butyl cyanoacrylate, which has been used as a permanent embolic agent.

  4. Aging of Weapon Seals – An Update on Butyl O-ring Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Mark H.

    2011-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    During testing under the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign in 2001, preliminary data detected a previously unknown and potentially serious concern with recently procured butyl o-rings on several programs. All butyl o-rings molded from a proprietary formulation throughout the period circa 1999 through 2001 had less than a full cure. Engineering judgment was that under curing is detrimental and could possibly lead to sub-optimum performance or, in the worst case, premature seal failure. An aging study was undertaken to ensure that suspect o-rings installed in the stockpile will retain sufficient sealing force for a minimum ten-year service life. A new prediction model developed for this study indicates suspect o-rings do not need to be replaced before the ten-year service life. Long-term testing results are reported on a yearly basis to validate the prediction model. This report documents the aging results for the period September 2002 to January 2011.

  5. Multiple steady states during reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nijhuis, S.A. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Chemical Engineering Dept.); Kerkhof, F.P.J.M.; Mak, A.N.S. (Comprimo Engineers and Contractors, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of computer simulations of the synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a fixed-bed reactor and in a reactive distillation column. These calculations clearly showed the advantages of MTBE synthesis in a catalytic distillation tower. Furthermore, the computer simulations showed that multiple steady states may occur in the reactive distillation column during MTBE synthesis in a broad range of operating conditions. An analysis of some sensitivity studies is presented.

  6. Batch polymerization of styrene and isoprene by n-butyl lithium initiator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan, Sayeed

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on these mechanisms Edgar (12) developed a mathema- tical model for polymerization of the above systems. In the present work polymerization reactions of styrene and isoprene via n-butyl lithium were studied at 80'C in n-hexane and cyclohexane solvents. Both... on the mechanisms proposed by Hsieh (18, 19, 20) Edgar (12) obtained an anlytical solution for calculating molecular weight di. stributions, monomer concentrations, initi. ator concentrations, and polymer species concentrations at any time, t, in a batch reactor...

  7. Comprehensive testing to measure the response of butyl rubber to Hanford tank waste simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NIGREY,PAUL J.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the authors performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to {approximately}143, 286, 571, and 3,670 krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Butyl rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. From the analyses, they determined that butyl rubber has relatively good resistance to radiation, this simulant, and a combination of these factors. These results suggest that butyl rubber is a relatively good seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study.

  8. A kinetic investigation of the reaction of dibutyl sodiophosphonate with n-butyl bromide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaffer, James Howard

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Texn~ in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the de ree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1955 Major Subject: Chemistry A KINETIC INVESTIGATION OF THE REACTION OF DIBUTYL SODIOPHOSPHONATE WITH N-BUTYL BROMIDE A Thesis By James Howard Shaffer... Concentrations o " Reactants and Calculated Second Order Specific Reaction pa, ". ;e Rate Constants Table 1, 40 C Table 2, 50 0 Table 3, BO C 3c II. Initial Concentrations of React iit : ?d Apparent Rate Constants of Erofosed Die er 1!echani sm Table 4...

  9. Measurement of methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) in raw drinking water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davisson, M L; Koester, C J; Moran, J E

    1999-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to assess the pathways for human exposure to methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) and to understand the extent of MTBE contamination in watersheds, a purge and trap gas chromatographic mass spectrometric method to measure part-per-trillion (ppt) concentrations of MTBE in environmental waters was developed. A variety of California's raw drinking waters were analyzed. No detectable MTBE was found in deep groundwater (>1000 feet). However shallow groundwater ({approx}250 feet) contained MTBE concentrations of non-detect to 1300 ppt. MTBE concentrations measured in rivers and lakes ranged from non-detect to 3500 ppt. East (San Francisco) Bay area rain water contained approximately 80 ppt MTBE.

  10. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly used today, the one used most commonly is MTBE. To meet the oxygen requirements of the CAA Amendments, gasoline

  11. Photoionization of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-octyl methyl ether (TOME) and analysis of their pyrolyses by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, Thomas Hellman

    Photoionization of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-octyl methyl ether (TOME) and analysis 1999; accepted 20 July 1999 Abstract The pyrolysis products of neutral methyl-d3 t-butyl ether (MTBE-d3 from thermal cracking patterns. MTBE and TOME both exhibit base peaks at m/z 73 (which shifts to m/z 76

  12. Review of the environmental behavior and fate of methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Squillace, P.J.; Zogorski, J.S. [Geological Survey, Rapid City, SD (United States); Pankow, J.F. [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Korte, N.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Science Div.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of pertinent equations and current research indicates that when gasoline oxygenated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) comes into contact with water, large amounts of MTBe can dissolve. At 25 C, the water solubility of MTBE is about 5,000 mg/L for a gasoline that is 10% MTBE by weight, whereas for a nonoxygenated gasoline, the total hydrocarbon solubility in water is typically about 120 mg/L. Methyl tert-butyl ether sorbs only weakly to subsurface solids; therefore, sorption does not substantially retard the transport of MTBE by ground water. In addition, MTBE generally resists biodegradation in ground water. The half-life of MTBE in the atmosphere can be as short as 3 d in a regional airshed. In the air, MTBE tends to partition into atmospheric water, including precipitation. However, the washing out of gas-phase MTBE by precipitation will not, by itself, greatly alter the gas-phase concentration of the compound in the air. The partitioning of MTBE to precipitation can nevertheless result in concentrations as high as 3 {micro}g/L or more in urban precipitation and can contribute to the presence of MTBE in surface and ground water.

  13. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride Towards Technetium-99 Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jared Horkley; Audrey Roman; Keri Campbell; Ana Nunez; Amparo Espartero

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning process, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, low nitric acid concentration in the aqueous phase of a UREX based process will co-extract U(VI) and Tc(VII) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Technetium (Tc-99) is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radiotoxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t1/2 = 2.13 × 105 years), and as such, it is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flow sheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for ultimate disposal. Furthermore, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macrocompounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, and resorcinarenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO4- by benzyltributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand’s matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e., diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed.

  14. Treatment of methyl t-butyl ether contaminated water using a dense medium plasma reactor, a mechanistic and kinetic investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    and oxidation mechanisms of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in a dense medium plasma (DMP) reactor utilizing gas for the removal of MTBE from an aqueous solution in the DMP reactor. Rate constants are also derived for three reactor configurations and two pin array spin rates. The oxidation products from the treatment of MTBE

  15. Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsudin, Intan Juliana [Chemistry Department, Centre for Defence Foundation Studies, National Defence University of Malaysia, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ahmad, Azizan; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan as the polymer matrix and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Bmim][OAc] as charge carriers were prepared by solution casting technique. Complexes with various amount of ionic liquid loading were investigated as possible ionic conducting polymers. The ionic conductivity was found to increase with increasing weight percent of ionic liquid. The highest ionic conductivity of the charged chitosan-[Bmim][OAc] was 2.44 × 10{sup ?3} S cm{sup ?1} at 90 wt.% of [Bmim][OAc] content at ambient temperature. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has proven the interaction between chitosan and [Bmim][OAc]. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) has shown that the amorphosity of the complexes increase as the amount of [Bmim][OAc] increase.

  16. Why methyl tert-butyl ether production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauan, S.; Hertzberg, T.; Lien, K.M. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an explanation of why methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions. Widely different composition profiles and conversions may, as already reported by Krishna and others, results with identical column specifications, depending on the initial estimates provided. A hypothesis yielding a qualitative understanding of this phenomenon has been developed. The inert n-butene plays a key role in the proposed explanation: As the reaction mixture is diluted with n-butene, the activity coefficient of methanol increases substantially and the temperature decreases. This dilution has a profound effect on the equilibrium conversion, enabling MTBE to escape from the reactive zone without decomposition. When methanol is fed below or in the lower part of the reactive zone of the column, the ``lifting capacity`` of the minimum boiling point MTBE-methanol azeotrope will also be important.

  17. Photoelectric conversion and electrochromic properties of lutetium tetrakis(tert-butyl)bisphthalocyaninate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Andrew Teh; Hu Tenyi; Liu Lungchang

    2003-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Both photoelectric and electrochromic effects on lutetium tetrakis(tert-butyl)bisphthalocyaninate (Lu(TBPc){sub 2}) have been carried out in this study. Lu(TBPc){sub 2} is known for its electrochromic performance, but its photoelectric effect has not mentioned in the literature. The electrochromic properties of Lu(TBPc){sub 2} have been measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-Vis spectrometer at the same time. It takes less than 1.5 s for the color to change from red to green under 0.9 V. Its cycle life is at least over 500 times. Furthermore, we also investigate its photoelectric conversion properties. Its photoelectric cell exhibits a positive photo-electricity conversion effect with a short-circuit photocurrent (46.4 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}) under illumination of white light (1.201 mW/cm{sup 2})

  18. Butyl rubber O-ring seals: Revision of test procedures for stockpile materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domeier, L.A.; Wagter, K.R.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive testing showed little correlation between test slab and O-ring performance. New procedures, comparable to those used with the traditional test slabs, were defined for hardness, compression set, and tensile property testing on sacrificial O-ring specimens. Changes in target performance values were made as needed and were, in one case, tightened to reflect the O-ring performance data. An additional study was carried out on O-ring and slab performance vs cure cycle and showed little sensitivity of material performance to large changes in curing time. Aging and spectra of certain materials indicated that two sets of test slabs from current vendor were accidently made from EPDM rather than butyl rubber. Random testing found no O-rings made from EPDM. As a result, and additional spectroscope test will be added to the product acceptance procedures to verify the type of rubber compound used.

  19. Use of genomic data in risk assessment case study: II. Evaluation of the dibutyl phthalate toxicogenomic data set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Euling, Susan Y., E-mail: euling.susan@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); White, Lori D. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kim, Andrea S. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Sen, Banalata [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wilson, Vickie S. [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Keshava, Channa; Keshava, Nagalakshmi [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Hester, Susan [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ovacik, Meric A.; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G.; Androulakis, Ioannis P. [National Center for Environmental Research Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Bioinformatics Center, Environmental Bioinformatics and Computational Toxicology Center (ebCTC), Rutgers University and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gaido, Kevin W. [Center for Veterinary Medicine, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20855 (United States)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaluation of the toxicogenomic data set for dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and male reproductive developmental effects was performed as part of a larger case study to test an approach for incorporating genomic data in risk assessment. The DBP toxicogenomic data set is composed of nine in vivo studies from the published literature that exposed rats to DBP during gestation and evaluated gene expression changes in testes or Wolffian ducts of male fetuses. The exercise focused on qualitative evaluation, based on a lack of available dose–response data, of the DBP toxicogenomic data set to postulate modes and mechanisms of action for the male reproductive developmental outcomes, which occur in the lower dose range. A weight-of-evidence evaluation was performed on the eight DBP toxicogenomic studies of the rat testis at the gene and pathway levels. The results showed relatively strong evidence of DBP-induced downregulation of genes in the steroidogenesis pathway and lipid/sterol/cholesterol transport pathway as well as effects on immediate early gene/growth/differentiation, transcription, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling and apoptosis pathways in the testis. Since two established modes of action (MOAs), reduced fetal testicular testosterone production and Insl3 gene expression, explain some but not all of the testis effects observed in rats after in utero DBP exposure, other MOAs are likely to be operative. A reanalysis of one DBP microarray study identified additional pathways within cell signaling, metabolism, hormone, disease, and cell adhesion biological processes. These putative new pathways may be associated with DBP effects on the testes that are currently unexplained. This case study on DBP identified data gaps and research needs for the use of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment. Furthermore, this study demonstrated an approach for evaluating toxicogenomic data in human health risk assessment that could be applied to future chemicals. - Highlights: ? We evaluate the dibutyl phthalate toxicogenomic data for use in risk assessment. ? We focus on information about the mechanism of action for the developing testis. ? Multiple studies report effects on testosterone and insl3-related pathways. ? We identify additional affected pathways that may explain some testis effects. ? The case study is a template for evaluating toxicogenomic data in risk assessment.

  20. Anhydrous aluminum chloride as an alkylation catalyst: identification of mono- and dialkyl-benzenes from the condensation of tertiary butyl alcohol with benzene.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scoggins, Lacey E

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRARY a a w c"I. I. SI - O~ TI:YAf ANHYDROUS ALUMINUM CHLORIDE AS AN ALKYLATION CATALYST: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DIALKYIZENZENES FROM THE CONDENSATION QF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENKENE IACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS 4 A Thesis Submitted...: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DI~NZZNES FROM THE CONDENSATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENZENE A Thesis By LACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS Approved as to style and content hy: Chairman of Committee Head of Chemistry Department 1959 ACKNOWLEDGME1VTS The author...

  1. Features of the spectral dependences of transmittance of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted lutetium phthalocyanine molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belogorokhov, I. A., E-mail: jugqwerty@mail.ru [State Research and Project Institute of Rare-Metal Industry GIREDMET (Russian Federation); Tikhonov, E. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Dronov, M. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Belogorokhova, L. I. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Ryabchikov, Yu. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Vibronic properties of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted phthalocyanine lutetium diphthalocyanine molecules are studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that substitution of several carbon atoms in initial phthalocyanine (Pc) ligands with {sup 13}C isotope atoms causes a spectral shift in the main absorption lines attributed to benzene, isoindol, and peripheral C-H groups. A comparison of spectral characteristics showed that the shift can vary from 3 to 1 cm{sup -1}.

  2. Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether and benzene among service station attendants and operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartle, R. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns for atmospheric pollution from auto exhaust have led to the blending of {open_quotes}oxygenates{close_quotes} with motor fuels. The most common oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is currently required within several metropolitan areas (Denver and Phoenix) in the range of 12% of the motor fuel. Amendments to the Clean Air Act may expand this requirement to as many as 44 other areas of the United States in the near future. In consideration of the magnitude of potential uncontrolled exposures from its extensive use and a related concern involving the potential influence of MTBE blending on exposures to other constituents of gasoline (particularly benzene), an evaluation of exposures among service station attendants and operators was undertaken at the request, and in cooperation with, the American Petroleum Institute during the latter part of 1990. For application of the survey results to a broad audience, three categories or types of service stations were identified with regard to MTBE use and exposure potential: (a) service stations that do not use MTBE or use it only as an octane enhancer, (b) service stations with seasonal requirements to use 12-15% MTBE (the Denver, Colorado, and Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan areas), and (c) service stations equipped with stage II (active) vapor recovery systems (several coastal areas, most notably Southern California). 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether to Daphnia magna and photobacterium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, G.; Lin, Y.J. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a liquid organic compound added to gasoline to increase its oxygen content and to reduce the emission of carbon monoxide during combustion in many urban areas. In order to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, gasoline must contain 2.7% oxygen (by weight) or 15% (by volume) of MTBE in gasoline to meet the regulations for the control of carbon monoxide emissions. Health effects caused by inhalation of MTBE include headaches, dizziness, irritated eyes and nausea; MTBE is one of cancer--causing chemicals. Intracaval injection of MTBE (0.2 mg/kg) caused the highest mortality (100%) in rats. General anesthetic effect induced by MTBE was found at or above 1200 mg/kg body weight; Rosenkranz and Klopman (1991) predicted that MTBE is neither a genotoxicant nor a carcinogen. Nevertheless, the safety of using MTBE in oxygenated fuels is now being questioned from its potential as groundwater pollutant. This study measures the toxicity of MTBE to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum. 13 refs.

  4. Reaction calorimetry study of the liquid-phase synthesis of tert-butyl methyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sola, L.; Pericas, M.A.; Cunill, F.; Iborra, M. (Univ. de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. d'Enginyeria Quimica)

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The liquid-phase addition of methanol to isobutene to give tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) on the ion-exchange resin Lewatit K2631 has been studied in a calorimetric reactor. Heat capacity of MTBE and enthalpy of the MTBE synthesis reaction in the temperature range 312--333 K have been determined. MTBE heat capacity in the liquid phase has been found to obey the equation c[sub P] (J/mol[center dot]K) = 472.34 [minus] 2.468(T/K) + 0.005071(T/K)[sup 2]. At 298 K the standard molar reaction enthalpy is [Delta]H[degree] = [minus]33.8 kJ/mol. A method to estimate apparent activation energies from heat flow rate in a given reaction has been developed and proved to be valid for the MTBE synthesis. Using this method, an apparent activation energy of 91.1--95.2 kJ/mol is calculated. A [minus]3.8 kJ/mol value has been found for the adsorption enthalpy of methanol on the ion-exchange resin Lewatit K2631 by a combination of reaction calorimetry and thermogravimetry. This allows the calculation of an activation energy on the gel phase of the resin of 91 kJ/mol.

  5. Disposition, metabolism, and toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether, an oxygenate for reformulated gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutcheon, D.E.; Hove, W. ten; Boyle, J. III [UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical Schook, Newark, NJ (United States)] [UMDNJ, New Jersey Medical Schook, Newark, NJ (United States); Arnold, J.D. [Arnold & Arnold, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)] [Arnold & Arnold, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1996-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of the toxicology of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were reviewed as a possible information base for evaluating the health effects of evaporative emissions from reformulated gasoline (RFG). Perirenal fat/blood MTBE concentration ratios ranged from 9.7 to 11.6 after 15 wk of intermittent exposure. During an oxyfuels program in Fairbanks, AK, blood levels of occupationally exposed workers were 0.2-31.5 {mu}g/L MTBE and 1.6 to 72.2 {mu}g/L TBA with a mean TBA:MTBE blood concentration ratio of 4.2. In patients who received MTBE by percutaneous, transhepatic puncture for the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones, concentrations of MTBE in fat tissue reached 60 and 300 {mu}g/g at a treatment time when mean blood MTBE was less than 20 {mu}g/ml. The results of laboratory and clinical studies indicate that metabolites of MTBE may contribute to the nephropathy, neoplasms, and other pathological changes associated with repeated exposure to MTBE in experimental animals. It is concluded that such studies can provide a well-defined database for quantitatitive safety comparisons and health risk-benefit analyses of MTBE and other oxygenates in RFG. 39 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Observation on the biodegradation and bioremediation potential of methyl t-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salanitro, J.; Wisniewski, H.; McAllister, P. [Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been few reports documenting evidence for the biodegradation of the fuel oxygenate alkyl ether, methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) in groundwater, soils, and biosludges. Partial (or complete) microbial breakdown of MTBE has been observed in an anaerobic subsoil, a river sediment under methanogenic conditions, a cyclohexane-degrading bacterial consortium and a pure culture of the methylotroph, Methylisnus trichosporium OB3b. An aerobic bacterial enrichment (BC-1) isolated from an industrial transient (non-accumulating) metabolic intermediate. The studies suggest that MTBE is cleaved by BC-1 to TBA which is then metabolized via isopropanol and acetone. There is little information on the occurrence of indigenous MTBE-degraders in groundwater, soils and activated sludges. Preliminary evidence has been obtained, however, from a marketing terminal groundwater site that naturally-occurring MTBE-degraders are present in some monitoring wells. Microcosm experiments with groundwater from this aquifer show that MTBE is aerobically degraded (no TBA formed) with a first-order decay rate (0.31/day) similar to BTEX. Also, MTBE did not inhibit the intrinsic biodegradation potential of BTEX in groundwater microcosms. In summary, the data presented indicate that MTBE biodegradation has been observed in some environmental media. Further work is needed to assess the feasibility of using indigenous or derived aerobic and anaerobic MTBE-degrading cultures for treating fuel ethers in groundwaters or wastewater with in-situ or ex-situ bioremediation technologies.

  7. Acute toxicity of methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BenKinney, M.T.; Barbieri, J.F.; Gross, J.S.; Naro, P.A. [Stonybrook Labs. Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the recent amendment of the Clean Air Act, oxygenates are now being added to gasolines to boost octane and reduce air pollution from combustion in heavily populated areas. Oxygenates such as alcohols (i.e. methanol) and ethers (methyl-tertiary-butyl ether, MTBE) are commonly being used. A series of bioassay studies have been conducted with MTBE, one of the most commonly used octane-enhancing additives. Freshwater and marine studies were conducted with fish, invertebrates and algae to determine the impact of this material on the environment following accidental spills. Static-renewal studies were run to ensure maintenance of MTBE, a highly volatile material in the test containers. Chemical confirmation of exposure concentrations demonstrated the adequacy of the exposure system. Mysid shrimp were highly sensitive to MTBE, with significantly less effect observed with the other species evaluated. These data have implications for spill response, particularly since MTBE is slow to biodegrade and will rapidly move through groundwater. Comparative data for other oxygenates will also be discussed.

  8. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  9. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Intramuscular Active Hemorrhage with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Dong Hyun; Jae, Hwan Jun, E-mail: jhj@radiol.snu.ac.kr; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, and Institute of Radiation Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for intramuscular active hemorrhage of varied etiologies and anatomic sites. Methods: Eighteen patients who demonstrated hematoma with pseudoaneurysm and/or active extravasation of contrast media underwent TAE with NBCA. Etiologies of hematoma included trauma, postoperative complication, and coagulopathy (due to underlying disease or anticoagulation therapy). Sites of embolization included chest wall, abdomen wall, retroperitoneum, and extremity. TAE was performed by using 1:3 to 1:5 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil, either solely (n = 15) or in combination with microcoil (n = 3). The technical and clinical success rate, procedure-related complications, and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Results: The technical and clinical success rates were 100% and 83% (15/18), respectively. Two patients expired while admitted due to other comorbidities. One patient expired due to recurrent bleeding at another site. There were no serious complications relating to the embolization procedure. Conclusions: TAE with NBCA is effective and safe treatment modality for intramuscular active hemorrhage.

  10. Multiprobe Spectroscopic Evidence for "Hyperpolarity" within 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Hexafluorophosphate Mixtures with Tetraethylene Glycol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, Abhra [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi; Trivedi, Shruti [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Pandey, Siddharth [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid, potentially green solvent system composed of tetraethylene glycol (TEG) and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) was investigated across all mole fractions with regard to the solvent properties of the mixture. For this purpose, a suite of absorbance- and fluorescence-based solvatochromic probes were utilized to explore solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions existing within the [bmim][PF6] + TEG system. These studies revealed an interesting and unusual synergistic solvent effect. In particular, a remarkable hyperpolarity was observed in which the ET value, comprising dipolarity/polarizability and hydrogen bond donor (HBD) acidity contributions, at intermediate mole fractions of the binary mixture well exceeded that of the most polar pure component (i.e., [bmim][PF6]). Independently determined dipolarity/polarizability ( *) and HBD acidity (R) Kamlet-Taft values for the [bmim][PF6] + TEG mixtures were also observed to be anomalously high at intermediate mole fractions, whereas hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) basicities ( values) were much more in line with the ideal arithmetic values predicted on a mole fraction basis.

  11. LIDEM unit for the production of methyl tert-butyl ether from butanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudin, M.G.; Zadvornov, M.A.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the basic problems in the production of motor fuels is how to obtain high-octane unleaded gasolines that will meet today`s ecological requirements. The term {open_quotes}reformulated gasolines{close_quotes} has come into general use throughout the world to denote fuels with a certain chemical composition. These gasolines consist of preselected components; as shown by worldwide experience, they must include oxygen-containing compounds that are distinguished by high octane numbers and low reactivities. Standards in effect in the United States, Japan, and certain Western European countries require that automotive gasolines must contain at least 2-4% by weight of oxygen-containing compounds (calculated as oxygen). In the last 15 years, in order to meet these requirements, production has been set up in various countries for the manufacture of high-octane oxygen-containing components known as oxygenates. The most common of these is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), obtained by etherification of isobutene by methanol. Process technology developed by this last organization was used as the basis for constructing a unit in the Nizhnekamskneftekhim Production Association and at the Mazheikyai Petroleum Refinery in Lithuania. MTBE production has been held back mainly by a shortage of isobutene, which is obtained mainly from butane-butene cuts produced in cat crackers. In order to alleviate this shortage, it has been proposed that MTBE should be obtained from saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons that are recovered in processing oilfield associated gas, and also in the refinery from primary distillation units, catalytic reformers, and hydrocrackers. A working design was developed in 1991-1992 by Lengiproneftekhim for a basically new combination unit designed for the processing of saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, which has been termed the LIDEM unit (Leningrad - isomerization - dehydrogenation - MTBE).

  12. Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether by a bacterial pure culture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, J.R.; Ackerman, C.E.; Scow, K.M.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bacterial strain, PM1, which is able to utilize methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as its sole carbon and energy source, was isolated from a mixed microbial consortium in a compost biofilter capable of degrading MTBE. Initial linear rates of MTBE degradation by 2 x 10{sup 6} cells ml{sup {minus}1} were 0.07, 1.17, and 3.56 {mu}g ml{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1} for initial concentrations of 5, 50, and 500 {mu}g MTBE ml{sup {minus}1}, respectively. When incubated with 20 {mu}g of uniformly labeled [{sup 14}C]MTBE ml{sup {minus}1}, strain PM1 converted 46% to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and 19% to {sup 14}C-labeled cells within 120 h. This yield is consistent with the measurement of protein accumulation at different MTBE concentrations from which was estimated a biomass yield of 0.18 of cells mg MTBE{sup {minus}1}. Strain PM1 was inoculated into sediment core material collected from a contaminated groundwater plume at Port Hueneme, California, in which there was no evidence of MTBE degradation. Strain PM1 readily degraded 20 {micro}g of MTBE ml{sup {minus}1} added to the core material. The rate of MTBE removal increased with additional inputs of 20 {micro}g of MTBE ml{sup {minus}1}. These results suggest that PM1 has potential for use in the remediation of MTBE-contaminated environments.

  13. Radical-anions of aromatic compounds. VII. Reaction of the products from the reduction of nitrobenzene by sodium with isopropyl and tert-butyl iodides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilova, N.K.; Shteingarts, V.D.

    1986-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction of the products from the reduction of nitrobenzene by one and two equivalents of sodium with isopropyl iodide leads to the formation of N,O-diisopropylphenylhydroxylamine, while the reaction with tert-butyl iodide leads to p-(tert-butyl)nitrobenzene. Such a change in the nature of the reaction product in the transition from the primary and secondary alkyl halides to the tertiary alkyl halides clearly results from a change in the S/sub N/2 mechanism to the S/sub RN/1 mechanism, involving transfer of an electron from the radical-anion or dianion of nitrobenzene to the alkyl halide. The formation of considerable amounts of azoxybenzene in the reaction with tert-butyl iodide shows that the dianion and, to a lesser degree, the radical-anion of nitrobenzene exhibit basic characteristics.

  14. Molecular Simulation of Water Extraction into a Tri-n-Butyl-Phosphate/n-Dodecane Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL] [ORNL; Ye, Xianggui [ORNL] [ORNL; Cui, Shengting [ORNL] [ORNL; Khomami, Bamin [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate water extraction into a solution of 30 vol% tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) in n-dodecane. This solvent extraction mixture is commonly used in hydrometallurgical and nuclear fuel recycling operations for recovering metals from aqueous streams. It is known that water is coextracted in the organic phase and that it competes with metal ions for the available extractant agent (TBP). Therefore investigating pure water extraction provides a realistic prototype to test molecular simulation methods for the first time in this area. Our computational results indicate that the TBP electric dipole moment has a significant effect on the predicted water solubility. A larger TBP dipole moment decreases the aqueous-organic interfacial tension, leading to increased roughness of the aqueous-organic interface. Interfacial roughness has a significant effect on disrupting the interfacial water hydrogen bonding structure, resulting in a greater number of dangling water molecules at the interface. This enhances the probability of water molecules to break away from the aqueous phase and to migrate into the bulk of the organic phase. Therefore, the magnitude of the TBP dipole moment is a crucial factor in controlling water hydrogen bond breaking at the aqueous-organic interface. By slightly lowering the atomic partial charges of the TBP atoms, to produce a dipole moment that better agrees with experimental data, we were able to predict water solubility in close agreement with experimental measurements. Hence we demonstrate that a molecular modeling and simulation approach may provide quantitative support to experimental programs in this area. In addition, our simulation results shed light into the molecular mechanism of water extraction, the critical role of TBP, and the structural forms of water molecules both at the interface and in the bulk of the organic phase. Specifically, it is found that water molecules are extracted either as single molecules or as clusters. Furthermore, within the organic phase, the extracted water forms clusters with up to 20 water molecules, however, more than 70% of these water clusters contain less than 5 water molecules when the water extraction process reaches saturation.

  15. An evaluation of the 3M Organic Vapor Monitor #3500 as a short term exposure limit sampling device for acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl iso butyl ketone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Lloyd B.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN EVALUATION OF THE 3M ORGANIC VAPOR MONITOR 43500 AS A SHOR'I TERM EXPOSURE LIMIT SAMPLING DEVICE FOR ACETONE, METHYL ETHYL KETONE, AND METHYL ISO BUTYL KETONE A Thesis by LLOYD B. ANDREW III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM..., METHYL ETHYL KETONE, AND METHYL ISO BUTYL KETONE A Thesis by Lloyd B. Andrew III Approved as to style and content by: (Chai iy' of Co ' i tee) (He of Departme t) e4mY ~. (Member) C~& n (Member) December 1982 ABSTRACT An Evaluation of the 3M...

  16. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

  17. Successful Pregnancy with a Full-Term Vaginal Delivery One Year After n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Embolization of a Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, Colleen C. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics (United States); Kim, Hyun S. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States)], E-mail: sikhkim@jhmi.edu

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) causes significant morbidity with vaginal bleeding. Traditional therapy is a hysterectomy with no potential for future pregnancy. We present a case of successful superselective embolization of uterine AVM using n-butyl cyanoacrylate with subsequent normal term pregnancy and uncomplicated vaginal delivery in 1 year.

  18. Kinetics and modeling of mixture effects during complete catalytic oxidation of benzene and methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dangi, S.; Abraham, M.A. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of a catalytic incinerator depends on the nature of the compounds being oxidized and cannot be predicted simply by knowing the performance of the incinerator with pure-component model compounds. Considering the importance of mixture effects, an attempt was made to develop a combined model to predict the conversion when benzene and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) are simultaneously oxidized. Complete catalytic oxidation of benzene and MTBE, singly and in mixtures, was investigated over a platinum catalyst. No inhibition effects were seen with benzene, but MTBE conversion was distinctly inhibited by benzene. A Mars-van Krevelen rate model was used to explain the results. Model parameters were obtained from pure-component experiments and then incorporated into a multicomponent model without any adjustment or additional rate parameters. The multicomponent model was able to predict the conversion of benzene and MTBE oxidation in the binary mixture using the pure-component data without adjustable parameters.

  19. Evaluating the use of PAO (4 cSt polyalphaoelfin) oil instead of DOP (di-octyl phthalate) oil for measuring the aerosol capture of nuclear canister filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This document details the distinction between using PAO (4 cSt polyalphaoelfin) oil instead of DOP (di-octyl phthalate) oil for measuring the aerosol capture of filters. This document is developed to justify the use of PAO rather than DOP for evaluating the performance of filters in the SAVY 4000 and Hagan containers. The design criteria (Anderson et al, 2012) for purchasing SAVY 4000 containers and the Safety Analysis Report for the SAVY 4000 Container Series specified that the filter must “capture greater than 99.97% of 0.45 ?m mean diameter dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol at the rated flow with a DOP concentration of 65±15 micrograms per liter.”This corresponds to a leakage percent of 0.03% (3.0x10-2). The density of DOP oil is 985 kg/m3 and the density of PAO oil is 819 kg/m3. ATI Test Inc measured the mass mean diameter of aerosol distributions produced by a single Laskin type III-A nozzle operating at a 20 psig air pressure as 0.563 ?m for DOP oil and 0.549 ?m for PAO oil. (See Appendix A.) For both types of oil in this document, the single fiber method calculated the leakage percent to be 4.4x10-5 for DOP oil and 4.7x10-5 for PAO oil. Although the percent error between these two quantities is 7.7%, these calculated leakage percent values are more than two orders of magnitude less than the criterion specified in the SAVY canister SAR. As a point of reference, the photometer used to measure the SAVY canister filter performance cannot resolve values for the leakage percent below 1.0x10-5. Additionally, over a range of particle sizes from 0.01 ?m to 3.0 ?m, there was less than 4.0x10-5 error between the calculated filter efficiency for the two types of oil at any particular particle size diameter. In conclusion, the difference between using DOP and PAO for testing SAVY canister filters is of inconsequential concern.

  20. Determination of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and tert-Butyl Alcohol in Water by Solid-Phase Microextraction/Head Space Analysis in Comparison to EPA Method 5030/8260B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Keun-Chan; Stringfellow, William T.

