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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

West Coast (PADD 5) Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Normal Butane/Butylene Exports; Normal Butane/Butylene Supply and Disposition; West Coast (PADD 5) Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...

2

Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Normal Butane/Butylene Supply and Disposition; Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...

3

East Coast (PADD 1) Normal Butane-Butylene Stock Change ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast (PADD 1) Normal Butane-Butylene Stock Change (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 4-3: 1: ...

4

Midwest (PADD 2) Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Midwest (PADD 2) Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 0: 0: 0: 0: ...

5

Midwest (PADD 2) Normal Butane-Butylene Stock Change (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Midwest (PADD 2) Normal Butane-Butylene Stock Change (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981-4-34-7: 14: ...

6

West Coast (PADD 5) Imports of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

West Coast (PADD 5) Imports of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 9: 18: ...

7

Ignition properties of n-butane and iso-butane in a rapid compression machine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Autoignition delay times of n-butane and iso-butane have been measured in a Rapid Compression Machine in the temperature range 660-1010 K, at pressures varying from 14 to 36 bar and at equivalence ratios {phi} = 1.0 and {phi} = 0.5. Both butane isomers exhibit a negative-temperature-coefficient (NTC) region and, at low temperatures, two-stage ignition. At temperatures below {proportional_to}900 K, the delay times for iso-butane are longer than those for the normal isomer, while above this temperature both butanes give essentially the same results. At temperatures above {proportional_to}720 K the delay times of the lean mixtures are twice those for stoichiometric compositions; at T butane using a comprehensive model for butane ignition, including both delay times in the two-stage region, with substantial differences being observed for iso-butane, particularly in the NTC region. (author)

Gersen, S.; Darmeveil, J.H. [Gasunie Engineering and Technology, P.O. Box 19, 9700 MA Groningen (Netherlands); Mokhov, A.V. [Laboratory for Fuel and Combustion Science, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Levinsky, H.B. [Gasunie Engineering and Technology, P.O. Box 19, 9700 MA Groningen (Netherlands); Laboratory for Fuel and Combustion Science, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

West Coast (PADD 5) Product Supplied of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

West Coast (PADD 5) Product Supplied of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; ...

9

Momentum Profile and Final Correlation Effects of Iso-butane Inner Valence by Binary (e, 2e) Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Momentum Profile and Final Correlation Effects of Iso-butane Inner Valence by Binary (e, 2e Momentum Profile and Final Correlation Effects of Iso-butane Inner Valence by Binary (e, 2e) Spectroscopy) The binding energy spectra and the momentum distributions of the valence orbitals of iso-butane, also known

Wang, Yayu

10

East Coast (PADD 1) Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast (PADD 1) Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 ...

11

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 7,016: 5,987: ...

12

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; ...

13

U.S. Normal Butane-Butylene Stocks at Natural Gas Processing ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Normal Butane-Butylene Stocks at Natural Gas Processing Plants (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1993: ...

14

U.S. Refinery Normal Butane/Butylene Shell Storage Capacity as ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Normal Butane/Butylene Shell Storage Capacity as of January 1 (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 ...

15

U.S. Ending Stocks of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Ending Stocks of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 26,098: 24,979: 24,689: ...

16

U.S. Normal Butane-Butylene Stocks in Pipelines (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Normal Butane-Butylene Stocks in Pipelines (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1993: 1,901: 1,455: 1,356: 1,810: 2,062 ...

17

U.S. Refinery Net Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Net Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 2005-4,241-2,244: 2,431: 7,319: 7,538 ...

18

Dynamics of Exchange at Gas-Zeolite Interfaces 1: Pure Component n-Butane and Isobutane  

SciTech Connect

The authors present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of n-butane and isobutane in silicalite. They begin with a comparison of the bulk adsorption and diffusion properties for two different parameterizations of the interaction potential between the hydrocarbon species, both of which have been shown to reproduce experimental gas-liquid coexistence curves. They examine diffusion as a function of the loading of the zeolite, as well as the temperature dependence of the diffusion constant at loading and for infinite dilution. They continue with simulations in which interfaces are formed between single component gases and the zeolite. After reaching equilibrium, they examine the dynamics of exchange between the bulk gas and the zeolite. Finally, they calculate the permeability of the zeolite for n-butane and isobutane as a function of pressure. Their simulations are performed for a number of different gas temperatures and pressures, covering a wide range of state points.

CHANDROSS,MICHAEL E.; WEBB III,EDMUND B.; GREST,GARY S.; MARTIN,MARCUS G.; THOMPSON,AIDAN P.; ROTH,M.W.

2000-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

19

Thermodynamics of Liquid Mixtures of Xenon with Alkanes: (Xenon + n-Butane) and (Xenon + Isobutane)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The total vapor pressure of liquid mixtures of (xenon + n-butane) has been measured at 182.34 and 195.49 K, and of (xenon + isobutane) at 195.49 K. The liquid molar volumes have also been measured at 182.34 K for both systems. The mixtures follow the behavior already found for other (xenon + alkane) mixtures, i.e., E negative deviations from Raoult’s law, negative excess molar Gibbs energies (Gm) and negative excess molar

Eduardo J. M. Filipe; Luís F. G. Martins; Jorge C. G. Calado; Clare Mccabe; George Jackson

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Support shape effect in metal oxide catalysis: ceria nanoshapes supported vanadia catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane  

SciTech Connect

The activation energy of VOx/CeO2 catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane was found dependent on the shape of ceria support: rods < octahedra, closely related to the surface oxygen vacancy formation energy and defects amount of the two ceria supports with different crystallographic surface planes.

Wu, Zili [ORNL; Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Li, Meijun [ORNL; Rondinone, Adam Justin [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Total electron scattering cross sections of ethane, propane, n-butane, 1,3-butadiene and butylene in the energy range 0.3 to 4.0 keV.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The total electron scattering cross sections of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane, 1,3-Butadiene and Butylene were measured in the energy range 0.3 to 4.0 keV using linear… (more)

Wickramarachchi, Priyangika.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Product Supplied of Normal Butane ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Normal Butane/Butylene Supply and Disposition; Product Supplied for Normal Butane/Butylene ; Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Product Supplied for Crude Oil ...

23

Normal Butane/Butylene Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil exports are ...

24

Isobutane/Butylene Refinery Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

25

East Coast (PADD 1) Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast (PADD 1) Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; ...

26

Refinery Stocks of Normal Butane/Butylene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: "Other Oxygenates ...

27

Normal Butane/Butylene - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Working storage ...

28

Efficient Energy Usage in Butane Splitters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A World surplus of mixed butanes coupled with an increased need for gasoline extenders has raised the demand for isobutane. Isobutane is readily separated from an admixture with normal butane by conventional distillation techniques. However, application of the heat pump principle to this separation can reduce energy consumption by over 50%, though capital costs increase. The conventional fractionation scheme is compared to two different methods of applying the heat pump principle; overhead compression and bottoms flash compression. For both heat pump designs, payout time is less than one year for a Middle East location, based upon a detailed study of an actual case.

Barnwell, J.; Morris, C. P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Isobutane/Butylene Bulk Terminal Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

30

U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Propane/Propylene: 308: 269: 271: 294: 335: 408: 1973-2013: Normal Butane/Butylene: 30: 33: 48: 44: 30: 20: 1981-2013: Isobutane/Isobutylene : ...

31

Experimental and DFT studies of initiation processes for butane isomerization over sulfated-zirconia catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Reaction kinetics studies were conducted of isobutane and n-butane isomerization at 423 K over sulfated-zirconia, with the butane feeds purified of olefins. Dihydrogen evolution was observed during butane isomerization over fresh catalysts, as well as over catalysts selectively poisoned by preadsorbed ammonia. Butane isomerization over sulfated-zirconia can be viewed as a surface chain reaction comprised of initiation, propagation, and termination steps. The primary initiation step in the absence of feed olefins is considered to be the dehydrogenation of butane over sulfated-zirconia, generating butenes which adsorb onto acid sites to form protonated olefinic species associated with the conjugate base form of the acid sites. Quantum-chemical calculations, employing density-functional theory, suggest that the dissociative adsorption of dihydrogen, isobutylene hydrogenation, and dissociative adsorption of isobutane are feasible over the sulfated-zirconia cluster, and these reactions take place over Zr-O sites.

Hong, Z.; Watwe, R.M.; Natal-Santiago, M.A.; Hill, J.M.; Dumesic, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Fogash, K.B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)] [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Kim, B. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Masqueda-Jimenez, B.I. [Univ. Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion y Estudios de Posgrado] [Univ. Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion y Estudios de Posgrado

1998-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

32

Normal Butane/Butylene Refinery Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

33

Refinery & Blender Net Production of Normal Butane/Butylene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast: 382: 612: 603: 584: 549-349: 1993-2013: Appalachian No. 1: 67: 42: 68: 37: 39: 16: 1995 ... La. Gulf Coast: 919: 1,323: 917: 984: 882: ...

34

Normal Butane/Butylene Total Stocks Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

35

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Normal Butane-Butylene Stock Change ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981-58-3-1: 78: 50: 25: 31: 35: 70-11-92-132: 1982-70-64-93-26: 36: 46: 37: 39: 20-43-76-102: ...

36

Refinery Net Production of Normal Butane/Butylene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

37

Isobutane ignition delay time measurements at high pressure and detailed chemical kinetic simulations  

SciTech Connect

Rapid compression machine and shock-tube ignition experiments were performed for real fuel/air isobutane mixtures at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2. The wide range of experimental conditions included temperatures from 590 to 1567 K at pressures of approximately 1, 10, 20, and 30 atm. These data represent the most comprehensive set of experiments currently available for isobutane oxidation and further accentuate the complementary attributes of the two techniques toward high-pressure oxidation experiments over a wide range of temperatures. The experimental results were used to validate a detailed chemical kinetic model composed of 1328 reactions involving 230 species. This mechanism has been successfully used to simulate previously published ignition delay times as well. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed to gain further insight to the chemical processes occurring at various conditions. Additionally, useful ignition delay time correlations were developed for temperatures greater than 1025 K. Comparisons are also made with available isobutane data from the literature, as well as with 100% n-butane and 50-50% n-butane-isobutane mixtures in air that were presented by the authors in recent studies. In general, the kinetic model shows excellent agreement with the data over the wide range of conditions of the present study. (author)

Healy, D.; Curran, H.J. [Combustion Chemistry Centre, School of Chemistry, NUI Galway (Ireland); Donato, N.S.; Aul, C.J.; Petersen, E.L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Zinner, C.M. [Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Bourque, G. [Rolls-Royce Canada Limited, 9500 Cote de Liesse, Lachine, Quebec (Canada)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Kinetics and deactivation of sulfated zirconia catalysts for butane isomerization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reaction kinetics studies were conducted of n-butane and isobutane isomerization over sulfated zirconia at 423 K. The kinetic data can be described well by a rate expression based on a reversible, bimolecular surface reaction between two adsorbed n-C{sub 4} species, probably through a C{sub 8} intermediate, to produce one i-C{sub 4} species, as well as surface reaction between two adsorbed i-C{sub 4} species to produce one n-C{sub 4} species. This reaction sequence also describes well the rates of C{sub 4}-disproportionation reactions to produce C{sub 3} and C{sub 5} species. The initial rate of catalyst deactivation is faster during n-butane isomerization than during isobutane isomerization, and the longer-term rate of deactivation during n-butane isomerization increases with the pressures of n-butane. The more rapid catalyst deactivation during n-butane isomerization may be related to the formation of n-C{sub 4}-diene species. 25 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Fogash, K.B.; Larson, R.B.; Gonzalez, M.R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); and others

1996-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

An experimental study of isobutane oxidation at transition temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation of isobutane at temperatures in the range 563-693 K has been studied experimentally using a static reactor. Gas chromatographic analysis was used to measure stable species concentrations. The experimental results were used to postulate the main reaction paths of the mechanism at these temperatures. A region of negative temperature coefficient (NTC) was observed between 650 and 680 K. Changes in the product yields and product distribution indicated a transition in the mechanism across the NTC region, from low to intermediate temperatures. Analysis of the experimental results and comparison with results for other fuels, such as n-butane, propane and propene, indicated that the NTC and mechanism transition were strongly dependent on the shift in the equilibrium of CH/sub 3/ + O/sub 2/ <==> CH/sub 3/O/sub 2/. The results are also discussed in relation in relation to recent engine results.

Wilk, R.D.; Cernansky, N.P.; Miller, D.L.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Improving the stability of H-mordenite for n-butane isomerization  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of n-butane over mordenite-based catalysts in the presence of hydrogen and water was investigated for reaction temperatures between 523 and 623 K. Special attention was given to the influence of Pt upon catalytic activity, selectivity, and stability. With parent mordenite the catalytic activity for n-butane conversion decreased markedly after a short time on stream. Deactivation can be minimized by hydrogen (in the presence of Pt) and water addition. Both measures are thought to reduce the concentration of intermediate olefins in the zeolite pores. The best results with respect to selective conversion of n-butane to isobutane were obtained for 0.25 wt% Pt on mordenite in the presence of hydrogen. Higher concentrations of Pt in the catalyst are shown to be detrimental for n-butane isomerization, because of increasing selectivity to hydrogenolysis. A detailed mechanistic scheme for n-butane conversion over Pt-containing mordenites is presented. n-Butane conversion is concluded to occur via a bimolecular mechanism involving a complex network of hydrogen transfer, oligomerization/cracking, isomerization, hydrogenation/dehydrogenation, and hydrogenolysis. 23 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

Asuquo, R.A.; Eder-Mirth, G.; Lercher, J.A. [Catalysis Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)] [and others] [Catalysis Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

U.S. Natural Gas Processing Plant  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

647 837 1993-2012 PropanePropylene 864 1,575 1,329 1,371 1,505 1,944 1993-2012 Normal ButaneButylene 646 1,373 907 1,292 688 907 1993-2012 IsobutaneButylene 499 453 567 500 500...

42

Thermodynamic representations of ammonia and isobutane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tables of the thermodynamic properties of ammonia and isobutane are presented for the superheated vapor and the saturated liquid and vapor states. The properties were calculated using appropriate analytical pressure-volume-temperature (P-V-T) representations for the fluids in the regions described. The tables cover the approximate range of values of reduced temperatures up to 1.5 and reduced pressure up to 5.

Milora, S. L.; Combs, S. K.

1977-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

U.S. Product Supplied of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's: 134: 101: 124: 143: 117: 146: 151: 163: 188: 1990's: 110: 102: 113: 86: 128: 113 ...

44

U.S. Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 316: 278: 293: 421: 330: 382: 312: 2,765: 310: 1,334: 991: 917: 1982: 1,314: 864: 1,174: ...

45

U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Input of Normal Butane-Butylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 237: 165: 117: 104: 77: 89: 80: 91: 144: 185: 242: 301: 1982: 243: 213: 144: 123: 120: ...

46

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 226: 214: 215: 222: 219: 218: 221: 219: 231: 247: 226: 203: 1982: 222: 219: 215: 219: 232: ...

47

U.S. Exports of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's: 31: 10: 9: 7: 8: 11: 11: 1990's: 12: 14: 16: 16: 14: 20: 23: 17: ...

48

Emissions with butane/propane blends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article reports on various aspects of exhaust emissions from a light-duty car converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas and equipped with an electrically heated catalyst. Butane and butane/propane blends have recently received attention as potentially useful alternative fuels. Butane has a road octane number of 92, a high blending vapor pressure, and has been used to upgrade octane levels of gasoline blends and improve winter cold starts. Due to reformulated gasoline requirements for fuel vapor pressure, however, industry has had to remove increasing amounts of butane form the gasoline pool. Paradoxically, butane is one of the cleanest burning components of gasoline.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

CATALYSIS BY PLATINUM SINGLE CRYSTAL SURFACES: LOW PRESSURE HYDROCARBON REACTIONS AND THE EFFECTS OF INTRODUCING STRONGLY BOUND OXYGEN AT THE SURFACE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of neo-pentane and iso-butane in the presence of excessof neo-pentane to iso-butane was found to be a demandingof neo-pentane and iso-butane in the presence of excess

Smith, Carol Ellen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Refinery Grade Butane Stocks at Bulk ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Refinery Grade Butane Stocks at Bulk Terminals (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 2005: 935: ...

51

Experimental enthalpies for a mixture of 80 mole percent isobutane in isopentane. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Seven enthalpy isobars were measured for a nominal mixture of 80% isobutane/20% isopentane. These data were used to construct a phase envelope for use in the design of a turbine expander and the heat exchangers for a geothermal power plant. The dew point values for the phase envelope are difficult to establish for a mixture, particularly in the region near the critical.

Koppany, C.R.; Lenoir, J.M.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Firing Excess Refinery Butane in Peaking Gas Turbines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New environmentally-driven regulations for motor gasoline volatility will significantly alter refinery light ends supply/demand balancing. This, in turn, will impact refinery economics. This paper presumes that one outcome will be excess refinery normal butane production, which will reduce refinery normal butane value and price. Explored is an opportunity for a new use for excess refinery normal butane- as a fuel for utility peaking gas turbines which currently fire kerosene and #2 oil. Our paper identifies the fundamental driving forces which are changing refinery butane economics, examines how these forces influence refinery production, and evaluates the potential for using normal butanes as peaking utility gas turbine fuel, especially on the US East Coast.

Pavone, A.; Schreiber, H.; Zwillenberg, M.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

EFFECT OF FUEL TYPE ON FLAME IGNITION BY TRANSIENT PLASMA Jianbang Liu1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Rise and delay times of mixtures of methane, propane, n-butane, iso-butane and iso- octane mixed performance of various fuels including methane, propane, iso-butane, n-butane and iso-octane mixed with air

54

Pergamon Atmospheric Environment Vol. 31, No. 23, pp. 4017 4038, 1997 X-1997 Elsevier Science Ltd  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, propane, n-butane, iso-butane, ethene and acetylene) display a seasonal variation of a winter maximum

Aneja, Viney P.

55

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inputs kbbl Crude Oil Butane Isobutane Other Hydrocarbons,674,276 kbbl. Data on butane, isobutene, other hydrocarbons

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

7, 1164711683, 2007 VOC ratios as probes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemistry, and [isobutane]/[n-butane] and [methyl ethyl ketone]/[n-5 butane] are used to study the extent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

Synthesis of Isobutene and Isobutane from Synthesis Gas. A Literature Review Since 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The isosynthesis reaction is commonly referred as the reaction that converts selectively synthesis gas to isobutene and isobutane. The main feature of this reaction is the production of branched hydrocarbons in higher proportion with respect to linear hydrocarbons than expected from thermodynamic equilibrium and with a molecular weight distribution favoring iso-C4 hydrocarbons. This article reviews and summarizes isosynthesis research results reported in the open scientific literature with emphasis on the articles published in the last two decades.

Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Conceptual design of a 10MW regenerative isobutane geothermal power plant. Technical report No. 18  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At present, there are basically three different systems for converting energy in geothermal fluid into power: vapor-flashing system, total flow system, and binary system. A comparison of the power production processes was made on the basis of work output in Kwh per 1000 pounds of geothermal fluid for self flowing wells with wellhead pressure of 100 psia and for wells with downhole pumps. For simplicity, the assumptions were made that the enthalpy of the geothermal fluid in the reservoir is approximately equal to that at the wellhead, that the thermodynamic properties of geothermal fluid may be approximated by those of water, and that the pressure effects on the properties of fluid are negligible. The results showed that the performance of the two-stage vapor-flashing system is not appreciably improved by using a downhole pump. The total flow system is simple, but its success depends mainly on the development of a reliable machine with sufficiently high thermal efficiency. The regenerative isobutane system is impractical, if the geothermal fluid temperature is below 380/sup 0/F. But, when the brine temperatures range from 485 to 600/sup 0/F, the regenerative isobutane system with downhole pump exhibits superior performance as compared to two-stage vapor-flashing system, basic isobutane system, or total flow system.

Gupta, A.K.; Chou, J.C.S.

1976-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

59

Coupling of oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization reactions of butane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coupling of oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization of butane by using a dual function catalyst has led to a significant enhancement of the yields (from 25 to 40%) and selectivities to aromatics (from 39 to 64%). Butane is converted to aromatics by using either zinc-promoted [Ga]-ZSM-5 or zinc and gallium copromoted [Fe]-ZSM-5 zeolite as a catalyst. However, the formation of aromatics is severely limited by hydrocracking of butane to methane, ethane, and propane due to the hydrogen formed during aromatization reactions. On the other hand, the oxidative dehydrogenation of butane to butene over molybdate catalysts is found to be accompanied by a concurrent undesirable reaction, i.e., total oxidation. When two of these reactions (oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization of butane) are coupled by using a dual function catalyst they have shown to complement each other. It is believed that the rate-limiting step for aromatization (butane to butene) is increased by adding an oxidative dehydrogenation catalyst (Ga-Zn-Mg-Mo-O). The formation of methane, ethane, and propane was suppressed due to the removal of hydrogen initially formed as water. Studies of ammonia TPD show that the acidities of [Fe]-ZSM-5 are greatly affected by the existence of metal oxides such as Ga[sub 2]O[sub 3], MgO, ZnO, and MoO[sub 3]. 40 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Xu, Wen-Qing; Suib, S.L. (Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

ADSORPTION AND BONDING OF BUTANE AND PENTANE ON THE Pt(111) CRYSTAL SURFACES. EFFECTS OF OXYGEN TREATMENTS AND DEUTERIUM PREADSORPTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ADSORPTION AND BONDING OF BUTANE AND PENTANE ON THE .Pt(111)ADSORPTION AND BONDING OF BUTANE AND PENTANE ON THE Pt(lll)adsorption characteristics of butane and pentane on the (

Salmeron, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Natural Gas Plant Net Stocks Natural Gas Plant Net Stocks Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Butylene (C4H8) An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery processes. Ethane (C2H6) A normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of -127.48º F. It is extracted from natural gas and refinery gas streams. Isobutane (C4H10) A normally gaseous branch-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of 10.9º F. It is extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams. Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) A group of hydrocarbon-based gases derived from crude oil refining or nautral gas fractionation. They include: ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, and isobutylene. For convenience of transportation, these gases are liquefied through pressurization.

62

Thermochemistry of radicals formed by hydrogen abstraction from 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and butanal Ewa Papajak, Prasenjit Seal, Xuefei Xu, and Donald G. Truhlar Citation: J. Chem. Phys. 137, 104314 abstraction from 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Ewa Papajak, Prasenjit Seal, Xuefei Xu- propanol, and butanal. Electronic structure calculations for all conformers of the radicals were car- ried

Truhlar, Donald G

63

Transition events in butane simulations: Similarities across models Daniel M. Zuckermana)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transition events in butane simulations: Similarities across models Daniel M. Zuckermana of long simulations of all-atom butane using both stochastic and fully solved molecular dynamics, we have behavior in molecular simulations has long been a topic of interest, and butane has been an important test

Zuckerman, Daniel M.

