National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for butane butylene isobutane

  1. Ignition properties of n-butane and iso-butane in a rapid compression machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gersen, S.; Darmeveil, J.H.; Mokhov, A.V.; Levinsky, H.B.

    2010-02-15

    Autoignition delay times of n-butane and iso-butane have been measured in a Rapid Compression Machine in the temperature range 660-1010 K, at pressures varying from 14 to 36 bar and at equivalence ratios {phi} = 1.0 and {phi} = 0.5. Both butane isomers exhibit a negative-temperature-coefficient (NTC) region and, at low temperatures, two-stage ignition. At temperatures below {proportional_to}900 K, the delay times for iso-butane are longer than those for the normal isomer, while above this temperature both butanes give essentially the same results. At temperatures above {proportional_to}720 K the delay times of the lean mixtures are twice those for stoichiometric compositions; at T < 720 K, the equivalence ratio is seen to have little influence on the ignition behavior. Increasing the pressure from 15 bar to 30 bar decreases the amplitude of the NTC region, and reduces the ignition delay time for both isomers by roughly a factor of 3. In the region in which two-stage ignition is observed, 680-825 K, the duration of the first ignition stage decreases sharply in the range 680-770 K, but is essentially flat above 770 K. Good quantitative agreement is found between the measurements and calculations for n-butane using a comprehensive model for butane ignition, including both delay times in the two-stage region, with substantial differences being observed for iso-butane, particularly in the NTC region. (author)

  2. Dynamics of Exchange at Gas-Zeolite Interfaces 1: Pure Component n-Butane and Isobutane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHANDROSS,MICHAEL E.; WEBB III,EDMUND B.; GREST,GARY S.; MARTIN,MARCUS G.; THOMPSON,AIDAN P.; ROTH,M.W.

    2000-07-13

    The authors present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of n-butane and isobutane in silicalite. They begin with a comparison of the bulk adsorption and diffusion properties for two different parameterizations of the interaction potential between the hydrocarbon species, both of which have been shown to reproduce experimental gas-liquid coexistence curves. They examine diffusion as a function of the loading of the zeolite, as well as the temperature dependence of the diffusion constant at loading and for infinite dilution. They continue with simulations in which interfaces are formed between single component gases and the zeolite. After reaching equilibrium, they examine the dynamics of exchange between the bulk gas and the zeolite. Finally, they calculate the permeability of the zeolite for n-butane and isobutane as a function of pressure. Their simulations are performed for a number of different gas temperatures and pressures, covering a wide range of state points.

  3. Support shape effect in metal oxide catalysis: ceria nanoshapes supported vanadia catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Zili; Schwartz, Viviane; Li, Meijun; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H

    2012-01-01

    The activation energy of VOx/CeO2 catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane was found dependent on the shape of ceria support: rods < octahedra, closely related to the surface oxygen vacancy formation energy and defects amount of the two ceria supports with different crystallographic surface planes.

  4. Efficient Energy Usage in Butane Splitters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnwell, J.; Morris, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    A World surplus of mixed butanes coupled with an increased need for gasoline extenders has raised the demand for isobutane. Isobutane is readily separated from an admixture with normal butane by conventional distillation techniques. However...

  5. Normal butane/iso-butane separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volles, W.K.; Cusher, N.A.

    1986-08-26

    This patent describes an improved pressure swing adsorption process for the separation of iso-butane from normal butane in an adsorption system having at least three adsorbent beds, each bed of which undergoes, on a cyclic basis and a processing sequence comprising: introducing a feed gas mixture of iso-butane and normal butane at an upper adsorption pressure to the feed end of the bed capable of selectively adsorbing normal butane as the more selectivity adsorbable component of the gas mixture. The iso-butane as the less readily adsorbable component passes through the bed and is discharged from the discharge end. The feed gas introduction is continued as a normal butane adsorption front is formed in the bed and passes through the bed from the feed end and breaks through at the discharge end of the bed, a portion of the iso-butane effluent stream thus discharged being diverted for passage as purge gas to another bed in the system; and countercurrently depressurizing the bed with release of gas from the feed end.

  6. TABLE16.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    597 PropanePropylene ... 345 355 108 - -35 137 - 0 12 625 Normal ButaneButylene ... 77 145 63 - 13 127 - 17 1 153 IsobutaneIsobutylene...

  7. TABLE17.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 614 PropanePropylene ... 342 351 56 - -83 11 - 0 20 636 Normal ButaneButylene ... 74 84 32 - 13 41 - 42 2 118 IsobutaneIsobutylene...

  8. TABLE56.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 2,153 0 2,153 1,884 1,514 370 Normal ButaneButylene ... 0 0 0 527 415 112 IsobutaneIsobutylene...

  9. TABLE04.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 637 PropanePropylene ... 527 581 214 - 224 - 0 22 1,076 Normal ButaneButylene ... 144 258 69 - 214 - 41 27 190 IsobutaneIsobutylene...

  10. table09.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    709 PropanePropylene ... 363 301 4 - -158 -120 - 0 21 610 Normal ButaneButylene ... 76 3 6 - -11 -89 - 100 8 54 IsobutaneIsobutylene...

  11. table03.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    734 PropanePropylene ... 533 527 137 - -310 - 0 29 1,478 Normal ButaneButylene ... 155 -65 28 - -179 - 234 24 39 IsobutaneIsobutylene...

  12. Experimental and DFT studies of initiation processes for butane isomerization over sulfated-zirconia catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Z.; Watwe, R.M.; Natal-Santiago, M.A.; Hill, J.M.; Dumesic, J.A.; Fogash, K.B.; Kim, B.; Masqueda-Jimenez, B.I.

    1998-09-10

    Reaction kinetics studies were conducted of isobutane and n-butane isomerization at 423 K over sulfated-zirconia, with the butane feeds purified of olefins. Dihydrogen evolution was observed during butane isomerization over fresh catalysts, as well as over catalysts selectively poisoned by preadsorbed ammonia. Butane isomerization over sulfated-zirconia can be viewed as a surface chain reaction comprised of initiation, propagation, and termination steps. The primary initiation step in the absence of feed olefins is considered to be the dehydrogenation of butane over sulfated-zirconia, generating butenes which adsorb onto acid sites to form protonated olefinic species associated with the conjugate base form of the acid sites. Quantum-chemical calculations, employing density-functional theory, suggest that the dissociative adsorption of dihydrogen, isobutylene hydrogenation, and dissociative adsorption of isobutane are feasible over the sulfated-zirconia cluster, and these reactions take place over Zr-O sites.

  13. Isobutane ignition delay time measurements at high pressure and detailed chemical kinetic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Healy, D.; Curran, H.J.; Donato, N.S.; Aul, C.J.; Petersen, E.L.; Zinner, C.M.; Bourque, G.

    2010-08-15

    Rapid compression machine and shock-tube ignition experiments were performed for real fuel/air isobutane mixtures at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2. The wide range of experimental conditions included temperatures from 590 to 1567 K at pressures of approximately 1, 10, 20, and 30 atm. These data represent the most comprehensive set of experiments currently available for isobutane oxidation and further accentuate the complementary attributes of the two techniques toward high-pressure oxidation experiments over a wide range of temperatures. The experimental results were used to validate a detailed chemical kinetic model composed of 1328 reactions involving 230 species. This mechanism has been successfully used to simulate previously published ignition delay times as well. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed to gain further insight to the chemical processes occurring at various conditions. Additionally, useful ignition delay time correlations were developed for temperatures greater than 1025 K. Comparisons are also made with available isobutane data from the literature, as well as with 100% n-butane and 50-50% n-butane-isobutane mixtures in air that were presented by the authors in recent studies. In general, the kinetic model shows excellent agreement with the data over the wide range of conditions of the present study. (author)

  14. Kinetics and deactivation of sulfated zirconia catalysts for butane isomerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fogash, K.B.; Larson, R.B.; Gonzalez, M.R.

    1996-09-15

    Reaction kinetics studies were conducted of n-butane and isobutane isomerization over sulfated zirconia at 423 K. The kinetic data can be described well by a rate expression based on a reversible, bimolecular surface reaction between two adsorbed n-C{sub 4} species, probably through a C{sub 8} intermediate, to produce one i-C{sub 4} species, as well as surface reaction between two adsorbed i-C{sub 4} species to produce one n-C{sub 4} species. This reaction sequence also describes well the rates of C{sub 4}-disproportionation reactions to produce C{sub 3} and C{sub 5} species. The initial rate of catalyst deactivation is faster during n-butane isomerization than during isobutane isomerization, and the longer-term rate of deactivation during n-butane isomerization increases with the pressures of n-butane. The more rapid catalyst deactivation during n-butane isomerization may be related to the formation of n-C{sub 4}-diene species. 25 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. TABLE12.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Propylene ... 358 1,447 5 - 0 -805 - 0 149 2,466 1,676 Normal ButaneButylene ... 639 -241 0 - 0 -771 - 1,348 301 -480 1,111 Isobutane...

  16. TABLE13.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    - 0 0 (s) PropanePropylene ... 12 47 (s) - 0 -26 - 0 5 80 Normal ButaneButylene ... 21 -8 0 - 0 -25 - 43 10 -15 IsobutaneIsobutylene...

  17. TABLE12.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    - 0 0 39 PropanePropylene ... 99 111 75 - 12 46 - 0 2 248 Normal ButaneButylene ... 31 47 1 - 4 77 - 2 7 -2 IsobutaneIsobutylene...

  18. TABLE09.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 - 0 0 1 PropanePropylene ... 9 50 40 - 97 (s) - 0 1 194 Normal ButaneButylene ... 3 10 4 - 1 4 - (s) 2 12 IsobutaneIsobutylene...

  19. table04.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Propylene ... 334 1,689 1,206 - 4,630 -262 - 0 20 8,101 4,043 Normal ButaneButylene ... 116 -843 27 - 107 -548 - 162 3 -210 821 IsobutaneIsobutylene...

  20. TABLE13.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - 0 0 68 PropanePropylene ... 101 112 89 - 30 -6 - 0 2 337 Normal ButaneButylene ... 33 14 2 - 2 19 - 18 4 12 IsobutaneIsobutylene...

  1. TABLE11.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    - 0 0 -10 PropanePropylene ... 48 9 8 - -23 -2 - 0 (s) 43 Normal ButaneButylene ... 18 -7 6 - -10 1 - 11 0 -5 IsobutaneIsobutylene...

  2. TABLE08.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 - 0 0 1 PropanePropylene ... 10 47 28 - 69 25 - 0 1 129 Normal ButaneButylene ... 3 25 3 - 0 13 - (s) 2 16 IsobutaneIsobutylene...

  3. table07.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 0 26 PropanePropylene ... 100 116 86 - 31 -155 - 0 3 485 Normal ButaneButylene ... 37 -27 16 - 18 -48 - 74 6 12 IsobutaneIsobutylene...

  4. table10.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Propylene ... 1,473 284 233 - -705 -50 - 0 (s) 1,335 439 Normal ButaneButylene ... 561 -209 191 - -322 17 - 355 0 -151 323 IsobutaneIsobutylene...

  5. table05.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    - 0 0 8 PropanePropylene ... 11 54 39 - 149 -8 - 0 1 261 Normal ButaneButylene ... 4 -27 1 - 3 -18 - 5 (s) -7 IsobutaneIsobutylene...

  6. Improving the stability of H-mordenite for n-butane isomerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asuquo, R.A.; Eder-Mirth, G.; Lercher, J.A.

    1997-06-01

    The conversion of n-butane over mordenite-based catalysts in the presence of hydrogen and water was investigated for reaction temperatures between 523 and 623 K. Special attention was given to the influence of Pt upon catalytic activity, selectivity, and stability. With parent mordenite the catalytic activity for n-butane conversion decreased markedly after a short time on stream. Deactivation can be minimized by hydrogen (in the presence of Pt) and water addition. Both measures are thought to reduce the concentration of intermediate olefins in the zeolite pores. The best results with respect to selective conversion of n-butane to isobutane were obtained for 0.25 wt% Pt on mordenite in the presence of hydrogen. Higher concentrations of Pt in the catalyst are shown to be detrimental for n-butane isomerization, because of increasing selectivity to hydrogenolysis. A detailed mechanistic scheme for n-butane conversion over Pt-containing mordenites is presented. n-Butane conversion is concluded to occur via a bimolecular mechanism involving a complex network of hydrogen transfer, oligomerization/cracking, isomerization, hydrogenation/dehydrogenation, and hydrogenolysis. 23 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Emissions with butane/propane blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    This article reports on various aspects of exhaust emissions from a light-duty car converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas and equipped with an electrically heated catalyst. Butane and butane/propane blends have recently received attention as potentially useful alternative fuels. Butane has a road octane number of 92, a high blending vapor pressure, and has been used to upgrade octane levels of gasoline blends and improve winter cold starts. Due to reformulated gasoline requirements for fuel vapor pressure, however, industry has had to remove increasing amounts of butane form the gasoline pool. Paradoxically, butane is one of the cleanest burning components of gasoline.

  8. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    880 2,076 PropanePropylene 4,739 0 4,739 5,400 2,129 3,271 1,449 8,824 -7,375 Normal ButaneButylene 210 0 210 968 656 312 715 855 -140 IsobutaneIsobutylene 0 0 0 693 193 500...

  9. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PropanePropylene 337 1 338 923 41 417 1,381 Normal ButaneButylene 579 8 587 741 317 267 1,325 IsobutaneIsobutylene 206 7 213 155 55 170 380...

  10. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    48 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PropanePropylene 20 21 782 0 548 1,371 44 Normal ButaneButylene 10 76 29 0 3 118 4 IsobutaneIsobutylene 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Other Liquids 174 25...

  11. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PropanePropylene 152 450 5,241 12 4,094 9,950 36 Normal ButaneButylene 746 2,648 533 160 1,090 5,177 19 IsobutaneIsobutylene 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Other...

  12. Petroleum Supply Annual 2005, Volume 1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Ethylene 649 20 1 - 10 0 0 660 PropanePropylene 499 540 233 - 6 0 37 1,229 Normal ButaneButylene 134 43 66 - -2 119 15 110 IsobutaneIsobutylene 168 -30 28 - 1 134 0 30 Other...

  13. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1,285 43 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PropanePropylene 11 42 479 0 434 965 32 Normal ButaneButylene 9 251 13 30 17 319 11 IsobutaneIsobutylene 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Other Liquids 100...

  14. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Ethylene 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PropanePropylene 206 544 7,332 12 5,589 13,683 37 Normal ButaneButylene 833 2,882 673 173 1,095 5,655 15 IsobutaneIsobutylene 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Other...

  15. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    751 3,661 PropanePropylene 2,638 0 2,638 2,474 1,238 1,236 1,631 4,298 -2,667 Normal ButaneButylene 7 0 7 563 278 285 604 456 148 IsobutaneIsobutylene 0 0 0 544 128 416 327 490...

  16. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PropanePropylene 426 2 428 940 27 887 1,854 Normal ButaneButylene 1,811 40 1,851 1,361 415 768 2,544 IsobutaneIsobutylene 151 4 155 99 62 164...

  17. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PropanePropylene 337 1 338 903 41 312 1,256 Normal ButaneButylene 579 8 587 741 317 245 1,303 IsobutaneIsobutylene 206 7 213 155 55 184 394...

  18. table06.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 3,095 3,602 2,661 - 968 -4,799 - 0 96 15,029 13,173 Normal ButaneButylene ... 1,156 -837 486 - 571 -1,497 - 2,303 201 369 3,305 Isobutane...

  19. Self-Assembly of Carboxylated Poly(styrene-b-ethylene-co-butylene-b-styrene) Triblock Copolymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Chi

    Self-Assembly of Carboxylated Poly(styrene-b-ethylene-co-butylene-b-styrene) Triblock Copolymer Manuscript Received June 8, 2000 ABSTRACT: Carboxylated poly(styrene-b-ethylene-co-butylene-b-styrene) (CSEBS of this balance, in the present study, we systematically in- creased the carboxylation extent of the styrene

  20. New butane isomerization unit is unvieled by Andrews Petroleum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, H.

    1990-06-01

    This article discusses the development of a butane isomerization unit which will help reduce butane surplus by fractionating it into other LPG products. Other features of this California project increase on-site storage.

  1. Firing Excess Refinery Butane in Peaking Gas Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavone, A.; Schreiber, H.; Zwillenberg, M.

    1989-01-01

    normal butane production, which will reduce refinery normal butane value and price. Explored is an opportunity for a new use for excess refinery normal butane- as a fuel for utility peaking gas turbines which currently fire kerosene and #2 oil. Our paper...

  2. Ignition of ethane, propane, and butane in counterflow jets of cold fuel versus hot air under variable pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fotache, C.G.; Wang, H.; Law, C.K.

    1999-06-01

    This study investigates experimentally the nonpremixed ignition of ethane, propane, n-butane, and isobutane in a configuration of opposed fuel versus heated air jets. For each of these fuels the authors explore the effects of inert dilution, system pressure, and flow strain rate, for fuel concentrations ranging between 3--100% by volume, pressures between 0.2 and 8 atm, and strain rates of 100--600 s{sup {minus}1}. Qualitatively, these fuels share a number of characteristics. First, flame ignition typically occurs after an interval of mild oxidation, characterized by minimal heat release, fuel conversion, and weak light emission. The temperature extent of this regime decreases with increasing the fuel concentration, the ambient pressure, or the flow residence time. Second, the response to strain rate, pressure, and fuel concentration is similar for all investigated fuels, in that the ignition temperatures monotonically decrease with increasing fuel content, decreasing flow strain, and increasing ambient pressure. The C{sub 4} alkanes, however, exhibit three distinct p-T ignition regimes, similar to the homogeneous explosion limits. Finally, at 1 atm, 100% fuel, and a fixed flow strain rate the ignition temperature increases in the order of ethane < propane < n-butane < i-butane. Numerical simulation was conducted for ethane ignition using detailed reaction kinetics and transport descriptions. The modeling results suggest that ignition for all fuels studied at pressures below 5 atm is initiated by fuel oxidation following the high-temperature mechanism of radical chain branching and with little contribution by low-to-intermediate temperature chemistry.

  3. Marine microbes rapidly adapt to consume ethane, propane, and butane within the dissolved hydrocarbon plume of a natural seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, SD; Redmond, MC; Voigritter, K; Perez, C; Scarlett, R; Valentine, DL

    2015-01-01

    Arp, D. J. (1999), Butane metabolismby butane-grown ‘Pseudomonas butanovora’, Microbiology, 145(ethane, propane and butane, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71,

  4. CATALYSIS BY PLATINUM SINGLE CRYSTAL SURFACES: LOW PRESSURE HYDROCARBON REACTIONS AND THE EFFECTS OF INTRODUCING STRONGLY BOUND OXYGEN AT THE SURFACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Carol Ellen

    2011-01-01

    of neo-pentane and iso-butane in the presence of excessof neo-pentane to iso-butane was found to be a demandingof neo-pentane and iso-butane in the presence of excess

  5. Distillation efficiencies of an industrial-scale i-butane/n-butane fractionator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klemola, K.T.; Ilme, J.K.

    1996-12-01

    Rarely published industrial-scale distillation efficiency data are presented. The Murphree tray efficiencies are determined from the i-butane/n-butane fractionator performance data. Point efficiencies, numbers of overall vapor phase transfer units, numbers of vapor and liquid phase transfer units, and liquid phase resistances of mass transfer are backcalculated from the Murphree tray efficiencies. Various efficiency prediction and scale-up methods have been tested against experimental results. A new model for the prediction of the numbers of vapor and liquid phase transfer units has been developed. The model can be applied to hydrocarbon systems at high pressure. The influence of the mass-transfer coefficients, the interfacial area, and the vapor and liquid residence times on mass transfer has been analyzed separately, and as a result the NTU correlations for vapor and liquid phases are obtained. The constants of the model can be obtained by fitting the model to experimental efficiency data from a similar system.

  6. Single event kinetic modeling of solid acid alkylation of isobutane with butenes over proton-exchanged Y-Zeolites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinis Coll, Jorge Maximiliano

    2006-04-12

    Complex reaction kinetics of the solid acid alkylation of isobutane with butenes over a proton-exchanged Y-zeolite has been modeled at the elementary step level. Starting with a computer algorithm that generated the reaction network based...

  7. Synthesis of Isobutene and Isobutane from Synthesis Gas. A Literature Review Since 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2012-04-01

    The isosynthesis reaction is commonly referred as the reaction that converts selectively synthesis gas to isobutene and isobutane. The main feature of this reaction is the production of branched hydrocarbons in higher proportion with respect to linear hydrocarbons than expected from thermodynamic equilibrium and with a molecular weight distribution favoring iso-C4 hydrocarbons. This article reviews and summarizes isosynthesis research results reported in the open scientific literature with emphasis on the articles published in the last two decades.

  8. Thermodynamic properties of a geothermal working fluid; 90% isobutane-10% isopentane: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, J.S.; Linsky, D.; Morrison, G.; Levelt Sengers, J.M.H.

    1987-04-01

    We present tables of thermodynamic properties, and dew and bubble properties, of a mixture of 90 mol % isobutane and 10 mol % isopentane, a working fluid in a binary geothermal power cycle. The tables are generated by a formulation of the Helmholtz free energy, in which the mixture properties are mapped onto the known properties of pure isobutane by means of the principle of generalized corresponding states. The data base for the Helmholtz free energy formulation is new. We report data obtained in three different apparatus: critical-line and isopentane vapor pressure data obtained in a visual cell; vapor-liquid equilibria data obtained in a mercury-operated variable-volume cell; and pressure-volume-temperature data for the 90 mol %-10 mol % mixture obtained in a semi-automated Burnett-isochoric apparatus. The principles of the methods, and estimates of the reliability, are discussed and all experimental data are compared with the surface. The results are tables of specific volume, enthalpy, entropy, specific heat and density and temperature derivatives of the pressure at 10 K temperature increments from 240 to 600 K along isobars from 0.01 to 20 MPa. Separate tables are prepared from the dew and bubble properties of the 90-10 mixture. Estimates of the effects of isomeric impurity of isobutane are given in graphical form.

  9. Coupling of oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization reactions of butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wen-Qing; Suib, S.L. )

    1994-01-01

    Coupling of oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization of butane by using a dual function catalyst has led to a significant enhancement of the yields (from 25 to 40%) and selectivities to aromatics (from 39 to 64%). Butane is converted to aromatics by using either zinc-promoted [Ga]-ZSM-5 or zinc and gallium copromoted [Fe]-ZSM-5 zeolite as a catalyst. However, the formation of aromatics is severely limited by hydrocracking of butane to methane, ethane, and propane due to the hydrogen formed during aromatization reactions. On the other hand, the oxidative dehydrogenation of butane to butene over molybdate catalysts is found to be accompanied by a concurrent undesirable reaction, i.e., total oxidation. When two of these reactions (oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization of butane) are coupled by using a dual function catalyst they have shown to complement each other. It is believed that the rate-limiting step for aromatization (butane to butene) is increased by adding an oxidative dehydrogenation catalyst (Ga-Zn-Mg-Mo-O). The formation of methane, ethane, and propane was suppressed due to the removal of hydrogen initially formed as water. Studies of ammonia TPD show that the acidities of [Fe]-ZSM-5 are greatly affected by the existence of metal oxides such as Ga[sub 2]O[sub 3], MgO, ZnO, and MoO[sub 3]. 40 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. 1MSE 2090: Introduction to Materials Science Chapter 14, Polymer Structures Chapter Outline: Polymer Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    the same atoms) but have different atomic arrangement. An example is butane and isobutane: Butane C4H10

  11. Pergamon Atmospheric Environment Vol. 31, No. 23, pp. 4017 4038, 1997 X-1997 Elsevier Science Ltd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aneja, Viney P.

    , propane, n-butane, iso-butane, ethene and acetylene) display a seasonal variation of a winter maximum

  12. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 17371750, 2008 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/8/1737/2008/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    chemistry, and [isobutane]/[n-butane] and [methyl ethyl ketone]/[n- butane] are used to study the extent

  13. Biofiltration control of VOC emissions: Butane and benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E.R.

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory studies were conducted on the biological elimination of n-butane and benzene from air streams using activated sludge-treated compost biofilters. Four types of experimental biofilter systems were developed: a bench scale packed tower system used primarily for kinetic studies; a small scale column system used to study the effects of different filter media on n-butane removal; a three stage system used to study benzene elimination; and a static batch biofilter system used to study the effects of temperature, compost water content, compost pH, and initial benzene concentrations on benzene elimination. Removal efficiencies greater than 90% were obtained for n-butane. Removal followed first order kinetics at inlet concentrations less than 25 ppM n-butane and zero order kinetics above 100 ppM n-butane. Removal of benzene followed fractional order kinetics for inlet concentrations from 15 to 200 ppM benzene. Thus, the removal of benzene is both mass transfer and bioreaction limited for the concentration range studied. The removal efficiency of benzene was found to be highly dependent on compost water content, compost pH, and temperature. Compost showed a low capacity for benzene removal, which suggested that degradation of these hydrocarbons required different species of microorganisms.

  14. ADSORPTION AND BONDING OF BUTANE AND PENTANE ON THE Pt(111) CRYSTAL SURFACES. EFFECTS OF OXYGEN TREATMENTS AND DEUTERIUM PREADSORPTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salmeron, M.

    2012-01-01

    ADSORPTION AND BONDING OF BUTANE AND PENTANE ON THE .Pt(111)ADSORPTION AND BONDING OF BUTANE AND PENTANE ON THE Pt(lll)adsorption characteristics of butane and pentane on the (

  15. Hydrodesulfurization of Thiophene and Benzothiophene to Butane and Ethylbenzene by a Homogeneous Iridium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Hydrodesulfurization of Thiophene and Benzothiophene to Butane and Ethylbenzene by a Homogeneous, in high yields. Upon further thermolysis under H2, the completely desulfurized products, butane examples of complete desulfur- ization to butanes, butenes, or metal alkyls have been reported.4

  16. Raman and IR spectra of butane: Anharmonic calculations and interpretation of room temperature spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potma, Eric Olaf

    Raman and IR spectra of butane: Anharmonic calculations and interpretation of room temperature-principles anharmonic calculations are carried out for the IR and Raman spectra of the CAH stretch- ing bands in butane.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction n-Butane is of great importance in several disciplines

  17. Surface Adsorption Isotherms and Surface Excess Densities of n-Butane in Silicalite-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Surface Adsorption Isotherms and Surface Excess Densities of n-Butane in Silicalite-1 Isabella 27, 2008. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed NoVember 13, 2008 We present isotherms for the adsorption of n-butane have thus studied, as a representative example, the adsorption properties of one hy- drocarbon, n-butane

  18. Thermochemistry of radicals formed by hydrogen abstraction from 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truhlar, Donald G

    , and butanal Ewa Papajak, Prasenjit Seal, Xuefei Xu, and Donald G. Truhlar Citation: J. Chem. Phys. 137, 104314 abstraction from 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Ewa Papajak, Prasenjit Seal, Xuefei Xu- propanol, and butanal. Electronic structure calculations for all conformers of the radicals were car- ried

  19. 934 / JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING / OCTOBER 2000 CHLORINATED SOLVENT COMETABOLISM BY BUTANE-GROWN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    BY BUTANE-GROWN MIXED CULTURE By Young Kim,1 Daniel J. Arp,2 and Lewis Semprini3 ABSTRACT: A survey of aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by a butane-grown mixed culture was performed and was inhibited by butane and inactivated by acetylene, indicating that a monooxygenase enzyme was likely involved

  20. Cometabolic transformation of cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene epoxide by a butane-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    by a butane- grown mixed culture Y. Kim* and L. Semprini** *Department of Environmental Engineering, Korea cometabolism of cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (c-DCE) by a butane-grown mixed culture was evaluated in batch kinetic by butane and was inactivated by acetylene (a known monooxygenase inactivator), indicating that a butane

  1. HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benner, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    ·omatography, mass , propane, butane , wa:ter, and CO co dueethane ( 1. 7 flillOl) , n~butane (0.17 flmol), isobutane (not possess Isobutane/n~butane activity, this activity The

  2. Transient FTIR studies of the reaction pathway for n-butane selective oxidation over vanadyl pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Z.Y.; Schrader, G.L.

    1999-05-15

    New information has been provided about the reaction pathway for n-butane partial oxidation to maleic anhydride over vanadyl pyrophosphate (VPO) catalysts using FTIR spectroscopy under transient conditions. Adsorption studies of n-butane, 1,3-butadiene, and related oxygenates were performed to gain information about reaction intermediates. n-Butane was found to adsorb on the VPO catalyst to form olefinic species at low temperatures. Unsaturated, noncyclic carbonyl species were determined to be precursors to maleic anhydride.

  3. Transition Events in Butane Simulations Similarities Across Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuckerman, D M; Zuckerman, Daniel M.; Woolf, Thomas B.

    2001-01-01

    From a variety of long simulations of all-atom butane using both stochastic and fully-solved molecular dynamics, we have uncovered striking generic behavior which also occurs in one-dimensional systems. We find an apparently universal distribution of transition event durations, as well as a characteristic speed profile along the reaction coordinate. An approximate analytic distribution of event durations, derived from a one-dimensional model, correctly predicts the asymptotic behavior of the universal distribution for both short and long durations.

  4. Improving fractionation lowers butane sulfur level at Saudi gas plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harruff, L.G.; Martinie, G.D.; Rahman, A. [Saudi Arabian Oil Co., Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1998-10-12

    Increasing the debutanizer reflux/feed ratio to improve fractionation at an eastern Saudi Arabian NGL plant reduced high sulfur in the butane product. The sulfur resulted from dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contamination in the feed stream from an offshore crude-oil reservoir in the northern Arabian Gulf. The contamination is limited to two northeastern offshore gas-oil separation plants operated by Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) and, therefore, cannot be transported to facilities outside the Eastern Province. Two technically acceptable solutions for removing this contaminant were investigated: 13X molecular-sieve adsorption of the DMS and increased fractionation efficiency. The latter would force DMS into the debutanizer bottoms.

  5. 198 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1994,116, 198-203 Hydrodesulfurization of Thiophene to Butadiene and Butane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    198 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1994,116, 198-203 Hydrodesulfurization of Thiophene to Butadiene and Butane. Reaction of the butadiene complex with H2 produces butane. Introduction

  6. Availability of Canadian imports to meet U.S. demand for ethane, propane and butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawkins, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    Historically, Canada has had a surplus of ethane, propane and butane. Almost all of the available propane and butane in Canadian natural gas streams is recovered. While there is significant ethane recovery in Canada, ethane that cannot be economically sold is left in the gas streams. All of the surplus Canadian ethane and most of the Canadian surplus propane and butane is exported to the US. Some volumes of Canadian propane and butane have been moved offshore by marine exports to the Asia-Pacific region or South America, or directly to Mexico by rail. Essentially all of the Canadian ethane, 86% of the propane and 74% of the butane are recovered by gas processing. Canadian natural gas production has increased significantly over the last 10 years. Canadian gas resources in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin should permit further expansion of gas exports, and several gas pipeline projects are pending to expand the markets for Canadian gas in the US. The prospective increase in Canadian gas production will yield higher volumes of ethane, propane and butane. While there is a potential to expand domestic markets for ethane, propane and butane, a significant part of the incremental production will move to export markets. This paper provides a forecast of the expected level of ethane, propane and butane exports from Canada and discusses the supply, demand and logistical developments which may affect export availability from Canada.

  7. Bioaugmentation of butane-utilizing microorganisms to promote cometabolism of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in groundwater microcosms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    Bioaugmentation of butane-utilizing microorganisms to promote cometabolism of 1,1,1-trichloroethane. The initial inoculum for bioaugmentation was a butane-utilizing enrichment from the subsurface of the Hanford DOE site. The non-augmented microcosm required 80 days of incubation before butane

  8. Catalytic Porous Ceramic Prepared In-Situ by Sol-Gelation for Butane-to-Syngas Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    Catalytic Porous Ceramic Prepared In-Situ by Sol-Gelation for Butane-to-Syngas Processing­1859, 2009 Keywords: catalytic porous ceramic, butane-to-syngas processing, catalytic foam, sol-gelation, Rh containing cat- alytic Rh/ceria/zirconia nanoparticles is tested by its catalytic performance for butane

  9. Ionization of ethane, butane, and octane in strong laser fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palaniyappan, Sasi; Mitchell, Rob; Ekanayake, N.; Watts, A. M.; White, S. L.; Sauer, Rob; Howard, L. E.; Videtto, M.; Mancuso, C.; Wells, S. J.; Stanev, T.; Wen, B. L.; Decamp, M. F.; Walker, B. C.

    2010-10-15

    Strong-field photoionization of ethane, butane, and octane are reported at intensities from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. The molecular fragment ions, C{sup +} and C{sup 2+}, are created in an intensity window from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} and have intensity-dependent yields similar to the molecular fragments C{sub m}H{sub n}{sup +} and C{sub m}H{sub n}{sup 2+}. In the case of C{sup +}, the yield is independent of the molecular parent chain length. The ionization of more tightly bound valence electrons in carbon (C{sup 3+} and C{sup 4+}) has at least two contributing mechanisms, one influenced by the parent molecule size and one resulting from the tunneling ionization of the carbon ion.

  10. The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous butane-nitrogen mixtures in the gas phase 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Robert Buckner

    1955-01-01

    butane in summer resulting from lowered gasoline volatility and various increasing supply factors will create fuel purchasing opportunities. It was found that in-place propane switching capability among manufacturers could be adapted to absorb all...

  11. Saving Energy and Reducing Emissions from the Regeneration Air System of a Butane Dehydrogenation Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, T. P.

    1998-01-01

    Texas Petrochemicals operates a butane dehydrogenation unit producing MTBE for reformulated gasoline that was originally constructed when energy was cheap and prior to environmental regulation. The process exhausts 900,000 pounds per hour of air...

  12. Promotion of n-Butane isomerization activity by hydration of sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, M.R.; Kobe, J.M.; Fogash, K.B.; Dumesic, J.A.

    1996-05-01

    The effects of sulfated zirconia catalyst hydration on the activity for n-butane isomerization is reported. The catalytic activity of of a partially hydrated catalyst is enhanced. 66 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Assumptions and Expectations for Annual Energy Outlook 2015:...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    * Update NPGL factors as well as the composition shares of NGPLs (ethane, propane, butane, iso-butane, pentanes plus). * Update EURs as time allows - focus on PA Marcellus...

  14. Low temperature n-butane oxidation skeletal mechanism, based on multilevel approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strelkova, M.I.; Sukhanov, L.P.; Kirillov, I.A.; Safonov, A.A.; Umanskiy, S.Ya.; Potapkin, B.V.; Pasman, H.J.; Tentner, A.M.