    2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is now one of the most common groundwater contaminants in the United States. Groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also likely to be contaminated with tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), because TBA is a component of commercial grade MTBE, TBA can also be used as a fuel oxygenate, and TBA is a biodegradation product of MTBE. In California, MTBE is subject to reporting at concentrations greater than 3 {micro}g/L. TBA is classified as a ''contaminant of current interest'' and has a drinking water action level of 12 {micro}g/L. In this paper, we describe the development and optimization of a simple, automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water and demonstrate the applicability of this method for monitoring MTBE and TBA contamination in groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. In this method, the headspace (HS) of a water sample is extracted with a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, the MTBE and TBA are desorbed into a gas chromatograph (GC), and detected using mass spectrometry (MS). The method is optimized for the routine analysis of MTBE and TBA with a level of quantitation of 0.3 {micro}g/L and 4 {micro}g/L, respectively, in water. MTBE quantitation was linear for over two orders of concentration (0.3 {micro}g/L -80 {micro}g/L). TBA was found to be linear within the range of 4 {micro}g/L-7,900 {micro}g/L. The lower level of detection for MTBE is 0.03 {micro}g/L using this method. This SPME method using headspace extraction was found to be advantageous over SPME methods requiring immersion of the fiber into the water samples, because it prolonged the life of the fiber by up to 400 sample analyses. This is the first time headspace extraction SPME has been shown to be applicable to the measurement of both MTBE and TBA at concentrations below regulatory action levels. This method was compared with the certified EPA Method 5030/8260B (purge-and-trap/GC/MS) using split samples from laboratory bioreactors treating MTBE contaminated water and applied to environmental samples collected throughout the East Bay area of California. Results from the SPME-HS/GC/MS method were directly comparable to the EPA Method 5030/8260B. This method provides an simple, inexpensive, accurate, and sensitive alternative to EPA Method 5030/8260B for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water samples.

  1. Use of ferric sulfate: acid media for the desulfurization of model compounds of coal. [Dibenzothiophene, diphenyl sulfide, di-n-butyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clary, L.R.; Vermeulen, T.; Lynn, S.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work has been to investigate the ability of ferric sulfate-acid leach systems to oxidize the sulfur in model compounds of coal. Ferric iron-acid leach systems have been shown to be quite effective at removal of inorganic sulfur in coal. In this study, the oxidative effect of ferric iron in acid-leach systems was studied using dibenzothiophene, diphenyl sulfide, and di-n-butyl sulfide as models of organic sulfur groups in coal. Nitrogen and oxygen, as well as various transition metal catalysts and oxidants, were utilized in this investigation. Dibenzothiophene was found to be quite refractory to oxidation, except in the case where metavanadate was added, where it appears that 40% oxidation to sulfone could have occurred per hour at 150/sup 0/C and mild oxygen pressure. Diphenyl sulfide was selectively oxidized to sulfoxide and sulfone in an iron and oxygen system. Approximately 15% conversion to sulfone occurred per hour under these conditions. Some of the di-n-butyl sulfide was cracked to 1-butene and 1-butanethiol under similar conditions. Zinc chloride and ferric iron were used at 200/sup 0/C in an attempt to desulfonate dibenzothiophene sulfone, diphenyl sulfone, and di-n-butyl sulfone. Di-n-butyl sulfone was completely desulfurized on one hour and fragmented to oxidized parafins, while dibenzothiophene sulfone and diphenyl sulfone were unaffected. These results suggest that an iron-acid leach process could only selectively oxidize aryl sulfides under mild conditions, representing only 20% of the organic sulfur in coal (8% of the total sulfur). Removal through desulfonation once selective sulfur oxidation had occurred was only demonstrated for alkyl sulfones, with severe oxidation of the fragmented paraffins also occurring in one hour.

  2. Use of genomic data in risk assessment case study: I. Evaluation of the dibutyl phthalate male reproductive development toxicity data set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makris, Susan L., E-mail: makris.susan@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, (Mail code 8623P), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, (Mail code 8623P), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Gray, L. Earl [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, (MD-72), Highway 54, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Benson, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8, (Mail code 8P-W), 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202 (United States); Foster, Paul M.D. [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233 (MD K2-12), Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A case study was conducted, using dibutyl phthalate (DBP), to explore an approach to using toxicogenomic data in risk assessment. The toxicity and toxicogenomic data sets relative to DBP-related male reproductive developmental outcomes were considered conjointly to derive information about mode and mechanism of action. In this manuscript, we describe the case study evaluation of the toxicological database for DBP, focusing on identifying the full spectrum of male reproductive developmental effects. The data were assessed to 1) evaluate low dose and low incidence findings and 2) identify male reproductive toxicity endpoints without well-established modes of action (MOAs). These efforts led to the characterization of data gaps and research needs for the toxicity and toxicogenomic studies in a risk assessment context. Further, the identification of endpoints with unexplained MOAs in the toxicity data set was useful in the subsequent evaluation of the mechanistic information that the toxicogenomic data set evaluation could provide. The extensive analysis of the toxicology data set within the MOA context provided a resource of information for DBP in attempts to hypothesize MOAs (for endpoints without a well-established MOA) and to phenotypically anchor toxicogenomic and other mechanistic data both to toxicity endpoints and to available toxicogenomic data. This case study serves as an example of the steps that can be taken to develop a toxicological data source for a risk assessment, both in general and especially for risk assessments that include toxicogenomic data.

  3. Kinetics and mechanism of the sonolytic destruction of methyl tert-butyl ether by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, J.W. [Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Industrial Environment and Health] [Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Industrial Environment and Health; Hoffmann, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.

    1998-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics and mechanism of the sonolytic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have been investigated at an ultrasonic frequency of 205 kHz and power of 200 W L{sup {minus}1}. The observed first-order degradation rate constant for the loss of MTBE increased from 4.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} to 8.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} as the concentration of MTBE decreased from 1.0 to 0.01 mM. In the presence of O{sub 3}, the sonolytic rate of destruction of MTBE was accelerated substantially. The rate of MTBE sonolysis with ozone was enhanced by a factor of 1.5--3.9 depending on the initial concentration of MTBE. tert-Butyl formate, tert-butyl alcohol, methyl acetate, and acetone were found to be the primary intermediates and byproducts of the degradation reaction with yields of 8, 5, 3, and 12%, respectively. A reaction mechanism involving three parallel pathways that include the direct pyrolytic decomposition of MTBE, the direct reaction of MTBE with ozone, and the reaction of MTBE with hydroxyl radical is proposed.

  4. Identification of volatile butyl rubber thermal-oxidative degradation products by cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Jonell Nicole; White, Michael Irvin; Bernstein, Robert; Hochrein, James Michael

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical structure and physical properties of materials, such as polymers, can be altered as aging progresses, which may result in a material that is ineffective for its envisioned intent. Butyl rubber formulations, starting material, and additives were aged under thermal-oxidative conditions for up to 413 total days at up to 124 %C2%B0C. Samples included: two formulations developed at Kansas City Plant (KCP) (%236 and %2310), one commercially available formulation (%2321), Laxness bromobutyl 2030 starting material, and two additives (polyethylene AC-617 and Vanax MBM). The low-molecular weight volatile thermal-oxidative degradation products that collected in the headspace over the samples were preconcentrated, separated, and detected using cryofocusing gas chromatography mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS). The majority of identified degradation species were alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes. Observations for Butyl %2310 aged in an oxygen-18 enriched atmosphere (18O2) were used to verify when the source of oxygen in the applicable degradation products was from the gaseous environment rather than the polymeric mixture. For comparison purposes, Butyl %2310 was also aged under non-oxidative thermal conditions using an argon atmosphere.

  5. Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. [801Methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcelin, G.

    1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

  6. Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) during motor vehicle refueling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, A.B.; Pleil, J.D. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study we present a sampling and analytical methodology that can be used to assess consumers` exposures to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) that may result from routine vehicle refueling operations. The method is based on the collection of alveolar breath samples using evacuated one-liter stainless steel canisters and analysis using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a patented `valveless` cryogenic preconcentrator. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, a series of breath samples was collected from two individuals (the person pumping the fuel and a nearby observer) immediately before and for 64 min after a vehicle was refueled with premium grade gasoline. Results demonstrate low levels of MTBE in both subjects` breaths before refueling, and levels that increased by a factor of 35 to 100 after the exposure. Breath elimination models fitted to the post exposure measurements indicate that the half-life of MTBE in the first physiological compartment was between 1.3 and 2.9 min. Analysis of the resulting models suggests that breath elimination of MTBE during the 64 min monitoring period was approximately 155 {mu}g for the refueling subject while it was only 30 {mu}g for the nearby observer. This analysis also shows that the post exposure breath elimination of other gasoline constituents was consistent with previously published observations. 20 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Tri-n-butyl-phosphate/n-Dodecane Mixture: Thermophysical Properties and Molecular Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL; Cui, Shengting [ORNL; Khomami, Bamin [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulations of tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane mixture in the liquid phase have been carried out using two recently developed TBP force field models (J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116, 305) in combination with the all-atom optimized potentials for liquid simulations (OPLS-AA) force field model for n-dodecane. Specifically, the electric dipole moment of TBP, mass density of the mixture, and the excess volume of mixing were computed with TBP mole fraction ranging from 0 to 1. It is found that the aforementioned force field models accurately predict the mass density of the mixture in the entire mole fraction range. Commensurate with experimental measurements, the electric dipole moment of the TBP was found to slightly increase with the mole fraction of TBP in the mixture. Also, in accord with experimental data, the excess volume of mixing is positive in the entire mole fraction range, peaking at TBP mole fraction range 0.3 0.5. Finally, a close examination of the spatial pair correlation functions between TBP molecules, and between TBP and n-dodecane molecules, revealed formation of TBP dimers through self-association at close distance, a phenomenon with ample experimental evidence.

  8. Whole-genorne analysis of the methyl tert-butyl ether-degrading beta-proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, Staci R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Chakicherla, Anu Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Schmidt, Radomir [University of California, Davis; Shin, M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Legler, Tina C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Scow, Kate M. [University of California, Davis; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lucas, Susan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hristova, Krassimira R. [University of California, Davis

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 is a methylotroph distinguished by its ability to completely metabolize the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Strain PM1 also degrades aromatic (benzene, toluene, and xylene) and straight-chain (C, to C,,) hydrocarbons present in petroleum products. Whole-genome analysis of PM1 revealed an similar to 4-Mb circular chromosome and an similar to 600-kb megaplasmid, containing 3,831 and 646 genes, respectively. Aromatic hydrocarbon and alkane degradation, metal resistance, and methylotrophy are encoded on the chromosome. The megaplasmid contains an unusual t-RNA island, numerous insertion sequences, and large repeated elements, including a 40-kb region also present on the chromosome and a 29-kb tandem repeat encoding phosphonate transport and cobalamin biosynthesis. The megaplasmid also codes for alkane degradation and was shown to play an essential role in MTBE degradation through plasmid-curing experiments. Discrepancies between the insertion sequence element distribution patterns, the distributions of best BLASTP hits among major phylogenetic groups, and the G+C contents of the chromosome (69.2%) and plasmid (66%), together with comparative genome hybridization experiments, suggest that the plasmid was recently acquired and apparently carries the genetic information responsible for PM1's ability to degrade MTBE. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis with two PM1-like MTBE-degrading environmental isolates (similar to 99% identical 16S rRNA gene sequences) showed that the plasmid was highly conserved (ca. 99% identical), whereas the chromosomes were too diverse to conduct resequencing analysis. PM1's genome sequence provides a foundation for investigating MTBE biodegradation and exploring the genetic regulation of multiple biodegradation pathways in M. petroleiphilum and other MTBE-degrading beta-proteobacteria.

  9. Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether, benzene, and total hydrocarbons at the Singapore-Malaysia causeway immigration checkpoint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, C.; Ong, H.Y.; Kok, P.W. [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the extent and levels of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile emissions in a group of immigration officers at a busy cross-border checkpoint. A majority (80%) of the workers monitored were exposed to benzene at levels between 0.01 and 0.5 ppm, with only 1.2% exceeding the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration occupational exposure limit of 1 ppm. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 8-hr time-weighted average exposure were 0.03 ppm, 0.9 ppm, and 2.46 ppm for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, and total hydrocarbons (THC), respectively. The highest time-weighted average concentrations measured were 1.05 ppm for MTBE, 2.01 ppm for benzene, and 34 ppm for THC. It was found that motorbikes emitted a more significant amount of pollutants compared with motor cars. On average, officers at the motorcycle booths were exposed to four to five times higher levels of VOCs (GMs of 0.07 ppm, 0.23 ppm, and 4.7 ppm for MTBE, benzene, and THC) than their counterparts at the motor car booths (GMs of 0.01 ppm, 0.05 ppm, and 1.5 ppm). The airborne concentrations of all three pollutants correlated with the flow of vehicle traffic. Close correlations were also noted for the concentrations in ambient air for the three pollutants measured. Benzene and MTBE had a correlation coefficient of 0.97. The overall findings showed that the concentrations of various VOCs were closely related to the traffic density, suggesting that they were from a common source, such as exhaust emissions from the vehicles. The results also indicated that although benzene, MTBE, and THC are known to be volatile, a significant amount could still be detected in the ambient environment, thus contributing to our exposure to these compounds. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Manipulation of the HIF–Vegf pathway rescues methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-induced vascular lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonventre, Josephine A., E-mail: josephine.bonventre@oregonstate.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 1011 Agricultural and Life Sciences Bldg, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Kung, Tiffany S., E-mail: tiffany.kung@rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); White, Lori A., E-mail: lawhite@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Cooper, Keith R., E-mail: cooper@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be specifically anti-angiogenic in piscine and mammalian model systems at concentrations that appear non-toxic in other organ systems. The mechanism by which MTBE targets developing vascular structures is unknown. A global transcriptome analysis of zebrafish embryos developmentally exposed to 0.00625–5 mM MTBE suggested that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-regulated pathways were affected. HIF-driven angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) is essential to the developing vasculature of an embryo. Three rescue studies were designed to rescue MTBE-induced vascular lesions: pooled blood in the common cardinal vein (CCV), cranial hemorrhages (CH), and abnormal intersegmental vessels (ISV), and test the hypothesis that MTBE toxicity was HIF–Vegf dependent. First, zebrafish vegf-a over-expression via plasmid injection, resulted in significantly fewer CH and ISV lesions, 46 and 35% respectively, in embryos exposed to 10 mM MTBE. Then HIF degradation was inhibited in two ways. Chemical rescue by N-oxaloylglycine significantly reduced CCV and CH lesions by 30 and 32% in 10 mM exposed embryos, and ISV lesions were reduced 24% in 5 mM exposed zebrafish. Finally, a morpholino designed to knock-down ubiquitin associated von Hippel–Lindau protein, significantly reduced CCV lesions by 35% in 10 mM exposed embryos. In addition, expression of some angiogenesis related genes altered by MTBE exposure were rescued. These studies demonstrated that MTBE vascular toxicity is mediated by a down regulation of HIF–Vegf driven angiogenesis. The selective toxicity of MTBE toward developing vasculature makes it a potentially useful chemical in the designing of new drugs or in elucidating roles for specific angiogenic proteins in future studies of vascular development. - Highlights: • Global gene expression of MTBE exposed zebrafish suggested altered HIF1 signaling. • Over expression of zebrafish vegf-a rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • Inhibiting PHD or knocking down VHL rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • HIF1-Vegf driven angiogenesis is a target for MTBE vascular toxicity.

  11. Derivation of a human equivalent concentration for n-butanol using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for n-butyl acetate and metabolites n-butanol and n-butyric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Deisinger, P. J.; Poet, Torka S.; English, J C.; Faber, W D.; Barton, H. A.; Corley, Rick A.; Clewell, III, H. J.

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The metabolic series (family) approach for risk assessment uses a dosimetry-based analysis to develop toxicity information for a group of metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic (PK) data for each compound and toxicity data for the parent compound. An initial physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to support the implementation of the metabolic series approach for n-butyl acetate and its subsequent metabolites, n-butanol, and n-butyric acid (the butyl series) (Barton et al. 2000). In conjunction with pilot pharmacokinetic studies, the model was used to design the definitive intravenous (i.v.) PK studies. Rats were implanted with dual indwelling cannulae and administered test compounds by i.v. bolus dose, i.v. infusion, or by inhalation in a recirculating closed chamber. Hepatic, vascular and extravascular metabolic constants for metabolism were estimated by fitting the model to the blood time course data from these experiments. The respiratory bioavailability of n-butyl acetate and n-butanol was estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting butyl series PBPK model successfully reproduces the blood time course of these compounds following i.v. administration, and inhalation exposure to n-butyl acetate and n-butanol. A fully scaled human version of the model successfully reproduces arterial blood n-butanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to n-butanol. These validated i.v (rat) and inhalation route models (rat, butyl acetate, n-butanol; human, butanol only) can be used to support species and dose-route extrapolations required for risk assessment of butyl series family of compounds. Further, this work demonstrates the usefulness of i.v. kinetic data for parameterization of systemic metabolism and the value of collaboration between experimentalists and kineticists in the development of PBPK models. The product of this effort, validated rat and human PBPK models for the butyl series compounds, illustrates the effectiveness of broad multi-institutional public/private collaborations in the pursuit of developing state of the art tools for risk assessment.

  12. Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of methyl tert-butyl ether and its metabolites on HL-60 cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, G.H. [Xian Medical Univ. (China); Shen, Y.; Shen, H.M. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widely used oxygenate in unleaded gasoline; however, few studies have been conducted on the toxicity of this compound. This study evaluates the cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of MTBE and its metabolites in a human haemopoietic cell line, HL-60. The metabolites of MTBE studied include tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), {alpha}-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA), and formaldehyde. Comet assay is used to assess DNA damage, and the cytotoxicity is investigated by lactate dehydrogenease (LDH) release. The results show no significant cytotoxic effects of MTBE, TBA, and HIBA over a concentration ranging from 1 to 30 mM. Formaldehyde, in contrast, causes a substantial LDH release at a concentration of 5 {mu}M. Hydrogen peroxide, a known oxidative agent, at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, produces a significant dose-related increase in DNA damage, whereas a much higher concentration of MTBE (1 to 30 mM) is required to produce a similar observation. The genotoxic effects of TBA and HIBA appear to be identical to that of MTBE. Conversely, DNA damage is observed for formaldehyde at a relatively low concentration range (5 to 100 {mu}M). These findings suggest that MTBE and its metabolites, except formaldehyde, have relatively low cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Structural Properties of Tetra-tert-butyl Zinc(II) Phthalocyanine Isomers on a Au(111) Z. T. Deng, H. M. Guo, W. Guo, L. Gao, Z. H. Cheng, D. X. Shi, and H.-J. Gao*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    . Deng, H. M. Guo, W. Guo, L. Gao, Z. H. Cheng, D. X. Shi, and H.-J. Gao* Beijing National LaboratoryStructural Properties of Tetra-tert-butyl Zinc(II) Phthalocyanine Isomers on a Au(111) Surface Z. T

  14. Treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether vapors in a biotrickling filters. 2. Analysis of the rate-limiting step and behavior under transient conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortin, N.Y.; Deshusses, M.A. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering] [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed experiments were performed with gas phase biotrickling filters treating vapors of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive of great environmental concern. A particular emphasis was placed on the analysis of the rate-limiting step, and it was found that the process was mostly limited by the biological reaction rather than by mass transfer. Further experiments involved the study of the dynamic behavior of the biotrickling filters under simulated field conditions. In all cases, the biotrickling filters adapted rapidly to the new conditions, and new steady states were obtained within hours. The relevance of the results and the implications as far as implementation of biotrickling filters for field MTBE treatment are discussed.

  15. Thermally Switchable Thin Films of an ABC Triblock Copolymer of Poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shanju [Georgia Institute of Technology; Liu, Zhan [Georgia Institute of Technology; Bucknall, David G. [Georgia Institute of Technology; He, Lihong [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Allen, Mark [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermo-responsive behavior of polymer films consisting of novel linear triblock copolymers of poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly(2-fluoroethyl methacrylate) (PnBuMA-PMMA-P2FEMA) are reported using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic forcing microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contacting angle (CA) measurements. The surface morphology, wettability and chemical structure of thin films of these triblock copolymers on silicon wafers as a function of temperature have been investigated. It has been shown that the wettability of the films is thermally switchable. Detailed structural analysis shows that thermo-responsive surface composition changes are produced. The underlying mechanism of the thermoresponsive behavior is discussed.

  16. Treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether vapors in biotrickling filters. 1. Reactor startup, steady-state performance, and culture characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortin, N.Y.; Deshusses, M.A. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering] [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aerobic microbial consortium able to biodegrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was enriched in two waste air biotrickling filters after continuous operation for 6 months. After this acclimation phase, the two laboratory-scale biotrickling filters were able to degrade up to 50 g of MTBE per cubic meter of reactor per hour, a value comparable to other gasoline constituents. Such high performance could be sustained for at least 4--6 weeks. After the acclimation phase, the MTBE degrading biotrickling filters were characterized by their almost full conversion of MTBE to carbon dioxide and the absence of any degradation byproducts in either the gas or the liquid phase. They also exhibited a very high specific degradation activity per amount of biomass, and a low rate of biomass accumulation. An observed biomass yield of 0.1 g g{sup {minus}1} and a specific growth rate of 0.025 day{sup {minus}1} were determined for the biotrickling filter process culture. Further data on MTBE mass transfer and on the dynamic behavior of the biotrickling filter are presented in part 2 of this paper. Overall, the results demonstrate that MTBE can be effectively biodegraded under carefully controlled environmental conditions.

  17. Fluctuating micro-heterogeneity in water–tert-butyl alcohol mixtures and lambda-type divergence of the mean cluster size with phase transition-like multiple anomalies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Saikat; Furtado, Jonathan; Bagchi, Biman, E-mail: bbagchi@sscu.iisc.ernet.in [SSCU, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)] [SSCU, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Water–tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) binary mixture exhibits a large number of thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies. These anomalies are observed at surprisingly low TBA mole fraction, with x{sub TBA} ? 0.03–0.07. We demonstrate here that the origin of the anomalies lies in the local structural changes that occur due to self-aggregation of TBA molecules. We observe a percolation transition of the TBA molecules at x{sub TBA} ? 0.05. We note that “islands” of TBA clusters form even below this mole fraction, while a large spanning cluster emerges above that mole fraction. At this percolation threshold, we observe a lambda-type divergence in the fluctuation of the size of the largest TBA cluster, reminiscent of a critical point. Alongside, the structure of water is also perturbed, albeit weakly, by the aggregation of TBA molecules. There is a monotonic decrease in the tetrahedral order parameter of water, while the dipole moment correlation shows a weak nonlinearity. Interestingly, water molecules themselves exhibit a reverse percolation transition at higher TBA concentration, x{sub TBA} ? 0.45, where large spanning water clusters now break-up into small clusters. This is accompanied by significant divergence of the fluctuations in the size of largest water cluster. This second transition gives rise to another set of anomalies around. Both the percolation transitions can be regarded as manifestations of Janus effect at small molecular level.

  18. Low-temperature CVD of iron, cobalt, and nickel nitride thin films from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cloud, Andrew N.; Abelson, John R., E-mail: abelson@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 201 Materials Science and Engineering Building, 1304 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Davis, Luke M.; Girolami, Gregory S., E-mail: girolami@scs.illinois.edu [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of late transition metal nitrides (where the metal is iron, cobalt, or nickel) are grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia. These metal nitrides are known to have useful mechanical and magnetic properties, but there are few thin film growth techniques to produce them based on a single precursor family. The authors report the deposition of metal nitride thin films below 300?°C from three recently synthesized M[N(t-Bu){sub 2}]{sub 2} precursors, where M?=?Fe, Co, and Ni, with growth onset as low as room temperature. Metal-rich phases are obtained with constant nitrogen content from growth onset to 200?°C over a range of feedstock partial pressures. Carbon contamination in the films is minimal for iron and cobalt nitride, but similar to the nitrogen concentration for nickel nitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the incorporated nitrogen is present as metal nitride, even for films grown at the reaction onset temperature. Deposition rates of up to 18?nm/min are observed. The film morphologies, growth rates, and compositions are consistent with a gas-phase transamination reaction that produces precursor species with high sticking coefficients and low surface mobilities.

  19. Is Embolization of the Pancreas Safe? Pancreatic Histological Changes after Selective Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okada, Takuya, E-mail: okabone@gmail.com; Yamaguchi, Masato [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Takahashi, Takuya [Kobe Red Cross Hospital, Department of Pathology (Japan); Izaki, Kenta; Uotani, Kensuke; Sakamoto, Noriaki; Sugimura, Kazuro; Sugimoto, Koji [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety of selective transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in a swine model in terms of histological changes in the pancreas. Methods: Three groups of two female swine (58-64 kg) per group underwent TAE of the dorsal pancreatic artery, under anesthesia, with 1:1, 1:4, and 1:9 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil. Blood parameters were evaluated at days 1, 4, and 10 after TAE, after which the animals were sacrificed and pancreatic tissues were examined under light microscopy. Results: All of the animals were asymptomatic and survived for 10 days. Cone beam computed tomographic angiography revealed occlusion of the dorsal pancreatic artery and no enhancement in the embolized area. The white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level were elevated slightly on day 1 after TAE (mean {+-} SD: 252.7 {+-} 27.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2}/{mu}l and 0.15 {+-} 0.07 mg/l, respectively), but they normalized or remained near the upper normal limit thereafter. The serum amylase and lipase levels also were elevated on day 1 (8831.7 {+-} 2169.2 U/l and 130 {+-} 53.4 U/l, respectively) but normalized thereafter. Histologically, necrosis and fibrosis were noted only in the embolized segment, and necrosis and acute inflammatory reactions were absent in the nonembolized segment. The border between both segments was well defined. Lymphocytic infiltration and foreign body reaction were noted around the embolized vessels. Conclusions: Selective TAE with NBCA in the pancreas caused localized ischemic necrosis without clinically significant pancreatitis; therefore, this procedure is tolerable in swine.

  20. Effect of Ethanol and Methyl-tert-Butyl Ether on Monoaromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation: Response Variability for Different Aquifer Materials Under Various Electron-Accepting Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Aguilar, G L; Fernandez-Sanchez, J M; Kane, S R; Kim, D; Alvarez, P J

    2003-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Aquifer microcosms were used to determine how ethanol and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MtBE) affect monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation under different electron-accepting conditions commonly found in contaminated sites experiencing natural attenuation. Response variability was investigated by using aquifer material from four sites with different exposure history. The lag phase prior to BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and ethanol degradation was typically shorter in microcosms with previously contaminated aquifer material, although previous exposure did not always result in high degradation activity. Toluene was degraded in all aquifer materials and generally under a broader range of electron-accepting conditions compared to benzene, which was degraded only under aerobic conditions. MtBE was not degraded within 100 days under any condition, and it did not affect BTEX or ethanol degradation patterns. Ethanol was often degraded before BTEX compounds, and had a variable effect on BTEX degradation as a function of electron-accepting conditions and aquifer material source. An occasional enhancement of toluene degradation by ethanol occurred in denitrifying microcosms with unlimited nitrate; this may be attributable to the fortuitous growth of toluene-degrading bacteria during ethanol degradation. Nevertheless, experiments with flow-through aquifer columns showed that this beneficial effect could be eclipsed by an ethanol-driven depletion of electron acceptors, which significantly inhibited BTEX degradation and is probably the most important mechanism by which ethanol could hinder BTEX natural attenuation. A decrease in natural attenuation could increase the likelihood that BTEX compounds reach a receptor as well as the potential duration of exposure.

  1. Acute toxicity of smoke screen materials to aquatic organisms, white phosphorus-felt, red phosphorus-butyl rubber and SGF No. 2 fog oil. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, T.M.; McFadden, K.M.; Bean, R.M.; Clark, M.L.; Thomas, B.L.; Killand, B.W.; Prohammer, L.A.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The acute toxicity of three obscurants was determined for nine freshwater organisms. The materials tested were white phosphorus-felt smoke, red phosphorus-butyl rubber (RP-BR) smoke, and smoke generator fuel (SGF) No. 2 fog oil (bulk and vaporized). The chemistry of WP-F and RP-BR smoke in water and the resulting effects on aquatic organisms are similar. Combustion of these two obscurants and their deposition in water leads to the formation of many complex oxy-phosphoric acids. Rates of hydrolysis of these complex products to ortho-phosphate were inconsistent and unpredictable over time. These products acidify water and produce toxic effects after exhausting the buffering capacity of the water. Acute 96 hr tests using Daphnia magna with neutralized and nonneutralized exposure solutions indicated that the presence of unidentified toxic component(s) acted independently of pH. At pH levels of 6.0 to 7.0, phosphorus combustion products precipitated out of solution leading to a bimodal toxic response in extended 96-hr tests with Daphnia magna. Most components of fog oil had low solubility in water. Saturation was apparent at approximately 0.1 to 0.3 mg/L total oil. Vaporization had no demonstrable effect on the chemistry or toxicity of the fog oil. Neither the bulk fog oil nor the vaporized fog oil was acutely toxic to freshwater animals at concentrations less than 10 mg/L total oil. In oil-water mixes in excess of 1.0 mg/L total oil, fog oil quickly separated and floated to the surface. The primary hazard associated with vaporized and bulk fog oil was the physical effect of oil fouling the organisms. Photolysis increased the concentration of water-soluble components of the fog oil. Acute toxicity was demonstrated in oil-water mixes (approx.10 mg/L total oil) of photolyzed bulk and vaporized fog oil. No difference in toxicity was observed between photolyzed and non-photolyzed dilutions of OWM at comparable levels of total oil.

  2. Sonolytic destruction of methyl tert-butyl ether by ultrasonic irradiation: The role of O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, frequency, and power density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, J.W.; Hung, H.M.; Lin, A.; Hoffmann, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.

    1999-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics of degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of ozone as functions of applied frequencies and applied power are investigated. Experiments are performed over the frequency range of 205--1,078 kHz. The higher overall reaction rates are observed at 358 and 618 kHz and then at 205 and 1,078 kHz. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constant, k{sub 0}, for MTBE degradation increases with increasing power density up to 250 W L{sup {minus}1}. A linear dependence of the first-order rate constant, k{sub O{sub 3}}, for the simultaneous degradation of O{sub 3} on power density is also observed. Naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) is shown to have a negligible effect on observed reaction rates.

  3. Kinetics and mechanism of the thermal dissociation of O,O'-bis(1,3,5-TRI-tert-butyl-4-oxo-2,5-cyclo-hexadienyl)-p-benzoquinone dioxime in solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khizhnyi, V.A.; Danilova, T.A.; Goloverda, G.Z.; Dobronravova, Z.A.

    1987-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics and mechanism of the thermal dissociation of O,O'-bis(1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadienyl)-p-benzoquinone dioxime (quinol ether) in solutions in nonpolar solvents were investigated. The dissociation of the quinol ether is reversible two-stage process and involves the formation of an intermediate radical. In relation to the reaction conditions (initial concentration, temperature) the dissociation rate of the quinol ether obeys the kinetic equations omega = k/sub eff/ x c/sup 1/2/ or omega = k/sub 1/c. The change in the reaction order is due to the ratio of the rates of dissociation of the intermediate radical and of its reaction with the phenoxyl radical. The ESR spectra were recorded on a Varian E-9 radiospectrometer with high-frequency modulation of 100 kHz.

  4. {gamma}-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}) receptor regulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat hippocampus in high doses of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-induced impairment of spatial memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng Gang; Zhang Wenbin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Zhang Yun [465 Hospital, Jilin Medical College, Jilin 132001 (China); Chen Yaoming; Liu Mingchao; Yao Ting; Yang Yanxia; Zhao Fang [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Li Jingxia; Huang Chuanshu [Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, New York 10987 (United States); Luo Wenjing [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)], E-mail: luowenj@fmmu.edu.cn; Chen Jingyuan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)], E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and occupational exposure to Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) has been reported to induce neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral effects, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, and disorientation, etc. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in MTBE-induced neurotoxicity are still not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MTBE on spatial memory and the expression and function of GABA{sub A} receptor in the hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that intraventricular injection of MTBE impaired the performance of the rats in a Morris water maze task, and significantly increased the expression of GABA{sub A} receptor {alpha}1 subunit in the hippocampus. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased after the MTBE injection. Furthermore, the decreased ability of learning and the reduction of phosphorylated ERK1/2 level of the MTBE-treated rats was partly reversed by bicuculline injected 30 min before the training. These results suggested that MTBE exposure could result in impaired spatial memory. GABA{sub A} receptor may play an important role in the MTBE-induced impairment of learning and memory by regulating the phosphorylation of ERK in the hippocampus.