64

934 / JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING / OCTOBER 2000 CHLORINATED SOLVENT COMETABOLISM BY BUTANE-GROWN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BY BUTANE-GROWN MIXED CULTURE By Young Kim,1 Daniel J. Arp,2 and Lewis Semprini3 ABSTRACT: A survey of aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by a butane-grown mixed culture was performed and was inhibited by butane and inactivated by acetylene, indicating that a monooxygenase enzyme was likely involved

Semprini, Lewis

65

Surface Adsorption Isotherms and Surface Excess Densities of n-Butane in Silicalite-1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface Adsorption Isotherms and Surface Excess Densities of n-Butane in Silicalite-1 Isabella 27, 2008. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed NoVember 13, 2008 We present isotherms for the adsorption of n-butane have thus studied, as a representative example, the adsorption properties of one hy- drocarbon, n-butane

Kjelstrup, Signe

66

==================== !"#$%&'()*+,-+./,0)12 Development of Micro Ejector for Butane Catalytic Combustor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

==================== !"#$%&'()*+,-+./,0)12 Development of Micro Ejector for Butane Catalytic Combustor ===== ==== !" = !" = = !" A micro ejector for butane catalytic combustor is investigated. Quasi-1 ejector that the volume flow rate of entrained air can reach 43 times the value of butane when the back

Kasagi, Nobuhide

67

Raman and IR spectra of butane: Anharmonic calculations and interpretation of room temperature spectra  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Raman and IR spectra of butane: Anharmonic calculations and interpretation of room temperature-principles anharmonic calculations are carried out for the IR and Raman spectra of the CAH stretch- ing bands in butane.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction n-Butane is of great importance in several disciplines

Potma, Eric Olaf

68

HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

·omatography, mass , propane, butane , wa:ter, and CO co dueethane ( 1. 7 flillOl) , n~butane (0.17 flmol), isobutane (not possess Isobutane/n~butane activity, this activity The

Benner, Linda S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Catalytic dehydrogenation of propane and isobutane in hydrogen permselective membrane reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The dehydrogenation of propane and isobutane was studied in hydrogen permselective packed bed membrane reactors and conventional packed bed reactors. Two different types of developmental membranes were investigated: sol-gel derived silica-based membranes and a pure palladium thin film supported by a porous ceramic substrate. The palladium membranes deactivated and eventually failed when exposed to both isobutane and propane dehydrogenation temperatures above 773 K. Moderate improvements in propylene and isobutylene yields were obtained with the silica-based membrane reactors. An isobutylene yield of 48 mole percent was obtained at a liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 1.8 and temperature of 798 K compared to a yield of 39 percent in a conventional reactor operated with the same flow rate. Similar improvements in propylene yield were obtained when the silica-based membranes were tested in propane dehydrogenation experiments. There was no significant difference in the reaction selectivities for the desired olefin products when the membrane and conventional reactors were operated with the scone LHSV However, for a constant value of the olefin yield, the membrane reactors had a higher reaction selectivity since the desired yield was achieved at a higher LHSV where there was less time for side products to form. Catalyst deactivation rates were generally greater in the membrane reactors, especially when the reactors were operated with high hydrogen removal rates at temperatures of 773 K and above.

Collins, J.P.; Schwartz, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sehgal, R.; Ward, T.L. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Cometabolic transformation of cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene epoxide by a butane-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by a butane- grown mixed culture Y. Kim* and L. Semprini** *Department of Environmental Engineering, Korea cometabolism of cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (c-DCE) by a butane-grown mixed culture was evaluated in batch kinetic by butane and was inactivated by acetylene (a known monooxygenase inactivator), indicating that a butane

Semprini, Lewis

71

Thermodynamic properties of isobutane-isopentane mixtures from -40 to +600/sup 0/F and up to 1000 psia  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Helmholtz function for pure isobutane from a recent correlation has been converted to a dimensionless form and a pressure-enthalpy chart based on this function has been generated by computer. A Helmholtz function for mixtures of isobutane and isopentane has been formed based upon the dimensionless isobutane Helmholtz function as the reference fluid by means of an extended corresponding-states principle. Scarce literature data for saturation properties of isopentane, and new data for its vapor pressure and for the critical line of the mixture were used. The accuracy of the surface was checked by comparing with literature enthalpy data and with new VLE data for the mixture. Tables of thermodynamic properties have been generated from this Helmholtz function for the 0.1 mole fraction isopentane-in-isobutane mixture in the single-phase region and on the dew- and bubble-point curves, together with properties of the coexisting phase. A pressure-enthalpy chart for this mixture has also been generated.

Gallagher, J.S.; Levelt Sengers, J.M.H.; Morrison, G.; Sengers, J.V.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Serious pitting hazard in the raft river 5MW(e) Geothermal Power Plant isobutane cooling loop  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The 5MW(e) Dual Boiling Cycle Geothermal Power Plant, hence referred to as the Raft River plant, is being developed for DOE by EG and G, Inc., Idaho Falls, Idaho. This pilot power plant is of the binary concept and utilizes isobutane as the working second fluid. The plant will demonstrate the feasibility of power generation from an intermediate temperature ({approx} 290 F) resource. The plant is schematically diagrammed in Figure 1. During the final design phase and after the major components were specified to be made of carbon steel, and ordered, various conditions forced the power plant design to switch from surface water to geothermal fluid for the condenser cooling loop make-up water. Because the geothermal fluid contains significant concentrations of chlorides and sulfates, about 1000 ppm and 65 ppm respectively, aeration in the cooling tower causes this water to become extremely aggressive, especially in the pitting of carbon steel components. Although essentially all of the condenser cooling loop materials are carbon steel, the isobutane condenser and turbine lube oil cooler are the most vulnerable. These components are tubed with carbon steel tubes of 0.085 and 0.075 inch wall thickness. These two components are extremely leak critical heat exchangers. For example, even a single pit perforation in the isobutane condenser can cause plant shutdown through loss of isobutane. Such a leak also poses an explosion or fire hazard. As isobutane pressure falls, the incursion of cooling water into the isobutane loop could occur, causing damage to anhydrous service seals. Under a DOE contract for geothermal failure analysis, Radian Corporation has made a preliminary investigation of the pitting hazard presented by the aggressive cooling fluid and the corrosion inhibition treatment that has thus far been proposed. This report documents Radian's understanding of the present situation and the results of its investigation on possible mitigation of this hazard. Finally, various conclusions and recommendations are made that may, if pursued, lead to a satisfactory solution that will avert a certain early prolonged plant shutdown due to failure of the thin walled isobutane and turbine lube oil cooler tubes.

Ellis, Peter F.

1980-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

73

Transient FTIR studies of the reaction pathway for n-butane selective oxidation over vanadyl pyrophosphate  

SciTech Connect

New information has been provided about the reaction pathway for n-butane partial oxidation to maleic anhydride over vanadyl pyrophosphate (VPO) catalysts using FTIR spectroscopy under transient conditions. Adsorption studies of n-butane, 1,3-butadiene, and related oxygenates were performed to gain information about reaction intermediates. n-Butane was found to adsorb on the VPO catalyst to form olefinic species at low temperatures. Unsaturated, noncyclic carbonyl species were determined to be precursors to maleic anhydride.

Xue, Z.Y.; Schrader, G.L. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)] [Ames Lab., IA (United States); [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Investigating the basis of substrate specificity in butane monooxygenase and chlorinated ethene toxicity in Pseudomonas butanovora.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Pseudomonas butanovora, Mycobacterium vaccae, and Nocardioides sp. CF8 utilize distinctly different butane monooxygenases (BMOs) to initiate degradation of recalcitrant chlorinated ethenes (CEs) that pollute aquifers… (more)

[No author

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Dc slice imaging, crossed beam reaction of chlorine radical with butane.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? We present an investigation of the reaction dynamics of Cl radicals with Butane using crossed molecular beams, at two collision energies: ~ 6.5 and… (more)

Abdul ghani, Tarek Oussama

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

EIA’s Proposed NGL Realignment: Overview of Proposed Changes  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Water . Dry Gas . Olefins (Ethylene, Propylene, Butylene, Isobutylene) Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids . Natural Gas Liquids (Ethane, Propane, Butanes, & Pentanes Plus) 2 .

77

Transition Events in Butane Simulations: Similarities Across Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From a variety of long simulations of all-atom butane using both stochastic and fully-solved molecular dynamics, we have uncovered striking generic behavior which also occurs in one-dimensional systems. We find an apparently universal distribution of transition event durations, as well as a characteristic speed profile along the reaction coordinate. An approximate analytic distribution of event durations, derived from a one-dimensional model, correctly predicts the asymptotic behavior of the universal distribution for both short and long durations. 1 1

Daniel M. Zuckerman; Thomas B. Woolf

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Transition Events in Butane Simulations Similarities Across Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From a variety of long simulations of all-atom butane using both stochastic and fully-solved molecular dynamics, we have uncovered striking generic behavior which also occurs in one-dimensional systems. We find an apparently universal distribution of transition event durations, as well as a characteristic speed profile along the reaction coordinate. An approximate analytic distribution of event durations, derived from a one-dimensional model, correctly predicts the asymptotic behavior of the universal distribution for both short and long durations.

Zuckerman, D M; Zuckerman, Daniel M.; Woolf, Thomas B.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

TABLE27.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7. 7. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD District, January 1998 Crude Oil a ....................................................................... 0 1,168 0 0 5,978 7,146 231 Natural Gas Liquids ...................................................... 24 752 885 6 451 2,118 68 Pentanes Plus ............................................................. 1 455 0 5 (s) 461 15 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ......................................... 24 297 885 (s) 450 1,657 53 Ethane/Ethylene ..................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Propane/Propylene ................................................. 20 96 637 (s) 149 904 29 Normal Butane/Butylene ......................................... 3 201 248 0 301 753 24 Isobutane/Isobutylene ............................................ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Other Liquids ..................................................................

80

LPG--a direct source of C/sub 3/-C/sub 4/ olefins  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the selective production of olefins by the catalytic dehydrogenation of the corresponding paraffins by means of UOP's Oleflex process. In this process, propylene can be obtained at about 85 mol % selectivity by the catalytic dehydrogenation of propane. Isobutylene can be obtained at selectivities in excess of 90 mol % from isobutane, and n-butenes (1-butene plus 2-butene) at about 80 mol % from n-butane. The availability of this technology, coupled with an abundant supply of LPG (C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ paraffins), opens new avenues for the selective production of propylene and butylenes.

Pujado, P.R.; Berg, R.C.; Vora, B.V.

1983-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

198 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1994,116, 198-203 Hydrodesulfurization of Thiophene to Butadiene and Butane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

198 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1994,116, 198-203 Hydrodesulfurization of Thiophene to Butadiene and Butane. Reaction of the butadiene complex with H2 produces butane. Introduction

Jones, William D.

82

J. Am. Chem. SOC.1988, 110, 8305-8319 8305 Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane, and Neopentane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. Am. Chem. SOC.1988, 110, 8305-8319 8305 Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane, Pasadena, California 91125. Received February I, 1988 Abstract: The hydrogenolysisof ethane, propane, n-butane in "demethylization"of the parent hydrocarbon. For n-butane, the major reaction channels on the two surfaces are n-C4

Goodman, Wayne

83

Bioaugmentation of butane-utilizing microorganisms to promote cometabolism of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in groundwater microcosms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bioaugmentation of butane-utilizing microorganisms to promote cometabolism of 1,1,1-trichloroethane. The initial inoculum for bioaugmentation was a butane-utilizing enrichment from the subsurface of the Hanford DOE site. The non-augmented microcosm required 80 days of incubation before butane

Semprini, Lewis

84

Faraday Discuss. Chem. SOC.,1989, 87, 337-344 Butane Hydrogenolysis over Single-crystal Rhodium Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Faraday Discuss. Chem. SOC.,1989, 87, 337-344 Butane Hydrogenolysis over Single-crystal Rhodium&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, U.S.A. Hydrogenolysis of n-butane has been studied over the (110 of surface composition and geometry.' For example, in our laboratories, the activity for ethane' and butane

Goodman, Wayne

85

Table 1. Halocarbons Dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Table 2. Hydrocarbons Ethane n-Heptane Propane Benzene Propene n-Octane n-Butane iso-Octane iso-Butane Toluene iso-Butene Nonane n ...

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

86

Hydrogeology, chemical and microbial activity measurement through deep permafrost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ethene % Ethane % Propene % Propane % Butene % iso-Butane %Butane C1/(C2 + C3) HLW-03-28, Purge 4 ND HLW-03-28, Purge 6

Stotler, R.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

NGL Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 EIA's Proposed NGL Realignment: Overview June 4, 2013 Butanes include normal butane and isobutane. 3 Changes proposed by EIA to realign NGL data and related terminology...

88

Ionization of ethane, butane, and octane in strong laser fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Strong-field photoionization of ethane, butane, and octane are reported at intensities from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. The molecular fragment ions, C{sup +} and C{sup 2+}, are created in an intensity window from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} and have intensity-dependent yields similar to the molecular fragments C{sub m}H{sub n}{sup +} and C{sub m}H{sub n}{sup 2+}. In the case of C{sup +}, the yield is independent of the molecular parent chain length. The ionization of more tightly bound valence electrons in carbon (C{sup 3+} and C{sup 4+}) has at least two contributing mechanisms, one influenced by the parent molecule size and one resulting from the tunneling ionization of the carbon ion.

Palaniyappan, Sasi; Mitchell, Rob; Ekanayake, N.; Watts, A. M.; White, S. L.; Sauer, Rob; Howard, L. E.; Videtto, M.; Mancuso, C.; Wells, S. J.; Stanev, T.; Wen, B. L.; Decamp, M. F.; Walker, B. C. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

89

METHANE AND n-BUTANE OXIDATION WITH CO2 UNDER RADIOFREQUENCY PLASMAS OF MODERATE PRESSURES (*)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1205 METHANE AND n-BUTANE OXIDATION WITH CO2 UNDER RADIOFREQUENCY PLASMAS OF MODERATE PRESSURES) Résumé. 2014 L'oxydation du méthane et du n-butane avec CO2 a été étudiée dans des décharges électriques intermédiaires en C2 (C2H2, C2H4, C2H6) qui est la voie principale pour convertir mé- thane et n-butane en CO

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

90

U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production of Normal Butane ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production of Normal Butane (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1993-884: 268: 4,851: 6,387: 6,489 ...

91

U.S. Refinery Grade Butane Stocks at Bulk Terminals (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Grade Butane Stocks at Bulk Terminals (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; ...

92

Unimolecular dissociations of ionized azo-tert-butane and acetone azine .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This M.Sc. thesis presents an experimental and a theoretical study of azo-tert-butane and acetone azine ions which belong to the azo and azine class of… (more)

Rabaev, Madlena

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

U.S. Refinery Grade Butane Stocks at Bulk Terminals (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Grade Butane Stocks at Bulk Terminals (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 2005: 1,077: 999: 1,362: ...

94

Refinery & Blender Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

& Blender Net Production & Blender Net Production Product: Total Finished Petroleum Products Liquefied Refinery Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethane Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Isobutane Isobutylene Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55 Conventional Other Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Less Than 0.31 Percent Sulfur Residual Fuel 0.31 to 1.00 Percent Sulfur Residual Fuel Greater Than 1.00 Percent Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha For Petro. Feed. Use Other Oils For Petro. Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Processing Gain(-) or Loss(+) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

95

Stat 511 MS Exam, Spring 2003 Page 1 of 3 This question concerns several analyses of a small set of data on the operation of a Butane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of data on the operation of a Butane Hydrogenolysis Reactor. The response variable percent conversion (cc/sec at STP) feed ratio (Hydrogen/Butane) the reactor wall temperature ( F) flow ratio temp

Vardeman, Stephen B.

96

Low temperature n-butane oxidation skeletal mechanism, based on multilevel approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to reconcile an increasingly large deviation (order of magnitude) of the ignition delay time at decreasing initial temperature, computed using the prior art kinetic schemes, with the available experimental values, a new skeletal mechanism (54 species, 94 reactions) for low-temperature (500-800 K) ignition of n- butane in air based on ab initio calculations is developed. The skeletal mechanism obtained accurately reproduces n-butane combustion kinetics for the practically important ranges of pressure, temperature and fuel-air equivalence ratio, especially in the low-temperature range. The elaborated first principal skeletal chemical kinetic mechanism of n-butane oxidation was validated against available experimental results for normal and elevated initial pressure (1-15 atm) using the Chemical Work Bench code. A good agreement with experiments was shown. (author)

Strelkova, M.I.; Sukhanov, L.P.; Kirillov, I.A. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Safonov, A.A. [Kintech Lab., Kurchatov Sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Photochemistry Center, Novatorov Str. 7a, 119421 Moscow (Russian Federation); Umanskiy, S.Ya. [Kintech Lab., Kurchatov Sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); N.N.Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Kosygin Str. 4, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Potapkin, B.V. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kintech Lab., Kurchatov Sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pasman, H.J. [Delft University of Technology, Postbus 5, 2600 AA Delft (Netherlands); Tentner, A.M. [Argonne National Laboratories, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

97

396 J. Phys. Chem. 1990, 94, 396-409 Reaction of Cyclopropane, Methylcyclopropane, and Propylene with Hydrogen on the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the production of n-butane. This result was interpreted qualitatively by invokingparallel reaction mechanisms for the production of n-butane and isobutane, with the n-butane channel exhibiting a higher apparent activation

Goodman, Wayne

98

A Simulation Study of Diffusion in Microporous Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dynamics simulation of the diffusion of n- butane andi-butane in silicalite. J. Chem. Phys. 108, 2170–2172 (Stefan diffusivity of iso-butane in MFI zeolite. Chem. Phys.

Abouelnasr, Mahmoud Kamal Forrest

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Chloroform cometabolism by butane-grown CF8, Pseudomonas butanovora, and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and methane-grown Methylosinus trichosporium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chloroform cometabolism by butane-grown CF8, Pseudomonas butanovora, and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 63 (9): 3607-3613 SEP 1997 Abstract: Chloroform (CF) degradation by a butane-grown enrichment culture, CF8, was compared to that by butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora and Mycobacterium vaccae

Semprini, Lewis

100

Statistical thermodynamics of 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa Papajak, Tao Yu, and Donald G. Truhlar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Statistical thermodynamics of 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa-body decomposition of ethanedial, propanal, propenal, n-butane, 1-butene, and 1,3-butadiene J. Chem. Phys. 136, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa Papajak, Tao Yu, and Donald G. Truhlara) Department of Chemistry

Truhlar, Donald G

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Bioaugmentation with butane-utilizing microorganisms to promote in situ cometabolic treatment of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 1,1-dichloroethene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bioaugmentation with butane-utilizing microorganisms to promote in situ cometabolic treatment of 1) through bioaugmentation with a butane enrichment culture containing predominantly two Rhodococcus sp of butane and dissolved oxygen and or hydrogen peroxide as sources of dissolved oxygen, about 70% removal

Semprini, Lewis

102

Transport coefficients of n-butane into and through the surface of silicalite-1 from non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transport coefficients of n-butane into and through the surface of silicalite-1 from non dynamics Non-equilibrium thermodynamics Silicalite-1 n-Butane adsorption a b s t r a c t We have studied coupled heat and mass transfer of n-butane through a membrane of silicalite-1. A description

Kjelstrup, Signe

103

Single event kinetic modeling of solid acid alkylation of isobutane with butenes over proton-exchanged Y-Zeolites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Complex reaction kinetics of the solid acid alkylation of isobutane with butenes over a proton-exchanged Y-zeolite has been modeled at the elementary step level. Starting with a computer algorithm that generated the reaction network based on the fundamentals of the carbenium ion chemistry, the formation of over 100+ product species has been modeled in order to gain understanding of the underlying phenomena leading to rapid catalyst deactivation and product selectivity shifts observed in experimental runs. An experimental investigation of the solid acid alkylation process was carried out in a fixed bed catalytic reactor operating with an excess of isobutane under isothermal conditions at moderate temperatures (353-393 K) in liquid phase. Experimental data varying with run-time for a set of butene space-times and reaction temperatures were collected for parameter estimation purposes. A kinetic model was formulated in terms of rate expressions at the elementary step level including a rigorous modeling of deactivation through site coverage. The single event concept was applied to each rate coefficient at the elementary step level to achieve a significant reduction in the number of model parameters. Based on the identification of structural changes leading to the creation or destruction of symmetry axes and chiral centers in an elementary step, formulae have been developed for the calculation of the number of single events. The Evans-Polanyi relationship and the concept of stabilization energy were introduced to account for energy levels in surface-bonded carbenium ions. A novel functional dependency of the stabilization energy with the nature of the carbenium ion and the carbon number was proposed to account for energy effects from the acid sites on the catalyst. Further reductions in the number of parameters and simplification of the equations for the transient pseudohomogeneous one-dimensional plug-flow model of the reactor were achieved by means of thermodynamic constraints. Altogether, the single event concept, the Evans-Polanyi relationship, the stabilization energy approach and the thermodynamic constraints led to a set of 14 parameters necessary for a complete description of solid acid alkylation at the elementary step level.

Martinis Coll, Jorge Maximiliano

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Selective oxidation of n-butane and butenes over vanadium-containing catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxidative dehydrogenation (OXDH) of n-butane, 1-butene, and trans-2-butene on different vanadia catalysts has been compared. MgO, alumina, and Mg-Al mixed oxides with Mg/(Al + Mg) ratios of 0.25 and 0.75 were used as supports. The catalytic data indicate that the higher the acid character of catalysts the lower is both the selectivity to C{sub 4}-olefins from n-butane and the selectivity to butadiene from both 1-butene or trans-2-butene. Thus, OXDH reactions are mainly observed from n-butane and butenes on basic catalysts. The different catalytic performance of both types of catalysts is a consequence of the isomerization of olefins on acid sites, which appears to be a competitive reaction with the selective way, i.e., the oxydehydrogenation process by a redox mechanism. Infrared spectroscopy data of 1-butene adsorbed on supported vanadium oxide catalysts suggest the presence of different adsorbed species. O-containing species (carbonyl and alkoxide species) are observed on catalysts with acid sites while adsorbed butadiene species are observed on catalysts with basic sites. According to these results a reaction network for the oxydehydrogenation of n-butane is proposed with parallel and consecutive reactions.

Nieto, J.M.L.; Concepcion, P.; Dejoz, A.; Knoezinger, H.; Melo, F.; Vazquez, M.I.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Formative time of breakdown modeled for the ignition of air and n-butane mixtures using effective ionization coefficients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that simulations of ignition by electric arc discharge in n-butane and air mixtures have interesting features, which deviate from results obtained by simple extension of calculations based on methanelike fuels. In particular, it is demonstrated that lowering the temperature of the n-butane-air mixture before ignition under certain conditions will actually decrease the ignition stage time as well as the required electric field.

Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Popugaev, S. D. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198904 (Russian Federation); Demidov, V. I. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Adams, S. F. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Jiao, C. Q. [ISSI Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45440-3638 (United States)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

Saving Energy and Reducing Emissions from the Regeneration Air System of a Butane Dehydrogenation Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Texas Petrochemicals operates a butane dehydrogenation unit producing MTBE for reformulated gasoline that was originally constructed when energy was cheap and prior to environmental regulation. The process exhausts 900,000 pounds per hour of air at 900 to 1100°F containing CO and VOC. By installing a furnace/heat recovery steam generator, Texas Petrochemicals achieved significant reductions of VOC, CO, and NOx, along with energy savings.

John, T. P.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

A B  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

oils and diesel) Crude oil and lease condensate Motor gasoline LPG (Ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, butane, butylene) Natural gas Anthracite Bituminous and subbituminous...

108

Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending...

109

Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending...

110

OMB No. 1905-0165 Expiration Date: 1/31/2013 Version No.:2011 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Propane/Propylene: 246 Normal Butane/Butylene 244 ... Report storage capacity of trans-shipment and other tanks and underground storage operated as ...

111

OMB No. 1905-0165 Version No.:xxxx.xx FORM EIA-812 MONTHLY ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Propane/Propylene. 246: Normal Butane/Butylene. 244: ... Report storage capacity of trans-shipment and other tanks and underground storage operated as ...

112

ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

> 0.001 mol % typically have ethane > ethylene, propane > propylene, and butane > butylene. There are three end member fluid compositions: type 1 fluids in which...