    2010-04-15

    In order to reconcile an increasingly large deviation (order of magnitude) of the ignition delay time at decreasing initial temperature, computed using the prior art kinetic schemes, with the available experimental values, a new skeletal mechanism (54 species, 94 reactions) for low-temperature (500-800 K) ignition of n- butane in air based on ab initio calculations is developed. The skeletal mechanism obtained accurately reproduces n-butane combustion kinetics for the practically important ranges of pressure, temperature and fuel-air equivalence ratio, especially in the low-temperature range. The elaborated first principal skeletal chemical kinetic mechanism of n-butane oxidation was validated against available experimental results for normal and elevated initial pressure (1-15 atm) using the Chemical Work Bench code. A good agreement with experiments was shown. (author)

  15. Stat 511 MS Exam, Spring 2003 Page 1 of 3 This question concerns several analyses of a small set of data on the operation of a Butane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vardeman, Stephen B.

    of data on the operation of a Butane Hydrogenolysis Reactor. The response variable percent conversion (cc/sec at STP) feed ratio (Hydrogen/Butane) the reactor wall temperature ( F) flow ratio temp

  16. Bioaugmentation with butane-utilizing microorganisms to promote in situ cometabolic treatment of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 1,1-dichloroethene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    Bioaugmentation with butane-utilizing microorganisms to promote in situ cometabolic treatment of 1) through bioaugmentation with a butane enrichment culture containing predominantly two Rhodococcus sp of butane and dissolved oxygen and or hydrogen peroxide as sources of dissolved oxygen, about 70% removal

  17. Statistical thermodynamics of 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa Papajak, Tao Yu, and Donald G. Truhlar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truhlar, Donald G

    Statistical thermodynamics of 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa-body decomposition of ethanedial, propanal, propenal, n-butane, 1-butene, and 1,3-butadiene J. Chem. Phys. 136, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa Papajak, Tao Yu, and Donald G. Truhlara) Department of Chemistry

  18. Chloroform cometabolism by butane-grown CF8, Pseudomonas butanovora, and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and methane-grown Methylosinus trichosporium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    Chloroform cometabolism by butane-grown CF8, Pseudomonas butanovora, and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 63 (9): 3607-3613 SEP 1997 Abstract: Chloroform (CF) degradation by a butane-grown enrichment culture, CF8, was compared to that by butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora and Mycobacterium vaccae

  19. Transport coefficients of n-butane into and through the surface of silicalite-1 from non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Transport coefficients of n-butane into and through the surface of silicalite-1 from non dynamics Non-equilibrium thermodynamics Silicalite-1 n-Butane adsorption a b s t r a c t We have studied coupled heat and mass transfer of n-butane through a membrane of silicalite-1. A description

  20. Alternative descriptions of catalyst deactivation in aromatization of propane and butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koshelev, Yu.N.; Vorob`ev, B.L.; Khvorova, E.P.

    1995-08-20

    Deactivation of a zeolite-containing catalyst has been studied in aromatization of propane and butane. Various descriptions of the dependence of the alkane conversion on the coke concentration on the catalyst have been considered, and using a statistical method of estimating the model validity, the most preferable form of the deactivation function has been proposed.

  1. Influence of temperature and process duration on composition of products of butane aromatization on zeolitic catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vorob`ev, B.L.; Trishin, P.Yu.; Koshelev, Yu.N.

    1995-06-10

    A study has been made of the influence of catalyst deactivation in the course of its service. The composition of products of butane aromatization on zeolitic catalyst and on selectivity of formation of target products and by-products is reported.

  2. Vapor-liquid equilibria and densities for the system butane + hexacontane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieuwoudt, I.

    1996-09-01

    Liquid and vapor phase compositions and densities have been measured with a variable volume cell for the binary system butane + hexacontane (n-C{sub 60}H{sub 122}). Data sets at 433.15 K, 438.15 K, and 453.15 K are presented and include measurements in the mixture critical region.

  3. Selective oxidation of n-butane and butenes over vanadium-containing catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieto, J.M.L.; Concepcion, P.; Dejoz, A.; Knoezinger, H.; Melo, F.; Vazquez, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The oxidative dehydrogenation (OXDH) of n-butane, 1-butene, and trans-2-butene on different vanadia catalysts has been compared. MgO, alumina, and Mg-Al mixed oxides with Mg/(Al + Mg) ratios of 0.25 and 0.75 were used as supports. The catalytic data indicate that the higher the acid character of catalysts the lower is both the selectivity to C{sub 4}-olefins from n-butane and the selectivity to butadiene from both 1-butene or trans-2-butene. Thus, OXDH reactions are mainly observed from n-butane and butenes on basic catalysts. The different catalytic performance of both types of catalysts is a consequence of the isomerization of olefins on acid sites, which appears to be a competitive reaction with the selective way, i.e., the oxydehydrogenation process by a redox mechanism. Infrared spectroscopy data of 1-butene adsorbed on supported vanadium oxide catalysts suggest the presence of different adsorbed species. O-containing species (carbonyl and alkoxide species) are observed on catalysts with acid sites while adsorbed butadiene species are observed on catalysts with basic sites. According to these results a reaction network for the oxydehydrogenation of n-butane is proposed with parallel and consecutive reactions.

  4. Author's personal copy A spatially-resolved temperature-dependent model for butane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    13 March 2012 Keywords: Butane reforming Surface reaction mechanism Fuel cells a b s t r a c al. [11] reported the optimization of a detailed reaction mechanism for methane partial oxidation, based on experimental results from a flow reactor. The optimized mechanism showed better performance

  5. A detailed surface reaction model for syngas production from butane over Rhodium catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    online 30 July 2011 Keywords: Butane reforming Surface reaction mechanism Micro solid oxide fuel cell a b solid oxide fuel cells (micro SOFCs) have promising potential to provide an alternative al. [16] reported the optimization of a detailed reaction mechanism for methane combustion

  6. Cracking of n-butane catalyzed by iron- and maganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, T.K.; d`Itri, J.L.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-05-01

    Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia was used to catalyze the conversion of n-butane at atmospheric pressure and n-butane partial pressures in the range of 0.0025-0.01 atm. At temperatures <225{degrees}C, the significant reactions were isomerization and disproportionation; in the range of 225-300{degrees}C, these reactions were accompanied by cracking, and at temperatures >350{degrees}C, cracking and isomerization occurred. Catalyst deactivation, resulting at least in part from coke formation, was rapid. The primary cracking products were methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The observation of these products along with an ethane/ethylene molar ratio of nearly 1 at 450{degrees}C is consistent with cracking occurring, at least in part, by the Haag-Dessau mechanism, whereby the strongly acidic catalyst protonates n-butane to give carbonium ions. The rate of methane formation from n-butane cracking catalyzed by Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C was about 3 x 10{sup {minus}9}mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot}s). This comparison suggests that the catalytic activity of the promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C is about the same as that of the zeolite, although its activity for n-butane isomerization and disproportionation at temperatures <100{degrees}C is orders of magnitude greater than those of zeolites. Thus the indication of superacidity of the promoted sulfated zirconia does not extend to high temperatures. The results raise questions about the nature of the presumed superacidity: perhaps the low-temperature reactions may involve catalyst functions other than the acidic function responsible for high-temperature cracking reactions or perhaps superacidic sites may be very rapidly poisoned at cracking temperatures. 14 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Diamond/diamond-like thin film growth in a butane plasma on unetched, unheated, N-type Si(100) substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, E.S.; Richardson, J.S. Jr.; Anderson, D.; Starkey, K.

    1995-06-01

    Deposition of diamond/diamond-like thin films on unetched, unheated, n-type Si(100) substrates in a butane plasma is reported. An interconnection between values of index of refraction, hydrogen flow rate, butane flow rate and Rf power was determined. The H{sub 2} and C{sub 4}H{sub 10} molecules are disassociated by Rf energy to create a plasma. Carbon from the butane forms a thin diamond/diamond-like film on a suitable substrate, which in the current investigation, is n-type Si(100).

  8. Supplement of Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 63376350, 2015 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/15/6337/2015/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Acetate Anthropogenic No ALK3 n-Butane, Ethanol, Isobutane, Dimethyl, Butane, Dimethyl Pentane Anthropogenic No ALK4 n-Pentane, n-Hexane, Branched C5-C6, Alkanes, Cyclopetane, Trimethyl Butane, Trimethyl

  9. Consequences of Confinement in Zeolite Acid Catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gounder, Rajamani Pachayappan

    2011-01-01

    diameters of propane and n-butane. Scheme 3.5. MOR crystaldehydrogenation of propane, n-butane and isobutane. CHAPTERkJ mol -1 ] Propane n n-Butane n-P Pentane n-H Hexane Figure

  10. Molecular and isotopic partitioning of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons during migration and gas hydrate precipitation in deposits of a high-flux seepage site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    2). Propane, iso- and n-butane were found in much smallercarbon dioxide, and are virtually devoid of iso-butane andn-butane (Fig. 4). Similar molecular distinctions observed

  11. 4912r 2010 American Chemical Society pubs.acs.org/EF Energy Fuels 2010, 24, 49124918 : DOI:10.1021/ef1007962

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    of Binary Mixtures of Ethylene and Butane Isomers and Synergistic Effects Ahmet E. Karatas-,* Mario Commodo fractions of binary mixtures of butane isomers, ethylene-butane isomers, and propane- butane isomers were. Binary mixtures of iso-butane and n-butane did not show any synergistic effects on soot formation

  12. Low-temperature superacid catalysis: Reactions of n-butane catalyzed by iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, T.K.; D`Itri, J.L.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental concerns are leading to the replacement of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline with high-octane-number branched paraffins and oxygenated compounds such as methyl t-butyl ether, which is produced from methanol and isobutylene. The latter can be formed from n-butane by isomerization followed by dehydrogenation. To meet the need for improved catalysts for isomerization of n-butane and other paraffins, researchers identified solid acids that are noncorrosive and active at low temperatures. Sulfated zirconia catalyzes the isomerization of n-butane even at 25{degrees}C, and the addition of Fe and Mn promoters increases its activity by three orders of magnitude. Little is known about this new catalyst. Here the authors provide evidence of its performance for n-butane conversion, demonstrating that isomerization is accompanied by disproportionation and other, less well understood, acid-catalyzed reactions and undergoes rapid deactivation associated with deposition of carbonaceous material. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Marine microbes rapidly adapt to consume ethane, propane, and butane within the dissolved hydrocarbon plume of a natural seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    oxi- dation of methane, ethane, propane and butane, Geochim.variability and air-sea ?ux of ethane and propane in thecation of novel methane-, ethane-, and propane-oxidizing

  14. Marine microbes rapidly adapt to consume ethane, propane, and butane within the dissolved hydrocarbon plume of a natural seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, SD; Redmond, MC; Voigritter, K; Perez, C; Scarlett, R; Valentine, DL

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial oxidation of propane, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. , 122(oxi- dation of methane, ethane, propane and butane, Geochim.air-sea ?ux of ethane and propane in the plume of a large,

  15. Formative time of breakdown modeled for the ignition of air and n-butane mixtures using effective ionization coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Popugaev, S. D.; Demidov, V. I.; Adams, S. F.; Jiao, C. Q.

    2008-12-15

    It is shown that simulations of ignition by electric arc discharge in n-butane and air mixtures have interesting features, which deviate from results obtained by simple extension of calculations based on methanelike fuels. In particular, it is demonstrated that lowering the temperature of the n-butane-air mixture before ignition under certain conditions will actually decrease the ignition stage time as well as the required electric field.

  16. Hydrogen effect on n-butane isomerization over sulfated zirconia-based catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayari, A.; Yang, Yong; Song, Xuemin

    1997-04-15

    Iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia (SFMZ) has been tested as an n-butane isomerization catalyst in the temperature range of 35 to 180{degrees}C. The catalytic activity exhibits an induction period whose length is dependent on the reaction conditions. The presence of H{sub 2} in the feed stream strongly suppresses n-butane conversion over unprompted sulfated zirconia (SZ) and over Pt-containing SFMZ (PtSFMZ). However, hydrogen had no effect on n-butane isomerization over SFMZ. These findings were interpreted on the basis of a bimolecular mechanism where unsaturated intermediates (carbenium ions and/or butene) are formed during the break-in period. The role of promoters (Fe and Mn) is not only facilitating the formation of hydrogen-deficient intermediates and their accumulation on the catalyst surface, but also enhancing their stability. The negative effect of hydrogen over PtSFMZ is attributed to the occurrence of atomic hydrogen via the dissociative adsorption of H{sub 2} on Pt. 40 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Biofiltration control of VOC and air toxic emissions: n-Butane and benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E.R.

    1996-12-31

    n-Butane and benzene vapors are routinely observed in urban atmospheres. Their presence in urban airsheds is of concern because of their ozone production potential as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and/or potential toxicity. Also, these saturated hydrocarbons are representative of airborne aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Separate laboratory studies have been conducted on the biological elimination of n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) from airstreams using treated compost biofilters. The removal efficiencies were found to exceed 90% for a conditioned biofilter medium and pollutant low concentrations (< 25 ppm) and zeroth order kinetics at higher concentrations (> 100 ppm), whereas benzene vapor elimination followed zeroth order kinetics at concentrations up to 200 ppm. The maximum n-butane and benzene elimination capacities observed for the compost biofilters and conditions employed were 25 and 70 g pollutant m{sup -3} h{sup -1}, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a laminar premixed n-butane flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinov, N.M.; Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K.; Vincitore, A.M.; Castaldi, M.J.; Senkan, S.M.; Melius, C.F.

    1998-07-01

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling work has been performed to investigate aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation pathways in a premixed, rich, sooting, n-butane-oxygen-argon burner stabilized flame. An atmospheric pressure, laminar flat flame operated at an equivalence ratio of 2.6 was used to acquire experimental data for model validation. Gas composition analysis was conducted by an on-line gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer technique. Measurements were made in the main reaction and post-reaction zones for a number of low molecular weight species, aliphatics, aromatics, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from two to five-fused aromatic rings. Reaction flux and sensitivity analysis were used to help identify the important reaction sequences leading to aromatic and PAH growth and destruction in the n-butane flame. Reaction flux analysis showed the propargyl recombination reaction was the dominant pathway to benzene formation. The consumption of propargyl by H atoms was shown to limit propargyl, benzene, and naphthalene formation in flames as exhibited by the large negative sensitivity coefficients. Naphthalene and phenanthrene production was shown to be plausibly formed through reactions involving resonantly stabilized cyclopentadienyl and indenyl radicals. Many of the low molecular weight aliphatics, combustion by-products, aromatics, branched aromatics, and PAHs were fairly well simulated by the model. Additional work is required to understand the formation mechanisms of phenyl acetylene, pyrene, and fluoranthene in the n-butane flame. 73 refs.

  19. Syngas production from butane using a flame-made Rh/Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 Nico Hotz a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    Syngas production from butane using a flame-made Rh/Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 catalyst Nico Hotz a , Michael J the production of H2- and CO-rich syngas from butane was investigated for different Rh loadings (0­2.0 wt% Rh for a temperature range from 225 to 750 8C. The main goal of this study was the efficient processing of butane

  20. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and n-butane on VO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasco, T.; Galli, A.; Lopez Neito, J.M.; Trifiro, F.

    1997-07-01

    The catalytic properties of vanadium oxides/aluminium oxides were investigated in the dehydrogenation of ethane and n-butane. The importance of Lewis acid sites is described.

  1. Pressure and concentration dependences of the autoignition temperature for normal butane + air mixtures in a closed vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandraratna, M.R.; Griffiths, J.F. . School of Chemistry)

    1994-12-01

    The condition at which autoignition occurs in lean premixed n-butane + air mixtures over the composition range 0.2%--2.5% n-butane by volume (0.06 < [phi] < 0.66) were investigated experimentally. Total reactant pressure from 0.1 to 0.6 MPa (1--6 atm) were studied in a spherical, stainless-steel, closed vessel (0.5 dm[sup 3]). There is a critical transition from nonignition to ignition, at pressures above 0.1 MPa, as the mixture is enriched in the vicinity of 1% fuel vapor by volume. There is also a region of multiplicity, which exhibits three critical temperatures at a given composition. Chemical analyses show that partially oxygenated components,including many o-heterocyclic compounds, are important products of the lean combustion of butane at temperatures up to 800 K. The critical conditions for autoignition are discussed with regard to industrial ignition hazards, especially in the context of the autoignition temperature of alkanes given by ASTM or BS tests. The differences between the behavior of n-butane and the higher n-alkanes are explained. The experimental results are also used as a basis for testing a reduced kinetic model to represent the oxidation and autoignition of n-butane or other alkanes.

  2. Effect of Pt and H{sub 2} on n-butane isomerization over Fe and Mn promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Xuemin; Reddy, K.R.; Sayari, A.

    1996-06-01

    The activity of a 0.4 wt% Pt-containing Fe and Mn promoted sulfated zirconia (PtSFMZ) catalyst in n-butane isomerization at 35{degrees}C was compared to that of a Pt-free catalyst (SFMZ). The maximum rate of n-butane conversion observed in helium over PtSFMZ was found to be 2.5 times higher than that over the SFMZ catalyst under the same conditions. It is believed that n-butane isomerization proceeds via a bimolecular mechanism in which the formation of hydrogen-deficient intermediates (carbenium ions and butenes), is necessary and the presence of transition metals such as Pt, Fe, and Mn on sulfated zirconia facilitates the formation/accumulation of these intermediates and increases their stability on the catalyst surface. The presence of H{sub 2} had a strong negative effect on n-butane conversion over PtSFMZ, but had no effect over SFMZ. The negative effect of H{sub 2} on PtSFMZ catalyst in n-butane isomerization reaction was attributed to the decreased concentration of butenes in the presence of hydrogen atoms which are formed by the dissociation of H{sub 2} on Pt. The ability of calcined Pt-containing catalysts to activate hydrogen at 35{degrees}C was demonstrated. Reduced SFMZ with or without Pt was not active at 35{degrees}C regardless of the nature of the carrier gas. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Structure of an n-butane monolayer adsorbed on magnesium oxide (100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, T.; Chanaa, S.; Cook, R. E.; Clarke, S. M.; Larese, J. Z.

    2006-08-15

    Neutron diffraction has been used to characterize the structure of the solid phase of the completed monolayer of n butane on the MgO(100) surface at low temperature. The monolayer is found to adopt a commensurate (7{radical}(2)x{radical}(2)R45 deg. ) structure with lattice constants a=29.47 A ring and b=4.21 A ring , P{sub 2gg} symmetry and four molecules in the unit cell. Excellent agreement with the experimental diffraction pattern is realized, using a Lorenztian profile to describe the line shape.

  4. Molecular Components of Catalytic Selectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-01-01

    Hexagonal Square isobutane n-butane isobutane C 1 – C 3H 2 O H 3 C OH 1-Butanol H 3 C H 2 Butane H H 3 C + H 2 CH 3Pyrrolidine + H 2 +NH 3 Butane and ammonia Scheme 1. (a) (b)

  5. Low-temperature superacid catalysis: Reactions of n - butane and propane catalyzed by iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsz-Keung, Cheung; d`Itri, J.L.; Lange, F.C.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate the potential value of solid superacid catalysts of the sulfated zirconia type for light hydrocarbon conversion. The key experiments catalytic testing of the performance of such catalysts in a flow reactor fed with streams containing, for example, n-butane or propane. Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia was used to catalyze the conversion of n-butane at atmospheric pressure, 225-450{degrees}C, and n-butane partial pressures in the range of 0.0025-0.01 atm. At temperatures <225{degrees}C, these reactions were accompanied by cracking; at temperatures >350{degrees}C, cracking and isomerization occurred. Catalyst deactivation, resulting at least in part from coke formation, was rapid. The primary cracking products were methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The observation of these products along with an ethane/ethylene molar ratio of nearly 1 at 450{degrees}C is consistent with cracking occurring, at least in part, by the Haag-Dessau mechanism, whereby the strongly acidic catalyst protonates n-butane to give carbonium ions. The rate of methane formation from n-butane cracking catalyzed by Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C was about 3 x 10{sup -8} mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot}s). The observation of butanes, pentanes, and methane as products is consistent with Olah superacid chemistry, whereby propane is first protonated by a very strong acid to form a carbonium ion. The carbonium ion then decomposes into methane and an ethyl cation which undergoes oligocondensation reactions with propane to form higher molecular weight alkanes. The results are consistent with the identification of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia as a superacid.

  6. A fast hybrid start-up process for thermally self-sustained catalytic n-butane reforming in micro-SOFC power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    A fast hybrid start-up process for thermally self-sustained catalytic n-butane reforming in micro at the investigation and optimization of a hybrid start-up process for a self-sustained reactor for n-butane to syngas

  7. n-Butane: Ignition delay measurements at high pressure and detailed chemical kinetic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Healy, D.; Curran, H.J.; Donato, N.S.; Aul, C.J.; Petersen, E.L.; Zinner, C.M.; Bourque, G.

    2010-08-15

    Ignition delay time measurements were recorded at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2 for n-butane at pressures of approximately 1, 10, 20, 30 and 45 atm at temperatures from 690 to 1430 K in both a rapid compression machine and in a shock tube. A detailed chemical kinetic model consisting of 1328 reactions involving 230 species was constructed and used to validate the delay times. Moreover, this mechanism has been used to simulate previously published ignition delay times at atmospheric and higher pressure. Arrhenius-type ignition delay correlations were developed for temperatures greater than 1025 K which relate ignition delay time to temperature and concentration of the mixture. Furthermore, a detailed sensitivity analysis and a reaction pathway analysis were performed to give further insight to the chemistry at various conditions. When compared to existing data from the literature, the model performs quite well, and in several instances the conditions of earlier experiments were duplicated in the laboratory with overall good agreement. To the authors' knowledge, the present paper presents the most comprehensive set of ignition delay time experiments and kinetic model validation for n-butane oxidation in air. (author)

  8. ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    > 0.001 mol % typically have ethane > ethylene, propane > propylene, and butane > butylene. There are three end member fluid compositions: type 1 fluids in which...

  9. Studies of n-butane conversion over silica-supported platinum, platinum-silver and platinum-copper catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Junhua

    1992-06-09

    The present work was undertaken to elucidate effect of adding silver and copper to silica-supported platinum catalyst on the activity and selectivity in the n-butane reactions. At the conditions of this study n-butane underwent both hydrogenolysis and structural isomerization. The catalytic activity and selectivities between hydrogenolysis and isomerization and within hydrogenolysis were measured at temperature varying from 330 C to 370 C. For platinum-silver catalysts, at lower temperatures studied the catalytic activity per surface platinum atom (turnover frequency) remained constant at lower silver content (between 0 at. % and 30 at. %) and decreased with further increased silver loading, suggesting that low- index planes could be dominant in the hydrogenolysis of n-butane. Moreover, increasing silver content resulted in an enhancement of the selectivity of isomerization products relative to hydrogenolysis products. At the higher temperature studied, no suppression in catalytic activity was observed. It is postulated that surface structure could change due to the mobility of surface silver atoms, leading to surface silver atoms forming islands or going to the bulk, and leaving large portions of basal planes exposed with active platinum atoms. It is also suggested that the presence of inert silver atoms results in weakening of the H-surface bond. This results in increased mobility of hydrogen atoms on the surface and hence, higher reactivity with other adsorbed species. For platinum copper catalysts, the mixed ensembles could play an active role in the hydrogenolysis of n-butane.

  10. Adsorption of iso-/n-butane on an Anatase Thin Film: A Molecular Beam Scattering and TDS Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goering, J.; Kadossov, E.; Burghaus, Uwe; Yu, Zhongqing; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2007-07-01

    Binding energies and adsorption probabilities have been determined for n/iso-butane adsorption on an anatase thin film grown on SrTiO3(001) by means of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and molecular beam scattering. The sample has been characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Auger electrons spectroscopy (AES).

  11. Safe Operating Procedure (Revised 7/09)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    ://ehs.unl.edu/) LPG includes propane, butane, and butylenes used for heating, cooking, and fuel. The purpose Food Service No more than two 10 ounce non-refillable butane cylinders in use per appliance

  12. Skeletal isomerization of n-butane on zeolites and sulfated zirconium oxide promoted by platinum: Effect of reaction pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuei-jung Chao; Hung-chung Wu; Li-jen Leu

    1995-12-01

    The isomerization of n-butane catalyzed by sulfated zirconium oxide and H-form zeolites with the promotion of platinum has been studied by measurements of the conversion and product distribution at temperatures of between 240 and 390{degrees}C at atmospheric pressure and at 20.4 atm. The skeletal isomerization proceeds mainly via the bimolecular disproportionation mechanism on Pt/H-zeolite at 1 atm and via the monomolecular carbocation mechanism on Pt/SO{sub 4}{sup 2}-ZrO{sub 2} at temperatures of 300{degrees}C at both 1 and 20.4 atm. At 20.4 atm pressure, the monomolecular cracking and isomerization of butane can also occur on Pt/H-zeolite. Hydrogen molecules may be dissociated and converted to hydride and proton ions on Pt/SO{sub 4}{sup -2}--ZrO{sub 2}, promoting the desorption of surface carbenium ions and the cracking of butane molecules, which have been enhanced under high reaction pressures. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. n-Alkanes on MgO(100). I: Coverage-Dependent Desorption Kinetics of n-Butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tait, Steven L.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Campbell, C T.; Kay, Bruce D.

    2005-04-22

    High quality temperature programmed desorption (TPD) measurements of n-butane from MgO(100) have been made for a large number of initial butane coverages (0-3.70 ML) and a wide range of heating ramp rates (0.3-10 K/s). We present a TPD analysis technique which allows the coverage-dependent desorption energy to be accurately determined by mathematical inversion of a TPD spectrum, assuming only that the prefactor is coverage-independent. A variational method is used to determine the prefactor that minimizes the difference between a set of simulated TPD spectra and corresponding experimental data. The best fit for butane desorption from MgO is obtained with a prefactor of 1015.7?1.6 s-1. The desorption energy is 34.9?3.4 kJ/mol at 0.5 ML coverage, and varies with coverage. Simulations based on these results can accurately reproduce TPD experiments for submonolayer initial coverages over a wide range of heating ramp rates (0.3-10 K/s). Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed.

  14. The kinetic significance of V{sup 5+} in n-butane oxidation catalyzed by vanadium phosphates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulston, G.W.; Harlow, R.; Herron, N.

    1997-01-10

    Maleic anhydride, a precursor to polyester resins, is made by oxidation of n-butane over vanadium phosphate catalysts. This system is of general interest because it is the only heterogeneously catalyzed, alkane-selective oxidation reaction in commercial use. Time-resolved in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that when either {alpha}{sub 1}-VOPO{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} or (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}/SiO{sub 2} catalysts are exposed to n-butane, the rate of maleic anhydride formation is proportional to the rate of decay of V{sup 5+} species in the catalyst. Thus V{sup 5+} species are kinetically significant for the production of maleic anhydride and not just for the production of by-products. The results also suggest that V{sup 5+} species in the catalyst. Thus V{sup 5+} species are kinetically significant for the production of maleic anhydride and not just for the production of by-products. The results also suggest that V{sup 5+} species may play a role in the initial hydrogen abstraction from n-butane, the rate-determining step in the reaction sequence. V{sup 4+} sites appear to be responsible for by-product formation.

  15. Kinetic study of the oxidation of n-butane on vanadium oxide supported on Al/Mg mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dejoz, A.; Vazquez, I.; Nieto, J.M.L.; Melo, F.

    1997-07-01

    The reaction kinetics of the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of n-butane over vanadia supported on a heat-treated Mg/Al hydrotalcite (37.3 wt % of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was investigated by both linear and nonlinear regression techniques. A reaction network including the formation of butenes (1-, 2-cis-, and 2-trans-butene), butadiene, and carbon oxides by parallel and consecutive reactions, at low and high n-butane conversions, has been proposed. Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) models can be used as suitable models which allows reproduction of the global kinetic behavior, although differences between oxydehydrogenation and deep oxidation reactions have been observed. Thus, the formation of oxydehydrogenation products can be described by a LH equation considering a dissociative adsorption of oxygen while the formation of carbon oxides is described by a LH equation with a nondissociative adsorption of oxygen. Two different mechanisms operate on the catalyst: (i) a redox mechanism responsible of the formation of olefins and diolefins and associated to vanadium species, which is initiated by a hydrogen abstraction; (ii) a radical mechanism responsible of the formation of carbon oxides from n-butane and butenes and associated to vanadium-free sites of the support. On the other hand, the selectivity to oxydehydrogenation products increases with the reaction temperature. This catalytic performance can be explained taking into account the low reducibility of V{sup 5+}-sites and the higher apparent activation energies of the oxydehydrogenation reactions with respect to deep oxidation reactions.

  16. Kinetic and inhibition studies for the aerobic cometabolism of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and 1,1-dichloroethane by a butane-grown mixed culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    ,1-dichloroethylene, and 1,1-dichloroethane by a butane-grown mixed culture Kim Y, Arp DJ, Semprini L BIOTECHNOLOGY,1- dichloroethane (1,1-DCA) by a butane-grown mixed culture. These chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs for butane (2.6 mumol/mg TSS/ h) followed by 1,1-DCE (1.3 mumol/mg TSS/h), 1,1-DCA (0.49 mumol/mg TSS

  17. A study of the kinetics and mechanism of the adsorption and anaerobic partial oxidation of n-butane over a vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakakini, B.H.; Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.; Waugh, K.C.

    2000-01-25

    The interaction of n-butane with a ((VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) catalyst has been investigated by temperature-programmed desorption and anaerobic temperature-programmed reaction. n-Butane has been shown to adsorb on the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} to as a butyl-hydroxyl pair. When adsorption is carried out at 223 K, upon temperature programming some of the butyl-hydroxyl species recombine resulting in butane desorption at 260 K. However, when adsorption is carried out at 423 K, the hydroxyl species of the butyl-hydroxyl pair migrate away from the butyl species during the adsorption, forming water which is detected in the gas phase. Butane therefore is not observed to desorb at 260 K after the authors lowered the temperature to 223 K under the butane/helium from the adsorption temperature of 423 K prior to temperature programming from that temperature to 1100 K under a helium stream. Anaerobic temperature-programmed oxidation of n-butane produces butene and butadiene at a peak maximum temperature of 1000 K; this is exactly the temperature at which, upon temperature programming, oxygen evolves from the lattice and desorbs as O{sub 2}. This, and the fact that the amount of oxygen desorbing from the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} at {approximately}1000 K is the same as that required for the oxidation of the n-butane to butene and butadiene, strongly suggests (1) that lattice oxygen as it emerges at the surface is the selective oxidant and (2) that its appearance at the surface is the rate-determining step in the selective oxidation of n-butane. The surface of the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} catalyst on which this selective oxidation takes place has had approximately two monolayers of oxygen removed from it by unselective oxidation of the n-butane to CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O between 550 and 950 K and has had approximately one monolayer of carbon deposited on it at {approximately}1000 K. It is apparent, therefore, that the original crystallography of the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} catalyst will not exist during this selective oxidation and that theories that relate selectivity in partial oxidation to the (100) face of the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} catalyst cannot apply in this case.

  18. Solubilities of butane, vapor pressures, and densities for benzene + cyclohexane, benzene + methanol, and methanol + cyclohexane solutions at 298 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyano, Yoshimori (Okayama Univ. of Science (Japan)); Hayduk, W. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1993-04-01

    In this paper the solubilities of butane at a pressure of 101.3 kPa and a temperature of 298.15 K are presented for three mixed solvent solutions: benzene + methanol, cyclohexane + methanol, and benzene + cyclohexane. The densities and vapor pressures are also reported for these solutions at the same conditions. Whereas the benzene + methanol and cyclohexane + methanol mixtures form azeotropic solutions, they are mutually soluble for all compositions of the two solvents. On the other hand, mixtures of cyclohexane and methanol are not mutually soluble but form two immiscible liquid phases for a significant portion of the composition range, but at a higher temperature also form an azeotropic solution.

  19. Selective aromatization of C[sub 3]- and C[sub 4]-paraffins over modified encilite catalysts: 2. Kinetics of n-butane aromatization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, A.K.; Rao, M.S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    The kinetics of the aromatization of n-butane over Zn-encilite catalyst was studied in a fixed bed reactor under steady-state conditions at atmospheric pressure and in the temperature range of 480--540 C. The experimental data were analyzed, and a dual-site mechanism was proposed. Six rate equations of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood type were tested. The unknown parameters in the rate equations were estimated by a nonlinear regression method. A kinetic equation for n-butane aromatization is proposed.

  20. Toward Understanding the Nature of Internal Rotation Barriers with a New Energy Partition Scheme: Ethane and n-Butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Shubin; Govind, Niri

    2008-07-24

    Based on an alternative energy partition scheme where density-based quantification of the steric effect was proposed [S.B. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 244103 (2007)], the origin of the internal rotation barrier between the eclipsed and staggered conformers of ethane and n-butane is systematically investigated in this work. The new definition is repulsive, exclusive, and extensive, and is intrinsically related to Bader’s atoms in molecules approach. Two kinds of differences, adiabatic (with optimal structure) and vertical (with fixed geometry), are considered in this work. We find that in the adiabatic case the eclipsed conformer possesses a larger steric repulsion than the staggered conformer for both molecules, but in the vertical cases the staggered conformer retains a larger steric repulsion. For ethane, a strong correlation between the total energy difference and the fermionic quantum energy difference is discovered. This linear relationship, however, does not hold for n-butane, whose behaviors in energy component differences are found to be more complicated. The impact of basis set and density functional choices on energy components from the new energy partition scheme has been investigated, as has its comparison with another definition of the steric effect in the literature in terms of the natural bond orbital analysis through the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Profiles of conceptual DFT reactivity indices as a function of dihedral angle changes have also been examined. Put together, these results suggest that the new energy partition scheme provides insights from a different perspective of internal rotation barriers.

  1. Solvent vapor recovery by pressure swing adsorption. 1: Experimental transient and periodic dynamics of the butane-activated carbon system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.; Holland, C.E.; Ritter, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out for the separation and recovery of butane vapor (10 to 40 vol%) from nitrogen using Westvaco BAX activated carbon in a twin-bed pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system utilizing a 4-step Skarstrom-type cycle. Twenty-four runs, covering a broad range of process and initial column conditions, were performed to investigate the transient and period process dynamics. In all cases the approach to the periodic state was very slow, taking up to 160 cycles depending on the initial condition of the beds; and peak bed temperatures of up to 105 C were observed depending on both the initial condition of the beds and the process conditions. Also, the periodic state of each run was unique when approaching a new periodic state from less contaminated beds. The uniqueness of the periodic states, together with the exceedingly high peak temperatures, inferred much about the practice of preconditioning beds to avoid high temperature excursions. The periodic enriched butane vapor concentration histories also gave considerable insight into new cycle designs for improved solvent vapor enrichment.

  2. Ethane and n-butane oxidation over supported vanadium oxide catalysts: An in situ UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopic investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, X.; Banares, M.A.; Wachs, I.E.

    1999-12-10

    The coordination/oxidation states of surface vanadium oxide species on several oxide supports (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}) during ethane and n-butane oxidation were examined by in situ UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Only a small amount of the surface V(V)cations are reduced to V(IV)/V(III) cations under present steady-state reaction conditions. The extents of reduction of the surface V(V) species are a strong function of the specific oxide support, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ZrO{sub 2} {gt} V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {gt} V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}, and also correlate with their reactivities (turnover frequencies) for ethane and n-butane oxidation reactions. For ZrO{sub 2}-supported samples, the polymerized surface vanadia species were found to be more easily reduced than the isolated surface vanadia species in reducing environments (i.e., ethane or n-butane in He), but no significant differences in the extents of reduction were observed under present steady-state reaction conditions (i.e., ethane/O{sub 2}/He or n-butane/O{sub 2}/He). This observation is also consistent with the ethane oxidation catalytic study, which revealed that the polymerization degree, the domain size, of the surface vanadia species does not appear to significantly affect the reactivity of the supported vanadia catalysts for ethane oxidation.