  5. Mode of action of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether hepatotumorigenicity in the rat: Evidence for a role of oxidative stress via activation of CAR, PXR and PPAR signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakehashi, Anna, E-mail: anna@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio [DIMS Institute of Medical Science, Inc., 64 Goura, Nishiazai, Azai-cho, Ichinomiya, Aichi 491-0113 (Japan); Nagano, Kasuke [Nagano Toxicologic-Pathology Consulting, Ochiai, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0025 (Japan); Nishimaki, Fukumi [Biofuel Assessment Group, New Fuels Dept., Japan Petroleum Energy Center (JPEC), 4-3-9 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan); Banton, Marcy [Toxicology and Risk Assessment, LyondellBasell Industries, LyondellBasell Corporate HSE/Product Safety, One Houston Center, Suite 700, 1221 McKinney Street, Houston, TX 770 10 (United States); Wei, Min [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Shoji [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 2445 Hirasawa, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0011 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Hideki [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To elucidate possible mode of action (MOA) and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), male F344 rats were administered ETBE at doses of 0, 150 and 1000 mg/kg body weight twice a day by gavage for 1 and 2 weeks. For comparison, non-genotoxic carcinogen phenobarbital (PB) was applied at a dose of 500 ppm in diet. Significant increase of P450 total content and hydroxyl radical levels by low, high doses of ETBE and PB treatments at weeks 1 and 2, and 8-OHdG formation at week 2, accompanied accumulation of CYP2B1/2B2, CYP3A1/3A2 and CYP2C6, and downregulation of DNA oxoguanine glycosylase 1, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes, respectively. Up-regulation of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1 at weeks 1 and 2, and peroxisome proliferation at week 2 were found in high dose ETBE group. Results of proteome analysis predicted activation of upstream regulators of gene expression altered by ETBE including constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). These results indicate that the MOA of ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats may be related to induction of oxidative stress, 8-OHdG formation, subsequent cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis, suggesting regenerative cell proliferation after week 2, predominantly via activation of CAR and PXR nuclear receptors by a mechanism similar to that of PB, and differentially by activation of PPARs. The MOA for ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats is unlikely to be relevant to humans. - Highlights: • We focus on MOA and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ETBE. • ETBE was administered to F344 rats for 1 and 2 weeks. • Oxidative stress formation, proliferation and apoptosis in the liver are analyzed. • ETBE-induced changes of gene and protein expression in the liver are examined. • The effects are compared with those induced by non-genotoxic carcinogen PB.

  6. LANXESS Global Butyl Rubber Research Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denham, Graham

    at the University of Western Ontario Research Park in Sarnia. Through its subsidiary Bluewater Chemicals, Bio

  7. sup 13 C, sup 17 O, and sup 14 N NMR spectroscopic studies of a series of mixed isocyanide/carbonyl complexes of tungsten: W(CO) sub 6-n (CNR) sub n (R = tert-butyl, p tolyl; n = 1-3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guy, M.P.; Coffer, J.L.; Rommel, J.S.; Bennett, D.W. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1988-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    {sup 13}C, {sup 17}O, and {sup 14}N NMR spectra for the tungsten isocyanide complexes W(CO){sub 6-n}(CNR){sub n} (R = tert-butyl, p-tolyl; n = 1-3) have been obtained and the magnitudes of the corresponding chemical shifts utilized as a probe of differences in electronic structure. Comparisons of {delta}({sup 17}O) with {delta}({sup 13}CO) and of {delta}(C{sup 14}N) with {nu}(CN), or {delta}({sup 13}CO) are shown to confirm the better net donor ability of the aliphatic isocyanide over the aromatic isocyanide and illustrate an increased amount of charge density available at the metal center when CO is successively replaced with CNR. Marked differences in {sup 14}N quadrupolar relaxation times are observed between aromatic and aliphatic isocyanides, suggesting that the aromatic ring is involved in the M-L {pi} system. 19 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Research Module: Scheme 2A. N-Benzylation Using Benzyl Bromide 63 Scheme 2 Part A: Redissolve in Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jasperse, Craig P.

    in Methanol 1. Turn hot plate to 5. 2. To the flask with your product 3 from Scheme 1, attach a condener with gentle water flow. 3. Add 15 mL of methanol. · For 4-methoxy compoud 3c, you may need to add 20 mL of methanol, since the 4-methoxy substrates is probably less soluble. 4. Heat the mixture on the hot plate

  9. Distribution of Phthalate Esters in a Marine Aquatic Food Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gobas, Frank

    , and polyurethanes, and as nonplasticizers in products such as lubricating oils, automobile parts, paints, glues

  10. acid phthalate crystals: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a family of chemicals used in many con-sumer products, including building materials, household furnishings, clothing, cosmetics, personal care products, pharmaceuticals,...

  11. Determination of methyl tert. butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, J.; Orchin, M. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A GLC-acid extraction method is described for the determination of MTBE in gasolines. The method consists of a programmed GLC analysis starting at about room temperature conducted before and after extraction with cold 85% phosphoric acid. This treatment results in the preferential solubility of ethers and other oxygenated compounds while minimizing the reaction of olefins and aromatics which may be present in the gasolines. Plotting various known concentrations of MTBE in gasolines against the concentrations determined in the same samples by the authors methodology results in a straight line relationship. The concentration of MTBE in any sample of gasoline may thus be determined using their GLC-extraction procedure and the calibration line. The analysis can accommodate a wide choice of standard GLC columns and programs. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Butyl Acrylate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJuly 30, 2013 Sanyo:MarchPractices in Indian

  13. Organometallics1994,13, 385-396 386 Functionalization of Benzylic Carbon-Hydrogen Bonds.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    and Scope of the Catalytic Synthesis of Indoles with [Ru(dmpe)z] Grace C. HSU,Walter P. Kosar, and William D, 1999 A unique route for the synthesis of indoles from o-tolyl isocyanides using Ru(dmpe)z(H)- (naphthyl alsoformed with substituted indoles, pyrrole, pyrazole, indazole, and pyrrolidine. Blockingthe N-H position

  14. Mild and selective vanadium-catalyzed oxidation of benzylic, allylic, and propargylic alcohols using air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Susan Kloek; Silks, Louis A; Wu, Ruilian

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention concerns processes for oxidizing an alcohol to produce a carbonyl compound. The processes comprise contacting the alcohol with (i) a gaseous mixture comprising oxygen; and (ii) an amine compound in the presence of a catalyst, having the formula: ##STR00001## where each of R.sup.1-R.sup.12 are independently H, alkyl, aryl, CF.sub.3, halogen, OR.sup.13, SO.sub.3R.sup.14, C(O)R.sup.15, CONR.sup.16R.sup.17 or CO.sub.2R.sup.18; each of R.sup.13-R.sup.18 is independently alkyl or aryl; and Z is alkl or aryl.

  15. RESEARCH ARTICLE Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Role of Benzyl Alcohol in the Unfolding and Aggregation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallela, Krishna M. G.

    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Skaggs School of Pharmacy intermediate. Changes in nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts and hydrogen exchange rates identified variation of G with denatu- rant concentration; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance; Tm Agg , midpoint

  16. Sensitization and quenching in the conversion of light energy into chemical energy. Progress report, February 1, 1980-January 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cristol, S.J.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive data from Stern-Volmer, Lamola-Hammond, and Ilenda-Daughenbaugh-Cristol quenching kinetics have now been accumulated on photosolvolysis in t-butyl alcohol for benzyl chloride and a number of meta and para substituted benzyl chlorides. Evidence for the existence of two triplet states, one relatively short-lived (tau 0-2 nsec) which gives solvolysis product and a second, relatively long-lived (tau 5-26 nsec), which does not give product, but instead is energy wasting, has been accumulated. The system, p-acetobenzyl chloride, has been investigated in detail. A method for quenching of singlet states for measurement of singlet lifetimes in the 100 picosecond to nanosecond range is being developed. Preliminary work on benzyl acetate photosolvolysis has been conducted. Some work on the goemetrical requirements for intra-molecular excitation transfer in bichromophoric molecules has been conducted. Several dienes related to norbornadiene have been prepared and preparative photoisomerizations to quadricyclene analogues have been carried out. Considerable attention has been given to certain di-..pi..-methane rearrangements, work on most of which is still in progress. One system, the ethyl ester of dibenzobarrelene-7-carboxylic acid, has been scrutinized in detail.

  17. A simple and direct analytical method for dialkyl phthalates in air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roorda, Curtis Allen

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) (43) (44) (45) (46) (47) (48) (49) (50 ) (51) (52) (53) Dregval, G. F. , Snitkovskaya, T. M. , T1tovskaya, V. N. , Gig. Primen. PoLim. Mater. 1sdeLii. Nikh, 482 (Russ. ) (1969). Druyan, E. A. , Gig. Sanit. , 37 (2), 100-102 (Russ. ) (1972...

  18. Effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on rabbit alveolar macrophages in spinner culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bally, Marcel Bertrand

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Jaeger (1973) suggested that DEHP may exert "subtle toxicologic effects" on tissues, perhaps at the cellular level. Studies with cells or tissues maintained in culture have provided information suggesting that DEHP does exert toxic effects. Rubin... of the vehicle alone. These data emphasize the toxicologic role of the DEHP molecule rather than the non-specific action of the sur- TABLE 4 EFFECTS OF DEHP ON REPRODUCTION DEEP Species Dose R-te V h Principle findings Vehicle Reference Rat Rat Rat Rat...

  19. A simple and direct analytical method for dialkyl phthalates in air 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roorda, Curtis Allen

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the m1dget 1mpinger, Minatur1zation to one-third s1ze resulted in a microimpinger wh1ch operated at one-fifth the samp11ng rate and consumed one-fifth the volume of reagent. Aniline vapor collection eff1ciency was 93/. Sulfur diox1de collect1on effic... packed w1th gas liquid chromatographic packing was designed to trap the PAES. The trapper was placed 1n a properly designed injection apparatus so that the trapper contents could be flashed d1rectly and effic1ently into the gas chromatograph...

  20. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Project title: Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production oftert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as ainvestigate the effect of ethanol release on existing MTBE

  1. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    field site is located at the Vandenberg Air Force Base at a site where a leaking underground storage

  2. Saponification rates of isomeric butyl esters in aqueous 1,4-dioxane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruhnke, Edward Vincent

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Jensen, G. M. Watson and J. B. Beckham, Anal. Chem., 23, 1711-8(1951). (21). F. Daniels, J. H. Mathews and J, W. Williams, "Experimental Physical Chemistry," 3rd. ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, N. Y., 19*4-1, p. 167. (22). S. Glasstone...

  3. Biodegradation of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) using a granular activated carbon trickling filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Converse, B.M.; Schroeder, E.D.; Chang, D.P.Y.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot scale trickling filter was constructed using granular activated carbon (GAC) as the packing medium and inoculated with a microbial culture known to degrade MTBE. The packing dimensions were 0.076 m in diameter and 0.22 m deep. The unit operated with recycling flow for two months before a biofilm was observed on the GAC. After two additional months the biofilm had visibly spread throughout the packing. A few pieces of GAC were placed in a sealed bottle with MTBE-contaminated water and nutrients. Headspace analysis performed over 14 days confirmed that MTBE degradation was occurring. The trickling filter was converted to continuous flow and operated for one month at a nominal flow rate of 0.1 L/min and a hydraulic loading rate of 32 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}-d. Samples were collected for analysis at the spray nozzle and at the bottom of the trickling filter. Fractional removal varied with influent MTBE concentration, temperature and liquid flow rate. Percent MTBE removal was as high as 85%. A mechanical failure resulted in the trickling filter bed drying and percent removal dropping to less than 1 percent. However, the system recovered within five days.

  4. Safe conditions for contacting nitric acid or nitrates with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyder, M.L

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to a request from DOE-SR, the current state of knowledge of the reactions between TBP and aqueous nitrate solutions is critically reviewed, and recommendations are made for the safe operation of SRS separations equipment in which this combination of chemicals may be present. The existing limits for evaporation are validated. Guidelines are presented for cases in which general limits do not apply. The rate of reaction between nitric acid and TBP appears to be controlled by the rate of TBP hydrolysis. The hydrolysis reaction produces dibutyl phosphate and n-butanol. The hydrolysis rate is a strong function of temperature, and becomes very fast at temperatures in the range 130{degrees} to 150{degrees}C. The resulting n-butanol is volatile at high temperatures, boiling at 117.5{degrees}C, but is also subject to exothermic oxidation by nitric acid or nitrates. If oxidation occurs before the n-butanol evaporates, the heat of oxidation may exceed local cooling by convection. The resulting heating will further accelerate the reaction, leading to an energetic runaway and possibly (in confined systems) an explosion. Extensive experiments and practice have shown that in a well-mixed and well-vented aqueous system such as an evaporator, at moderate acidities and temperatures below 130{degrees}C, the heat of reaction is adequately removed by vaporization of steam. In general, the heating will be so slow that natural processes provide adequate cooling at temperatures below 80{degrees}C. Above this temperature, care should be taken to ensure that adequate cooling is available for the amount of TBP that may be present. Experiments suggest that in well-ventilated systems n-butanol evaporation and convective cooling are sufficient to control the reaction at temperatures up to 120{degrees}C.

  5. The K-band microwave spectra of t-butyl halides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crook, George Hardy

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    result of centrifugal distortion of the mole? cule, and (c) a group of lines from either the hindered internal rotation of the CH^ groups or torsional vibration along the C-CH-j bonds, or both. In an attempt to determine the sources of the indi... absorption lines in the microwave re? gion were reported by Cleeton and Williams (2) in 1934* No more papers on this subject appeared in the literature until 1946. Since this latter date, however, some 400 papers relating to miorowave absorption spectra...

  6. acetone-butyl alcohol fermentation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Dissertations Summary: ??ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Alcoholic fermentation, and especially wine fermentation, is one of the most ancient microbiological processes utilized by man....

  7. aluminum triso-ethylphosphonate butylate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Repository Summary: Damping and Dynamic Modulus Measurements in Alumina and Tungsten Fibre-Reinforced Aluminium Composites. the damping capacity of aluminum tungsten fiber...

  8. acid t-butyl ester: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stable thermodynamically and hydration free energies obtained Yu, Fangqun 189 ANTIBODY PURIFICATION USING CAPRYLIC ACID In mildly acidic conditions, the addition of short-chain...

  9. Batch polymerization of styrene initiated by n-butyl lithium in a cyclohexane solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landon, Thomas Rodman

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the effect of autocatalytic initiation. The propagation rate constant is assumed to be independent of chain length. In order to solve equation (49), one can use equation (46) and obtain nM(P . ? P . ) dt j i I (SO) where kp / p T If one assumes 2K..., they were then dried overnight in a vacuum oven at 200 to 220'C and 30 inches Hg. vacuum. Before removing the bottjes from the oven, the oven was pressured to at- mospheric pressure with prepurified nitrogen. As quickly as possible, after the bottles...

  10. Biofuel cells: Electro-enzymatic oxidation of formate using formate dehydrogenase, NAD{sup +}, diaphorase, benzyl viologen, and graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmmore, G.T.R.; Bertschy, H.; Bergens, S.H.; Whitesides, G.M. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have developed an effective electrochemical method to regenerate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) from NADH. Diaphorase (D) was used to oxidize NADH to NAD{sup +} with the concomitant reduction of two equivalents of benzylviologen (BV{sup 2+}) to the mono cation, BV{sup +} to the mono cation, BV{sup +}. The BV{sup +} was then electrochemically oxidized to BV{sup 2+} at a carbon-felt anode: NADH + 2BV{sup 2+} --(D)--> NAD{sup +} + 2BV{sup +} 2BV{sup +}-->(anode)-->2BV{sup 2+}. This system was incorporated into an enzymatic fuel cell that used formate as fuel. Formate dehydrogenase (FDH) was used to oxidize formate to CO{sub 2} with the concomitant 2 e{sup {minus}}, 2H{sup +} reduction of NAD{sup +} to NADH. The NADH was then regenerated using the system described above. The anode of the fuel cell was used to oxidize BV{sup +} to BV{sup 2+}. Blackened Pt gauze as used as the cathode of the fuel cell. The working parameters of the formate/O{sub 2} biofuel cell will be presented including methods to develop this system into the more complex methanol/O{sub 2} biofuel cell.

  11. Role of Benzyl Alcohol in Controlling the Growth of TiO2 on Carbon Nanotubes David J. Cooke,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, James

    to produce hydrogen for energy applications,4,5 as well as in dye-sensitized solar cells3,6,7 and gas sensing, which are typically encapsulated within the CNTs during their synthesis as metal source for a new doping

  12. Impacts of Venturi Turbulent Mixing on the Size Distributions of Sodium Chloride and Dioctyl-Phthalate Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, M-D.

    2000-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Internal combustion engines are a major source of airborne particulate matter (PM). The size of the engine PM is in the sub-micrometer range. The number of engine particles per unit volume is high, normally in the range of 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 14}. To measure the size distribution of the engine particles dilution of an aerosol sample is required. A diluter utilizing a venturi ejector mixing technique is commercially available and tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if turbulence created by the ejector in the mini-dilutor changes the size of particles passing through it. The results of the NaCl aerosol experiments show no discernible difference in the geometric mean diameter and geometric standard deviation of particles passing through the ejector. Similar results were found for the DOP particles. The ratio of the total number concentrations before and after the ejector indicates that a dilution ratio of approximately 20 applies equally for DOP and NaCl particles. This indicates the dilution capability of the ejector is not affected by the particle composition. The statistical analysis results of the first and second moments of a distribution indicate that the ejector may not change the major parameters (e.g., the geometric mean diameter and geometric standard deviation) characterizing the size distributions of NaCl and DOP particles. However, when the skewness was examined, it indicates that the ejector modifies the particle size distribution significantly. The ejector could change the skewness of the distribution in an unpredictable and inconsistent manner. Furthermore, when the variability of particle counts in individual size ranges as a result of the ejector is examined, one finds that the variability is greater for DOP particles in the size range of 40-150 nm than for NaCl particles in the size range of 30 to 350 nm. The numbers or particle counts in this size region are high enough that the Poisson counting errors are small (<10%) compared with the tail regions. This result shows that the ejector device could have a higher bin-to-bin counting uncertainty for ''soft'' particles such as DOP than for a solid dry particle like NaCl. The results suggest that it may be difficult to precisely characterize the size distribution of particles ejected from the mini-dilution system if the particle is not solid.

  13. Impacts of Venturi Turbulent Mixing on the Size Distribution of Sodium Chloride and Dioctyl-Phthalate Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, M.-D.; Wainman, T.; Storey, J.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Internal combustion engines are a major source of airborne particulate matter (PM). The size of the engine PM is in the sub-micrometer range. The number of engine particles per unit volume is high, normally in the range of 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 14}. To measure the size distribution of the engine particles dilution of an aerosol sample is required. A diluter utilizing a venturi ejector mixing technique is commercially available and tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if turbulence created by the ejector in the mini-dilutor changes the size of particles passing through it.

  14. 13310 J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99, 13310-13320 FEATURE ARTICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    -methyltetrahydrofuran, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform. The experiments were conducted

  15. Viscoelastic Properties and Phase Behavior of 12-tert-Butyl Ester Dendrimer/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmon, Julie P.

    with bis- phenol A polycarbonate (PC), resulting in an in- crease in free volume with increasing dendrimer hyperbranched polyester/bisphenol A PC blends with respect to pure PC. Studies were conducted by Carr et al.24

  16. Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MtBE) contamination of the City of Santa Monica drinking water supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, A.; Farrow, J.R.C. [Komex H2O Science, Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Rodriguez, R.A. [City of Santa Monica, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In the summer of 1996, the City of Santa Monica ceased pumping groundwater from two Well Fields (Charnock and Arcadia) used for public drinking water supply due to persistent and increasing concentrations of MtBE in all seven municipal water supply wells. This lost production accounted for 50% of the City`s total drinking water supply. In late 1996, the City, in cooperation with State and Federal agencies, initiated an investigation of MtBE contamination at the two well fields. The objectives of the investigation were as follows: (1) Review available data on the production, use, chemical characteristics, fate and transport, toxicology, and remediation of MtBE; (2) Identify locations of potential sources of MtBE groundwater contamination at the well fields; (3) Develop an understanding of the hydrologic pathways from the potential sources to the drinking water wells; and (4) Evaluate alternative treatment technologies for the removal of MtBE from drinking water. In addition to a review of available information about MtBE, the investigation included an extensive review of literature and available data relevant to the well fields, including well field production histories, site and regional hydrogeology, all well logs and production in the groundwater basins, general groundwater quality, and the record of MtBE detection. Based upon the review of background information, conceptual hydrogeologic models were developed. A detailed review of agency files for over 45 potential source sites was conducted. The information from this review was summarized, and source site screening and ranking criteria were developed. A field program was conducted at the major well field (Charnock), including soil gas surveys, CPTs, soil borings and well installations, geophysics, and aquifer testing. The field program provided site data which allowed the conceptual hydrogeologic model to be refitted to actual site conditions.

  17. Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. J. Slomczynski. 2003. BTEX/MTBE bioremediation: BionetsScow, and L. Alvarez-Cohen. MTBE and benzene biodegradationinteractions in BTEX and MTBE mixtures by an MTBE-degrading

  18. Review of potential technologies for the treatment of Methyl tertiary butyl Ether (MtBE) in drinking water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, A.; Browne, T.E. [Komex H2O Science, Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Devinny, J.S. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    At present, the state of knowledge on effective treatment technologies for MtBE in drinking water, and groundwater in general, is limited. Research by others is focusing on the remediation of MtBE close to the point of release. The City of Santa Monica, MWD, Komex and USC are currently conducting research into different technologies that could be used to remove MtBE from drinking water supplies. The objectives of the research are to evaluate different treatment technologies to identify cost-effective and technically feasible alternatives for the removal of MtBE from drinking water. The evaluation is considering moderate to high water flow rates (100 to 2,000+ gpm) and low to moderate MtBE concentrations (<2,000 {mu}g/l). The research program includes four phases: (1) Literature Review; (2) Bench Scale Study; (3) Field Scale Pre-pilot Study; and (4) Summary Evaluation. This paper presents some preliminary information and findings from the first phase of this research - the literature review. The review discusses the chemical properties of MtBE and how they affect remediation and thus, an evaluation of alternative treatment technologies. The review of available literature, and the applicability and limitations of the following technologies are presented in detail.

  19. An experimental system for the n-butyl-lithium initiated polymerization of styrene in a multi-sampled batch reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, James Harvey

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature gradients and thereby causing concentration gradients due to increased reaction rates. No method has yet been reported for monitoring the internal temperature of such a soft-drink bottle reactor, or of providing any kind of dy- namic... and Bywater [I] showed that the initial rate of heat generation by the polymerization reac- tion would be so high that the thermal resistance of the reactor bowl would prevent isothermal operations. By using the manufacturer's stainless steel internal...

  20. An experimental system for the n-butyl-lithium initiated polymerization of styrene in a multi-sampled batch reactor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, James Harvey

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -hydrogen interconversions in- stead of the desired cleavage reaction. The sulfur-sulfur bond is a chromophore that absorbs ultraviolet light in the 255 nm region with a relatively low molar absorption (z = 400). This is suffi- max ciently large for the detection...- cally there are two broad divisions of experimental methods; the ultra-high purity, evacuated glass systems and the lower purity, more rugged, bench-scale systems. One analytical method, the spectrophotometric method, as used by Worsfold and Bywater...

  1. Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2003. BTEX/MTBE bioremediation: Bionets containing Isolite,In Situ and On-site Bioremediation Symposium. Battellebacteria for use in bioremediation. FEMS Lett. 22. Dennis,

  2. Newly Developed Methods for Functionalization of Quaternary Carbons: Decarboxylative Allylation, Benzylation, and Arylation of Nitriles and the Asymmetric Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation of 1,3-Diketones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recio, Antonio

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ., "Palladium-Catalyzed Addition of Mono- and Dicarbonyl Compounds to Conjugated Dienes." J. Org. Chem. 2004, 69, 7552–7557. 38. Fleming, F. F.; Zhang, Z.; Knochel, P., "Metalated Nitriles: Halogen-Metal Exchange with ?-Halonitriles." Org. Lett. 2004, 6, 501... Lanthanoids: Dimeric Cyanomethyl-Lanthanoid Complexes with CH2CN Bridges." Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 1990, 29, 420–422. [34] Chapter II. Regiospecific Decarboxylative Allylation of Nitriles [35] CII.1: Introduction...

  3. Simplifying Nickel(0) Catalysis: An Air-stable, COD-free Nickel Precatalyst for the Internally-selective Benzylation of Terminal Alkenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamison, Timothy F.

    The synthesis and characterization of the air-stable nickel(II) complex trans-(PCy[subscript 2]Ph)[subscript 2]Ni(o-tolyl)Cl is described in conjunction with an investigation of its use for the Mizoroki–Heck-type, room ...

  4. Covalently Linked Plasticizers: Triazole Analogues of Phthalate Plasticizers Prepared by Mild Copper-Free â??Clickâ?ť Reactions with Azide-Functionalized PVC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Earla, Aruna; Braslau, Rebecca

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with Azide-functionalized PVC 1 Aruna Earla and RebeccaE-mail: rbraslau@ucsc.edu Tel: (831) 459-3087 PVC N 3 RO 2C CO 2 R PVC N 3 RT, 27 h Cl copper-free N N "click" N Cl CO

  5. Neutron diffraction study of lithium hydrogen phthalate monohydrate: A material with two very short intramolecular O???H???O hydrogen bonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kü ppers, Horst; Takusagawa, Fusao; Koetzle, Thomas F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .91 - 0.29 0.173(4) -0.26 0.34 0.90 0.051 0.0005 3.1(2) 0.91 -0.17 0.37 0.162(4) -0.58 0.69 - 0.43 2.8(2) 0.29 - 0.37 - 0.88 0.153(4) -0.77 -0.64 0.02 Carboxyl group IS 0.0005 3.3(2) 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.083(2) -0.13 -0.98 0.17 g C(II), C(17), 0(11), 0...

  6. Coal anion structure and chemistry of coal alkylation. Final report, March 1, 1979-February 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stock, L.M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In accord with Task 1, some ether cleavage reactions were carried out in two different media - potassium/naphthalene/tetrahydrofuran and potassium/ ammonia - so that the merits and demerits of the two methods could be compared. Preliminary results suggest that both systems yield the same products, and that the ammonia medium is more convenient to work with, because of the absence of by-products such as reduced naphthalenes and tetralin. Dialkyl ethers were found to be least reactive compounds while the benzyl and phenyl ethers were found to be most reactive, as would be expected. The reductive alkylation of coal was carried out in ammonia at 25/sup 0/C. The tetrahydrofuran solubility of the reaction product was surprisingly low. We have obtained additional /sup 13/C)/sup 1/H) nmr data for tetrahydrofuran-soluble butylated coal and some model compounds; obtained additional Styragel(R) chromatography data of tetrahydrofuran-soluble coal labelled with 98%-enriched butyl-1,1-d/sub 2/ iodide; and obtained /sup 2/D nmr spectra of all the deuterium-labelled, tetrahydrofuran-soluble coal products. In accord with Task 4, we have undertaken a review of the information now available concerning the nature of Illinois No. 6 coal. Also, the effects of organic additives on the exchange reactions between tetralin-d/sub 12/ and diphenyl-methane and on the thermal cleavage reactions of several model compounds in tetralin were investigated to probe the relationship between structure and reactivity. The exchange reaction can be accelerated by coal, asphaltene-preasphaltene fractions derived from coal, compounds with labile bonds, or compounds which can be reduced readily. The pyridine-insoluble coal product, acids, and bases are inactive toward the exchange reaction.

  7. MECHANISM OF OXYGEN ACTIVATION AND HYDROXYLATION BY THE AROMATIC AMINO ACID HYDROXYLASES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavon, Jorge A.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    active sites and contain an iron atom facially coordinated by two histidines and a glutamate. The three enzymes also catalyze the benzylic hydroxylation of 4- methylphenylalanine. The intrinsic primary and ?-secondary isotope effects for benzylic...

  8. ch3probs Page 1 of 9 http://www.jbpub.com/fox/supplementalproblems/ch3pr.htm 11/18/2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walba, David

    -ethyl-2-pentanone e. 3-methylbutanal f. ethanoic anhydride (acetic anhydride) g. ethyl butanoate h. 2. oxidation d. reduction 3.29 a. primary b. tertiary c. primary d. benzylic e. benzylic f. allylic g

  9. anhydride-vinyl methyl ether: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TREAT METHYL- TERT-BUTYL ETHER CONTAMINATED CiteSeer Summary: Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a commonly used gasoline additive. Leaking underground storage tank systems,...

  10. alkyl-tert alkyl ethers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TREAT METHYL- TERT-BUTYL ETHER CONTAMINATED CiteSeer Summary: Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a commonly used gasoline additive. Leaking underground storage tank systems,...

  11. Comparison of SPME headspace analysis to U.S. EPA method5030/8260B for MTBE monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Oh, Kuen-Chan

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method for analysis of methyl tert-butyl ether andtert-butyl alcohol using solid phase microextraction is described andcompared to a standard method.

  12. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethylene dichloride 1 MTBE 2 Vinylchloride 3 Ethylbenzene 1Methyl- Tertiary-Butyl-Ether (MTBE) or Ethyl-Tertiary-Butyl-Styrene Vinylchloride MTBE Benzene, Toluene, Xylene Acetone

  13. Analysis of dissolved benzene plumes and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) plumes in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Happel, A.M.; Rice, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Beckenbach, E. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Savalin, L.; Temko, H.; Rempel, R. [California State Water Resources Control Board, Sacramento, CA (United States); Dooher, B. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandate the addition of oxygenates to gasoline products to abate air pollution. Currently, many areas of the country utilize oxygenated or reformulated fuel containing 15- percent and I I-percent MTBE by volume, respectively. This increased use of MTBE in gasoline products has resulted in accidental point source releases of MTBE containing gasoline products to ground water. Recent studies have shown MTBE to be frequently detected in samples of shallow ground water from urban areas throughout the United States (Squillace et al., 1995). Knowledge of the subsurface fate and transport of MTBE in ground water at leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) sites and the spatial extent of MTBE plumes is needed to address these releases. The goal of this research is to utilize data from a large number of LUFT sites to gain insights into the fate, transport, and spatial extent of MTBE plumes. Specific goals include defining the spatial configuration of dissolved MTBE plumes, evaluating plume stability or degradation over time, evaluating the impact of point source releases of MTBE to ground water, and attempting to identify the controlling factors influencing the magnitude and extent of the MTBE plumes. We are examining the relationships between dissolved TPH, BTEX, and MTBE plumes at LUFT sites using parallel approaches of best professional judgment and a computer-aided plume model fitting procedure to determine plume parameters. Here we present our initial results comparing dissolved benzene and MTBE plumes lengths, the statistical significance of these results, and configuration of benzene and MTBE plumes at individual LUFT sites.

  14. A study of the condensation of primary, secondary, and tertiary butyl alcohols with benzene in the presence of anhydrous ferric chloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodson, Ralph Jordan

    1939-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A PKDT Qt THE COND%SATION QE PRECUT, SSQGNDART~ AND T~ NOTCL ALCOHOLS NITH SEEZEEE IN THE ~E GF ANBIINKU8 mRIQ CHLORIDE Asm 1959 4 et Chea1stxy and 0 A STOSX Gf THE OQtGRWSATIOR Of PRXRARX, SWOORBARX ARRI TCBTXARX WTXL ALQOBOLB WITH 8%%ESSE IR... THS F58XWOR Of AWHXQREUS FERRIC CBLORISR A STUART OF TBR CNRRGATTGR OF PIIRSGKo SROOP~e ARD TRRTZART RDTTL ALCOHOLS RITE ~R ZN TKR FRRSRBCR OP ARBTDROUS PRIBKC OHLORTDR A Theete Parttal Palfileaat cf the ReRNLreewate Ter the aeggso cf Rse4e et...

  15. The Effect of the Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Flowers, Daniel L; Dibble, Robert W

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diethyl ether (DEE) in ethanol fuel blends for a range ofbio-derived fuel components (ethanol) in emission productsHCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether

  16. The Effect of the Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Flowers, Daniel L; Dibble, Robert W

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines: Key Research andJ. Girard, and R. Dibble, "HCCI in a CFR Engine: ExperimentsRyan III, and J.S. Souder, "HCCI Operation of a Dual-Fuel

  17. asthma systematic review: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Meta-analysis CiteSeer Summary: BACKGROUND: Phthalates from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics may have adverse effects on airways and immunologic systems, but the evidence...

  18. allergy quantitative exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Meta-analysis CiteSeer Summary: BACKGROUND: Phthalates from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics may have adverse effects on airways and immunologic systems, but the evidence...

  19. actinides exposure review: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Meta-analysis CiteSeer Summary: BACKGROUND: Phthalates from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics may have adverse effects on airways and immunologic systems, but the evidence...

  20. allergy asthma smoke: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Meta-analysis CiteSeer Summary: BACKGROUND: Phthalates from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics may have adverse effects on airways and immunologic systems, but the evidence...