113

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Net Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker, and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Net Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker, and Barge from Other PADDs of Normal Butane-Butylene (Thousand Barrels per Day)

114

Molecular Components of Catalytic Selectivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hexagonal Square isobutane n-butane isobutane C 1 – C 3H 2 O H 3 C OH 1-Butanol H 3 C H 2 Butane H H 3 C + H 2 CH 3Pyrrolidine + H 2 +NH 3 Butane and ammonia Scheme 1. (a) (b)

Somorjai, Gabor A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Safe Operating Procedure (Revised 7/09)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

://ehs.unl.edu/) LPG includes propane, butane, and butylenes used for heating, cooking, and fuel. The purpose Food Service No more than two 10 ounce non-refillable butane cylinders in use per appliance

Farritor, Shane

116

U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total 559,639 599,643 591,916 616,905 613,451 578,101 1981-2013 Liquefied Refinery Gases 24,599 26,928 25,443 26,819 25,951 19,023 1981-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 464 426 407 441 487 379 1981-2013 Ethane 317 277 283 312 332 232 1993-2013 Ethylene 147 149 124 129 155 147 1993-2013 Propane/Propylene 16,840 17,792 16,966 17,839 18,063 17,254 1981-2013 Propane 8,051 8,949 8,756 9,002 9,153 8,816 1995-2013 Propylene 8,789 8,843 8,210 8,837 8,910 8,438 1993-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 7,270 8,876 8,122 8,676 7,664 1,738 1981-2013 Normal Butane 7,447 9,044 8,314 8,832 8,067 1,743 1993-2013 Butylene -177 -168 -192 -156 -403 -5 1993-2013 Isobutane/Isobutylene

117

U.S. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propylene (Nonfuel Use) Normal Butane/Butylene Refinery Grade Butane Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Comp. Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Gasoline, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., than 1.00% Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petro. Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petro. Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products

118

Effect of Pt and H{sub 2} on n-butane isomerization over Fe and Mn promoted sulfated zirconia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The activity of a 0.4 wt% Pt-containing Fe and Mn promoted sulfated zirconia (PtSFMZ) catalyst in n-butane isomerization at 35{degrees}C was compared to that of a Pt-free catalyst (SFMZ). The maximum rate of n-butane conversion observed in helium over PtSFMZ was found to be 2.5 times higher than that over the SFMZ catalyst under the same conditions. It is believed that n-butane isomerization proceeds via a bimolecular mechanism in which the formation of hydrogen-deficient intermediates (carbenium ions and butenes), is necessary and the presence of transition metals such as Pt, Fe, and Mn on sulfated zirconia facilitates the formation/accumulation of these intermediates and increases their stability on the catalyst surface. The presence of H{sub 2} had a strong negative effect on n-butane conversion over PtSFMZ, but had no effect over SFMZ. The negative effect of H{sub 2} on PtSFMZ catalyst in n-butane isomerization reaction was attributed to the decreased concentration of butenes in the presence of hydrogen atoms which are formed by the dissociation of H{sub 2} on Pt. The ability of calcined Pt-containing catalysts to activate hydrogen at 35{degrees}C was demonstrated. Reduced SFMZ with or without Pt was not active at 35{degrees}C regardless of the nature of the carrier gas. 42 refs., 5 figs.

Song, Xuemin; Reddy, K.R.; Sayari, A. [Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)] [Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Structure of an n-butane monolayer adsorbed on magnesium oxide (100)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Neutron diffraction has been used to characterize the structure of the solid phase of the completed monolayer of n butane on the MgO(100) surface at low temperature. The monolayer is found to adopt a commensurate (7{radical}(2)x{radical}(2)R45 deg. ) structure with lattice constants a=29.47 A ring and b=4.21 A ring , P{sub 2gg} symmetry and four molecules in the unit cell. Excellent agreement with the experimental diffraction pattern is realized, using a Lorenztian profile to describe the line shape.

Arnold, T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Chanaa, S.; Cook, R. E. [Department of Chemistry, Buehler Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Clarke, S. M. [BP Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Larese, J. Z. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Buehler Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

Gas processing/The boiling behavior of LPG and liquid ethane, ethylene, propane, and n-butane spilled on water  

SciTech Connect

Boiling-rate calorimeter studies showed that unlike liquid nitrogen, methane, and LNG, LPG (84.7% propane, 6.0% ethane, and 9.3% n-butane; 442/sup 0/C bp), or pure propane, when rapidly spilled on water, reacted violently, ejecting water and ice into the vapor space; but in 1-2 sec, a coherent ice layer was formed and further boiloff was quiet and well predicted by a simple one-dimensional, moving-boundary-value, heat transfer model with a growing ice shield. Increasing the content of ethane and butane in LPG to 20% and 10%, respectively, had almost no effect on the LPG boiling, indicating that boiling may be modeled by using pure propane. Ethane, ethylene, and n-butane behaved quite differently from LPG. In spills of pure liquid propane on solid ice, the boiloff rate was almost identical to that predicted by the moving-boundary model.

Reid, R.C.; Smith, K.A.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,980 842 4,204 1,948 672 -339 187 3,995 240 4,886 ,980 842 4,204 1,948 672 -339 187 3,995 240 4,886 Crude Oil 1,472 - - - - 1,839 556 -359 17 3,416 76 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 508 -17 115 63 -14 - - 75 105 71 404 Pentanes Plus 63 -17 - - 0 98 - - -18 37 53 72 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 444 - - 115 63 -112 - - 93 68 18 332 Ethane/Ethylene 163 - - - 0 -100 - - 11 - - 52 Propane/Propylene 186 - - 104 49 -22 - - 66 - 7 244 Normal Butane/Butylene 52 - - 16 5 5 - - 22 17 11 29 Isobutane/Isobutylene 43 - - -4 8 5 - - -6 50 - 7 Other Liquids - - 858 - - 12 -143 127 346 474 40 -6 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 858 - - 5 -547 -8 11 271 26 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 23 - - 23 0 - -

122

table07.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

558 558 - 893 -73 1,935 -111 0 3,387 38 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ....... 283 89 116 - 9 -210 - 123 24 558 Pentanes Plus .................................. 37 - 1 - 17 7 - 25 15 9 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 246 89 115 - -8 -217 - 98 10 550 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 94 0 (s) - -71 -4 - 0 0 26 Propane/Propylene ....................... 100 116 86 - 31 -155 - 0 3 485 Normal Butane/Butylene .............. 37 -27 16 - 18 -48 - 74 6 12 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 15 (s) 13 - 14 -10 - 24 0 27 Other Liquids .................................... 24 - 0 - 38 40 - 46 (s) -24 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates .... 45 - 0 - 0 7 - 37 (s) 0 Unfinished Oils ................................. - - 0 - -4 17 - 3 0 -24 Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. .......... -21 - 0 - 42 16 - 6 (s) 0 Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. ....... - - 0 - 0 -1 - 1 0 0 Finished Petroleum Products .......... 71 3,648 9 - 646 154

123

TABLE13.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3. 3. PAD District V - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum (Thousand Barrels per Day) January 1998 Crude Oil ............................................ 2,165 - 440 154 -73 101 0 2,393 193 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ........ 93 43 (s) - 0 -51 - 98 15 75 Pentanes Plus ................................... 51 - 0 - 0 (s) - 42 (s) 9 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 42 43 (s) - 0 -51 - 56 15 66 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ (s) 0 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 (s) Propane/Propylene ....................... 12 47 (s) - 0 -26 - 0 5 80 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 21 -8 0 - 0 -25 - 43 10 -15 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 10 5 0 - 0 (s) - 13 0 2 Other Liquids ..................................... 87 - 71 - 24 87 - 73 3 19 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates ..... 109 - 28 - 0 14 - 121 3 0 Unfinished Oils ................................. - - 43 - 0 32 - -8 0 19 Motor

124

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

562 822 4,163 1,839 735 -69 52 3,955 244 4,801 562 822 4,163 1,839 735 -69 52 3,955 244 4,801 Crude Oil 1,116 - - - - 1,730 800 -87 62 3,442 55 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 446 -16 121 74 -25 - - -12 105 111 395 Pentanes Plus 50 -16 - - 1 82 - - -4 31 101 -12 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 396 - - 121 73 -107 - - -8 74 11 407 Ethane/Ethylene 163 - - - 0 -108 - - -2 - - 58 Propane/Propylene 156 - - 108 59 -24 - - -3 - 2 300 Normal Butane/Butylene 48 - - 11 9 10 - - -4 29 9 45 Isobutane/Isobutylene 29 - - 2 6 14 - - 1 46 - 5 Other Liquids - - 838 - - 5 -258 -159 8 408 25 -16 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 838 - - 3 -565 4 1 257 21 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 22 - - 22 0 - -

125

TABLE18.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8. 8. Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, January 1998 Crude Oil .................................................................... 14,835 511 15,346 8,591 1,779 2,386 12,756 Petroleum Products .................................................. 53,526 2,604 56,130 37,545 10,689 14,376 62,610 Pentanes Plus .......................................................... 0 0 0 4 209 225 438 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ...................................... 1,482 13 1,495 2,085 308 672 3,065 Ethane/Ethylene ................................................... 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 Propane/Propylene ............................................... 564 5 569 1,196 16 332 1,544 Normal Butane/Butylene ....................................... 584 6 590 608 205 232 1,045 Isobutane/Isobutylene ...........................................

126

table05.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

27 27 - 1,721 -65 -3 170 0 1,511 0 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ....... 27 18 40 - 153 -28 - 8 1 257 Pentanes Plus .................................. 3 - 0 - 0 (s) - 0 (s) 2 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 24 18 40 - 153 -28 - 8 1 254 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 8 0 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 8 Propane/Propylene ........................ 11 54 39 - 149 -8 - 0 1 261 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 4 -27 1 - 3 -18 - 5 (s) -7 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 1 -9 0 - 0 -2 - 3 0 -8 Other Liquids .................................... -9 - 183 - 11 17 - 234 1 -67 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates ..... 64 - 22 - 0 7 - 79 1 0 Unfinished Oils ................................. - - 34 - 0 -2 - 104 0 -68 Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. ........... -72 - 126 - 11 12 - 54 (s) 0 Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. ....... - - 0 - 0 1 - -2 0 1 Finished Petroleum Products .......... 76 1,798 771 - 2,918 -104 - - 63 5,603 Finished

127

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

124 22 3,585 1,761 3,291 117 -137 3,532 241 5,264 124 22 3,585 1,761 3,291 117 -137 3,532 241 5,264 Crude Oil 34 - - - - 897 1 113 -43 1,084 3 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 90 0 25 32 86 - - 16 27 15 174 Pentanes Plus 15 0 - - - - - - 0 - 10 4 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 75 - - 25 32 86 - - 16 27 5 169 Ethane/Ethylene 1 - - 0 - - - - 0 - - 1 Propane/Propylene 51 - - 36 27 83 - - 24 - 4 168 Normal Butane/Butylene 16 - - -11 3 3 - - -8 17 1 0 Isobutane/Isobutylene 8 - - 0 2 - - - -1 9 - 0 Other Liquids - - 22 - - 555 1,614 193 -31 2,421 5 -10 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 22 - - 25 273 -19 -35 332 5 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 4 - - 4 0 - - Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol)

128

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1,164 20 3,171 1,425 308 193 28 2,990 349 2,914 1,164 20 3,171 1,425 308 193 28 2,990 349 2,914 Crude Oil 1,104 - - - - 1,209 - 140 10 2,443 - 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 61 0 66 4 - - - 36 59 13 22 Pentanes Plus 26 0 - - - - - - 5 18 3 -1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 34 - - 66 4 - - - 30 41 10 23 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - - - - - - - - - 0 Propane/Propylene 14 - - 49 4 - - - 12 - 10 45 Normal Butane/Butylene 5 - - 15 0 - - - 13 19 0 -11 Isobutane/Isobutylene 15 - - 1 - - - - 5 22 - -12 Other Liquids - - 20 - - 107 252 94 -71 488 13 43 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 20 - - 19 143 37 -2 219 3 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 47 - - 47 0 - - Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol)

129

table09.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3,434 3,434 - 5,080 -9 -1,729 230 0 6,546 0 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ....... 1,272 347 65 - -68 -208 - 229 29 1,566 Pentanes Plus .................................. 188 - 33 - -5 30 - 66 0 119 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 1,084 347 31 - -63 -238 - 163 29 1,446 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 503 24 18 - 112 -52 - 0 0 709 Propane/Propylene ....................... 363 301 4 - -158 -120 - 0 21 610 Normal Butane/Butylene .............. 76 3 6 - -11 -89 - 100 8 54 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 142 19 4 - -6 22 - 63 0 73 Other Liquids .................................... 172 - 223 - -73 82 - 216 65 -41 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates .... 149 - 1 - 0 6 - 97 46 0 Unfinished Oils ................................. - - 221 - 4 72 - 195 0 -41 Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. .......... 23 - 1 - -77 4 - -76 19 0 Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. ....... - - 0 - 0 (s) - (s) 0 0 Finished Petroleum Products

130

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1,173 16 2,988 1,321 324 106 21 2,811 344 2,751 1,173 16 2,988 1,321 324 106 21 2,811 344 2,751 Crude Oil 1,111 - - - - 1,160 2 62 4 2,331 0 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 61 0 50 5 - - - 1 66 15 35 Pentanes Plus 28 0 - - - - - - 0 21 3 4 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 33 - - 50 5 - - - 1 45 12 31 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - - - - - - - - - 0 Propane/Propylene 12 - - 46 4 - - - 1 - 10 51 Normal Butane/Butylene 6 - - 6 1 - - - 0 26 1 -14 Isobutane/Isobutylene 15 - - -2 0 - - - 0 20 - -7 Other Liquids - - 16 - - 74 245 103 11 414 13 1 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 16 - - 7 138 37 2 193 3 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 43 - - 43 0 - - Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) - - - - 1 1 0

131

TABLE11.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1. 1. PAD District IV-Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum (Thousand Barrels per Day) January 1998 Crude Oil ........................................... 356 - 204 52 -131 -1 0 483 0 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ........ 131 (s) 17 - -93 (s) - 19 (s) 35 Pentanes Plus .................................. 25 - 4 - -11 (s) - 5 (s) 12 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 106 (s) 14 - -82 (s) - 14 (s) 23 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 31 0 0 - -41 0 - 0 0 -10 Propane/Propylene ....................... 48 9 8 - -23 -2 - 0 (s) 43 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 18 -7 6 - -10 1 - 11 0 -5 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 9 -3 0 - -8 1 - 2 0 -4 Other Liquids .................................... 11 - 0 - 0 18 - -5 0 -2 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates .... 3 - 0 - 0 -1 - 4 0 0 Unfinished Oils ................................. - - 0 - 0 3 - -1 0 -2 Motor Gasoline

132

table03.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3. 3. U.S. Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 1998 Crude Oil ............................................... 6,541 - 8,339 60 389 0 14,319 231 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ........... 1,805 497 238 - -497 - 478 68 2,492 Pentanes Plus .................................... 303 - 38 - 37 - 138 15 151 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ................ 1,502 497 200 - -534 - 340 53 2,340 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 636 24 18 - -55 - 0 0 734 Propane/Propylene ........................ 533 527 137 - -310 - 0 29 1,478 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 155 -65 28 - -179 - 234 24 39 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 178 11 17 - 11 - 106 0 89 Other Liquids ........................................ 285 - 476 - 244 - 564 69 -116 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates ...... 369 - 51 - 33 - 337 50 0 Unfinished Oils ...................................

133

TABLE35.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Thousand Thousand Barrels) January 1998 Crude Oil .................................................................. 344 433 -89 62,087 2,094 59,993 Petroleum Products ................................................ 103,659 8,121 95,538 34,597 13,141 21,456 Pentanes Plus ....................................................... 0 0 0 678 159 519 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ................................... 4,737 0 4,737 6,111 6,365 -254 Ethane/Ethylene ............................................... 0 0 0 773 2,988 -2,215 Propane/Propylene ........................................... 4,630 0 4,630 3,760 2,792 968 Normal Butane/Butylene ................................... 107 0 107 1,086 515 571 Isobutane/Isobutylene ...................................... 0 0 0 492 70 422 Unfinished Oils ......................................................

134

Table E2.1. Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

ethane-propane mixtures, propane-butane mixtures, and isobutane" "produced at refineries or natural gas processing plants, including plants that fractionate raw" "Natural...

135

Dr. William V. (Vance) Payne, II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... His refrigerant work included examining natural refrigerants such as propane and iso-butane (hydrocarbons) as well as carbon dioxide (CO2). ...

2012-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

136

Conntents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... With Isobutane and n-Butane: Modified Ingham, and John J. Lynch Leung-Griffiths Correlation and Data Evaluation Conference Reports ...

2003-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

137

NIST - Physical and Chemical Properties Division - Technical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... We are now working to develop formulations for propane, butane, and isobutane (so-called "natural refrigerants") that are of increasing interest. ...

138

A New Functional Form and New Fitting Techniques for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Of the 34 equa- tions of state compared in this work (see Table 1), only the equations for ammonia, argon, butane, ethane, ethylene, isobutane ...

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

139

Thermodynamics of the liquid mixture carbon dioxide + butane below 285 K topical report  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide and butane are frequently encountered as minor components of natural gas. These will liquefy first as it is cooled, so a knowledge of their vapor-liquid equilibrium behavior, especially at low temperatures, is desirable. However, only one isotherm of vapor-liquid equilibrium data below 250 K is available in the literature. Models of phase equilibrium can be expressed in terms of the excess Gibbs free energy, and the temperature dependence of the excess Gibbs free energy is related to the excess enthalpy. Thus measurements of excess enthalpy may be combined with phase equilibrium measurements to produce a model that gives reliable vapor-liquid equilibrium predictions. Under the contract, measurements of the heat of mixing of liquid n-butane with liquid carbon dioxide were performed at two temperatures below 250 K in a flow calorimeter. A maximum likelihood method was used to combine these calorimetric results with available vapor-liquid equilibrium data to produce a model of the nonideality in this system that gives much more reliable estimates of the phase equilibrium pressures, compositions, and enthalpies than had been available before.

Hall, E.J.; Guedes, H.J.R.; Zollweg, J.A.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

n-Butane: Ignition delay measurements at high pressure and detailed chemical kinetic simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ignition delay time measurements were recorded at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2 for n-butane at pressures of approximately 1, 10, 20, 30 and 45 atm at temperatures from 690 to 1430 K in both a rapid compression machine and in a shock tube. A detailed chemical kinetic model consisting of 1328 reactions involving 230 species was constructed and used to validate the delay times. Moreover, this mechanism has been used to simulate previously published ignition delay times at atmospheric and higher pressure. Arrhenius-type ignition delay correlations were developed for temperatures greater than 1025 K which relate ignition delay time to temperature and concentration of the mixture. Furthermore, a detailed sensitivity analysis and a reaction pathway analysis were performed to give further insight to the chemistry at various conditions. When compared to existing data from the literature, the model performs quite well, and in several instances the conditions of earlier experiments were duplicated in the laboratory with overall good agreement. To the authors' knowledge, the present paper presents the most comprehensive set of ignition delay time experiments and kinetic model validation for n-butane oxidation in air. (author)

Healy, D.; Curran, H.J. [Combustion Chemistry Centre, School of Chemistry, NUI Galway (Ireland); Donato, N.S.; Aul, C.J.; Petersen, E.L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Zinner, C.M. [Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Bourque, G. [Rolls-Royce Canada Limited, 9500 Cote de Liesse, Lachine, Quebec, H8T 1A2 (Canada)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

C-H functionalisation through singlet chlorocarbenes insertions – MP2 and DFT investigations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The insertion reactions of singlet mono and dichlorocarbenes (1CHCl and 1CCl2) into primary, secondary and tertiary C-H bonds of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and iso-butane have been investigated at ...

M. Ramalingam; K. Ramasami; P. Venuvanalingam; V. Sethuraman

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Adsorption of iso-/n-butane on an Anatase Thin Film: A Molecular Beam Scattering and TDS Study  

SciTech Connect

Binding energies and adsorption probabilities have been determined for n/iso-butane adsorption on an anatase thin film grown on SrTiO3(001) by means of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and molecular beam scattering. The sample has been characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Auger electrons spectroscopy (AES).

Goering, J.; Kadossov, E.; Burghaus, Uwe; Yu, Zhongqing; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Saraf, Laxmikant V.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

n-Alkanes on MgO(100). I: Coverage-Dependent Desorption Kinetics of n-Butane  

SciTech Connect

High quality temperature programmed desorption (TPD) measurements of n-butane from MgO(100) have been made for a large number of initial butane coverages (0-3.70 ML) and a wide range of heating ramp rates (0.3-10 K/s). We present a TPD analysis technique which allows the coverage-dependent desorption energy to be accurately determined by mathematical inversion of a TPD spectrum, assuming only that the prefactor is coverage-independent. A variational method is used to determine the prefactor that minimizes the difference between a set of simulated TPD spectra and corresponding experimental data. The best fit for butane desorption from MgO is obtained with a prefactor of 1015.7?1.6 s-1. The desorption energy is 34.9?3.4 kJ/mol at 0.5 ML coverage, and varies with coverage. Simulations based on these results can accurately reproduce TPD experiments for submonolayer initial coverages over a wide range of heating ramp rates (0.3-10 K/s). Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed.

Tait, Steven L.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Campbell, C T.; Kay, Bruce D.

2005-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

144

Kinetic and inhibition studies for the aerobic cometabolism of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and 1,1-dichloroethane by a butane-grown mixed culture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,1-dichloroethylene, and 1,1-dichloroethane by a butane-grown mixed culture Kim Y, Arp DJ, Semprini L BIOTECHNOLOGY,1- dichloroethane (1,1-DCA) by a butane-grown mixed culture. These chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs for butane (2.6 mumol/mg TSS/ h) followed by 1,1-DCE (1.3 mumol/mg TSS/h), 1,1-DCA (0.49 mumol/mg TSS

Semprini, Lewis

145

U.S. Refinery  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 354,918 353,802 345,413 343,062 345,025 342,763 1993-2013 Crude Oil 98,082 97,563 90,880 93,075 97,586 90,778 1981-2013 All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) 256,836 256,239 254,533 249,987 247,439 251,985 1993-2013 Pentanes Plus 947 867 828 805 708 856 1993-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 12,896 14,096 15,761 16,662 18,296 18,683 1993-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 281 321 261 242 205 171 1993-2013 Propane/Propylene 2,692 2,994 3,569 3,518 4,099 4,104 1993-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 7,627 8,451 9,511 10,757 11,921 12,147 1993-2013 Isobutane/Butylene 2,296 2,330 2,420 2,145 2,071 2,261 1993-2013 Other Hydrocarbons 19 43 49 33 26 21 2009-2013 Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) 116 99 100 82 71 78 2009-2013

146

U.S. Refinery  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 346,915 338,782 331,615 339,907 336,327 341,211 1993-2012 Crude Oil 89,070 86,598 90,944 88,982 90,640 88,781 1981-2012 All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) 257,845 252,184 240,671 250,925 245,687 252,430 1993-2012 Pentanes Plus 949 997 1,006 971 895 884 1993-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 13,161 12,456 12,611 14,896 14,429 15,934 1993-2012 Ethane/Ethylene 31 185 118 220 223 214 1993-2012 Propane/Propylene 4,120 3,293 3,577 4,278 4,087 4,574 1993-2012 Normal Butane/Butylene 6,320 6,482 6,478 7,818 7,794 8,774 1993-2012 Isobutane/Butylene 2,690 2,496 2,438 2,580 2,325 2,372 1993-2012 Other Hydrocarbons 29 20 41 42 2009-2012 Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) 47 24 58 112 2009-2012

147

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Comp. Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Gasoline, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., than 1.00% Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petro. Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petro. Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

148

U.S. Total Stocks  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 1,665,345 1,736,739 1,776,375 1,794,099 1,750,087 1,807,777 1956-2012 Crude Oil 983,046 1,027,663 1,051,795 1,059,975 1,026,630 1,060,764 1913-2012 All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) 682,299 709,076 724,580 734,124 723,457 747,013 1993-2012 Pentanes Plus 10,278 13,775 10,481 12,510 17,596 12,739 1981-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 95,592 113,134 102,147 108,272 111,778 140,529 1967-2012 Ethane/Ethylene 14,869 27,591 20,970 24,323 22,892 35,396 1967-2012 Propane/Propylene 52,007 55,408 50,140 49,241 54,978 67,991 1967-2012 Normal Butane/Butylene 21,862 23,031 24,149 27,652 26,779 28,574 1981-2012 Isobutane/Butylene 6,854 7,104 6,888 7,056 7,129 8,568 1981-2012 Other Hydrocarbons 29 20 41 42 2009-2012

149

A study of the kinetics and mechanism of the adsorption and anaerobic partial oxidation of n-butane over a vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyst  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of n-butane with a ((VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) catalyst has been investigated by temperature-programmed desorption and anaerobic temperature-programmed reaction. n-Butane has been shown to adsorb on the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} to as a butyl-hydroxyl pair. When adsorption is carried out at 223 K, upon temperature programming some of the butyl-hydroxyl species recombine resulting in butane desorption at 260 K. However, when adsorption is carried out at 423 K, the hydroxyl species of the butyl-hydroxyl pair migrate away from the butyl species during the adsorption, forming water which is detected in the gas phase. Butane therefore is not observed to desorb at 260 K after the authors lowered the temperature to 223 K under the butane/helium from the adsorption temperature of 423 K prior to temperature programming from that temperature to 1100 K under a helium stream. Anaerobic temperature-programmed oxidation of n-butane produces butene and butadiene at a peak maximum temperature of 1000 K; this is exactly the temperature at which, upon temperature programming, oxygen evolves from the lattice and desorbs as O{sub 2}. This, and the fact that the amount of oxygen desorbing from the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} at {approximately}1000 K is the same as that required for the oxidation of the n-butane to butene and butadiene, strongly suggests (1) that lattice oxygen as it emerges at the surface is the selective oxidant and (2) that its appearance at the surface is the rate-determining step in the selective oxidation of n-butane. The surface of the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} catalyst on which this selective oxidation takes place has had approximately two monolayers of oxygen removed from it by unselective oxidation of the n-butane to CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O between 550 and 950 K and has had approximately one monolayer of carbon deposited on it at {approximately}1000 K. It is apparent, therefore, that the original crystallography of the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} catalyst will not exist during this selective oxidation and that theories that relate selectivity in partial oxidation to the (100) face of the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} catalyst cannot apply in this case.