  3. Initial activity of reduced chromia/alumina catalyst in n-butane dehydrogenation monitored by on-line FT-IR gas analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakuli, A.; Kytoekivi, A.; Suntola, T.

    1996-06-01

    The initial activity of chromia/alumina catalyst (13 wt% Cr) in n-butane dehydrogenation was studied in a flow reactor at 853 K. The initial activity was determined by on-line FT-IR gas analysis, which enabled sampling of the gaseous product mixture at a time resolution of seconds. The catalysts were processed in repeated cycles of oxidation, reduction, and dehydrogenation using n-butane, methane, hydrogen, or carbon monoxide as reducing agents. With n-butane, methane, and hydrogen and dehydrogenation activity was associated with Cr{sup 3+} species apparently formed in the reduction of high-valence Cr species. The catalyst reduced with carbon monoxide at 853 K showed poor initial selectivity for butenes and, relative to the other catalysts. Simultaneous data relating the initial activity, coke content, and some of the physicochemical properties of the catalyst indicated that the surfaces of all catalysts were modified to some extent by the successive reaction cycles. 33 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Role of metal-support interactions on the activity of Pt and Rh catalysts for reforming methane and butane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossignol, C.; Krause, T.; Krumpelt, M.

    2002-01-11

    For residential fuel cell systems, reforming of natural gas is one option being considered for providing the H{sub 2} necessary for the fuel cell to operate. Industrially, natural gas is reformed using Ni-based catalysts supported on an alumina substrate, which has been modified to inhibit coke formation. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have developed a new family of catalysts derived from solid oxide fuel cell technology for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H{sub 2}. These catalysts consist of a transition metal supported on an oxide-ion-conducting substrate, such as ceria, that has been doped with a small amount of a non-reducible element, such as gadolinium, samarium, or zirconium. Unlike alumina, the oxide-ion-conducting substrate has been shown to induce strong metal-support interactions. Metal-support interactions are known to play an important role in influencing the catalytic activity of many metals supported on oxide supports. Based on results from temperature-programmed reduction/oxidation and kinetic reaction studies, this paper discusses the role of the metal and the substrate in the metal-support interactions, and how these interactions influence the activity and the selectivity of the catalyst in reforming methane and butane to hydrogen for use in fuel cell power systems.

  5. Autoignited laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane jets in coflow air with elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, B.C.; Chung, S.H.

    2010-12-15

    The autoignition characteristics of laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane fuels have been investigated experimentally in coflow air with elevated temperature over 800 K. The lifted flames were categorized into three regimes depending on the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction: (1) non-autoignited lifted flame, (2) autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial (or triple) edge, and (3) autoignited lifted flame with mild combustion. For the non-autoignited lifted flames at relatively low temperature, the existence of lifted flame depended on the Schmidt number of fuel, such that only the fuels with Sc > 1 exhibited stationary lifted flames. The balance mechanism between the propagation speed of tribrachial flame and local flow velocity stabilized the lifted flames. At relatively high initial temperatures, either autoignited lifted flames having tribrachial edge or autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion existed regardless of the Schmidt number of fuel. The adiabatic ignition delay time played a crucial role for the stabilization of autoignited flames. Especially, heat loss during the ignition process should be accounted for, such that the characteristic convection time, defined by the autoignition height divided by jet velocity was correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time for the critical autoignition conditions. The liftoff height was also correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. (author)

  6. Carbon nanotube-induced preparation of vanadium oxide nanorods: Application as a catalyst for the partial oxidation of n-butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xiaowei; Zhu Zhenping; Haevecker, Michael; Su Dangsheng . E-mail: dangsheng@fhi-berlin.mpg.de; Schloegl, Robert

    2007-02-15

    A vanadium oxide-carbon nanotube composite was prepared by solution-based hydrolysis of NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} in the presence of carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes induce the nucleation of the 1D vanadium oxide nanostructures, with the nuclei growing into long freestanding nanorods. The vanadium oxide nanorods with the lengths up to 20 {mu}m and the widths of 5-15 nm exhibit a well-ordered crystalline structure. Catalytic tests show that the composite with nanostructured vanadium oxide is active for the partial oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride at 300 deg. C.

  7. Prediction of the Three-Phase Coexistence Conditions of Pure Methane and Carbon Dioxide Hydrates Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costandy, Joseph GN

    2015-06-12

    different molecules can form hydrates when mixed with water at relatively low temperatures and high pressures, including methane, ethane, propane, iso-butane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen. The accurate prediction of thermodynamic properties...

  8. Host cells and methods for producing 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, and 3-methyl-butan-1-ol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chou, Howard H. (Berkeley, CA); Keasling, Jay D. (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-07-26

    The invention provides for a method for producing a 5-carbon alcohol in a genetically modified host cell. In one embodiment, the method comprises culturing a genetically modified host cell which expresses a first enzyme capable of catalyzing the dephosphorylation of an isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), such as a Bacillus subtilis phosphatase (YhfR), under a suitable condition so that 5-carbon alcohol is 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol and/or 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol is produced. Optionally, the host cell may further comprise a second enzyme capable of reducing a 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol to 3-methyl-butan-1-ol, such as a reductase.

  9. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Propane 687 27 714 1,615 208 453 2,276 Propylene 492 0 492 937 85 208 1,230 Normal ButaneButylene -645 -47 -692 -253 -438 -772 -1,463 Normal Butane -645 -47 -692 -254 -438...

  10. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    18,826 2,541 5,013 26,380 Propylene 6,005 0 6,005 10,165 831 2,101 13,097 Normal ButaneButylene -574 -38 -612 4,428 -1,347 -2,463 618 Normal Butane -547 -38 -585 4,467...

  11. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Propane 842 30 872 1,517 189 444 2,150 Propylene 478 0 478 840 62 121 1,023 Normal ButaneButylene -739 -19 -758 -277 -70 -209 -556 Normal Butane -733 -19 -752 -261 -70 -209...

  12. The V{sup 4}+/V{sup 5+} balance as a criterion of selection of vanadium phosphorus oxide catalysts for n-butane oxidation to maleic anhydride: A proposal to explain the role of Co and Fe dopants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sananes-Schulz, M.T.; Tuel, A.; Volta, J.C.; Hutchings, G.J.

    1997-03-01

    Vanadium phosphorous oxide catalysts (VPO) are well known for the oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride, and many papers and patents have been published in the literature on this catalytic system. Concerning the valence state of vanadium in the active surface, a V{sup 4+}/V{sup 5+} equilibrium on the surface of a vanadyl pyrophosphate during n-butane oxidation has been demonstrated which is dependent on the time of activation. In the present note, we study the modifications, as determined by {sup 31}P NMR by spin echo mapping, which are induced in the physicochemical characteristics of VPO catalysts which have major differences in their morphologies when doped with iron and cobalt at a low percentage (1%) and the correlation with their catalytic performances. 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts with low amounts of Rh for the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane for fuel-cell applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrandon, M.; Kropf, A. J.; Krause, T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2010-05-15

    Mono-metallic nickel and rhodium catalysts and bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeZrO{sub 2} and CeMgOx were prepared and evaluated for catalyzing the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane. The binary Ni-Rh supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with low weight loading of rhodium exhibited higher H{sub 2} yields than Ni or Rh alone. The Ni-Rh/CeZrO{sub 2} catalyst exhibited higher performance and no coke formation, compared to the same metals on other supports. A NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase was obtained on all Ni and Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The presence of rhodium stabilized the spinel phase as well as NiOx species upon reforming while Ni alone was mostly reduced into metallic species. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis showed evidence of Ni-Rh alloy during preparation and even further after an accelerated aging at 900C in a H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O atmosphere.

  14. Role of the reaction intermediates in determining PHIP (parahydrogen induced polarization) effect in the hydrogenation of acetylene dicarboxylic acid with the complex [Rh (dppb)]{sup +} (dppb: 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reineri, F.; Aime, S.; Gobetto, R.; Nervi, C.

    2014-03-07

    This study deals with the parahydrogenation of the symmetric substrate acetylene dicarboxylic acid catalyzed by a Rh(I) complex bearing the chelating diphosphine dppb (1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane). The two magnetically equivalent protons of the product yield a hyperpolarized emission signal in the {sup 1}H-NMR spectrum. Their polarization intensity varies upon changing the reaction solvent from methanol to acetone. A detailed analysis of the hydrogenation pathway is carried out by means of density functional theory calculations to assess the structure of hydrogenation intermediates and their stability in the two solvents. The observed polarization effects have been accounted on the basis of the obtained structures. Insights into the lifetime of a short-lived reaction intermediate are also obtained.

  15. Pt3Ru6 Clusters Supported on gamma-Al2O3: Synthesis from Pt3Ru6(Cu)21(u3-H)(u-H)3, Structural Characterization, and Catalysis of Ethylene Hydrogenation and n-Butane Hydrogenolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chotisuwan,S.; Wittayakun, J.; Gates, B.

    2006-01-01

    The supported clusters Pt-Ru/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared by adsorption of the bimetallic precursor Pt{sub 3}Ru{sub 6}(Cu){sub 21}({mu}{sub 3}-H)({mu}-H){sub 3} from CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solution onto {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by decarbonylation in He at 300 C. The resultant supported clusters were characterized by infrared (IR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies and as catalysts for ethylene hydrogenation and n-butane hydrogenolysis. After adsorption, the {nu}{sub CO} peaks characterizing the precursor shifted to lower wavenumbers, and some of the hydroxyl bands of the support disappeared or changed, indicating that the CO ligands of the precursor interacted with support hydroxyl groups. The EXAFS results show that the metal core of the precursor remained essentially unchanged upon adsorption, but there were distortions of the metal core indicated by changes in the metal-metal distances. After decarbonylation of the supported clusters, the EXAFS data indicated that Pt and Ru atoms interacted with support oxygen atoms and that about half of the Pt-Ru bonds were maintained, with the composition of the metal frame remaining almost unchanged. The decarbonylated supported bimetallic clusters reported here are the first having essentially the same metal core composition as that of a precursor metal carbonyl, and they appear to be the best-defined supported bimetallic clusters. The material was found to be an active catalyst for ethylene hydrogenation and n-butane hydrogenolysis under conditions mild enough to prevent substantial cluster disruption.

  16. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plus 32 - 0 0 - 8 22 2 0 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 36 68 2 0 - 23 36 15 32 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 PropanePropylene 14 58 1 0 - 11 0 14 47 Normal ButaneButylene...

  17. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plus 37 - 0 0 - 0 25 1 11 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 40 69 2 0 - 0 38 18 55 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 PropanePropylene 13 56 2 0 - 0 0 15 56 Normal ButaneButylene...

  18. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plus 38 - 0 0 - 1 26 1 11 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 40 77 3 0 - 9 34 19 58 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 PropanePropylene 13 56 2 0 - 3 0 15 53 Normal ButaneButylene...

  19. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Pentanes Plus 3 - 0 0 - 0 0 0 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 14 13 56 88 - -8 5 1 174 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 1 PropanePropylene 9 45 50 88 - 1 0 0 191 Normal ButaneButylene...

  20. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Pentanes Plus 37 - 0 0 - 0 28 1 8 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 40 68 2 0 - 0 39 18 53 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 PropanePropylene 13 56 2 0 - 0 0 15 56 Normal ButaneButylene...

  1. table02.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 16,528 16,343 4,241 - -9,623 - 0 904 45,831 34,422 Normal ButaneButylene ... 4,818 -2,023 880 - -5,547 - 7,256 753 1,213 12,826...

  2. table08.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 11,268 9,321 136 - -4,893 -3,707 - 0 637 18,902 15,091 Normal ButaneButylene ... 2,346 107 176 - -356 -2,748 - 3,088 248 1,685 7,266...

  3. Transport of Injected Isobutane by Thermal Groundwater in Long...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    uses of isotopes have led to novel interpretations of the evolution of fluid and rock chemistry over time. New modelling techniques have allowed elucidation of multi-component...

  4. Transport of Injected Isobutane by Thermal Groundwater in Long Valley

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin Film SolarTown of

  5. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 1,485 19,829 1,625 2,903 24,357 Ethane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Propane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Normal Butane 229 0 229 8,676 829 625 10,130 Isobutane 1,256 0 1,256 11,153 796 2,278 14,227 Other...

  6. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1,285 200,458 117,409 24,041 20,032 161,482 Pentanes Plus 0 0 0 0 17 102 119 Normal Butane 199 0 199 32 115 1,146 1,293 Isobutane 9 0 9 0 0 0 0 Oxygenates 16,391 1,285 17,676...

  7. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6,559 Ethane 13 5 18 682 0 1,802 2,484 Propane 15 288 303 574 204 1,939 2,717 Normal Butane 11 99 110 151 114 499 764 Isobutane 0 45 45 106 0 488 594 Natural Gas Liquids 12 60 72...

  8. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gases 157 0 157 2,987 173 476 3,636 Ethane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Propane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Normal Butane 78 0 78 2,096 132 282 2,510 Isobutane 79 0 79 891 41 194 1,126 Other Liquids 196 -44...

  9. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Input 16,465 108 16,573 10,405 2,208 1,923 14,536 Pentanes Plus 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 Normal Butane 32 0 32 8 2 59 69 Isobutane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Oxygenates 1,521 108 1,629 2,369 724 497...

  10. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gases 189 0 189 2,995 175 535 3,705 Ethane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Propane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Normal Butane 110 0 110 2,104 134 341 2,579 Isobutane 79 0 79 891 41 194 1,126 Other Liquids 16,629...

  11. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Input 17,809 97 17,906 9,452 1,740 1,790 12,982 Pentanes Plus 0 0 0 0 7 15 22 Normal Butane 27 0 27 1 43 310 354 Isobutane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Oxygenates 1,580 97 1,677 2,133 528 393...

  12. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gases 157 0 157 1,479 172 557 2,208 Ethane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Propane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Normal Butane 80 0 80 423 103 371 897 Isobutane 77 0 77 1,056 69 186 1,311 Other Liquids 17,327 44...

  13. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gases 130 0 130 1,478 129 247 1,854 Ethane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Propane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Normal Butane 53 0 53 422 60 61 543 Isobutane 77 0 77 1,056 69 186 1,311 Other Liquids -455 -53 -508...

  14. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7,801 Ethane 0 5 5 1,040 0 2,303 3,343 Propane 0 278 278 740 171 2,146 3,057 Normal Butane 0 95 95 148 111 515 774 Isobutane 0 40 40 106 0 521 627 Natural Gas Liquids 7 52 59...

  15. Roaming radical pathways for the decomposition of alkanes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harding, L. B.; Klippenstein, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    CASPT2 calculations predict the existence of roaming radical pathways for the decomposition of propane, n-butane, isobutane and neopentane. The roaming radical paths lead to the formation of an alkane and an alkene instead of the expected radical products. The predicted barriers for the roaming radical paths lie {approx}1 kcal/mol below the corresponding radical asymptotes.

  16. 1 | P a g e A u g u s t 1 6 , 2 0 1 0 Joint Analysis Group (JAG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the "Tentatively Identified Compounds" (TICs) were also included in the summation. These substances included propane, butane, pentane, isobutane, etc. The identity of the TICs was obtained from the mass spectral estimated concentrations were based on surrogate response factors. However, the decision to add the TICs

  17. Rhenium Complexes and Clusters Supported on c-Al2O3: Effects of Rhenium Oxidation State and Rhenium Cluster Size on Catalytic Activity for n-butane Hydrogenolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobo Lapidus, R.; Gates, B

    2009-01-01

    Supported metals prepared from H{sub 3}Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 12} on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were treated under conditions that led to various rhenium structures on the support and were tested as catalysts for n-butane conversion in the presence of H{sub 2} in a flow reactor at 533 K and 1 atm. After use, two samples were characterized by X-ray absorption edge positions of approximately 5.6 eV (relative to rhenium metal), indicating that the rhenium was cationic and essentially in the same average oxidation state in each. But the Re-Re coordination numbers found by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (2.2 and 5.1) show that the clusters in the two samples were significantly different in average nuclearity despite their indistinguishable rhenium oxidation states. Spectra of a third sample after catalysis indicate approximately Re{sub 3} clusters, on average, and an edge position of 4.5 eV. Thus, two samples contained clusters approximated as Re{sub 3} (on the basis of the Re-Re coordination number), on average, with different average rhenium oxidation states. The data allow resolution of the effects of rhenium oxidation state and cluster size, both of which affect the catalytic activity; larger clusters and a greater degree of reduction lead to increased activity.

  18. Separation of vapour and gas mixtures using a thin zeolite MFI membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vroon, Z.A.E.P.; Gilde, M.J.; Kiezer, K.

    1994-12-31

    Zeolite MFI composite membranes were prepared by in situ crystallisation. A very thin (L < 5 {mu}m) polycrystalline MFI layer was grown on a flat {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} support (pore radii 80 nm). XRD and SEM showed that the layer was built of small MFI particles ({+-}200 nm). The single gas flux of methane, n-butane and iso-butane are respectively 9.7, 2.7 and 0.032 10{sup -3} mol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1} at 25{degrees}C and 100 kPa. The separation of n-butane/methane is reversible. At 25{degrees}C it is possible to separate n-butane from methane. At 200{degrees}C it is possible to separate methane from n-butane. The separation factor for 50 n-butane/50 iso-butane is 26 at 50{degrees}C. Experiments with large molecules showed that the zeolite MFI membrane contains no pores larger than inherent to the zeolite.

  19. (2R)-4-Oxo-4[3-(Trifluoromethyl)-5,6-diihydro:1,2,4}triazolo[4,3-a}pyrazin-7(8H)-y1]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine: A Potent, Orally Active Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitor for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.; Wang, L.; Beconi, M.; Eiermann, G.; Fisher, M.; He, H.; Hickey, G.; Kowalchick, Jennifer; Leiting, Barbara; Lyons, K.; Marsilio, F.; McCann, F.; Patel, R.; Petrov, A.; Scapin, G.; Patel, S.; Roy, R.; Wu, J.; Wyvratt, M.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, L.; Thornberry, N.; Weber, A.

    2010-11-10

    A novel series of {beta}-amino amides incorporating fused heterocycles, i.e., triazolopiperazines, were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (2R)-4-Oxo-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine (1) is a potent, orally active DPP-IV inhibitor (IC{sub 50} = 18 nM) with excellent selectivity over other proline-selective peptidases, oral bioavailability in preclinical species, and in vivo efficacy in animal models. MK-0431, the phosphate salt of compound 1, was selected for development as a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes.

  20. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H. (Evanston, IL); Huang, Yin-Yan (Evanston, IL)

    1998-01-01

    Methods for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physisorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics.

  1. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Huang, Y.Y.

    1998-07-28

    Methods are disclosed for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physical sorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics. 17 figs.

  2. Low Energy Distillation Schemes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.

    2002-01-01

    .6 62.7 C/O 80.9 die 17.5 62.7 C/OE AlDC 57.5 5.3 5.3 Table 5. Cumulative Heat Load Table Component Mole Fraction Molal Flow kmol/hr A: Propane 0.05 45.36 B: iso-Butane 0.15 136.08 C: Butane 0.25 226.80 D: iso-Pentane 0.20 181.46 E: Pentane 0...

  3. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 1,693 19,861 1,740 4,049 25,650 Ethane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Propane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Normal Butane 428 0 428 8,708 944 1,771 11,423 Isobutane 1,265 0 1,265 11,153 796 2,278 14,227 Other...

  4. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    66 148 13,465 0 28,916 42,381 Propane 136 3,223 3,359 8,343 2,251 25,880 36,474 Normal Butane 89 986 1,075 2,107 1,322 7,597 11,026 Isobutane 0 620 620 1,588 0 5,317 6,905 Natural...

  5. Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. Final report, August 26, 1993--August 26, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, B.C.

    1996-12-31

    Motivated by the goal of finding improved catalysts for low- temperature conversion of light alkanes into fuel components or precursors of fuel components, the researchers have investigated sulfated zirconia and promoted sulfated zirconia for conversion of butane, propane, and ethane. Catalyst performance data for sulfated zirconia promoted with iron and manganese show that it is the most active noncorrosive, nonhalide catalyst known for n-butane isomerization, and it is an excellent candidate catalyst for new low- temperature n-butane isomerization processes to make isobutane, which can be converted by established technology into methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). Various transition metals have been found to work as promoters of sulfated zirconia for n-butane isomerization. The combination of iron and manganese is the best known combination of promoters yet discovered. The iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia is also a catalyst for conversion of propane and of ethane. Ethane is converted into ethylene and butanes in the presence of the iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia; propane is also converted into butane, among other products. However, the activities of the catalyst for these reactions are orders of magnitude less than the activity for n-butane conversion, and there is no evidence that the catalyst would be of practical value for conversion of alkanes lighter than butane. The product distribution data for ethane and propane conversion provide new insights into the nature of the catalyst and its acidity. These data suggest the involvement of Olah superacid chemistry, whereby the catalyst protonates the alkane itself, giving carbonium ions (as transition states). The mechanism of protonation of the alkane may also pertain to the conversion of butane, but there is good evidence that the butane conversion also proceeds via alkene intermediates by conventional mechanisms of carbenium ion formation and rearrangement.

  6. Diffusion of isobutane in silicalite studied by transition path sampling Thijs J. H. Vlugta)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dellago, Christoph

    WV Amsterdam, The Netherlands Received 9 May 2000; accepted 23 August 2000 The diffusion process is important in the design of petrochemical applications.1 As both adsorption and dif- fusion experiments can- ventional molecular dynamics MD techniques cannot be used to study this process. A naive way of computing

  7. Fueling Requirements for Steady State high butane current fraction discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.Raman

    2003-10-08

    The CT injector originally used for injecting CTs into 1T toroidal field discharges in the TdeV tokamak was shipped PPPL from the Affiliated Customs Brokers storage facility in Montreal during November 2002. All components were transported safely, without damage, and are currently in storage at PPPL, waiting for further funding in order to begin advanced fueling experiments on NSTX. The components are currently insured through the University of Washington. Several technical presentations were made to investigate the feasibility of the CT injector installation on NSTX. These technical presentations, attached to this document, were: (1) Motivation for Compact Toroida Injection in NSTX; (2) Assessment of the Engineering Feasibility of Installing CTF-II on NSTX; (3) Assessment of the Cost for CT Installation on NSTX--A Peer Review; and (4) CT Fueling for NSTX FY 04-08 steady-state operation needs.

  8. LIQUID BUTANE FILLED LOAD FOR A LINER DRIVEN PEGASUS EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. SALAZAR; W. ANDERSON; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    A hydrogen rich, low density liquid, contained within the internal volume of a cylindrical liner, was requested of the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division for one of the last liner driven experiments conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus facility. The experiment was a continuation of the Raleigh-Taylor hydrodynamics series of experiments and associated liners that have been described previously [1,2].

  9. Liquid butane filled load for a liner driven Pegasus experiment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar, M. A.; Armijo, E. V.; Anderson, W. E.; Atchison, W. L.; Bartos, J. J.; Garcia, F.; Randolph, B.; Sheppard, M. G.; Stokes, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    A hydrogen rich, low density liquid, contained within the internal volume of a cylindrical liner, was requested of the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division for one of the last liner driven experiments conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus facility. The experiment (Fig.1) was a continuation of the Raleigh-Taylor hydrodynamics series of experiments and associated liners that have been described previously.

  10. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-08-18

    Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Performance of a new LMRPC prototype for the STAR MTD system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruan, L.J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Ding, W. C.; Qiu, X. Z.; Wang, J. B.; Zhu, X. L.; Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, Y. J.; Ruan, L.; Xu, Z.; Asselta, K.; Christie, W.; D'Agostino, C.; Dunlop, J.; Landgraf, J.; Ljubicic, T.; Scheblein, J.; Soja, R.; Tang, A. H.; Ullrich, T.; Crawford, H. J.; Engelage, J.; Sanchez, M. Calderon de la Barca; Reed, R.; Liu, H. D.; Butterworth, J.; Eppley, G.; Geurts, F.; Llope, W. J.; McDonald, D.; Nussbaum, T.; Roberts, J.; Xin, K.; Bridges, L.; Li, J. C.; Qian, S.; Ning, Z.; Chen, H. F.; Huang, B. C.; Li, C.; Shao, M.; Sun, Y. J.; Tang, Z. B.; Wang, X. L.; Xu, Y. C.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zeng, H.; Zhou, Y.; Clarke, R.; Mioduszewski, S.; Davila, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Li, L.; Markert, C.; Ray, L.; Schambach, J.; Thein, D.; Wada, M.; Ahammed, Z.; Bhaduri, P. P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dutt-Mazumdar, M. R.; Ghosh, P.; Khan, S. A.; Muhuri, S.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, T. K.; Pal, S.; Singaraju, R.; Singhal, V.; Tribedy, P.; Viyogi, Y. P.

    2011-03-21

    A new prototype of a Long-Strip Multi-Gap Resistive Plate Chamber (LMRPC) for the STAR Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) at RHIC has been developed. This prototype has an active area of 52 x 90 cm{sup 2} and consists of six 250 {mu}m wide gaps. Each detector has 12 strips, read-out at both ends, which are each 3.8 cm wide and 90 cm long with 0.6 cm intervals. In cosmic-ray tests, the efficiency was larger than 95% and the time resolution was {approx}75 ps for the 94% Freon, 5% iso-butane, and 1% SF{sub 6} gas mixture. There was good uniformity in the performance across the different strips. The module was also tested in a proton beam at IHEP in Beijing. The efficiency was close to 100% and the best timing resolution achieved was 55 ps for the 90% Freon, 5% iso-butane, and 5% SF6 gas mixture. Trigger scans along and across the strip direction were also performed.

  12. Reactivity Screening of Anatase TiO2 Nanotube Arrays and Anatase Thin Films: A Surface Chemistry Point of View

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funk, S.; Hokkanen, B.; Nurkic, T.; Goering, J.; Kadossov, E.; Burghaus, Uwe; Ghicov, A.; Schmuki, P.; Yu, Zhongqing; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2008-09-19

    As a reactivity screening we collected thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) data of iso-butane, O2, CO2, and CO adsorbed on ordered TiO2 nanotube (TiNTs) arrays. As a reference system iso-butane adsorption on an anatase TiO2 thin film has been considered as well. The as-grown TiNTs are vertically aligned and amorphous. Polycrystalline (poly.) anatase or poly. anatase/rutile mixed nanotubes are formed by annealing confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The anatase thin film was grown on SrTiO3(001) and characterized by XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Surprisingly, oxygen distinctly interacts with the TiNTs whereas this process is not observed on fully oxidized single crystal rutile TiO2(110). Desorption temperatures of 110-150 K and 100-120 K were observed for CO2 and CO, respectively, on the TiNTs. Variations in the binding energies of the alkanes on TiNTs and anatase thin films also were present, i.e., a structure-activity relationship (SAR) is evident.

  13. CarbonCarbon Bond Cleavage and Dehydrogenation of Isobutane Over HZSM-5 at Low Pressures and Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Acidic zeolite substrates, such as HZSM-5 are vital cata- lysts in the petrochemical industry, due-temperature activation for C­C bond cleavage to propene and methane, and dehydrogenation to isobutene and hydrogen

  14. Probing the activation of histone deacetylase 3 using computer simulations /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arrar, Mehrnoosh

    2014-01-01

    of butane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conformationalsimulations of two systems: butane and cyclohexane, both insolvent. For the case of butane, conventional MD, and thus

  15. E. In Situ Polymerization of Cyclic Butylene Terephthalate(CBT) Oligomers with Conductive fillers for Thermal Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmon, Julie P.

    copolymers with Thermal conductivity Composites This research is funded by Honeywell Corporation. For the generous assistance in measuring thermal conductivities of our composites. The original purpose% diamond composites, tested by Cool Polymer, Inc. in #12;Warwick. Cool Polymers measured a value of 4.21 W

  16. Production of biodiesel using expanded gas solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginosar, Daniel M; Fox, Robert V; Petkovic, Lucia M

    2009-04-07

    A method of producing an alkyl ester. The method comprises providing an alcohol and a triglyceride or fatty acid. An expanding gas is dissolved into the alcohol to form a gas expanded solvent. The alcohol is reacted with the triglyceride or fatty acid in a single phase to produce the alkyl ester. The expanding gas may be a nonpolar expanding gas, such as carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, pentene, isomers thereof, and mixtures thereof, which is dissolved into the alcohol. The gas expanded solvent may be maintained at a temperature below, at, or above a critical temperature of the expanding gas and at a pressure below, at, or above a critical pressure of the expanding gas.

  17. Fabrication and Characterisation of Oil-Free Large Bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajesh Ganai; Arindam Roy; Kshitij Agarwal; Zubayer Ahammed; Subikash Choudhury; Subhasis Chattopadhyay

    2015-10-08

    A large (240 cm $\\times$ 120 cm $\\times$ 0.2 cm) oil-free bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) has been developed at VECC-Kolkata using locally available P-301 OLTC grade bakelite paper laminates. The chamber has been operated in streamer mode using Argon, Freon(R134a) and Iso-butane in a ratio of 34:57:9 by volume. The electrodes and glue samples have been characterised by measuring their electrical parameters like bulk resistivity and surface resistivity. The performance of the chamber has been studied by measuring the efficiency, time resolution and uniformity in detection of cosmic muons. The chamber showed an efficiency $>$95$\\%$ and time resolution ($\\sigma$) of $\\sim$0.83 ns at 9000V. Details of the material characterisation, fabrication procedure and performance studies have been discussed.

  18. Fabrication and Characterisation of Oil-Free Large Bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganai, Rajesh; Agarwal, Kshitij; Ahammed, Zubayer; Choudhury, Subikash; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    A large (240 cm $\\times$ 120 cm $\\times$ 0.2 cm) oil-free bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) has been developed at VECC-Kolkata using locally available P-301 OLTC grade bakelite paper laminates. The chamber has been operated in streamer mode using Argon, Freon(R134a) and Iso-butane in a ratio of 34:57:9 by volume. The electrodes and glue samples were characterised by measuring their electrical parameters like bulk resistivity and surface resistivity. The performance of the chamber was studied by measuring the efficiency, time resolution and uniformity in detection of cosmic muons. The chamber showed an efficiency $>$95$\\%$ and time resolution ($\\sigma$) of $\\sim$0.83 ns. Details of the material characterisation, fabrication procedure and performance studies have been discussed.

  19. Characterization of the micropore structure of activated carbons by adsorptions of nitrogen and some hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guezel, F. [Dicle Univ., Diyarbakir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry] [Dicle Univ., Diyarbakir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-02-01

    In the present study the effects of the duration of carbonization and physical activation properties of activated carbon from vegetable materials were investigated. Peanut shells were used to obtain active carbon. These shells were activated chemically with ZnCl{sub 2} and/or CO{sub 2} for different times, and the micropore structures of these active carbons were studied by measuring the adsorption isotherms for nitrogen and some hydrocarbons such as benzene, n-butane, isobutane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, and isooctane. As the physical activation time was increased, the primary micropores, which were measured at 0.01 relative pressure, were reduced, and they were replaced by larger secondary and tertiary micropores which were measured at 0.15--0.01 and 0.30--0.15 relative pressures. The ratios of the mesopore volume to the micropore volume also increased as the duration of physical activation increased.

  20. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of 0-A12O3- Supported Vanadium Oxide Catalysts for Butane Dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Zili; Kim, Hack-Sung; Stair, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction; Structure of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Supported Vanadia Catalysts; Quantification of Surface VOx Species on Supported Vanadia Catalysts; Conclusion; Acknowledgements; and References.

  1. ==================== !"#$%&'()*+,-+./,0)12 Development of Micro Ejector for Butane Catalytic Combustor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    . 3 Effect of total pressure on the primary flow rate. (c)(b)(a) 42 µm 60 µm Rough Heat Exchanger pressure of ejector is set as 11.6 Pa. Yong FAN, Yuji SUZUKI and Nobuhide KASAGI Department of Mechanical Combustor, Convergent-divergent Nozzle, Ejector, Back pressure. Fig. 1 Configuration of micro heat

  2. Study of optimal sequences and energy requirements of integrated processing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Enezi, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The increased demand for high quality unleaded gasoline produced from a refinery has caused an increased in developing processing alternatives for producing high-octane gasoline components. The production of methyl tertiary butyl ether is currently considered one of the most practical alternatives. The production of methyl tertiary butyl ether is based mainly on the availability of light hydrocarbons as a feed, such as isobutane from a refinery. The availability of isobutane is increased by isomerization of normal butanes. Even though distillation processes are widely used to separate mixtures of light hydrocarbons, they are highly energy intensive. A steady-state design of several configurations of distillation columns were studied for separating light hydrocarbon mixtures. A number of energy conservation alternatives were evaluated for the distillation process integrated with an isomerization unit. A modified form of the Complex Method of Box was used for optimizing the design and operating conditions of these energy conservation alternatives. The use of vapor recompression with distillation columns was evaluated as one of the alternatives. Despite the more complex processing scheme required, this alternative used only about 30% of the external energy required in a conventional distillation process for the same separation. The operating conditions of the multi-effect distillation columns were optimized as another alternative. Reduction in energy consumption for this case was about 40% compared to conventional distillation columns.

  3. Source characteristics of volatile organic compounds during high ozone episodes in Hong Kong, Southern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.; Wang, T.; Chameides, W. L; Cardelino, C.; Blake, D. R; Streets, D. G

    2008-01-01

    TO EPD sites Methane Ethane Propane n-butane i-butane n-to Source Category Species Ethane Propane n-butane i-butane9. Ratios of n-butane-to-ethane vs. propane-to-ethane from

  4. Mechanistic details of acid-catalyzed reactions and their role in the selective synthesis of triptane and isobutane from dimethyl ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    and dimethyl ether (DME) to hydro- carbons provides a potential route to transportation fuels from C1 Transportation fuels a b s t r a c t We report here kinetic and isotopic evidence for the elementary steps involved in dimethyl ether (DME) homologation and for their role in the preferential synthesis of 2

  5. Dynamics of H abstraction from alcohols (CH3OH, C2H5OH and 2-C3H7OH) using velocity map imaging in crossed molecular beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, M.