  1. Chemical Emissions of Residential Materials and Products: Review of Available Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willem, Henry

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission of phthalates from PVC and other materials. Indoorof esters contained in PVC flooring and adhesive. Buildingemissions from individual PVC materials, adhesives and from

  2. Numerical study of the effect of oxygenated blending compounds on soot formation in shock tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, H. [Physikalische Chemie I, Universitaet Bielefeld (Germany); Braun-Unkhoff, M. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This numerical study deals with the influence of blends on the amount of soot formed in shock tubes, which were simulated by assuming a homogeneous plug flow reactor model. For this purpose, first, the reaction model used here was validated against experimental results previously obtained in the literature. Then, the soot volume fractions of various mixtures of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-benzene, isobutene-benzene, methanol-benzene, and ethanol-benzene diluted in argon were simulated and compared to the results of benzene-argon pyrolysis at 1721 K and 5.4 MPa. For MTBE, isobutene, methanol, and ethanol, small amounts of additives to benzene-argon mixtures promoted soot formation, for the shock tube model assumed, while higher concentrations of these additives led to smaller soot volume fractions in comparison to pure benzene-argon pyrolysis. The most significant soot promotion effect was found for the additives MTBE and isobutene. The channel for MTBE decomposition producing isobutene and methanol is very effective at temperatures beyond 1200 K. Thus, both MTBE-benzene and isobutene-benzene mixtures diluted in argon showed rather similar behavior in regard to soot formation. Special emphasis was directed toward the causes for the concentration-dependent influence of the blends on the amount of soot formed. Aromatic hydrocarbons and acetylene were identified as key gas-phase species that determine the trends in the formation of soot of various mixtures. From reaction flux analysis for phenanthrene, it was deduced that the combinative routes including phenyl species play a major role in forming PAHs, especially at early reaction times. It is found that the additives play an important role in providing material to grow side chains, such as by reaction channels including phenylacetylene or benzyl, which are confirmed to form aromatic hydrocarbons and thus to influence the amount of soot formed, particularly when the concentrations of the blends are increased. (author)

  3. Electrochemical investigations of product deposition and dissolution of the reduced forms of alkyl viologens on glassy carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelman, E.E.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reductions of several alkyl viologens in aqueous solutions at a glassy carbon working electrode were investigated. All of the viologens studied exist as colorless dication salts (V[sup 2+]) which are easily reduced to the violet cation radical (V[sup +.]) by a one electron process. The dications can be reduced directly to the yellow-brown, quinoidal neutral species (V[sup 0]) by a two electron process, or to neutral via the cation radical by two successive one electron transfers. In the absence of sodium n-alkyl sulfates, all but one displayed reversible, diffusion-controlled electron transfers for the V[sup 2+]/V[sup +.] couple. With addition of sodium decyl, undecyl and dodecyl sulfates at concentrations below their critical micelle concentrations (cmc), the cation radical product of methyl and ethyl viologen deposits on the electrode surface. The addition of these surfactants at concentrations below their cmc's precipitated the dicationic species of butyl, benzyl, and heptyl viologens. All redox forms of the viologens are solubilized by the onset of micelles. Double potential step chronocoulometry showed the deposition mechanism to be governed by solubility product equilibria. Open-circuit rotating ring-disk electrode (OC-RRDE) voltammetric experiments revealed that two forms of deposit exist. Above the cmc, little or no deposition of neutral forms occurs as V[sup 0] is solubilized in the hydrocarbon interior of the micelles. Cyclic voltammetric investigations revealed that there are also two forms of deposit for neutral viologens. For heptyl viologen, there may be more than two forms of both the V[sup +.] and V[sup 0] deposits. Deposition of the neutral form is governed by nucleation and subsequent growth. From RRDE voltammetry lower limits of solubility of neutral viologens were estimated. OC-RRDE voltammetric experiments showed that dissolution occurred by extremely fast conproportionation reaction which caused the process to be mass-transfer controlled.

  4. acidic conjugate cleavage: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Studies on Persistent Intramolecular CHX (X O, S, Br, Cl, and F) Hydrogen Bonds Involving Benzyl Meldrums Acids. Open Access Theses and Dissertations...

  5. Mechanism of the Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols by Palladium Complexes of N-Heterocyclic Carbenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    reductive elimination of acetic acid, which yields a slightly higher calculated activation barrier-catalyzed aerobic oxidations of benzylic and allylic secondary alcohols, routinely fostering selectivity factors (k

  6. Computational Analysis of Receptor-Odor Interactions and Prediction of Behavior-Modifying Chemical Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyle, Sean Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spikes/sec Prenyl acetate Propyl propionate Allyl Propionate1-Furfurylpyrrole Allyl 2-furoate Benzyl acetate Anisylmethacrylate Allyl propionate 5-hexen-2-on propyl acetate

  7. The Scientific Basis for the Regulation of Nanoparticles: Challenging Paracelsus and Pare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Bernard D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NANOTECHNOILOGY 402 (2007). 20. MTBE unquestionably causesTertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-a Gasoline Additive-CausesMethyl Tertiary-butyl Ether (MTBE) in CD-I Mice and F-344

  8. QUANTIFYING NON-POINT SOURCES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN STORMWATER FROM A PARKING LOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -butyl ether (MTBE) on urban particles indicates a site- specific interaction between MTBE and a particulate is a possible source only for the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Lopes and Bender (1998

  9. Life-cycle Environmental Inventory of Passenger Transportation in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chester, Mikhail V

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert?Butyl Ether (MTBE); http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/Methyl Tertiary Butyl  Ether  (MTBE),  which  was  easily accounting was not performed on MTBE and the result  of 

  10. Measurement and Treatment of Nuisance Odors at Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham, Samantha Margaret

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the presence of MTBE, ETBE and TAME. Chemosphere 85, 616-Xanthomonas sp. MTBE/ETBE/TAME a Acinetobacter calcoaceticusMTBE= Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, ETBE= Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether,

  11. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 21612176, 2006 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/6/2161/2006/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    is oxygenated by addition of ethyl-tertio-butyl ether (ETBE), the second is based on a reformulation of its the ethyl- tertio-butyl-ether or ETBE) allows the

  12. Vol. 83, No. 2, 2006 121 Analysis of Heat Transfer Fouling by Dry-Grind Maize Thin Stillage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a petroleum derivative, and ethanol. In recent years, MTBE has been phased out due

  13. Center for Water Resources Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from MTBE in Groundwater Kate M. Scow, Douglas

  14. MTBE Production Economics (Released in the STEO April 2001)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the causes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) price increases in 2000.

  15. Fighting Against the Invisible: The new weapons against chemical warfare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Leana

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Internation Institute of synthetic rubber producers (IISRP).butyl rubber is a synthetic rubber that is imper- meable to

  16. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K. : Atmospheric chemistry of gasoline-related emissions:chemistry. Methyl tert-butyl ether is a solvent and gasoline

  17. The social costs of an MTBE ban in California (Long version)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) or tertiary amyl methylOther oxygenates, such as ETBE and TAME exist. However,

  18. The Social Costs of an MTBE Ban in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rausser, Gordon C.; Adams, Gregory D.; Montgomery, W. David; Smith, Anne E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), or tertiary amyl methylOther oxygenates such as ETBE and TAME exist. However, these

  19. DETAILED CHEMICAL KINETIC MODELS FOR THE LOW TEMPERATURE COMBUSTION OF HYDROCARBONS WITH APPLICATION TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ;NOMENCLATURE CV: closed vessel DIPE: di-isopropyl-ether ETBE: ethyl-tert-butyl-ether FR: flow reactor HCCI

  20. Health risks associated with exposure to gasoline additives-methyl tertiary butyl ether [MTBE]. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, Special Hearing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This hearing focuses on an Alaskan study by the Centers for Disease Control which examines possible health risks associated with exposure to gasoline additive know as MTBE. Testimony is given by Dr. William Roper, Director, CDC.

  1. N-(N-[2-(3,5-Difluorophenyl)acetyl]-(S)-alanyl)-(S)-phenylglycine tert-butyl ester (DAPT): an inhibitor of ?-secretase, revealing fine electronic and hydrogen-bonding features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czerwinski, Andrzej; Valenzuela, Francisco [Peptides International Inc., 11621 Electron Drive, Louisville, KY 40299 (United States); Afonine, Pavel [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dauter, Miroslawa, E-mail: dauter@anl.gov [Basic Research Program, SAIC-Frederick Inc., Synchrotron Radiation Research Section, MCL, NCI, Argonne National Laboratory, Biosciences Division, Building 202, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Dauter, Zbigniew [Synchrotron Radiation Research Section, MCL, NCI, Argonne National Laboratory, Biosciences Division, Building 202, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Peptides International Inc., 11621 Electron Drive, Louisville, KY 40299 (United States)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The title compound, C{sub 23}H{sub 26}F{sub 2}N{sub 2}O{sub 4}, is a dipeptidic inhibitor of ?-secretase, one of the enzymes involved in Alzheimer’s dis@@ease. The mol@@ecule adopts a compact conformation, without intra@@molecular hydrogen bonds. In the crystal structure, one of the amide N atoms forms the only inter@@molecular N—H?O hydrogen bond; the second amide N atom does not form hydrogen bonds. High-resolution synchrotron diffraction data permitted the unequivocal location and refinement without restraints of all H atoms, and the identification of the characteristic shift of the amide H atom engaged in the hydrogen bond from its ideal position, resulting in a more linear hydrogen bond. Significant residual densities for bonding electrons were revealed after the usual SHELXL refinement, and modeling of these features as additional inter@@atomic scatterers (IAS) using the program PHENIX led to a significant decrease in the R factor from 0.0411 to 0.0325 and diminished the r.m.s. deviation level of noise in the final difference Fourier map from 0.063 to 0.037 e Ĺ{sup ?3}.

  2. Eur. J. Biochem. 234, 766-772 (1995) 0 FEBS 1995

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    catalyse the reduction of niirate with artificial electron donors such as benzyl viologen, so that it is suitable for studying the transfer of electrons between these two types of redox centre. To examine whether the electrons from reduced benzyl viologen are initially delivered to the Fe-S centres, or directly

  3. Studies of a Series of [Ni(PR2NPh2)2(CH3CN)]2+ Complexes as Electrocatalysts for H2 Production: Substituent Variation at the Phosphorus Atom of the P2N2 Ligand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgore, Uriah J.; Stewart, Michael P.; Helm, Monte L.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Rakowski DuBois, Mary; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of [Ni(PR2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 complexes containing the cyclic diphosphine ligands (PR2NPh2 = 1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane; R = benzyl (Bn), n-butyl (n-Bu), 2-phenylethyl (PE), 2,4,4-trimethylpentyl (TP), and cyclohexyl (Cy)) have been synthesized and characterized. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the cations of [Ni(PBn2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 and [Ni(Pn-Bu2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 have distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometries. The Ni(0) complex [Ni(PBn2NPh2)2 (CH3CN)] was also synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction studies and shown to have a distorted tetrahedral structure. These complexes, with the exception of [Ni(PCy2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2, all exhibit reversible electron transfer processes for both the Ni(II/I) and Ni(I/0) couples and are electrocatalysts for the production of H2 in acidic acetonitrile solutions. The heterolytic cleavage of H2 by [Ni(PR2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 complexes in the presence of p-anisidine or p-bromoaniline was used to determine the hydride donor abilities of the corresponding [HNi(PR2NPh2)2](BF4) complexes. However, the failure to observe a strong correlation between the turnover frequencies for H2 production and the hydride donor abilities, along with structural features of [Ni(PBn2NPh2)2(CH3CN)], suggest that steric interactions between the alkyl substituents on phosphorus and the nitrogen atom of the pendant amines play an important role in determining the overall catalytic rate. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  4. organic | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in a smog chamber in the absence and in the presence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and lubricating oil seed aerosol. These particles serve as surrogates for urban hydrophobic POA....

  5. chemical ionization | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in a smog chamber in the absence and in the presence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and lubricating oil seed aerosol. These particles serve as surrogates for urban hydrophobic POA....

  6. aquatic food webs: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to choose from. However, even within this morass it is clear that aquatic food-web research has 2 Distribution of Phthalate Esters in a Marine Aquatic Food Web...

  7. Progress in transition metal-based enantioselective catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arp, Forrest O

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Chapter 1, the first enantioselective cross-coupling reactions of racemic secondary benzylic halides are described (eq 1). This method was applied to the syntheses of intermediates employed by other groups in the ...

  8. Rapid brain scanning radiopharmaceutical

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sargent, T.W. III; Shulgin, A.T.; Mathis, C.A.

    1987-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for detecting the blood flow in animals, particularly in the brain, is provided wherein a detectable amount of a novel radioactive compound of the formula 1 is administered to one animal: as given in figure in patent wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are independently alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms or benzyl; R[sub 3] is alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, benzyl, cyclopropylalkyl of 4 to 6 carbon atoms, or cyanoalkyl of 2 to 6 carbon atoms; R[sub 4] is hydrogen, benzyl or alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms; with the provisos that R[sub 4] is not isopropyl and when R[sub 4] is methyl, R[sub 3] is not benzyl; and X is a radioactive halogen. 2 figs.

  9. Rapid brain scanning radiopharmaceutical

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sargent, III, Thornton W. (Berkeley, CA); Shulgin, Alexander T. (Lafayette, CA); Mathis, Chester A. (Oakland, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for detecting the blood flow in animals, particularly in the brain, is provided wherein a detectable amount of a novel radioactive compound of the formula I is administered to one animal: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are independently alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms or benzyl; R.sub.3 is alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms, benzyl, cyclopropylalkyl of 4 to 6 carbon atoms, or cyanoalkyl of 2 to 6 carbon atoms; R.sub.4 is hydrogen, benzyl or alkyl of 1 to 6 carbon atoms; with the provisos that R.sub.4 is not isopropyl and when R.sub.4 is methyl, R.sub.3 is not benzyl; and X is a radioactive halogen.

  10. Study of the peroxidation mechanism of diethyl ether (DEE) International Symposium on Loss Prvention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and in allylic and benzylic structures. In figure 23 are presented peroxidizable moieties in order of decreasing hazard. l.Ethers and acetals with a-hvdroaen H -i-o-

  11. Synthetic Approaches to Skeletally Diverse Sultams Using Vinyl- and ?-Halo Benzenesulfonamides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeon, KyuOk

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ,?-unsaturated 5- and 6-membered sultams. These 5- and 6-membered sultams were prepared and applied to further diversifications using aza-Michael reactions, cycloadditions, alkylation/benzylations and propargylation-[3+2]-cycloadditions. Utilizing the aza...

  12. Multiple Objective Stormwater Management For the Coliseum Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Jesse; Kraai, Rachel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) remain in the soil around5.2 ppb xylenes, and 160 ppb MTBE remain in the groundwater

  13. aromatic compound mixtures: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and mineralization potentials of gasoline monoaromatics and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), compounds that commonly co-exist in groundwater contaminant plumes. A mixed culture...

  14. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences - an ongoing science and policy story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), lubricating oil and itsthe environment. Use of the MTBE additive in gasoline wasof gasoline laced with MTBE into groundwater resulted in

  15. The Drinking Water Security and Safety Amendments of 2002: Is America's Drinking Water Infrastructure Safer Four Years Later?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shermer, Steven D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    355 tertiary butyl ether ("MTBE"). 43 8 Amazingly, even "[c]Water: Study Estimates Cost of MTBE Remedia- tion At Up to $

  16. Agricultural and Resource Economics Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Aaron; Zilberman, David; Saitone, Tina; Sexton, Richard J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a natural-gas derivative, werebattle between advocates for ethanol and those for MTBE.MTBE became the dominant additive because it was less

  17. Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the urban tracers (e.g. C 2 H 2 , MTBE, toluene) are highlymethyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) because their shorter atmo-

  18. Effects of water chemistry on NF/RO membrane structure and performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mo, Yibing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, ethylbenzene,TCE** Industrial C 2 HCl 3 MTBE** [48] Industrial C 5 H 12 O

  19. Cometabolic bioremediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intrinsic bioremediation of MTBE-contaminated groundwater atcontaminants, e.g. PCE, TCE, MTBE, TNT, dioxane, atrazine,Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has also been remediated

  20. First Annual U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Joint Genome Institute User Meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Various

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Genome Analysis of MTBE-Degrading Beta- Proteobacteriummethyl tert- butyl ether (MTBE). Strain PM1 can alsooften co-contaminants with MTBE in groundwater, including

  1. Chemical migration in drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: a source of controversy.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    container, cap sealing resins, background contamination, water processing steps, NIAS, etc). Overall: Butylated hydroxytoluene BPA: Bisphenol A Ce: Cesium Cd: Cadmium Co: Cobalt Cr: Chromium Cu: Copper DBP

  2. Biomass IBR Fact Sheet: Archer Daniels Midland

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Archer Daniels Midland will develop a pilot plant to demonstrate the continuous production of cellulosic ethanol and butyl acrylate from densified corn stover.

  3. Identification of a haloalkaliphilic and thermostable cellulase with improved ionic liquid tolerance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Tao

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    acetate ([Emim]Ac), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Emim]Cl), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) and 1-allyl-

  4. Organolanthanide and organoyttrium hydride chemistry. 6. Direct synthesis and /sup 1/H NMR spectral analysis of the trimetallic yttrium and yttrium-zirconium tetrahydride complexes, (((C/sub 5/H/sub 5/)/sub 2/YH)/sub 3/H)(Li(THF)/sub 4/) and ((CCH/sub 3/C/sub 5/H/sub 4/)/sub 2/YH)/sub 2/((CH/sub 3/C/sub 5/H/sub 4/)/sub 2/ZrH)H)/sup 1/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, W.J.; Meadows, J.H.; Hanusa, T.P.

    1984-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved syntheses of several trimetallic tetrahydride complexes (tri(diphenyl lanthanon hydride)-lithium tetrahydrofuran) were studied using lithium hydride, methyl hydride, and tetra-butyl lithium reacted with diphenyl yttrium hydride tetrahydrofuran dimer. The reaction with tetra-butyl lithium yields the trimer as above while the reaction with diphenyl yttrium deuteride tetrahydrofuran with tert-butyl lithium forms a perdeuterio trimer indicating that the tert-butyl group does not provide a negative hydrogen ion for the trimer. Proton NMR spectra of some of the compounds are presented with H-H, Y-H, and Y-Y couplng constants derived from computer simulation of the spectra.

  5. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which can lead to public health problems. * MtBE (Methyl tert Butyl Ether), a gasoline additive, has begun to contaminate ground water supplies. * Similarly, perchlorate has...

  6. agents ionising radiation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(n-butyl acrylate) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl (more) Bennet, Francesca 2009-01-01 85 Transcriptomic and Secretomic Profiling of Isolated...

  7. aux rayonnements ionisants: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(n-butyl acrylate) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl (more) Bennet, Francesca 2009-01-01 138 Factories: The Ionising Radiations (Sealed Sources)...

  8. This journal is c the Owner Societies 2012 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2012, 14, 675680 675 Cite this: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2012, 14, 675680

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    -octane and in the oxidation of fuel additives such as MTBE and ETBE (methyl and ethyl t-butyl ether).1 The chemistry

  9. Reducing lipid oxidation in irradiated ground beef patties by natural antioxidants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Movileanu, Iulia

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fresh ground beef patties with (1) no antioxidant, (2) 0.02% butylated hydroxyanisole/ butylated hydroxy toluene (BHA/BHT), (3) 3% dried plum puree, or (4) 0.25% rosemary extract were partially aerobic packed, irradiated at 0, 1.5, or 2.0 k...

  10. Monitoring synaptic protein dynamics with higher temporal, spatial, and molecular resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butko, Margaret

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectrometry mSOG MiniSOG MTBE Methyl tert-butyl ether mTORMethyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, 1.4 mL) was then added for1,000 g, 5 min). The MTBE layer was collected into a 1.5-mL

  11. Effects of oxygenate concentration on species mole fractions in premixed n-heptane flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    -heptane/oxygenate mixtures were 2.7 and 3.4. Three different fuel oxygenates (i.e. MTBE, methanol, and ethanol) were tested tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME)) were considered as possible fuel oxygenates. MTBE and ethanol are the most common oxygenates currently used

  12. Water Research 37 (2003) 37563766 Seasonal and daily variations in concentrations of methyl-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toran, Laura

    - tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) at Cranberry Lake, New Jersey Laura Torana, *, Charles Lipkaa , Arthur Baehrb; accepted 24 March 2003 Abstract Methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), an additive used to oxygenate gasoline of gasoline-powered watercraft. This paper documents and explains both seasonal and daily variations in MTBE

  13. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Santa Barbara

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    , B. Dooher, and D. Rice, Analysis of dissolved benzene plumes and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE, An evaluation of MTBE impacts to California groundwater resources, pp. 68 p., Lawrence Livermore National, Temporal Analysis of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Plumes at California Leaking Underground Fuel tank

  14. Continuous wasteless ecologically safe technology of propylenecarbonate production in presence of phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Afanasiev, Vladimir Vasilievich (Moscow, RU); Zefirov, Nikolai Serafimovich (Moscow, RU); Zalepugin, Dmitry Yurievich (Moscow, RU); Polyakov, Victor Stanislavovich (Moscow, RU); Tilkunova,Nataliya Alexandrovna (Moscow, RU); Tomilova, Larisa Godvigovna (Moscow, RU)

    2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous method of producing propylenecarbonate includes carboxylation of propylene oxide with carbon dioxide in presence of phthalocyanine catalyst on an inert carrier, using as the phthalocyanine catalyst at least one catalyst selected from the group consisting of not-substituted, methyl, ethyl, butyl, and tret butyl-substituted phthalocyanines of metals, including those containing counterions, and using as the carrier a hydrophobic carrier.

  15. SUPPORTING INFORMATION Comparison of non-precious metal cathode materials for methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S1 SUPPORTING INFORMATION Comparison of non-precious metal cathode materials for methane production H2SO4, and again in de-ionized water. Butyl rubber stoppers were used to prevent loss of gas from thick and 43 mm diameter) were cut from large butyl rubber sheets (McMaster-Carr, Cleveland, OH, USA

  16. Mixed N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Bis(oxazolinyl)borato Rhodium and Iridium Complexes in Photochemical and Thermal Oxidative Addition Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Songchen [Ames Laboratory; Manna, Kuntal [Ames Laboratory; Ellern, Arkady [Ames Laboratory; Sadow, Aaron D [Ames Laboratory

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to facilitate oxidative addition chemistry of fac-coordinated rhodium(I) and iridium(I) compounds, carbene–bis(oxazolinyl)phenylborate proligands have been synthesized and reacted with organometallic precursors. Two proligands, PhB(OxMe2)2(ImtBuH) (H[1]; OxMe2 = 4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline; ImtBuH = 1-tert-butylimidazole) and PhB(OxMe2)2(ImMesH) (H[2]; ImMesH = 1-mesitylimidazole), are deprotonated with potassium benzyl to generate K[1] and K[2], and these potassium compounds serve as reagents for the synthesis of a series of rhodium and iridium complexes. Cyclooctadiene and dicarbonyl compounds {PhB(OxMe2)2ImtBu}Rh(?4-C8H12) (3), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Rh(?4-C8H12) (4), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Rh(CO)2 (5), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Ir(?4-C8H12) (6), and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Ir(CO)2 (7) are synthesized along with ToMM(?4-C8H12) (M = Rh (8); M = Ir (9); ToM = tris(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate). The spectroscopic and structural properties and reactivity of this series of compounds show electronic and steric effects of substituents on the imidazole (tert-butyl vs mesityl), effects of replacing an oxazoline in ToM with a carbene donor, and the influence of the donor ligand (CO vs C8H12). The reactions of K[2] and [M(?-Cl)(?2-C8H14)2]2 (M = Rh, Ir) provide {?4-PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes?CH2}Rh(?-H)(?-Cl)Rh(?2-C8H14)2 (10) and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}IrH(?3-C8H13) (11). In the former compound, a spontaneous oxidative addition of a mesityl ortho-methyl to give a mixed-valent dirhodium species is observed, while the iridium compound forms a monometallic allyl hydride. Photochemical reactions of dicarbonyl compounds 5 and 7 result in C–H bond oxidative addition providing the compounds {?4-PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes?CH2}RhH(CO) (12) and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}IrH(Ph)CO (13). In 12, oxidative addition results in cyclometalation of the mesityl ortho-methyl similar to 10, whereas the iridium compound reacts with the benzene solvent to give a rare crystallographically characterized cis-[Ir](H)(Ph) complex. Alternatively, the rhodium carbonyl 5 or iridium isocyanide {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Ir(CO)CNtBu (15) reacts with PhSiH3 in the dark to form the silyl compound {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}RhH(SiH2Ph)CO (14) or {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}IrH(SiH2Ph)CNtBu (17). These examples demonstrate the enhanced thermal reactivity of {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}-supported iridium and rhodium carbonyl compounds in comparison to tris(oxazolinyl)borate, tris(pyrazolyl)borate, and cyclopentadienyl-supported compounds.

  17. OCCURRENCE AND POTENTIAL ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN STREAMBED SEDIMENT, UNITED STATES, 1992-95

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Carson City, NV U.S. Geological Survey, National Water-Quality Laboratory, Box 25046, Denver Federal. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected most frequently and at the highest concentrations. Concentrations of PAHs and phthalates were about 10 times higher at sites influenced by urban activities than

  18. Non-Metallic Materials List The LSG Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Ink, Marking Foams & Sponge Urethane Lubricants & Grease Compound, Heat Sink SECTION Non Epoxy-Glass, Cu Clad II !I II II Epoxy-Glass, B-Stage Nylon- Phenolic Epoxy-Glass Potting Compounds) Phthalate 52-01 Mesa Plastics D 4 2/25/71 5527 3/23/71 704 Glass fi

  19. An investigation of the preparation of some alkylphosphonyl dichlorides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metzger, Sidney Henry

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (ies using the phosphorus trichloride-aluminum chloride method. They noted that n-propyl, n-butyl, and isobutyl chloride yielded ~iso ropyl, isobutyl, and t-butyl- phosphonyl dichloride, respectively, with no trace of un- isomerized products Although..., that with respect to iso- butyl alcohol and. other primary alcohols with an adjacent tertiary position, two mechanisms are competing ? either a combination of' an SN1 with and SN2 or SNi mechanism. It must further be postulated that with respect to 5-methyi- 2...

  20. Synthesis of nitrogen heterocycles as potential herbicidal compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Naji, Hassan Ali

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) ibidod Po 176 (9) ibid I p 183-4 ~ H o N-C ? N IV 3 Another substituted carbamate is CDBD ("Vegadex"), structure VI, re- cognised as an effective herbicide for cole crops, celery, and lettuce. "Diphenanide", N, N-dimethyl-l, l... and William C. Firth, Jr. J, ~Or , Chem. , 26, 280 ((961). surprHing. Nornally in the presence of a hase a, benzyl acohol will take part in a self condensation reaction to elininate water and fern a polynsric benzyl ether, gecsuse oi' this condensation...

  1. Synthesis and investigation of hexacarboxamide cryptands as anionic binucleating ligands by Glen E. Alliger.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alliger, Glen E. (Glen Edward)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the use of hexacarboxamide cryptands as sextuply anionic binucleating ligands. Two homobimetallic complexes of a t-butyl-substituted cryptand, featuring manganese(II) ion and cobalt(II) ions, have been ...

  2. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), from gasoline by 2004.MTBE was used to meet a requirement for gasoline to containbeginning in 2002, replacing MTBE with ethanol. According to

  3. Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D. D; Blake, D. R; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl-tertiary-butyl- ether (MTBE) and the biomass burningfrom all source categories. MTBE is a gasoline additive andwith the fuel tracer MTBE (e.g. 0.82 for MTBE/benzene).

  4. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol Ethanol Acetone MEK MTBE CO Methane UCI UCI TOGA/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), and toluene all ratioedthe observed decay. For MTBE, also a species that is not

  5. Soil type, crop and irrigation technique affect nitrogen leaching to groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letey, John; Vaughan, Peter

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water contamination with MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether,that areas vulnerable to MTBE are also vulner- able tothat affect the movement of MTBE. If only a small amount of

  6. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) at 57 amu has been previouslyby a fragment of MTBE (62%) with minor contributions fromFortner and Knighton, 2008). MTBE also in- terfered (16%)

  7. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl tertiary- butyl ether (MTBE) and its effect on plasmaand three VOCs (propyne, furan, MTBE) remained below their 3Ethanol Acetone MEK MAC MVK MTBE Furan CH 3 OH C 2 H 5 OH C

  8. Synthesis of higher alcohols on copper catalysts supported on alkali-promoted basic oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    -butyl-ether (MTBE) after isobutanol dehydration to form isobutene. An equimolar ratio of methanol to isobutanol would be preferred for MTBE synthesis. Methanol and higher alcohols can also be used for direct blending

  9. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), from gasoline by 2004.MTBE was used to meet a requirement for gasoline to containbeginning in 2002, replacing MTBE with ethanol. According to

  10. Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) biodegradation in batchCometabolic degradation of MTBE by a cyclohexane-oxidizingof 49 Biological Treatment of MTBE Fortin, N. Y. , and M. A.

  11. Pyrolysis of Organic Molecules Relevant to Combustion as Monitored by Photoionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Kevin Howard

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is observed, which is similar to MTBE in this system whichisobutene formed from MTBE, is found to occur. REFERENCES [methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (

  12. Finding the missing stratospheric Bry: a global modeling study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol Ethanol Acetone MEK MTBE CO Methane UCI UCI TOGA/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), and toluene all ratioedthe observed decay. For MTBE, also a species that is not

  13. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Aug. 2004, p. 47204726 Vol. 70, No. 8 0099-2240/04/$08.00 0 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.70.8.47204726.2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    contamination of surface and groundwater resources by the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is leading to its phaseout. Ethanol, a likely candidate to substitute MTBE, is increasingly being used

  14. Assessing the Effectiveness of California's Underground Storage Tank Annual Inspection Rate Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cutter, W. Bowman

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive. Thefor the lion’s share of MTBE contamination, as well asIn response to the MTBE crisis, California increased the

  15. Trichloroethene Removal From Waste Gases in Anaerobic Biotrickling Filters Through Reductive Dechlorination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popat, Sudeep Chandrakant

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) vapors into water was used.MTBE is highly soluble in water (dimensionless Henry’sgas stream was laden with MTBE vapors (200-300 mg m -3 )

  16. Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scown, Corinne Donahue

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drinking Water: Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE).http://www.epa.gov/mtbe/water.htm (11/30/10), Chiu, Y. W. ;LCFS LCI LP LPG MED MRO MSF MTBE MWD MWDOC NAICS NERC NETL

  17. Gas Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    , ethanol and methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE). Due to some gasoline leakage from underground storage tanks into drinking water supplies, MTBE has been, or is in the process of being phased out in many areas. The octane

  18. Soluble hyperbranched grafts on polyethylene surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Britton, Danielle M

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we report two methods to synthesize hyperbranched poly(acrylic acid) grafts on polyethylene films and powders. The previously reported route using ?,[]-diaminopoly(tert-butyl acrylate) was repeated and all previous results were confirmed...

  19. TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY 81,2 13-2 19 ( 1985) Role of Extracellular Ca*+ in Toxic Liver Injury: Comparative Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    perfused liver and isolated hepatocytes. The toxins t-butyl- hydroperoxide and carbon tetrachloride on extracellular Ca2+ for cytotoxic injury to cultured hepato- cytes caused by carbon tetrachloride (CC&) and 2

  20. APPENDXD.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Report The Form EIA-819, "Monthly Oxygenate Report" provides production data for fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). End-of-month stock data held at ethanol...

  1. acidmethyl ester concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Properties and Phase Behavior of 12-tert-Butyl Ester Dendrimer Harmon, Julie P. 62 Modelling Study of the Low-Temperature Oxidation of Large Methyl Esters J. Biet, V. Warth, O....

  2. Incorporation of silica into baroplastic core-shell nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hewlett, Sheldon A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Core-shell baroplastics are nanophase materials that exhibit pressure-induced flow at low temperatures and high pressures. Core-shell baroplastics used in this work are comprised of a low Tg poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) core ...

  3. Original article Novel attractants of Galleria mellonella L

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , 1957). Methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, allyl esters of octanoic and decanoic acids were synthesized via the reaction of the corre- sponding acid chlorides and alcohols. Decyl and octyl acetates, methyl, ethyl

  4. () Trichloromethane ()1,1,2,2-1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Haimei

    acetate () Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether () Ethylene glycol monomethy ether ()- O-dichlorobenzene ( ) Xylenes(o-,m-,p- isomers) () Cresol - 19 - #12;() Chlorobenzene () Amyl acetate () Isoamyl acetate () Isobutyl acetate () Isopropyl acetate () Ethyl acetate () Propyl acetate () Butyl acetate () Methyl acetate

  5. Nickel-Catalyzed Carbon–Carbon Bond-Forming Reactions of Unactivated Tertiary Alkyl Halides: Suzuki Arylations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Gregory C.