Sakakini, B.H.; Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.; Waugh, K.C.

2000-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

150

Toward Understanding the Nature of Internal Rotation Barriers with a New Energy Partition Scheme: Ethane and n-Butane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on an alternative energy partition scheme where density-based quantification of the steric effect was proposed [S.B. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 244103 (2007)], the origin of the internal rotation barrier between the eclipsed and staggered conformers of ethane and n-butane is systematically investigated in this work. The new definition is repulsive, exclusive, and extensive, and is intrinsically related to Bader’s atoms in molecules approach. Two kinds of differences, adiabatic (with optimal structure) and vertical (with fixed geometry), are considered in this work. We find that in the adiabatic case the eclipsed conformer possesses a larger steric repulsion than the staggered conformer for both molecules, but in the vertical cases the staggered conformer retains a larger steric repulsion. For ethane, a strong correlation between the total energy difference and the fermionic quantum energy difference is discovered. This linear relationship, however, does not hold for n-butane, whose behaviors in energy component differences are found to be more complicated. The impact of basis set and density functional choices on energy components from the new energy partition scheme has been investigated, as has its comparison with another definition of the steric effect in the literature in terms of the natural bond orbital analysis through the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Profiles of conceptual DFT reactivity indices as a function of dihedral angle changes have also been examined. Put together, these results suggest that the new energy partition scheme provides insights from a different perspective of internal rotation barriers.

Liu, Shubin; Govind, Niri

2008-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

151

Refinery Net Input of Isobutane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and ...

152

West Coast (PADD 5) Product Supplied for Crude Oil and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Area: 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History; Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products: 3,235: 3,057: 2,845: 2,903: ... 51: 1989-2012: Normal Butane/Butylene-3: 2-3 ...

153

U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Propane/Propylene: 1,235: 1,154: 1,160: 1,160: 1,153: 1,175: 1973-2012: Normal Butane/Butylene: 101: 111: 72: 108: 68: 77: 1981-2012: ... 1985-2012: ...

154

Ethane and n-butane oxidation over supported vanadium oxide catalysts: An in situ UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopic investigation  

SciTech Connect

The coordination/oxidation states of surface vanadium oxide species on several oxide supports (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}) during ethane and n-butane oxidation were examined by in situ UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Only a small amount of the surface V(V)cations are reduced to V(IV)/V(III) cations under present steady-state reaction conditions. The extents of reduction of the surface V(V) species are a strong function of the specific oxide support, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ZrO{sub 2} {gt} V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {gt} V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}, and also correlate with their reactivities (turnover frequencies) for ethane and n-butane oxidation reactions. For ZrO{sub 2}-supported samples, the polymerized surface vanadia species were found to be more easily reduced than the isolated surface vanadia species in reducing environments (i.e., ethane or n-butane in He), but no significant differences in the extents of reduction were observed under present steady-state reaction conditions (i.e., ethane/O{sub 2}/He or n-butane/O{sub 2}/He). This observation is also consistent with the ethane oxidation catalytic study, which revealed that the polymerization degree, the domain size, of the surface vanadia species does not appear to significantly affect the reactivity of the supported vanadia catalysts for ethane oxidation.

Gao, X.; Banares, M.A.; Wachs, I.E.

1999-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

155

Autoignited laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane jets in coflow air with elevated temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The autoignition characteristics of laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane fuels have been investigated experimentally in coflow air with elevated temperature over 800 K. The lifted flames were categorized into three regimes depending on the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction: (1) non-autoignited lifted flame, (2) autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial (or triple) edge, and (3) autoignited lifted flame with mild combustion. For the non-autoignited lifted flames at relatively low temperature, the existence of lifted flame depended on the Schmidt number of fuel, such that only the fuels with Sc > 1 exhibited stationary lifted flames. The balance mechanism between the propagation speed of tribrachial flame and local flow velocity stabilized the lifted flames. At relatively high initial temperatures, either autoignited lifted flames having tribrachial edge or autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion existed regardless of the Schmidt number of fuel. The adiabatic ignition delay time played a crucial role for the stabilization of autoignited flames. Especially, heat loss during the ignition process should be accounted for, such that the characteristic convection time, defined by the autoignition height divided by jet velocity was correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time for the critical autoignition conditions. The liftoff height was also correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. (author)

Choi, B.C.; Chung, S.H. [Clean Combustion Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Role of metal-support interactions on the activity of Pt and Rh catalysts for reforming methane and butane.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For residential fuel cell systems, reforming of natural gas is one option being considered for providing the H{sub 2} necessary for the fuel cell to operate. Industrially, natural gas is reformed using Ni-based catalysts supported on an alumina substrate, which has been modified to inhibit coke formation. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have developed a new family of catalysts derived from solid oxide fuel cell technology for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H{sub 2}. These catalysts consist of a transition metal supported on an oxide-ion-conducting substrate, such as ceria, that has been doped with a small amount of a non-reducible element, such as gadolinium, samarium, or zirconium. Unlike alumina, the oxide-ion-conducting substrate has been shown to induce strong metal-support interactions. Metal-support interactions are known to play an important role in influencing the catalytic activity of many metals supported on oxide supports. Based on results from temperature-programmed reduction/oxidation and kinetic reaction studies, this paper discusses the role of the metal and the substrate in the metal-support interactions, and how these interactions influence the activity and the selectivity of the catalyst in reforming methane and butane to hydrogen for use in fuel cell power systems.

Rossignol, C.; Krause, T.; Krumpelt, M.

2002-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

157

A comprehensive environment for property prediction and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Density LAMMPS/OPLSAA Error (K) (g/cm3) (g/cm3) Butane 273 0.6013 0.6010 ± .0026 -0.05% Isobutane 273.2 0.58052 0.6046 ± .0039 4.15% ...

2010-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

158

Study on the Interaction Coefficients in PR Equation with VdW ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The values of ki for HFCs and HCs, including Propane, Isobutane, n-butane, HFC32, HFC125, HFC134a, HFC143a, HFC152a and HFC227ea ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

159

Microsoft Word - RBL_Jan_2009_RG13-1-398.doc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

N001 4.67 Methane percent 01072009 N001 84.98 Ethane percent 01072009 N001 6.97 Propane percent 01072009 N001 1.97 Isobutane percent 01072009 N001 0.464 Butane percent...

160

Data Report  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

N001 5.18 Methane percent 5282008 N001 89.69 Ethane percent 5282008 N001 3.70 Propane percent 5282008 N001 0.695 Isobutane percent 5282008 N001 0.159 Butane percent 5...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

I T L L C P M O N  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

"A" No. 29-95 on June 8,1966) * Component-. , Carbon Dioxtde Nitrogen Methane ,Ethane Propane iso-Butane. nqentanb Hexanes Heptanes plus . *As reported by Core Laboratories, Inc....

162

Microsoft Word - May_2008_BM26-42_Data_Rpt.doc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

N001 3.21 Methane percent 05282008 N001 88.77 Ethane percent 05282008 N001 3.89 Propane percent 05282008 N001 0.963 Isobutane percent 05282008 N001 0.179 Butane percent...

163

Carbon nanotube-induced preparation of vanadium oxide nanorods: Application as a catalyst for the partial oxidation of n-butane  

SciTech Connect

A vanadium oxide-carbon nanotube composite was prepared by solution-based hydrolysis of NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} in the presence of carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes induce the nucleation of the 1D vanadium oxide nanostructures, with the nuclei growing into long freestanding nanorods. The vanadium oxide nanorods with the lengths up to 20 {mu}m and the widths of 5-15 nm exhibit a well-ordered crystalline structure. Catalytic tests show that the composite with nanostructured vanadium oxide is active for the partial oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride at 300 deg. C.

Chen Xiaowei [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institute of MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Zhu Zhenping [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institute of MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Haevecker, Michael [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institute of MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Su Dangsheng [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institute of MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: dangsheng@fhi-berlin.mpg.de; Schloegl, Robert [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institute of MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

164

U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

96,229 107,478 106,354 120,656 114,693 108,925 1981-2013 96,229 107,478 106,354 120,656 114,693 108,925 1981-2013 Crude Oil 3,965 3,863 3,591 3,029 2,052 2,975 1920-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 12,522 14,761 10,699 17,203 15,796 13,937 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 3,327 4,292 1,655 7,308 5,315 2,989 1984-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 9,194 10,468 9,044 9,895 10,481 10,947 1981-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 1981-1992 Propane/Propylene 8,363 9,542 8,057 8,407 9,125 10,040 1981-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 832 927 987 1,488 1,356 907 1981-2013 Isobutane/Isobutylene 1984-1992 Other Liquids 7,489 6,277 6,728 7,063 5,570 6,579 1991-2013 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons 2,897 3,520 3,180 3,430 4,056 3,543 1991-2013 Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol)

165

U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

302,265 311,620 293,713 317,538 316,119 299,380 1981-2013 302,265 311,620 293,713 317,538 316,119 299,380 1981-2013 Crude Oil 231,793 239,848 231,900 250,207 251,054 237,344 1920-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 5,268 5,261 4,667 4,819 3,708 4,020 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 1,366 2,222 730 1,461 316 772 1981-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3,902 3,039 3,937 3,358 3,392 3,248 1981-2013 Ethane 1993-2006 Ethylene 9 12 8 12 12 9 1993-2013 Propane 2,585 1,818 2,474 2,105 1,901 1,875 1995-2013 Propylene 728 680 814 595 722 728 1993-2013 Normal Butane 181 121 149 106 272 194 1995-2013 Butylene 143 241 162 153 146 139 1993-2013 Isobutane 256 167 330 387 339 303 1995-2013 Isobutylene 1993-2010 Other Liquids 43,066 47,595 40,206 44,400 38,927 40,118 1981-2013

166

table06.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7,308 7,308 - 27,686 -2,263 59,993 -3,449 0 105,005 1,168 0 70,132 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ......... 8,763 2,756 3,599 - 265 -6,499 - 3,820 752 17,310 23,020 Pentanes Plus ................................... 1,146 - 42 - 519 214 - 769 455 269 1,988 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ............... 7,617 2,756 3,557 - -254 -6,713 - 3,051 297 17,041 21,032 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 2,909 0 12 - -2,215 -110 - 0 0 816 2,868 Propane/Propylene ....................... 3,095 3,602 2,661 - 968 -4,799 - 0 96 15,029 13,173 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 1,156 -837 486 - 571 -1,497 - 2,303 201 369 3,305 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 457 -9 398 - 422 -307 - 748 0 827 1,686 Other Liquids ..................................... 738 - 0 - 1,171 1,228 - 1,429 11 -759 26,014 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates ..... 1,380 - 0 - 0 225 - 1,144 11 0 2,175 Unfinished Oils ..................................

167

table02.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. 2. U.S. Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 1998 Crude Oil ............................................... 202,756 - 258,506 1,851 12,065 0 443,902 7,146 0 880,184 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ............ 55,963 15,419 7,378 - -15,412 - 14,810 2,118 77,244 79,784 Pentanes Plus .................................... 9,388 - 1,185 - 1,137 - 4,282 461 4,693 6,852 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ................ 46,575 15,419 6,193 - -16,549 - 10,528 1,657 72,551 72,932 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 19,726 751 556 - -1,715 - 0 0 22,748 17,192 Propane/Propylene ........................ 16,528 16,343 4,241 - -9,623 - 0 904 45,831 34,422 Normal Butane/Butylene ................ 4,818 -2,023 880 - -5,547 - 7,256 753 1,213 12,826 Isobutane/Isobutylene .................... 5,503 348 516 - 336 - 3,272 0 2,759 8,492

168

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

25,966 7,956 1,280,301 725,573 1,191,766 9,116 -19,377 1,260,324 25,966 7,956 1,280,301 725,573 1,191,766 9,116 -19,377 1,260,324 90,720 1,909,011 152,389 Crude Oil 9,418 - - - - 316,140 4,126 8,405 -1,574 336,230 3,434 0 8,328 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 16,548 -84 14,202 18,043 26,704 - - -1,588 7,264 3,052 66,685 6,377 Pentanes Plus 2,828 -84 - - 185 -19 - - 12 63 315 2,520 43 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 13,720 - - 14,202 17,858 26,723 - - -1,600 7,201 2,737 64,165 6,334 Ethane/Ethylene 174 - - 93 - - - - 0 - - 267 - Propane/Propylene 9,223 - - 12,922 16,074 26,601 - - -793 - 1,230 64,383 5,184 Normal Butane/Butylene 2,091 - - 1,435 616 122 - - -866 3,435 1,507 188 837 Isobutane/Isobutylene 2,232 - - -248 1,168 - - - 59 3,766 - -673 313

169

U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

556,591 575,071 561,721 590,423 591,817 573,483 1981-2013 556,591 575,071 561,721 590,423 591,817 573,483 1981-2013 Crude Oil 0 0 0 0 0 0 1981-2013 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs 68,909 64,655 64,147 67,242 66,924 69,929 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 1,561 1,486 3,400 -1,627 474 3,432 1981-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 67,349 63,170 60,747 68,869 66,450 66,498 1981-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 27,620 28,821 26,806 29,847 29,153 30,817 1981-2013 Propane/Propylene 34,429 28,651 29,365 32,619 32,108 32,780 1981-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 3,899 4,288 2,546 4,356 3,201 2,347 1981-2013 Isobutane/Isobutylene 1,400 1,409 2,030 2,047 1,988 554 1981-2013 Other Liquids 1,994 3,096 713 5,708 -1,348 5,977 1981-2013 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons 0 0 0 0 0 0 1991-2013

170

East Coast (PADD 1) Net Receipts of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Type: Net Receipts Receipts Shipments Type: Net Receipts Receipts Shipments Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Type Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 96,936 96,489 98,076 99,950 102,408 98,737 1981-2013 Crude Oil -533 -654 -152 -479 -42 20 1981-2013 Petroleum Products 97,469 97,143 98,228 100,429 102,450 98,717 1986-2013 Pentanes Plus -2 1987-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,739 1,357 1,555 1,342 1,959 2,568 1981-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 1989-2002 Propane/Propylene 2,739 1,357 1,555 1,342 1,959 2,483 1989-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 85 1989-2013 Isobutane/Isobutylene 1989-2013

171

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3,707 661 107,540 52,842 98,737 3,513 -4,105 105,957 7,218 3,707 661 107,540 52,842 98,737 3,513 -4,105 105,957 7,218 157,931 153,902 Crude Oil 1,020 - - - - 26,908 20 3,378 -1,285 32,517 94 0 10,326 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 2,687 -11 747 945 2,568 - - 471 798 453 5,214 6,541 Pentanes Plus 443 -11 - - - - - - 2 - 300 130 82 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,244 - - 747 945 2,568 - - 469 798 153 5,084 6,459 Ethane/Ethylene 27 - - 9 - - - - 6 - - 30 15 Propane/Propylene 1,517 - - 1,078 813 2,483 - - 724 - 126 5,041 4,442 Normal Butane/Butylene 474 - - -333 80 85 - - -246 523 27 2 1,673 Isobutane/Isobutylene 226 - - -7 52 - - - -15 275 - 11 329 Other Liquids - - 672 - - 16,653 48,432 5,798 -936 72,642 156 -307 61,003

172

Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker,  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Total Crude Oil and Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and Under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem. Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

173

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

34,932 594 95,116 42,741 9,239 5,791 830 89,707 10,470 87,406 34,932 594 95,116 42,741 9,239 5,791 830 89,707 10,470 87,406 142,840 Crude Oil 33,114 - - - - 36,279 - 4,213 311 73,295 - 0 52,719 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 1,818 -8 1,970 134 - - - 1,076 1,782 396 660 8,270 Pentanes Plus 794 -8 - - - - - - 163 552 92 -21 314 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,024 - - 1,970 134 - - - 913 1,230 304 681 7,956 Ethane/Ethylene 3 - - - - - - - - - - 3 - Propane/Propylene 420 - - 1,475 124 - - - 374 - 299 1,346 2,272 Normal Butane/Butylene 158 - - 451 10 - - - 378 556 5 -320 5,110 Isobutane/Isobutylene 443 - - 44 - - - - 161 674 - -348 574 Other Liquids - - 602 - - 3,200 7,556 2,809 -2,126 14,630 387 1,276 46,625

174

Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Ether* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Reformulated Blended with Fuel Ethanol Reformulated, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Less than 0.31 Percent Sulfur 0.31 to 1.00 Percent Sulfur Greater than 1.00 Percent Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Marketable Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Units: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

175

table04.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. 4. PAD District I-Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 1998 Crude Oil ........................................... 824 - 53,357 -2,000 -89 5,262 0 46,830 0 0 16,235 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ........ 829 569 1,233 - 4,737 -869 - 252 24 7,961 5,223 Pentanes Plus ................................ 79 - 0 - 0 7 - 0 1 71 19 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ............ 750 569 1,233 - 4,737 -876 - 252 24 7,889 5,204 Ethane/Ethylene ........................ 262 0 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 262 0 Propane/Propylene .................... 334 1,689 1,206 - 4,630 -262 - 0 20 8,101 4,043 Normal Butane/Butylene ............ 116 -843 27 - 107 -548 - 162 3 -210 821 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................ 38 -277 0 - 0 -66 - 90 0 -263 340 Other Liquids .................................... -272 - 5,668 - 350 537 - 7,268 17 -2,076 19,354 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates ... 1,973

176

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

59,397 25,268 126,131 58,449 20,168 -10,157 5,610 119,848 7,211 59,397 25,268 126,131 58,449 20,168 -10,157 5,610 119,848 7,211 146,586 280,571 Crude Oil 44,167 - - - - 55,181 16,673 -10,758 505 102,476 2,282 0 102,610 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 15,230 -515 3,462 1,887 -432 - - 2,252 3,146 2,129 12,105 58,830 Pentanes Plus 1,896 -515 - - 6 2,928 - - -549 1,119 1,599 2,146 7,743 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 13,334 - - 3,462 1,881 -3,360 - - 2,801 2,027 530 9,959 51,087 Ethane/Ethylene 4,901 - - - 9 -3,013 - - 339 - - 1,558 4,694 Propane/Propylene 5,587 - - 3,111 1,470 -650 - - 1,991 - 199 7,328 24,444 Normal Butane/Butylene 1,561 - - 475 162 156 - - 651 514 331 858 20,078 Isobutane/Isobutylene 1,285 - - -124 240 147 - - -180 1,513 - 215 1,871

177

East Coast (PADD 1) Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Total Crude Oil and Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55 Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and Under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem. Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products

178

U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

18,553 18,551 18,724 19,046 19,091 19,116 1963-2013 18,553 18,551 18,724 19,046 19,091 19,116 1963-2013 Crude Oil 0 0 0 0 0 0 1981-2013 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs 2,297 2,086 2,138 2,169 2,159 2,331 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 52 48 113 -52 15 114 1981-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,245 2,038 2,025 2,222 2,144 2,217 1973-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 921 930 894 963 940 1,027 1981-2013 Propane/Propylene 1,148 924 979 1,052 1,036 1,093 1973-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 130 138 85 141 103 78 1981-2013 Isobutane/Isobutylene 47 45 68 66 64 18 1981-2013 Other Liquids 66 100 24 184 -43 199 1981-2013 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons 0 0 0 0 0 0 1991-2013 Unfinished Oils 67 100 24 184 -43 199 1981-2013 Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. 0 0 0 0 0 0 1981-2013

179

TABLE12.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. 2. PAD District V-Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 1998 Crude Oil ............................................ 67,121 - 13,641 4,786 -2,251 3,132 0 74,187 5,978 0 63,808 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ........ 2,884 1,346 5 - 0 -1,591 - 3,038 451 2,337 3,315 Pentanes Plus ................................... 1,572 - 0 - 0 -1 - 1,293 (s) 280 23 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 1,312 1,346 5 - 0 -1,590 - 1,745 450 2,058 3,292 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 2 0 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 2 0 Propane/Propylene ....................... 358 1,447 5 - 0 -805 - 0 149 2,466 1,676 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 639 -241 0 - 0 -771 - 1,348 301 -480 1,111 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 313 140 0 - 0 -14 - 397 0 70 505 Other Liquids ..................................... 2,710 - 2,197 - 734 2,707 - 2,248 94 592 36,195 Other

180

table08.chp:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

106,453 106,453 - 157,490 -279 -53,603 7,143 0 202,918 0 0 717,193 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ........ 39,438 10,759 2,005 - -2,109 -6,438 - 7,105 885 48,541 46,872 Pentanes Plus .................................. 5,820 - 1,031 - -167 925 - 2,057 0 3,702 4,603 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 33,618 10,759 974 - -1,942 -7,363 - 5,048 885 44,839 42,269 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 15,603 751 544 - 3,485 -1,605 - 0 0 21,988 14,111 Propane/Propylene ....................... 11,268 9,321 136 - -4,893 -3,707 - 0 637 18,902 15,091 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 2,346 107 176 - -356 -2,748 - 3,088 248 1,685 7,266 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 4,401 580 118 - -178 697 - 1,960 0 2,264 5,801 Other Liquids .................................... 5,321 - 6,903 - -2,255 2,536 - 6,692 2,021 -1,280 65,913 Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates .... 4,613 - 22

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181

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

429,215 5,872 1,093,588 483,473 118,666 38,688 7,789 1,028,754 429,215 5,872 1,093,588 483,473 118,666 38,688 7,789 1,028,754 126,026 1,006,933 150,671 Crude Oil 406,791 - - - - 424,639 598 22,523 1,445 853,106 0 0 56,432 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 22,424 -123 18,260 1,933 - - - 404 24,108 5,319 12,663 4,734 Pentanes Plus 10,215 -123 - - - - - - -20 7,565 1,094 1,453 51 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 12,209 - - 18,260 1,933 - - - 424 16,543 4,225 11,210 4,683 Ethane/Ethylene 34 - - - - - - - - - - 34 - Propane/Propylene 4,422 - - 16,669 1,593 - - - 335 - 3,714 18,635 1,915 Normal Butane/Butylene 2,360 - - 2,258 332 - - - 129 9,346 512 -5,037 2,249 Isobutane/Isobutylene 5,393 - - -667 8 - - - -40 7,197 - -2,423 519