    2011-01-01

    investigation of the reactions with propane, isobutane,selectively deuterated propane and also methane. State-ratios were very similar for propane and isobutane. Andresen

  6. Polymer International Polym Int 55:292298 (2006) DOI: 10.1002/pi.1951

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Siqun

    2006-01-01

    Polymer International Polym Int 55:292­298 (2006) DOI: 10.1002/pi.1951 Crystallization behaviour of cellulose acetate butylate/poly(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene carbonate) blends Seung-Hwan Lee and Siqun(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene carbonate) (PBS-co-BC) and its blends with cellulose acetate butylate (CAB) (10

  7. Studies on the catalytic activity of zirconia promoted with sulfate, iron, and manganese

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, K.T.; Khouw, C.B.; Davis, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    The catalytic properties of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia (SFMZ) for the isomerization of n-butane to isobutane are investigated using various catalyst pretreatments and reaction conditions. The n-butane isomerization reactivity at 30{degrees}C is effected by calcination of the catalyst at 650{degrees}C in helium and vacuum treatment at room temperature indicating that superacidity is not likely to be responsible for activity. In addition, SFMZ samples exposed to dry air at over 450{degrees}C are more active than those calcined in helium at a reaction temperature of 30{degrees}C (n-butane conversions of 18.7% vs 0.4%) suggesting the presence of an active site involving a metal {open_quotes}oxy{close_quotes} species. The oxy species is capable of reacting CO to CO{sub 2} at room temperature and is present at a number density of 10-15 {mu}mol/g. At a reaction temperature of 100{degrees}C, SFMZ catalysts calcined in air then activated in helium show similar reactivities to those activated in air up to a preheating temperature of 450{degrees}C; above 450{degrees}C the metal oxy species is formed and provides additional activity (n-butane conversions of 37.1% in air vs 15.4% in He for calcinations at 650{degrees}C). The nature of the active sites on SFMZ are investigated using temperature-programmed desorption of substituted benzenes. The liberation of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in the benzene TPD profile of SFMZ is attributed to the oxidation of benzene at the redox-active metal sites, resulting in the subsequent decomposition of the reduced iron (II) sulfate. Data from the TPD studies do not suggest the presence of superacidity on SFMZ that could contribute to the low-temperature n-butane isomerization activity. Instead, a bifunctional mechanism that involves a combination of a redox-active metal site and an acid site in close proximity is proposed. 62 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. The use of acetylene and 1,3-butadiene as tracers for vehicular combustion in urban air and the estimation of the contributions of vehicular emissions to benzene, and alkane concentrations in the Edmonton industrial area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, R. [Environment Canada, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Prairie and Northern Region; Wong, R. [Alberta Environmental Protection, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Dann, T.; Wang, D. [Environment Canada, Gloucester, Ontario (Canada). Environmental Protection Service

    1998-12-31

    Acetylene, propylene and 1,3-butadiene concentrations at two downtown urban sites in Alberta, Canada were used to characterize an area dominated by vehicular emissions. The relationship of acetylene with 1,3-butadiene at the Edmonton industrial site was similar to that observed for the two downtown sites. This suggesting that these volatile organic compounds, VOCs, can be used as tracers for vehicular emissions for the Edmonton industrial area. The tracer VOCs were found to correlate with benzene, n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, iso-pentane, n-heptane and n-octane concentrations for the two Alberta downtown sites. The best fit lines from the downtown sites were used to predict daily concentrations of benzene and alkanes at the Edmonton industrial site. During the winter, when benzene levels are predicted to reach a maximum of 4.5 to 6.5 m g/m{sup 3}, it is estimated that industrial sources contribute < 1 m g/m{sup 3} to ambient levels at the Edmonton industrial site. During the summer, when predicted benzene levels are at a minimum of 1 to 2 m g/m{sup 3}, industrial area sources dominate the ambient benzene levels at the Edmonton industrial site, and can contribute up to 6 m g/m{sup 3}. For alkanes, such as butane and pentane, industrial area sources or evaporative storage tank emissions dominate throughout the year. This dominance of industrial sources is also observed for n-heptane and n-octane during summer months. During the winter when predicted n-heptane and n-octane concentrations reach a maximum, 11 to 100% of ambient daily levels can be attributed to vehicular emissions.

  9. Clearing the Air? The Effects of Gasoline Content Regulation on Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Kellogg, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    components—particularly butane—in the gasoline they sell (times more reactive than butane, the compound that refinersprimarily by removing the VOC butane from their gasoline, as

  10. The role of Entamoeba histolytica Cysteine Proteinase 1 (EhCP1) in the pathogenesis of amebiasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melendez-Lopez, Samuel G.

    2007-01-01

    leucylamido (4-guanidino) butane (E- 64) and its analoguesleucylamido-(4- guanidino) butane ECM Extracellular Matrixleucylamido-(4-guanidino) butane (E-64) and not by the

  11. Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D. D; Blake, D. R; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    ethane, ethene, propane, propene, acetylene, i- butane,n-butane, 1-butene, trans-2-butene, cis-2-butene, i-pentane,some alkanes (e.g. propane, i-butane, n-butane) (Blake and

  12. Reactions at surfaces in the atmosphere: Integration of experiments and theory as necessary (but not necessarily sufficient) for predicting the physical chemistry of aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finlayson-Pitts, B J

    2009-01-01

    of the individual alkanes in a gaseous mixture of n-butane,i-butane and propane exposed to either pure NaNO 3 particlesthe measured ratio of i-butane to n-butane as a function of

  13. Vehicular emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a tunnel study in Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    ethene toluene n-butane propane i-pentane i-butane propeneethene, toluene, n-butane, propane and i-pentane. These fiveVOCs emitted. The high propane and n-butane emissions were

  14. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 101, NO. D22, PAGES 29,061-29,074, DECEMBER 20, 1996 Measurement of O3 and related compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    determinedusingphotochemicalageestimatesderived from the ratios,In (n-butane/propane)andIn (/-butane/propane).Age estimatesare used

  15. Regional Analysis of Nonmethane Volatile Organic Compounds in the Lower Troposphere of the Southeast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aneja, Viney P.

    , acetylene, propane, i-butane, and n-butane with a winter maximum and a summer minimum. An analysis

  16. Interaction of Dimethylmethylphosphonate with Zeolite Y: Impedance-Based Sensor for Detecting Nerve Agent Simulants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    increased impedance upon exposure to butane, and was proposed to arise from blocking effects of the butane

  17. Measurements of OH and HO2 concentrations during the MCMA-2006 field campaign - Part 2: Model comparison and radical budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    acetonitrile, ethylacetate Measured Propane, i-butane,n-butane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, ethyne Canister speciation vs.

  18. "Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamada, Yusuke

    2012-01-01

    Part VI. Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane andiso-Butane over Supported Platinum Catalysts. J. Catal. 176,

  19. Marine microbes rapidly adapt to consume ethane, propane, and butane within the dissolved hydrocarbon plume of a natural seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the spatial and temporal variability of bulk hydrocarbon respiration following the Deepwater Horizon oilthe Coal Oil Point seep. Samples for the method assessment

  20. Marine microbes rapidly adapt to consume ethane, propane, and butane within the dissolved hydrocarbon plume of a natural seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    the Coal Oil Point seeps, offshore California. Spatial andthe red star) is located offshore Goleta, California. Arrows

  1. Marine microbes rapidly adapt to consume ethane, propane, and butane within the dissolved hydrocarbon plume of a natural seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Valentine (2015), Marine microbes rapidly adapt to consumeassess the timing by which microbes metabolize these gases,valentine@geol.ucsb.edu Marine microbes rapidly adapt to

  2. J. Am. Chem. SOC.1988, 110, 8305-8319 8305 Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane, and Neopentane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    J. Am. Chem. SOC.1988, 110, 8305-8319 8305 Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n, Pasadena, California 91125. Received February I, 1988 Abstract: The hydrogenolysisof ethane, propane, n for ethane, propane, and neopentane involvesthe cleavage of a single carbon-carbon bond, resulting

  3. Dielectric Elastomers for Actuation and Energy Harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brochu, Paul

    2012-01-01

    polymer based on sulfonated poly (styrene-ethylene-co-butylene-b-styrene). Materials Letters, [34] S. Nemat-based on a sulfonated poly(styrene-b-ethylene-co-butylene-b-

  4. Formation and polymerization of cyclic disilsesquioxanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, D.A.; Carpenter, J.P.; Myers, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Under acidic sol-gel polymerization conditions, 1,3-bis(triethoxysilyl)-propane 1 and 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)butane 2 were shown to preferentially form cyclic disilsesquioxanes 3 and 4 rather than the expected 1,3-propylene- and 1,4-butylene-bridged polysilsesquioxane gels. Formation of 3 and 4 is driven by a combination of an intramolecular cyclization to six and seven membered rings, and a pronounced reduction in reactivity under acidic conditions as a function of increasing degree of condensation. The stability of cyclic disilsesquioxanes was confirmed with the synthesis of 3 and 4 in gram quantities; the cyclic disilsesquioxanes react slowly to give tricyclic dimers containing a thermodynamically stable eight membered siloxane ring. Continued reactions were shown to perserve the cyclic structure, opening up the possibility of utilizing cyclic disilsesquioxanes as sol-gel monomers. Preliminary polymerization studies with these new, carbohydrate-like monomers revealed the formation of network poly(cyclic disilsesquioxanes) under acidic conditions and polymerization with ring-opening under basic conditions.

  5. Intramolecular condensation reactions of {alpha}, {omega}- bis(triethoxy-silyl)alkanes. Formation of cyclic disilsesquioxanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, D.A.; Carpenter, J.P.; Myers, S.A.; Assink, R.A.; Small, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Greaves, J.; Shea, K.J. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-08-01

    Under acidic sol-gel polymerization conditions, 1,3-bis(triethoxysilyl)-propane (1) and 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)butane (2) were shown to preferentially form cyclic disilsesquioxanes 3 and 4 rather than the expected 1,3-propylene- and 1,4-butylene-bridged polysilsesquioxane gels. Formation of 3 and 4 is driven by a combination of an intramolecular cyclization to six and seven membered rings, and a pronounced reduction in reactivity under acidic conditions as a function of increasing degree of condensation. The ease with which these relatively unreactive cyclic monomers and dimers are formed (under acidic conditions) helps to explain the difficulties in forming gels from 1 and 2. The stability of cyclic disilsesquioxanes was confirmed withe the synthesis of 3 and 4 in gram quantities; the cyclic disilsesquioxanes react slowly to give tricyclic dimers containing a thermodynamically stable eight membered siloxane ring. Continued reactions were shown to perserve the cyclic structure, opening up the possibility of utilizing cyclic disilsesquioxanes as sol-gel monomers. Preliminary polymerization studies with these new, carbohydrate-like monomers revealed the formation of network poly(cyclic disilsesquioxanes) under acidic conditions and polymerization with ring-opening under basic conditions.

  6. Global gas processing will strengthen to meet expanding markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.; Gist, R.L.

    1996-07-01

    The worldwide LPG industry continues to expand faster than the petroleum industry -- 4%/year for LPG vs. 2%/year for petroleum in 1995 and less than 1%/year in the early 1990s. This rapid expansion of LPG markets is occurring in virtually every region of the world, including such developing countries as China. The Far East is the focus of much of the LPG industry`s attention, but many opportunities exist in other regions such as the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. The investment climate is improving in all phases of downstream LPG marketing, including terminaling, storage, and wholesale and retail distribution. The world LPG supply/demand balance has been relatively tight since the Gulf War and should remain so. Base demand (the portion of demand that is not highly price-sensitive) is expanding more rapidly than supplies. As a result, the proportion of total LPG supplies available for price-sensitive petrochemical feedstock markets is declining, at least in the short term. The paper discusses importers, price patterns, world LPG demand, world LPG supply, US NGL supply, US gas processing, ethane and propane supply, butane, isobutane, and natural gasoline supply, and US NGL demand.

  7. Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-29

    A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models.

  8. Petroleum production at maximum efficient rate, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California. Draft Supplement to the 1979 Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The proposed action involves the continued operation of the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) at the Maximum Efficiency Rate (MER) through the year approximately 2025 in accordance with the requirements of the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-258). NPR-1 is a large oil and gas field comprising 74 square miles. MER production primarily includes continued operation and maintenance of existing facilities; a well drilling and abandonment program; construction and operation of future gas processing, gas compression, and steamflood, waterflood, cogeneration, and butane isomerization facilities; and continued implementation of a comprehensive environmental protection program. The basis for the draft environment impact statement (DSEIS) proposed action is the April 1989 NPR-1 Long Range Plan which describes a myriad of planned operational, maintenance, and development activities over the next 25--30 years. These activities include the continued operation of existing facilities; additional well drilling; expanded steamflood operations; expanded waterflood programs; expanded gas compression, gas lift, gas processing and gas injection; construction of a new cogeneration facility; construction of a new isobutane facility; and a comprehensive environmental program designed to minimize environmental impacts.

  9. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 32813288, 2006 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/6/3281/2006/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    comprised mainly of n-butane, propane and i-butane. Traffic samples indicated that evaporative loss of propane, i-butane, and n- butane increased between 2001 to 2003, consistent with the Correspondence to: L. Y. Chan (celychan@polyu.edu.hk) 40% increase in LPG fueled vehicles. Propane to butanes ra- tios

  10. SUPPORTING INFORMATION An MCM modeling study of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) impacts on oxidation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    methacrolein 10 10 propanal 90 20 butanal 20 4 ethane 3120 440 propane propane 1940 330 i-butane i-butane 510 70 n-butane n-butane 1200 190 i-pentane 780 100 n-pentane n-petane 350 40 hexane 250 30 nonane 40 2

  11. Homogeneous Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Methods for Calculating the Heat Transport Coefficient of Solids and Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandadapu, Kranthi Kiran

    2011-01-01

    of flexible molecules - Butane. Molecular Physics, 81(6):in polyatomic fluids: n-Butane as an illustration. Chemicalfor two models of liquid Butane. Chemical Physics, 198(1-2):

  12. Sum Frequency Generation Studies of Hydrogenation Reactions on Platinum Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krier, James Michael

    2013-01-01

    catalysts. Formation of n-butane occurs at the expense of 1-products (butenes), butane is a significant product on Ptproduced by this reaction: butane, 1-butene, trans-2- butene

  13. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 14631483, 2014 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/1463/2014/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    , propane, i-butane, n- butane, i-pentane, and n-pentane by (a) reconstructing at- mospheric mole fractions increases in the ratios of the isomeric iso-/n-butane and iso-/n-pentane ratios. Com- parison

  14. Gas-Phase Reactions of Doubly Charged Lanthanide Cations with Alkanes and Alkenes. Trends in Metal(2+) Reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, John K.

    2010-01-01

    methane, ethane, propane, n-butane) and alkenes (ethene,respectively). With propane and n-butane, all the Ln 2+ ionsof La 2+ with propane and n-butane, and the absence of their

  15. Sources and photochemistry of volatile organic compounds in the remote atmosphere of western China: results from the Mt. Waliguan Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    sites a . Waliguan b Species Ethane Propane n-butanei-butane n-pentane i-pentane Ethene Propene Isoprene EthyneNorth b CO Ethane Propane n-butane i-butane Ethyne Benzene

  16. Formation mechanisms and quantification of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew Waite

    2010-01-01

    limonene-1-nitrate, 1-hydroxy-butane- 2-nitrate, 3-hydroxy-our measured spectra of the butane hydroxynitrate we foundstandards except for the butane hydroxynitrate the O/C based

  17. Investigation of the Atmospheric Ozone Impacts of Methyl Iodide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, W P L

    2007-01-01

    ethylene, propylene, n-butane and trans-2-butene werepropane, propylene, n-butane, n-hexane, toluene, n-octaneas ethylene, propylene, n-butane and trans-2-butene and 30 m

  18. Energy-resolved annihilation studies : vibrational Feshbach resonances and positron- molecule bound states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Jason Asher

    2007-01-01

    Z e? for butane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure2,2-di?uoropropane . . . Figure 5.9: Z e? for butane and 1-?resolved Z e? spectrum for butane (C 4 H 10 ). This spectrum

  19. Vehicular emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a tunnel study in Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    LPG, gasoline, and diesel ethene toluene n-butane propane i-pentane i-butane propene benzene ethyne 1,2,4-order, ethene, toluene, n-butane, propane and i-pentane.

  20. The production and persistence of Sigma RONO2 in the Mexico City plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    3 CHONO 2 CH 2 CH 3 ) to butane, an indicator of time sincethe ratio of 2-butyl nitrate to butane, panel (c) shows thefrom the 2-butylnitrate/butane ratio and panel (d) shows the

  1. Critical temperatures and pressures for hydrocarbon mixtures from an equation of state with renormalization-group-theory corrections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship of Binary Systems n-Butane-n- Pentaneand n-Butane- n-Hexane, J. Chern. Eng. Data 20 (1975) 333-in the Ethane-Propane-n-Butane System, Fluid Phase Equil.

  2. A BRIEF HISTORY OF INDUSTRIAL CATALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    there were supplies of n-butane which could be isomerized.as a catalytic liquid n~butane gas was passed; in the other,and ts: butadiene, 2) 1) butane lbenzene dehydro~~ genation

  3. Splitting a C-O bond in dialkylethers with bis(1,2,4-tri-t-butylcyclopentadienyl) cerium-hydride does not occur by a sigma-bond metathesis pathway: a combined experimental and DFT computational study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Werkema, Evan

    2011-01-01

    and propane or Cp’ 2 Ce(O-n-Bu) and butane, respectively.CeD, the propane and butane contain deuterium predominantlysites of (n-Bu) 2 O, but the butane produced by the reaction

  4. COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR MOLEUCLAR STRUCTURE DETERMINATION: THEORY AND TECHNIQUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lester, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    study on the topology of n-butane. While the anti-conforma­were too low for gauche- butane type interactions, so a hardhydrogen and a good gauche-butane energy. Overall, however,

  5. Characterization of photochemical pollution at different elevations in mountainous areas in Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    vs. ethylbenzene and (b) i-butane vs. propane at TMS and TW.vs. ethylbenzene and (b) i-butane vs. propane at TMS and TW.2012). On the other hand, n-butane and propane are generally

  6. Selective Nanocatalysis of Organic Transformation by Metals: Concepts, Model Systems, and Instruments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin

    2010-01-01

    on the open (100) surface. The iso- butane isomerizationto n-butane occurs more readily on the Pt(100) and theof the N–C bond to form butane and ammonia. Figure 9 shows

  7. Applications of Density Functional Theory and Absolutely Localized Molecular Orbital Energy Decomposition Analysis: Intermolecular Interactions in Rhenium-Alkane s-Complexes and in Water Clusters and Reaction Energy Profiles of Methane Hydroxylation Mediated by Quantum Models of p-MMO Active Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cobar, Erika Ann

    2011-01-01

    ethane, n-propane, n- butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-H Dist. Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane HeptaneDist. Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane

  8. STUDIES OF THE SURFACES STRUCTURES OF MOLECULAR CRYSTALS AND OF ADSORBED MOLECULAR MONOLAYERS ON THE (111) CRYSTAL FACES OF PLATINUM AND SILVER BY LOW-ENERGY ELECTRON DIFFRACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firment, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    transitions. The adsorption n-butane on Pt(lll) producesat 34 eV of monolayer of n-butane adsorbed on Agelll). The90-l05K, adsorption of n-butane on clean Pt(111) produces

  9. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    Table 3). Propane, n- butane and i- butane correlated poorlyof points compared (N ). best fit slope r 2 propane n-butanei-butane n-pentane i-pentane n-hexane ethylene propylene 1-

  10. Detailed comparisons of airborne formaldehyde measurements with box models during the 2006 INTEX-B and MILAGRO campaigns: potential evidence for significant impacts of unmeasured and multi-generation volatile organic carbon compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    of 2-butyl nitrate to butane, as dis- cussed by Bertman ethereafter be referred to as butane time or photochemicalof 2-butyl nitrate to butane (see Perring et al. , 2010)

  11. Surface Reactivity of Copper Precursors for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on Metal Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MA, QIANG

    2010-01-01

    110) surfaces is described; butane and a small amidine were110) surface. No butene is produced at lower butane, 3 L;only some butane is desorption observed (58 amu). However,

  12. Quantifying the Reactive Uptake of OH by Organic Aerosols in a Continuous Flow Stirred Tank Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Che, Dung L.

    2010-01-01

    determination of the n-butane + OH reaction rate coefficientof the hexane (?) and butane (?) GC peak areas during therate constant ( k but ) for the n-butane + OH reaction. The

  13. Quantum Chain Reactions and ?-Hydrogen Abstraction of Aromatic Ketones: Insights into Solid to Solid Transformations and Efficiency in Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Amy

    2014-01-01

    phenoxy-(phenylethynyl)) butane (12). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDClpheneylcyclopropenone) butane (6). 1,4 di(4-phenoxy-(4-phenoxy-(phenylethynyl)) butane (12). %T 94.0 cm-1 1-(4-

  14. Preparation of 1-C14-Propene-1 and the Mechanism of Permanganate Oxidation of Propene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fries, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    propene, 9% butenes, 9% butanes and pentanes and 1% pentenes0.5/0 propane and 0.5% n-butane. The yield of propene waspropene, 16% butenes f 3% i-butane, 3% ethyl propy:i. ether

  15. ISHHC XIII International Symposium on the Relations between Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somorjai Ed., G.A.

    2007-01-01

    for Partial Oxidation of n-butane to Maleic Anhydride Y.H.catalytic activity of n-butane oxidation to maleic anhydrideconversion of methane with n-butane to give other alkanes.

  16. Sum Frequency Generation Studies of Hydrogenation Reactions on Platinum Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krier, James M.

    2014-01-01

    in the full hydrogenation (n-butane) of 1,3-butadiene,catalysts. Formation of n-butane occurs at the expense of 1-products (butenes), butane is a significant product on Pt

  17. Concurrent observations of air pollutants at two sites in the Pearl River Delta and the implication of regional transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    xylene to ethylbenzene (b) i-butane to propane at TC and WQSxylene to ethylbenzene (b) i-butane to propane at TC and WQSxylene to ethylbenzene (b) i-butane to propane at TC and WQS

  18. Gas-Phase Reactions of Doubly Charged Lanthanide Cations with Alkanes and Alkenes. Trends in Metal(2+) Reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, John K.

    2010-01-01

    alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane) and alkenes (and 9, respectively). With propane and n-butane, all the Lnin the reactions of La 2+ with propane and n-butane, and the

  19. Concurrent observations of air pollutants at two sites in the Pearl River Delta and the implication of regional transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    ethylbenzene (b) i-butane to propane at TC and WQS H. Guo etto ethylbenzene (b) i-butane to propane at TC and WQS duringto ethylbenzene (b) i-butane to propane at TC and WQS during

  20. Finding the missing stratospheric Bry: a global modeling study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    C-130 T0 T1 G1 Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-Pentane n-ppbv) Ethane Ethene Ethyne Propane Propene i-Butane n-Butanee.g. , ethane, ethene, propane, propane, methanol, ethanol,

  1. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    C-130 T0 T1 G1 Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-Pentane n-ppbv) Ethane Ethene Ethyne Propane Propene i-Butane n-Butanee.g. , ethane, ethene, propane, propane, methanol, ethanol,

  2. Table 5. List of compounds identified for the MBO canister T-2 and their precision A certified can of ethylene (10.06 ppmv)and neohexane (10.01

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    -PENTANE ETHYLENE N-PENTANE PROPANE PROPYNE PROPENE 2,2-DIMETHYLBUTANE I-BUTANE 2-METHYLPENTANE N-BUTANE 3

  3. GAMMA-RAY DETECTION WITH PbO GLASS CONVERTERS IN MWPC: ELECTRON CONVERSION EFFICIENCY AND TIME RESOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lum, G.K.

    2010-01-01

    10X CF and 30% iso- butane, respectively. The effects of gas+ 67% Ar 3% methylal+30% Iso­ butane + 67% Ar Comparing the

  4. Supplement of Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1317513188, 2014 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/13175/2014/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    methane, ethane, propane, ethyne, benzene C4HC n-butane, i-butane, n-pentane, i-pentane, n-hexane, n

  5. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    ethane, propane or butane. Concentrations of metabolitesacid COO - CH 3 O H 3 C Butane (C 4 H 10 ) H 3 C CH 3 O - O

  6. J. Am. Chem. SOC.1981,103, 7012-70137012 gives a 38% yield of a dimer of 12,with spectroscopic propertiesS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Showalter, Kenneth

    an isopropylidenebicyclo[1.1.O]butane (21) followed by a thermal decomposition analogous to the bicyclo- [l.l.O]butane -1

  7. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    propene, acetone, benzene, propane and ?-pinene (Table 1).cyanide Acetonitrile Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-= Ethane Ethane Ethane Ethane Propane Propane Propane ARCTAS

  8. The Critical Role of Phosphate in Vanadium Phosphate Oxide for the Catalytic Activation and Functionalization of nButane to Maleic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    The Critical Role of Phosphate in Vanadium Phosphate Oxide for the Catalytic Activation studies, the mechanism of the catalytic oxidation reaction remains under debate. Some suggest steps for this catalytic system. We propose that the first step of the reaction is the oxidation of (VO

  9. Cyclization phenomena in the sol-gel polymerization of {alpha},{omega}-bis(triethoxysilyl)alkanes and incorporation of the cyclic structures into network silsesquioxane polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, D.A.; Carpenter, J.P.; Alam, T.M.; Shaltout, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dorhout, P.K. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Greaves, J.; Shea, K.J. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Small, J.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Polymers and Coatings Group] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Polymers and Coatings Group

    1999-06-16

    Intramolecular cyclizations during acid-catalyzed sol-gel polymerizations of {alpha},{omega}-bis(triethoxysilyl)alkanes substantially lengthen gel times for monomers with ethylene (1), propylene (2), and butylene (3) bridging groups. These cyclization reactions were found, using mass spectrometry and {sup 29}Si NMR spectroscopy, to lead preferentially to monomeric and dimeric products based on six- and seven-membered disilsesquioxane rings. 1,2-Bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (1) reacts under acidic conditions to give a bicyclic dimer (5) that is composed of two annelated seven-membered rings. Under the same conditions, 1,3-bis(triethoxysilyl)propane (2), 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)butane (3), and Z-1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)but-2-ene (10) undergo an intramolecular condensation reaction to give the six- and seven-membered cyclic disilsesquioxanes 6, 7, and 11. Subsequently, these cyclic monomers slowly react to form the tricyclic dimers 8, 9, and 12. With NaOH as polymerization catalyst, these cyclic silsesquioxanes readily reacted to afford gels that were shown by CP MAS {sup 29}Si NMR and infrared spectroscopies to retain some cyclic structures. Comparison of the porosity and microstructure of xerogels prepared from the cyclic monomers 6 and 7 with those of gels prepared directly from their acyclic precursors 2 and 3 indicates that the final pore structure of the xerogels is markedly dependent on the nature of the precursor. In addition, despite the fact that the monomeric cyclic disilsesquioxane species cannot be isolated from 1--3 under basic conditions due to their rapid rate of gelation, spectroscopic techniques also detected the presence of the cyclic structures in the resulting polymeric gels.

  10. Cyclization Phenomena in the Sol-Gel Polymerization of a,w-Bis(triethoxysilyl)alkanes and Incorporation of the Cyclic Structures into Network Silsesquioxane Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, T.M.; Carpenter, J.P.; Dorhout, P.K.; Greaves, J.; Loy, D.A.; Shaltout, R.; Shea, K.J.; Small, J.H.

    1999-01-04

    Intramolecular cyclizations during acid-catalyzed, sol-gel polymerizations of ct,co- bis(tietioxysilyl)aWmes substintidly lengtien gelties formonomers witietiylene- (l), propylene- (2), and butylene-(3)-bridging groups. These cyclizations reactions were found, using mass spectrometry and %i NMR spectroscopy, to lead preferentially to monomeric and dimeric products based on six and seven membered disilsesquioxane rings. 1,2- Bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (1) reacts under acidic conditions to give a bicyclic drier (5) that is composed of two annelated seven membered rings. Under the same conditions, 1,3- bis(triethoxysilyl)propane (2), 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)butane (3), and z-1,4- bis(triethoxysilyl)but-2-ene (10) undergo an intramolecular condensation reaction to give the six membemd and seven membered cyclic disilsesquioxanes 6, 7, and 11. Subsequently, these cyclic monomers slowly react to form the tricyclic dirners 8,9 and 12. With NaOH as polymerization catalyst these cyclic silsesquioxanes readily ~aeted to afford gels that were shown by CP MAS z%i NMR and infr=d spectroscopes to retain some cyclic structures. Comparison of the porosity and microstructwe of xerogels prepared from the cyclic monomers 6 and 7 with gels prepared directly from their acyclic precursors 2 and 3, indicate that the final pore structure of the xerogels is markedly dependent on the nature of the precursor. In addition, despite the fact that the monomeric cyclic disilsesquioxane species can not be isolated from 1-3 under basic conditions due to their rapid rate of gelation, spectroscopic techniques also detected the presence of the cyclic structures in the resulting polymeric gels.

  11. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 0099-2240/99/$04.00 0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    . 10 Copyright © 1999, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Diversity in Butane Monooxygenases among Butane-Grown Bacteria NATSUKO HAMAMURA,1 RYAN T. STORFA,2 LEWIS SEMPRINI,3 AND DANIEL J. ARP April 1999/Accepted 19 July 1999 Butane monooxygenases of butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora

  12. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 0099-2240/97/$04.00 0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    . 9 Copyright © 1997, American Society for Microbiology Chloroform Cometabolism by Butane-Grown CF8) degradation by a butane-grown enrichment culture, CF8, was compared to that by butane-grown Pseudomonas. All three butane-grown bacteria were able to degrade CF at rates comparable to that of M

  13. Transformation of Acetone and Isopropanol to Hydrocarbons using HZSM-5 Catalyst 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taco Vasquez, Sebastian

    2010-07-14

    .2 i-Butane ? ? 0.1 3.9 n-Butane ? ? ? 1.7 i-Butene 19.1 31.3 83.3 3.6 n-Butene ? ? butane, isobutene, butane, isobutylene), carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The liquid products are hydrocarbons...

  14. Supplement of Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 55855598, 2015 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/15/5585/2015/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    )............................................. 1 1.2 C4H10 (butane, methyl propane)............................................................................ 3 1.3 C5H12 (n-pentane, methyl butane, dimethyl butane)............................................. 5 1.4 C6H14 (n-hexane, 2,3-dimethyl butane

  15. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    These streams may also contain significant levels of olefins andor fluorides contamination. Butylene (C 4 H 8 ). An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery processes....

  16. Materials Today Communications 2 (2015) e33e37 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    2015-01-01

    in stress- bearing applications such as bulletproof body armor, shielding for sports equipment, and fiber, dynamic mechan- ical analysis; PEB, poly(ethylene-butylene); PET, polyethylene terephthalate; PS

  17. Dielectric Elastomers for Fluidic and Biomedical Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCoul, David

    2015-01-01

    Morphology and properties of poly[styrene-b- (ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene] multiwalled carbon nanotubeethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) film through

  18. THE TRANSPOSED CRITICAL TEMPERATURE RANKINE THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pope, William L.

    2012-01-01

    and Optimize Geothermal Power Cycles," presented at the 1lthbinary) Rankine power cycle based on our observations on ageothermal binary Rankine power cycles for the isobutane/

  19. Supplemental Materials Mass, critical temperature, critical volume, and relative diffusion coefficients used for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Ethane Propane n-Butane i-Butane n-Pentane i-Pentane Mass (g mol-1 ) 30.07 44.10 58.12 58.12 72.15 72

  20. Observations of nonmethane organic compounds during ARCTAS - Part 1: Biomass burning emissions and plume enhancements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    Propane WAS Ethane TOGA WAS Butane TOGA WAS Isopentane R. S.24 Plume 28 n-Hexane i-Pentane n-Pentane 1-Butene n-Butanei-Butane Propene Propane Ethyne Ethene Ethane global scale,

  1. Laminar burning velocities of propeneair mixtures at elevated temperatures and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as an intermediate in the combustion of higher alkanes, such as propane, butane, heptane and isooctane, Glassman1 higher alkanes, such as propane, butane, heptane and iso-octane as these hydrocarbon compounds constitute

  2. Easily Legible Printed Name:______________________________ Page 1 of 8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walba, David

    chair structures the strain energy for each conformation in units of gauche butane interactions (GBs). d of gauche butane interactions (GBs). g) Circle the more stable conformation of the trimethylcyclohexane

  3. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    in situ PTR-MS mea- n-Butane 0 surements in fresh biomassHydrogen cyanide Acetonitrile Ethane Propane i-Butanen-Butane i-Pentane n-Pentane n-Hexane 2+3-Methylpentane n-

  4. CHEMISTRY 3311, Fall 1998 Professor Walba

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walba, David

    butane interactions," the magnitude of the difference in heats of combustion of A and B. Two gauche butane unites e) Draw one perspective chair picture for each of these substituted decalin isomers. CIRCLE

  5. Surface Permeabilities DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804785

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    . We selected ethane, propane, and n-butane as guest molecules. Sorption was initiated by varying between 8.5­12 min for ethane and 30 h for n-butane. After equilibration with the surrounding gas phase

  6. Explicit modeling of organic chemistry and secondary organic aerosol partitioning for Mexico City and its outflow plume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    assumed to be zero. Species name Ethane Propane n-Butanei-Butane 2,2-Dimethylbutane i-Pentane n-Pentane n-Hexaneng m -3 Eulerian model, butane equiv aromatics olefins 2:1

  7. Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydin, M.; Williams, M. B; Saltzman, E. S

    2007-01-01

    Hemispheric air. 4.1.3. n-Butane [ 26 ] n-C 4 H 10 levels inH 6 ; propane, C 3 H 8 ; n-butane, n-C 4 H 10 ), two methyl

  8. Characterization of photochemical pollution at different elevations in mountainous areas in Hong Kong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    and (b) i-butane vs. propane at TMS and TW. Fig. 4. Theand (b) i-butane vs. propane at TMS and TW. et al. , 2001;higher ratios of ethyne/propane and benzene/propane were

  9. Development of a Hessian-Free Algorithm for Transition State Searches, Application to Reactions of Light Alkanes in Zeolite Catalysts, and Extension to Wavefunction Stability Analysis in the Absence of Analytical Hessians

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallikarjun Sharada, Shaama M

    2015-01-01

    energies (kcal/mol) for propane, n-butane and n-hexane reac-energies (kcal/mol) for propane, n-butane and n-hexane reac-40 Transition state for propane dehydrogenation in a T23

  10. Ultrafast Carbon-Carbon Single-Bond Rotational Isomerization in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    of the barrier heights of 1, n-butane, and ethane, the time constants for n-butane and ethane internal rotation is not completely free. (2) The trans-gauche isomerization of 1,2- disubstituted ethane derivatives, such as n-butane energy barrier of the n-butane (È3.4 kcal/mol) and of other simple 1,2-disubstituted ethane derivatives

  11. Pimmel A., and Claypool, G. ODP Technical Note 30

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the system. C1­C4 Hydrocarbons C1­C4 hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, propane, and butane) are found

  12. Anthropogenic emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons in the northeastern United States: Measured seasonal variations from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    in relative emissions for this series of trace gases. Seasonal changes in n-butane and i-butane emissions may [Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998]. [3] In this study, we present the seasonality of C2-C6 (ethane, propane, n-butane, i-butane, n-pentane, i-pentane and n-hexane) hydrocarbons, NOy and CO as measured at Harvard Forest

  13. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Jan. 2009, p. 337344 Vol. 75, No. 2 0099-2240/09/$08.00 0 doi:10.1128/AEM.01758-08

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Frances H.