    The first Suzuki cross-couplings of unactivated tertiary alkyl electrophiles are described. The method employs a readily accessible catalyst (NiBr[subscript 2]·diglyme/4,4?-di-tert-butyl-2,2?-bipyridine, both commercially ...

  6. 9900 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1993,115, 9900-9906 Structural Analysis of Covalent Peptide Dimers,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mrksich, Milan

    and Mabel Beckman Laboratories of Chemical Synthesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena. Tethering two 2-PyN ligands through the nitrogens of the central pyrrole rings with propyl, butyl, pentyl

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkyl chain bis-quaternary Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bowdoin College Collection: Biology and Medicine 50 DOI: 10.1002adma.200601551 Self-Lubricating Nano-Ball-Bearings** Summary: Point(C) Butyl Hexyl Octyl Decyl 250 300 350 400...

  8. Pyrolysis of Organic Molecules Relevant to Combustion as Monitored by Photoionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Kevin Howard

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2-ethoxy-2-methylpropane, ETBE) have since been used astert-butyl ethers TAME, ETBE, and MTBE continue to be usedMTBE, 27-34 TAME, 31-34 and ETBE 31-34 are reported to react

  9. Energy dissipation characteristics of rubber crash cushion elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael Fowlkes

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abbreviation ~S1 1. Natural Rubber NR Regal Inter- national, Inc, Natural Rubber/ Butadiene Natural Rubber/ Ethylene-Propylene Natural Rubber/ Butyl Butyl Natural Rubber/ 204 Ethylene-Prop. Neoprene NR/BD NR/E PDM NR/ BU BU NR/20'EPDM NEO... OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Civil Engineering ENERGY DISSIPATION CHARACTERISTICS OF RUBBER CRASH CUSHION ELEMENTS A Thesis by MICHAEL FOWLKES THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: Paul N. Roschke (Chair of Committee) Hayes E. Ros...

  10. Method for cleaning solution used in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, O.K.; Crouse, D.J.; Mailen, J.C.

    1980-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fuel processing solution consisting of tri-n-butyl phosphate and dodecane, with a complex of uranium, plutonium, or zirconium and with a solvent degradation product such as di-n-butyl phosphate therein, is contacted with an aqueous solution of a salt formed from hydrazine and either a dicarboxylic acid or a hydroxycarboxylic acid, thereby removing the aforesaid complex from the processing solution.

  11. Heats of vaporization of room temperature ionic liquids by tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; To, Albert; Koh, Christine; Strasser, Daniel; Kostko, Oleg; Leone, Stephen R.

    2009-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The heats of vaporization of the room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide, N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide are determined using a heated effusive vapor source in conjunction with single photon ionization by a tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron source. The relative gas phase ionic liquid vapor densities in the effusive beam are monitored by clearly distinguished dissociative photoionization processes via a time-of-flight mass spectrometer at a tunable vacuum ultraviolet beamline 9.0.2.3 (Chemical Dynamics Beamline) at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron facility. Resulting in relatively few assumptions, through the analysis of both parent cations and fragment cations, the heat of vaporization of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide is determined to be Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 195+-19 kJ mol-1. The observed heats of vaporization of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 174+-12 kJ mol-1) and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide (Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 171+-12 kJ mol-1) are consistent with reported experimental values using electron impact ionization. The tunable vacuum ultraviolet source has enabled accurate measurement of photoion appearance energies. These appearance energies are in good agreement with MP2 calculations for dissociative photoionization of the ion pair. These experimental heats of vaporization, photoion appearance energies, and ab initio calculations corroborate vaporization of these RTILs as intact cation-anion ion pairs.

  12. Ultrafast terahertz photoconductivity in nanocrystalline mesoporous H. Nmec,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ku?el, Petr

    and their fabrication may capitalize on low-cost thin-film technologies.1 The progress in past years in the functional are given in Ref. 4. Briefly, TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by reaction of TiCl4 in benzyl alcohol at 60 of tetraethyl orthotitanate with concentrated hydrochloric acid was added followed by stir- ring for several

  13. Studies of the chemical and regulatory mechanisms of tyrosine hydroxylase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frantom, Patrick Allen

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    and secondary isotope effects of 9.6 ± 0.9 and 1.21 ± 0.08 have been determined for benzylic hydroxylation catalyzed by TyrH. The large, normal secondary isotope effect is consistent with a mechanism involving hydrogen atom abstraction to generate a radical...

  14. SIGMA-ALDRICH MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Kyu Yong

    1.6 Section 1 - Product and Company Information Product Name BENZYL ALCOHOL, ANHYDROUS, 99.8% Product Number 305197 Brand ALDRICH Company Sigma-Aldrich Street Address 3050 Spruce Street City, State Tension 39 mN/m 20 °C Partition Coefficient Log Kow: 1.1 Decomposition Temp. N/A Flash Point 204.8 °F 96

  15. Decarboxylative Arylation of Amino Acids via Photoredox Catalysis: A One-Step Conversion of Biomass to Drug

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMillan, David W. C.

    Decarboxylative Arylation of Amino Acids via Photoredox Catalysis: A One-Step Conversion of Biomass. This method offers rapid entry to prevalent benzylic amine architectures from an abundant biomass the worldwide abundance of biomass6 that incorporates carboxylate functionality (e.g., amino acids, -hydroxy

  16. Effect of Feed-Stream Configuration on Gas-Phase Chlorination Reactor Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Venkat

    that is mixed with pure chlorine. The product mixture also contains carbon tetrachloride (which is the competing. Introduction Chlorinated hydrocarbons are an important class of industrial chemicals. Chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, allyl chloride, benzyl chloride, and trichloroethene are some of the common products that belong

  17. A Practical and Highly Stereoselective Umpolung Alternative to the Alkylation of Chiral Enolates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spino, Claude

    , acetates, carbonates, and epoxides.9,10 Thus, in principle, the displacement reaction of a chiral allyl reactive electrophiles such as methyl, ethyl, and some primary alkyl iodides and benzyl or allyl halides. s-silyl ketene acetals, and s-alkyl electrophiles are poor electrophiles with this method.7,8 In this paper, we

  18. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (-)-Isolaurallene Michael T. Crimmins* and Kyle A. Emmitte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    exposed to Brown's asymmetric allylation18 to generate a 96:4 mixture of the two diastereomeric secondary alcohols in 93% yield. The major isomer was subsequently converted to the corresponding acetate 9. Removal of the benzyl ethers of 9 under oxidative conditions19 also resulted in oxidation of the allylic alcohol

  19. Biocbonicd Pharmacology. Vol. 3.5. No. 18. pp. 3095-3101. 1986 Printed in Great Britain.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    -2952/86 53.00 + 0.W Pergamon Journals Ltd. ROLE OF REDOX CYCLING AND LIPID PEROXIDATION IN BIPYRIDYL that these compounds are potent generators of active oxygen speciesby redox cyclingand that they stimulate lipid herbicides, diquat (DQ), paraquat (PQ) and benzyl viologen (BV), to generate superoxide anion radical (07

  20. Amine a-heteroarylation via photoredox catalysis: a homolytic aromatic substitution pathway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMillan, David W. C.

    Amine a-heteroarylation via photoredox catalysis: a homolytic aromatic substitution pathway accomplished via photoredox catalysis to generate valuable benzylic amine pharmacophores. A variety of five substitution (SNAr)3 or transi- tion metal-catalyzed approaches,4 have been extensively studied and applied

  1. Publications by Postdoctoral Fellows November 2010 Thompson Group Dalhousie University1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dellaire, Graham

    Research Programme). 1. Microwave-accelerated Synthesis of Benzyl 3,5-Dimethyl-pyrrole-2-carboxylate Molecules Containing the Pyrrole Framework. Thirumalairajan, S.; Pearce, B.M.; Thompson, A.; Chem. Commun-Functionalised Prodigiosenes: Synthesis and Anticancer Properties. Sáez Díaz, R.I.; Bennett, S.M.; Thompson, A. Chem

  2. Total syntheses of ?-lactone containing natural products: I. total synthesis of belactosin C II. synthetic studies toward spongiolactone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Sung Wook

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................................................. 68 3.4 Benzyl Ether Formation Conditions........................................................... 70 3.5 Optimization for Reduction ....................................................................... 71 1 CHAPTER I... revealed a striking similarity between lipstatin and esterastin. Also ebelactone 1.5, valilactone 1.4 and the panclicins have similar structures. The total synthesis of 3 lipstatin 1.1 from (S)-N-formyl-leucine and dimethyl-(S)-(?)-malate was described...

  3. A novel copper(II)-Schiff base complex containing pyrrole ring: Synthesis, characterization and its modified electrodes applied in oxidation of aliphatic alcohols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , ethanol and benzyl alcohol. The electro-reduction of carbon dioxide was also examined. Keywords: Copper] and carbon dioxide [9]. So, in continuation of our recent papers [10], we have undertaken a covalent grafting. Thus, conducting polymeric films of polypyrrole were obtained on the surfaces of glassy carbon and ITO

  4. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 115116 (2012) 201208 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Jian Ru

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accepted 3 December 2011 Available online 9 December 2011 Keywords: Selective photocatalysis Single-crystalline Rutile TiO2 Benzyl alcohol a b s t r a c t Selective photocatalysis offers an alternative green approach photocatalysis. Our work extends the selective photocatalysts to one-dimensional nanomaterials instead

  5. Three-dimensional flow visualization in a centrifugal compressor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trevillion, William Lee

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analogy studies. Soyce (1) utilized a mixture of kerosene and dibutyl phthalate colored with black paint. These liquids were mixed to yield a neutral density mixture which formed globules when injected into water. The globules were tracked on high speed... to determine points of extreme turbulence and separation. The mapping process was aided by watching the deformation of the kerosene- dibutyl globules. Globules would change from their normally spherical shape when flowing into high velocity streamlines...

  6. Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 41 (2010) ISSN 0911-7806 Chemical State Analysis of Al Contained in Iron and Steel Slag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun, Kawai

    #12;41 179 X Al X Al K 4 6 4 6 0.1 eV 6 Al O 4 6 4 Al 6 Al 7 X 2. XRF EPMA K K XRF X ZSXPrimus2 EPMA JXA-8200 XRF PET pentaery- thritol Rh X ADP Cr X EPMA TAP thallium acid phthalate 15 kV 0.1 µA 50 µm 4

  7. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, H.E.; Ferrell, P.C.; Knight, R.C.

    1994-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Test was conducted to validate the use of the Butyl material as a primary seal throughout the required temperature range. Three tests were performed at (1) 233 K ({minus}40 {degrees}F), (2) a specified operating temperature, and (3) 244 K ({minus}20 {degrees}F) before returning to room temperature. Helium leak tests were performed at each test point to determine seal performance. The two major test objectives were to establish that butyl rubber material would maintain its integrity under various conditions and within specified parameters and to evaluate changes in material properties.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide decomposition into hydrogen and sulfur by quinone cycles. First annual report, June 1989-May 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plummer, M.A.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research is evaluating the fundamental mechanisms for recovery of sulfur and H{sub 2} from H{sub 2}S, using mild condition cycles based on oxidation of H{sub 2}S by quinones. During this first year, the research focused on the reaction of H{sub 2}S with tertiary butyl anthraquinone to form tertiary butyl anthrahydroquinone. The progress achieved included extending the quinone conversion from 60-80% to complete conversion, significantly increasing the rate of conversion by varying the solvent, and developing a proposed mechanism for this part of the process.

  9. A study of the multiplication and rooting in vitro of shoot tips from mature guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callin, Jeffrey Michael

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10 mL Glacial acetic acid overnight Dehydration Series, Tertiary Butyl Alcohol 1. 50% Dehydration Solution 50 mL distilled water 40 mL 95% Ethyl alcohol 10 mL Tertiary butyl alcohol (t-BuOH) . 2. 70% dehydration solution 30 mL distilled water... alcohol 75 mL -BuOH 2 hours overnight 1 hour 1 hour 1 hour 37 6. Pure t-BuOH 7. Pure t-BuOH 8. Pure t-BuOH 9. Equal volumes t-BuOH and parrifin oil 1 hour overnight 1 hour 24 hours 10. Fill small vials half full with melted parrifin...

  10. EVALUATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR EFFECTIVE PERMEATION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A research and development task was undertaken to determine the permeabilities of hydrogen and dry air through different polymeric glove materials that are used to maintain the integrity of glovebox secondary containment. Fifteen different glove samples were obtained from four different manufacturers and samples cut from these gloves were tested. The gloves included baseline butyl rubber, Viton{reg_sign}, Dupont{reg_sign} Hypalon{reg_sign}, polyurethane, as well as composite gloves. The testing indicated that all of the vendor's butyl rubber gloves and the Jung Viton{reg_sign} gloves performed comparably in both gases.

  11. Mechanistic studies of coenzyme B?? model systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, John Walter

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    involved a 2-step synthesis of first, tert-butyl chloromethyl ether, and secondly, alkylation of the ether with dimethyl methyl malonate. The synthesis of tert-butyl chloromethyl ether proved more diffucult than anticipated. After irradiating a soludon... PAGE 17 2. 2. 2 The Reaction Products: 0, S diethyl methyl succinate and 0, S diethyl dimethyl malonate 2. 2. 2. 1 0, S diethyl methyl succinate 2. 2. 2. 2 0, S diethyl dimethyl malonate 2. 2. 3 Radical Generation and Trapping 2. 4 Summary 2. 5...

  12. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION doi: 10.1038/nnano.2010.125

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferkey, Denise

    Supplementary Methods Nanoparticle Synthesis and Functionalization A mixture of 2 mM of Fe(acac)3, 1 mM of Mn.nature.com/naturenanotechnology 1 1 "Remote control of ion-channels and neurons through magnetic field heating of nanoparticles(acac)2, 10 mM of 1,2-hexadecandiol, 6 mM of oleic acid, 6 mM of oleylamine and 25 ml of benzyl ether

  13. Ternary liquid scintillator for optical fiber applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Franks, Larry A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lutz, Stephen S. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multicomponent liquid scintillator solution for use as a radiation-to-light converter in conjunction with a fiber optic transmission system. The scintillator includes a quantity of 5-amino-9-diethylaminobenz (a) phenoxazonium nitrate (Nile Blue Nitrate) as a solute in a fluor solvent such as benzyl alcohol. The use of PPD as an additional solute is also disclosed. The system is controllable by addition of a suitable quenching agent, such as phenol.

  14. Mechanistic and Structural Studies of Phenylalanine Hydroxylase from Chromobacterium violaceum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panay Escobar, Aram Joel

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    . This study presents the use of kinetic isotope effects (KIE) as mechanistic probes to compare the reactivity of CvPheH and that of the eukaryotic aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. This study also describes the use of different spectroscopic and kinetic... techniques to identify the hydroxylating intermediate for this enzyme and the assignment of the NMR backbone resonances of CvPheH. Kinetic isotope effects on aromatic and benzylic hydroxylation were used to establish that bacterial and eukaryotic...

  15. Supplement 21, Part 5, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Parasites: Arthropoda And Miscellaneous Phyla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zidar, Judith A.; Shaw, Judith H.; Hanfman, Deborah T.; Kirby, Margie D.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with benzyl benzoate emulsion or sulfur ointment: India LL AND VETERINARY ZOOLOGY Acarus siro Schirren, J. M., 1970 a, fig. human crusting scabies, clinical aspects, case report, diagnosis: Germany Acarus undatus Fabricius, 1775 Roberts, F. H. S., 1970.... M.; and Reed, J. T., 1973 a, 531, 532-535, figs. 3, 6 key Oryzomys minutus; 0. albigularis; Thomasomys hylo- philus: all from Tachira, Venezuela (42 km SW San Cristobal (Buena Vista)) Aitkenius trapidoi (Brennan) Brennan, J. M.; and Reed, J. T...

  16. Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  17. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  18. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  19. The Reaction of bis(1,2,4-tri-t-butylcyclopentadienyl)ceriumbenzyl, Cp'2CeCH2Ph with Methylhalides: a Metathesis Reaction that does not proceed by a Metathesis Transition State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werkema, Evan; Andersen, Richard; Maron, Laurent; Eisenstein, Odile

    2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental reaction between [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeCH2Ph and CH3X, X = F, Cl, Br, and I, yields the metathetical exchange products, [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeX and CH3CH2Ph. The reaction is complicated by the equilibrium between the benzyl derivative and the metallacycle [[1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2] [(Me3C)2C5H2C(CH3)2CH2]Ce, plus toluene since the metallacycle reacts with CH3X. Labelling studies show that the methyl group of the methylhalide is transferred intact to the benzyl group. The mechanism, as revealed by DFT calculations on (C5H5)2CeCH2Ph and CH3F, does not proceed by way of a four-center mechanism, (sigma-bond metathesis) but a lower barrier process involves a haptotropic shift of the Cp2Ce fragment so that at the transition state the para-carbon of the benzene ring is attached to the Cp2Ce fragment while the CH2 fragment of the benzyl group attacks CH3F that is activated by coordination to the metal ion. As a result the mechanism is classified as an associative interchange process.

  20. JOURNALDE PHYSIQUEIV ColloqueC8, supplbmentau Journal de Physique I, Volume 3,dicembre1993

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -Telechelic Polymers (HTP) has been prepared. Prelerninary SAXS results on a,w - carboxy poly (tert. butyl acrylate patterns. A new class of model ionomers has been developed in Liege: the Halato-Telechelic Polymers. HTP and discussion All the experimentsperformed until now confirm the multi-peak structure of the new HTP's at low

  1. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Xin-hua

    electroluminescent property of copolyfluorenes containing a pendent anthraquinone-2,3-dicarboxylic imide Wenqiang-controlled multicolor Light-emitting diodes Excimer emission Copolyfluorenes Anthraquinone-2,3-dicarboxylic imide a b,9-dihexylfluorene- 2,7-dibromofluorene and N-butyl 6-[3-(2,5-dibromothienyl)]anthraquinone-2,3-dicarboxylic imide

  2. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

  3. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3,054 Fuel Ethanol (FE) 1,019 97 1,116 2,133 528 393 3,054 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 561 0 561 0 0 0 0 All Other Oxygenates a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp....

  4. PROOF COPY [023113] 008209QEE [023113]008209QEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    as a replacement for the gasoline oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether MTBE , may lead to indirect impacts related facilitate the migration of pre-existing contamination. MTBE 25 mg/L influent was not degraded inlet by one order of magnitude relative to columns fed BTEX alone or with MTBE. However, 16S

  5. 7198 J. Org. Chem. 1995,60, 7198-7208 Gas Phase Decomposition of Conjugate Acid Ions of Simple

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, Thomas Hellman

    (MTBE),ethyl (ETBE),n-propyl,isopropyl,and isobutyl tert-butyl ethers have been examined experimentally spectroscopy (MIKES) experiments on deuterated ions from MTBE and ETBE. Mechanistic possibilities are probed tert-amyl ether and its deuterated analogues. Protonated MTBE displays a single unimolecular

  6. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 21, No. 12, pp. 26312639, 2002 Printed in the USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    --Aquifer microcosms were used to determine how ethanol and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MtBE) affect monoaromatic compared to benzene, which was degraded only under aerobic conditions. The MtBE was not degraded within 100 to phase out MtBE as a gasoline oxy- genate is likely to significantly increase the use of ethanol

  7. Role of Volatilization in Changing TBA and MTBE Concentrations at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Role of Volatilization in Changing TBA and MTBE Concentrations at MTBE-Contaminated Sites J U A N tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) added to gasoline. Frequent observations of high TBA, and especially rising TBA/MTBE of MTBE to TBA. Typically overlooked is the role of volatilization in the attenuation of these chemicals

  8. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 00(0):000000 (2001) 1064-3389/01/$.50

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    water contamination by methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have made policymakers more cognizant of the need reformulated gasoline (RFG) (2% oxygen) year-round to reduce emissions that contribute to ozone formation. MTBE-making process that lead to the widespread use of MTBE over the last decade is now quite controversial (BRP, 1999

  9. Author's personal copy Automobile proximity and indoor residential concentrations of BTEX and MTBE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Author's personal copy Automobile proximity and indoor residential concentrations of BTEX and MTBE to indoor benzene and MTBE concentrations appeared to have been dominated by car exhaust concentrations of other BTEX components and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) have been reported [5,6]. Up until

  10. I. Pt-Catalyzed Tandem Epoxide Fragmentation/Pentannulation of Propargylic Esters II. Progress Toward the Kopsia Family of Indole Alkaloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pujanauski, Brian Gerard

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), a much more environmentallyPhMe, reflux POCl 3 , Et 3 N CN MTBE Scheme 3.3: OptimizedO H NH POCl 3 , Et 3 N CN MTBE 1-Isocyanocyclohex-1-ene (

  11. Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co-contaminants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co November 2005 Key words: aerobic, biodegradation, BTEX, co-contaminant, MTBE, TBA Abstract Contamination of groundwater with the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is often accompanied by many aromatic

  12. Canada could get three MTBE plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, E

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article reports on the proposed development of three methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plants in Canada. MTBE is used as an oxygenated fuel additive. The author discusses how demand for MTBE is increasing due to the regulation of leaded gasoline by the U.S. and Canadian governments. The exportation of MTBE from Canada to the U.S. is highlighted.

  13. ETHANOL FROM CORN: CLEAN RENEWABLE FUEL FOR THE FUTURE, OR DRAIN ON OUR RESOURCES AND POCKETS?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    , and by law refiners must add to gasoline oxygenating additives like methyl ter- tiary-butyl ether (MTBE better, thus reducing carbon monoxide and other emissions. MTBE is the fuel oxygenate preferred by oil as gaso- line, mixes well with gasoline, and does not increase the gasoline vapor pressure. MTBE has

  14. Atmosphere-Water Interaction of Chloroform, Toluene, and MTBE in Small Perennial Urban Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmosphere-Water Interaction of Chloroform, Toluene, and MTBE in Small Perennial Urban Streams-butyl ether (MTBE) are frequently detected VOCs in the atmosphere, surface water, and ground water in urban not be the predominant source of chloroform and toluene in the two urban streams. In contrast, MTBE may be coming from

  15. By Martman Cohen News Office staff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    tertiary butyl ether, or MTBE (another hazardous gasoline component that is hazardous to health the benzene-removal technol- ogy to sites contaminated with MTBE. That gasoline additive tends to mi- grate of MTBE- contaminated sites from around the U.S. By simulating an anaerobic pro- cess similar to what

  16. UMass builds bugs to eat MTBE ByAuriaCimino

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    UMass builds bugs to eat MTBE ByAuriaCimino STAfFWRITER An area university's process to destroy with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), which is found in gasoline. Once the first field trial is complete in particular has suffered from MTBE contamination because of the abundance of groundwater in the state, said

  17. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    FTIR - 1 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy FTIR DETERMINATION OF MTBE IN GASOLINE AND ETHANOL FTIR DETERMINATION OF MTBE IN GASOLINE AND ETHANOL IN VODKA AND MOUTHWASH INTRODUCTION As a part has contained MTBE (methyl tert­butyl ether) as its primary oxygenate. However, there has been

  18. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 249250 (2006) 303310 Pyrolysis of 2-methoxy-2,3,3-trimethylbutane (MTMB) monitored by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morton, Thomas Hellman

    used fuel oxygenates MTBE and TAME), the predominance of bond homolysis at temperatures >900 K suggests homologues ­ methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) ­ present a new set of problems discussed as alternatives to MTBE and TAME, because they are expected to be much less soluble in water. More

  19. MTBE still facing pressure from ethanol under latest fuel proposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, A.

    1994-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The US EPA's finalized reformulated gasoline rule, part of Phase II of the 1990 Clean Air Act, signals a possible turnaround for the sluggish methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) market. But if a 30% renewable fuels proposal favoring ethanol passes, pressure could continue for MTBE.

  20. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Fuel Ethanol (FE) 1,229 108 1,337 2,369 724 497 3,590 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 292 0 292 0 0 0 0 All Other Oxygenates a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp....

  1. (distillation) (Le Chatelier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Deog Ki

    acetate(methyl-, ethyl-, butyl-) , methanol isobutene MTBE , ethanol isobutene ETBE , methanol 2-methyl-1% MTBE 3 DMC . 2% 1990 MTBE 1999 3 2002 MTBE . [ 1-1 ] Phosgene process polycarbonate(PC) 50/ . DMC DMC MTBE / . ( : Amoco, "Review of DMC Manufacture and its

  2. Drinking Water Problems: MTBE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether, a gasoline additive commonly known as MTBE, can contaminate ground water and cause health problems for those exposed to it for a long time. However, filtering devices can remove this and other additives from well water...

  3. SIGMA-ALDRICH MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Kyu Yong

    1.1 Section 1 - Product and Company Information Product Name BUTYL ACRYLATE, 99+% Product Number 234923 Brand ALDRICH Company Sigma-Aldrich Street Address 3050 Spruce Street City, State, Zip, Country °C Partition Coefficient Log Kow: 2.38 Decomposition Temp. N/A Flash Point 96.8 °F 36 °C Method

  4. Physico-chemical and biological characterization of an aquifer polluted with Yves Benoit (1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the use of biofuels through tax incentives, including the addition of bioethanol to gasoline. Some tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) using bioethanol. ETBE is presently the main way of the bioethanol utilization bioethanol raw material. In Europe, the maximal authorized ETBE concentration in gasoline has now reached 22

  5. Published Ahead of Print 1 July 2011. 2011, 193(17):4549. DOI: 10.1128/JB.00415-11.J. Bacteriol.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    Laboratory, Joint Genome Institute, Biosciences Division Genome Science B6, Los Alamos, New Mexico 875454 ; U and energy source (9, 10, 11, 14). This strain can also grow on other ethers (e.g., 2-methyl-1,3- dioxolane and butyl methyl ether), alcohols, and benzene as the sole carbon and energy source, and it can grow

  6. Index of Subjects Abbreviations ix,203-6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Christopher

    90 Absorption of light 110-11,137-9,168 Accelerated testing 139 Acetal 14, 204, 206, see also, polymer 156-7,216 Allyl diglycol carbonate 113, 165-6 Allyl resins 165 Alumina 95 Aluminium 58 modulus 57,70,92 Bulk polymerisation 31 Butadiene 5,167,169,217 Butane 11 Butene 219 Butyl acetate 181

  7. Prying Apart Ruddlesden-Popper Phases: Exfoliation into Sheets and Nanotubes for Assembly of Perovskite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prying Apart Ruddlesden-Popper Phases: Exfoliation into Sheets and Nanotubes for Assembly ) Na, Ca, Sr, La; B ) Ta, Ti) that have acidic interlayer protons were exfoliated using tetra(n- butyl and titanoniobates have weakly acidic interlayer protons and exfoliate only to a limited extent. TBAxH2-xSrNb2O7

  8. Electrolysed palladium has the potential to increase methane production by a mixed rumen population in vitro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Electrolysed palladium has the potential to increase methane production by a mixed rumen population the proportion of protozoa with attached methanogens decreased, however no estimate of CH4 production under were re-filled with H2:CO2, sealed with butyl rubber stoppers and incubated at 39°C with shaking

  9. Isolation, characterization, and genome sequence of the first representative of a novel class within the Chloroflexi that is abundant in some US Great

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    /ml. · Pretreatment of butyl rubber stoppers by boiling in 1% Na2S was necessary for consistent growth in liquid in ~80 contigs with N50 of 139873, G+C content of 67.3%. · Growth on synthetic medium with added FeCl3; most other trace elements appeared to prevent growth in this synthetic medium. Phylogeny of strain JAD2

  10. C A L I F O R N I A E N E R G Y C O M M I S S I O N E F F I C I E N C Y A N D R E N E W A B L E E N E R G Y D I V I S I O N

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -backed duct tapes with special butyl or synthetic adhesives rather than rubber adhesive to seal flex duct Committee determined that Shurtape Technologies' cloth back synthetic adhesive duct tape, PC 858CA, can to the testing conducted by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in which cloth back rubber adhesive duct

  11. TPE's with low permeability, high damping. [ThermoPlastic Elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, M.J.; Lebel, M.A.; Robinson, K.J.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article examines the characteristics of the thermoplastic elastomer Sarlink 2000. Topics discussed include morphology, rheology, thermo-mechanical properties, thermal properties, and physical properties. These properties are compared to the properties of thermoset butyl rubber compounds which Sarlink 2000 is targeted to replace in many applications.

  12. Harvard Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    Guide Glove Material Applications Butyl A synthetic rubber material that offers the highest permeation resistance to gas and water vapors. Esp. suited for use with esters and ketones. Neoprene A synthetic rubber and caustics. Moderate abrasion resistance. Nitrile A synthetic rubber material that offers chemical

  13. Reverse Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Xin-hua

    , College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China Received 14, the removal and recycling of the catalytic materials become important. It is expected that using ionic liquids as ATRP media. They performed the copper(I)-mediated ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in 1-butyl-3

  14. Density functional theory study on the interstitial chemical shifts of main-group-element centered hexazirconium halide clusters; synthetic control of speciation in [(Zr6ZCl12)] (Z = B, C)-based mixed ligand complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Jingyi

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    substitution of terminal chlorides on [(Zr6CCl12)Cl6]4-cluster by tri(n-butyl)-phosphine oxide (Bu3PO) was conducted with the aid of TlPF6. Composition of the reaction mixtures was analyzed by use of both 13C and 31P NMR. A preliminary scheme for synthesis...

  15. Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis Lekha Gupta, 2008 Ortholithiations of a range of arenes mediated by lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at -78 °C protocols with unpurified commercial samples of n-butyl- lithium to prepare LDA or commercially available

  16. Synthesis of molybdenum olefin metatheses catalysts through protonation reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinha, Amritanshu

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The attempted syntheses of molybdenum imido alkylidene complexes of the type Mo(NArc,)(CH-t-Bu)[Biphen] and Mo(N-2-CF3C6H4)(CHCMe2Ph)[Biphen] (Biphen2 = 3,3'-di-t-butyl-5,5',6,6'-tetramethyl- 1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-diolate) ...

  17. New mechanism-based anticancer drugs that act as orphan nuclear receptor agonists 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar Reddy

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methanes containing ptrifluoromethyl (DIM-C-pPhCF3), p-t-butyl (DIM-C-pPhtBu), and phenyl (DIM-CpPhC6H5) substituents have been identified as a new class of peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor Ă...

  18. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1994,116, 1983-1988 7983 Hairpin Peptide Motif. A New Class of Oligopeptides for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dervan, Peter B.

    , and Peter B. Dewan. Contributionfrom the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Laboratories of Chemical Synthesis in the minor groove of DNA.14 An imidazole pyrrole-pyrrole tripeptide, 1-methylimidazole-2-carboxamide tethered through thecentral pyrrole rings with a butyl linker bind with increased affinity and specificity

  19. J. Am. Chem. SOC.1994,116. 3663-3664 3663 Design of a Covalent Peptide Heterodimer for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mrksich, Milan

    Laboratories of Chemical Synthesis California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91I25 Received pyrrole rings with a butyl linker, was synthesized in 12 steps from commercially available precursorsN-C4-P3 wherein the two peptides 2-1" and P3 areconnected through thenitrogens of thecentral pyrrole

  20. Furaday Discuss. Chem. Soc., 1983, 75, 301-3 13 Unimolecular Decomposition of t-Butylhydroperoxide by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    products, t-butyl alcohol, is detected using optoacousticspectroscopy to follow the reaction in situ with an R.R.K.M.treatment based on simple Stern-Volrner kinetics, but can be adequately fit by invoking processes has recently been stimulated by the technique of direct overtone excitation, introduced by Reddy

  1. Analysis of Steam Heating of a Two-Layer TBP/N-Paraffin/Nitric Acid Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurinat, J.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Hassan, N.M.; Rudisill, T.S.; Askew, N.M.

    1998-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an analysis of steam heating of a two-layer tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/n-paraffin-nitric acid mixture.The purpose of this study is to determine if the degree of mixing provided by the steam jet or by bubbles generated by the TBP/nitric acid reaction is sufficient to prevent a runaway reaction.

  2. Accelerated ageing of solar control IGUs EN1279-3 compared to climate cabinet, CliSim

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    glazing. The influence of the dimensions of the IGU with regard to the gas leakage rate was also tested System description Glass ­ outer 4 mm SKN 172 ­ Cool Lite Glass ­ inner 4 mm float G6 Cavity 16 mm Spacer Swiss spacer Outer sealing Fenzi Butyl Fenzi Corner connection 4 pieces of plastic Desiccant Phonosorb

  3. Adsorption and desorption of atrazine on a melamine-based soil amendment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neitsch, Susan Lynn

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption kinetics and adsorption-desorption of atrazine on organoclay composites prepared with the surfactant 6-piperazin-1-yl-N,N'-bis-(1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-butyl)-(1,3,5)triazine-2,4-diamine and Houston Black clay were studied using the indirect...

  4. Sustained signalling by PTH modulates IP3 accumulation and IP3 receptors via cyclic AMP junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meena, Abha; Tovey, Stephen C.; Taylor, Colin W.