182

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

302,630 5,088 230,918 121,366 -164,290 -11,531 4,472 221,774 5,269 302,630 5,088 230,918 121,366 -164,290 -11,531 4,472 221,774 5,269 252,667 39,043 Crude Oil 163,870 - - - - 115,845 -53,264 -13,771 3,101 209,575 5 0 18,928 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 138,760 -110 3,391 3,503 -119,108 - - 94 6,946 4,261 15,135 1,470 Pentanes Plus 18,508 -110 - - - -13,355 - - 14 2,156 3,795 -922 194 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 120,252 - - 3,391 3,503 -105,753 - - 80 4,790 466 16,057 1,276 Ethane/Ethylene 63,265 - - - - -61,214 - - -6 - - 2,057 400 Propane/Propylene 36,541 - - 3,406 3,155 -28,078 - - 7 - 12 15,005 363 Normal Butane/Butylene 15,114 - - 294 255 -9,019 - - 88 2,241 455 3,860 366 Isobutane/Isobutylene 5,332 - - -309 93 -7,442 - - -9 2,549 - -4,866 147

183

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

315,006 29,943 578,101 299,380 14,453 11,088 543,388 108,925 315,006 29,943 578,101 299,380 14,453 11,088 543,388 108,925 573,483 1,831,621 Crude Oil 233,810 - - - - 237,344 8,334 7,688 468,825 2,975 0 1,067,149 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 81,196 -552 19,023 4,020 - - 3,027 16,794 13,937 69,929 189,672 Pentanes Plus 11,167 -552 - - 772 - - -700 5,666 2,989 3,432 18,036 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 70,029 - - 19,023 3,248 - - 3,727 11,128 10,947 66,498 171,636 Ethane/Ethylene 30,015 - - 379 9 - - -414 - - 30,817 34,444 Propane/Propylene 25,545 - - 17,254 2,603 - - 2,582 - 10,040 32,780 67,782 Normal Butane/Butylene 6,893 - - 1,738 333 - - 999 4,711 907 2,347 58,942 Isobutane/Isobutylene 7,576 - - -348 303 - - 560 6,417 - 554 10,468

184

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8,897 964 18,564 10,598 335 158 17,505 3,205 18,490 8,897 964 18,564 10,598 335 158 17,505 3,205 18,490 Crude Oil 6,489 - - - - 8,527 144 93 14,999 67 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 2,408 -18 630 170 - - 65 509 314 2,301 Pentanes Plus 317 -18 - - 29 - - -13 174 118 50 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,091 - - 630 141 - - 79 335 196 2,251 Ethane/Ethylene 974 - - 18 0 - - 34 - - 958 Propane/Propylene 712 - - 553 116 - - 36 - 171 1,175 Normal Butane/Butylene 179 - - 56 15 - - 5 143 26 77 Isobutane/Isobutylene 225 - - 3 9 - - 4 192 - 41 Other Liquids - - 981 - - 1,257 53 51 1,997 214 28 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 981 - - 40 151 5 1,050 116 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 190 - - 190 0 - -

185

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

71 22 3,498 1,982 3,256 25 -53 3,444 248 5,216 71 22 3,498 1,982 3,256 25 -53 3,444 248 5,216 Crude Oil 26 - - - - 864 11 23 -4 919 9 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 45 0 39 49 73 - - -4 20 8 182 Pentanes Plus 8 0 - - 1 0 - - 0 0 1 7 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 37 - - 39 49 73 - - -4 20 7 175 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - 0 - - - - 0 - - 1 Propane/Propylene 25 - - 35 44 73 - - -2 - 3 176 Normal Butane/Butylene 6 - - 4 2 0 - - -2 9 4 1 Isobutane/Isobutylene 6 - - -1 3 - - - 0 10 - -2 Other Liquids - - 22 - - 717 1,611 114 -5 2,505 10 -47 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 22 - - 29 291 -9 3 324 6 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 4 - - 4 0 - - Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) - - - - 0 - 0 0

186

Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Exports Exports Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Naphtha for Petro. Feed. Use Other Oils Petro. Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

187

U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total 522,879 659,392 738,803 858,685 1,089,848 1,172,965 1981-2012 Crude Oil 10,006 10,464 15,985 15,198 17,158 24,693 1870-2012 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 25,584 36,951 50,681 59,842 90,968 115,054 1981-2012 Pentanes Plus 4,776 12,393 14,337 11,792 36,837 43,136 1984-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 20,809 24,558 36,344 48,050 54,131 71,918 1981-2012 Ethane/Ethylene 1983-1992 Propane/Propylene 15,501 19,264 30,925 39,860 45,243 62,490 1981-2012 Normal Butane/Butylene 5,308 5,294 5,419 8,189 8,888 9,428 1981-2012 Isobutane/Isobutylene 1984-1992 Other Liquids 32,049 23,477 23,625 44,514 67,981 78,359 1991-2012 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons

188

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

10,500 998 19,270 9,979 482 370 18,113 3,631 19,116 10,500 998 19,270 9,979 482 370 18,113 3,631 19,116 Crude Oil 7,794 - - - - 7,911 278 256 15,628 99 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 2,707 -18 634 134 - - 101 560 465 2,331 Pentanes Plus 372 -18 - - 26 - - -23 189 100 114 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,334 - - 634 108 - - 124 371 365 2,217 Ethane/Ethylene 1,001 - - 13 0 - - -14 - - 1,027 Propane/Propylene 852 - - 575 87 - - 86 - 335 1,093 Normal Butane/Butylene 230 - - 58 11 - - 33 157 30 78 Isobutane/Isobutylene 253 - - -12 10 - - 19 214 - 18 Other Liquids - - 1,015 - - 1,337 296 304 1,926 219 199 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 1,015 - - 75 121 -36 1,129 118 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 208 - - 208 0 - -

189

Product Supplied for Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petro. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petro. Feed Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Petroleum Coke - Marketable Petroleum Coke - Catalyst Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

190

(Butan-2-ol-jO)[2-({(ethylsulfanyl)- [2-(2-oxidobenzylidene-jO)hydrazinylidene-jN 2]methyl}iminomethyl)phenolato-jO]dioxidouranium(VI)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

disorder in main residue; R factor = 0.038; wR factor = 0.078; data-to-parameter ratio = 17.4. The U atom in the title complex, [U(C17H15N3O2S)O2-(C4H10O)], exists within a distorted pentagonal–bipyramidal geometry where the oxide O atoms occupy axial positions [O—U—O = 179.61 (18) ] and the pentagonal plane is defined by the N2O2 atoms of the tetradentate Schiff base ligand and the O atom of the butan-2-ol molecule. In the crystal, centrosymmetric aggregates are formed via pairs of hydroxy–phenoxide O—H O hydrogen bonds. The azomethine C N atoms, the ethylthiolyl group and the butyl group of the butan-2-ol molecule are disordered over two positions in a 0.668 (3):0.332 (3) ratio. Related literature For background to uranyl Schiff base complexes, see: S ¸ ahin et al. (2010); Özdemir et al. (2011). For a related structure, see: Takjoo et al. (2012).

Reza Takjoo; A Atefeh Najafi; A Seik Weng Ng B; Edward R. T. Tiekink B

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

The Accurate Computer Simulation of Phase Equilibrium for Complex Fluid Mixtures. Application to Binaries Involving isobutene, methanol, MTBE, and n-butane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a new method, called the Reaction Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo (RGEMC) method for the computer simulation of the phase equilibria for multicomponent mixtures, given an intermolecular potential model for the constituent molecular species. The approach treats the phase equilibrium conditions as a special type of chemical reaction, and incorporates knowledge of the pure-substance vapor pressure data into the simulations. Unlike macroscopic thermodynamic-based approaches like the Wilson and the UNIFAC approximations, no experimental information concerning the mixtures is required. In addition to the PTxy phase equilibrium data, the volumetric properties of the mixture are calculated. We developed intermolecular potential models based on the OPLS potential models of Jorgensen, and used the RGEMC method to predict phase equilibrium data for the binary systems isobutene+MTBE and the binaries formed by methanol with isobutene, MTBE, and n-butane. The predictions are excellent, ...

Martin Lísal; William R. Smith; Ivo Nezbeda

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Refinery & Blender Net Production of Isobutane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

193

Product Supplied for Isobutane/Isobutylene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Data may not add to ...

194

Refinery Net Production of Isobutane/Isobutylene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

195

Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Isobutane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

196

Pt3Ru6 Clusters Supported on gamma-Al2O3: Synthesis from Pt3Ru6(Cu)21(u3-H)(u-H)3, Structural Characterization, and Catalysis of Ethylene Hydrogenation and n-Butane Hydrogenolysis  

SciTech Connect

The supported clusters Pt-Ru/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared by adsorption of the bimetallic precursor Pt{sub 3}Ru{sub 6}(Cu){sub 21}({mu}{sub 3}-H)({mu}-H){sub 3} from CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solution onto {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by decarbonylation in He at 300 C. The resultant supported clusters were characterized by infrared (IR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies and as catalysts for ethylene hydrogenation and n-butane hydrogenolysis. After adsorption, the {nu}{sub CO} peaks characterizing the precursor shifted to lower wavenumbers, and some of the hydroxyl bands of the support disappeared or changed, indicating that the CO ligands of the precursor interacted with support hydroxyl groups. The EXAFS results show that the metal core of the precursor remained essentially unchanged upon adsorption, but there were distortions of the metal core indicated by changes in the metal-metal distances. After decarbonylation of the supported clusters, the EXAFS data indicated that Pt and Ru atoms interacted with support oxygen atoms and that about half of the Pt-Ru bonds were maintained, with the composition of the metal frame remaining almost unchanged. The decarbonylated supported bimetallic clusters reported here are the first having essentially the same metal core composition as that of a precursor metal carbonyl, and they appear to be the best-defined supported bimetallic clusters. The material was found to be an active catalyst for ethylene hydrogenation and n-butane hydrogenolysis under conditions mild enough to prevent substantial cluster disruption.

Chotisuwan,S.; Wittayakun, J.; Gates, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Roaming radical pathways for the decomposition of alkanes.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CASPT2 calculations predict the existence of roaming radical pathways for the decomposition of propane, n-butane, isobutane and neopentane. The roaming radical paths lead to the formation of an alkane and an alkene instead of the expected radical products. The predicted barriers for the roaming radical paths lie {approx}1 kcal/mol below the corresponding radical asymptotes.

Harding, L. B.; Klippenstein, S. J. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Rhenium Complexes and Clusters Supported on c-Al2O3: Effects of Rhenium Oxidation State and Rhenium Cluster Size on Catalytic Activity for n-butane Hydrogenolysis  

SciTech Connect

Supported metals prepared from H{sub 3}Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 12} on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were treated under conditions that led to various rhenium structures on the support and were tested as catalysts for n-butane conversion in the presence of H{sub 2} in a flow reactor at 533 K and 1 atm. After use, two samples were characterized by X-ray absorption edge positions of approximately 5.6 eV (relative to rhenium metal), indicating that the rhenium was cationic and essentially in the same average oxidation state in each. But the Re-Re coordination numbers found by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (2.2 and 5.1) show that the clusters in the two samples were significantly different in average nuclearity despite their indistinguishable rhenium oxidation states. Spectra of a third sample after catalysis indicate approximately Re{sub 3} clusters, on average, and an edge position of 4.5 eV. Thus, two samples contained clusters approximated as Re{sub 3} (on the basis of the Re-Re coordination number), on average, with different average rhenium oxidation states. The data allow resolution of the effects of rhenium oxidation state and cluster size, both of which affect the catalytic activity; larger clusters and a greater degree of reduction lead to increased activity.

Lobo Lapidus, R.; Gates, B

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Refinery & Blender Net Production of Isobutane/Isobutylene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

200

Refinery Net Production of Isobutane - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Refinery Stocks of Isobutane/Isobutylene - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: "Other Oxygenates ...

202

Geothermal binary-cycle working-fluid properties information. Annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research discussed was performed prior to December 31, 1979. The report was not released until September 30, 1981, so that pressure-enthalpy diagrams for a number of potential geothermal binary cycle working fluids could be prepared in SI units. Efforts were directed principally to working fluid thermophysical property correlation and presentation of properties information. Pressure-enthalpy diagrams are presented for propane, normal butane, isobutane, normal pentane, isopentane and propylene. Generalized correlations are presented for the thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrocarbon pure and mixture working fluids. Specific correlations are presented for the thermodynamic properties of 27 fluids and for the viscosity and thermal conductivity of hydrocarbons including isobutane and isopentane.

Starling, K.E.; Kumar, K.H.; Malik, Z.I.; Batson, B.; Plumb, P.

1981-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

203

TABLE17.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7. 7. Refinery Net Production of Finished Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, January 1998 Liquefied Refinery Gases ........................................... 576 -7 569 2,415 -51 392 2,756 Ethane/Ethylene ..................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ethane ............................................................... W W W W W W W Ethylene ............................................................ W W W W W W W Propane/Propylene ................................................ 1,656 33 1,689 2,645 329 628 3,602 Propane ............................................................. W W W 1,979 W W W Propylene .......................................................... W W W 666 W W W Normal Butane/Butylene ........................................ -804 -39 -843 -320 -337 -180 -837 Normal Butane ..................................................

204

Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports by Area of Entry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

by Area of Entry by Area of Entry Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Ethylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene-Type Bonded Aircraft Fuel Other Bonded Aircraft Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Bonded, 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Other, 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Bonded, Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Other, Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Bonded, Greater than 500 to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Other, Greater than 500 ppm to 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Bonded, Greater than 2000 ppm Distillate F.O., Other, Greater than 2000 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Residual F.O., Bonded Ship Bunkers, Less than 0.31% Sulfur Residual F.O., Bonded Ship Bunkers, 0.31 to 1.00% Sulfur Residual F.O., Bonded Ship Bunkers, Greater than 1.00% Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochem. Feed. Use Other Oils for Petrochem Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

205

Refinery Net Production of Normal Butane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

206

Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Normal Butane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

207

Refinery & Blender Net Production of Normal Butane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

208

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Normal Butane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB ...

209

Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Normal Butane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

210

Refinery Net Input of Normal Butane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether and ...

211

The North American natural gas liquids markets are chaotic  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors test for deterministic chaos (i.e., nonlinear deterministic processes which look random) in seven Mont Belview, Texas hydrocarbon markets, using monthly data from 1985:1 to 1996:12--the markets are those of ethane, propane, normal butane, iso-butane, naptha, crude oil, and natural gas. In doing so, they use the Lyapunov exponent estimator of Nychka, Ellner, Gallant, and McCaffrey. They conclude that there is evidence consistent with a chaotic nonlinear generation process in all five natural gas liquids markets.

Serletis, A.; Gogas, P. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Economics)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physisorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics.

Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H. (Evanston, IL); Huang, Yin-Yan (Evanston, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are disclosed for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physical sorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics. 17 figs.

Sachtler, W.M.H.; Huang, Y.Y.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

214

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 December 2011 Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH3-(CH2)n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation. A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of an acid catalyst,

215

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

September 2013 September 2013 Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH3-(CH2)n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation. A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of an acid catalyst,

216

Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. Final report, August 26, 1993--August 26, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Motivated by the goal of finding improved catalysts for low- temperature conversion of light alkanes into fuel components or precursors of fuel components, the researchers have investigated sulfated zirconia and promoted sulfated zirconia for conversion of butane, propane, and ethane. Catalyst performance data for sulfated zirconia promoted with iron and manganese show that it is the most active noncorrosive, nonhalide catalyst known for n-butane isomerization, and it is an excellent candidate catalyst for new low- temperature n-butane isomerization processes to make isobutane, which can be converted by established technology into methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). Various transition metals have been found to work as promoters of sulfated zirconia for n-butane isomerization. The combination of iron and manganese is the best known combination of promoters yet discovered. The iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia is also a catalyst for conversion of propane and of ethane. Ethane is converted into ethylene and butanes in the presence of the iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia; propane is also converted into butane, among other products. However, the activities of the catalyst for these reactions are orders of magnitude less than the activity for n-butane conversion, and there is no evidence that the catalyst would be of practical value for conversion of alkanes lighter than butane. The product distribution data for ethane and propane conversion provide new insights into the nature of the catalyst and its acidity. These data suggest the involvement of Olah superacid chemistry, whereby the catalyst protonates the alkane itself, giving carbonium ions (as transition states). The mechanism of protonation of the alkane may also pertain to the conversion of butane, but there is good evidence that the butane conversion also proceeds via alkene intermediates by conventional mechanisms of carbenium ion formation and rearrangement.

Gates, B.C.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

217

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Production Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Butane (C4H10) A normally gaseous straight-chain or branch-chain hydrocarbon extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams. It includes isobutane and normal butane and is designated in ASTM Specification D1835 and Gas Processors Association Specifications for commercial butane.

218

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker, and Barge Between PAD Districts Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker, and Barge Between PAD Districts Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Butane (C4H10) A normally gaseous straight-chain or branch-chain hydrocarbon extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams. It includes isobutane and normal butane and is designated in ASTM Specification D1835 and Gas Processors Association Specifications for commercial butane.

219

Jet fuel from LPG  

SciTech Connect

Explains how jet fuel can be manufactured from propane and/or butane with attractive rates of return. This scheme is advantageous where large reserves of LPG-bearing gas is available or LPG is in excess. The following sequence of processes in involved: dehydrogenation of propane (and/or butane) to propylene (and/or butylene); polymerization of this monomer to a substantial yield of the desired polymer by recycling undesired polymer; and hydrotreating the polymer to saturate double bonds. An attribute of this process scheme is that each of the individual processes has been practiced commercially. The process should have appeal in those parts of the world which have large reserves of LPG-bearing natural gas but little or no crude oil, or where large excesses of LPG are available. Concludes that economic analysis shows attractive rates of return in a range of reasonable propane costs and product selling prices.

Maples, R.E.; Jones, J.R.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

U.S. Isobutane-Isobutylene Stocks at Natural Gas Processing ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

456: 482: 435: 394: 363: 472: 649: 558: 389: 565: 476: 2005: 544: 607: 387: 478: 421: 426: 473: 657: 596: 718: 511: 426: 2006: 485: 529: 537: 590: 569: 772: 556: 541 ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Isobutane - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions ...

222

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 September 2013 Table 32. Blender Net Inputs of Petroleum Products by PAD District, September 2013 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ....................................................... 308 5 313 45 44 345 434 Pentanes Plus ...................................................... - - - - 2 75 77 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .................................. 308 5 313 45 42 270 357 Normal Butane .................................................. 308 5 313 45 42 270 357 Isobutane .......................................................... - - - - - - - Other Liquids ..........................................................

223

Petroleum Supply Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.PDF 0.PDF Table 20. Blender Net Inputs of Petroleum Products by PAD Districts, January 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ....................................................... 158 5 163 47 18 168 233 Pentanes Plus ...................................................... 5 - 5 - - 5 5 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .................................. 153 5 158 47 18 163 228 Normal Butane .................................................. 153 5 158 47 18 163 228 Isobutane .......................................................... - - - - - - - Other Liquids ..........................................................

224

TABLE16.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6. 6. Refinery Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, January 1998 Crude Oil ................................................................... 44,047 2,783 46,830 70,320 12,891 21,794 105,005 Natural Gas Liquids ................................................. 252 0 252 2,613 131 1,076 3,820 Pentanes Plus ....................................................... 0 0 0 202 45 522 769 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ................................... 252 0 252 2,411 86 554 3,051 Ethane ............................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Propane ............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Normal Butane .................................................. 162 0 162 1,792 76 435 2,303 Isobutane ..........................................................

225

Olefins by catalytic oxidation of alkanes in fluidized bed reactors  

SciTech Connect

The production of ethylene or syngas from ethane and olefins from propane, n-butane, and isobutane in the presence of air or O{sub 2} at atmospheric pressure has been examined over 100 {mu}m {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} beads coated with noble metals in a static fluidized bed reactor at contact times from 0.05 to 0.2 s. Variations in feed composition, preheating temperature, and flow rate were examined. 21 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Bharadwaj, S.S.; Schmidt, L.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)] [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

1995-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

227

untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Blender Net Inputs of Petroleum Products by PAD Districts, 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ....................................................... 1,744 80 1,824 345 324 2,161 2,830 Pentanes Plus ...................................................... 63 - 63 - - 87 87 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .................................. 1,681 80 1,761 345 324 2,074 2,743 Normal Butane .................................................. 1,681 80 1,761 345 324 2,074 2,743 Isobutane .......................................................... - - - - - - - Other Liquids ..........................................................

228

LIQUID BUTANE FILLED LOAD FOR A LINER DRIVEN PEGASUS EXPERIMENT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A hydrogen rich, low density liquid, contained within the internal volume of a cylindrical liner, was requested of the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division for one of the last liner driven experiments conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus facility. The experiment was a continuation of the Raleigh-Taylor hydrodynamics series of experiments and associated liners that have been described previously [1,2].

M.A. SALAZAR; W. ANDERSON; ET AL

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Liquid butane filled load for a liner driven Pegasus experiment.  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogen rich, low density liquid, contained within the internal volume of a cylindrical liner, was requested of the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division for one of the last liner driven experiments conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus facility. The experiment (Fig.1) was a continuation of the Raleigh-Taylor hydrodynamics series of experiments and associated liners that have been described previously.

Salazar, M. A. (Mike A.); Armijo, E. V. (Elfino V.); Anderson, W. E. (Wallace E.); Atchison, W. L. (Walter L.); Bartos, J. J. (Jacob J.); Garcia, F. (Fermin); Randolph, B. (Blaine); Sheppard, M. G. (Maurice G.); Stokes, J. L. (John L.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Fueling Requirements for Steady State high butane current fraction discharges  

SciTech Connect

The CT injector originally used for injecting CTs into 1T toroidal field discharges in the TdeV tokamak was shipped PPPL from the Affiliated Customs Brokers storage facility in Montreal during November 2002. All components were transported safely, without damage, and are currently in storage at PPPL, waiting for further funding in order to begin advanced fueling experiments on NSTX. The components are currently insured through the University of Washington. Several technical presentations were made to investigate the feasibility of the CT injector installation on NSTX. These technical presentations, attached to this document, were: (1) Motivation for Compact Toroida Injection in NSTX; (2) Assessment of the Engineering Feasibility of Installing CTF-II on NSTX; (3) Assessment of the Cost for CT Installation on NSTX--A Peer Review; and (4) CT Fueling for NSTX FY 04-08 steady-state operation needs.

R.Raman

2003-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

231

Refinery Grade Butane Bulk Terminal Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

232

U.S. Refinery Grade Butane Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

233

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Gas Plant Production of Normal Butane ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 150: 143: 147: 153: 152: 154: 161: 157: 170: 184: 166: 139: 1982: 150: 148: 150: 150: 167: ...

234

Midwest (PADD 2) Refinery Grade Butane Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

235

Fuel property effects on engine combustion processes. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A major obstacle to improving spark ignition engine efficiency is the limitations on compression ratio imposed by tendency of hydrocarbon fuels to knock (autoignite). A research program investigated the knock problem in spark ignition engines. Objective was to understand low and intermediate temperature chemistry of combustion processes relevant to autoignition and knock and to determine fuel property effects. Experiments were conducted in an optically and physically accessible research engine, static reactor, and an atmospheric pressure flow reactor (APFR). Chemical kinetic models were developed for prediction of species evolution and autoignition behavior. The work provided insight into low and intermediate temperature chemistry prior to autoignition of n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, 1-pentene, n-heptane, iso-octane and some binary blends. Study of effects of ethers (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and DIPE ) and alcohols (methanol and ethanol) on the oxidation and autoignition of primary reference fuel (PRF) blends.

Cernansky, N.P.; Miller, D.L.