    . In Vivo Evolution of Butane Oxidation by Terminal Alkane Hydroxylases AlkB and CYP153A6 Daniel J. Koch,1 by evolutionarily unrelated methane monooxygenases. Propane and butane can be oxidized by CYP enzymes engineered selection for terminal alkane hydroxylase activity and used it to select propane- and butane

  14. ARTICLE IN PRESS UNCORRECTEDPROOF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    effects during adsorption of n-butane on a silicalite-1 membrane: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics adsorption of n-butane on a silicalite-1 membrane: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study I. Inzoli, J the kinetics of adsorption of n-butane molecules in a silicalite membrane. We have chosen this simple well

  15. Zwittermicin A : determination of its complete configuration and total synthesis of its enantiomer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Evan W.

    2008-01-01

    dimethyl-1,3-dioxan-4-yl)butane- 1,3-diol (233). Under andimethyl-1,3-dioxan-4-yl)butane- 1,3-diol (234). Under andimethyl-1,3-dioxan-4-yl)butane-1,3-diol (265-268). Under an

  16. Registered Charity Number 207890 Accepted Manuscript

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    micro-reformer ­ functional carrier ­ assembly with high butane conversion rate and high H2 and CO from n-Butane with an Integrated MEMS Assembly for Gas Processing in Micro-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell butane conversion rates of 74% - 85% are obtained at around 550°C. In addition, high hydrogen and carbon

  17. 2007 Botany and Plant Pathology Publications Arp, Daniel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    -subunit of butane monooxygenase. J. Bacteriol. 189: 5068-5074 (2007). Gvakharia, B.O., E.A. Permina, M.A. Sayavedra-Soto, D.J. Arp. Butane monooxygenase of Pseudomonas butanovora: purification and biochemical of butane monooxygenase activity in Pseudomonas butanovora; Biochemical and physiological implications

  18. Requirements Hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cinabro, David

    . Butane is also an option. If material is driving factor these become attractive. Advantages Radiation. He considered two coolants: Butane and R134a (freon replacement used in auto air conditioners). About.021 Butane 72.6 0.014 0.012 10 #12; Advantages Radiation Length Even R134a (Radiation length 80% of wa- ter

  19. www.elsevier.com/locate/ces Author's Accepted Manuscript

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    -reactor for butane-to- syngas processing Nico Hotz, Neil Osterwalder, Wendelin J. Stark, Nicole R. Bieri, Dimos Poulikakos, Disk-shaped packed bed micro-reactor for butane-to-syngas processing, Chemical Engineering pertain. #12;Accepted m anuscript 1 Disk-shaped packed bed micro-reactor for butane-to-syngas processing

  20. Measuringthe Atomic or,Molecular Mass of a Gas with aifire Gauge and atutane Lighter Fluid Can

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodner, George M.

    ,inexpen&e annaratus based on a butane liehter fluid can and a standard tkk pressure gauge that can 6e used for several with gas-law experiments based on butane lighter fluid cans* suggested that there would be several advantages to using a butane can for these demonstrations. I ) Hutanecans already rontain a valve. 2) Thcae

  1. Fluid transport properties by equilibrium molecular dynamics. I. Methodology at extreme fluid states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dysthe, Dag Kristian

    precision except for diffusion in gaseous n-butane. The RATTLE algorithm is shown to give accurate transport are too long to obtain representative sampling during a single trajectory by EMD. A recent study1 of n-butane relaxation times for n-butane at the state point used are, however, very short compared with the total

  2. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    MEX 1 . Compound C-130 T0 T1 G1 Ethane Propane i-Butanen-Butane i-Pentane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-OctaneEthyne Propane Propene i-Butane n-Butane 1-Butene + i-Butene

  3. Water-Soluble 2-Hydroxyisophthalamides for Sensitization of Lanthanide Luminescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuel, Amanda P. S.

    2009-01-01

    tetrakis-(2- aminoethyl)-butane-1,4-diamine [H(4,2)-]. These1 '',N 1 '''-(2,2',2'',2'''-(Butane-1,4-diylbis(azanetriyl))N'-tetrakis-(2- aminoethyl)-butane-1,4-diamine (6c) 12 (0.26

  4. LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE IRRADIATION OF SOLID ETHANE ANALOG ICES AND IMPLICATIONS TO TITAN'S CHEMISTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    , methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), ethylene (C2H4), and the ethyl radical (C2H5), together with n-butane (C4 and molecular hydrogen, which may compete with the formation of n-butane inside the ethane matrix. Among the higher molecular products, n-butane dominates. Of particular relevance to the atmosphere of Saturn's moon

  5. Biodegradation 12: 1122, 2001. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    Bioaugmentation of butane-utilizing microorganisms to promote cometabolism of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in groundwater October 2000 Key words: 1,1,1 trichloroethane, bioaugmentation, butane-utilizers, cometabolism, DNA from a test site at Moffett Field, Sunnyvale, CA. The initial inoculum for bioaugmentation was a butane

  6. Finding the missing stratospheric Bry: a global modeling study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    MEX 1 . Compound C-130 T0 T1 G1 Ethane Propane i-Butanen-Butane i-Pentane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-OctaneEthyne Propane Propene i-Butane n-Butane 1-Butene + i-Butene

  7. Source characteristics of volatile organic compounds during high ozone episodes in Hong Kong, Southern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.; Wang, T.; Chameides, W. L; Cardelino, C.; Blake, D. R; Streets, D. G

    2008-01-01

    Kong. Species TO EPD sites Methane Ethane Propane n-butanei-butane n-pentane i-pentane n-hexane 2,2-dimethybutane 2,3-Species Ethane Propane n-butane i-butane n-pentane i-pentane

  8. Fluid transport properties by equilibrium molecular dynamics. III. Evaluation of united atom interaction potential models for pure alkanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dysthe, Dag Kristian

    Received 2 August 1999; accepted 9 February 2000 Results of new simulations for n-butane, n-decane, n and density of transport property studies by MD of n-butane, n-decane, and n-hexadecane using flexible, mul- tisite molecular models. In the case of n-butane there have been performed at least 14 transport

  9. DIRECT CONTACT HEAT EXCHANGER 10 kW POWER LOOP. SECTION 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. SECTION 2: TEST SERIES NO. 1. SECTION 3; TEST SERIES NO. 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering, Barber-Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    i t h e r l i q u i d iso- butane or brine. The c o n s t rand thermometers located in d butane temperatures and , and-e t o t h e DCHX 330 + 5OF Butane o u t l e t t e m p e r a

  10. 12 Trees and Graphs 12.1 Rooted and Unrooted Trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard, Wayne

    , here is a representation of butane: four carbons and ten hydrogen. c Wayne Goddard, Clemson University, and 3 carbon atoms respectively), but there are two isomers of butane. For you to do! 1. Draw the other isomer of butane. 12.2 Graphs A (simple) graph is a collection of vertices and edges such that each edge

  11. This article was downloaded by:[Simon, J. M.] On: 24 August 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    ://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713644482 Numerical evidence for a thermal driving force during adsorption of butane in silicalite Online. (2007) 'Numerical evidence for a thermal driving force during adsorption of butane in silicalite for a thermal driving force during adsorption of butane in silicalite J. M. SIMON*§, I. INZOLI{k, D. BEDEAUX

  12. Subscriber access provided by TECHNICAL UNIV OF DELFT The Journal of Physical Chemistry B is published by the American Chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Diffusion and Partial Molar Enthalpy Variations of n-Butane in Silicalite-1 I. Inzoli, J. M. Simon, D;Thermal Diffusion and Partial Molar Enthalpy Variations of n-Butane in Silicalite-1 I. Inzoli, J. M. Simon and the Soret coefficient for n-butane in silicalite-1. The heat of transfer was typically 10 kJ/mol. The Soret

  13. Total observed organic carbon (TOOC) in the atmosphere: a synthesis of North American observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    2006) Propane i (Hopkins Butane et al. , 2003; Jayne etIf Propane C3H8 ? their ? th Butane C4H10 ? ? date referenceQuestion: c-2-butene C4H8 Butane C4H10 3-methyl-1-butene

  14. This journal is c the Owner Societies 2011 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 98319838 9831 Cite this: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 98319838

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    seems crucial to explain the deep oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride. 1. Introduction Vanadium the partial oxidation of n-butane (C4H10) to maleic anhydride (MA, C4O3H2) (Scheme 1). This very deep the a axis Scheme 1 Selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride catalyzed by VPO. Materials

  15. 1748 | Chem. Commun., 2014, 50, 1748--1750 This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014 Cite this: Chem. Commun., 2014,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    selective direct oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride by the vanadium phosphate oxide (VPO) catalyst, in which O2 is the oxidant.7 We found that the strong C­H bonds of n-butane are activated through a unique mechanism involving the OQP rather than the OQV moieties to cleave the butane C­H bond in a homolytic manner

  16. Molecular Properties of the "Ideal" Inhaled Anesthetic: Studies of Fluorinated Methanes, Ethanes, Propanes,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudlicky, Tomas

    , Propanes, and Butanes E. 1Eger, 11, MD*, J. Liu, MD*, D. D. Koblin, PhD, MDt, M. J. Laster, DVM*, S. Taheri unfluorinated, partially fluorinated, and perfluorinated methanes, ethanes, propanes, and butanes to define fluorinated methanes, ethanes, propanes, and butanes, also obtaining limited data on longer- chained alkanes

  17. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelis, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    and Gas Journal, 2006c). 1,3 Butadiene is another co-productIn 2005, 4.4 billion lbs of butadiene were produced in thepropylene, butylenes and butadiene) and aromatics (benzene,

  18. Proceedings of the Workshop on Radiation Damage to Wire Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kadyk, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    operated in argon (60070) + ethane (40070) before (top) andit ! "". , /" ft:_o-~o---o ETHANE (PURE) -x- ISOBUTANE 199~Z t- v ).. I,() WAVE LENGTH -v- ETHANE+ETHANOL 1+1' C. -2hl

  19. DIRECT CONTACT HEAT EXCHANGER 10 kW POWER LOOP. SECTION 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. SECTION 2: TEST SERIES NO. 1. SECTION 3; TEST SERIES NO. 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering, Barber-Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    high pressure brine to a direct contact heat exchanger whichPRESSURE RATIO Figure ,11. Pure IC4 calibration test (using hairpin heat exchanger).exchanger where heat was extracted from it to isobutane. The high pressure

  20. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rapier, Pascal M. (Richmond, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  1. Characterization and permeation properties of ZSM-5 tubular membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coronas, J.; Falconer, J.L.; Noble, R.D.

    1997-07-01

    ZSM-5 zeolite membranes with reproducible properties were prepared by in-situ synthesis on porous {alpha}- and {gamma}-alumina tubular supports and characterized by XRD, SEM and electron microprobe analysis. Single-gas permeances for H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}, CO{sup 2}, n-butane, and i-butane increase over some temperature range, but some gases exhibit maxima or minima. The highest ideal selectivities at room temperature are 299 for N{sub 2}/SF{sub 6}, 392 for H{sup 2}/n-butane, and 2,820 for H{sub 2}/i-butane. These membranes can separate n-butane/i-butane, H{sub 2}/n-butane and H{sub 2}/i-butane mixtures. All n-butane/i-butane separation selectivities have maxima as a function of temperature and are higher than ideal selectivities because n-butane inhibits i-butane permeation. Thus, separation is not by size selectivity, but is due to pore blocking. Temperature dependencies of single-gas permeances and separation selectivities depend strongly on the location of zeolite crystals and the location is determined by preparation procedure. Ideal selectivities also depend strongly on the preparation procedure. When the zeolite forms a continuous layer on the inside surface of the support tubes, pure i-butane permeates faster than pure n-butane so that the single-gas permeances are not determined just by molecular size. The i-butane permeance also increases much more with temperature than the n-butane permeance. The permeation behavior may be the result of permeation through nonzeolitic pores in parallel with zeolite pores. When zeolite crystals are dispersed throughout the pores of {alpha}-alumina supports, permeances are lower and gas permeation and separation properties are quite different. Ideal selectivities are lower, pure n-butane permeates faster than i-butane, and the permeances increase much less with temperature. Separation selectivities are lower but can be maintained to higher temperatures.

  2. Supplement of Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 35273542, 2015 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/15/3527/2015/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    (ethylene) 18.6 18.0 propane 30.3 33.1 propene (propylene) 5.5 6.4 2-methylpropane (i-butane) 16.1 16.7 Butane (n-butane) 30.6 30.5 trans-but-2-ene (t-2-butene) 0.0 1-butene (but-1-ene) 0.0 cis-but-2-ene (c-2

  3. Kinetic and Inhibition Studies for the Aerobic Cometabolism of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    ,1-Dichloroethylene, and 1,1-Dichloroethane by a Butane-Grown Mixed Culture Young Kim,1 Daniel J. Arp,2 Lewis Semprini), and 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA) by a butane- grown mixed culture. These chlorinated aliphatic hydro. The highest kmax was obtained for butane (2.6 µmol/mg TSS/ h) followed by 1,1-DCE (1.3 µmol/mg TSS/h), 1,1-DCA

  4. Volume 75, number 1 CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS 1 October 1980 ISOMERIZATION DYNAMICS lN LiQUlDS BY MOLECULAR DYNAMlCS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berne, Bruce J.

    are made of lsomerlzatlon dynamrcs of lz-butane dissolved m hquld CC14 and m a r&ud matrl\\ Rate constants,-CH, 2 _cH kz_ (gauche) " (trans) .CH, m wfuch n-butane undergoes a gauche-trans Isomen- zahon. The stage for this work is set by our previous molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo studies of n- butane in hquid Ccl, [l

  5. A nanoparticle bed micro-reactor with high syngas yield for moderate temperature micro-scale SOFC power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    . c The micro-reactor is able to achieve higher syngas yield for n-butane and propane than state systems. It is shown that the presented micro-reactor is able to produce syngas (COþH2) efficiently from n-butane. The present micro-reactor is able to achieve syngas yield as high as 60% for n-butane and 50% for propane

  6. It's The Fluids SEG Honorary Lecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T.P. Water Butane CO2 #12;Fluid ­ Density 800 1000 1200FluidDensity[kg/m3] Brine CO2 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 200 400 600 Fluid Pressure [MPa] FluidDensity[kg/m Butane CO2 #12;Fluid ­ Modulus 2000 2500 3000 FluidModulus[MPa] Brine 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 500 1000 1500 Fluid Pressure [MPa] FluidModulus[MPa] Butane CO2 #12;GENERAL PHASE

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    fuel or power source excluding propane, butane, napht... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial Savings Category: Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Process Heat, Wind (All),...

  8. Modeling of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Interactions with a Sustainable Community Grid in the Azores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, Goncalo

    2013-01-01

    liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), namely butane, is provided tocapabilities and running on LPG. ICE - Internal Combustionload requirement and high LPG prices forces also stationary

  9. gas.ps.gz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000-08-09

    Aug 9, 2000 ... can be used for simulating a liquid tracer injection and consists of the classical ...... Since natural gases such as methane, propane, butane, and ...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    natural gas or fuel oil to an alternate fuel or power source excluding propane, butane, napht... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial Savings Category: Geothermal Electric,...

  11. Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toy, L.G.; Pinnau, I.

    1996-03-26

    A process is described for separating C{sub 3}+ hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane. 6 figs.

  12. Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toy, Lora G.; Pinnau, Ingo

    1996-01-01

    A process for separating C.sub.3 + hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane.

  13. "Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamada, Yusuke

    2012-01-01

    Part VI. Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane andactivation energy for ethane hydrogenolysis over platinum-such as propanol or ethane was less than the detection

  14. Revisiting the Long-Term Hedge Value of Wind Power in an Era of Low Natural Gas Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2014-01-01

    are more closely linked to oil prices) than it is in thepropane, and butane) or shale oil. To summarize, with gas

  15. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    For example the catalytic hydrocracking of Athabasca bitumenpossibly from fuel gas and/or hydrocracking. The butanes areerations. Similarly, hydrocracking operations do not appear

  16. Clearing the Air? The Effects of Gasoline Content Regulation on Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Kellogg, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    refiners are blending more butane into gasoline than theygasoline. Lidderdale (1999) evaluates the impact of RVP on refining operations and finds that refiners’ summer blending

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    facilities are those that are used for the primary purpose of converting natural gas or fuel oil to an alternate fuel or power source excluding propane, butane, napht......

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of converting natural gas or fuel oil to an alternate fuel or power source excluding propane, butane, napht... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial Savings Category: Geothermal...

  19. A BRIEF HISTORY OF INDUSTRIAL CATALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    R. H. , and Boyer, R. F. Styrene. Reinhold Publishing co. ,AMMOXIDATION) LO STYRENE { DEHYDROGENATION) HYDROGENATIONSlbenzene dehydro~~ genation to styrene monomero Butane

  20. Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    plus OH sign), reactiv- propane ing different gases gases atisoprene (plus sign), propane (star) and propene (triangle).NMHC includes ethane, ethene, propane, propene, i-butane, n-

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    are those that are used for the primary purpose of converting natural gas or fuel oil to an alternate fuel or power source excluding propane, butane, napht... Eligibility:...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    those that are used for the primary purpose of converting natural gas or fuel oil to an alternate fuel or power source excluding propane, butane, napht... Eligibility:...

  3. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricks Editor, R.

    2009-01-01

    pyrophoric gases. 1,3 butadiene arsenic pentafluoride arsineof highly toxic and/or 1,3-butadiene arsenic pentafluorideAmmonia, acetylene, butadiene, butane, methane, propane (or

  4. Supplemental Material S1 UBWOS 2012 data used in this analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    40 20 0 -20 n-butane/ppbv 20151050 Time / hrs #12;(v) (vi) (vii) (viii -10 i-butane/ppbv 20151050 Time / hrs 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 2,2-dimethylbutane/ ppbv 20151050 Time / hrs 40

  5. COI Name COI Synonym CAS 1-Pentene 109-67-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Movileanu, Liviu

    ,4-Bis(2-chloroethylthio)-n-butane 142868-93-7 1,5-Bis(2-chloroethylthio)-n-pentane 142868-94-8 1-Butene-71-5 Bromotrifluorethylene [Ethene, bromotrifluoro-] 598-73-2 Butane 106-97-8 Butene 25167-67-3 Butyltrichlorosilane 7521

  6. Inert Gas Dilution Effect on the Flammability Limits of Hydrocarbon Mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Fuman

    2012-02-14

    )????????????????????????..??...70 xii FIGURE Page 5.5 N-butane flammability properties with dilution of nitrogen (25 ?C and 1... and the regressed linear curve...........................................................................................................83 5.15 Experimental n-butane LFL diluted with N2 and the regressed linear curve..????????....????????????????...84 5...

  7. Meaningful Energy Efficiency Performance Metrics for the Process Industries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumana, J. D.; Sidhwa, N. R.

    2009-01-01

    , New Orleans, LA, May 12-15, 2009 Figure 10. Product EPIs for Two Grades of Liquid Butane Figure 10 shows the product EPIs for liquid butane product that is produced in two grades. One is pipeline grade (non-refrigerated) and the other...

  8. Development and Characterization of Gas Chromatographic Columns for the Analysis of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos

    -DMPS and DMPS phases. On CPPS-DMPS phase, the retention time decreased as 1,3-butadiene > 1-butene > n-butane, whereas on DMPS phase the order was n-butane > 1,3- butadiene > 1-butene. With the exception of certain

  9. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 74917504, 2009 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/9/7491/2009/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    , and D. Park6 1Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Research Center for Environmental most abundant VOCs observed in the tunnel were, in decreasing order, ethene, toluene, n-butane, propane. The high propane and n-butane emissions were found to be associated with liq- uefied petroleum gas (LPG

  10. Supplement of Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 14891502, 2015 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/15/1489/2015/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    propane toluene i-butane ethylbenzne n-butane m,p-xylene i-pentane o-xylene n-pentane Alkenes n-2001 Code for indoor environmental pollution control of civil building engineering 5 g/L -- 2002.01.01 #12-comparisons of (a) propane, (b) propene, (c) i-pentane, (d) benzene, and (e) toluene measurements among online GC

  11. Interaction of alkanes with an amorphous methanol film at 15-180 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souda, Ryutaro

    2005-09-15

    The hydrogen-bond imperfections and glass-liquid transition of the amorphous methanol film have been investigated on the basis of the film dewetting and the incorporation/desorption of alkane molecules adsorbed on the surface. The butane is incorporated completely in the bulk of the porous methanol film up to 70 K. At least two distinct states exist for the incorporated butane; one is assignable to solvated molecules in the bulk and the other is weakly bound species at the surface or in the subsurface site. For the nonporous methanol film, the uptake of butane in the bulk is quenched but butane forms a surface complex with methanol above 80 K. The butane incorporated in the bulk of the glassy methanol film is released at 120 K, where dewetting of the methanol film occurs simultaneously due to evolution of the supercooled liquid phase.

  12. Coupling of CO_(2) and CS_(2) with Novel Oxiranes: Polycarbonate vs. Cyclic Carbonate Production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Stephanie Jo

    2013-07-09

    ,2-butylene oxide, and styrene oxide with CO_(2) utilizing (salen)CrCl/nBu_(4)NCl to yield their corresponding cyclic carbonates. Additionally, the metal-free backbiting of the singly-coupled styrene oxide/CO_(2) intermediate was simulated utilizing...

  13. Bibliography of Soft X-ray Microscopy (UPDATE of supplemental material for Polymer invited review) A.P. Hitchcock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    (-caprolacatam) PAR polyacrylate PBMA poly-n-butyl-methacrylate PPrS poly-bromo-styrene PC polycarbonate PET poly + ethylenediamine + MDI) RBC poly[(styrene-r-isoprene)-b-(styrene-r-isoprene)], (S/I)-b-(S/I), copolymer; = 75/25; = 50/50 (wt %) S/I block compositions SEBS poly(styrene-b-ethylene butylene-b-styrene) TDI toluene di

  14. Effect of operating conditions and membrane quality on the separation performance of composite silicalite-1 membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graaf, J.M. van de; Bijl, E. van der; Stol, A.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulign, J.A.

    1998-10-01

    The separation capacity of silicalite-1 membranes for various hydrocarbon mixtures is determined as a function of membrane quality, operating conditions, and orientation of the composite membrane with respect to the feed side. The quality of the membranes is judged on the basis of the n-butane/i-butane permselectivity. Membranes with a different n-butane/i-butane permselectivity showed an identical separation capacity for ethane/methane mixtures, but the quality difference was affecting separation of hydrogen from the butane isomers. The selectivity of the membrane is significantly affected by the operating conditions, such as mixture composition, temperature, and absolute pressure. These effects are shown for ethane/methane, propene/ethene, and n-butane/i-butane mixtures. The selectivity for ethane in ethane/methane mixtures, found when the zeolite layer is facing the feed side, is completely lost when the orientation of the composite membrane is reversed, due to concentration polarization. Depending on the membrane orientation, the major resistance of the composite is in the support layer or in the zeolite layer.

  15. Make aromatics from LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doolan, P.C. ); Pujado, P.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists mainly of the propane and butane fraction recovered from gas fields, associated petroleum gas and refinery operations. Apart from its use in steam cracking and stream reforming, LPG has few petrochemical applications. The relative abundance of LPG and the strong demand for aromatics - benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) - make it economically attractive to produce aromatics via the aromatization of propane and butanes. This paper describes the Cyclar process, which is based on a catalyst formulation developed by BP and which uses UOP's CCR catalyst regeneration technology, converts propane, butanes or mixtures thereof to petrochemical-quality aromatics in a single step.

  16. Send Orders of Reprints at reprints@benthamscience.net 226 Current Computer-Aided Drug Design, 2013, 9, 226-232

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gini, Giuseppina

    . Consider the molecular graph of 2-methyl butane, with the vertex labelling as shown in Fig. (1). Fig. (1). The molecular graph of 2-methyl butane (CAS 78-78-4). The adjacency matrix A(G) and the distance matrix D(G) of 2-methyl butane are: A(G) D(G) 1 2 3 4 5 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 1 3 0 1 0 1 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 0

  17. Figure S1. Relative contribution to total OH reactivity (a), of observed VOCs to calculated OH reactivity (b) and alkyl nitrate production (c,d) in the afternoon (12pm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    .0050 0.65 i-butane 0.77 0.02 2.31E-12(4) 0.00088 0.086 n-Butane 2.2 0.077 2.51E-12(2) 0.011 0.26 n 0.05* 0.1 5.08E-12(2) 0.00048 0.0086 #12;4 2,3-dimethyl butane 0.17* 0.14 2.32E-12(10) 0.00048 0

  18. Acid strength and solvation effects on methylation, hydride transfer, and isomerization rates during catalytic homologation of C1 species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Acid strength and solvation effects on methylation, hydride transfer, and isomerization rates,b, a Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, USA b Division, FAU, MFI) via methylation and hydride transfer steps that favor isobutane and triptane formation

  19. Spartan Chemical Company, Inc. Material Safety Data Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wikswo, John

    /A Vapor Pressure: Unknown Vapor Density (AIR = 1): Unknown Solubility in Water: Complete pH: 11 NTP, IARC or OSHA Carcinogen *2-Butoxyethanol Isobutane Monoethanolamine Propane 10-15 5-10 1-5 1 in eyes, on skin or clothing. Avoid breathing product vapors or mist. Do not swallow. Use with adequate

  20. Atmospheric budget of acetone Daniel J. Jacob, Brendan D. Field, Emily M. Jin, Isabelle Bey, Qinbin Li,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    Li, Jennifer A. Logan, and Robert M. Yantosca Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences isoalkanes (propane, isobutane, isopentane). Model simulation of isoalkanes and comparison to observations yields best global emission estimates of 12 Tg C yrÀ1 for propane (including only 0.6 Tg C yrÀ1 from

  1. Catalytic oxidation of light alkanes in presence of a base

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhinde, Manoj V. (Boothwyn, PA); Bierl, Thomas W. (West Chester, PA)

    1998-01-01

    The presence of a base in the reaction mixture in a metal-ligand catalyzed partial oxidation of alkanes results in sustained catalyst activity, and in greater percent conversion as compared with oxidation in the absence of base, while maintaining satisfactory selectivity for the desired oxidation, for example the oxidation of isobutane to isobutanol.

  2. Catalytic oxidation of light alkanes in presence of a base

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhinde, M.V.; Bierl, T.W.

    1998-03-03

    The presence of a base in the reaction mixture in a metal-ligand catalyzed partial oxidation of alkanes results in sustained catalyst activity, and in greater percent conversion as compared with oxidation in the absence of base, while maintaining satisfactory selectivity for the desired oxidation, for example the oxidation of isobutane to isobutanol. 1 fig.

  3. Heterogeneous Catalysis DOI: 10.1002/anie.200503898

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    , as in the reactions of isobutane on sulfated zirconia[14] and tert-butyl alcohol[5,7,8] on acidic ZSM5, MOR, BEA of Chemical Engineering University of California at Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720 (USA) Fax: (+1)510-642-4778 E

  4. Cost of Water for Irrigation on the High Plains. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonnen, C. A.; Magee, A. C.; McArthur, W. C.; Hughes, W. F.

    1952-01-01

    ......................................................................... 8.46 Using gasoline ......................................................................... 9.85 Using natural gas ...................................................................... 5.94 Industrial engines: Using butane... Engines Using Gasoline .................................................................. 21 Engines Using Natural Gas ................. .... ............................. 21 Industrial Engines...

  5. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.

  6. A Fast Moving Horizon Estimation Algorithm Based on Nonlinear ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-02-19

    Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 ... Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE) is an efficient optimization-based strategy ...... concentrations of ethylene, butane, methane and impurities throughout the plant units.

  7. Enantiospecific Desorption of Chiral Compounds from Chiral Cu(643) and Achiral Cu(111) Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    Joshua D. Horvath and Andrew J. Gellman* Contribution from the Department of Chemical Engineering to -hydride elimination for (R)- and (S)- butane 2-oxide on the Ag(643)R

  8. Enantiospecific Desorption of R-and S-Propylene Oxide from a Chiral Cu(643) Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    . Horvath and Andrew J. Gellman* Department of Chemical Engineering Carnegie Mellon UniVersity Pittsburgh surfaces and the activation barriers to -hydride elimination for R- and S-butan-2-oxide on the Ag(643)R

  9. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    barrels or more andor receives petroleum products by tanker, barge, or pipeline. Butane (C 4 H 10 ). A normally gaseous straight-chain or branch-chain hydrocarbon extracted...

  10. King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Electrical Engineering Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Ghadhban, Samir

    Aramco. About 40% of the methanol produced is used captively in the production of MTBE Sina's own methanol unit, and butane is supplied by pipeline from Aramco. All of the MTBE produced

  11. Distinguishing and understanding thermogenic and biogenic sources of methane using multiply substituted isotopologues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Doubly C-substituted ethane in shale gases, Goldschmidtoxidation of methane, ethane, propane and butane. Geochimicameasured ? 13 C values of ethane (? 13 C C2H6 ) for some

  12. Experimental Setup The samples used were crushed almonds, peanuts and hazelnuts. We

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nehorai, Arye

    Model # Sensitive to: Sensor 1 TGS 2610 LP gas, propane, butane Sensor 2 TGS 2620 Vapor of organic solvents, other volatile vapors Sensor 3 TGS 2602 Odorous gases, volatile organic compounds Sensor 1Sensor

  13. "Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamada, Yusuke

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane and iso-Butanethe Hydroformylation of Propane over Silica-supported Groupproduct and small amount of propane, which is likely to be

  14. Consequences of Confinement in Zeolite Acid Catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gounder, Rajamani Pachayappan

    2011-01-01

    of monomolecular propane cracking-to- dehydrogenation rate3.4. Kinetic diameters of propane and n-butane. Scheme 3.5.Intrinsic rate constant for propane cracking, k int on H-

  15. Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydin, M.; Williams, M. B; Saltzman, E. S

    2007-01-01

    study of ethane and propane oxidation in the tropo- sphere,alkanes (ethane, C 2 H 6 ; propane, C 3 H 8 ; n-butane, n-Cfluid contamination. 4.1.2. Propane [ 24 ] Propane levels in

  16. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Volume 29, 2002/pp. 15651572 CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFTED TRIPLE FLAMES STABILIZED IN THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    1565 Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Volume 29, 2002/pp. 1565­1572 CHARACTERISTICS at their base [2­5]. Chung and Lee [2,3] showed that for non-premixed laminar jets, propane and n- butane flames

  17. Please cite this article in press as: B. Jiang, et al., A micro heater platform with fluid channels for testing micro-solid oxide fuel cell components, Sens. Actuators B: Chem. (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2012.06.097

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    providing gas reforming, electrochemical power generation, and post-combustion of unused fuel. All and fuel flexibility [2], employing hydrocarbon fuels such as butane or propane. Hydrocarbon fuels must

  18. Gas Viscosity at High Pressure and High Temperature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ling, Kegang

    2012-02-14

    . Although viscosity of some pure components such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and binary mixtures of these components at low-intermediate pressure and temperature had been studied intensively and been understood thoroughly...

  19. AME 513 Assigned: Tuesday 10/2/2012 Problem Set #2 Due Monday 10/15/2012 at 4:30 pm in the drop box in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : 4.20 (Partial equilibrium) 5.6 (Beta scission) 5.7 (Butane oxidation) 5.8 (Reduced mechanisms) Other. (a) From this information, estimate the pre-exponential factor Z and activation energy Ea. (b

  20. Accurate Computer Simulation of Phase Equilibrium for Complex Fluid Mixtures. Application to Binaries Involving Isobutene, Methanol, Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    to Binaries Involving Isobutene, Methanol, Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, and n-Butane Martin Li´sal,*,, William R + methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and the binaries formed by methanol with isobutene, MTBE, and n

  1. Anzahl von Strukturisomeren der Alkane ???? und Sascha Kurz??

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurz, Sascha

    _____________________________________________________________________________ Zusammenfassung Das Ph"anomen der Strukturisomerie wird anhand der Klasse der Alkane erkl"art. * *Auf ei- nem f || 9,5 2-Methyl-butan || -158.6 || 27.9 n-Pentan || -129

  2. Flammability Characteristics of Hydrogen and Its Mixtures with Light Hydrocarbons at Atmospheric and Sub-atmospheric Pressures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le, Thuy Minh Hai

    2013-07-13

    /vapor. This research focuses on the flammability limits of hydrogen and its binary mixtures with light hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, n-butane, and ethylene) at sub-atmospheric pressures. The flammability limits of hydrogen, light hydrocarbons, and binary mixtures...

  3. A BRIEF HISTORY OF INDUSTRIAL CATALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Aniline Cyclohexane BUTADIENE rr:ABLE C MAJOE AI:'PLICA!and acetylenes, such as butadiene, , and removed 'These mustto butenes and ts: butadiene, 2) 1) butane lbenzene dehydro~

  4. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    from the steam turbine and the binary cycle, and the thermal efficiencies for the binary cycle from the steam turbine and the binary cycle are kW15,410 kJ/kg)7.23448.1kJ/kg)(27438.19()( 433steamT,binarynet, 98isoT, inp iso wmWW hhmW steam turbine production well reinjection well isobutane turbine heat

  5. Application of the Cell Potential Method To Predict Phase Equilibria of Multicomponent Gas Hydrate Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    of Chemical Engineering and Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts (R-22) in structure I; and ethane (C2H6), cyclopropane (C3H6), propane (C3H8), isobutane (C4H10-sI-sII-Lhc-V) points have been predicted for the ethane-propane-water (277.3 K, 12.28 bar, and xeth,waterfree ) 0

  6. Chem 115Lithium-Halogen ExchangeMyers RLi + R'X RX + R'Li

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chem 115Lithium-Halogen ExchangeMyers RLi + R'X RX + R'Li Lithium-halogen exchange reactions are essentially inert. 2 t-BuLi t-BuI + RLi t-BuLi isobutene + isobutane + LiI Lithium-halogen exchange reactions, and lithium iodide. H OEtBr H H OEtLi H1.1 eq n-BuLi Et2O, !80 °C Lau, K. S.; Schlosser, M. J. Org. Chem. 1978

  7. Binary module test. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schilling, J.R.; Colley, T.C.; Pundyk, J.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of this project was to design and test a binary loop module representative of and scaleable to commercial size units. The design was based on state-of-the-art heat exchanger technology, and the purpose of the tests was to confirm performance of a supercritical boiling cycle using isobutane and a mixture of isobutane and isopentane as the secondary working fluid. The module was designed as one percent of a 50 MW unit. It was installed at Magma Power's East Mesa geothermal field and tested over a period of approximately 4 months. Most of the test runs were with isobutane but some data were collected for hydrocarbon mixtures. The results of the field tests are reported. In general these results indicate reasonably good heat balances and agreement with overall heat transfer coefficients calculated by current stream analysis methods and available fluid property data; however, measured pressure drops across the heat exchangers were 20 percent higher than estimated. System operation was stable under all conditions tested.