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    -Aldrich 433 (Gillingham, UK). Ionomycin was from Apollo Scientific (Stockport, UK). Cell culture 434 media, G-418, fluo 4AM and fura 2AM were from Life Technologies (Paisley, UK). 3-[5-435 (tert-butyl)isoxazol-3-yl]-2-[2-(3-chlorophenyl)hydrazono]-3...

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2013-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A task was undertaken to characterize glovebox gloves that are currently used in the facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as some experimental and advanced compound gloves that have been proposed for use. Gloves from four manufacturers were tested for permeation in hydrogen and air, thermal stability, tensile properties, puncture resistance and dynamic mechanical response. The gloves were compared to each other within the type and also to the butyl rubber glove that is widely used at the SRS. The permeation testing demonstrated that the butyl compounds from three of the vendors behaved similarly and exhibited hydrogen permeabilities of .52‐.84 x10{sup ‐7} cc H{sub 2}*cm / (cm{sup 2}*atm). The Viton? glove performed at the lower edge of this bound, while the more advanced composite gloves exhibited permeabilities greater than a factor of two compared to butyl. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the amount of material lost under slightly aggressive conditions. Glove losses are important since they can affect the life of glovebox stripper systems. During testing at 90, 120, and 150?C, the samples lost most of the mass in the initial 60 minutes of thermal exposure and as expected increasing the temperature increased the mass loss and shortened the time to achieve a steady state loss. The ranking from worst to best was Jung butyl‐Hypalon? with 12.9 %, Piercan Hypalon? with 11.4 %, and Jung butyl‐Viton? with 5.2% mass loss all at approximately 140?C. The smallest mass losses were experienced by the Jung Viton? and the Piercan polyurethane. Tensile properties were measured using a standard dog bone style test. The butyl rubber exhibited tensile strengths of 11‐15 MPa and elongations or 660‐843%. Gloves made from other compounds exhibited lower tensile strengths (5 MPa Viton) to much higher tensile strengths (49 MPa Urethane) with a comparable range of elongation. The puncture resistance of the gloves was measured in agreement with an ASTM standard. The Butyl gloves exhibited puncture resistance from 183 ? 296 lbs/in for samples of 0.020 ? 0.038? thick. Finally, the glass transition temperature and the elastic and viscoelastic properties as a function of temperature up to maximum use temperature were determined for each glove material using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. The glass transition temperatures of the gloves were ‐60?C for butyl, ‐30?C for polyurethane, ‐ 16?C Hypalon?, ‐16?C for Viton?, and ‐24?C for polyurethane‐Hypalon?. The glass transition was too complex for the butyl‐Hypalon? and butyl‐Viton? composite gloves to be characterized by a single glass transition temperature. All of the glass transition temperatures exceed the vendor projected use temperatures.

  6. New electrolyte systems for capillary zone electrophoresis of metal cations and non-ionic organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Y.

    1995-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Excellent separations of metal ions can be obtained very quickly by capillary electrophoresis provided a weak complexing reagent is incorporated into the electrolyte to alter the effective mobilities of the sample ions. Indirect photometric detection is possible by also adding a UV-sensitive ion to the electrolyte. Separations are described using phthalate, tartrate, lactate or hydroxyisobutyrate as the complexing reagent. A separation of twenty-seven metal ions was achieved in only 6 min using a lactate system. A mechanism for the separation of lanthanides is proposed for the hydroxyisobutyrate system.

  7. Coal-transformation chemistry. Fourth quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stock, Leon M.; Blain, D. A.; Handy, C. I.; Heimann, P.; Huang, C. B.; King, H. -H.; Landschulz, W.; Willis, R. S.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyrene, perylene, anthracene, 9,10-diphenylanthracene, naphthalene and biphenyl have been employed as electron transfer agents in the reduction of Illinois No. 6 coal with potassium in tetrahydrofuran. These electron transfer agents are about equally effective for the reduction of this coal at short reaction times (3 hours). We conclude that the anions of biphenyl and naphthalene achieve a greater degree of electron transfer to the coal molecules and that the use of these anions enhances the fragmentation reactions of the coal. Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal and Colorado subbituminous coal were reacted with potassium dissolved in a mixture of monoglyme and triglyme at -50/sup 0/C. The reduction reaction proceeded via solvated electrons rather than by an electron transfer reaction. The coals were then alkylated with methyl iodide and their solubilities in tetrahydrofuran were determined. The Illinois coal reductively alkylated via solvated electrons was considerably less soluble in tetrahydrofuran than the same coal reductively alkylated with potassium and naphthalene in tetrahydrofuran. A sample of Illinois No. 6 coal which had been reductively butylated with n-butyl-1-/sup 13/C iodide was hydrolyzed. Carbon nmr spectroscopy of the hydrolyzed coal revealed that the resonances previously assigned either to the presence of n-butyl carboxylates or to n-butyl tertiary ethers were removed. This observation provides definite evidence that only carboxylates were present in the original alkylated product. Selective alkylation of the acidic hydroxyl groups in Illinois No. 6 coal was carried out using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as a phase transfer catalyst and iodomethane or 1-iodobutane as alkylating agent as described by Liotta. The tetrahydrofuran solubility of the product was significantly improved in a reaction where reductively butylated coal was subsequently coal was subsequently methylated using Liotta's procedure.

  8. Ring fission of anthracene by a eukaryota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, K.E.; Green, B.; Gai, W.Z.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ligninolytic fungi are unique among eukaryotes in their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but the mechanism for this process is unknown. Although certain PAHs are oxidized in vitro by the fungal lignin peroxidases (LiPs) that catalyze ligninolysis, it has never been shown that LiPs initiate PAH degradation in vivo. To address these problems, the metabolism of anthracene (AC) and its in vitro oxidation product, 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ), was examined by chromatographic and isotope dilution techniques in Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The fungal oxidation of AC to AQ was rapid, and both AC and AQ were significantly mineralized. Both compounds were cleaved by the fungus to give the same ring-fission metabolite, phthalic acid, and phthalate production from AQ was shown to occur only under ligninolytic culture conditions. These results show that the major pathway for AC degradation in Phanerochaete proceeds AC -> AQ -> phthalate + CO2 and that it is probably mediated by LiPs and other enzymes of ligninolytic metabolism.

  9. Ring fission of anthracene by a eukaryote

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, K.E.; Green, B.; Wen Zhi Gai (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse (United States))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ligninolytic fungi are unique among eukaryotes in their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but the mechanism for this process is unknown. Although certain PAHs are oxidized in vitro by the fungal lignin peroxidases (LiPs) that catalyze ligninolysis, it has never been shown that LiPs initiate PAH degradation in vivo. To address these problems, the metabolism of anthracene (AC) and its in vitro oxidation product, 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ), was examined by chromatographic and isotope dilution techniques in Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The fungal oxidation of AC to AQ was rapid, and both AC and AQ were significantly mineralized. Both compounds were cleaved by the fungus to give the same ring-fission metabolite, phthalic acid, and phthalate production from AQ was shown to occur only under ligninolytic culture conditions. These results show that the major pathway for AC degradation in Phanerochaete proceeds AC {yields} AQ {yields} phthalate + CO{sub 2} and that it is probably mediated by LiPs and other enzymes of ligninolytic metabolism.

  10. Activation barriers for oxygen diffusion in polystyrene and polycarbonate glasses: Effects of low molecular weight additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Y.; Baca, A.M.; Wang, B.; Ogilby, P.R. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently developed spectroscopic technique was used to determine oxygen diffusion coefficients, D, as a function of temperature in polystyrene and polycarbonate films. The data were quantified by using an Arrhenius expression with the following variables: (a) a diffusion activation barrier, E[sub act], and (b) a diffusion coefficient, D[sub 0], that represents the condition of barrier-free'' gas transport. From the perspective that diffusion depends on free volume, the parameters E[sub act] and D[sub 0] are interpreted to reflect dynamic and static elements of free volume in the polymer matrix. The addition of low molecular weight solutes to these amorphous glasses can alter the oxygen diffusion coefficient by affecting the dynamic and/or static free volume of the material. These effects are manifested in the parameters E[sub act] and D[sub 0]. Depending on the temperature, the additive may either inhibit or facilitate oxygen diffusion relative to diffusion in the unperturbed, additive-free material. Data are reported for films containing dimethyl phthalate, diphenyl phthalate, cholestane, and molecular nitrogen as additives.

  11. Potential Additives to Promote Seal Swell in Synthetic Fuels and Their Effect on Thermal Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, D.D.; Gormley, R.J.; Baltrus, J.P.; Anderson, R.R.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic fuels derived from the Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering ground vehicles, aircraft, and ships. Because of their chemical and physical properties, F-T fuels will probably require additives in order to meet specifications with respect to lubricity and seal swell capability for use in ground and air vehicles. Using both experimental and computational studies, the propensity of certain species to enhance the seal swell characteristics of synthetic fuels and surrogates has been determined, and promising additives have been identified. Important structural characteristics for potential additives, namely an aromatic ring along with a polar constituent, are described. The thermal stability of synthetic and surrogate fuels containing the single-component additive benzyl alcohol, which is representative of this structural class, has been determined by batch stressing of the mixtures at 350 °C for up to 12 h. Synthetic fuels spiked with benzyl alcohol at concentrations (vol %) of 1.0, 0.75, and 0.5 have demonstrated the ability to swell nitrile rubber o-rings to a comparable degree as petroleum jet fuel. Further, batch reactor studies have shown that addition of benzyl alcohol does not degrade the thermal oxidative stability of the fuel based on gravimetric analysis of the solid deposits after stressing. GC-MS was used to characterize the products from thermal stressing of neat and additized surrogate jet fuel, and their compositions were compared with respect to the creation of certain species and their potential effect on deposition.

  12. Ab initio study of the kinetics of hydrogen abstraction reactions on toluene and tetralin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beste, Ariana [ORNL; Britt, Phillip F [ORNL; Buchanan III, A C [ORNL; Harrison, Robert J [ORNL; Hathorn, Bryan C [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen abstraction reactions play a key role in many thermal and catalytic processes involved in the production of fuels and chemicals. In this paper, the reaction barriers and rate constants for the hydrogen abstraction reactions on toluene and tetralin by the benzyl radical are calculated by ab initio methods. These reactions are representatives of similar reactions occurring in the thermolysis of lignin model compounds containing the phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) structural moiety. Thermolysis of PPE occurs by a free radical chain mechanism in which the product selectivity arises from competitive hydrogen abstraction at the benzylic and nonbenzylic methylen sites by chain carrying benzyl and phenoxyl radicals. The title reactions serve to calibrate the theoretical methods to be used in the study of PPE through comparison of the rate constants and the reaction enthalpies with reliable experimental values. In this study, we used two different hybrid density functionals (BHandHLYP, B3LYP) and second-order perturbation theory to obtain equilibrium and transition state geometries. Multiple transition states were found for both reactions. BHandHLYP underestimates and second-order perturbation theory overestimates the reaction barriers; B3LYP energy barriers agree well with experiment. Absolute and relative rate constants were calculated using transition state theory. We found that the relative rate constant using the B3LYP functional agrees within a factor of 2.0 with experiment at the experimental temperature of 333 K, indicating that the B3LYP functional will be successful in predicting relative rate constants for hydrogen abstraction reactions participating in the pyrolysis of PPE.

  13. Participation of free radicals in the photodecomposition of active dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anisimov, V.M.; Anisimova, O.M.; Dzhanashvilli, M.E.; Krichevskii, G.E.

    1985-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the effect of the free radicals in the medium on the photodecomposition of these active azo and anthraquinone dyes. The semilogarithmic anamorphoses of the kinetic curves showed that the rate of consumption of nitroxyl radical decreased in time in the presence of the dyes. The efficiency of the photodecomposition of the active dyes in an ETC film in the presence and absence of benzyl was studied to evaluate the role of free radicals in the photobleaching of the dies. The kinetic dependences obtained for active yellow 2KT are shown. The relative efficiency of the photoinitiation of free radicals by some active dyes was determined.

  14. Some Reactions of Formamidines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malleis, Otto Oscar

    1913-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    .1028 x .01401 « 11.36 % H. HC«H*0CH«CeH5 Theoretical for HC ' or C 3 4H 2 70 9H5 N HECeH*OCH*CeHs H = 70.05 v 10.99 $ nitrogen found - H.36 $ 19 Preparation of oyanaoetio derivatives of di-p~benzyl-oxy-di-phenyl- formamidin©. Heat molecular... as hydrochloride b.- Piorates o.- Chloroplatinates. 2.- Reaction with compounds containing methylene hydrogen. a.- Reaction of oyanacetio ethyl ester with a substi­ tuted formamidine. OH OH I R I CHa * HO = 0 * HCHH R ^ R M a I * HER I COOCaHs COOCa...

  15. The reduction of carbon-carbon multiple bond systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Donald Roy

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the ability to the phenyl groups to disperse a charge on the benzylic carbon. In ether, an aprotic solvent, lithium reacts with diphenylacetylene 6 to form the lithium derivative of a substituted naphthelene. C6H5-CmC-C6H + Li m ~IC H ~C4Ha CaHs Cexs (12...) Hater or ethyl alcohol reacts with the lithium derivative to form 1, 2, 3-triphenylnaphthelene while reaction of the lithium derivative with carbon dioxide yields the corresponding salt of a 1-naphthoic acid. C4HS H + LiOH (13) Cd Hr C@H5 C@H5...

  16. Mode of action of antibiotics in stimulating growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elam, James Fletcher

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at 15 pounds) were injected at a level of 1.2 mg per bird per week. Sodium potassium benzyl- penilloate, sodium benzylpenicilloate, and beta-diethylamino- ethanol were administered parenterally at a level of 1.5, 1.2, and 0.43 mg, respectively, per... The addition of penicillin to the basal diet (orally or parenterally) produced an increase in the growth of the chicks (table 1). The administration of inactivated penicil? lin parenterally produced a similar increase but failed to do so when fed orally...

  17. Altered electron flow in continuous cultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum induced by viologen dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, G.; Mutharasan, R.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The physiological response of Clostridium acetobutylicum to methyl and benzyl viologen was investigated. Viologen dyes at low concentrations (at levels of parts per million (micrograms per milliliter)) caused significant metabolic shifts. Altered electron flow appeared to direct carbon flow from acid to alcohol production accompanied by decreased hydrogen evolution. Reducing equivalents normally released as free hydrogen were directed toward formation of NADH which, in turn, resulted in increased alcohol production. In addition, it was shown that solvent production can take place at pH 6.3. Contrary to previous reports, butanol production appears to be independent of high levels of acetate-butyrate and glucose.

  18. Inhibition of house fly microsomal aldrin epoxidase activity by juvenile hormone analogs in vitro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spates, George Ellis

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    inhibitions. These analogs were: R 20458 (trans? 1-(4' -ethylphenoxy) ? 6, 7-epoxy-3, 7-dimethyl-2-octene ), Ro 20-3600 (6, 7-epoxy-5-methyl-7-ethyl-l-)3, 4-(methy- lenedioxy)-phenoxg7 ? 2-cis/trans ? octene) and its diethyl Ro 7-9767 and dimethyl Ro 8... Stauffer Chem. cal Company in male albino dth l. g t ygh*pp(gh t lith gh th Jgll * t d t' p 'll sites (epoxide, transolefin, ether and benzylic methy- lene groups) for catalytic action, only 1 site (epoxide) was attacked under all conditions...

  19. A convenient synthesis of saturated azlactones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenna, Michael Gerard

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . EXPERIMENTAL. Cycl i zati on in Chloroform. 2-Phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one (9). Cycl i zati on in Di ch1 oromethane. General procedure. 2-Phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one (9). 2-Phenyl-4-methyl-2-oxazoli n-5-one ( 10). . . . . . . . . . Z-Phenyl-4, 4-dimethyl-2... for the azlactones prepared. III Correlation of optical rotation with melting point of 2-phenyl-4-benzyl-2-oxazol in-5-one (15). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ll 13 14 LIST OF SCHEMES SCHEME PAGE Preparation of 2-phenyl-4, 4-dimethyl-2-oxazolin-5- one...

  20. A chemical investigation into the catalytic site of aspartate transcarbamylase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaeder, Gerald Raymond

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , (p. 6), (R = benzyl). An nmr spectrum was taken of the crude product, and an nmr and ir spectrum taken of the product after addition of ether, removal of the precipitated amine hydrochloride, and removal of the ether in vacuo. If the reaction.... , Knoxville, Tenn. 19 Procedures Tris(dimethylamino) phosphine. The method of Burgada was employed. Into a three-necked, alcohol- 18 dry ice cooled round bottom flask equipped witn a mech- anical stirrer, was placed 153 g (3. 4 mol) of dimethyl- amine...

  1. Free radical formation in vivo and hepatotoxicity due to anesthesia with halothane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plummer, J.L.; Beckwith, A.L.; Bastin, F.N.; Adams, J.F.; Cousins, M.J.; Hall, P.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In vivo studies were undertaken to determine whether free radical formation in the liver during administration of various halogenated anesthetics is associated with hepatotoxicity of these agents in an animal model. In addition to the anesthetics halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane, carbon tetrachloride was studied as an example of a hepatotoxic halogenated compound acting by a free radical mechanism. Free radicals were trapped in vivo during anesthesia as stable adducts using the spin trap, alpha-phenyl-t-butyl nitrone. These adducts were extracted from the liver and studied by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Free radicals were detected after administration of halothane or carbon tetrachloride, compounds which were hepatotoxic under the conditions of the experiment, but were not found after anesthesia induced with enflurane or isoflurane, anesthetics which were not hepatotoxic under identical conditions. The free radical trapped after alpha-phenyl-t-butyl nitrone treatment of halothane-anesthetized rats appeared to be a metabolic intermediate of halothane.

  2. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator package o-ring seal material validation testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, H.E.; Ferrell, P.C.; Knight, R.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, P. O. Box 1970, MSIN N1-25, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    1995-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Test was conducted to validate the use of the Butyl material as a primary seal throughout the required temperature range. Three tests were performed at (I) 233 K ({minus}40 {degree}F), (2) a specified operating temperature, and (3) 244 K ({minus}20 {degree}F) before returning to room temperature. Helium leak tests were performed at each test point to determine seal performance. The two major test objectives were to establish that butyl rubber material would maintain its integrity under various conditions and within specified parameters and to evaluate changes in material properties. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  3. Texas plant will use new process to coproduce propylene oxide, MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1993-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Texaco Chemical Co. is building a $400 + million facility to produce 1.2 billion lb/year (14,000 b/d) methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and 400 million lb/year (about 500 metric tons/day) propylene oxide (PO). The facility-under construction at Port Neches, Tex.-will utilize a newly developed Texaco process that coproduces the two chemicals. The process produces propylene oxide and tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) from the reaction of isobutane with oxygen in one step, then in a second step with propylene. The TBA is then reacted with methanol in a one-step process that synthesizes MTBE. The paper describes the Port Neches facilities, construction schedule, feedstocks, product uses, and auxiliary equipment.

  4. Equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of liquid-phase ethyl tert-butylether (ETBE) synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, K.L.; Datta, R. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is now the second largest volume organic chemical, only behind ethylene, produced in the U.S. This is remarkable since its commercial production began barely two decades ago. Although MTBE is currently the industry standard, it has been proposed that ethanol and other renewable additives make up to 30% of the oxygenate market. As a result, ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, or 2-ethyoxy 2-methyl propane), derived from renewable ethanol and isobutylene, has emerged as a promising new oxygenate. ETBE also has a somewhat lower blending Reid vapor pressure as well as a higher octane number than MTBE. This paper describes the thermodynamic equilibrium constant for the production of ETBE.

  5. Composition and method for encapsulating photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pern, Fu-Jann (Golden, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition and method for encapsulating a photovoltaic device which minimizes discoloration of the encapsulant. The composition includes an ethylene-vinyl acetate encapsulant, a curing agent, an optional ultraviolet light stabilizer, and/or an optional antioxidant. The curing agent is preferably 1,1-di-(t-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane; the ultraviolet light stabilizer is bis-(N-octyloxy-tetramethyl) piperidinyl sebacate and the antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of tris (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) phosphite, tetrakis methylene (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate) methane, octadecyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate, and 2,2'-ethylidene bis(4,6-di-t-butylphenyl) fluorophosponite. The composition is applied to a solar cell then cured. The cured product contains a minimal concentration of curing-generated chromophores and resists UV-induced degradation.

  6. Bulk Gold-Catalyzed Reactions of Isocyanides, Amines, and Amine N-Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klobukowski, Erik; Angelici, Robert; Woo, Keith L.

    2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk gold powder (5–50 ?m particles) catalyzes the reactions of isocyanides with amines and amine N-oxides to produce ureas. The reaction of n-butyl isocyanide (nBu–N?C) with di-n-propylamine and N-methylmorpholine N-oxide in acetonitrile, which was studied in the greatest detail, produced 3-butyl-1,1-dipropylurea (O?C(NHnBu)(NnPr2)) in 99% yield at 60 °C within 2 h. Sterically and electronically different isocyanides, amines, and amine N-oxides react successfully under these conditions. Detailed studies support a two-step mechanism that involves a gold-catalyzed reaction of adsorbed isocyanide with the amine N-oxide to form an isocyanate (RN?C?O), which rapidly reacts with the amine to give the urea product. These investigations show that bulk gold, despite its reputation for poor catalytic activity, is capable of catalyzing these reactions.

  7. Saudi MTBE project revived

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Alujain Corp., a member of the Xenel group of Saudi Arabia, is going ahead with plans to build an 800,000-m.t./year methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plant. Bechtel has been appointed project manager for the plant, which will be owned by a new company, National Fuel Additives (Tahseen). Bechtel will help evaluate proposals already submitted for the lump sum turnkey job.

  8. Race to license new MTBE and TAME routes heats up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotman, D.

    1993-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    With refineries and petrochemical manufacturers continuing to gear up production of oxygenates for use in reformulated fuels, new routes to methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) are clearly hot items in the licensing market. And probably nowhere has the competition become as intense as in offerings for skeletal isomerization technologies to boost ethers production from fluid catalytic cracking and steam cracking.

  9. MTBE from butadiene-rich C/sub 4/s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ancillotti, F.; Pescarollo, E.; Szatmari, E.; Lazar, L.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), is made by reacting methanol with isobutylene. The preferred source of isobutylene is a steam cracker C/sub 4/ cut from which butadiene has been removed. However, moving the MTBE synthesis upstream of the butadiene extraction will improve the extraction step. The following is a review of conditions imposed on the MTBE unit's design and operation when placed in this new location.

  10. Two US markets, or one? How the MTBE-gasoline relationship is evolving

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This issue of Energy Detente features the price sensitivity of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether. Data is presented for US wholesale gasoline prices vs. MTBE for the 20-month period beginning in June 1994 and ending in January 1996, and the data is discussed. Also contained in this issue is the refining netback data and the fuel price/tax data for the period ending January 5, 1996.

  11. Statoil outlines MTBE development program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that Norway's state oil company Den Norkse state Oljeselskap AS has outlined plans to become one of the major European producers of methyl tertiary butyl ether in the 1990s. Statoil predicts European demand for MTBE will jump to 4.5 million metric tons/year by 2000 from 2.5 million tons in 1990. Europe currently is a net importer of MTBE, with a productive capacity of 2.2 million tons/year.

  12. PALLADIUM-CATALYZED DECARBOXYLATIVE ALLYLATIONS OF ESTER ENOLATE EQUIVALENTS AND PALLADIUM-CATALYZED CYCLIZATIONS VIA CO2 AND SILYL ACTIVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariyarathna, Yamuna Kumari

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    (diphenylphosphino)-1,1’-binaphthyl SN2 bimolecular nucleophilic substitution t-Bu tert-butyl t-BuOK potassium tert-butoxide TfOH trifluoromethanesulfonic acid TFP trifurylphosphine THF tetrahydrofuran tol toluene TPO triphenylphosphine...A). Coordination of the Pd(0) catalyst to the allyl moiety facilitates the oxidative addition to produce a palladium ?-allyl intermediate and carboxylate 1.1.4. Upon decarboxylation the carboxylate will expose the active nucleophile, which then couple...

  13. Chemical Compatibility Chart Below is a chart adapted from the CRC Laboratory Handbook, which groups various chemicals in to 23

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Duck O.

    acid 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,10,13,14,16,17,18,19,21,22,23 2 Organic acids Acetic acid Butyric acid Formic acid Triethylenetetramine 1,2,5,7,8,13,14,15,16,17,18,23 5 Halogenated Compounds Allyl chloride Carbon tetrachloride Petroleum Oils Gasoline Mineral Oil 20 13 Esters Amyl acetate Butyl acetates Castor oil Dimethyl sulfate

  14. letters to nature NATURE |VOL 408 |23 NOVEMBER 2000 |www.nature.com 453

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, David A.

    containing 0.5 g of the gemini surfactant 18B4-3±1 (N,N,N,N9N9-pentamethyl-N9- [4-(4-octadecyloxyphenoxy)-butyl]-propane after the addition of TEOS at room temperature. The reaction gel mixture was heated for 2 d at 80 8C without stirring. The precipitate was ®ltered and dried in air at room temperature. Determination

  15. Batch polymerization of styrene initiated by alkyl lithiums

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Rashmi R

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -butyl lithium using cyclohexane as the solvent, The polymerization is carried out in an isothermal batch reactor at a temperature of. 5D C. The proposed reaction proceeds by a homogenous anionic mechanism. The mathematical model developed by Edgar (6..., propagat)on and their kinetics, In this work the experimentally detersnined molecu]ar weight distribution and monomer conversions are compared with the results predicted by a mathematical model developed by Edgar (11). Rate constants determined by Hsieh...

  16. Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D. (Albuqueruqe, NM); Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

  17. Energy Efficient Refinery Process Developed with U.S. D.O.E. Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mings, W. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENERGY EFFICIENT REFINERY PROCESS DEVELOPED WITH U.S. D.O.E. SUPPORT Walter J. Mings, P.E. EG&G Idaho, Inc. Idaho Falls, Idaho Abstract The United States Department of Energy histori cally has encouraged private efforts to develop en ergy... with potential for extensive industrial energy savings. INTRODUCTION An innovative energy saving refinery process (also called the catalytic distillation process) for pro ducing MTBE (Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether) was devel oped by two Houston companies...

  18. The breakthrough time and permeation rate of multi-component solvents for selected glove materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Bruce Gustav

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    APPENDIX A TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Page LIST OF VARIOUS PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF THE RESEARCH SOLVENTS. APPENDIX B 65 LIST OF EQUIPMENT. APPENDIX C ASSEMBLY OF PESCE LAB SALES PERMEATION TEST CELL WITH TEST... the chemicals tested including the permeation rat s and breakthrough times through the glove. Vitron, Butyl and Nitrile Latex are just a few types of The citations used on the following pages follow the style of the American Industrial Hygiene Association...

  19. Electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectral analysis of a volatile uranyl derivative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reutter, D.J.; Hardy, D.R.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quadrupole mass spectral analysis of the volatile uranium ligand complex bis (1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato) dioxouranium-di-n-butyl sulfoxide is described utilizing electron impact (EI) and methane chemical ionization (CI) ion sources. All major ions are tentatively identified and the potential usefulness of this complex for determining uranium isotope /sup 235/U//sup 238/U abundance is demonstrated.

  20. Biodiesel Safety and Best Management Practices for Small-Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noncommercial Use

    The following gear should be on hand each time you produce biodiesel: • Chemical-resistant gloves (butyl rubber is best for methanol and lye) • Chemistry goggles (indirect vented) and face shield • Dust mask or cartridge respirator • Eyewash bottle with saline solution • Small spray bottle with vinegar for neutralizing lye spills • Access to running water • Telephone in case of emergency and emergency telephone numbers • Fire extinguishers (ABC or CO) 2

  1. Method for the concentration and separation of actinides from biological and environmental samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Tucson, AZ)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for the quantitative recover of actinide values from biological and environmental sample by passing appropriately prepared samples in a mineral acid solution through a separation column of a dialkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate on an inert substrate which selectively extracts the actinide values. The actinide values can be eluted either as a group or individually and their presence quantitatively detected by alpha counting.

  2. Method for the concentration and separation of actinides from biological and environmental samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1989-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for the quantitative recover of actinide values from biological and environmental sample by passing appropriately prepared samples in a mineral acid solution through a separation column of a dialkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate on an inert substrate which selectively extracts the actinide values. The actinide values can be eluted either as a group or individually and their presence quantitatively detected by alpha counting. 3 figs.

  3. Direct exfoliation of natural graphite into micrometer size few layers graphene sheets using ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X.; Fulvio, P. F.; Baker, G. A.; Veith, G. M.; Unocic, R. R.; Mahurin, S., M.; Chi, M.; Dai, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stable high-concentration suspensions (up to 0.95 mg mL{sup ?1}) of non-oxidized few layer graphene (FLG), five or less sheets, with micrometre-long edges were obtained via direct exfoliation of natural graphite flakes in ionic liquids, such as 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoro-methane-sulfonyl)imide ([Bmim]-[Tf{sub 2}N]), by tip ultrasonication.

  4. The Use of pH to Influence Regio-and Chemoselectivity in the Asymmetric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hergenrother, Paul J.

    L of acetonitrile. The solution was cooled in a water-ice bath (0-4 o C) and under efficient stirring a cold minutes, and then the cold solution of t-butyl hypochlorite (134.4 mg, 1.24 mmol) in 1 mL of acetonitrile and stirred for 3 min. The cold acetonitrile/buffer mixture was then added to a total volume of 28 m

  5. Capture isobutylene with glycol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knifton, J.F. (Texaco Chemical's Austin Research Lab. TX (United States))

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of butenes present in C-4 streams (generated as a result of steam or catalytic cracking) is becoming increasingly important as the butenes find expanded applications in the production of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE), methyl methacrylate, butyl rubber, and linear low-density polyethylene. Available methods of separation include selective extraction with a liquid solvent (usually an acid); the use of addition reactions with suitable alcohols, acids, or water; selective polymerization and physical separation by absorbents. Three currently important separation processes for isobutylene production are an extraction route using mineral acid, the dehydration of tert-butanol, and the cracking of MTBE. As part of the research into solid acid catalysis for the generation of glycol tert-butyl monoethers, the authors have demonstrated an alternative C-4 separation process using solid inorganic acid catalysts and involving the intermediate preparation of glycol ethers. This new C-4 separation scheme could be particularly attractive to existing glycol producers who may also have a market, or internal need, for glycol monoalkyl ethers, as well as those who do not have MTBE capacity but still require pure isobutylene as a chemical intermediate or comonomer building block. The process is described.

  6. Oxygenates du`jour...MTBE? Ethanol? ETBE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, R.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many different liquids that contain oxygen which could be blended into gasoline. The ones that have been tried and make the most sense are in the alcohol (R-OH) and ether (R-O-R) chemical family. The alcohols considered are: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). The ethers are: methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). Of the eight oxygenates listed above, the author describes the five that are still waiting for widespread marketing acceptance (methanol, TBA, TAME, TAEE, and DIPE). He then discusses the two most widely used oxygenates in the US, MTBE and ethanol, along with the up-and-coming ethanol ether, ETBE. Selected physical properties for all of these oxygenates can be found in Table 2 at the end of this paper. A figure shows a simplified alcohol/ether production flow chart for the oxygenates listed above and how they are interrelated.

  7. Infrared spectroscopy of organic free radicals related to combustion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weisshaar, J.C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary long-term goal of this work is to develop new techniques for measuring vibrational spectra of polyatomic neutral free radicals. The authors explore a variation of resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) in which tunable {omega}{sub IR} excites the radical vibrationally and {omega}{sub UV} selectively ionizes only the vibrationally excited molecules. Development of the IR + UV R2PI experiment is underway. In the meantime, the authors have used optical R2PI and pulsed field ionization (PFI) detection to obtain new vibrational spectra of species such as the benzyl and phenylsilane cations. In benzyl, a great deal was learned about the vibronic coupling mechanism in the mixed q{sup 2}A{sub 2}-2{sup 2}B{sub 2} system near 450 nm by projecting the mixed states onto the manifold of cation vibrational states. In phenylsilane{sup +}, we find that the sixfold barrier to internal rotation of the silyl group is small (V{sub 6} = +19 cm{sup {minus}1}). We are beginning to understand the mechanisms of coupling of torsional states with vibration, overall rotation, and other electronic states. In addition, we are developing a new model of internal rotation in aromatic compounds based on Prof. Frank Weinhold`s natural resonance theory.