1995-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

236

@Title = Definitions of Petroleum Products and Other Terms  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Definitions of Petroleum Products and Other Terms (Revised January 2010) Alcohol. The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH 3 - (CH 2 )n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate. The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation. A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of an acid catalyst, usually sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid. The product, alkylate, an

237

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Plant Field Production Plant Field Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Butylene (C4H8) An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery processes. Ethane (C2H6) A normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of -127.48º F. It is extracted from natural gas and refinery gas streams. Field Production Represents crude oil production on leases, natural gas liquids production at natural gas processing plants, new supply of other hydrocarbons/oxygenates and motor gasoline blending components, and fuel ethanol blended into finished motor gasoline. Isobutane (C4H10) A normally gaseous branch-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of 10.9º F. It is extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams.

238

Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

petroleum petroleum Alcohol: The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH(3)-(CH(2))n-OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). Alkylate: The product of an alkylation reaction. It usually refers to the high-octane product from alkylation units. This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. Alkylation: A refining process for chemically combining isobutane with olefin hydrocarbons (e.g., propylene, butylene) through the control of temperature and pressure in the presence of anacid catalyst, usually sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid. The product alkylate, an isoparaffin, has high octane value and is blended with motor and aviation gasoline to

239

Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 74,056 76,732 74,938 79,040 82,376 81,196 1981-2013 PADD 1 1,525 1,439 2,394 2,918 2,821 2,687 1981-2013 East Coast 1993-2008 Appalachian No. 1 1,525 1,439 2,394 2,918 2,821 2,687 1993-2013 PADD 2 12,892 13,208 13,331 13,524 15,204 15,230 1981-2013 Ind., Ill. and Ky. 1,975 1,690 2,171 1,877 2,630 2,746 1993-2013

240

Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Natural Gas Liquids  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period: Monthly Annual Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 5,419 6,722 6,801 5,826 6,210 6,249 1993-2013 PADD 1 122 121 115 189 246 248 1993-2013 East Coast 1993-2010 Appalachian No. 1 122 121 115 189 246 248 1993-2013 PADD 2 959 891 880 1,129 1,104 1,041 1993-2013 Ind., Ill. and Ky. 311 300 298 308 262 260 1993-2013 Minn., Wis., N. Dak., S. Dak. 56 64 58 60 51 64 1993-2013 Okla., Kans., Mo. 592 527 524 761 791 717 1993-2013 PADD 3 3,810 5,007 5,032 3,817 4,246 4,272 1993-2013

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Performance of a new LMRPC prototype for the STAR MTD system  

SciTech Connect

A new prototype of a Long-Strip Multi-Gap Resistive Plate Chamber (LMRPC) for the STAR Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) at RHIC has been developed. This prototype has an active area of 52 x 90 cm{sup 2} and consists of six 250 {mu}m wide gaps. Each detector has 12 strips, read-out at both ends, which are each 3.8 cm wide and 90 cm long with 0.6 cm intervals. In cosmic-ray tests, the efficiency was larger than 95% and the time resolution was {approx}75 ps for the 94% Freon, 5% iso-butane, and 1% SF{sub 6} gas mixture. There was good uniformity in the performance across the different strips. The module was also tested in a proton beam at IHEP in Beijing. The efficiency was close to 100% and the best timing resolution achieved was 55 ps for the 90% Freon, 5% iso-butane, and 5% SF6 gas mixture. Trigger scans along and across the strip direction were also performed.

Ruan, L.J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Ding, W. C.; Qiu, X. Z.; Wang, J. B.; Zhu, X. L.; Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, Y. J.; Ruan, L.; Xu, Z.; Asselta, K.; Christie, W.; D'Agostino, C.; Dunlop, J.; Landgraf, J.; Ljubicic, T.; Scheblein, J.; Soja, R.; Tang, A. H.; Ullrich, T.; Crawford, H. J.; Engelage, J.; Sanchez, M. Calderon de la Barca; Reed, R.; Liu, H. D.; Butterworth, J.; Eppley, G.; Geurts, F.; Llope, W. J.; McDonald, D.; Nussbaum, T.; Roberts, J.; Xin, K.; Bridges, L.; Li, J. C.; Qian, S.; Ning, Z.; Chen, H. F.; Huang, B. C.; Li, C.; Shao, M.; Sun, Y. J.; Tang, Z. B.; Wang, X. L.; Xu, Y. C.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zeng, H.; Zhou, Y.; Clarke, R.; Mioduszewski, S.; Davila, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Li, L.; Markert, C.; Ray, L.; Schambach, J.; Thein, D.; Wada, M.; Ahammed, Z.; Bhaduri, P. P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dutt-Mazumdar, M. R.; Ghosh, P.; Khan, S. A.; Muhuri, S.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, T. K.; Pal, S.; Singaraju, R.; Singhal, V.; Tribedy, P.; Viyogi, Y. P.

2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

242

Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

working fluids including butane, pentane, isopentane,xylene p-xylene pentane butane Alkanes cyclopentane BACKONEalkanes (pentane, butane, cyclopentane, cyclohexane,

Ho, Tony

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. Tenth quarterly report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transition metal promoters markedly increase the activity of sulfated zirconia for isomerization of butane. Data presented here demonstrate the effects of the promoters zinc, iron, and manganese; none of these is as effective as the iron/manganese combination. The effects of feed impurities (olefins and/or isobutane in n-butane) are consistent with those described in the preceding quarterly report: they lead to an improvement in catalytic activity. These observations are inferred to be of practical importance; they indicate the benefit of the impurities in increasing butane conversion. The product distribution data show that reactions accompanying isomerization and disproportionation are more important with some promoters (e.g., iron) than others (e.g., zinc). The data demonstrate that the iron- and manganese-promoted catalyst can be regenerated at least sever times with negligible loss of activity (within the experimental error). To apply this catalyst or a related catalyst industrially, it seems very likely to be necessary to reduce the rate of deactivation substantially and/or to regenerate the catalyst through many cycles.

Gates, B.C. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. Eleventh quarterly report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The new catalyst Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia is remarkably active for the low-temperature (even room temperature) isomerization of n-butane to give isobutane in the near absence of side products. Thus this catalyst offers excellent potential for practical application in this process. The catalyst is so active that it even converts smaller alkanes, including propane and ethane. The ethane conversion is orders of magnitude slower than the butane conversion, and the prospects for practical application with ethane are apparently negligible. However, the results for ethane conversion provide strong evidence that the alkane conversions proceed (at least under some conditions) by protonation of the alkane with the catalyst; thus the catalyst is comparable to superacids, and the chemistry is analogous to that occurring in superacid solutions. This insight will be useful in further improvement of the catalyst and the potential process for butane isomerization. The catalyst is active for alkane cracking at temperatures of typically 200-300{degrees}C, and evidence, summarized here, indicates that numerous reactions of alkanes begin as the catalyst protonates the alkane reactant. The kinetics data for this family of reactions fall on a linear compensation effect plot; such data for reactions that do not proceed via such a mechanism do not fall near the line representing the compensation effect. Thus the analysis of the kinetics data provides a good diagnostic tool for understanding the fundamental chemistry of the acid-catalyzed hydrocarbon conversions.

Gates, B.C. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

245

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 September 2013 Table 49. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD District, September 2013 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD Districts U.S. Total 1 2 3 4 5 Total Daily Average Crude Oil 1 ............................................................ 94 2,282 598 1 - 2,975 99 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 453 2,129 10,579 380 396 13,937 465 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 300 1,599 652 346 92 2,989 100 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............................. 153 530 9,927 34 304 10,947 365 Ethane/Ethylene ........................................... - - - - - - - Propane/Propylene ....................................... 126 199 9,412 4 299 10,040 335 Normal Butane/Butylene ...............................

246

ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION GAS  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION GAS ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION GAS ANALYSES Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION GAS ANALYSES Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Measurement of organic compounds in Karaha- Telaga Bodas and Coso fluid inclusions shows there are strong relationships between H2 concentrations and alkane/alkene ratios and benzene concentrations. Inclusion analyses that indicate H2 concentrations > 0.001 mol % typically have ethane > ethylene, propane > propylene, and butane > butylene. There are three end member fluid compositions: type 1 fluids in which alkane compounds predominate, type 2 fluids that have ethane and propylene and no

247

Production of biodiesel using expanded gas solvents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method of producing an alkyl ester. The method comprises providing an alcohol and a triglyceride or fatty acid. An expanding gas is dissolved into the alcohol to form a gas expanded solvent. The alcohol is reacted with the triglyceride or fatty acid in a single phase to produce the alkyl ester. The expanding gas may be a nonpolar expanding gas, such as carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, pentene, isomers thereof, and mixtures thereof, which is dissolved into the alcohol. The gas expanded solvent may be maintained at a temperature below, at, or above a critical temperature of the expanding gas and at a pressure below, at, or above a critical pressure of the expanding gas.

Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID; Fox, Robert V [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

248

Natural Gas - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

15, 2013 | Release Date: May 16, 15, 2013 | Release Date: May 16, 2013 | Next Release: May 23, 2013 Previous Issues Week: 12/29/2013 (View Archive) JUMP TO: In The News | Overview | Prices/Demand/Supply | Storage In the News: Natural gas liquids price information added to the Natural Gas Weekly Upd Starting today, the Natural Gas Weekly Update will include a graph and a brief text overview of natural gas liquids (NGL) spot prices for five products: ethane, propane, butane, isobutane, and natural gasoline, as well as a volume-weighted composite of these prices. The natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) composite price is calculated by applying the proportionate yield of liquids produced at natural gas processing plants to the daily spot prices. Next week's Natural Gas Weekly Update will feature the NGL

249

EIA-816  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6281 6281 Receipts During Month Inputs During Month Production During Month Shipments During Month Plant Fuel Use & Losses 247 Pentanes Plus Isobutane Normal Butane 249 Month 220 243 Ethane Propane Stocks End of Month Product Code Stocks Beginning of Month FORM EIA-816 MONTHLY NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS REPORT A completed form must be received by the 20th calendar day following the end of the report month. This report is mandatory under the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275). Failure to comply may result in criminal fines, civil penalties and other sanctions as provided by law. Title 18 USC 1001 makes it a criminal offense for any person knowingly and willingly to make to any Agency or Department of the United States any false, fictitious, or fraudulent statements as to any matter within its jurisdiction. See Instructions for further details on

250

Total Refinery Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Alaskan Crude Oil Receipts Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

251

RPT_PERIOD","R_S_NAME","LINE_NUM","PROD_CODE","PROD_NAME","PORT_CODE","PORT_CITY  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

RPT_PERIOD","R_S_NAME","LINE_NUM","PROD_CODE","PROD_NAME","PORT_CODE","PORT_CITY","PORT_STATE","PORT_PADD","GCTRY_CODE","CNTRY_NAME","QUANTITY","SULFUR","APIGRAVITY","PCOMP_RNAM","PCOMP_SNAM","PCOMP_STAT","STATE_NAME","PCOMP_PADD" RPT_PERIOD","R_S_NAME","LINE_NUM","PROD_CODE","PROD_NAME","PORT_CODE","PORT_CITY","PORT_STATE","PORT_PADD","GCTRY_CODE","CNTRY_NAME","QUANTITY","SULFUR","APIGRAVITY","PCOMP_RNAM","PCOMP_SNAM","PCOMP_STAT","STATE_NAME","PCOMP_PADD" 41547,"AEROPRES CORP ",1,253,"Isobutane/Ngl",3402,"NOYES, MN","MINNESOTA",2,260,"CANADA",2,0,0,,,,," " 41547,"AEROPRES CORP ",2,252,"Normal Butane/Ngl",3402,"NOYES, MN","MINNESOTA",2,260,"CANADA",5,0,0,,,,," "

252

Computer program for determining the thermodynamic properties of light hydrocarbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program was written to be used as a subroutine. The program determines the thermodynamics of light hydrocarbons. The following light hydrocarbons can be analyzed: butane, ethane, ethylene, heptane, hexane, isobutane, isopentane, methane, octane, pentane, propane and propylene. The subroutine can evaluate a thermodynamic state for the light hydrocarbons given any of the following pairs of state quantities: pressure and quality, pressure and enthalpy, pressure and entropy, temperature and pressure, temperature and quality and temperature and specific volume. These six pairs of knowns allow the user to analyze any thermodynamic cycle utilizing a light hydrocarbon as the working fluid. The Starling--Benedict--Webb--Rubin equation of state was used. A brief description, flowchart, listing and required equations for each subroutine are included.

Riemer, D.H.; Jacobs, H.R.; Boehm, R.F.; Cook, D.S.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Computer program for determining the thermodynamic properties of light hydrocarbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program was written to be used as a subroutine. The program determines the thermodynamics of light hydrocarbons. The following light hydrocarbons can be analyzed: butane, ethane, ethylene, heptane, hexane, isobutane, isopentane, methane, octane, pentane, propane and propylene. The subroutine can evaluate a thermodynamic state for the light hydrocarbons given any of the following pairs of state quantities: pressure and quality, pressure and enthalpy, pressure and entropy, temperature and pressure, temperature and quality and temperature and specific volume. These six pairs of knowns allow the user to analyze any thermodynamic cycle utilizing a light hydrocarbon as the working fluid. The Starling-Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation of state was used. This report contains a brief description, flowchart, listing and required equations for each subroutine.

Riemer, D.H.; Jacobs, H.R.; Boehm, R.F.; Cook, D.S.

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Total Blender Net Input of Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Input Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquid Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Oxygenates/Renewables Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

255

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

256

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes - phase V. Topical report, February 1993--October 1994  

SciTech Connect

We have made excellent progress toward a practical route from field butanes to MTBE, the oxygenate of choice for high-octane, clean-burning, environmentally acceptable reformulated gasoline. We have evaluated two proprietary process possibilities with a potential commercial partner and have conducted a joint catalyst evaluation program. The first of the two potential processes considered during the past quarter utilizes a two-step route from isobutane to tert-butyl alcohol, TBA. Not only is TBA an intermediate for MTBE production but is equally applicable for ETBE-an oxygenate which utilizes renewable ethanol in its` manufacture. In the two-step process, isobutane is oxidized in a non-catalytic reaction to a roughly equal mixture of TBA and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. TBHP, eq. 1. We have developed an inexpensive new catalyst system based on an electron-deficient macrocyclic metal complex that selectively converts TBHP to TBA, eq. 2, and meets or exceeds all of the process criteria that we have set.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

257

Gas flux and carbonate occurrence at a shallow seep of thermogenic natural gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dioxide, ethane, propane, and butane. Hydrocarbon seeps havemethane, ethane, propane and butane. Geochim Cosmochim Acta

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

U.S. Refinery Net Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total 5,383,494 5,119,100 4,676,865 4,568,301 4,484,600 4,395,128 2005-2012 Liquefied Refinery Gases 238,904 230,431 227,470 240,454 225,992 230,413 2005-2012 Ethane/Ethylene 7,323 6,671 7,069 7,228 7,148 6,597 2005-2012 Ethane 5,145 4,608 5,229 5,200 5,105 4,835 2005-2012 Ethylene 2,178 2,063 1,840 2,028 2,043 1,762 2005-2012 Propane/Propylene 205,179 190,020 196,011 204,223 201,492 202,309 2005-2012 Propane 120,596 114,268 106,177 102,913 98,508 100,933 2005-2012 Propylene 84,583 75,752 89,834 101,310 102,984 101,376 2005-2012 Normal Butane/Butylene 24,285 30,887 24,148 30,281 17,449 20,580 2005-2012 Normal Butane 25,715 33,092 25,825 32,094 19,263 22,965 2005-2012

259

U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total 6,567,929 6,641,293 6,527,069 6,735,067 6,815,590 6,794,407 1981-2012 Liquefied Refinery Gases 238,904 230,431 227,470 240,454 225,992 230,413 1981-2012 Ethane/Ethylene 7,323 6,671 7,069 7,228 7,148 6,597 1981-2012 Ethane 5,145 4,608 5,229 5,200 5,105 4,835 1993-2012 Ethylene 2,178 2,063 1,840 2,028 2,043 1,762 1993-2012 Propane/Propylene 205,179 190,020 196,011 204,223 201,492 202,309 1981-2012 Propane 120,596 114,268 106,177 102,913 98,508 100,933 1995-2012 Propylene 84,583 75,752 89,834 101,310 102,984 101,376 1993-2012 Normal Butane/Butylene 24,285 30,887 24,148 30,281 17,449 20,580 1981-2012 Normal Butane 25,715 33,092 25,825 32,094 19,263 22,965 1993-2012

260

EIA-800 - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Isobutane - NGPL Isobutane - LRG 247 644 Reformulated, Blended with Fuel Ethanol 127 Reformulated, Other Conventional, Blended with Fuel Ethanol Ed55 ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Hydrodesulfurization of Thiophene and Benzothiophene to Butane and Ethylbenzene by a Homogeneous Iridium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

)(SC4H6) (3), which was also structurally character- ized. Introduction The hydroprocessing of crude oil impurities such as thio- phenes, mercaptans, and quinolines are removed, mak- ing the oil amenable to further such as benzothiophene. This led us to explore the reactivity of the bis(µ-hydrido)- bis

Jones, William D.

262

Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of 0-A12O3- Supported Vanadium Oxide Catalysts for Butane Dehydrogenation  

SciTech Connect

This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction; Structure of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Supported Vanadia Catalysts; Quantification of Surface VOx Species on Supported Vanadia Catalysts; Conclusion; Acknowledgements; and References.

Wu, Zili [ORNL; Kim, Hack-Sung [Northwestern University, Evanston; Stair, Peter [Northwestern University, Evanston

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Planar laser-induced fluorescence of nitric oxide in isomeric butanol and butane stagnation flames.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The significant efforts to reduce global fossil fuel dependence have led to the development of biofuels as an alternative. Despite their growing significance, alcohol biofuels… (more)

Chung, Gregory

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

PCR Primers for The Detection of Propane and Butane-Oxidizing Microorganisms.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? In an increasingly energy-hungry world, our capacity to meet the heightened energy demands of the future has become a pressing matter. The most urgent… (more)

Chan, Brian Jeremy

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production of Normal Butane ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1981: 799: 890: 736: 1,087: 1,210: 1,603: 1,460: 823: 815: 293: 337-299: 1982-399: 146: 58: 430: ...

266

N-butane activation over ruthenium and iron promoted VPO catalysts.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Fe- and Ru-promoted vanadium phosphorus oxide (VPO) catalysts were synthesized via the organic route in iso-butanol to form the VPO precursor, VOHPO4·0.5H2O. The resulting… (more)

Masilo, Neoentle.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Field pilot tests for tertiary recovery using butane and propane injection  

SciTech Connect

This work describes a pilot project for tertiary recovery of liquid hydrocarbons through LPG injection in water-out sections of the Bolivar reservoir in La Pena Field, Santa Cruz, Boliva. The promising results obtained in the initial field miscibility tests, as well as the results from a mathematical model built to stimulate and evaluate the tertiary recovery project, directed subsequent work into a cyclic scheme for enhanced recovery. This scheme is explained and injection production data is presented. Field facilities built to handle both the injected LPG and the produced oil-LPG mixture are described. The oil/LPG ratio and the LPG recovered/injected fraction are the main factors measured in this to make further considerations for a full scale project.

Pacheco, E.F.; Garcia, A.I.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Plant Processing Plant Processing Definitions Key Terms Definition Extraction Loss The reduction in volume of natural gas due to the removal of natural gas liquid constituents such as ethane, propane, and butane at natural gas processing plants. Natural Gas Processed Natural gas that has gone through a processing plant. Natural Gas Processing Plant A facility designed to recover natural gas liquids from a stream of natural gas which may or may not have passed through lease separators and/or field separation facilities. These facilities also control the quality of the natural gas to be marketed. Cycling plants are classified as natural gas processing plants. For definitions of related energy terms, refer to the EIA Energy Glossary. Sources Natural Gas Processed, Total Liquids Extracted, and Extraction Loss Volume: Form EIA-64A, "Annual Report of the Origin of Natural Gas Liquids Production" . Estimated Heat Content of Extraction Loss: Estimated, assuming the makeup to total liquids production as reported on Form EIA-64A for each State was proportional to the components and products ultimately separated in the States as reported on the 12 monthly reports on Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-816, "Monthly Natural Gas Liquids Report," and applying the following conversion factors to the individual component and product production estimates (million Btu extraction loss per barrel of liquid produced): ethane - 3.082; propane - 3.836; normal butane - 4.326; isobutane - 3.974; pentanes plus - 4.620.

269

Measurement of liquified petroleum gas  

SciTech Connect

Propane, iso-butane, and normal butane commonly referred to as Liquified Petroleum Gases or LPG's are used as heating and transportation fuels, feed-stocks for petrochemical plants, gasoline additives, and aerosol propellents. These liquids are commonly stored in high pressure vessels, underground caverns, or salt domes. Pipelines, trucks, and rail cars are used for transporting these fluids. LPG's must conform to industry accepted specifications regarding their composition and the allowable amounts of contaminants that may be present such as sulphur, heavy hydrocarbons, and water. GPA Standard 2140-80, Liquified Petroleum Gas Specifications and Test Methods, outlines the test procedures to be followed in determining product quality. The physical properties of LPG's including low specific gravities (0.498 to 0.584), high vapor pressures, low boiling points, and lack of lubricity must be considered when storing, transporting, or measuring them. LPG's are easily measured if certain precautions are taken. The equipment must be properly installed, maintained, and calibrated. If meters are used, product flow must be in liquid phase. Due to the considerable effect of temperature and pressure on LPG's, volumes obtained at operating conditions must be reduced to standard conditions.

Vehe, R.E.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Variability of Gas Composition and Flux Intensity in Natural Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 Methane Ethane Propane Butane nd nd nd nd October 4, 2004methane, ethane, propane, and butane. Methods The flux buoyfor methane, ethane, propane, butane, oxygen, nitrogen, and

Clark, J F; Schwager, Katherine; Washburn, Libe

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

The role of Entamoeba histolytica Cysteine Proteinase 1 (EhCP1) in the pathogenesis of amebiasis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

leucylamido (4-guanidino) butane (E- 64) and its analoguesleucylamido-(4- guanidino) butane ECM Extracellular Matrixleucylamido-(4-guanidino) butane (E-64) and not by the

Melendez-Lopez, Samuel G.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Clearing the Air? The Effects of Gasoline Content Regulation on Air Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

components—particularly butane—in the gasoline they sell (times more reactive than butane, the compound that refinersprimarily by removing the VOC butane from their gasoline, as

Auffhammer, Maximilian; Kellogg, Ryan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as ethane, propane, butane, naphtha or gasoline. AnOthers Losses Ethane Propane Butane Naphtha Gas oil Source:by dehydrogenation of propane and butane respectively. The

Neelis, Maarten

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE WITH CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS, FY 78 FINAL REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agents used by painters include butane, calcium carbonate,Benzene* Laboratory - Reagent Butane* Painters - PropellentBenzene* Laboratory - Reagent Butane* Painters - Propellent

DeRoos, R.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Final Report for completed IPP-0110 and 0110A Projects: "High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

methane-hydrogen mixtures, butane, and benzol vapors wereglow discharge instability in butane and benzol vapors makessccm. Methane and a propane-butane mixture were also used as

Brown, Ian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

nist23  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... heptane, hexane, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, isobutane, isopentane, methane, nitrogen, nonane, octane, oxygen, pentane, propane, and water. ...

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

277

nist23old  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... heptane, hexane, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, isobutane, isopentane, methane, nitrogen, nonane, octane, oxygen, pentane, propane, and water. ...

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

278

Population based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a Carbon Monoxide Passive Sampler and Occupational Dosimeter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrocarbons (toluene), alkanes (butane, methane, heptane),tube/GC (NIOSH 1 5 0 0 ) a Butane 300ppm Charcoal tube/GC (O toluene toluene + C O butane butane + C O methane methane

Apte, Michael G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Pyrolysis of Organic Molecules Relevant to Combustion as Monitored by Photoionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OF 2-METHOXY TRIMETHYL BUTANE-d 6 (MTMB-d 6 ) VI. PYROLYSISexception of propane and butane. 7 This approach is powerfulthe exceptions of propane and butane. The performance of VUV

Weber, Kevin Howard

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

On the ignition of fuel beds by firebrands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The firebrand ignition apparatus consists of four butane burners and a firebrand mounting probe. The butane flowrate is ...