  8. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes. Final report, January 1, 1990--October 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    During the course of the first three years of the Cooperative Agreement (Phase I-III), we uncovered a family of metal perhaloporphyrin complexes which had unprecedented activity for the selective air-oxidation of fight alkanes to alcohols. The reactivity of fight hydrocarbon substrates with air or oxygen was in the order: isobutane>propane>ethane>methane, in accord with their homolytic bond dissociation energies. Isobutane was so reactive that the proof-of concept stage of a process for producing tert-butyl alcohol from isobutane was begun (Phase V). It was proposed that as more active catalytic systems were developed (Phases IV, VI), propane, then ethane and finally methane oxidations will move into this stage (Phases VII through IX). As of this writing, however, the program has been terminated during the later stages of Phases V and VI so that further work is not anticipated. We made excellent progress during 1994 in generating a class of less costly new materials which have the potential for high catalytic activity. New routes were developed for replacing costly perfluorophenyl groups in the meso-position of metalloporphyrin catalysts with far less expensive and lower molecular weight perfluoromethyl groups.

  9. Asia, North America lead way in growth of NGL, LPG trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otto, K.; Gist, R.; Whitley, C.; Haun, R.

    1998-01-12

    Recent analyses of world NGL trade indicate that important changes in LPG supply and demand are under way in Asia and North America. LPG markets in the 1990s reflect a rapidly shifting balance between East-of-Suez and West-of-Suez markets. This shift has increased concern about availability of future LPG supplies for Asia. The paper discusses world developments, East versus West of Suez, end uses and supplies in Asia, Canadian ethane, propane, butane, and natural gasoline, Mexican ethane, LPG, and natural gasoline, US ethane, propane, butanes, and iso-C{sub 4} and C{sub 5}.

  10. Regioselective alkane hydroxylation with a mutant AlkB enzyme

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koch, Daniel J.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2012-11-13

    AlkB from Pseudomonas putida was engineered using in-vivo directed evolution to hydroxylate small chain alkanes. Mutant AlkB-BMO1 hydroxylates propane and butane at the terminal carbon at a rate greater than the wild-type to form 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively. Mutant AlkB-BMO2 similarly hydroxylates propane and butane at the terminal carbon at a rate greater than the wild-type to form 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively. These biocatalysts are highly active for small chain alkane substrates and their regioselectivity is retained in whole-cell biotransformations.

  11. Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. DOE PETC fourth quarterly report, May 25, 1994--August 24, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate the potential value of solid superacid catalysts of the sulfated zirconia type for light hydrocarbon conversion. The key experiments include testing of the performance of such catalysts in a flow reactor fed with streams containing, for example, n-butane or propane. A solid superacid catalyst was prepared by addition of iron and manganese to sulfated zirconium hydroxide followed by calcination. The catalyst was tested for n-butane conversion in a packed-bed flow reactor at temperatures of 40 to 225{degrees}C with the reactant partial pressure in the range of 0.0025-0.01 attn. The predominant catalytic reaction was n-butane isomerization, and this was accompanied at 40{degrees}C by near stoichiometric disproportionation. The C3/C5 molar ratio was generally greater than 1, consistent with conversion of the secondary C5 products. As the temperature increased, the selectivity for isomerization decreased and that for disproportionation increased. In a typical experiment the activity of the catalyst increased for about 1 h on stream and then declined rapidly. The rate maxima as a function of time on stream were taken as a measure of the initial activity of the catalyst. For example, the approximate rate of isomerization of n-butane at the maximum was 4.3 x 10-8 mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot} s) with a feed n-butane partial pressure of 0.0025 atm at 75{degrees}C. With a feed n-butane partial pressure of 0.005 atm at 40{degrees}C and a conversion of 1 1%, the molar ratio of propane to i-butane was 0.03, and with the same feed composition at 100{degrees}C, this ratio at a conversion of 50% was 0.1. The iron- and manganese-promoted solid superacid catalyst is potentially of value for practical low-temperature paraffin isomerization accompanied by disproportionation of n-butane.

  12. Appears in Working Notes of the AAAI Spring Symposium on Adjustable Autonomy Stanford University, March 22-24, 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krebsbach, Kurt D.

    for converting crude oil (feed) intomore useful products such as gasoline, kerosene, and butane (Le er 1985 fmusliner,krebsbacg@htc.honeywell.com Abstract Oil re neries provide the lifeblood for global economic costly, resulting in poor product quality, schedule delays, equipment damage, reduced occupa- tional

  13. A slightly edited version of this paper appears in Proc. 1998 Conf on Foundations of Computer-Aided Process Operations [FOCAPO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krebsbach, Kurt D.

    for converting crude oil (feed) intomore useful products such as gasoline, kerosene, and butane (Le er 1985 Technology Drive Minneapolis, MN 55418 fkrebsbac,muslinerg@htc.honeywell.com Abstract Oil re neries literally provide the lifeblood for global economic health, and disruptions to their operations have major worldwide

  14. Optimal Model-Based Production Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Given Refinery configuration: Process units Feedstock & Final Product Objective Select crude oils Hydrotreatment Gasoline blending Distillate blending Gas oil blending Cat Crack CDU crude1 crude2 butane Fuel gas1 Optimal Model-Based Production Planning for Refinery Operation Abdulrahman Alattas Advisor

  15. Optimal Model-Based Production Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    configuration Processing 2 crude oils & importing heavy naphtha Swing cut model Offers lower net cost (lighter) 142 0 Crude2 (heavier) 289 469 Other Feedstock Heavy Naphtha 13 9 Refinery Production Fuel Gas 13 Gasoline blending Distillate blending Gas oil blending Cat Crack CDU crude1 crude2 butane Fuel gas Premium

  16. Optimal Model-Based Production Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Given Refinery configuration: Process units Feedstock & Final Product Objective Select crude oils;2 Introduction Refinery production planning models Operation optimization Crude selection Maximizing profit Hydrotreatment Gasoline blending Distillate blending Gas oil blending Cat Crack CDU crude1 crude2 butane Fuel gas

  17. Optimal Model-Based Production Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Given Refinery configuration: Process units Feedstock & Final Product Objective Select crude oils Hydrotreatment Gasoline blending Distillate blending Gas oil blending Cat Crack CDU crude1 crude2 butane Fuel gas Refinery Planning Model Swing cut models: Improvement from the fixed-yield approach Crude oil cuts

  18. Integration of Nonlinear CDU Models in Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Hydrotreatment Distillate blending Gas oil blending Cat Crack CDU Crude1, ... Crude2, .... butane Fuel gas Prem configuration: Process units Cases: Processing 2,3 & 4 crude oils Objective Select crude oils and quantities Model 2 Crude Oils Case 3 Crude Oils Case 4 Crude Oils Case FI 245 249 247 LP-SC 195 195 191 LP-FY 51 62

  19. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Plus 30 - 1 -17 - 0 6 1 6 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 172 4 9 -141 - 0 9 1 34 EthaneEthylene 82 0 0 -76 - 0 0 0 6 PropanePropylene 57 8 7 -39 - 0 0 0 33 Normal Butane...

  20. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plus 3 - 0 0 - 0 0 0 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 14 41 60 101 - -4 5 3 214 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 1 PropanePropylene 9 47 52 99 - -4 0 1 211 Normal Butane...

  1. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Plus 3 - 0 0 - 0 0 0 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 15 10 103 160 - -52 6 1 332 EthaneEthylene 1 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 1 PropanePropylene 10 39 96 153 - -40 0 1 337 Normal Butane...

  2. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    244 - 55 - 25 176 5 92 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,232 393 342 - 12 258 43 1,653 EthaneEthylene 542 16 1 - 95 0 0 463 PropanePropylene 433 466 255 - 124 0 32 997 Normal Butane...

  3. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Plus 3 - 0 0 - 0 0 0 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 14 41 64 101 - -4 5 3 217 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 1 PropanePropylene 9 47 56 99 - -4 0 1 214 Normal Butane...

  4. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Plus 30 - 0 -18 - 0 6 1 5 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 176 6 7 -147 - 0 9 1 32 EthaneEthylene 85 0 0 -80 - 0 0 0 5 PropanePropylene 57 8 6 -41 - 0 0 0 30 Normal Butane...

  5. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plus 27 - 1 -12 - 0 6 1 8 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 127 -4 16 -92 - -4 9 0 43 EthaneEthylene 46 0 0 -51 - 0 0 0 -5 PropanePropylene 49 7 14 -20 - -7 0 0 56 Normal Butane...

  6. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Pentanes Plus 3 - 0 0 - 0 0 0 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 14 54 55 90 - 0 4 3 204 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 1 PropanePropylene 9 49 48 89 - -5 0 1 199 Normal Butane...

  7. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    265 - 47 - 2 184 7 119 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,444 575 318 - 16 250 53 2,019 EthaneEthylene 646 20 0 - 10 0 0 657 PropanePropylene 497 541 226 - 7 0 37 1,220 Normal Butane...

  8. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Plus 30 - 1 -17 - 0 6 1 5 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 171 4 8 -140 - 0 9 1 34 EthaneEthylene 82 0 0 -77 - 0 0 0 5 PropanePropylene 56 8 7 -38 - 0 0 0 33 Normal Butane...

  9. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plus 30 - 0 -17 - 0 7 0 6 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 173 5 12 -141 - 0 11 1 36 EthaneEthylene 84 0 0 -78 - 0 0 0 6 PropanePropylene 56 9 10 -40 - 2 0 0 32 Normal Butane...

  10. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    266 - 47 - 2 188 7 116 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,451 573 328 - 15 253 53 2,030 EthaneEthylene 649 20 1 - 10 0 0 660 PropanePropylene 499 540 233 - 6 0 37 1,229 Normal Butane...

  11. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Plus 35 - 0 0 - -2 26 0 10 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 40 19 0 0 - -67 54 18 55 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 PropanePropylene 13 61 0 0 - -19 0 18 76 Normal Butane...

  12. Lecture 2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sizes (C n H 2n+2 ). These are propane (C 3 H 8 or CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 3 ), normal butane (n-C 4 H 10 , CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 ) and so on. In general, groups connected by the...

  13. In situ vibrational spectroscopic investigation of C{sub 4} hydrocarbon selective oxidation over vanadium-phosphorus-oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Z.Y.

    1999-05-10

    n-Butane selective oxidation over the VPO catalyst to maleic anhydride is the first and only commercialized process of light alkane selective oxidation. The mechanism of this reaction is still not well known despite over twenty years of extensive studies, which can partially be attributed to the extreme difficulties to characterize catalytic reactions real-time under typical reaction conditions. In situ spectroscopic characterization techniques such as Infrared spectroscopy and laser Raman spectroscopy were used in the current mechanistic investigations of n-butane oxidation over VPO catalysts. To identify the reaction intermediates, oxidation of n-butane, 1,3-butadiene and related oxygenates on the VPO catalyst were monitored using FTIR spectroscopy under transient conditions. n-Butane was found to adsorb on the VPO catalyst to form olefinic species, which were further oxidized to unsaturated, noncyclic carbonyl species. The open chain dicarbonyl species then experienced cycloaddition to form maleic anhydride. VPO catalyst phase transformations were investigated using in situ laser Raman spectroscopy. This report contains Chapter 1: General introduction; Chapter 2: Literature review; and Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations.

  14. Probing hydrogen-bonding in binary liquid mixtures with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: a comparison of Debye and absorption analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Nicholas Y.; Li, Ruoyu; Bräuer, Pierre; D’Agostino, Carmine; Gladden, Lynn F.; Zeitler, J. Axel

    2015-01-26

    and butane- diol does not affect the degree of non-ideality of the mixtures, which implies that intra-molecular hydrogen bonding is not a contributing factor to the terahertz absorption as the diol hydroxyl groups preferentially form inter-molecular hydrogen...

  15. MEMS-based fuel cells with integrated catalytic fuel processor and method thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Havstad, Mark A.

    2011-08-09

    Described herein is a means to incorporate catalytic materials into the fuel flow field structures of MEMS-based fuel cells, which enable catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbon based fuel, such as methane, methanol, or butane. Methods of fabrication are also disclosed.

  16. Influence of NaA Zeolite Crystal Expansion/Contraction on Zeolite Membrane Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, Stephanie G; Payzant, E Andrew; Gibbons, Will T; Soydas, Belma; Kita, Hidetoshi; Noble, Richard D; Falconer, John L.

    2011-01-01

    In-situ powder XRD measurements showed that the NaA zeolite unit cell contracts and expands upon adsorption, and these changes in zeolite crystal size correlate with permeation changes through NaA zeolite membranes. These membranes had high pervaporation selectivities, even though gas permeation was mainly through defects, as indicated by Knudsen selectivities for gases. At 300 K and a thermodynamic activity of 0.03, water contracted the NaA crystals by 0.22 vol%, and this contraction increased the helium flux through two NaA membranes by approximately 80%. Crystal contraction also increased the fluxes of i-butane during vapor permeation and i-propanol (IPA) during pervaporation (~ 0.03 wt% water). At activities above 0.07, water expanded NaA crystals and correspondingly decreased the membrane fluxes of helium, i-butane, and IPA. Similarly, methanol contracted NaA crystals by 0.05 vol% at an activity of 0.02, and this contraction slightly increased the helium and i-butane fluxes through a NaA membrane. Above an activity of 0.06, methanol expanded the crystals, and the fluxes of helium and i-butane through a NaA membrane decreased. The adsorbate-induced changes explain some pervaporation behavior reported by others, and they indicate that crystal expansion and contraction may increase or decrease zeolite NaA membrane selectivity by changing the defect sizes.

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications: Subtask 3.3 - dewatering studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, R. H.; Phillips, D. I.; Sohn, S. M.; Luttrell, G. H.

    1996-10-01

    If successful, the novel Hydrophobic Dewatering (HD) process being developed in this project will be capable of efficiently removing moisture from fine coal without the expense and other related drawbacks associated with mechanical dewatering or thermal drying. In the HD process, a hydrophobic substance is added to a coal-water slurry to displace water from the surface of coal, while the spent hydrophobic substance is recovered for recycling. For this process to have commercialization potential, the amount of butane lost during the process must be small. Earlier testing revealed the ability of the hydrophobic dewatering process to reduce the moisture content of fine coal to a very low amount as well as the determination of potential butane losses by the adsorption of butane onto the coal surface. Work performed in this quarter showed that the state of oxidation affects the amount of butane adsorbed onto the surface of the coal and also affects the final moisture content. the remaining work will involve a preliminary flowsheet of a continuous bench-scale unit and a review of the economics of the system. 1 tab.

  18. Sunlight to Gas Pump Michael Bobek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Subrata

    hydrocarbon fuel: methane (natural gas), butane (lighter fluid), propane(Grill gas), and octane (gasoline, motivated yet?! So now why do we want to convert the sunlight into fuel? The reason is that fuel is much to convert to fuels is that the structure of society already has a strong backbone supporting them, gas

  19. Calculation of Phase Coexistence Properties and Surface Tensions of n-Alkanes with Grand-Canonical Transition-Matrix Monte Carlo Simulation and Finite-Size Scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jayant K.

    densities and vapor pressures of select n-alkanes. Surface tension values for butane, hexane, and octane Carlo method (GEMC) by Panagiotopolous1 greatly enhanced our ability to predict the phase behavior energy is enhanced, and the likelihood of molecules overlapping is reduced. Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo

  20. 9118 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1992, 114, 9118-9122 Propane Buwe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    9118 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1992, 114, 9118-9122 Scheme 111 Propane Buwe X =CHI and Y = H lossofH2 Z = H-82-8; ethane, 74- 84-0; propane, 74-98-6;butane, 106-97-8. (28) The heats of formation for C3H2are the scaled

  1. Combustion and Flame 145 (2006) 324338 www.elsevier.com/locate/combustflame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    2006-01-01

    . Guo et al. / Combustion and Flame 145 (2006) 324­338 325 for ethylene, propane, and butane counterflowCombustion and Flame 145 (2006) 324­338 www.elsevier.com/locate/combustflame Numerical study of The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved. Keywords: Soot; Laminar flame; Radiation; Hydrogen addition 1

  2. A combined crossed-beam, ab initio, and RiceRamspergerKassel Marcus investigation of the reaction of carbon atoms C,,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    as in oxygen-poor combustion flames. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1418744 I of carbon stars,1 hydrocarbon-rich planetary atmospheres,2 combustion processes,3 and environmental science. Benzene has been detected in oxygen-poor methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, and n-butane flames,4 and has

  3. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING J. Micromech. Microeng. 16 (2006) S198S205 doi:10.1088/0960-1317/16/9/S05

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    2006-01-01

    . Combustion experiments were carried out in a solder bath to keep the catalyst temperature constant. Complete MW m-3 heat generation. Reaction constants for catalytic combustion on the Pd/nano-porous alumina such as methanol, propane and butane is tens of times larger than that of the Li-ion battery. Therefore

  4. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING J. Micromech. Microeng. 16 (2006) S211S219 doi:10.1088/0960-1317/16/9/S07

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    2006-01-01

    such as butane and propane have 100 times larger energy density. Power MEMS devices, taking advantage, which is harvested from fuel combustion, to electric energy, micro devices for feeding fuel and air to form an ejector. The ejector pumps ambient air to the combustion chamber by utilizing the vapor

  5. 1 Copyright 2014 by ASME A SOFT COMBUSTION-DRIVEN PUMP FOR SOFT ROBOTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    . Methane was preferred over the other hydrocarbons such as butane or propane because the combustible range1 Copyright © 2014 by ASME A SOFT COMBUSTION-DRIVEN PUMP FOR SOFT ROBOTS Constantinos Stergiopulos of a monolithic high-pressure diaphragm pump made entirely of soft elastomer material and driven by a combustion

  6. Synthesis and characterization of a new catalyst Pt/Mg(Ga)(Al)O for alkane dehydrogenation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis

    Sun a , Georges Siddiqi a , Miaofang Chi b , Alexis T. Bell a,* a Department of Chemical Engineering/Mg(Ga)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation are described in the second part of this study (G. Siddiqi for producing intermediates. The catalytic dehydrogenation of ethane, propane, and butane offers an attrac- tive

  7. ADCHEM 2006 International Symposium on Advanced Control of Chemical Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Department of Chemical Engineering, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway Abstract: Considering the large amount of work flow rate is 1 kmol s-1 · Composition of natural gas: 89.7 % methane, 5.5 % ethane, 1.8 % propane, 0), methane (C1), ethane (C2), propane (C3) and n-butane (nC4) and the composition is used in optimization

  8. Subscriber access provided by -Access paid by the | UC Berkeley Library Journal of the American Chemical Society is published by the American Chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Activation on Zeolites Rajamani Gounder and Enrique Iglesia* Department of Chemical Engineering, Uni and dehydrogenation of propane and n-butane differed among zeolites with varying channel structure (H-MFI, H-FER, H for dehydrogenation, with a later and looser transition state, than for cracking in the case of both propane and n

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Silica-Supported AuNi Catalysts for the Dehydrogenation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Introduction Gold­nickel bimetallic catalysts have shown enhanced catalytic properties for a number of reactions [1­9], such as steaming reforming of hydrocarbons [1, 2], the water­gas shift reaction [3 reforming of n-butane, whereas a monometallic Ni catalyst deactivated rapidly [1]. For the water­gas shift

  10. Sampling for Bacteria in Wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2001-11-15

    that delivers softened, fil- tered or otherwise treated water; or from a hose attached to a faucet. 3. Sterilize the inside surface of the faucet by flam- ing with a propane torch (a disposable butane lighter is fine) or a homemade torch can be made by dipping a...

  11. Gassmann's fluid substitution paradox on carbonates: seismic and ultrasonic frequencies Ludmila Adam 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and butane saturation. This is observed for both seismic and ultrasonic frequencies which involve independent for brine saturation, and is less for dry samples. This effect should also be considered when studying data on carbonate reservoir rocks have not been as thoroughly studied as clastic sedimentary reservoir

  12. Journal of Power Sources 158 (2006) 333347 Exergy analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell micropowerplant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    2006-01-01

    2005 Abstract In this paper, an analytical model of a micro solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system fed by butane is introduced and analyzed in order to optimize its exergetic efficiency. The micro SOFC system. A one-dimensional (1D) polarization model of the SOFC is used to examine the effects of concentration

  13. Intrinsic kinetics of lower alcohols: C2, C3 dehydration over Lewis acidic ordered mesoporous silicate: Zr-KIT-6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Qing

    2013-12-31

    % is produced as a by-product of gasoline production from fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and 7% of is on-purpose product from the dehydrogenation of propane and metathesis of ethylene and butylene. The remainder (~4%) is from selected gas streams from coal... because they not only can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions and dependency on fossil fuels but also represent the only renewable carbon source that can be converted into solid, liquid and gaseous fuels through bio-chemical or thermo-chemical processes...

  14. Composites structures for bone tissue reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neto, W.; Santos, João; Avérous, L.; Schlatter, G.; Bretas, Rosario

    2015-05-22

    The search for new biomaterials in the bone reconstitution field is growing continuously as humane life expectation and bone fractures increase. For this purpose, composite materials with biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite (HA) have been used. A composite material formed by a film, nanofibers and HA has been made. Both, the films and the non-woven mats of nanofibers were formed by nanocomposites made of butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and HA. The techniques used to produce the films and nanofibers were spin coating and electrospinning, respectively. The composite production and morphology were evaluated. The composite showed an adequate morphology and fibers size to be used as scaffold for cell growth.

  15. Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. DOE PETC third quarterly report, February 25, 1994--May 24, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    Environmental concerns are leading to the replacement of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline by high-octane-number branched paraffins and oxygenated compounds such as methyl t-butyl ether. The ether is produced from methanol and isobutylene, and the latter can be formed from n-butane by isomerization followed by dehydrogenation. Paraffin isomerization reactions are catalyzed by very strong acids such as aluminum chloride supported on alumina. The aluminum chloride-containing catalysts are corrosive, and their disposal is expensive. Alternatively, hydroisomerization is catalyzed by zeolite-supported metals at high temperatures, but high temperatures do not favor branched products at equilibrium. Thus there is a need for improved catalysts and processes for the isomerization of n-butane and other straight-chain paraffins. Consequently, researchers have sought for solid acids that are noncorrosive and active enough to catalyze isomerization of paraffins at low temperatures. For example, sulfated zirconia catalyzes isomerization of n-butane at temperatures as low as 25{degrees}C. The addition of iron and manganese promoters has been reported to increase the activity of sulfated zirconia for n-butane isomerization by three orders of magnitude. Although the high activity of this catalyst is now established, the reaction network is not known, and the mechanism has not been investigated. The goal of this work is to investigate low-temperature reactions of light paraffins catalyzed by solid superacids of the sulfated zirconia type. The present report is concerned with catalysis of n-butane conversion catalyzed by the Fe- and Mn- promoted sulfated zirconia described in the previous report in this series.

  16. Asymptotic normalization coefficients for C-13+p -> N-14 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trache, L.; Azhari, A.; Clark, HL; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Lui, YW; Mukhamedzhanov, AM; Tribble, Robert E.; Carstoiu, F.

    1998-01-01

    chamber and the residual energy as determined by the light output from the plastic scintillator. The focal plane position and the scattering angle at the target were reconstructed us- ing the position measurements from any two of the four wires..., followed by an NE102A plastic scintillator to mea- sure the residual energy. The entrance and exit windows of the detector were made of 1.8 and 7.2 mg/cm2 thick Kapton foils, respectively. The ionization chamber was filled with purified isobutane at a...

  17. Catalyst Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol transformation to transportation fuel range hydrocarbon on HZSM-5 (SiO2 / Al2O3 = 30) catalyst was studied at 360oC and 300psig. Product distributions and catalyst life were compared using methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 1-butanol as a feed. The catalyst life for 1-propanol and 1-butanol was more than double compared to that for methanol and ethanol. For all the alcohols studied, the product distributions (classified to paraffin, olefin, napthene, aromatic and naphthalene compounds) varied with time on stream (TOS). At 24 hours TOS, liquid product from 1-propanol and 1-butanol transformation primarily contains higher olefin compounds. The alcohol transformation process to higher hydrocarbon involves a complex set of reaction pathways such as dehydration, oligomerization, dehydrocyclization, and hydrogenation. Compared to ethylene generated from methanol and ethanol, oligomerization of propylene and butylene has a lower activation energy and can readily take place on weaker acidic sites. On the other hand, dehydrocyclization of propylene and butylene to form the cyclic compounds requires the sits with stronger acid strength. Combination of the above mentioned reasons are the primary reasons for olefin rich product generated in the later stage of the time on stream and for the extended catalyst life time for 1 propanol and 1 butanol compared to methanol and ethanol conversion over HZSM-5.

  18. Analyses of mixed-hydrocarbon binary thermodynamic cycles for moderate-temperature geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demuth, O.J.

    1981-02-01

    A number of binary geothermal cycles utilizing mixed hydrocarbon working fluids were analyzed with the overall objective of finding a working fluid which can produce low-cost electrical energy using a moderately-low temperature geothermal resource. Both boiling and supercritical shell-and-tube cycles were considered. The performance of a dual-boiling isobutane cycle supplied by a 280/sup 0/F hydrothermal resource (corresponding to the 5 MW pilot plant at the Raft River site in Idaho) was selected as a reference. To investigate the effect of resource temperature on the choice of working fluid, several analyses were conducted for a 360/sup 0/F hydrothermal resource, which is representative of the Heber resource in California. The hydrocarbon working fluids analyzed included methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, isopentane, hexane, heptane, and mixtures of those pure hydrocarbons. For comparison, two fluorocarbon refrigerants were also analyzed. These fluorocarbons, R-115 and R-22, were suggested as resulting in high values of net plant geofluid effectiveness (watt-hr/lbm geofluid) at the two resource temperatures chosen for the study. Preliminary estimates of relative heat exchanger size (product of overall heat transfer coefficient times heater surface area) were made for a number of the better performing cycles.

  19. U.S. LPG pipeline begins deliveries to Pemex terminal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodenhamer, K.C.

    1997-08-11

    LPG deliveries began this spring to the new Mendez LPG receiving terminal near Juarez, State of Chihuahua, Mexico. Supplying the terminal is the 265-mile, 8-in. Rio Grande Pipeline that includes a reconditioned 217-mile, 8-in. former refined-products pipeline from near Odessa, Texas, and a new 48-mile, 8-in. line beginning in Hudspeth County and crossing the US-Mexico border near San Elizario, Texas. Capacity of the pipeline is 24,000 b/d. The LPG supplied to Mexico is a blend of approximately 85% propane and 15% butane. Before construction and operation of the pipeline, PGPB blended the propane-butane mix at a truck dock during loading. Demand for LPG in northern Mexico is strong. Less than 5% of the homes in Juarez have natural gas, making LPG the predominant energy source for cooking and heating in a city of more than 1 million. LPG also is widely used as a motor fuel.

  20. Thermal decomposition of Mg/V hydrotalcites and catalytic performance of the products in oxidative dehydrogenation reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holgado, M.J.; Labajos, F.M.; Montero, M.J.S.; Rives, V

    2003-11-26

    Layered double hydroxides with the hydrotalcite-type structure containing Mg{sup 2+} and V{sup 3+} in the brucite-like layers, possessing different V contents, have been prepared and characterised by elemental chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and specific surface area and porosity assessment by nitrogen adsorption; thermal decomposition was studied by Differential Thermal Analysis and Thermogravimetric Analysis. The solids obtained after calcination at 800 deg. C were tested as catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane and n-butane. Results indicate that the relative amounts of Mg{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}) and MgO, depending on the V content in the starting hydrotalcite, determines the performance of the catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of propane and n-butane.

  1. Solvothermal synthesis of vanadium phosphates in the form of xerogels, aerogels and mesostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sydorchuk, V.; Zazhigalov, V.; Khalameida, S.; Diyuk, E.; Skubiszewska-Zieba, J.; Leboda, R.; Kuznetsova, L.

    2010-09-15

    Regularities and peculiarities of physicochemical changes, first of all phase transformations, during solvothermal treatment (with conventional and microwave heating) of the vanadium pentoxide and orthophosphoric acid mixture in organic solvents in the presence of reducing agents have been studied. Hemihydrate of vanadium hydrophosphate - the precursor of vanadium pyrophosphate, the active phase for n-butane to maleic anhydride oxidation, and ion exchanger with variable physicochemical characteristics, i.e. crystal structure, specific surface area, crystallite size and acidic properties - has been synthesized in the temperature range 170-200 {sup o}C. The obtained phases were examined using XRD, DTA-TG, SEM, FTIR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption as well as gas chromatographic determination of acidity through organic bases adsorption. The catalytic activity of prepared samples for n-butane oxidation has been investigated.

  2. Synthesis of SnO{sub 2} Nanoparticles Using Ultrasonication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, Sanhita; Devi, P. Sujatha

    2010-10-04

    The use of ultrasonic energy for chemical synthesis has recently become an interesting and growing area of research. Using this form of energy, we have synthesized nanoparticles of SnO{sub 2}(8-30 nm) at room temperature by a sonication assisted precipitation technique. In order to understand the effect of ultrasonic energy on particle size and their distribution, the precipitation time was varied during the preparation. A sonication time of 3 h was found to be optimum to produce SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles having size below 10 nm. We found that a gradual increase of the sonication time gradually decreases the particle size with interesting morphology and increased surface area. The butane sensing properties of the synthesized powders exhibited a direct influence of the sonication time on the sensing properties. A 3 h sonicated sample, exhibited a maximum response of around 98.88% towards 5000 ppm butane at 450 deg. C with a fast recovery time.

  3. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  5. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  6. Feedstock Economics for Global Steam Crackers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCormack, G.; Pavone, T.

    1990-01-01

    of annuunceme"ts of new global capac i ty. Many of the announcements have been made by organizations with no previous background in petrochemica Is, "'ho believe they possess strategic competit1ve advantages for success 1n the business. The choice... plants based upon five alternative feedstocks, and then modifying the data for 10 global regions in which significant new ethylene capacity has been announced. The five feedstocks considered are: ethane, propane, butane, wide range naphtha...

  7. Potential Future Impacts on Visual Air Quality for Class I Areas1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PRODUCTION Crude Oil 17.9 19.0 18.0 NGL & Butane 2.6 2.0 1.8 Shale Oil 0 .1 .3 Natural Gas 19.0 17.2 16.6 PRODUCTION IMPORTS Crude Oil 8.7 16.5 20.9 Petroleum Products 3.8 6.7 7.8 Natural Gas 1.0 1.9 2.6 TOTAL

  8. The catalytic oxidation of propane 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanderson, Charles Frederick

    1949-01-01

    for fuel use as small as 10 million Btu/hr or across operations of largest multi-facility organizations. We particularly encourage fuel oil and natural gas users to set up for switching to LPG (or propane) *, and propane users to set up to also use... butane and pentane as occasional alternatives. *The terms ?liquefied petroleum gas? (LPG) and propane are used somewhat interchangeably, even though LPG refers to mixtures of propane with some...

  9. PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS) Table A1 Molar mass, gas constant, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Table A­20 Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2 Table A­21 Ideal-gas properties of carbon.1355 n-Butane C4H10 58.124 0.1430 425.2 3.80 0.2547 Carbon dioxide CO2 44.01 0.1889 304.2 7.39 0Appendix 1 PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS) Table A­1 Molar mass, gas constant, and critical

  10. Vrme-och strmningsteknik / Thermal and flow engineering Massverfring & separationsteknik /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    .4.2015 Obs: matrikelnummer = a b c d e och z = max(c,d,e) Note: input data depends on matriculation number = a b c d e and z = max(c,d,e). 1505. Med hjälp av jämviktsdata i figuren, ge (T, x, y) och (x,y) diagramm för två-komponent systemet iC4-C6 (i-butan ­ hexan) vid trycket p = (2·z ­ b)/10 (MPa). 1505

  11. Dow Freeport PMDI MRU Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litzinger, J.

    2010-01-01

    . ? Dow Operates 3 PMDI sites within integrated sites ? Freeport, TX; Stade, Germany; Estarreja, Portugal TM ? Trademark of the Dow Chemical Company 7 PMDI Energy Efficiency Program In 2007, the business started an energy efficiency improvement plan... billion ? 52,000 employees worldwide ? One of the world?s largest industrial energy consumers ? Committed to Sustainability About Dow 3 Oil & Gas = Energy & Feedstock Oil & Gas Butane, Naphtha Feedstock Ethane, Propane Energy Steam, Heat...

  12. Index of Subjects Abbreviations ix,203-6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Christopher

    (acrylic acid) and Poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA Acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer (nitrile rubber NBR) 2 Acrylonitrile-styrene-butadiene ABS 2-5, 41-2,76, 78,136,154,156, 203, 209-10, 224 Addition reaction 23-5, 33 modulus 57,70,92 Bulk polymerisation 31 Butadiene 5,167,169,217 Butane 11 Butene 219 Butyl acetate 181

  13. Expansion fractionation capacity of the LPG-ULE plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morin, L.M.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Western Division of PDVSA has among other facilities a NGL Fractionation Complex located onshore in Ul'e. The complex consists of three plants, the first and second older plants, LPG-1 and LPG-2, which fractionate the NGL to produce propane, a butane mix and natural gasoline. The third plant, LPG-3, fractionates the butane mix from the LPG-1 and 2 plants to produce iso and normal butane. Several optimization projects already in progress will increase the NGL production to 12,200 b/d. For this reason it was decided to conduct a study of the existing fractionation facilities and utilities systems to determine their capacities. This evaluation revealed that some of the fractionation towers would have some limitations in the processing of the expected additional production. The study recommended an option to increase the capacity of the fractionation towers by lowering their operating pressure, in order to take advantage of relative volatility increase between the key components, which allows easier separation, as well as reducing the heat duty required. The completed study also determined that this option is more economically convenient than the replacement of the existing fractionation towers.

  14. Physics of the multi-functionality of lanthanum ferrite ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhargav, K. K.; Ram, S.; Majumder, S. B.

    2014-05-28

    In the present work, we have illustrated the physics of the multifunctional characteristics of nano-crystalline LaFeO{sub 3} powder prepared using auto-combustion synthesis. The synthesized powders were phase pure and crystallized into centro-symmetric Pnma space group. The temperature dependence of dielectric constant of pure LaFeO{sub 3} exhibits dielectric maxima similar to that observed in ferroelectric ceramics with non-centrosymmetric point group. The dielectric relaxation of LaFeO{sub 3} correlates well with small polaron conduction. The occurrence of polarization hysteresis in LaFeO{sub 3} (with centro-symmetric Pnma space group) is thought to be spin current induced type. The canting of the Fe{sup 3+} spins induce weak ferromagnetism in nano-crystalline LaFeO{sub 3}. Room temperature saturation magnetization of pure LaFeO{sub 3} is reported to be 3.0?emu/g. Due to the presence of both ferromagnetic as well as polarization ordering, LaFeO{sub 3} behaves like a single phase multiferroic ceramics. The magneto-electric coupling in this system has been demonstrated through the magneto-dielectric measurements which yield about 0.8% dielectric tuning (at 10?kHz) with the application of 2?T magnetic field. As a typical application of the synthesized nano-crystalline LaFeO{sub 3} powder, we have studied its butane sensing characteristics. The efficient butane sensing characteristics have been correlated to their catalytic activity towards oxidation of butane. Through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, we detect the surface adsorbed oxygen species on LaFeO{sub 3} surface. Surface adsorbed oxygen species play major role in their low temperature butane sensing. Finally, we have hypothesized that the desorbed H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} (originate from surface adsorbed hydroxyl and oxygen) initiate the catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane resulting in weakening of the electrostatics of the gas molecules.