  8. Synthesis of labeled oxalic acid derivatives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martinez, Rodolfo A. (Santa Fe, NM); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Alvarez, Marc A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2004-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, specifically ##STR1## where each C* is selected from the group consisting of a carbon-12, i.e., .sup.12 C, or a carbon-13, i.e., .sup.13 C and at least one C* is .sup.13 C, R.sup.1 is selected from the group of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl and aryl, and X is selected from the group of --NR.sup.2 R.sup.3 where R.sup.2 and R.sup.3 are each independently selected from the group of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, alkoxy and aryl, --SR.sup.4 where R.sup.4 is selected from the group of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, alkoxy and aryl, and --OR.sup.5 where R.sup.5 is selected from the group of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, alkoxy and aryl with the proviso that when R.sup.1 is methyl then R.sup.5 is other than methyl, when R.sup.1 is ethyl then R.sup.5 is other than ethyl, and when R.sup.1 is benzyl then R.sup.5 is other than benzyl.

  9. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 84-239-1586, Ashland Super Valu, Ashland, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniels, W.J.; Donohue, M.T.; Singal, M.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental and brathing zone samples were analyzed for di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate, hydrogen-chloride, cyclohexanol, dicyclohexyl-phthalate, phthalic-anhydride, and total particulates at Ashland Super Valu, Ashland, Wisconsin in June, 1984. The evaluation was requested by a company representative due to complaints of respiratory problems by one of the meat department employees. Four meat department employees were interviewed. The authors conclude that it is not possible to determine whether or not the symptoms reported by the meat packer are due to emissions from heated meat wrap or label adhesive. Recommendations included not operating the cool rod cutter at a temperature above 280 degrees-F and installing local exhaust ventilation.

  10. Effect of Lamination Conditions on the Gas Permeability and Adhesion Strength of Green Ceramic Tapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Krueger

    2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas permeability and adhesion strength of laminated green ceramic tapes were determined for samples comprised of barium titanate as the dielectric, and poly(vinyl butyral) and dioctyl phthalate as the main components of the binder mixture. The green tapes were laminated for times of 2-10 min, pressures of 1.8-7 MPa, and temperatures of 35-85?C. The adhesion strength, which was measured by a peel test, increased with increasing lamination time, temperature, and pressure. The permeability, which was determined from gas flux measurements, decreased with increasing lamination time, temperature, and pressure. The dependence of the permeability and adhesion strength on lamination time, temperature, and pressure is qualitatively consistent with a mechanistic description of the lamination process as one of binder flow in porous media

  11. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ozonolysis of ?-Pinene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Chen; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Thornton, Joel A.; Madronich, Sasha; Ortega, John V.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Laskin, Alexander; Maughan, A. D.

    2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Semi-empirical secondary organic aerosol (SOA) models typically assume a well-mixed organic aerosol phase even in the presence of hydrophobic primary organic aerosols (POA). This assumption significantly enhances the modeled SOA yields as additional organic mass is made available to absorb greater amounts of oxidized secondary organic gases than otherwise. We investigate the applicability of this critical assumption by measuring SOA yields from ozonolysis of ?-pinene (a major biogenic SOA precursor) in a smog chamber in the absence and in the presence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and lubricating oil seed aerosol. These particles serve as surrogates for urban hydrophobic POA. The results show that these POA did not enhance the SOA yields. If these results are found to apply to other biogenic SOA precursors, then the semi-empirical models used in many global models would predict significantly less biogenic SOA mass and display reduced sensitivity to anthropogenic POA emissions than previously thought.

  12. Reaction network and kinetics for the catalytic oxidation of toluene over V sub 2 O sub 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, J.; Andersson, L.T. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden))

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation of three methyl-diphenylmethane isomers and of bibenzyl, benzyl alcohol, and benzaldehyde, which are intermediates in the catalytic oxidation of toluene over V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, has been studied to elucidate the reaction network and relative importance of various reactions. Selectivity dependences reveal that the network is composed mainly of three parallel reaction routes: (1) side-chain oxidation with consecutive reactions, (2) oxidative coupling with both parallel and consecutive reactions, and (3) carbon oxide formation. Coupling products are not negligible, with an initial selectivity of 29% (400{degree}C). Anthraquinone is produced mainly from o-methyl-diphenylmethane conditions and catalyst used. Selectivity dependences suggested product lumping and a simplified network. Kinetic analysis of this reaction network indicates that higher temperatures favor route 2 over route 1. The same initial intermediates for route 1 of side-chain oxidation and for route 2 of oxidative coupling are suggested.

  13. Computational Modeling of Degradation of Substituted Benzyltrimethyl Ammonium: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, H.; Pivovar, B. S.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The degradation of cations on the alkaline exchange membranes is the major challenge for alkaline membrane fuel cells. In this paper, we investigated the degradation barriers by density functional theory for substituted benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA+) cations, which is one of the most commonly used cations for alkaline exchange membranes. We found that substituted cations with electron-releasing substituent groups at meta-position of the benzyl ring could result in improved degradation barriers. However, after investigating more than thirty substituted BTMA+ cations with ten different substituent groups, the largest improvement of degradation barriers is only 1.6 kcal/mol. This implies that the lifetime of alkaline membrane fuel cells could increase from a few months to a few years by using substituted BTMA+ cations, an encouraging but still limited improvement for real-world applications.

  14. Solvent for urethane adhesives and coatings and method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Knoxville, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN); Holt, Jerrid S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A solvent for urethane adhesives and coatings, the solvent having a carbaldehyde and a cyclic amide as constituents. In some embodiments the solvent consists only of miscible constituents. In some embodiments the carbaldehyde is benzaldehyde and in some embodiments the cyclic amide is N-methylpyrrolidone (M-pyrole). An extender may be added to the solvent. In some embodiments the extender is miscible with the other ingredients, and in some embodiments the extender is non-aqueous. For example, the extender may include isopropanol, ethanol, tetrahydro furfuryl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, Gamma-butyrolactone or a caprolactone. In some embodiments a carbaldehyde and a cyclic amide are heated and used to separate a urethane bonded to a component.

  15. Preparation, characterization and catalytic properties of MCM-48 supported tungstophosphoric acid mesoporous materials for green synthesis of benzoic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Chen, Xi; Chen, Ya; Zheng, Xiu-Cheng, E-mail: zhxch@zzu.edu.cn

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    MCM-48 and tungstophosphoric acid (HPW) were prepared and applied for the synthesis of HPW/MCM-48 mesoporous materials. The characterization results showed that HPW/MCM-48 obtained retained the typical mesopore structure of MCM-48, and the textural parameters decreased with the increase loading of HPW. The catalytic oxidation results of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde with 30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} indicated that HPW/MCM-48 was an efficient catalyst for the green synthesis of benzoic acid. Furthermore, 35 wt% HPW/MCM-48 sample showed the highest activity under the reaction conditions. Highlights: • 5–45 wt% HPW/MCM-48 mesoporous catalysts were prepared and characterized. • Their catalytic activities for the green synthesis of benzoic acid were investigated. • HPW/MCM-48 was approved to be an efficient catalyst. • 5 wt% HPW/MCM-48 exhibited the highest catalytic activity.

  16. Method for detecting toxic gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stetter, J.R.; Zaromb, S.; Findlay, M.W. Jr.

    1991-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed which is capable of detecting low concentrations of a pollutant or other component in air or other gas. This method utilizes a combination of a heating filament having a catalytic surface of a noble metal for exposure to the gas and producing a derivative chemical product from the component. An electrochemical sensor responds to the derivative chemical product for providing a signal indicative of the product. At concentrations in the order of about 1-100 ppm of tetrachloroethylene, neither the heating filament nor the electrochemical sensor is individually capable of sensing the pollutant. In the combination, the heating filament converts the benzyl chloride to one or more derivative chemical products which may be detected by the electrochemical sensor. 6 figures.

  17. PUNCTURE TEST CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.; Chapman, G.

    2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An experiment was conducted to determine the puncture resistance of 15 gloves that are used or proposed for use in the Tritium Facility at Savannah River Site (SRS). These data will serve as a baseline for characterization and may be incorporated into the glove procurement specification. The testing was conducted in agreement with ASTM D120 and all of the gloves met or exceeded the minimum requirements. Butyl gloves exhibited puncture resistance nearly 2.5 times the minimum requirements at SRS while Polyurethane was nearly 7.5x the minimum.

  18. Method for cleaning solution used in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, Othar K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dodson, Karen E. (Knoxville, TN); Mailen, James C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear fuel processing solution containing (1) hydrocarbon diluent, (2) tri-n-butyl phosphate or tri-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, and (3) monobutyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, mono-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, di-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, or a complex formed by plutonium, uranium, or a fission product thereof with monobutyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, mono-2-ethylhexyl phosphate, or di-2-ethylhexyl phosphate is contacted with silica gel having alkali ions absorbed thereon to remove any one of the degradation products named in section (3) above from said solution.

  19. Silica gel as a model surface for adsorption calorimetry of enhanced-oil-recovery systems. [Heat of immersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noll, L.A.; Burchfield, T.E.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a method for studying interaction of fluids with surfaces by measuring the heat of immersion and then measuring simultaneously the surface excess and enthalpy of replacement for a series of binary solutions. The method of calculating surface excess is described. These techniques are applied to silica gel which has had different activation temperatures. Heating overnight to 400/sup 0/C results in a reproducible surface. The adsorption of n-butyl alcohol from toluene and from water upon these surfaces is compared.

  20. Health studies indicate MTBE is safe gasoline additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, E.V.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Implementation of the oxygenated fuels program by EPA in 39 metropolitan areas, including Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska, in the winter of 1992, encountered some unexpected difficulties. Complaints of headaches, dizziness, nausea, and irritated eyes started in Fairbanks, jumped to Anchorage, and popped up in various locations in the lower 48 states. The suspected culprit behind these complaints was the main additive for oxygenation of gasoline is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). A test program, hastily organized in response to these complaints, has indicated that MTBE is a safe gasoline additive. However, official certification of the safety of MTBE is still awaited.

  1. Veba in MTBE project, cutting aromatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, I.; Roberts, M.

    1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The new owners of the refinery and petrochemical complex at Schwedt in eastern Germany-RWE-DEA (Hamburg), Veba Oel (Gelsenkirchen), Agip (Rome), Total (Paris), and Elf-Aquitaine (Paris)-plan to build a 60,000-m.t./year methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plant at the site for 1994-1995 completion. The MTBE project forms part of the consortium`s announced DM1.5-billion ($500 million) investment program for the complex that aims to raise refinery throughput from 8 million m.t./year to 12 million m.t./year by 1994 and hike production of naphtha and benzene.

  2. Evaluation and Optimization of MTBE Biodegradation in Aquifers, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Legler, T; Balser, L; Koester, C; Wilson, W

    2004-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was focused on meeting the following objectives concerning the process of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) biodegradation, with the goal of optimizing this process in situ: 1. Assess whether intrinsic bioattenuation of MTBE is feasible under aerobic conditions across several contaminated sites. 2. Determine the effect of co-contaminants, specifically water-soluble gasoline components (most notably benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes [BTEX]) on MTBE biodegradation. 3. Determine whether microbial and/or chemical factors contribute to different MTBE degradative activities. 4. Isolate and characterize MTBE-degrading microorganisms from sediments in which MTBE biodegradation was observed.

  3. Austrian refiner benefits from advanced control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard, L.A.; Spencer, M. [Setpoint Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Schuster, R.; Tuppinger, D.M.; Wilmsen, W.F. [OeMV-AG Energy, Schwechat (Austria)

    1995-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    OeMV-AG Energy implemented advanced process controls on 27 units at its refinery in Schwechat, Austria. A variety of controls were implemented on the butadiene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) units in January 1993. After more than 1 year of operation, the butadiene/MTBE project has shown a number of benefits, including reduced energy consumption and increased capacity in both units. The paper discusses the process, advanced control, the simple model predictive controller, control objectives, the butadiene unit, the MTBE unit, and benefits of the advanced controllers.

  4. Petrochem industry expands North American MTBE capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that petrochemical manufacturers continue to increase methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) capacity in North America. The action reflects refiners' reformulation of gasoline to help reduce auto emissions. Demand for gasoline blending oxygenates such as MTBE is expected to increase as U.S. refiners reconfigure processing trains to produce fuels meeting requirements of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990. Recent progress includes plans to build an MTBE plant in Mexico and start-ups of plants on the U.S. Gulf Coast and in Canada.

  5. MTBE growth limited despite lead phasedown in gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storck, W.

    1985-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This month's legislated reduction of the allowable amount of lead additives in gasoline will increase demand strongly for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as an octane enhancer, but the economics of the refinery business and the likelihood of rapidly increasing high-octane gasoline imports probably will limit the size of the business in coming years. MTBE will be used to fill the octane gap now, but economics and imports of gasoline later on could hold down demand. The limited growth in sales of MTBE is discussed.

  6. A near infrared regression model for octane measurements in gasolines which contain MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maggard, S.M. (Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has emerged as a superior technique for the on-line determination of octane during the blending of gasoline. This results from the numerous advantages that NIR spectroscopy has over conventional on-line instrumentation. Methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) is currently the oxygenated blending component of choice. MTBE is advantageous because it has a high blending octane, a low Reid vapor pressure, is relatively cheap, and does not form peroxides (1). The goal of this project was to develop a NIR regression model that could be used to predict pump octanes regardless of whether they contained MTBE.

  7. Synthesis of octane enhancer during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcelin, G.

    1991-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

  8. MTBE: Capacity boosts on hold amid demand concerns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainty reigns in the methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) market. {open_quotes}We have no choice but to put our expansion plans on the back burner,{close_quotes} says one producer. {open_quotes}Because of government actions, there are no MTBE plants being built or expanded.{close_quotes} Spot MTBE prices have risen ti 82 cts- 83 cts/gal from 76 cts-78 cts/gal earlier this month as the demand for octane enhancement increases for the summer driving season. Some observers say EPA may relax different oxygen requirements for gasoline in different seasons. That would simplify production and supply for MTBE makers.

  9. Methanex considers methanol, MTBE in Qatar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    CW has learned that Methanex Corp. is considering entering one of two methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) projects in Qatar. Executive v.p. Michael Wilson says that part of the company`s New Zealand plant could be moved to a site in Qatar, which would lower capital costs for the possible project by $75 million-$100 million. Both Qatar General Petroleum Corp. and Qatar Fuel Additives are developing methanol and MTBE projects at Umm Said, Qatar. Methanex says its goal is to ensure low-cost feedstocks.

  10. Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcelin, G.

    1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

  11. Economics of new MTBE design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Jarallah, A.M.; Lee, A.K.K.

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) is produced industrially by catalytic reaction between methanol and isobutene. The catalyst that is widely used is an acidic ion exchange resin. This article explores design and economics when sulfuric acid is the catalyst. The profitability of MTBE production depends mainly on the cost of butenes and methhanol. Thus, the example shows MTBE made with a catalyst of sulfuric acid was profitable at a Saudi Arabian location, even though it was not profitable at a U.S. Gulf Coast location.

  12. MTBE: Wild card in groundwater cleanup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenigsberg, S. [Regenesis Bioremediation Products, San Juan Capistrano, CA (United States)

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface releases of the gasoline oxygenate, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) seriously compromise the remediation and closure of properties that have ground water contaminated with BTEX and other conventional fuel hydrocarbon components. Although a manageable protocal for BTEX remediation is being set up, the MTBE problem continues to be difficult. This article discusses a new magnesium peroxide compound which could be part of the solution. Covered topics include oxygen release compound (ORC) enhance bioremediation and the role of oxygen and ORC in MTBE remediation. 1 fig.

  13. Total to withdraw from Qatar methanol - MTBE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total is rumored to be withdrawing from the $700-million methanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Qatar Fuel Additives Co., (Qafac) project. The French company has a 12.5% stake in the project. Similar equity is held by three other foreign investors: Canada`s International Octane, Taiwan`s Chinese Petroleum Corp., and Lee Change Yung Chemical Industrial Corp. Total is said to want Qafac to concentrate on methanol only. The project involves plant unit sizes of 610,000 m.t./year of MTBE and 825,000 m.t./year of methanol. Total declines to comment.

  14. New etherification process commercialized in Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The phase-out of leaded fuels in Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa and Latin America is increasing demand for octane and octane-bearing fuel components such as ethers. Early solutions to the problem of increasing octane while reducing tailpipe emissions involved use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). According to Neste, using both tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) and MTBE can give refiners increased blending flexibility for volatility control. But the economics associated with TAME production often make TAME units difficult to justify. The paper discusses the NExTAME process, the unit at the Porvoo refinery and process improvements.

  15. Lipid extraction from microalgae using a single ionic liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-step process for the lysis of microalgae cell walls and separation of the cellular lipids for use in biofuel production by utilizing a hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium. The hydrophilic ionic liquid both lyses the microalgae cell walls and forms two immiscible layers, one of which consists of the lipid contents of the lysed cells. After mixture of the hydrophilic ionic liquid with a suspension of microalgae cells, gravity causes a hydrophobic lipid phase to move to a top phase where it is removed from the mixture and purified. The hydrophilic ionic liquid is recycled to lyse new microalgae suspensions.

  16. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

  17. Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

  18. Carbenium ion intermediates in catalytic cracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zardkoohi, Minoo

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C, (d) 300 C, (e) 400 C C HNR spectra of sec-butyl chloride antimony pentafluoride mixture 16 13C NMR spectrum of C- ethene on H-ZSN5 . . . . 19 C CPNAS spectrum of tri-phenylmethyl chloride adsorbed on silica-alumina Schematic representation... &Vdk' 800 me )OO 0 - 100 -200 PPll Fig. 5 l~C CPNAS spectrum of tri-phenylmethyl chloride adsorbed on silica-alumina. 21 times, techniques which allow for moderately higher reso- lution are required. One such technique is combined cross...

  19. Dynamically cured thermoplastic olefin polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazelton, D.R.; Puydak, R.C.; Booth, D.A.

    1986-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoplastic composition is described comprising a polyolefin resin, a first rubber component selected from the group consisting of polyisobutylene, and ethylene propylene copolymer (EPM) and EPDM and a second rubber component selected from the group consisting of halogenated butyl rubber and polychoroprene, the second rubber component being cured utilizing a curative other than a peroxide, which is a vulcanizing agent for the second rubber but not for the first rubber, the second rubber being cured to a fully vulcanized state by dynamic vulcanization in the presence of the polyolefin resin and first rubber compound.

  20. Alternate fuels for general-aviation aircraft with spark-ignition engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrara, A.M.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of a study into the behavior of several alternate fuels that are under consideration for use in general aviation aircraft engines. The study consisted of a literature search and engine tests using a dynamometer. The literature search identified material compatibility problems and possible solutions to these problems. For the engine tests, a number of gasoline/alcohol blends were prepared using both ethanol and methanol in varying concentrations and the vapor-lock behavior was identified. Neat alcohols and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether were also used in the engine, and special operational conditions and problems were identified.

  1. Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajayi, O. A., E-mail: oaa2114@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; Wong, C. W., E-mail: oaa2114@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu [Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Center for Integrated Science and Engineering, Solid-State Science and Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Anderson, N. C.; Wolcott, A.; Owen, J. S. [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Cotlet, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, New York 11973 (United States); Petrone, N.; Hone, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Gu, T.; Gesuele, F. [Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Center for Integrated Science and Engineering, Solid-State Science and Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4× reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices.

  2. Fluorescent temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  3. Method for measuring surface temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  4. Synthetic approaches to the activation of substituted 2-methyl pyridines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cancanon, Fernadina de la Caridad

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (21%), 148 (42%), 135 (100%), 1 08 (35%), 93 ( 43%), 83 (38%), 55 (49%), 41 (48%), 29 (27 la) 2-[N(4, 4-Dimethyl-2, 6-dioxopiperidinyl))-6-pycolyl-tert-butytdi phenylsilyl ether (26) O Bu'Ph zSi0 N N The same procedure for the preparation.... 14%, ' N, 16. 52%. Attempted ring opening of 2-[N-(4, 4-dimethyl-2, 6-dioxo piperidinyl)]-6- picolyl-tert-butyl diphenylsilyl ether (26) with 6-amino-2-pyridine methanol-fert-butyldiphenylsilyl ether (22) The cyclic imide 26 (0. 487g, 0. 001 mole...

  5. Vinylboranes as trans-dihydroxyethylene equivalents in Diels-Alder reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redman, Aniko Maria

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Dienophile 7 trans-4-tert-Butyl-6-(dimethylphenylsil yl)- 3-cyclohexen- I-ol (9) . tr ans-4-Phenyl-6-(dimethylphenylsilyl)- 3-cyclohexen-I-ol (10) and trans-3-Phenyl-6-(dimethylphenylsilyl)- 3-cyclohexen-I-ol (11). trans-3, 4-Dimethyl-6...)-3-cyclohexen-I-ol (15) and trans-3-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)- 6-(dimethylphenylsilyl)-3-cyclohexen- I-ol (16) (I et, 3', 4', 6[))- I-Acetoxy-3, 4-epoxy-3, 4-dimethyl- 6-(dimcthylphenylsilyl)-cyclohexane (21) Page 57 57 58 58 59 59 60 61 62...

  6. California's Move Toward E10 (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Annual Energy Outlook 2009, (AEO) E10–a gasoline blend containing 10% ethanol–is assumed to be the maximum ethanol blend allowed in California erformulated gasoline (RFG), as opposed to the 5.7% blend assumed in earlier AEOs. The 5.7% blend had reflected decisions made when California decided to phase out use of the additive methyl tertiary butyl ether in its RFG program in 2003, opting instead to use ethanol in the minimum amount that would meet the requirement for 2.0% oxygen content under the Clean Air Act provisions in effect at that time.

  7. Overview of ''Red Oil'' Frequency Analyses for F-Canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lux, C.R.

    2000-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A very small potential exists in the Savannah River Site (SRS) separations operations for an uncontrolled reaction between tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and nitric acid that could result in unacceptable damage to separations facilities and a significant release of radioactive materials. The recent ''red oil'' (TBP and nitric acid) accident in Tomsk, Russia, resulted in considerable damage and radioactive release. Explosions have also occurred at SRS during the early years of operations. While the SRS separations facilities have operated without incident for many years, it is prudent to revisit the SRS defense-in-depth approach to preventing such an accident and to upgrade preventive procedures and hardware as appropriate.

  8. Buzitka Solar AS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen Energy Information BurkinaButyl Fuel LLC

  9. Buzzard Power Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen Energy Information BurkinaButyl Fuel LLCBuzzard Power

  10. Byone Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen Energy Information BurkinaButyl Fuel LLCBuzzard

  11. Bystronic | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  12. C T | Open Energy Information

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  13. C Wave Ltd | Open Energy Information

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  14. C4 Energie | Open Energy Information

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  15. CACTUS | Open Energy Information

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  16. CAP XX Pty Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  17. CARPE-IUCN Small Grants Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  18. CBD Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information

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  19. CCAP-REDD+ Design in Cambodia, Indonesia, and Mexico: Lessons to Inform

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  20. CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory | Open Energy Information

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  1. CCT Solar | Open Energy Information

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  2. CDKN-CARICOM-A Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Regional

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  3. CDKN-Green Growth: Implications for Development Planning | Open Energy

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  4. CDM Center of Excellence Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  5. CE Solar | Open Energy Information

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  6. CEB Gera o | Open Energy Information

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  7. CECG Maine, LLC (Maine) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  8. CECG Maine, LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  9. CECIC Blue Sky Investment Consulting Management Co Ltd | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  10. CEE Bioenergie | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  11. CEESAM Geradora | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  12. CEFEM Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen Energy Information BurkinaButyl FuelCCCTCECGCEFEM

  13. CENIT CO2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  14. CERI eco Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  15. CERTEL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen Energy Information BurkinaButylCERTEL Jump to:

  16. CES | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen Energy Information BurkinaButylCERTEL Jump to:CES Home

  17. CESC-Webinar: Financial and Policy Innovations to Support Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen Energy Information BurkinaButylCERTEL Jump to:CES

  18. CEZ AS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen Energy Information BurkinaButylCERTEL Jump to:CESCEZ AS

  19. CHEVROLET | ELECTRIC | GREEN | SPARK EV | TECHNOLOGY. INNOVATION &

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen Energy Information BurkinaButylCERTEL Jump to:CESCEZ

  20. CHO Invest EU1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen Energy Information BurkinaButylCERTEL Jump to:CESCEZCHO

  1. CHOREN Industries GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  2. CHP Emissions Reduction Estimator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  3. CHS M | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  4. CIAM Puresky Carbon Trading Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  5. CITIC GUOAN Mengguli MGL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  6. CJ Aron Associates Inc CJAA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  7. CLEAN AIR | FEDEX | NATIONAL CLEAN ENERGY SUMMIT | CLEAN ENERGY ACT |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen Energy Information BurkinaButylCERTELENERGY

  8. CLEAN Webinar Series 2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  9. CLEAN Webinar Series 3 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen Energy Information BurkinaButylCERTELENERGYJPG

  10. Responses of the L51781Y tk/sup +//tk/sup -/ mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay: III. 72 coded chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGregor, D.B.; Brown, A.; Cattanach, P.; Edwards, I.; McBride, D.; Riach, C.; Caspary, W.J.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seventy-two chemicals were tested for their mutagenic potential in the L51781Y tk/sup +///sup -/ mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay, using procedures based upon those described previously. Cultures were exposed to the chemicals for 4 hr, then cultured for 2 days before planting in soft agar with or without trifluorothymidine (TFT), 3 ..mu..g/ml. The chemicals were tested at least twice. Significant responses were obtained with allyl isothiocyanate, p-benzoquinone dioxime, benzyl acetate, 2-biphenylamine HCl, bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl)ether, cadmium chloride, chlordane, chlorobenzene, chlorobenzilate, 2-chloroethanol, chlorothalonil, cytarabine x HCl, p,p'-DDE, diazinon, 2,6-dichloro-p-phenylenediamine, N,N-diethylthiourea, diglycidylresorcinol ether, 2,4-dimethoxy aniline x HCl, disperse yellow 3, endosulfan, 1,2-epoxyhexadecane, ethyl acrylate, ethyl benzene, ethylene thiourea, F D and C yellow Number 6, furan, heptachlor, isophorone, mercuric chloride, 4,4'-methylenedianiline x 2 HCl, methyl viologen, nickel sulfate x 6H/sub 2/O, 4,4'-oxydianiline, pentachloroethane, piperonyl butoxide, propyl gallate, quinoline, rotenone, 2,4,5,6-tetrachloro-4-nitro-anisole, 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane, trichlorfon, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, 1,1,3-trimethyl-2-thiourea, 1-vinyl-3-cyclopetene dioxide, vinyl toluene, and ziram. The assay was incapable of providing a clear indication of whether some chemicals were mutagens; these benzyl alcohol, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, phenol, succinic acid-2,2-dimethyl hydrazide, and toluene.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of redox active polymers at surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmore, G.T.R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1. This chapter presents the basic elements of cyclic voltammetry of electroactive solution and surface confined species, surface attachment of siloxane reagents, the electrochemistry of quinones and viologens, and charge trapping phenomenon associated with molecular reagents confined at electrode surfaces. Chapter II. Electrochemical characterization of electrode-confined siloxane polymers (NQ-BV[sup 3+])[sub n] and (NQ-BV-BV[sup 5+])[sub n], derived from monomers which contain both napthoquinone (NQ) and benzyl viologen (BV[sup 2+]) subunits, is presented. Chapter III. The author reports the studies of chemical mechanisms for release of charge trapped in the pH-dependence rectifying polymers, (NQ-BV[sup 3+]/siloxane)[sub n] and (NQ-BV-BV[sup 5+]/siloxane)[sub n]. The polymers are derived from monomers which contain both naphthoquinone (NQ) and benzyl viologen (BV[sup 2+]) subunits. Particular to these types of surface confined homopolymers is the ability to trap charge at low pH in the form of reduced quinone. Chapter IV. A methylene linked chromophore-acceptor complex consisting of a rhenium tricarbonyl bipyridine chromophore and a benzylviologen acceptor, BV[sup 2+], were confined to a metal oxide surface via a trimethoxysilyl functional group at the BC[sup 2+] terminus. Photocurrent quantum yield was determined for irradiated electrodes derivatized with either the linked chromophore-acceptor complex, SRe(CO)[sub 3] [4-methyl-4'-[l brace]N-methyl-N'-(4 trimethoxysilyl phenylmethyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium[r brace]-2,2'-bipyridine][sup 2+] [Br[sup [minus

  12. Autoignition of toluene reference fuels at high pressures modeled with detailed chemical kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrae, J.C.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Shell Global Solutions, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom); Bjoernbom, P. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Cracknell, R.F.; Kalghatgi, G.T. [Shell Global Solutions, P.O. Box 1, Chester CH1 3SH (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed chemical kinetic model for the autoignition of toluene reference fuels (TRF) is presented. The toluene submechanism added to the Lawrence Livermore Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) mechanism was developed using recent shock tube autoignition delay time data under conditions relevant to HCCI combustion. For two-component fuels the model was validated against recent high-pressure shock tube autoignition delay time data for a mixture consisting of 35% n-heptane and 65% toluene by liquid volume. Important features of the autoignition of the mixture proved to be cross-acceleration effects, where hydroperoxy radicals produced during n-heptane oxidation dramatically increased the oxidation rate of toluene compared to the case when toluene alone was oxidized. Rate constants for the reaction of benzyl and hydroperoxyl radicals previously used in the modeling of the oxidation of toluene alone were untenably high for modeling of the mixture. To model both systems it was found necessary to use a lower rate and introduce an additional branching route in the reaction between benzyl radicals and O{sub 2}. Good agreement between experiments and predictions was found when the model was validated against shock tube autoignition delay data for gasoline surrogate fuels consisting of mixtures of 63-69% isooctane, 14-20% toluene, and 17% n-heptane by liquid volume. Cross reactions such as hydrogen abstractions between toluene and alkyl and alkylperoxy radicals and between the PRF were introduced for completion of chemical description. They were only of small importance for modeling autoignition delays from shock tube experiments, even at low temperatures. A single-zone engine model was used to evaluate how well the validated mechanism could capture autoignition behavior of toluene reference fuels in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The model could qualitatively predict the experiments, except in the case with boosted intake pressure, where the initial temperature had to be increased significantly in order to predict the point of autoignition. (author)

  13. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes - phase V. Topical report, February 1993--October 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We have made excellent progress toward a practical route from field butanes to MTBE, the oxygenate of choice for high-octane, clean-burning, environmentally acceptable reformulated gasoline. We have evaluated two proprietary process possibilities with a potential commercial partner and have conducted a joint catalyst evaluation program. The first of the two potential processes considered during the past quarter utilizes a two-step route from isobutane to tert-butyl alcohol, TBA. Not only is TBA an intermediate for MTBE production but is equally applicable for ETBE-an oxygenate which utilizes renewable ethanol in its` manufacture. In the two-step process, isobutane is oxidized in a non-catalytic reaction to a roughly equal mixture of TBA and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. TBHP, eq. 1. We have developed an inexpensive new catalyst system based on an electron-deficient macrocyclic metal complex that selectively converts TBHP to TBA, eq. 2, and meets or exceeds all of the process criteria that we have set.

  14. Arco chimie focuses on PA at FOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, D.

    1992-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Arco Chimie France (Fos-sur-Mer), at a recent meeting at its southern France manufacturing site, emphasized that future strategy is strongly focused on its propylene oxide (PO) and derivatives activities. The F2.5 billion ($466 million)-Fe billion/year operation manufactures 200,000 m.t./year of PO, about 70% for captive use and the balance for the merchant market; 550,000 m.t./year of methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE); 97,000 m.t./year of polyols; and 70,000 m.t./year of propylene glycols. There has been talk of Arco modifying its Fos MTBE plant to make it flexible for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) output; the parent company already operates an MTBE/ETBE pilot unit at Corpus Christi, TX. But Arco Chimie notes there is insufficient bioethanol feedstock availability to convert all production to ETBE. The company would also require investment in new storage capacity for ethanol and ETBE. However, France's biofuels program is not yet clearly defined, and it is politically sensitive because it depends heavily on government subsidies offered to farmers. That, says Arco, makes it impossible to have an accurate idea of how much ethanol will be available.

  15. Health concerns fuel EPA study of ETBE and TAME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, A.

    1994-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Citing possible health risks associated with the use of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in winter-blend gasoline and requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA), EPA has called for testing the health effects of ethyl tert-butyl ether (EBTE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). The program calls for toxicity testing to develop data on the health effects of ETBE and TAME. EPA may require chemical manufacturers and processors to provide the data. A public meeting will be held this week to begin working on an agreement. EPA says most of the data should be collected in 1995 and expects the program to cost approximately $3 million. In December, EPA floated a proposal to require 30% of the oxygenates used in the reformulated gasoline program to come from renewable sources such as ETBE and ethanol. Although EPA found no serious health risks associated with MTBE, questions remain, which is why EPA says it will test the use of ETBE and TAME. William Piel, business manager for oxygenated fuels at Arco Chemical (Newtown Square, PA), says testing is {open_quotes}just a formality.{close_quotes} There should be no difference in results among MTBE, ETBE, or TAME, he says. But ETBE and TAME have much lower volatility than MTBE, which would mean significantly less exposure to these oxygenates, Piel says. Arco is the biggest producer of MTBE but also has capability to make ETBE.