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Development of Energy Balances for the State of California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

composed of ethane, propane, butane, and pentane plus—whichconsist mainly of propane and butane or a combination of the

Murtishaw, Scott; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Sahtaye, Jayant

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

grills, ovens or portable butane stoves. The EU Ecodesign isgrills, ovens and portable butane stoves Proposed Mandatory

Zheng, Nina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Interaction of Dimethylmethylphosphonate with Zeolite Y: Impedance-Based Sensor for Detecting Nerve Agent Simulants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

increased impedance upon exposure to butane, and was proposed to arise from blocking effects of the butane

Dutta, Prabir K.

284

Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the volume of normal butane blended into gasoline, or bythe volume of normal butane rejected from motor gasoline.

Brown, Jennifer; Hastings, Justine; Mansur, Erin T.; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 101, NO. D22, PAGES 29,061-29,074, DECEMBER 20, 1996 Measurement of O3 and related compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

determinedusingphotochemicalageestimatesderived from the ratios,In (n-butane/propane)andIn (/-butane/propane).Age estimatesare used

286

Dendrimer Templated Synthesis of One Nanometer Rh and Pt Particles Supported on Mesoporous Silica: Catalytic Activity for Ethylene and Pyrrole Hydrogenation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperatures, data not shown). Butane was also observed as ainteractions. 47 Secondly, butane formation was reported to

Huang, Wenyu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Thermo-fluid Dynamics of Flash Atomizing Sprays and Single Droplet Impacts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or intermittent injection of butane or propane in a confinedor intermittent injection of butane or propane in a confined

Vu, Henry

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Regional Analysis of Nonmethane Volatile Organic Compounds in the Lower Troposphere of the Southeast  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, acetylene, propane, i-butane, and n-butane with a winter maximum and a summer minimum. An analysis

Aneja, Viney P.

289

"Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Part VI. Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane andiso-Butane over Supported Platinum Catalysts. J. Catal. 176,

Yamada, Yusuke

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

East Coast (PADD 1) Net Receipts of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Type: Net Receipts Receipts Shipments Type: Net Receipts Receipts Shipments Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Type Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 1,009,989 959,458 1,099,509 1,131,797 1,168,599 1,191,766 1981-2012 Crude Oil -3,860 -5,544 8,672 5,983 5,106 4,126 1981-2012 Petroleum Products 1,013,849 965,002 1,090,837 1,125,814 1,163,493 1,187,640 1986-2012 Pentanes Plus -590 -452 -113 -19 1991-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 32,846 32,207 20,384 34,725 33,545 26,723 1981-2012 Ethane/Ethylene 1989-2002 Propane/Propylene 32,199 31,673 19,415 33,585 33,025 26,601 1989-2012 Normal Butane/Butylene

291

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3,256,148 352,785 6,794,407 3,878,852 122,574 57,691 6,406,693 3,256,148 352,785 6,794,407 3,878,852 122,574 57,691 6,406,693 1,172,965 6,767,418 1,807,777 Crude Oil 2,374,842 - - - - 3,120,755 52,746 34,134 5,489,516 24,693 0 1,060,764 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 881,306 -6,534 230,413 62,192 - - 23,894 186,270 115,054 842,159 153,268 Pentanes Plus 116,002 -6,534 - - 10,680 - - -4,857 63,596 43,136 18,273 12,739 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 765,304 - - 230,413 51,512 - - 28,751 122,674 71,918 823,886 140,529 Ethane/Ethylene 356,592 - - 6,597 115 - - 12,504 - - 350,800 35,396 Propane/Propylene 260,704 - - 202,309 42,460 - - 13,013 - 62,490 429,970 67,991 Normal Butane/Butylene 65,555 - - 20,580 5,567 - - 1,795 52,246 9,428 28,233 28,574

292

U.S. Total Shell Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) Midwest (PADD 2) Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) West Coast (PADD 5) Period: Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) Midwest (PADD 2) Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) West Coast (PADD 5) Period: Annual (as of January 1) Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 View History Total 765,593 758,619 710,413 -- -- -- 1982-2013 Crude Oil 180,830 179,471 180,846 -- -- -- 1985-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 34,772 32,498 33,842 -- -- -- 1982-2013 Propane/Propylene 10,294 8,711 8,513 -- -- -- 1982-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 24,478 23,787 25,329 -- -- -- 1982-2013 Other Liquids 95,540 96,973 96,157 -- -- -- 1982-2013 Oxygenates 1,336 1,028 1,005 -- -- -- 1994-2013

293

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

571,552 300,900 1,523,608 673,109 268,869 -25,130 18,853 1,447,490 571,552 300,900 1,523,608 673,109 268,869 -25,130 18,853 1,447,490 89,370 1,757,194 287,201 Crude Oil 408,314 - - - - 633,223 292,624 -31,767 22,602 1,259,826 19,966 0 115,743 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 163,238 -6,037 44,417 27,019 -9,288 - - -4,496 38,476 40,729 144,640 43,693 Pentanes Plus 18,229 -6,037 - - 213 29,889 - - -1,599 11,319 36,827 -4,253 6,686 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 145,009 - - 44,417 26,806 -39,177 - - -2,897 27,157 3,902 148,893 37,007 Ethane/Ethylene 59,649 - - - 115 -39,435 - - -716 - - 21,045 3,590 Propane/Propylene 57,022 - - 39,605 21,464 -8,812 - - -1,114 - 580 109,813 22,020 Normal Butane/Butylene 17,564 - - 4,181 3,156 3,807 - - -1,354 10,449 3,322 16,291

294

A PrototypeFi er-Opti DiOpti Level-Sensor forLi Propane-Butane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper descr= es a fiber7---L=. levelsensor designed tomeasur the level of liquidprid.7---L7L.M= in ar8D= tivelyshor rrD (60 cm) in the top par ofstorfl7 tanks at oil ril.8---j= with the pur ose of monitorMj the level of thispr duct in the filledor slightly under88.M or over7---'fl tanks durs. var79= measurMj oper9Dfl'.Mj discrfl' multi-element device employing novel r7'7'.Mj=9---'. tr'7'.Mj=9 was selected because it yields both alar' measurMjj tr7---fl and high rh.8=8flD.M Sever. innovationso#er a competitive advantage toindustrMj useru 1) Special micr77L'7.Mj rr77L'7.Mj8 tr77L'7. 2) Efficient and economicalsensor multiplexing scheme; 3) Fast leveltr - king oper---LL.Mj algorMjfl'flL. verflj---9 rflj---9.Mjfl of the sensor

Vladimir Spw Victor; A Prototypefi; Vladimir A. Spww +a; Victor De Leon

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Sol-gel synthesis of vanadium phosphorous oxides for the partial oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Vanadium phosphorous oxide (VPO) is traditionally manufactured from solid vanadium oxides by synthesizing VOHPO[4subscript][dot in middle of line]0.5H[2subscript]O (the precursor) followed by in-situ activation to… (more)

Salazar, Juan Manuel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

U.S. Refinery & Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total 526,996 566,851 559,032 581,600 578,456 543,388 1981-2013 Crude Oil 445,937 474,296 474,991 497,241 489,887 468,825 1981-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 12,805 11,759 12,769 13,227 13,760 16,794 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 4,949 4,341 4,752 4,734 5,331 5,666 1981-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 7,856 7,418 8,017 8,493 8,429 11,128 1981-2013 Ethane 1981-1992 Normal Butane 2,668 1,880 1,998 2,014 2,083 4,711 1981-2013 Isobutane 5,188 5,538 6,019 6,479 6,346 6,417 1981-2013 Other Liquids 68,254 80,796 71,272 71,132 74,809 57,769 1981-2013 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons 32,667 34,665 34,097 35,446 36,356 33,881 1981-2013

297

U.S. Natural Gas Plant Field Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Natural Gas Liquids 74,056 76,732 74,938 79,040 82,376 81,196 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 9,772 10,464 10,689 11,270 11,542 11,167 1981-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 64,284 66,268 64,249 67,770 70,834 70,029 1981-2013 Ethane 27,647 28,274 26,311 27,829 30,063 30,015 1981-2013 Propane 23,332 24,191 24,157 25,425 25,974 25,545 1981-2013 Normal Butane 5,876 6,383 6,543 6,399 6,508 6,893 1981-2013 Isobutane 7,429 7,420 7,238 8,117 8,289 7,576 1981-2013 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions, Sources, and Notes link above for more information on this table.

298

U.S. Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total Input 1,184,435 1,522,193 1,850,204 2,166,784 2,331,109 2,399,318 2005-2012 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 3,445 5,686 6,538 7,810 10,663 2008-2012 Pentanes Plus 2,012 474 1,808 1,989 2,326 4,164 2005-2012 Liquid Petroleum Gases 2,971 3,878 4,549 5,484 6,499 2008-2012 Normal Butane 2,943 2,971 3,878 4,549 5,484 6,499 2005-2012 Isobutane 2005-2006 Other Liquids 1,518,748 1,844,518 2,160,246 2,323,299 2,388,655 2008-2012 Oxygenates/Renewables 234,047 274,974 286,837 295,004 2009-2012 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 2005-2006 Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) 234,047 274,974 286,837 295,004 2009-2012 Fuel Ethanol 131,810 182,772 232,677 273,107 281,507 287,433 2005-2012

299

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 9 Table 5.10 Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Finished Petroleum Products 1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases Pentanes Plus 4 Total Ethane 2 Isobutane Normal Butane 3 Propane 2,3 Total 1949 53 8 11 61 74 155 223 430 1950 66 12 13 69 101 195 238 499 1955 68 34 30 120 205 390 313 771 1960 47 51 45 161 291 549 333 929 1965 41 92 67 185 390 734 434 1,210 1970 25 201 84 248 561 1,095 540 1,660 1975 7 337 90 237 552 1,217 409 1,633 1976 6 365 82 227 521 1,195 403 1,604 1977 5 397 81 223 513 1,214 399 1,618 1978 3 406 75 210 491 1,182 382 1,567 1979 26 400 104 212 500 1,216 342 1,584 1980 23 396 105 210 494 1,205 345 1,573 1981 18 397 117 224 519 1,256 334 1,609 1982 11 426 109 204 519 1,258 282 1,550 1983 12 456 100 217 541 1,314 233 1,559 1984 4 505 99 203 527 1,334 292 1,630 1985 14 493 127 171 521 1,313 282 1,609 1986 4 485 128 157 508 1,277

300

U.S. Natural Gas Plant Field Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Natural Gas Liquids 650,794 652,822 697,124 757,019 808,865 881,306 1981-2012 Pentanes Plus 95,899 96,530 98,904 101,155 106,284 116,002 1981-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 554,895 556,292 598,220 655,864 702,581 765,304 1981-2012 Ethane 258,682 256,713 280,590 317,180 337,972 356,592 1981-2012 Propane 185,099 187,340 199,398 213,782 230,227 260,704 1981-2012 Normal Butane 46,833 48,976 49,528 56,655 57,399 65,555 1981-2012 Isobutane 64,281 63,263 68,704 68,247 76,983 82,453 1981-2012 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: See Definitions, Sources, and Notes link above for more information on this table.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

U.S. Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total Input 206,541 217,867 212,114 216,075 219,783 208,203 2005-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 891 352 376 196 383 1,397 2008-2013 Pentanes Plus 261 301 313 67 287 393 2005-2013 Liquid Petroleum Gases 630 51 63 129 96 1,004 2008-2013 Normal Butane 630 51 63 129 96 1,004 2005-2013 Isobutane 2005-2006 Other Liquids 205,650 217,515 211,738 215,879 219,400 206,806 2008-2013 Oxygenates/Renewables 25,156 26,576 26,253 26,905 27,788 25,795 2009-2013 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 2005-2006 Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) 25,156 26,576 26,253 26,905 27,788 25,795 2009-2013 Fuel Ethanol 24,163 25,526 24,804 25,491 25,970 24,116 2005-2013

302

Global gas processing will strengthen to meet expanding markets  

SciTech Connect

The worldwide LPG industry continues to expand faster than the petroleum industry -- 4%/year for LPG vs. 2%/year for petroleum in 1995 and less than 1%/year in the early 1990s. This rapid expansion of LPG markets is occurring in virtually every region of the world, including such developing countries as China. The Far East is the focus of much of the LPG industry`s attention, but many opportunities exist in other regions such as the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. The investment climate is improving in all phases of downstream LPG marketing, including terminaling, storage, and wholesale and retail distribution. The world LPG supply/demand balance has been relatively tight since the Gulf War and should remain so. Base demand (the portion of demand that is not highly price-sensitive) is expanding more rapidly than supplies. As a result, the proportion of total LPG supplies available for price-sensitive petrochemical feedstock markets is declining, at least in the short term. The paper discusses importers, price patterns, world LPG demand, world LPG supply, US NGL supply, US gas processing, ethane and propane supply, butane, isobutane, and natural gasoline supply, and US NGL demand.

Haun, R.R. [Purvin and Gertz Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.; Gist, R.L. [Purvin and Gertz Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Geothermal Power Plants in China  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nine small experimental geothermal power plants are now operating at six sites in the People's Republic of China. These range in capacity from 50 kW to 3MW, and include plants of the flash-steam and binary type. All except two units utilize geofluids at temperatures lower than 100 C. The working fluids for the binary plants include normal- and iso-butane, ethyl chloride, and Freon. The first geothermal plant came on-line in 1970, the most recent ones in 1979. Figure 1 shows the location of the plants. Major cities are also shown for reference. Table 1 contains a listing of the plants and some pertinent characteristics. The total installed capacity is 5,186 kW, of which 4,386 kW is from flash-steam units. In the report, they given an example of the results of exploratory surveys, and show system diagrams, technical specifications, and test results for several of the power plants.

DiPippo, Ronald

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes -- research and proof-of-concept stages  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objective is to find new catalysts for direct reaction of methane, ethane, propane, butanes with O{sub 2} to form alcohols, and to develop practical processes for direct oxidative conversion of natural gas and its C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} components to produce alcohol-rich liquid oxygenates for use as alternative transportation fuels/environmentally superior reformulated gasolines. The proposed mechanism for oxidation activity of cytochrome P-450 and methane monoxygenase suggested that a catalyst able to reductively bind oxygen, not between Fe(III) center and a proton, but between two Fe(III) centers, might give the desired dioxygenase activity for alkane hydroxylation. Selective oxidation of light alkanes could be done by oxidation-active metal (Fe) centers in electron-deficient prophyrin-like macrocycles, polyoxoanions, and zeolites. In the isobutane conversion to tert-butanol proof-of-concept, it was found that nitro groups on the periphery of Fe porphyrin complexes give the greatest increase in Fe(III)/(II) reduction potential. 8 figs, 6 tabs, 40 refs.

Lyons, J.E.; Hancock, A.W. II

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

User manual for GEOCOST: a computer model for geothermal cost analysis. Volume 2. Binary cycle version  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer model called GEOCOST has been developed to simulate the production of electricity from geothermal resources and calculate the potential costs of geothermal power. GEOCOST combines resource characteristics, power recovery technology, tax rates, and financial factors into one systematic model and provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate their impacts on the cost of geothermal power. Both the geothermal reservoir and power plant are simulated to model the complete energy production system. In the version of GEOCOST in this report, geothermal fluid is supplied from wells distributed throughout a hydrothermal reservoir through insulated pipelines to a binary power plant. The power plant is simulated using a binary fluid cycle in which the geothermal fluid is passed through a series of heat exchangers. The thermodynamic state points in basic subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles are calculated for a variety of working fluids. Working fluids which are now in the model include isobutane, n-butane, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-113, R-114, and ammonia. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at the state points are calculated using empirical equations of state. The Starling equation of state is used for hydrocarbons and the Martin-Hou equation of state is used for fluorocarbons and ammonia. Physical properties of working fluids at the state points are calculated.

Huber, H.D.; Walter, R.A.; Bloomster, C.H.

1976-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

U.S. Refinery & Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total 6,204,500 6,277,893 6,169,893 6,345,372 6,422,710 6,406,693 1981-2012 Crude Oil 5,532,097 5,361,287 5,232,656 5,374,094 5,404,347 5,489,516 1981-2012 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 184,383 177,559 177,194 161,479 178,884 186,270 1981-2012 Pentanes Plus 64,603 55,497 59,100 56,686 63,385 63,596 1981-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 119,780 122,062 118,094 104,793 115,499 122,674 1981-2012 Ethane 1981-1992 Normal Butane 48,292 50,024 48,509 43,802 47,571 52,246 1981-2012 Isobutane 71,488 72,038 69,585 60,991 67,928 70,428 1981-2012 Other Liquids 488,020 739,047 760,043 809,799 839,479 730,907 1981-2012 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons

307

Building and Fire Publications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Performance Evaluation of Two Azeotropic Refrigerant Mixtures of HFC-134a With R-290 (Propane) and R-600a (Isobutane). ...

308

6, 36873707, 2006 Vehicular fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) samples were collected only in Hong Kong and were comprised mainly of n-butane, propane and i-butane found that the relative amount of propane, i-butane, and n-butane increased between 2001 to 2003, consistent with the 40% increase in LPG fueled vehicles. Propane to butanes ratios were calculated for LPG

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

309

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 32813288, 2006 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/6/3281/2006/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

comprised mainly of n-butane, propane and i-butane. Traffic samples indicated that evaporative loss of propane, i-butane, and n- butane increased between 2001 to 2003, consistent with the Correspondence to: L. Y. Chan (celychan@polyu.edu.hk) 40% increase in LPG fueled vehicles. Propane to butanes ra- tios

Meskhidze, Nicholas

310

REFPROP AddIns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Optional Units, Optional Prop1, Optional Prop2), butane, butane.fld, 106-97-8, n-butane, 134.895-575 K, 69 MPa, R402A, R125/Propane/R22, ...

2013-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

311

COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR MOLEUCLAR STRUCTURE DETERMINATION: THEORY AND TECHNIQUE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

study on the topology of n-butane. While the anti-conforma­were too low for gauche- butane type interactions, so a hardhydrogen and a good gauche-butane energy. Overall, however,

Lester, W.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Selective Nanocatalysis of Organic Transformation by Metals: Concepts, Model Systems, and Instruments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the open (100) surface. The iso- butane isomerizationto n-butane occurs more readily on the Pt(100) and theof the N–C bond to form butane and ammonia. Figure 9 shows

Somorjai, Gabor A.; Li, Yimin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes and hexanes plus,such as ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes and hexanes plus,LM6 is a high propane, high butane gas with a WN of 1385 and

Hajbabaei, Maryam

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Fire Interactions and Pulsation - Theoretical and Physical Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

flame to be captured. A butane lighter was used for ignitionFuels were ignited using a butane torch and were allowed toFuels were ignited using a butane torch and were allowed to

Maynard, Trevor

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Preparation of 1-C14-Propene-1 and the Mechanism of Permanganate Oxidation of Propene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

propene, 9% butenes, 9% butanes and pentanes and 1% pentenes0.5/0 propane and 0.5% n-butane. The yield of propene waspropene, 16% butenes f 3% i-butane, 3% ethyl propy:i. ether

Fries, B.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Development and Applications of Advanced Electronic Structure Methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

diphosphoniobicyclo[1.1.0]butane) rearrangements of the PBPB2,4-diphosphoniocyclo- butane-1,3-diyl doubly substituteddiphosphoniobicyclo[1.1.0]butane) rearrangements of the PBPB

Bell, Franziska

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Design, Control, and Measurement of Molecular and Supramolecular Assemblies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4-phenylazo- phenyl)-ethoxy]-butane-1-thiol), Azo. Scanning4-phenylazo-phenyl)- ethoxy]-butane-1-thiol (Azo2), and thephenylazo-phenyl)-ethoxy]-butane-1-thiol (Azo, shown in Fig.

Pathem, Bala Krishna

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Quantifying the Reactive Uptake of OH by Organic Aerosols in a Continuous Flow Stirred Tank Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

determination of the n-butane + OH reaction rate coefficientof the hexane (?) and butane (?) GC peak areas during therate constant ( k but ) for the n-butane + OH reaction. The

Che, Dung L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Untangling the Chemical Evolution of Titan's Atmosphere and Surface -- From Homogeneous to Heterogeneous Chemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

induced formation of n-butane. Although absorption bandsthe fundamental modes of the n-butane species in the presentspectra indicates that n-butane was not formed under the

Kaiser, Ralf I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Coupling nonpolar and polar solvation free energies in implicit solvent models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?Me?, ethane, propane, and butane from the study of AshbaughMe Ethane CH 3 Propane Butane CH 2 CH 3 In this section weabove calculation for propane and butane ?three and four LJ

Dzubiella, J; Swanson, JMJ; McCammon, J A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Surface Reactivity of Copper Precursors for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on Metal Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

110) surfaces is described; butane and a small amidine were110) surface. No butene is produced at lower butane, 3 L;only some butane is desorption observed (58 amu). However,

MA, QIANG

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

ISHHC XIII International Symposium on the Relations between Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Partial Oxidation of n-butane to Maleic Anhydride Y.H.catalytic activity of n-butane oxidation to maleic anhydrideconversion of methane with n-butane to give other alkanes.

Somorjai Ed., G.A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Development of a Next-Generation Environmental Chamber Facility for Chemical Mechanism and VOC Reactivity Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ethylene, propylene, n-butane and trans-2-butene wereas ethylene, propylene, n-butane and trans-2-butene and 30 mpropane, propylene, n-butane, n-hexane, toluene, n-octane

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of benzene, butene, or butane with oxygen over V 203all U.S. production is butane-based (17). Studies of theby the catalytic initial of butane the vapor phase; either

Poole, L.J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

THE CHEMISTRY OF HO2NO2 AND THE PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF THE HOX-NOX-COX SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

smog chamber experiments n-butane photo-oxidation, Jesson etthe unimolecular decornposition without added n-butane.The NO n~butane th and is an effective scavenger of OH by

Littlejohn, David

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Superfluid 4He interferometers: construction and experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

using a small, commercial butane torch and blasting the sealtubes from the stycast using a butane torch as described inonto the D-ring and the butane torch removal method is just

Joshi, Aditya Ajit

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

EARTH SCIENCES DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ethane Propane Normal-butane, is0bu t ane X Normal-pentane,the mole fraction of normal-butane. Because a binary mixtureof the mole fraction of normal-butane. The discrep- ancy is

Authors, Various

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Characterizing biomolecular recognition and solvation with end-point free energy calculations and implicit solvent models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Me), ethane, propane, and butane from the study of Ashbaughas ethane, propane, or butane in a one-dimensional chainabove calculation for propane and butane (three and four LJ-

Swanson, Jessica M.J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) for Indoor Air Applications: Conversion of Volatile Organic Compounds at Low Part-per-Billion Concentrations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

alkene hydrocarbon; and n-butane, an alkane hydrocarbon. UV> 2-butanone > 1-butene > n-butane. The order followed thedipole interaction for 1-butane, and weak dispersive forces

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Homogeneous Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Methods for Calculating the Heat Transport Coefficient of Solids and Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of flexible molecules - Butane. Molecular Physics, 81(6):in polyatomic fluids: n-Butane as an illustration. Chemicalfor two models of liquid Butane. Chemical Physics, 198(1-2):

Mandadapu, Kranthi Kiran

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

STUDIES OF THE SURFACES STRUCTURES OF MOLECULAR CRYSTALS AND OF ADSORBED MOLECULAR MONOLAYERS ON THE (111) CRYSTAL FACES OF PLATINUM AND SILVER BY LOW-ENERGY ELECTRON DIFFRACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transitions. The adsorption n-butane on Pt(lll) producesat 34 eV of monolayer of n-butane adsorbed on Agelll). The90-l05K, adsorption of n-butane on clean Pt(111) produces

Firment, L.E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Critical temperatures and pressures for hydrocarbon mixtures from an equation of state with renormalization-group-theory corrections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relationship of Binary Systems n-Butane-n- Pentaneand n-Butane- n-Hexane, J. Chern. Eng. Data 20 (1975) 333-in the Ethane-Propane-n-Butane System, Fluid Phase Equil.