  15. Luminescence-Based Spectroelectrochemical Sensor for [Tc(dmpe)3]2+/+ (dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane) within a Charge-Selective Polymer Film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Sayandev; Del Negro, Andrew S.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Kaval, Necati; Pantelic, Nebojsa; Morris, Laura K.; Heineman, W. R.; Seliskar, Carl J.

    2011-03-01

    A spectroelectrochemical sensor consisting of an indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrode (OTE) coated with a thin film of sulfonated polystyrene-blockpoly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene (SSEBS) was developed for [Tc(dmpe)3]+.. [Tc(dmpe)3]+ preconcentrated by ion-exchange into the SSEBS film after 20 min exposure to aqueous [Tc(dmpe)3]+ solution, resulting in a 14-fold increase in cathodic peak current compared to a bare OTE. Colorless [Tc(dmpe)3]+ was reversibly oxidized to colored [Tc(dmpe)3]2+ by cyclic voltammetry. Detection of [Tc(dmpe)3]2+ was accomplished by electrochemically cycling the complex between non-emissive [Tc(dmpe)3]+ and emissive [Tc(dmpe)3]2+ and monitoring the modulated emission (?exc = 532 nm; ?em = 660 nm). The sensor gave a linear response over the range of 0.16 to 340.0 µM.

  16. Simple electronic apparatus for the analysis of radioactively labeled gel electrophoretograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goulianos, Konstantin (New York, NY); Smith, Karen K. (New York, NY); White, Sebastian N. (New York, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A high resolution position sensitive radiation detector for analyzing radiation emanating from a source, constructed of a thin plate having an elongated slot with conductive edges acting as a cathode, a charged anode wire positioned within 0.5 mm adjacent the source and running parallel to the slot and centered therein, an ionizable gas ionized by radiation emanating from the source provided surrounding the anode wire in the slot, a helical wire induction coil serving as a delay line and positioned beneath the anode wire for detecting gas ionization and for producing resulting ionization signals, and processing circuits coupled to the induction coil for receiving ionization signals induced therein after determining therefrom the location along the anode wire of any radiation emanating from the source. An ionization gas of 70% Ar, 29% Isobutane, 0.6% Freon 13BI, and 0.4% Methylal is used.

  17. Selective oxidation of alkanes and/or alkenes to valuable oxygenates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Manhua (Maple Glen, PA); Pillai, Krishnan S. (North Brunwick, NJ)

    2011-02-15

    A catalyst, its method of preparation and its use for producing at least one of methacrolein and methacrylic acid, for example, by subjecting isobutane or isobutylene or a mixture thereof to a vapor phase catalytic oxidation in the presence of air or oxygen. In the case where isobutane alone is subjected to a vapor phase catalytic oxidation in the presence of air or oxygen, the product is at least one of isobutylene, methacrolein and methacrylic acid. The catalyst comprises a compound having the formula A.sub.aB.sub.bX.sub.xY.sub.yZ.sub.zO.sub.o wherein A is one or more elements selected from the group of Mo, W and Zr, B is one or more elements selected from the group of Bi, Sb, Se, and Te, X is one or more elements selected from the group of Al, Bi, Ca, Ce, Co, Fe, Ga, Mg, Ni, Nb, Sn, W and Zn, Y is one or more elements selected from the group of Ag, Au, B, Cr, Cs, Cu, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Re, Ru, Sn, Te, Ti, V and Zr, and Z is one or more element from the X or Y groups or from the following: As, Ba, Pd, Pt, Sr, or mixtures thereof, and wherein a=1, 0.05

  18. Hydrophobic Dewatering of Fine Coal. Topical report, March 1, 1995-March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, R.; Sohn, S.; Luttrell, J.; Phillips, D.

    1997-12-31

    Many advanced fine coal cleaning technologies have been developed in recent years under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy. However, they are not as widely deployed in industry as originally anticipated. An important reason for this problem is that the cleaned coal product is difficult to dewater because of the large surface area associated with fine particles. Typically, mechanical dewatering, such as vacuum filtration and centrifugation, can reduce the moisture to 20-35% level, while thermal drying is costly. To address this important industrial problem, Virginia Tech has developed a novel dewatering process, in which water is displaced from the surface of fine particulate materials by liquid butane. Since the process is driven by the hydrophobic interaction between coal and liquid butane, it was referred to as hydrophobic dewatering (HD). A fine coal sample with 21.4 pm median size was subjected to a series of bench-scale HD tests. It was a mid-vol bituminous coal obtained from the Microcel flotation columns operating at the Middle Fork coal preparation plant, Virginia. All of the test results showed that the HD process can reduce the moisture to substantially less than 10%. The process is sensitive to the amount of liquid butane used in the process relative to the solids concentration in the feed stream. Neither the intensity nor the time of agitation is critical for the process. Also, the process does not require long time for phase separation. Under optimal operating conditions, the moisture of the fine coal can be reduced to 1% by weight of coal.

  19. New and existing gas wells promise bountiful LPG output in Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Michigan remains the leading LP-gas producer in the Northeast quadrant of the U.S. This paper reports that boosted by a number of new natural gas wells and a couple of new gas processing plants, the state is firmly anchored in the butane/propane production business. Since 1981, more than 100 deep gas wells, most in excess of 8000 feet in depth, have been completed as indicated producers in the state. Many of these are yielding LPG-grade stock. So, combined with LPG-grade production from shallower geologic formations, the supply picture in this area looks promising for the rest of the country.

  20. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

    1994-04-05

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

  1. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

    1994-01-01

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

  2. Silicon Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Chip for Portable Consumer Electronics -- Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Ludwiszewski

    2009-06-29

    LSI’s fuel cell uses efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (“SOFC”) technology, is manufactured using Micro Electrical Mechanical System (“MEMS”) fabrication methods, and runs on high energy fuels, such as butane and ethanol. The company’s Fuel Cell on a Chip™ technology enables a form-factor battery replacement for portable electronic devices that has the potential to provide an order-of-magnitude run-time improvement over current batteries. Further, the technology is clean and environmentally-friendly. This Department of Energy funded project focused on accelerating the commercialization and market introduction of this technology through improvements in fuel cell chip power output, lifetime, and manufacturability.

  3. Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of different fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Bei-Jing; Yang, Fan; Yang, Qing-Tao

    2010-10-15

    Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of methane (CH{sub 4}), n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and dimethyl ether (DME) were studied experimentally in a Pt-coated monolith catalytic reactor. It is concluded that DME has the lowest catalytic ignition temperature and the least required H{sub 2} flow, while CH{sub 4} has the highest catalytic ignition temperature and the highest required H{sub 2} flow among the three fuels. (author)

  4. Regioselective alkane hydroxylation with a mutant CYP153A6 enzyme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Daniel J.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2013-01-29

    Cytochrome P450 CYP153A6 from Myobacterium sp. strain HXN1500 was engineered using in-vivo directed evolution to hydroxylate small-chain alkanes regioselectively. Mutant CYP153A6-BMO1 selectively hydroxylates butane and pentane at the terminal carbon to form 1-butanol and 1-pentanol, respectively, at rates greater than wild-type CYP153A6 enzymes. This biocatalyst is highly active for small-chain alkane substrates and the regioselectivity is retained in whole-cell biotransformations.

  5. Process for restoring membrane permeation properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, I.; Toy, L.G.; Casillas, C.G.

    1997-05-20

    A process is described for restoring the selectivity of high-free-volume, glassy polymer membranes for condensable components over less-condensable components or non-condensable components of a gas mixture. The process involves exposing the membrane to suitable sorbent vapor, such as propane or butane, thereby reopening the microvoids that make up the free volume. The selectivity of an aged membrane may be restored to 70--100% of its original value. The selectivity of a membrane which is known to age over time can also be maintained by keeping the membrane in a vapor environment when it is not in use. 8 figs.

  6. LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE IRRADIATION OF SOLID ETHANE ANALOG ICES AND IMPLICATIONS TO TITAN'S CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y. S.; Bennett, C. J.; Chen, L-H; Kaiser, R. I.; O'Brien, K.

    2010-03-10

    Pure ethane ices (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) were irradiated at 10, 30, and 50 K under contamination-free, ultrahigh vacuum conditions with energetic electrons generated in the track of galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) particles to simulate the interaction of GCRs with ethane ices in the outer solar system. The chemical processing of the samples was monitored by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and a quadrupole mass spectrometer during the irradiation phase and subsequent warm-up phases on line and in situ in order to extract qualitative (products) and quantitative (rate constants and yields) information on the newly synthesized molecules. Six hydrocarbons, methane (CH{sub 4}), acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}), ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}), and the ethyl radical (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}), together with n-butane (C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and butene (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}), were found to form at the radiation dose reaching 1.4 eV per molecule. The column densities of these species were quantified in the irradiated ices at each temperature, permitting us to elucidate the temperature and phase-dependent production rates of individual molecules. A kinetic reaction scheme was developed to fit column densities of those species produced during irradiation of amorphous/crystalline ethane held at 10, 30, or 50 K. In general, the yield of the newly formed molecules dropped consistently for all species as the temperature was raised from 10 K to 50 K. Second, the yield in the amorphous samples was found to be systematically higher than in the crystalline samples at constant temperature. A closer look at the branching ratios indicates that ethane decomposes predominantly to ethylene and molecular hydrogen, which may compete with the formation of n-butane inside the ethane matrix. Among the higher molecular products, n-butane dominates. Of particular relevance to the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan is the radiation-induced methane production from ethane-an alternative source of replenishing methane into the atmosphere. Finally, we discuss to what extent the n-butane could be the source of ''higher organics'' on Titan's surface thus resembling a crucial sink of condensed ethane molecules.

  7. Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durkan, Colm Zhang, Qian

    2014-08-25

    An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress. The resulting nanogap devices are used to measure the electrical properties of small numbers of two different molecular species with different end-groups, namely 1,4-butane dithiol and 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane. Fluctuations in the current reveal that in the case of the dithiol molecule devices, individual molecules conduct intermittently, with the fluctuations becoming more pronounced at larger biases.

  8. Process for restoring membrane permeation properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Toy, Lora G. (San Francisco, CA); Casillas, Carlos G. (San Jose, CA)

    1997-05-20

    A process for restoring the selectivity of high-flee-volume, glassy polymer membranes for condensable components over less-condensable components or non-condensable components of a gas mixture. The process involves exposing the membrane to suitable sorbent vapor, such as propane or butane, thereby reopening the microvoids that make up the free volume. The selectivity of an aged membrane may be restored to 70-100% of its original value. The selectivity of a membrane which is known to age over time can also be maintained by keeping the membrane in a vapor environment when it is not in use.

  9. Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dali; Orler, Bruce; Tornga, Stephanie; Welch, Cindy

    2011-01-26

    Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

  10. Bio-butanol: Combustion properties and detailed chemical kinetic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, G.; Curran, H.J.; Pichon, S.; Simmie, J.M.; Zhukov, V.

    2010-02-15

    Autoignition delay time measurements were performed at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1 and 2 for butan-1-ol at reflected shock pressures of 1, 2.6 and 8 atm at temperatures from 1100 to 1800 K. High-level ab initio calculations were used to determine enthalpies of formation and consequently bond dissociation energies for each bond in the alcohol. A detailed chemical kinetic model consisting of 1399 reactions involving 234 species was constructed and tested against the delay times and also against recent jet-stirred reactor speciation data with encouraging results. The importance of enol chemistry is highlighted. (author)

  11. Fuel Switching Strategies for the 1990s 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cascone, R.

    1990-01-01

    STRATEGIES FOR THE 1990s RON CASCONE Senior Consultant Chem Systems Inc. Tarrytown, New York ABSTRACT Prices of petroleum fuels and natural gas are predi cted to ri se in the 1990' s, due to a number of global factor including supplies, demands... and strategies to consider for industries to achieve a self-protective flexibility in fuels. One of our main messages wi 11 be that there is something going on out there with the price and avail abil ity of LPG (propane and butane) which you should learn...

  12. An integrated process for simultaneous desulfurization, dehydration, and recovery of hydrocarbon liquids from natural gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sciamanna, S.F. ); ))

    1988-01-01

    Conventional processing schemes for desulfurizing, drying, and separation of natural gas liquids from natural gas streams require treating the gas by a different process for each separation step. In a simpler process, based on the University of California, Berkeley Sulfur Recovery Process (UCBSRP) technology, hydrogen sulfide, propane and heavier hydrocarbons, and water are absorbed simultaneously by a polyglycol ether solvent containing a homogenous liquid phase catalyst. The catalyst promotes the subsequent reaction of hydrogen sulfide with added sulfur dioxide to produce a high quality sulfur product. Hydrocarbons are separated as two product streams with the split between propane and butane. This new process offers an overall reduction in both capital and energy costs.

  13. Simple rules help select best hydrocarbon distillation scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchezllanes, M.T.; Perez, A.L.; Martinez, M.P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Rosal, R. del )

    1993-12-06

    Separation economics depend mainly on investment for major equipment and energy consumption. This relationship, together with the fact that, in most cases, many alternative schemes will be proposed, make it essential to find an optimum scheme that minimizes overall costs. Practical solutions are found by applying heuristics -- exploratory problem-solving techniques that eliminate alternatives without applying rigorous mathematical procedures. These techniques have been applied to a case study. In the case study, a hydrocarbon mixture will be transported through a pipeline to a fractionation plant, where it will be separated into commercial products for distribution. The fractionation will consist of a simple train of distillation columns, the sequence of which will be defined by applying heuristic rules and determining the required thermal duties for each column. The facility must separate ethane, propane and mixed butanes, natural gasoline (light straight-run, or LSR, gasoline), and condensate (heavy naphtha). The ethane will be delivered to an ethylene plant as a gaseous stream, the propane and butanes will be stored in cryogenic tanks, and the gasoline and heavy naphtha also will be stored.

  14. Source profiles for nonmethane organic compounds in the atmosphere of Cairo, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doskey, P. V.; Fukui, Y.; Sultan, M.; Maghraby, A. A.; Taher, A.; Environmental Research; Cairo Univ.

    1999-07-01

    Profiles of the sources of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) were developed for emissions from vehicles, petroleum fuels (gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and natural gas), a petroleum refinery, a smelter, and a cast iron factory in Cairo, Egypt. More than 100 hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons were tentatively identified and quantified. Gasoline-vapor and whole-gasoline profiles could be distinguished from the other profiles by high concentrations of the C{sub 5} and C{sub 6} saturated hydrocarbons. The vehicle emission profile was similar to the whole-gasoline profile, with the exception of the unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, which were present at higher concentrations in the vehicle emission profile. High levels of the C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} saturated hydrocarbons, particularly n-butane, were characteristic features of the petroleum refinery emissions. The smelter and cast iron factory emissions were similar to the refinery emissions; however, the levels of benzene and toluene were greater in the former two sources. The LPG and natural gas emissions contained high concentrations of n-butane and ethane, respectively. The NMOC source profiles for Cairo were distinctly different from profiles for U.S. sources, indicating that NMOC source profiles are sensitive to the particular composition of petroleum fuels that are used in a location.

  15. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its potential impact of Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-12-01

    Seventy eight whole air samples were collected at various park locations throughout Mexico City and later assayed for methane, carbon monoxide, 20 halocarbons and 40 C{sub 2}-C{sub 10} hydrocarbons. Propane had the highest median mixing ratio value of all assayed non-methane hydrocarbon compounds (NMHCs) with a concentration as high as 0.1 ppmv. The concentration of n-butane, i-butane, n-pentane and i-pentane were all notably elevated as well. The only significant identified source of propane in Mexico City is liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which also has a strong component of C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} alkanes. All of these alkanes were present at concentrations well above those observed in other cities where LPG is not the main domestic fuel. Data strongly suggest that as much as 50% of total Mexico City NMHCs is a result of losses associated with the transfer, storage and delivery of LPG. Additionally, using median concentrations and laboratory determined hydroxyl reaction rate constants, LPG emissions account for about 20% of initial reactivities. This suggests that LPG losses may significantly impact photochemical oxidant levels in Mexico City.

  16. Optimizing C{sup 4+} and C{sup 5+} beams of the Kei2 electron cyclotron resonance ion source using a special gas-mixing technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drentje, A.G.; Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.

    2006-03-15

    With the prototype electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the next carbon therapy facility in Japan a series of measurements has been performed in order (a) to find the best condition for producing high beam currents of C{sup 4+} ions, and (b) to study the effect of 'special' gas mixing by using a chemical compound as a feed gas. The effect would then appear as an increase in high charge state production in this case of C{sup 5+} ions. In 'regular' gas-mixing experiments it is well known that an isotopic phenomenon occurs: a heavier isotope of the mixing gas is increasing the production of high charge states of the beam gas ions. A similar isotopic effect has been found in the present experiment: with deuterated methane (CD{sub 4} gas) the C{sup 5+} beam currents are about 10% higher than with regular methane (CH{sub 4} gas). The 'mixing-gas' ratio D (or H) to C can be decreased by choosing, e.g., butane gas; in this case the isotopic effect for C{sup 5+} production is even stronger (>15%). For production of C{sup 4+} ions the isotopic effect appears to be absent. Clearly this is related to the much easier production. It turns out that the relative amount of carbon is much more important: butane gives about 10% higher C{sup 4+}-ion currents than methane.

  17. Ultrahigh and High Resolution Structures and Mutational Analysis of Monomeric Streptococcus pyogenes SpeB Reveal a Functional Role for the Glycine-rich C-terminal Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    González-Páez, Gonzalo E.; Wolan, Dennis W.

    2012-09-05

    Cysteine protease SpeB is secreted from Streptococcus pyogenes and has been studied as a potential virulence factor since its identification almost 70 years ago. Here, we report the crystal structures of apo mature SpeB to 1.06 {angstrom} resolution as well as complexes with the general cysteine protease inhibitor trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and a novel substrate mimetic peptide inhibitor. These structures uncover conformational changes associated with maturation of SpeB from the inactive zymogen to its active form and identify the residues required for substrate binding. With the use of a newly developed fluorogenic tripeptide substrate to measure SpeB activity, we determined IC{sub 50} values for trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and our new peptide inhibitor and the effects of mutations within the C-terminal active site loop. The structures and mutational analysis suggest that the conformational movements of the glycine-rich C-terminal loop are important for the recognition and recruitment of biological substrates and release of hydrolyzed products.

  18. Splitting a C-O bond in dialkylethers with bis(1,2,4-tri-t-butylcyclopentadienyl) cerium-hydride does not occur by a sigma-bond metathesis pathway: a combined experimental and DFT computational study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werkema, Evan; Yahia, Ahmed; Maron, Laurent; Eisenstein, Odile; Andersen, Richard

    2010-04-06

    Addition of diethylether to [1,2,4(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH, abbreviated Cp'2CeH, gives Cp'2CeOEt and ethane. Similarly, di-n-propyl- or di-n-butylether gives Cp'2Ce(O-n-Pr) and propane or Cp'2Ce(O-n-Bu) and butane, respectively. Using Cp'2CeD, the propane and butane contain deuterium predominantly in their methyl groups. Mechanisms, formulated on the basis of DFT computational studies, show that the reactions begin by an alpha or beta-CH activation with comparable activation barriers but only the beta-CH activation intermediate evolves into the alkoxide product and an olefin. The olefin then inserts into the Ce-H bond forming the alkyl derivative, Cp'2CeR, that eliminates alkane. The alpha-CH activation intermediate is in equilibrium with the starting reagents, Cp'2CeH and the ether, which accounts for the deuterium label in the methyl groups of the alkane. The one-step sigma-bond metathesis mechanism has a much higher activation barrier than either of the two-step mechanisms.

  19. Combustion characteristics of alternative gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, O.; Veloo, Peter S.; Liu, N.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental flame properties of mixtures of air with hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C{sub 1}–C{sub 4} saturated hydrocarbons were studied both experimentally and numerically. The fuel mixtures were chosen in order to simulate alternative gaseous fuels and to gain insight into potential kinetic couplings during the oxidation of fuel mixtures. The studies included the use of the counterflow configuration for the determination of laminar flame speeds, as well as extinction and ignition limits of premixed flames. The experiments were modeled using the USC Mech II kinetic model. It was determined that when hydrocarbons are added to hydrogen flames as additives, flame ignition, propagation, and extinction are affected in a counterintuitive manner. More specifically, it was found that by substituting methane by propane or n-butane in hydrogen flames, the reactivity of the mixture is reduced both under pre-ignition and vigorous burning conditions. This behavior stems from the fact that propane and n-butane produce higher amounts of methyl radicals that can readily recombine with atomic hydrogen and reduce thus the rate of the H + O{sub 2} ? O + OH branching reaction. The kinetic model predicts closely the experimental data for flame propagation and extinction for various fuel mixtures and pressures, and for various amounts of carbon dioxide in the fuel blend. On the other hand, it underpredicts, in general, the ignition temperatures.

  20. Diffusion of methane and other alkanes in metal-organic frameworks for natural gas storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borah, B; Zhang, HD; Snurr, RQ

    2015-03-03

    Diffusion of methane, ethane, propane and n-butane was studied within the micropores of several metal organic frameworks (MOFs) of varying topologies, including the MOFs PCN-14, NU-125, NU-1100 and DUT-49. Diffusion coefficients of the pure components, as well as methane/ethane, methane/ propane and methane/butane binary mixtures, were calculated using molecular dynamics simulations to understand the effect of the longer alkanes on uptake of natural gas in MOB. The calculated self diffusion coefficients of all four components are on the order of 10(-8) m(2)/s. The diffusion coefficients of the pure components decrease as a function of chain length in all of the MOFs studied and show different behaviour as a function of loading in different MOB. The self-diffusivities follow the trend DPCN-14 < DNU-125 approximate to DNU-1100 < DDUT-49, which is exactly the reverse order of the densities of the MOFs: PCN-14 > NU-125 approximate to NU-1100 > DUT-49. By comparing the diffusion of pure methane and methane mixtures vvith the higher alkancs, it is observed that the diffusivity of methane is unaffected by the presence of the higher alkanes in the MOFs considered, indicating that the diffusion path of methane is not blocked by the higher alkanes present in natural gas. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evolution of gas processing industry in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Showail, A.

    1983-01-01

    The beginning of the natural gas processing industry in Saudi Arabia is traced back to 1959 when Aramco embarked on a program to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) for export from low pressure gases such as stabilizer overhead, spheroid, tank farm, and refinery off-gases. The processing scheme involves compression and refrigeration to extract C3+ raw NGL, a raw NGL gathering system, and a fractionation plant to separate propane, butane, and natural gasoline. NGL extracted in Abqaiq and Ras Tanura is moved to Ras Tanura for fractionation, storage, and export. The system, built in several increments, has total design capacity of 500 MMscfd of feed gases to produce 320,000 bpd of NGL composed of 40% propane, 30% butane, and 30% natural gasoline. Phase II of the Saudi gas program envisages collection and processing of associated gas produced with Arabian medium and heavy crude oils largely in the northern onshore and offshore fields. Further domestic development may focus on more diversification in gas product utilization and on upgrading to higher value products.

  2. Conversion of light naphthas over sulfided nickle erionite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heck, R.H.; Chen, Nai Y. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States). Central Research Laboratory)

    1993-06-01

    A natural erionite ore has been exchanged with ammonium and nickel salts to yield a Ni/H erionite catalyst that is active and stable for selectively hydrocracking only the n-paraffins from light straight-run naphthas. The primary product is a C[sup 5+] liquid that is 15-20 octane numbers higher than the feed and a propane- and butane-rich gas by-product. Results from a 110-day pilot plant run demonstrated that a catalyst life of more than 1 year should be possible. Naphthenes, aromatics, and isoparaffins are neither produced nor consumed in this process, resulting in a C[sup 5+] liquid product that is lower in benzene and total aromatics than attainable by catalytic reforming of these feeds. Although no further work is planned with this catalyst, a naphtha-upgrading process based on shape-selective zeolitic hydrocracking could provide an attractive alternative to catalytic reforming or isomerization for these hard to upgrade naphthas. It should be particularly attractive in areas where the by-product propane and butane have good value.

  3. Study of autoignition in a premixed charge, internal combustion engine using comprehensive chemical kinetics: experiments and predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimpelfeld, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    A model is developed to predict autoignition in a premixed charge engine. Experimental data are obtained with spark ignition and premixed charge compression ignition. Seven fuels are examined: methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, methanol, ethylene, and propylene. Binary fuel mixtures are also examined, as are the effects of engine speed, equivalence ratio, load, and compression ratio. An initial temperature correction must be used to accurately predict the observed time of autoignition. Analysis of spark-ignited data show that the fuels fall into two groups, depending on the temperature correction ranging from 35 K to 80 K: methane, propane, n-butane, and methanol. Three fuels fall into the group with a temperature correction ranging from 110K and 140K: ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The rate of pressure rise during compression ignition is controlled by varying the fuel-air equivalence ratio. The effects of compression ratio and load on the rate and load on the rate of pressure rise are also examined. The predicted rates of temperature rise during compression ignition are compared to the observed rates of temperature rise.

  4. Solvation and Acid Strength Effects on Catalysis by Faujasite Zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gounder, Rajamani P.; Jones, Andrew J.; Carr, Robert T.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2012-02-01

    Kinetic, spectroscopic, and chemical titration data indicate that differences in monomolecular isobutane cracking and dehydrogenation and methanol dehydration turnover rates (per H+) among FAU zeolites treated thermally with steam (H-USY) and then chemically with ammonium hexafluorosilicate (CDHUSY) predominantly reflect differences in the size and solvating properties of their supercage voids rather than differences in acid strength. The number of protons on a given sample was measured consistently by titrations with Na+, with CH3 groups via reactions of dimethyl ether, and with 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine during methanol dehydration catalysis; these titration values were also supported by commensurate changes in acidic OH infrared band areas upon exposure to titrant molecules. The number of protons, taken as the average of the three titration methods, was significantly smaller than the number of framework Al atoms (Alf) obtained from X-ray diffraction and 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on H-USY (0.35 H+/Alf) and CD-HUSY (0.69 H+/Alf). These data demonstrate that the ubiquitous use of Alf sites as structural proxies for active H+ sites in zeolites can be imprecise, apparently because distorted Al structures that are not associated with acidic protons are sometimes detected as Alf sites. Monomolecular isobutane cracking and dehydrogenation rate constants, normalized non-rigorously by the number of Alf species, decreased with increasing Na+ content on both H-USY and CD-HUSY samples and became undetectable at sub-stoichiometric exchange levels (0.32 and 0.72 Na+/Alf ratios, respectively), an unexpected finding attributed incorrectly in previous studies to the presence of minority ‘‘super-acidic’’ sites. These rate constants, when normalized rigorously by the number of residual H+ sites were independent of Na+ content on both H-USY and CD-HUSY samples, reflecting the stoichiometric replacement of protons that are uniform in reactivity by Na+ cations. Monomolecular isobutane cracking and dehydrogenation rate constants (per H+; 763 K), however, were higher on H-USY than CD-HUSY (by a factor of 1.4). Equilibrium constants for the formation of protonated methanol dimers via adsorption of gaseous methanol onto adsorbed methanol monomers, determined from kinetic studies of methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (433 K), were also higher on H-USY than CD-HUSY (by a factor of 2.1). These larger constants predominantly reflect stronger dispersive interactions in H-USY, consistent with its smaller supercage voids that result from the occlusion of void space by extraframework Al (Alex) residues. These findings appear to clarify enduring controversies about the mechanistic interpretation of the effects of Na+ and Alex species on the catalytic reactivity of FAU zeolites. They also illustrate the need to normalize rates by the number of active sites instead of more convenient but less accurate structural proxies for such sites.

  5. FCC Tail Gas olefins conversion to gasoline via catalytic distillation with aromatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partin, E.E. (Brown and Root U.S.A., Inc., Houston, TX (US))

    1988-01-01

    The goal of every refiner is to continually improve profitability by such means as increasing gasoline production, increasing gasoline octane pool and in cases where fuel balance becomes a problem, decreasing refinery fuel gas production. A new refinery process is currently being developed which accomplish these goals. Chemical Research and Licensing Company (CR and L) developed Catalytic Distillation technology in 1978 to produce MTBE. They have since used the Catalytic Distillation technique to produce cumene. CR and L has further developed this technology to convert olefin gases currently consumed as refinery fuel, to high octane gasoline components. The process, known as CATSTILL, alkylates olefin gases such as ethylene, propylene and butylene, present in FCC Tail Gas with light aromatics such as benzene, toluene and xylene, present in reformate, to produce additional quantities of high octane gasoline components. A portable CATSTILL demonstration plant has been constructed by Brown and Root U.S.A., under an agreement with CR and L, for placement in a refinery to further develop data necessary to design commercial plants. This paper presents current data relative to the CATSTILL development.

  6. Potential for Microbial Stimulation in Deep Vadose Zone Sediments by Gas-Phase Nutrients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.W.; Plymale, A. E.; Brockman, F.J.

    2006-04-05

    Viable microbial populations are low, typically 10{sup 4} cells per gram, in deep vadose zones in arid climates. There is evidence that microbial distribution in these environments is patchy. In addition, infiltration or injection of nutrient-laden water has the potential to spread and drive contaminants downward to the saturated zone. For these reasons, there are uncertainties regarding the feasibility of bioremediation of recalcitrant contaminants in deep vadose zones. The objectives of this study were to investigate the occurrence of denitrifying activity and gaseous carbon-utilizing activity in arid-climate deep vadose zone sediments contaminated with, and/or affected by past exposure to, carbon tetrachloride (CT). These metabolisms are known to degrade CT and/or its breakdown product chloroform under anoxic conditions. A second objective was to determine if CT would be degraded in these sediments under unsaturated, bulk-phase aerobic incubation conditions. Both denitrifier population (determined by MPN) and microbial heterotrophic activity (measured by mineralization of 14-C labeled glucose and acetate) were relatively low and the sediments with greater in situ moisture (10-21% versus 2-7%) tended to have higher activities. When sediments were amended with gaseous nutrients (nitrous oxide and triethyl/tributyl phosphate) and gaseous C sources (a mixture of methane, ethane, propylene, propane, and butane) and incubated for 6 months, approximately 50% of the samples showed removal of one or more gaseous C sources, with butane most commonly used (44% of samples), followed by propylene (42%), propane (31%), ethane (22%), and methane (4%). Gaseous N and gaseous P did not stimulate removal of gaseous C substrates compared to no addition of N and P. CT and gaseous C sources were spiked into the sediments that removed gaseous C sources to determine if hydrocarbon-degraders have the potential to degrade CT under unsaturated conditions. In summary, gaseous C sources--particularly butane and propylene--have promise for increasing the numbers and activity of indigenous microbial populations in arid-climate deep vadose zone sediments.

  7. Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. DOE PETC seventh quarterly progress report, April 1, 1995--July 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, B.C.

    1996-02-01

    Iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia is a catalyst for the conversion of propane, but the rate of conversion of propane is much less than the rate of conversion of butane. Whereas this catalyst appears to be a good candidate for practical, industrial conversion of butane, it appears to lack sufficient activity for practical conversion of propane. The propane conversion data reported here provide excellent insights into the chemistry of the catalytic conversion. Solid and catalysts, namely, sulfated zirconia, iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia, and USY zeolite, were tested for conversion of propane at 1 atm, 200-450{degrees}C, and propane partial pressures in the range of 0.01-0.05 atm. Both promoted and unpromoted sulfated zirconia were found to be active for conversion of propane into butanes, pentanes, methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene in the temperature range of 200-350{degrees}C, but catalyst deactivation was rapid. At the higher temperatures, only cracking and dehydrogenation products were observed. In contrast to the zirconia-supported catalysts, USY zeolite was observed to convert propane (into propylene, methane, and ethylene) only at temperatures {ge}400{degrees}C. The initial (5 min on stream) rates of propane conversion in the presence of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia, sulfated zirconia, and USY zeolite at 450{degrees}C and 0.01 atm propane partial pressure were 3.3 x 10{sup -8}, 0.3 x 10{sup -8}, and 0.06 x 10{sup -8} mol/(s{center_dot}g), respectively. The product distributions in the temperature range 200-450{degrees}C are those of acid-base catalysis, being similar to what has been observed in superacid solution chemistry at temperatures <0{degrees}C. If propane conversion at 450{degrees}C can be considered as a probe of acid strength of the catalyst, the activity comparison suggests that the promoted sulfated zirconia is a stronger acid than sulfated zirconia, which is a stronger acid than USY zeolite.

  8. The importance of FCC catalyst selection on LPG profitability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyworth, D.A.; Gilman, R.; Pearce, J.R. )

    1989-01-01

    Recently the value of LPG in chemical operations downstream of the FCC unit has increased. Such downstream operations utilize propylene not only in alkylate, but also in rapid growth petrochemical applications such as for a raw material in the manufacture of polypropylene and propylene oxide. Isobutane and the butenes (particularly butene-2 in sulfuric acid catalyzed alkylation units) are prized for alkylate feed. The profit potential and incentives to use other LPG components such as isobutene to make MTBE is now increased because of legislative actions and increased octane performance demand; and because of the greater isobutene content in the LPG from the new FCC octane catalysts. A low non-framework alumina (NFA) zeolite studied made a more olefinic LPG with higher iso-to normal C4 ratio than the other zeolites. Pilot plant data has also shown the new low NFA zeolite gave not only outstanding motor octane (MON) performance, but produced an LPG with better propylene to propane ratio, more isobutene, more n-butenes and more C4 branching than other RE promoted zeolite catalysts. Commercial results have verified the improved performance and profitability for the new low-NFA type zeolite catalysts. Three commercial examples are described.

  9. Polymer Growth Rate in a Wire Chamber with Oxygen,Water, or Alcohol Gas Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyarski, Adam; /SLAC

    2008-07-02

    The rate of polymer growth on wires was measured in a wire chamber while the chamber was aged initially with helium-isobutane (80:20) gas, and then with either oxygen, water, or alcohol added to the gas. At the completion of the aging process for each gas mixture, the carbon content on the wires was measured in a SEM/EDX instrument. The same physical wires were used in all the gas mixtures, allowing measurement of polymer build up or polymer depletion by each gas additive. It is found that the rate of polymer growth is not changed by the presence of oxygen, water or alcohol. Conjecture that oxygen reduces breakdown by removing polymer deposits on field wires is negated by these measurements. Instead, it appears that the reduced breakdown is due to lower resistance in the polymer from oxygen ions being transported into the polymer. It is also observed that field wires bombarded by the electrons in the SEM and then placed back into the chamber show an abundance of single electrons being emitted, indicating that electron charge is stored in the polymer layer and that a high electric field is necessary to remove the charge.

  10. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes, Phase 3. Topical report, January 1990--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-12-31

    The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in the first simple, economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to an alcohol-rich oxygenated product which can either be used as an environmentally friendly, high-performance liquid fuel, or a precursor to a liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuel. The authors have entered the proof-of-concept stage for converting isobutane to tert butyl alcohol in a practical process and are preparing to enter proof-of-concept of a propane to isopropyl alcohol process in the near future. Methane and ethane are more refractory and thus more difficult to oxidize than the C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} hydrocarbons. Nonetheless, advances made in this area indicate that further research progress could achieve the goal of their direct conversion to alcohols. Progress in Phase 3 catalytic vapor phase methane and ethane oxidation over metals in regular oxidic lattices are the subject of this topical report.