  16. Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates -- Substituted ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

    1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE).

  17. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (third edition). Fourth supplement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 3rd edition, was updated for the following chemicals: allyl-glycidyl-ether, 2-aminopyridine, aspartame, bromine, chlorine, n-butylamine, n-butyl-glycidyl-ether, carbon-dioxide, carbon-monoxide, chlorinated-camphene, chloroacetaldehyde, p-chlorophenol, crotonaldehyde, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, dinitro-o-cresol, ethyl-acetate, ethyl-formate, ethylenimine, sodium-fluoride, hydrogen-fluoride, cryolite, sodium-hexafluoroaluminate, formic-acid, hexachlorobutadiene, hydrogen-cyanide, hydrogen-sulfide, isopropyl-acetate, isopropyl-ether, isopropyl-glycidyl-ether, lead, lead-oxide, maleic-anhydride, methyl-acetate, methyl-acrylate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, methyl-cellosolve-acetate, methylcyclohexanol, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, monomethylaniline, monomethylhydrazine, nitric-oxide, p-nitroaniline, phenyl-ether, phenyl-ether-biphenyl mixture, phenyl-glycidyl-ether, phenylhydrazine, phosphine, ronnel, sulfuryl-fluoride, talc, tributyl-phosphate, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, trimellitic-anhydride, triorthocresyl-phosphate, triphenyl-phosphate, and vinyl-acetate.

  18. Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobicpiperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kumar, R. Anand; Lee,Jong-Min; Kerr, John; Newman, John; Prausnitz, John M.

    2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Some properties are reported for hydrophobic ionic liquids (IL) containing 1-methyl-1-propyl pyrrolidinium [MPPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl pyrrolidinium [MBPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-propyl piperidinium [MPPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl piperidinium [MBPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-octylpyrrolidinium [MOPyrro]{sup +} and 1-methyl-1-octylpiperidinium [MOPip]{sup +} cations. These liquids provide new alternatives to pyridinium and imidazolium ILs. High thermal stability of an ionic liquid increases safety in applications like rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices. Thermal properties, ionic conductivities, viscosities, and mutual solubilities with water are reported. In addition, toxicities of selected ionic liquids have been measured using a human cancer cell-line. The ILs studied here are sparingly soluble in water but hygroscopic. We show some structure-property relationships that may help to design green solvents for specific applications. While ionic liquids are claimed to be environmentally-benign solvents, as yet few data have been published to support these claims.

  19. Fused ring and linking groups effect on overcharge protection for lithium-ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, W.; Zhang, Z.; Redfern, P. C.; Curtiss, L. A.; Amine, K.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The derivatives of 1,3-benzodioxan (DBBD1) and 1,4-benzodioxan (DBBD2) bearing two tert-butyl groups have been synthesized as new redox shuttle additives for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries. Both compounds exhibit a reversible redox wave over 4 V vs Li/Li{sup +} with better solubility in a commercial electrolyte (1.2 M LiPF{sub 6}) dissolved in ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate (EC/EMC 3/7) than the di-tert-butyl-substituted 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB). The electrochemical stability of DBBD1 and DBBD2 was tested under charge/discharge cycles with 100% overcharge at each cycle in MCMB/LiFePO{sub 4} and Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/LiFePO{sub 4} cells. DBBD2 shows significantly better performance than DBBD1 for both cell chemistries. The structural difference and reaction energies for decomposition have been studied by density functional calculations.

  20. Efficiency and Loading Evaluation of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME) - 12003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Waggoner, Charles A. [Institute for Clean Energy Technology, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd Starkville, MS 39759 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High efficiency mist eliminators (HEME) are filters primarily used to remove moisture and/or liquid aerosols from an air stream. HEME elements are designed to reduce aerosol and particulate load on primary High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters and to have a liquid particle removal efficiency of approximately 99.5% for aerosols down to sub-micron size particulates. The investigation presented here evaluates the loading capacity of the element in the absence of a water spray cleaning system. The theory is that without the cleaning system, the HEME element will suffer rapid buildup of solid aerosols, greatly reducing the particle loading capacity. Evaluation consists of challenging the element with a waste surrogate dry aerosol and di-octyl phthalate (DOP) at varying intervals of differential pressure to examine the filtering efficiency of three different element designs at three different media velocities. Also, the elements are challenged with a liquid waste surrogate using Laskin nozzles and large dispersion nozzles. These tests allow the loading capacity of the unit to be determined and the effectiveness of washing down the interior of the elements to be evaluated. (authors)

  1. Sensitivity of once-shocked, weathered high explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, K.L.; Harris, B.W.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects caused by stimulating once-shocked, weathered high explosives (OSW-HE) are investigated. The sensitivity of OSW-HE to mechanical stimuli was determined using standard industry tests. Some initial results are given. Pieces of OSW-HE were collected from active and inactive firing sites and from an area surrounding a drop tower at Los Alamos where skid and spigot tests were done. Samples evaluated were cast explosives or plastic bonded explosive (PBX) formulations containing cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), mock or inert HE [tris(beta-chloroethyl)phosphate (CEF)], barium nitrate, cyanuric acid, talc, and Kel-F. Once-shocked, weathered LX-10 Livermore explosive [HMX/Viton A, (95/5 wt %)], PBX 9011 [HMX/Estane, (90/10 wt %)], PBX 9404 [HMX/nitrocellulose, tris(beta-chloroethyl) phosphate, (94/3/3 wt %)], Composition B or cyclotol (TNT/RDX explosives), and PBX 9007 (90% RDX, 9.1% styrene, 0.5% dioctyl phthalate, and 0.45 resin) were subjected to the hammer test, the drop-weight impact sensitivity test, differential thermal analysis (DTA), the spark test, the Henkin`s critical temperature test, and the flame test. Samples were subjected to remote, wet cutting and drilling; remote, liquid-nitrogen-cooled grinding and crushing; and scanning electron microscope (SEM) surface analyses for morphological changes.

  2. Depletion Interactions: Effects of Added Homopolymer on Ordered Phases Formed by Spherical Block Copolymer Micelles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas, Sayeed; Lodge, Timothy P. (UMM)

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Three distinct poly(styrene-b-isoprene) (SI) diblock copolymers with molecular weights of 16-16, 38-14, and 50-13 kDa for styrene and isoprene, respectively, formed spherical micelles when dissolved in diethyl phthalate (DEP). Since DEP is a styrene-selective solvent, micelles with polyisoprene in the core and polystyrene in the corona were formed. At block copolymer concentrations of 20%, 16%, and 14% in DEP, the spherical micelles of SI(16-16), SI(38-14), and SI(50-13) pack onto a face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice, a mixture of FCC and body-centered cubic (BCC) lattices, and a BCC lattice, respectively. Polystyrene homopolymers with molecular weights of 4, 48, and 180 kDa were added to these ordered solutions. The following general trends were observed: the FCC phase tended to disorder, and samples that originally behaved like soft solids exhibited liquidlike flow behavior. The effect increased strongly with both the molecular weight and concentration of homopolymer in the solution. Furthermore, the BCC lattice tended to be displaced by the FCC lattice, or to disorder, when homopolymer was added. These results can be explained by invoking depletion interactions, which have been studied extensively in colloid/polymer mixtures. However, the phenomenon differs in certain details from colloidal systems because the addition of homopolymer can also influence the aggregation number of the micelles, which in turn affects the lattice packing of the micelles.

  3. Contaminant Mass Balance for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, WA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crecelius, Eric A.; Johnston, Robert K.; Leather, Jim; Guerrero, Joel; Miller, Martin C.; Brandenberger, Jill M.

    2003-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Sinclair Inlet and Dyes Inlets have historically received contaminates from military installations, industrial activities, municipal outfalls, and other nonpoint sources. For the purpose of determining a ?total maximum daily load? (TMDL) of contaminants for the Inlets, a contaminant mass balance for the sediments is being developed. Sediment cores and traps were collected from depositional areas of the Inlets and surface sediment grabs were collected from fluvial deposits associated with major drainage areas into the Inlets. All sediment samples were screened using X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) for metals, UV fluorescence for organics (PAHs), and immunoassay for PCBs. A subset of split-samples was analyzed using ICP/MS for metals and GC/MS for phthalates, PAHs, and PCBs. Sediment cores were age-dated using radionuclides to determine the sedimentation rate and the history of sediment contamination. Streams and storm water outfalls were sampled in both the wet and dry seasons to assess loading from the watershed. Seawater samples collected from the marine waters of the Inlets and boundary passages to central Puget Sound were used to estimate the exchange of contaminates with central Puget Sound. The historical trends from the cores indicate that contamination was at a maximum in the middle of the 1900s and decreased significantly by the late 1900s. The thickness of the contaminated sediment is in the range of 30 to 50 cm.

  4. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

  5. Comparative Environmental Performance of Two-Diesel-Fuel Oxygenates: Dibutyl Maleate (DBM) and Triproplyene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (TGME)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layton, D.W.; Marchetti, A.A.

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many studies have shown that the addition of oxygen bearing compounds to diesel fuel can significantly reduce particulate emissions. To assist in the evaluation of the environmental performance of diesel-fuel oxygenates, we have implemented a suite of diagnostic models for simulating the transport of compounds released to air, water, and soils/groundwater as well as regional landscapes. As a means of studying the comparative performance of DBM and TGME, we conducted a series of simulations for selected environmental media. Benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were also addressed because they represent benchmark fuel-related compounds that have been the subject of extensive environmental measurements and modeling. The simulations showed that DBM and TGME are less mobile in soil because of reduced vapor-phase transport and increased retention on soil particles. The key distinction between these two oxygenates is that DBM is predicted to have a greater potential than TGME for aerobic biodegradation, based on chemical structure.

  6. Metabolic patterns of substrate removal in multi-component aqueous systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, Paul Allen

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 25 8. 35 8. 45 8. 4o 8. 45 8. 50 8. 5o 8. 50 8. 45 8. 5o 86 Bo 84 86 50 FIGURE 3 'S I CRGANIC CONPONENT ANALYSES SI 0-STR! PPI NG ip ethyl ethanoate ethanol In Ph 30 L C3 CC 20 C) 7 ' 5 7. 0 IO 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 I] 12.... 5 W 8. 0 7 ' 5 7. 0 10 6. 5 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 TIME (hours) TABLE TEST 6 ANALYSIS DATA SUHNARY T ime hrs. -min. ethyl ethanoate mg/I A B propyl etnanoate mg/I A B butyl ethanoate mg/I A B pentyl ethanoate hexyl...

  7. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  8. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  9. Removal of MTBE and other organic contaminants from water by sorption to high silica zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, M.A.

    2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Select zeolites with high SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios were shown to effectively remove methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), chloroform, and trichloroethylene (TCE) from water. In laboratory studies using batch sorption equilibria, high Si large-port mordenite and ZSM-5 (silicalite) were found to have sorption properties for MTBE and TCE superior to activated carbon. for example, at an equilibrium solution concentration of 100 {micro}g/L, high Si mordenite retained 8--12x more MTBE than either of two powdered activated carbons used as reference sorbents. Sorption results also highlight the importance of pore size and SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ration on contaminant removal efficiencies by zeolites.

  10. Production of methyl tert-alkyl ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trofimov, V.A.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition to the use of unleaded gasolines has required the replacement of tetraethyl lead by oxygen-containing compounds such as methanol, ethanol, and ethers, which are termed {open_quotes}oxygenates{close_quotes} in the technical literature. These may be used in commercial gasolines in amounts of 10-15% by volume, equivalent to 2% oxygen by weight. When methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is used, the oxygen content may amount to 2.7% by weight. This oxygenate gives a significant improvement of knock resistance of naphtha fractions, the greatest effects being observed for straight-run naphthas and reformer naphthas produced under normal conditions; the MTBE also improves the engine power and economy characteristics and lowers the carbon monoxide content in the exhaust by 15-30% and the hydrocarbon content by 7-8%. This paper describes methods for the production of MTBE and also methyl tert-alkyl ethers.

  11. Economics for iso-olefin production using the fluid catalytic cracking unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClung, R.G.; Witoshkin, A.; Bogert, D.C.; Winkler, W.S. [Englehard Corp., Iselin, NJ (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires use of oxygenates in some gasolines to improve both CO and hydrocarbon auto tailpipe emissions. Various oxygenates are currently being used by the refining industry. For the fully integrated refinery having a fluid catalytic cracking unit, the most commonly used oxygenates are methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl ether (TAME). The FCC unit produces the isobutylene and iso-amylases need for manufacture of both MTBE and TAME. The economics for an assumed refinery processing scheme for several FCC cases are examined giving estimates of income and investments for each case. Up to one-third of the total gasoline pool can be made in reformulated gasoline using TAME and MTBE with the FCC unit as the sole source of feedstock. This processing route is much more economical than the alternative scheme using butane isomerization/iosbutane dehydrogenation.

  12. APPLICATIONS OF LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES IN REMOVING OXYANIONS FROM OIL REFINING AND COAL MINING WASTEWATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Jin; Paul Fallgren

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a study of using the layered double hydroxides (LDH) as filter material to remove microorganisms, large biological molecules, certain anions and toxic oxyanions from various waste streams, including wastewater from refineries. Results demonstrate that LDH has a high adsorbing capability to those compounds with negative surface charge. Constituents studied include model bacteria, viruses, arsenic, selenium, vanadium, diesel range hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mixed petroleum constituents, humic materials and anions. This project also attempted to modify the physical structure of LDH for the application as a filtration material. Flow characterizations of the modified LDH materials were also investigated. Results to date indicate that LDH is a cost-effective new material to be used for wastewater treatment, especially for the treatment of anions and oxyanions.

  13. Coadsorption of methanol and isobutene on HY zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogelbauer, A.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lercher, J.A. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    1995-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to develop a better understanding of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis on zeolites, the coadsorption of methanol and isobutene on HY zeolite was investigated using IR spectroscopy. Initial adsorption of isobutene alone at 35{degree}C led to rapid oligomerization yielding strongly bound oligomers. The subsequent coadsorption of methanol did not induce any changes in the zeolite-adsorbate complexes. TPD following the coadsorption showed that the Bronsted acid sites could be restored by temperature treatment above approximately 300{degree}C. When methanol was adsorbed first and isobutene was subsequently coadsorbed, MTBE was formed even at 35{degree}C on the catalyst surface. MTBE desorbed easily at a temperature of 70{degree}C, restoring a major fraction of the Bronsted acid sites. Methanol was concluded to decrease the probability of oligomerization by effectively competing for the acid sites. 34 refs., 6 figs.

  14. US refiners choose variety of routes to MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1992-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that refiners and merchant manufacturers in the U.S. are gearing up to produce the large volumes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) needed to comply with oxygenated gasoline requirements. The 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments specify that, as of the first of this coming November, gasoline containing a minimum of 2.7 wt % oxygen must be sold in 39 CO-nonattainment cities. Refiners and others are scurrying to bring MTBE capacity on line in time to meet this requirement. Many U.S. refiners already have some operating MTBE capacity, but this will not be nearly enough to meet the looming increase in demand. As a result, additional capacity is being constructed worldwide.

  15. MTBE will be a boon to U. S. gas processors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otto, K.W. (Purvin and Gertz, Inc. Dallas, TX (United States))

    1993-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that the advent of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as the primary oxygenate blending component for oxygenated and reformulated motor fuels promises significant benefits for the U.S. gas-processing industry. Increased demand for isobutane as MTBE-plant feedstock will buoy both normal butane and isobutane pricing in U.S. gulf Coast during the 1990s. Elimination of the need to crack normal butane in U.S. olefin plants will also strengthen competitive feedstocks somewhat, including ethane and propane. And increased use of normal butane as isomerization feedstock will result in wider recognition of the premium quality of gas plant normal butane production compared to most refinery C[sub 4] production.

  16. Effect of lower feedstock prices on economics of MTBE complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, F.; Hamid, S.H.; Ali, M.A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic evaluation of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) complex was carried out starting from n-butane and by captive production of methanol from natural gas. The processing steps consist of isomerization of n-butane to isobutane, dehydrogenation of isobutane to make isobutene, and finally, the reaction of isobutene with methanol to produce MTBE. Two different plant sizes were considered, and the effect of 30% lower feedback prices on profitability was studied. It was found that the raw materials cost is a dominant component, composing about 55% of the total production cost. An internal rate of return of 19% could be realized for 500,000 tons per annum MTBE complex based on economic data in mid-1993. The payback period estimated at this capacity was 3.8 years, and the break-even capacity was 36.6%.

  17. Autoignition behavior of lean mixtures: Chemical and thermodynamics effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronney, P.D.; Shoda, M.; Waida, S.T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Knock characteristics of natural gas (NG), 89 octane unleaded gasoline, 2,2-dimethyl butane (22DMB), and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in stoichiometric and lean fuel-air mixtures were studied in a production 4-cylinder automotive engine. The Intake Temperature at the Knock Limit (ITKL) was different for each fuel but always higher in lean mixtures. Gasoline and 22DMB exhibited much greater increases in ITKL than MTBE and NG at lean conditions. Surprisingly, for lean mixtures 22DMB exhibited higher ITKL than MTBE and was almost as high as NG. Comparison with detailed numerical modelling was very favorable. Computations show that both differences in chemistry and end-gas temperature and pressure histories are responsible for these trends. This behavior is interpreted in terms of the Negative Temperature Coefficient behavior of hydrocarbon oxidation. The implication of these results for the specification of optimal fuels for lean-burn engine is discussed.

  18. Korean oxygenates rule sparks MTBE capacity plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyung-Jin

    1994-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Korean government`s strict standard for gasoline sold domestically is expected to have a significant impact on the methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) market. The mandate-requiring gasoline oxygen content of 0.5% this year, 0.75% by 1996, and 1.0% by 1998-has sparked a rush by Korean refineries to build new MTBE plants. If expansion plans are carried out, Korea`s MTBE capacity will increase from 280,000 m.t./year to 650,000 m.t./year by 1996, far surpassing predicted demand. Honam Oil, part of the Lucky Group, plans startup of a 100,000-m.t./year unit at Yeochon by early 1996. In addition, by the end of 1996 Ssangyong Oil will bring a 100,000-m.t./year unit onstream.

  19. Ecofuel plans MTBE plant in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Ecofuel (Milan), an ENI company, is evaluating construction of a new methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plant in Italy, but has shelved plans for a world-scale MTBE unit in Mexico. The Italian unit is tied to ethylene expansion now under way. Later this year EniChem (Milan), a sister company, is due to complete construction of a 360,000-m.t./year cracker at Brindisi. The C{sub 4} stream available there and from the existing cracker at Priolo in Sicily should provide enough feed for a unit of up to 100,000 m.t./year of MTBE capacity. Some of the feedstock could also come from the Ravenna cracker.

  20. Proton NMR analysis of octane number for motor gasoline: Part V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ichikawa, M.; Nonaka, N.; Amano, H.; Takada, I.; Ishimori, S. [Suzuki Motor Corp., Hamamatsu (Japan); Andoh, H.; Kumamoto, K. [Showa Shell Sikiyu Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to predict the octane number of automobile gasoline containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by proton magnetic resonance (PMR) spectrometry was studied. Samples of gasoline whose octane numbers had been identified according to the ASTM standards (commercially available premium gasoline to which MTBE was added at rates of 7 vol % and 14 vol %) were used in this investigation of the effect of MTBE on the octane number. The findings were utilized to introduce a term regarding MTBE into the previously reported linear regression equation for estimating the octane number from the PMR spectrum, and the appropriateness of the linear regression equation was assessed. As a result the MTBE contents in the sample were determined with satisfactory accuracy by using a standard addition method, and a linear regression equation reflecting the effect of MTBE was obtained. These achievements are reported. 11 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. A screening model for evaluating the degradation and transport of MTBE and other fuel oxygenates in the subsurface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Y; Lu, X

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has received high attention as it contributed to cleaner air and contaminated thousands of underground storage tank sites. Because MTBE is very water soluble, it is more difficult to remove from water by conventional remediation techniques. Therefore, biodegradation of MTBE has become a remediation alternative. In order to understand the transport and transformation processes, they present a closed form solution as a screening tool in this paper. The possible reaction pathways of first-order reactions are described as a reaction matrix. The singular value decomposition is conducted analytically to decouple the partial differential equations of the multi-species transport system coupled by the reaction matrix into multiple independent subsystems. Therefore, the complexity of mathematical description for the reactive transport system is significantly reduced and analytical solutions may be previously available or easily derived.

  2. MTBE, ethanol rules come under fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begley, R.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EPA is facing stiff challenges to the mandates for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol in its reformulated gasoline (RFG) program. Wisconsin officials are receiving hundreds of complaints about the alleged health effects and other problems with MTBE added to gasoline, and Gov. Tommy Thompson is demanding that EPA suspend the RFG program until April 1. Rep. James Sensenbrenner (R., WI) is threatening to introduce a bill to repeal the program in Wisconsin if EPA does not comply. However, EPA administrator Carol Browner says the agency will {open_quotes}defer any decision{close_quotes} on the request. EPA has sent technical experts to Milwaukee to respond to and monitor citizens` complaints.

  3. Lyondell develops one step isobutylene process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that Lyondell Petrochemical Co., Houston, has developed a one step process to convert normal butylenes to isobutylene, a key component of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). MTBE is expected to become the additive of choice among U.S. refiners to blend oxygenated gasolines required by 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act. Lyondell Pres. and Chief Executive Officer Bob Gower the the new process could help assure adequate supplies of MTBE to meet U.S. demand for cleaner burning fuels. Lyondell estimates the capital cost of building a grassroots plant to produce isobutylene with the new process would be less than half the cost of a grassroot plant to produce isobutylene with existing technology starting with normal butane.

  4. Ecological hazards of MTBE exposure: A research agenda

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsen, T.; Hall, L.; Rice, D.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel oxygenates are used in metropolitan areas across the United States in order to reduce the amount of carbon monoxide released into the atmosphere during the winter. The most commonly used fuel oxygenate is Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Its widespread use has resulted in releases into the environment. To date there has been only minimal effort to investigate ecological impacts caused by exposure to concentrations of MTBE typically found in environmental media. Research into the potential for MTBE to adversely affect ecological receptors is essential. Acquisition of such baselines data is especially critical in light of continuing inputs and potential accumulation of MTBE in environmental media. A research Agenda is included in this report and addresses: Assessing Ecological Impacts, Potential Ecological Impacts of MTBE (aquatic organisms, terrestrial organisms), Potential Ecological Endpoints, and A Summary of Research Needs.

  5. Gas phase synthesis of MTBE on triflic-acid-modified zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikolopoulos, A.A.; Kogelbauer, A.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); and others

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas phase synthesis of MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) was studied using three series of triflic acid (TFA)-modified zeolites, the parent materials being HY, H-mordenite, and HZSM-5. Impregnation with TFA was found to enhance MTBE synthesis activity only for the large-pore zeolite Y and only up to a certain extent of modification. A high level of TFA modification caused a reduction in activity, apparently due to blockage of the active sites by TFA molecules and extra-lattice Al formed during the modification process. The mechanism of activity enhancement by TFA modification appears to be related to the formation of extra-lattice Al rather than the direct presence of TFA. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. MTBE: The headache of cleaner air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneiss, J.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasoline with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has been sold in the United States since 1979, when it was added to fuels as an octane enhancer after lead was phased out of motor fuels. Recently it has been introduced as a means of reducing carbon monoxide emissions during the winter months in targeted US cities. However, there is concern over health complaints including headaches, dizziness and nausea from residents of some areas. These reports have launched an era of assidious research by scientists and public health officials across the country to learn more about MTBE`s short-term and long-term, and possibly carcinogenic, health effects. New research should help weigh the risk of MTBE as a possible carcinogen and the effectiveness of MTBE-blended fuels in reducing carbon monoxide levels. The question is whether, in minimizing one risk, is another risk - however small - being introduced?

  7. Rates and products of degradation for MTBE and other oxygenate fuel additives in the subsurface environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tratnyek, P.G.; Church, C.D.; Pankow, J.F. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent realization that oxygenated fuel additives such as MTBE are becoming widely distributed groundwater contaminants has created a sudden and pressing demand for data on the processes that control their environmental fate. Explaining and predicting the subsequent environmental fate of these compounds is going to require extrapolations over long time frames that will be very sensitive to the quality of input data on each compound. To provide such data, they have initiated a systematic study of the pathways and kinetics of fuel oxygenate degradation under subsurface conditions. Batch experiments in simplified model systems are being performed to isolate specific processes that may contribute to MTBE degradation. A variety of degradation pathways can be envisioned that lead to t-butyl alcohol (TBA) as the primary or secondary product. However, experiments to date with a facultative iron reducing bacteria showed no evidence for TBA formation. Continuing experiments include mixed cultures from a range of aquifer materials representative of NAWQA study sites.

  8. Toxicological and performance aspects of oxygenated motor vehicle fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the Environmental Protection Agency, the committee reviewed a draft of a federal report that assesses the effects of oxygenated fuels on public health, air quality, fuel economy, engine performance, and water quality. The committee determined that much of the federal report adequately represents what is known about the effects of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) -- the most commonly used additive in the federal oxygenated-fuels program -- on health, the environment, and motor vehicles. MTBE, a chemical added to gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide pollution, appears not to pose a substantial human health risk, but more-definitive data are needed to assess short-term health effects and to determine whether this additive is effective in reducing carbon monoxide pollution in cold environments.

  9. Lyondell`s new isobutylene route could fuel an MTBE capacity boost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotman, D.; Wood, A.

    1992-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Driven by the hot growth prospects for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), Lyondell Petrochemical (Houston) has developed a route to isobutylene it claims can produce the MTBE feedstock at half the capital cost of alternative synthesis technology. If proved, the process will be used in a new 7500-10,000 bbl/day MTBE plant at Channelview, TX. Lyondell also hopes to license the technology. {open_quotes}With expanding MTBE capacity, we will have to have new routes to isobutylene,{close_quotes} says Bob G. Gower, president and CEO of Lyondell. {open_quotes}We think this is a good fit within Lyondell, but also that it is important technology.{close_quotes} Gower declines to detail its specifics, but says it is a one-step isomerization of n-butenes to isobutylene. The firm has tested the process at a pilot unit and plans a demonstration unit in 1992.

  10. Photocatalytic reactions of oxygenates on tropospheric oxide particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idriss, H.; Seebauer, E.G.; Miller, A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygenates such as ethanol and tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) are finding increased use as additives to fuels. The relative merits of ethanol and MTBE have become the focus of intense debate with their ultimate fate as fugitive emissions representing one aspect of this controversy. Both species are known to react homogeneously with photogenerated OH radicals. Here we show that both can also photoreact on suspended solid particulates in the atmosphere with rates comparable to those of OH reactions. Heterogeneous reactions of ethanol yield acetaldehyde and those of MTBE give isobutene and formaldehyde (carcinogenic). Experiments by spectroscopic and kinetic techniques show that the active phases in fly ash are Fe and Ti oxides. In addition, the effects of humidity and alkali addition on the activity and selectivity of these reactions are also discussed. This work appears to be the first demonstration that volatile organic compounds can react as fast by a heterogeneous mechanism as by a homogeneous one in the atmosphere.

  11. Snamprogetti signs MTBE contracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Snamprogetti (Milan) will use a Russian-developed dehydrogenation process in a world-scale methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plant it is to build at Arzew, Algeria for a previously announced joint venture of Sonatrach (Algiers), Total (Paris), and Ecofuel (Milan). The 600,000-m.t./year plant will be the first in the West to use the improved Snamprogetti-Yarsintez fluidized-bed dehydrogenation (FBD) technology proven on a demonstration plant at Yaroslavl, Russia. The process has also been selected for use in Oxyfuel Corp.`s 500,000-m.t./year MTBE plant near Beaumont, TX. Although the environmental permit is already in place, final agreement for this project has not yet been signed.

  12. EPA proposal sets MTBE back

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, A.

    1995-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) producers were looking for a boost from the official New Year`s start of EPA`s reformulated gasoline (RFG) program. But that prospect has been dimmed by an EPA-proposal-in reaction to concerns about RFG prices-to allow states to withdraw from the program. The states that have opted to out make up 5%-6% of the total RFG pool says Arthur Zadronzy, director/government outreach for MTBE producer Arco Chemical. {open_quotes}This is not a major hit, but it is one we have felt,{close_quotes} he says. Despite the state and EPA actions, MTBE producers are not worried about long-term consequences.

  13. Vapor-liquid equilibria of hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, A.; Lamm, S.; Orbey, H.; Sandler, S.I. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) + 1-heptene, MTBE + four-component gasoline prototype, ethanol + four-component gasoline prototype, and separately MTBE and ethanol with the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Gasoline Blend A are reported. Small additions of MTBE have a very small effect on the total equilibrium pressure of this gasoline blend, and at most temperatures will decrease this pressure. In contrast, small additions of ethanol to this gasoline blend result in a significant increase in the equilibrium pressure at all temperatures. Analysis shows that the vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the MTBE-containing systems are easily correlated using a modified Peng-Robinson equation of state with conventional van der Waals one-fluid mixing rules. Data for mixtures containing ethanol cannot be accurately correlated in this way.

  14. MTBE movements between Texas Gulf Coast plants to be enhanced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that Texas Eastern Products Pipeline Co. (Teppco), Houston, has begun construction of its shuttle pipeline, a 10-mile, 6 and 8-in. line to move methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) between producers and refiners along the Houston Ship Channel. Funding for the project has been approved, rights-of-way are secured, and procurement of materials is under way, according to Teppco. The line will flow from the western edge of Shell's refinery eastward to storage facilities of Teppco's Baytown terminal. The shuttle pipeline anticipates the US requirement for oxygenated gasolines that takes effect Nov. 1. Approximately 70% of the available US merchant capacity for MTBE is located along the shuttle's path, Teppco says.

  15. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  16. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  17. Method for controlled oligomerization/etherification of propylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyworth, O.A.

    1986-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for the reaction of propylene in a hydrocarbon feed stream. The process consists of contacting the feed stream containing propylene and at least 5 weight % isobutene based on the feed stream in liquid phase with an acidic cation exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 80/sup 0/-130/sup 0/C at LHSV in the range of 2 to 5 in the presence of methanol. This produces a product stream essentially comprising C/sub 6/ to C/sub 8/ mono olefins, methyl isopropyl ether, methyl tertiary butyl ether and unreacted material. The amount of methanol determined by a residual of the methanol in the product stream is in the range of 0.03 to 0.9 wt. % based on the product stream.

  18. Bis(fluoromalonato)borate (BFMB) Anion Based Ionic Liquid As an Additive for Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL] [ORNL; Liao, Chen [ORNL] [ORNL; Baggetto, Loic [ORNL] [ORNL; Guo, Bingkun [ORNL] [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL] [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL] [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Propylene carbonate (PC) is a good solvent for lithium ion battery applications due to its low melting point and high dielectric constant. However, PC is easily intercalated into graphite causing it to exfoliate, killing its electrochemical performance. Here we report on the synthesis of a new ionic liquid electrolyte based on partially fluorinated borate anion, 1-butyl-1,2-dimethylimidazolium bis(fluoromalonato)borate (BDMIm.BFMB), which can be used as an additive in 1 M LiPF6/PC electrolyte to suppress graphite exfoliation and improve cycling performance. In addition, both PC and BDMIm.BFMB can be used synergistically as additive to 1.0M LiPF6/methyl isopropyl sulfone (MIPS) to dramatically improve its cycling performance. It is also found that the chemistry nature of the ionic liquids has dramatic effect on their role as additive in PC based electrolyte.

  19. Historical trends in the accumulation of chemicals in Puget Sound. National status and trends program for marine environmental quality: Technical memo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefkovitz, L.F.; Cullinan, V.I.; Crecelius, E.A.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the study is to: (1) continue monitoring historical trends in the concentration of contaminants in Puget Sound sediments, and (2) quantify recent trends in the recovery of contaminated sediments. Results from this study can be compared with those obtained in the 1982 study to determine whether sediment quality is still improving and to estimate the rate of recovery. A statistically significant reduction in sediment contamination over the past 20 years would provide empirical evidence that environmental regulation has had a positive impact on the water quality in Puget Sound. Chemical trends were evaluated from six age-dated sediment cores collected from the main basin of Puget Sound. Chemical analyses included metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, nutrients (total nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P)), butyl tins, and total organic carbon (TOC). Sedimentation (cm/yr) and deposition rates (g/sq cm/yr) were estimated using a steady-state Pb-210 dating technique.

  20. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, J.E.; Jamieson, D.R.

    1986-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Bismaleimides of the formula shown in the diagram wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] each independently is H, C[sub 1-4]-alkyl, C[sub 1-4]-alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1--3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1--3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.