  11. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wahl, III, Edward F. (Claremont, CA); Boucher, Frederic B. (San Juan Capistrano, CA)

    1981-01-01

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  12. Use of look-ahead modeling in pipeline operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, B.; O`Leary, C.

    1995-12-31

    Amoco Canada Petroleum Company, Ltd. operates the Cochin pipeline system. Cochin pumps batched liquid ethane, propane, ethylene, butane, and NGL. Operating and scheduling this pipeline is very complex. There are safety considerations, especially for ethylene, which cannot be allowed to drop below vapor pressure. Amoco Canada needs to know where batches are in the line, what pressure profiles will look like into the future, and when batches arrive at various locations along the line. In addition to traditional instrumentation and SCADA, Amoco Canada uses modeling software to help monitor and operate the Cochin pipeline. Two important components of the modeling system are the Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) and Predictive Model (PM) modules. These modules perform look ahead modeling to assist in operating the Cochin pipeline. The modeling software was first installed for the Cochin system in February of 1994, and was commissioned on August 1, 1994. This paper will discuss how the look ahead modules are used for the Cochin pipeline.

  13. Crossed-beam DC slice imaging of fluorine atom reactions with linear alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Yuanyuan; Kamasah, Alexander; Joalland, Baptiste; Suits, Arthur G.

    2015-05-14

    We report the reaction dynamics of F atom with selected alkanes studied by crossed beam scattering with DC slice ion imaging. The target alkanes are propane, n-butane, and n-pentane. The product alkyl radicals are probed by 157 nm single photon ionization following reaction at a collision energy of ?10 kcal mol{sup ?1}. The analyzed data are compared with the corresponding theoretical studies. Reduced translational energy distributions for each system show similar trends with little of the reaction exoergicity appearing in translation. However, the pentane reaction shows a somewhat smaller fraction of available energy in translation than the other two, suggesting greater energy channeled into pentyl internal degrees of freedom. The center-of-mass angular distributions all show backscattering as well as sharp forward scattering that decreases in relative intensity with the size of the molecule. Possible reasons for these trends are discussed.

  14. Anion effects in the extraction of lanthanide 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone complexes into an ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Mark P.; Beitz, James V.; Rickert, Paul G.; Borkowski, Marian; Laszak, Ivan; Dietz, Mark L.

    2012-07-01

    The extraction of trivalent lanthanides from an aqueous phase containing 1 M NaClO{sub 4} into the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nonafluoro-1-butane sulfonate by the beta-diketone extractant 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) was studied. Radiotracer distribution, absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements point to the extraction of multiple lanthanide species. At low extractant concentrations, fully hydrated aqua cations of the lanthanides are present in the ionic liquid phase. As the extractant concentration is increased 1:2 and 1:3 lanthanide:tta species are observed. In contrast, 1:4 Ln:tta complexes were observed in the extraction of lanthanides by Htta into 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. (authors)

  15. Dynamics of CN+alkane reactions by crossed-beam dc slice imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Cunshun; Li Wen; Estillore, Armando D.; Suits, Arthur G.

    2008-08-21

    The hydrogen atom abstraction reactions of CN (X {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}) with alkanes have been studied using the crossed molecular beam technique with dc slice ion imaging at collision energies of 7.5 and 10.8 kcal/mol. The product alkyl radical images were obtained via single photon ionization at 157 nm for the reactions of CN (X {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}) with n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, and cyclohexane. From analysis of the images, we obtained the center-of-mass frame product angular distributions and translational energy distributions directly. The results indicate that the products are largely backscattered and that most of the available energy ({approx}80%-85%) goes to the internal energy of the products. The reaction dynamics is discussed in light of recent kinetics data, theoretical calculations, and results for related halogen and oxygen atom reactions.

  16. Chemical microreactor and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan

    2005-11-01

    A chemical microreactor suitable for generation of hydrogen fuel from liquid sources such as ammonia, methanol, and butane through steam reforming processes when mixed with an appropriate amount of water contains capillary microchannels with integrated resistive heaters to facilitate the occurrence of catalytic steam reforming reactions. One such microreactor employs a packed catalyst capillary microchannel and at least one porous membrane. Another employs a porous membrane with a large surface area or a porous membrane support structure containing a plurality of porous membranes having a large surface area in the aggregate, i.e., greater than about 1 m.sup.2 /cm.sup.3. The packed catalyst capillary microchannels, porous membranes and porous membrane support structures may be formed by a variety of methods.

  17. A remarkable shape-catalytic effect of confinement on the rotational isomerization of small hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santiso, Erik E; Gubbins, Keith E; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco

    2008-01-01

    As part of an effort to understand the effect of confinement by porous carbons on chemical reactions, we have carried out density functional theory calculations on the rotational isomerization of three four-membered hydrocarbons: n-butane, 1-butene, and 1,3-butadiene. Our results show that the interactions with the carbon walls cause a dramatic change on the potential energy surface for pore sizes comparable to the molecular dimensions. The porous material enhances or hinders reactions depending on how similar is the shape of the transition state to the shape of the confining material. The structure of the stable states and their equilibrium distributions are also drastically modified by confinement. Our results are consistent with a doubly exponential behavior of the reaction rates as a function of pore size, illustrating how the shape of a catalytic support can dramatically change the efficiency of a catalyst. (51 refs.)

  18. Critical radius for sustained propagation of spark-ignited spherical flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, Andrew P.; Jomaas, Grunde; Law, Chung K.

    2009-05-15

    An experimental study was performed to determine the requirements for sustained propagation of spark-ignited hydrogen-air and butane-air flames at atmospheric and elevated pressures. Results show that sustained propagation is always possible for mixtures whose Lewis number is less than unity, as long as a flame can be initially established. However, for mixtures whose Lewis number is greater than unity, sustained propagation depends on whether the initially ignited flame can attain a minimum radius. This minimum radius was determined for mixtures of different equivalence ratios and pressures, and was found to agree moderately well with the theoretically predicted critical radius beyond which there is no solution for the adiabatic, quasi-steady propagation of the spherical flame. The essential roles of pressure, detailed chemistry, and the need to use local values in the quantitative evaluation of the flame response parameters are emphasized. (author)

  19. Beowawe Bottoming Binary Unit - Final Technical Report for EE0002856

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, Dale Edward

    2013-02-12

    This binary plant is the first high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a butane based cycle are not necessary. The unit is modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. This project proves the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy for Nevada, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  20. Method for forming a chemical microreactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed is a chemical microreactor that provides a means to generate hydrogen fuel from liquid sources such as ammonia, methanol, and butane through steam reforming processes when mixed with an appropriate amount of water. The microreactor contains capillary microchannels with integrated resistive heaters to facilitate the occurrence of catalytic steam reforming reactions. Two distinct embodiment styles are discussed. One embodiment style employs a packed catalyst capillary microchannel and at least one porous membrane. Another embodiment style employs a porous membrane with a large surface area or a porous membrane support structure containing a plurality of porous membranes having a large surface area in the aggregate, i.e., greater than about 1 m.sup.2/cm.sup.3. Various methods to form packed catalyst capillary microchannels, porous membranes and porous membrane support structures are also disclosed.

  1. The Chemical Composition and Structure of Supported Sulfated Zirconia with Regulated Size Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanazhevskiy, V. V.; Shmachkova, V. P.; Kotsarenko, N. S.; Kochubey, D. I.; Vedrine, J. C.

    2007-02-02

    A set of model skeletal isomerization catalysts - sulfated zirconia nanoparticles of controlled thickness anchored on different supports - was prepared using colloidal solutions of Zr salt on titania as support. The nanoparticles of zirconia (1-5 nm) are epitaxially connected to the support surface, with S/Zr ratio equals to 1.3-1.5. It was shown by EXAFS that nanoparticles of non-stoichiometric zirconium sulfate Zr(SO4)1+x, where x<0.5, are formed on the support surface. Its structure looks like half-period shifted counterdirected chains built-up by zirconium atoms linked by triangle pyramids of sulfate groups. Considering catalytic data of skeletal n-butane isomerisation at 150 deg. C, one can suggest that these species behave as the active component of sulfated zirconia. They are formed in subsurface layers as zirconium hydroxide undergoes sulfation followed by thermal treatment.

  2. Relaxed active space: Fixing tailored-CC with high order coupled cluster. II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melnichuk, Ann Bartlett, Rodney J.

    2014-02-14

    Due to the steep increase in computational cost with the inclusion of higher-connected cluster operators in coupled-cluster applications, it is usually not practical to use such methods for larger systems or basis sets without an active space partitioning. This study generates an active space subject to unambiguous statistical criteria to define a space whose size permits treatment at the CCSDT level. The automated scheme makes it unnecessary for the user to judge whether a chosen active space is sufficient to correctly solve the problem. Two demanding applications are presented: twisted ethylene and the transition states for the bicyclo[1,1,0]butane isomerization. As bi-radicals both systems require at least a CCSDT level of theory for quantitative results, for the geometries and energies.

  3. Low temperature hydrocracking of paraffinic hydrocarbons over hybrid catalysts: New concept for hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, I.; Sunada, K.; Fujimoto, K. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    A hybrid catalyst, which was prepared by physical mixing of a H-ZSM-5 and Pd/SiO{sub 2}, showed an excellent activity for the hydrocracking of n-paraffins at low reaction temperature (503 K). In the n-heptane cracking, the hybrid catalyst gave only isomerized heptane and propane and equimolar amount of i-butane whereas the products on H-ZSM-5 alone distributed from C{sub 3} to C{sub 9} and C{sub 4} products contained all kind of paraffins and olefins. The wide product distribution for H-ZSM-5 system should be attributed to the reaction path comprising oligomerization and cracking of the oligomer. The simple products for the H{sub 2}-hybrid system should be formed through no other reaction path than the primary cracking reaction on H-ZSM-5. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Velocity of sound measurements in gaseous per-fluorocarbons and their custom mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vacek, V; Lindsay, S

    2000-01-01

    An inexpensive sonar instrument was prepared for measurements of sound velocity in two fluorocarbon vapors; per-fluoro-n-propane (C3F8), per-fluoro-n-butane (C4F10), and their custom mixtures. The apparatus, measurement principle and instrument software are described. All sound velocity measurements in per-fluorocarbons were made in the low pressure range between 0.01 and 0.4 MPa, and at temperatures between 253 and 303 K. The purity of the C3F8 and C4F10 samples was checked using gas chromatography. Uncertainties in the speed of sound measurements were better than ± 0.1 %. Comparisons were made with theoretical predictions of sound velocity for the two individual components. The instrument was then used for concentration monitoring of custom C3F8/C4F10 mixtures.

  5. A molecular dynamics investigation of the unusual concentration dependencies of Fick diffusivities in silica mesopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, Rajamani; van Baten, Jasper M

    2011-01-01

    Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to determine the self-diffusivitiy, D{sub i,self}, the Maxwell–Stefan diffusivity, Ð{sub i}, and the Fick diffusivity, D{sub i}, for methane (C1), ethane (C2), propane (C3), n-butane (nC4), n-pentane (nC5), n-hexane (nC6), n-heptane (nC7), and cyclohexane (cC6) in cylindrical silica mesopores for a range of pore concentrations. The MD simulations show that zero-loading diffusivity Ð{sub i}(0) is consistently lower, by up to a factor of 20, than the values anticipated by the classical Knudsen formula. The concentration dependence of the Fick diffusivity, D{sub i} is found to be unusually complex, and displays a strong minimum in some cases; this characteristic can be traced to molecular clustering.

  6. Minutes of the tenth meeting of the centers for the analysis of thermal/mechanical energy conversion concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiPippo, R.

    1981-03-01

    The agenda, list of participants, and minutes of the meeting are presented. Included in the appendices are figures, data, outlines, etc. from the following presentations: 500 kW Direct-Contact Heat Exchanger Pilot Plant; LBL/EPRI Heat Exchanger Field Test, Critical Temperature and Pressure Comparisons for n-Butane/n-Pentane Mixtures; Second Law Techniques in the Correlation of Cost-Optimized Binary Power Plants; Outline of Chapter on Geothermal Well Logging; Outline and Highlights from Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program Annual Progress: October 1979-September 1980; Geothermal Well Stimulation; World Update on Installed Geothermal Power Plants; Baca No. 1 Demonstration Flask Plant: Technical and Cost Data; Heber Binary Project; 45 mw Demonstration Plant; Raft River 5 mw Geothermal Dual-Boiling-Cycle Plant; Materials Considerations in the Design of Geothermal Power Plants; Raft River Brine Treatment for Tower Make-up; and Site Photographs of Raft River Valley.

  7. Summary of evaporative cooling system for the SSC silicon tracker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woloshun, K.; Barber, R.L.; Christensen, W.; Hanlon, J.A.; Keddy, M.D.; Miller, W.O.; Reid, R.S.; Ziock, H.J.

    1994-10-01

    An evaporative cooling system has been developed for the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and the Gamma, Electron and Muon Detector (GEM) silicon tracker electronics. The system operated on the principles of the heat pipe; specifically, evaporation at near vapor-liquid equilibrium without the presence of noncondensible gases, and with a capillary media used to distribute the working fluid. The system used butane as a working fluid for operation at O{degrees}C and 1 atm. pressure. This paper summarizes the evolution of the system design, emphasizing key developments that may be useful for further work. Results of the system performance as of the close-of-effort are presented. A brief summary of results of experiments using a pumped single-phase cooling system are also presented.

  8. Pentan isomers compound flame front structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansurov, Z.A.; Mironenko, A.W.; Bodikov, D.U.; Rachmetkaliev, K.N.

    1995-08-13

    The fuels (hexane, pentane, diethyl ether) and conditions investigated in this study are relevant to engine knock in spark- ignition engines. A review is provided of the field of low temperature hydrocarbon oxidation. Studies were made of radical and stable intermediate distribution in the front of cool flames: Maximum concentrations of H atoms and peroxy radicals were observed in the luminous zone of the cool flame front. Peroxy radicals appear before the luminous zone at 430 K due to diffusion. H atoms were found in cool flames of butane and hexane. H atoms diffuses from the luminous zone to the side of the fresh mixture, and they penetrate into the fresh mixture to a small depth. Extension of action sphear of peroxy radicals in the fresh mixture is much greater than that of H atoms due to their small activity and high concentrations.

  9. Synthesis of 3-amino-4-hydroxylaminothiazolidine-2-thiones and 2,3-dimethyl-4. cap alpha. ,5-dihydro-7-thioxothiazolo(3,4-b)-1,2,4-triazines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epshtein, S.P.; Orlova, T.I.; Rukasov, A.F.; Tashchi, V.P.; Putsykin, Yu. G.

    1987-10-01

    The reaction of dimeric nitroso chlorides of olefins with potassium dithiocarbazate was used to synthesize 3-amino-4-hydroxylaminothiazolidine-2-thiones, which undergo rearrangement to 2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazines on heating and react with butane-2,3-dione to give 2,3-dimethyl-4..cap alpha..,5-dihydro-7-thioxothiazolo(3,4-b)-1,2,4-triazine 4-oxides. The latter are reduced by sodium borohydride to the corresponding 3,4,4..cap alpha..,5-tetrahydro-7-thioxo derivatives. The IR spectra of KBr pellets of the compounds were recorded with a Perkin-Elmer spectrometer. The UV spectra of solutions in ethanol were obtained with a Specord UV spectrophotometer. The PMR spectra of solutions of the compounds in d/sub 6/-DMSO were obtained with a Varian FT-80A spectrometer with tetramethylsilane (TMS) as the internal standard.

  10. Arabidopsis AtSerpin1, Crystal Structure and in Vivo Interaction with Its Target Protease RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION-21 (RD21)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampl, Nardy; Budai-Hadrian, Ofra; Davydov, Olga; Joss, Tom V.; Harrop, Stephen J.; Curmi, Paul M.G.; Roberts, Thomas H.; Fluhr, Robert

    2010-05-25

    In animals, protease inhibitors of the serpin family are associated with many physiological processes, including blood coagulation and innate immunity. Serpins feature a reactive center loop (RCL), which displays a protease target sequence as a bait. RCL cleavage results in an irreversible, covalent serpin-protease complex. AtSerpin1 is an Arabidopsis protease inhibitor that is expressed ubiquitously throughout the plant. The x-ray crystal structure of recombinant AtSerpin1 in its native stressed conformation was determined at 2.2 {angstrom}. The electrostatic surface potential below the RCL was found to be highly positive, whereas the breach region critical for RCL insertion is an unusually open structure. AtSerpin1 accumulates in plants as a full-length and a cleaved form. Fractionation of seedling extracts by nonreducing SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of an additional slower migrating complex that was absent when leaves were treated with the specific cysteine protease inhibitor l-trans-epoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido (4-guanidino)butane. Significantly, RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION-21 (RD21) was the major protease labeled with the l-trans-epoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido (4-guanidino)butane derivative DCG-04 in wild type extracts but not in extracts of mutant plants constitutively overexpressing AtSerpin1, indicating competition. Fractionation by nonreducing SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting with RD21-specific antibody revealed that the protease accumulated both as a free enzyme and in a complex with AtSerpin1. Importantly, both RD21 and AtSerpin1 knock-out mutants lacked the serpin-protease complex. The results establish that the major Arabidopsis plant serpin interacts with RD21. This is the first report of the structure and in vivo interaction of a plant serpin with its target protease.

  11. Influence of Crystal Expansion/Contraction on Zeolite Membrane Permeation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, Stephanie G; Payzant, E Andrew; Noble, Richard D; Falconer, John L.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray diffraction was used to measure the unit cell parameters of B-ZSM-5, SAPO-34, and NaA zeolite powders as a function of adsorbate loading at 303 K, and in one case, at elevated temperatures. Most adsorbates expanded the zeolite crystals below saturation loading at 303 K: n-hexane and SF6 in B-ZSM-5, methanol and CO2 in SAPO-34, and methanol in NaA zeolite. As the loadings increased, the crystals expanded more. Changes in the unit cell volumes of B-ZSM-5 and SAPO-34 zeolite powders correlated with changes in permeation through zeolite membranes defects. When the zeolite crystals expanded or contracted upon adsorption, the defect sizes decreased or increased. In B-ZSM-5 membranes, the fluxes through defects decreased dramatically when n-hexane or SF6 adsorbed. In contrast, i-butane adsorption at 303 K contracted B-ZSM-5 crystals at low loadings and expanded them at higher loadings. Correspondingly, the flux through B-ZSM-5 membrane defects increased at low i-butane loadings and decreased at high loading because the defects increased in size at low loading and decreased at high loadings. At 398 K and 473 K, n-hexane expanded the B-ZSM-5 unit cell more as the temperature increased from 303 to 473 K. The silicalite-1 and B-ZSM-5 unit cell volumes expanded similarly upon n-hexane adsorption at 303 K; boron substitution had little effect on volume expansion.

  12. Activation of ethane in the presence of solid acids: Sulfated zirconia, iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia, and zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, Tsz-Keung; Gates, B.

    1997-06-01

    Ethane was activated in the presence of solid acids [sulfated zirconia (SZ), iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia (FMSZ), HZSM-5, and USY zeolite] at 1 atm, 200-450{degrees}C, and ethane partial pressures in the range 0.014.2 atm. The data were measured with a flow reactor at low conversions (<0.005) such that reaction of ethane took place in the near absence of alkenes. Catalysis was demonstrated for ethane conversion in the presence of FMSZ at 450{degrees}C and 0.2 atm ethane partial pressure, but the reactions were not shown to be catalytic for the other solid acids and other conditions. FMSZ was active for converting ethane into methane, ethene, and butane at an ethane partial pressure of 0.2 atm and at temperatures of 200-300{degrees}C; the other solid acids had no detectable activities under these conditions. At higher temperatures, each of the solid acids was active for conversion of ethane into ethene; butane and methane were also formed in the presence of FMSZ, HZSM-5, and USY zeolite, whereas methane was the only other hydrocarbon observed in the presence of SZ. The initial (5 min on stream) selectivities to ethene at approximately 0.1 % conversion, ethane partial pressure of 0.2 atm, and 450{degrees}C were approximately 98, 94, 97, and 99%, for SZ, FMSZ, HZSM-5, and USY zeolite, respectively. Under the same reaction conditions, the initial rates of ethane conversion were 0. 1 5 x 10{sup -8}, 3.5 x 10{sup -8} 3.9 x 10{sup -8}, and 0.56 x 10{sup -8} mol/(s {circ} g) for SZ, FMSZ, HZSM-5, and USY zeolite, respectively. The reactivities are consistent with chemistry analogous to that occurring in superacidic solutions and with the suggestion that FMSZ is a stronger acid than the others investigated here. 25 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  13. X-Ray Absorption Studies of Vanadium-Containing Metal Oxide Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohn, Keith, L.

    2006-01-09

    Metal oxide nanocrystals offer significant potential for use as catalysts or catalyst supports due to their high surface areas and unique chemical properties that result from the high number of exposed corners and edges. However, little is known about the catalytic activity of these materials, especially as oxidation catalysts. This research focused on the preparation, characterization and use of vanadium-containing nanocrystals as selective oxidation catalysts. Three vanadium-containing nanocrystals were prepared using a modified sol-gel procedure: V/MgO, V/SiO2, and vanadium phosphate (VPO). These represent active oxidation catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. The catalysts were characterized by x-ray diffraction and Raman, UV-VIS, infrared and x-ray absorption spectroscopies with the goal of determining the primary structural and chemical differences between nanocrystals and microcrystals. The catalytic activity of these catalysts was also studied in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and methanol oxidation to formaldehyde. V/MgO nanocrystals were investigated for activity in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and compared to conventional V/MgO catalysts. Characterization of V/MgO catalysts using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that both types of catalysts contained magnesium orthovanadate at vanadium loadings below 15 weight%, but above that loading, magnesium pyrovanadate may have been present. In general, MgO nanocrystals had roughly half the crystal size and double the surface area of the conventional MgO. In oxidative dehydrogenation of butane, nanocrystalline V/MgO gave higher selectivity to butene than conventional V/MgO at the same conversion. This difference was attributed to differences in vanadium domain size resulting from the higher surface areas of the nanocrystalline support, since characterization suggested that similar vanadium phases were present on both types of catalysts. Experiments in methanol oxidation were used to probe the chemical differences between sol-gel prepared and conventionally prepared metal oxides. Both V/MgO and V/SiO2 were studied. For both catalysts, similar product selectivities were noted for either preparation method, suggesting similar acid/base and redox properties for the catalysts. At lower weight loadings (<5%), activity was also similar, but at higher weight loadings the sol-gel prepared catalysts were more active. This was attributed to the greater dispersion of vanadium on sol-gel prepared catalysts, and it was suggested that small vanadium oxide domains were more active in methanol oxidation than polymeric and bulk domains. A novel sol-gel method was developed for preparation of VPO catalysts, which are used industrially in butane oxidation to maleic anhydride. In this method vanadium (V) triisopropoxide was reacted with orthophosphoric acid in THF to form a gel. Drying this gel under air resulted in an intercalated VOPO4 compound, where solvent molecules were trapped between layers of the vanadium phosphate compound. Higher surface areas could be achieved by drying this gel at high pressure in an autoclave. The amount of solvent (THF) placed in the autoclave was important in this process. Low amounts of solvent led to a lower surface area, as the solvent evaporated before reaching the critical point and collapsed the gel's pores. In addition, vanadium reduction occurred in the autoclave due to reaction of isopropanol with the vanadium phosphate. Higher amounts of THF reduced the concentration of isopropanol, leading to less reduction. Surfaces areas in excess of 100 m2/g were achieved with this method, and the product was confirmed through XPS and IR to be VOHPO4*0.5H2O, the common precursor for industrial VPO catalysts. Furthermore, this product displayed a platelet morphology, which is desirable for butane oxidation. Further work showed that this material could be transformed to (VO)2P2O7 (the industrial catalyst for butane oxidation to maleic anhydride) by heating under nitrogen without losing much surface are

  14. Conductive porous scaffolds as potential neural interface materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedberg-Dirk, Elizabeth L.; Cicotte, Kirsten N.; Buerger, Stephen P.; Reece, Gregory; Dirk, Shawn M.; Lin, Patrick P.

    2011-11-01

    Our overall intent is to develop improved prosthetic devices with the use of nerve interfaces through which transected nerves may grow, such that small groups of nerve fibers come into close contact with electrode sites, each of which is connected to electronics external to the interface. These interfaces must be physically structured to allow nerve fibers to grow through them, either by being porous or by including specific channels for the axons. They must be mechanically compatible with nerves such that they promote growth and do not harm the nervous system, and biocompatible to promote nerve fiber growth and to allow close integration with biological tissue. They must exhibit selective and structured conductivity to allow the connection of electrode sites with external circuitry, and electrical properties must be tuned to enable the transmission of neural signals. Finally, the interfaces must be capable of being physically connected to external circuitry, e.g. through attached wires. We have utilized electrospinning as a tool to create conductive, porous networks of non-woven biocompatible fibers in order to meet the materials requirements for the neural interface. The biocompatible fibers were based on the known biocompatible material poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) as well as a newer biomaterial developed in our laboratories, poly(butylene fumarate) (PBF). Both of the polymers cannot be electrospun using conventional electrospinning techniques due to their low glass transition temperatures, so in situ crosslinking methodologies were developed to facilitate micro- and nano-fiber formation during electrospinning. The conductivity of the electrospun fiber mats was controlled by controlling the loading with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Fabrication, electrical and materials characterization will be discussed along with initial in vivo experimental results.

  15. The Anderson Quin Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.H.; Bilbow, W.M.

    1993-03-18

    The objective of this study was to make a more refined evaluation of the Anderson Quin Cycle based on most recent information on the performance of various elements that will be used in the Anderson Quin Cycle. My original estimate of the work plan for evaluating and optimizing the Anderson Quin Cycle called for 7000 man hours of work. Since this grant was limited to 2150 man hours, we could not expect to achieve all the objectives within the allotted period of work. However, the most relevant program objectives have been completed as reported here. The analysis generally confirms the results originally estimated in my paper on the subject. (Ref. 2) Further optimizations should show even higher efficiencies. The Anderson Quin Cycle (US Patent applied for) basically consists of 5 elements in the power cycle: A refrigeration system to cool and clean the inlet air before it enters the compressor that supplies air for the gas turbine; a gas turbine consisting of a compressor, combustor, and turbine; a steam boiler and steam turbine system using the heat from the exhaust gas out of the gas turbine; a vapor turbine cycle, which utilizes the condensed heat from the exhaust of the steam turbine and the exhaust gas heat leaving the steam boiler to operate a vapor turbine cycle which utilizes another fluid than water, in this case isobutane; and the fifth element consists of a gas cooler and heat pump system, which removes the heat from the exhaust gas to lower its temperature essentially to atmospheric temperature, and at the same time permits treatment of the exhaust gas to remove acid components such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Current industry accepted component characteristics were incorporated in the performance analysis of the overall cycle, ensuring accurate and meaningful operating predictions. The characteristics and performance of each of the elements are described. The thermal efficiency of the optimized calculated Anderson Quin Cycle is 62 percent.

  16. The Anderson Quin Cycle. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.H.; Bilbow, W.M.

    1993-03-18

    The objective of this study was to make a more refined evaluation of the Anderson Quin Cycle based on most recent information on the performance of various elements that will be used in the Anderson Quin Cycle. My original estimate of the work plan for evaluating and optimizing the Anderson Quin Cycle called for 7000 man hours of work. Since this grant was limited to 2150 man hours, we could not expect to achieve all the objectives within the allotted period of work. However, the most relevant program objectives have been completed as reported here. The analysis generally confirms the results originally estimated in my paper on the subject. (Ref. 2) Further optimizations should show even higher efficiencies. The Anderson Quin Cycle (US Patent applied for) basically consists of 5 elements in the power cycle: A refrigeration system to cool and clean the inlet air before it enters the compressor that supplies air for the gas turbine; a gas turbine consisting of a compressor, combustor, and turbine; a steam boiler and steam turbine system using the heat from the exhaust gas out of the gas turbine; a vapor turbine cycle, which utilizes the condensed heat from the exhaust of the steam turbine and the exhaust gas heat leaving the steam boiler to operate a vapor turbine cycle which utilizes another fluid than water, in this case isobutane; and the fifth element consists of a gas cooler and heat pump system, which removes the heat from the exhaust gas to lower its temperature essentially to atmospheric temperature, and at the same time permits treatment of the exhaust gas to remove acid components such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Current industry accepted component characteristics were incorporated in the performance analysis of the overall cycle, ensuring accurate and meaningful operating predictions. The characteristics and performance of each of the elements are described. The thermal efficiency of the optimized calculated Anderson Quin Cycle is 62 percent.

  17. Interpenetrating metal-organic frameworks formed by self-assembly of tetrahedral and octahedral building blocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Yongming; Lan Yaqian; Xu Yanhong; Su Zhongmin; Li Shunli; Zang Hongying; Xu Guangjuan

    2009-11-15

    To investigate the relationship between topological types and molecular building blocks (MBBs), we have designed and synthesized a series of three-dimensional (3D) interpenetrating metal-organic frameworks based on different polygons or polyhedra under hydrothermal conditions, namely [Cd(bpib){sub 0.5}(L{sup 1})] (1), [Cd(bpib){sub 0.5}(L{sup 2})].H{sub 2}O (2), [Cd(bpib){sub 0.5}(L{sup 3})] (3) and [Cd(bib){sub 0.5}(L{sup 1})] (4), where bpib=1,4-bis(2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)butane, bib=1,4-bis(1H-imidazol-1-yl)butane, H{sub 2}L{sup 1}=4-(4-carboxybenzyloxy)benzoic acid, H{sub 2}L{sup 2}=4,4'-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(oxy))dibenzoic acid and H{sub 2}L{sup 3}=4,4'-(1,4-phenylenebis(methylene))bis(oxy)dibenzoic acid, respectively. Their structures have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Compounds 1-3 display alpha-Po topological nets with different degrees of interpenetration based on the similar octahedral [Cd{sub 2}(-COO){sub 4}] building blocks. Compound 4 is a six-fold interpenetrating diamondoid net based on tetrahedral MBBs. By careful inspection of these structures, we find that various carboxylic ligands and N-donor ligands with different coordination modes and conformations, and metal centers with different geometries are important for the formation of the different MBBs. It is believed that different topological types lie on different MBBs with various polygons or polyhedra. Such as four- and six-connected topologies are formed by tetrahedral and octahedral building blocks. In addition, with the increase of carboxylic ligands' length, the degrees of interpenetration have been changed in the alpha-Po topological nets. And the luminescent properties of these compounds have been investigated in detail. - Graphical abstract: A series of three-dimensional interpenetrating metal-organic frameworks based on different polygons or polyhedra has been synthesized. The crystal structures and topological analysis of these compounds, along with a systematic investigation of the relationship between topological types and molecular building blocks, will be discussed.

  18. MgO-Supported Cluster Catalysts with Pt-Ru Interactions Prepared from Pt3Ru6(CO)21(u3-H)(u-H)3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chotisuwan,S.; Wittapyakun, J.; Lobo-Lapidus, R.; Gates, B.

    2007-01-01

    Bimetallic MgO-supported catalysts were prepared by adsorption of Pt{sub 3}Ru{sub 6}(CO){sub 21}({mu}{sub 3}-H)({mu}-H){sub 3} on porous MgO. Characterization of the supported clusters by infrared (IR) spectroscopy showed that the adsorbed species were still in the form of metal carbonyls. The supported clusters were decarbonylated by treatment in flowing helium at 300 C, as shown by IR and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data, and the resulting supported PtRu clusters were shown by EXAFS spectroscopy to have metal frames that retained Pt-Ru bonds but were slightly restructured relative to those of the precursor; the average cluster size was almost unchanged as a result of the decarbonylation. These are among the smallest reported bimetallic clusters of group-8 metals. The decarbonylated sample catalyzed ethylene hydrogenation with an activity similar to that reported previously for {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported clusters prepared in nearly the same way and having nearly the same structure. Both samples were also active for n-butane hydrogenolysis, with the MgO-supported catalyst being more active than the {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported catalyst.

  19. Transition metal ion-assisted photochemical generation of alkyl halides and hydrocarbons from carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carraher, Jack; Pestovsky, Oleg; Bakac, Andreja

    2012-03-14

    Near-UV photolysis of aqueous solutions of propionic acid and aqueous Fe3+ in the absence of oxygen generates a mixture of hydrocarbons (ethane, ethylene and butane), carbon dioxide, and Fe2+. The reaction becomes mildly catalytic (about five turnovers) in the presence of oxygen which converts a portion of alkyl radicals to oxidizing intermediates that reoxidize Fe2+. The photochemistry in the presence of halide ions (X? = Cl?, Br?) generates ethyl halides via halogen atom abstraction from FeXn3?n by ethyl radicals. Near-quantitative yields of C2H5X are obtained at ?0.05 M X?. Competition experiments with Co(NH3)5Br2+ provided kinetic data for the reaction of ethyl radicals with FeCl2+ (k = (4.0 ± 0.5) × 106 M?1 s?1) and with FeBr2+ (k = (3.0 ± 0.5) × 107 M?1 s?1). Photochemical decarboxylation of propionic acid in the presence of Cu2+ generates ethylene and Cu+. Longer-chain acids also yield alpha olefins as exclusive products. These reactions become catalytic under constant purge with oxygen which plays a dual role. It reoxidizes Cu+ to Cu2+, and removes gaseous olefins to prevent accumulation of Cu+(olefin) complexes and depletion of Cu2+. The results underscore the profound effect that the choice of metal ions, the medium, and reaction conditions exert on the photochemistry of carboxylic acids.

  20. Kinetic effects on double hysteresis in spin crossover molecular magnets analyzed with first order reversal curve diagram technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stan, Raluca-Maria; Gaina, Roxana; Enachescu, Cristian E-mail: radu.tanasa@uaic.ro; Stancu, Alexandru; Tanasa, Radu E-mail: radu.tanasa@uaic.ro; Bronisz, Robert

    2015-05-07

    In this paper, we analyze two types of hysteresis in spin crossover molecular magnets compounds in the framework of the First Order Reversal Curve (FORC) method. The switching between the two stable states in these compounds is accompanied by hysteresis phenomena if the intermolecular interactions are higher than a threshold. We have measured the static thermal hysteresis (TH) and the kinetic light induced thermal hysteresis (LITH) major loops and FORCs for the polycrystalline Fe(II) spin crossover compound [Fe{sub 1?x}Zn{sub x}(bbtr){sub 3}](ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} (bbtr?=?1,4-di(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)butane), either in a pure state (x?=?0) or doped with Zn ions (x?=?0.33) considering different sweeping rates. Here, we use this method not only to infer the domains distribution but also to disentangle between kinetic and static components of the LITH and to estimate the changes in the intermolecular interactions introduced by dopants. We also determined the qualitative relationship between FORC distributions measured for TH and LITH.