Jiang, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Investigation of the Atmospheric Ozone Impacts of Methyl Iodide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ethylene, propylene, n-butane and trans-2-butene werepropane, propylene, n-butane, n-hexane, toluene, n-octaneas ethylene, propylene, n-butane and trans-2-butene and 30 m

Carter, W P L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Energy-resolved annihilation studies : vibrational Feshbach resonances and positron- molecule bound states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Z e? for butane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure2,2-di?uoropropane . . . Figure 5.9: Z e? for butane and 1-?resolved Z e? spectrum for butane (C 4 H 10 ). This spectrum

Young, Jason Asher

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Gas-Phase Reactions of Doubly Charged Lanthanide Cations with Alkanes and Alkenes. Trends in Metal(2+) Reactivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

methane, ethane, propane, n-butane) and alkenes (ethene,respectively). With propane and n-butane, all the Ln 2+ ionsof La 2+ with propane and n-butane, and the absence of their

Gibson, John K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Formation mechanisms and quantification of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

limonene-1-nitrate, 1-hydroxy-butane- 2-nitrate, 3-hydroxy-our measured spectra of the butane hydroxynitrate we foundstandards except for the butane hydroxynitrate the O/C based

Rollins, Andrew Waite

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Splitting a C-O bond in dialkylethers with bis(1,2,4-tri-t-butylcyclopentadienyl) cerium-hydride does not occur by a sigma-bond metathesis pathway: a combined experimental and DFT computational study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and propane or Cp’ 2 Ce(O-n-Bu) and butane, respectively.CeD, the propane and butane contain deuterium predominantlysites of (n-Bu) 2 O, but the butane produced by the reaction

Werkema, Evan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

A BRIEF HISTORY OF INDUSTRIAL CATALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

there were supplies of n-butane which could be isomerized.as a catalytic liquid n~butane gas was passed; in the other,and ts: butadiene, 2) 1) butane lbenzene dehydro~~ genation

Heinemann, Heinz

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to approximate propane, butane, and LPG purchases, and U.S.Groundwater (MJ/L) Electricity NG Propane/ Butane/LPG DieselElectricity NG Propane/ Butane/ LPG Diesel AL 2.1E-05 N/A N/

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Coupling nonpolar and polar solvation free energies in implicit solvent models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

methane ?Me?, ethane, propane, and butane from the study ofJones sphere Me Ethane CH 3 Propane Butane CH 2 CH 3 In thisthe above calculation for propane and butane ?three and four

Dzubiella, J; Swanson, JMJ; McCammon, J A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a
real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

A Tentative Modeling Study of the Effect of Wall Reactions on Oxidation Phenomena  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperature diagram of oxidation phenomena in the case of n-butane. Reactions which depend on the type-Ta ignition diagrams for equimolar n-butane/oxygen in an untreated silica vessel, a vessel internally coated Figure 1. Experimental p-Ta ignition diagrams for equimolar n-butane + oxygen mixtures (50 % n- butane

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

362

Power MEMS 2005, Nov. 28-30, 2005, Tokyo, Japan We have developed a large-entrainment-ratio micro ejector to supply fuel-air mixture for a catalytic combustor. As the key  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ejector has achieved a maximum air-to-butane volume flow rate ratio of 43 when the back pressure employs butane as the fuel because it has both high energy density (13300 Wh/kg) and favorable storage. The requirement of designing an ejector for a butane combustor is to achieve an air-to-butane volume flow rate

Kasagi, Nobuhide

363

I Reprinted from the Journal of the American Chemical Society. 92. 1426 ( 1970).1 Copyright 1970 by the American ChemicalSociety and reprinted by permissionof rhi.opf.ight owner.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dominantparhwayfor thermaldecom- positionof this alkylcopper(l)compound to ,?-butane and l-butenedoesrto, in-butene (51%) n-butane(4971),and hydrogen (10%); lessthan 0.t I n-octaneis formed. Hydrolysis oi the solution' rr-butvl-2.2-tl:(tri-rr-butylphosphine)cop- per(l)(2)yieldsno butane-r/,,butane-dc,ot butene

Prentiss, Mara

364

APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 0099-2240/97/$04.00 0  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 9 Copyright © 1997, American Society for Microbiology Chloroform Cometabolism by Butane-Grown CF8) degradation by a butane-grown enrichment culture, CF8, was compared to that by butane-grown Pseudomonas. All three butane-grown bacteria were able to degrade CF at rates comparable to that of M

Semprini, Lewis

365

Micro Catalytic Combustor with Pd/Nano-porous Alumina for High-Temperature Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

surface reaction of butane. In combustion experiments with a prototype combustor, the wall temperature is proportional to the butane concentration, is employed to characterize the activity of the catalyst layer for n-butane profile of butane-air mixture is assumed at the inlet. The volumetric flow rate QB is kept at 10 sccm

Kasagi, Nobuhide

366

Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical 166 (2001) 5972 Electronic structure of vanadyl pyrophosphate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride (MA) [12­26]. The other phase of a great importance is vanadyl of butane oxidation [14]. One has to stress that the oxidation on n-butane to MA is one of the most collapse. One has also to add that oxidation of butane to MA is the only process of the selective oxidation

367

Magma Max Power Generating Plant: Feasibility Study and Preliminary Design  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rogers Engineering affirms that the isobutane power recovery cycle is a sound one from the standpoint of thermodynamic and engineering considerations.

None

1970-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

368

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Thermodynamic properties of...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Thermodynamic properties of a geothermal working fluid; 90% isobutane-10% isopentane: Final report Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us |...

369

Optimization of finned-tube condensers using an intelligent ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... with isobutane (R600a), R134a, propane (R290), R22 ... for determining the refrigerant state at the ... second ed., Hemisphere, New York, NY, USA, 1986 ...

2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

370

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Per Unit of Volume or Mass Per Million Btu For homes and businesses Propane gallon Butane Butane/Propane Mix Home Heating and Diesel Fuel

371

Mark L. Robin Great Lakes Chemical Corporation Fluorine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Results for the FM-100/air/propane and FM-lOO/air/i-butane systems are shown in Figures 3 and 4 , respectively. ... n-heptane n-butane methanol ...

2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

372

DIFFUSIVE DYNAMICS OF ALKANE CHAINS Ronald M. Levy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

alkanes studied were butane, heptane,and eicosane (4 atoms, 7 atoms, and 20 atoms). We regard this work, the results of the dynamics simulations are presented and the equilibrium and kinetic pro- perties of butane

373

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 31973207, 2009 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/9/3197/2009/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrocarbons i-butane (7.87 µg.m-2 s-1), i- pentane (3.61 µg.m-2 s-1) and n-butane (3.23 µg.m-2 s-1

Meskhidze, Nicholas

374

Hydrogen Storage -Overview George Thomas, Hydrogen Consultant to SNL*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

75 100 125 hydrogen m ethane ethane propane butane pentane hexane heptane octane (gasoline) cetane (diesel) octane (gasoline) heptane hexane pentane butane ethane propane ethanol m ethane m ethanol am m

375

The Allocation of the Social Costs of Motor-Vehicle Use to Six Classes of Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

blending components), natural-gas liquids (such as pentanes and butanes), alcohols, and other hydrocarbons (such as coal-

Delucchi, Mark A.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Safety Plan m Chemical$torase Guidelines Chemical Is Incompatible llll i With ii Hydrocarbons (such as butane, propane,

Ricks Editor, R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

NIST, Theory and Modeling of Fluids Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of predicting thermodynamic properties of mixtures containing nitrogen, argon, oxygen, carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, and i ...

378

Firebrand Production From Burning Vegetation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Reduced Scale Firebrand Ignition Experiments The firebrand ignition apparatus consists of four butane burners and a firebrand mounting probe. ...

2006-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

379

Exam 1, Chemistry 210, Dr. Rainer Glaser, W97, MU --1 --Chemistry 210Chemistry 210  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,4-dimethyl-octane (4 points) 7-tert.-butyl-4-iso.-propyl-3,5-decadiene (3 pts) H O butanal (3 pts) O ethylmethylketone Condensed structural formula of n-butane. (2 pts) H3C-CH2-CH2-CH3 Bond line structure of butane. (2 pts) Newman projection of gauche butane along the central C2-C3 bond. (4 pts) H H Me Me H H

Glaser, Rainer

380

Ultrafast Carbon-Carbon Single-Bond Rotational Isomerization in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the barrier heights of 1, n-butane, and ethane, the time constants for n-butane and ethane internal rotation is not completely free. (2) The trans-gauche isomerization of 1,2- disubstituted ethane derivatives, such as n-butane energy barrier of the n-butane (Ã?3.4 kcal/mol) and of other simple 1,2-disubstituted ethane derivatives

Fayer, Michael D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Anthropogenic emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons in the northeastern United States: Measured seasonal variations from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in relative emissions for this series of trace gases. Seasonal changes in n-butane and i-butane emissions may [Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998]. [3] In this study, we present the seasonality of C2-C6 (ethane, propane, n-butane, i-butane, n-pentane, i-pentane and n-hexane) hydrocarbons, NOy and CO as measured at Harvard Forest

Goldstein, Allen

382

Nucleation mechanisms of aromatic polyesters, PET, PBT, and PEN, on single-wall carbon nanotubes: early nucleation stages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nucleation mechanisms of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly (butylene terephthalate) (PBT), and poly (ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) on single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are proposed, based on experimental evidence, theoretical epitaxy analysis, ...

Adriana Espinoza-Martínez, Carlos Avila-Orta, Víctor Cruz-Delgado, Oscar Olvera-Neria, Julio González-Torres, Francisco Medellín-Rodríguez

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Water-Soluble 2-Hydroxyisophthalamides for Sensitization of Lanthanide Luminescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tetrakis-(2- aminoethyl)-butane-1,4-diamine [H(4,2)-]. These1 '',N 1 '''-(2,2',2'',2'''-(Butane-1,4-diylbis(azanetriyl))N'-tetrakis-(2- aminoethyl)-butane-1,4-diamine (6c) 12 (0.26

Samuel, Amanda P. S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Experimental investigations of photochemically-generated organic aerosols and applications to early Earth and Mars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1,3-butadiyne C 4 H 10 n-butane † For C 3 H 4 and C 4 H 2 ,n-propane) and C 4 H 10 (n-butane), respectively. Table 2.1:~12‰, while propane and butane are depleted by ~15‰ relative

Chu, Emily Faye

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a laminar premixed n-butane flame", Combustion and Flame,1.5 atm; T=1431-1680 K; (b) n-butane [22], ?=1.0; 2.5% C 4 Hof the parameters for n- butane were obtained from Marinov

Saxena, Priyank

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Zwittermicin A : determination of its complete configuration and total synthesis of its enantiomer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dimethyl-1,3-dioxan-4-yl)butane- 1,3-diol (233). Under andimethyl-1,3-dioxan-4-yl)butane- 1,3-diol (234). Under andimethyl-1,3-dioxan-4-yl)butane-1,3-diol (265-268). Under an

Rogers, Evan W.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

literature. For example, EF of butane in this study was 5.0-Alkanes Propane 2M-Propane 2M-Propene Butane 2,2-DM-PropanePentane 2,2-DM-Butane 107-167 a , 169 b a b 8.69-13.12 a ,

Hosseini, Seyedehsan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

2007 Botany and Plant Pathology Publications Arp, Daniel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-subunit of butane monooxygenase. J. Bacteriol. 189: 5068-5074 (2007). Gvakharia, B.O., E.A. Permina, M.A. Sayavedra-Soto, D.J. Arp. Butane monooxygenase of Pseudomonas butanovora: purification and biochemical of butane monooxygenase activity in Pseudomonas butanovora; Biochemical and physiological implications

Grünwald, Niklaus J.

389

Requirements Hydrocarbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Butane is also an option. If material is driving factor these become attractive. Advantages Radiation. He considered two coolants: Butane and R134a (freon replacement used in auto air conditioners). About.021 Butane 72.6 0.014 0.012 10 #12; Advantages Radiation Length Even R134a (Radiation length 80% of wa- ter

Cinabro, David

390

DIRECT CONTACT HEAT EXCHANGER 10 kW POWER LOOP. SECTION 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. SECTION 2: TEST SERIES NO. 1. SECTION 3; TEST SERIES NO. 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

i t h e r l i q u i d iso- butane or brine. The c o n s t rand thermometers located in d butane temperatures and , and-e t o t h e DCHX 330 + 5OF Butane o u t l e t t e m p e r a

Engineering, Barber-Nicholas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Exam 1, Chemistry 210, Dr. Rainer Glaser, W97, MU --1 --Chemistry 210Chemistry 210  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) (3 points) (4 points) (3 pts) H O (3 pts) O Condensed structural formula of n-butane. (2 pts) Bond line structure of butane. (2 pts) Newman projection of gauche butane along the central C2-C3 bond. (4

Glaser, Rainer

392

MOUSE ORGAN HARVEST PROTOCOL 10/01 TO FREEZE TISSUES FOR FROZEN SECTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bits of dry ice and 2 methyl butane. This will be the freezing mixture which will freeze the organs OCT turns white 9. Remove plastic molds with frozen organs from dry ice/ 2 methyl butane and let them No 15160-215 3. Frozen sample write-on bags: VWR Cat. No: 01-002-37 4. 2 methyl butane: Fisher Cat. No

Abagyan, Ruben

393

BFRL: HVAC&R - Publications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents a comparable evaluation of isobutane (R600a), propane (R290), R134a, R22, R410A, and R32 in an optimized finned-tube ...

394

Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

Rapier, Pascal M. (Richmond, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carryover through the turbine causing corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

Rapier, P.M.

1979-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

396

DIRECT CONTACT HEAT EXCHANGER 10 kW POWER LOOP. SECTION 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. SECTION 2: TEST SERIES NO. 1. SECTION 3; TEST SERIES NO. 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Condenser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .turbine output power. Condenser pressures were much highere d isobutane w i t h it. Condenser I s o b u t a n e v a p

Engineering, Barber-Nicholas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Characterization and permeation properties of ZSM-5 tubular membranes  

SciTech Connect

ZSM-5 zeolite membranes with reproducible properties were prepared by in-situ synthesis on porous {alpha}- and {gamma}-alumina tubular supports and characterized by XRD, SEM and electron microprobe analysis. Single-gas permeances for H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}, CO{sup 2}, n-butane, and i-butane increase over some temperature range, but some gases exhibit maxima or minima. The highest ideal selectivities at room temperature are 299 for N{sub 2}/SF{sub 6}, 392 for H{sup 2}/n-butane, and 2,820 for H{sub 2}/i-butane. These membranes can separate n-butane/i-butane, H{sub 2}/n-butane and H{sub 2}/i-butane mixtures. All n-butane/i-butane separation selectivities have maxima as a function of temperature and are higher than ideal selectivities because n-butane inhibits i-butane permeation. Thus, separation is not by size selectivity, but is due to pore blocking. Temperature dependencies of single-gas permeances and separation selectivities depend strongly on the location of zeolite crystals and the location is determined by preparation procedure. Ideal selectivities also depend strongly on the preparation procedure. When the zeolite forms a continuous layer on the inside surface of the support tubes, pure i-butane permeates faster than pure n-butane so that the single-gas permeances are not determined just by molecular size. The i-butane permeance also increases much more with temperature than the n-butane permeance. The permeation behavior may be the result of permeation through nonzeolitic pores in parallel with zeolite pores. When zeolite crystals are dispersed throughout the pores of {alpha}-alumina supports, permeances are lower and gas permeation and separation properties are quite different. Ideal selectivities are lower, pure n-butane permeates faster than i-butane, and the permeances increase much less with temperature. Separation selectivities are lower but can be maintained to higher temperatures.

Coronas, J.; Falconer, J.L.; Noble, R.D. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Kinetic and Inhibition Studies for the Aerobic Cometabolism of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,1-Dichloroethylene, and 1,1-Dichloroethane by a Butane-Grown Mixed Culture Young Kim,1 Daniel J. Arp,2 Lewis Semprini), and 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA) by a butane- grown mixed culture. These chlorinated aliphatic hydro. The highest kmax was obtained for butane (2.6 µmol/mg TSS/ h) followed by 1,1-DCE (1.3 µmol/mg TSS/h), 1,1-DCA

Semprini, Lewis

399

Importance of Gas-Phase Kinetics within the Anode Channel of a Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Chad Y. Sheng and Anthony M. Dean*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ReceiVed: December 12, 2003; In Final Form: February 27, 2004 Experiments using n-butane channel of a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Butane conversion and product formation were monitored used: neat n-butane, 50% n-C4H10/50% H2O, and 50% n-C4H10/50% N2. These experiments demonstrate

Dean, Anthony M.

400

It's The Fluids SEG Honorary Lecture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

T.P. Water Butane CO2 #12;Fluid ­ Density 800 1000 1200FluidDensity[kg/m3] Brine CO2 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 200 400 600 Fluid Pressure [MPa] FluidDensity[kg/m Butane CO2 #12;Fluid ­ Modulus 2000 2500 3000 FluidModulus[MPa] Brine 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 500 1000 1500 Fluid Pressure [MPa] FluidModulus[MPa] Butane CO2 #12;GENERAL PHASE

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

NETL: Methane Hydrates - DOE/NETL Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for this sample, but Raman bands from both samples were essentially identical: methane and ethane along with trace amounts of isobutene and trans-butane. Small angle...

402

EIA-816 MONTHLY NATURAL GAS PLANT LIQUIDS REPORT INSTRUCTIONS ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

EIA-816, Monthly Natural Gas Plant Liquids Report Page 3 Inputs During Month Report only inputs of normal butane being converted by an isomerization process into ...

403

Measurements of Vapor Pressures and PVT Properties for n ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Measurements of Vapor Pressures and PVT Properties for n-Butane from 280 to 440 K at Pressures to 200 MPa ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

404

Publications Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A correlation for estimating the vapor pressure of normal alkanes from methane through n-hexatriacontane and isomers of butane to nonane is ...

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

405

Stephanie L. Outcalt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The instrument has also been used to measure the solubility of carbon dioxide, propane, propene, butane, and 1-butene in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3 ...

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

406

Richard A. Perkins: Publications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... MLV, Nieto de Castro, CA, Cusco, L., and Perkins, RA, "Improved correlations for the thermal conductivity of propane and n-butane," in Thermal ...

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

407

BlackBerry Torch 9800 Smartphone - Consignes de sécurité ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... le stockage de carburants ou de produits chimiques, de véhicules utilisant du gaz de pétrole liquéfié (tel que du propane ou du butane), des zones ...

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

BlackBerry Torch 9800 Smartphone - Safety and Product ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... deck on boats; fuel or chemical transfer or storage facilities; vehicles using liquefied petroleum gas (such as propane or butane); areas where the ...

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

Publications Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... particle sizes have been determined in the soot oxidation regions of axisymmetric diffusion flames burning methane, methane/butane, and methane ...

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

410

Fuel Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...often used in torch brazing of steel. Hydrogen, butane, and producer (city) gas are seldom employed. In manual torch brazing, pure oxygen is

411

Using JCP format  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... critical temperature, is gas–liquid solubility, where as the equilibrium set up at the same temperature between the same polymer and n-butane is an ...

2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

412

Publications N  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... J. Chem. Phys., 1983. 79(3): p. 1480-6. Nelson, EE and WS Bonnell, Solubility of hydrogen in n-butane. Ind. Eng. Chem., 1943. ...

413

Geometrical structures of phosphorus-containing heterocyclic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

phites based on meso- and d/-butane-2, 3-diol. The synthesis and properties of the thiophosphates (VI)-. (IX) have been described in [19, 20]. The thiophosphate  ...

414

MTBE Prices Responded to Natural Gas Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

On top of the usual factors impacting gasoline prices, natural gas has had some influence recently. ... Both methane and butane come from natural gas streams.

415

EIA-182 DOMESTIC CRUDE OIL FIRST PURCHASE REPORT INSTRUCTIONS  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

average wellhead price for selected domestic crude oil streams aggregated by State. First purchase volumes are also used in ... such as butane and

416

Publications Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... from methane through n-hexatriacontane and isomers of butane to nonane is ... semiconductors are critical to the realization of low cost, large area ...

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

417

NITROGEN GAS AS A HALON REPLACEMENT ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... TABLE 4. INERTION CONCENTRATIONS. - m Fuel Inertion Conc., vol.% Butane 40.0 44.0 Propane 42.0 46.2 ... COST AND AVAILABILITY ...

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

418

TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE RELATIVE ... - Springer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

aqueous solutions [5, 6], while relative constants for the methane–butane series [ 7-9] and for cyclopentane [10] were measured by photolysis and radiolysis ...

419

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program Oregon homeowners and renters who heat with oil, wood, propane, kerosene, or butane are eligible for home weatherization rebates of up to 500. A variety of measures,...

420

Solid phase isotope exchange with spillover hydrogen in amino ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

isomerization reaction of n-butane on BACs was shown to proceed by monomolecular mechanism and not to be connected with the intermediate formation of ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Overview of sSupply of Chicago/Milwaukee Gasoline This Spring:  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... the refiner may have added fractionation capability to remove butane from the inputs, or may be splitting the alkylate into light and heavy ...

422

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

lease separation facilities. This category excludes natural gas plant liquids, such as butane and propane, which are recovered at downstream natural gas processing plants or...

423

LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE CALCUL APPROCH DE QUELQUES FRQUENCES PROPRES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

'isopentane, du méthyl-3-pentane, du méthyl-~, . 3-butane et du tétraméthyl-22 . 33-butane. Tous les radicaux résultats du calcul à ceux des expériences. 3. D$méthyl-2.3-butane. - Le système en �, est Posons L résul- tats du calcul aux résultats expérimentaux. 4. Tétraméthyl- 2 2. 3 3-butane. - Avec le modèle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

424

Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for separating C{sub 3}+ hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane. 6 figs.

Toy, L.G.; Pinnau, I.

1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

425

A Parameterized Interatomic Potential for Saturated Hydrocarbons ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The experimental PVT data for methane, ethane, propane, and butane systems with different densities were predicted reasonably well by MEAM. Proceedings ...

426

Argonne TTRDC - D3 (Downloadable Dynamometer Database) - 2010...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

petroleum gas (LPG), which is predominately butane in South Korea (as opposed to Propane in the United States). Another notable feature of this vehicle is its lithium polymer...

427

Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for separating C.sub.3 + hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane.

Toy, Lora G. (San Francisco, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Table 3.9 Value of Fossil Fuel Net Imports, 1949-2011 (Billion ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1 Includes petroleum preparations, liquefied propane and butane, and, beginning in 1997, other mineral fuels. R=Revised. P=Preliminary. E=Estimate.

429

fernihough  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... cb1. cashback. carbody. calvary. calvaert. butane/propane. bursts. burnie. bulog. budde. ... near. need. neighbour. network. new. news. ngo. nicholas. night ...

430

Gas fuel in a four-stroke engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper refers to the behavior of a four-stroke gasoline engine that is used for the function of a small generator. The generator functioned at different electrical loads 500W, 1000W, 1500W and 2000W. During the use of gas fuel 80%butane -20%propane ... Keywords: biofuels, gas emissions, gas propane-butane mixture

Charalampos Arapatsakos

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Natural Gas Flow Calibration Service (NGFCS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Methane 94.8 to 96.2 Ethane 1.5 to 2.3 Propane 0.055 to 0.3 iButane 0.0008 to 0.03 nButane 0.0003 to 0.04 iPentane 0 to 0.01 nPentane 0 to ...

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

432

5 DYNAMIC SIMULATION 5.1 DYNAMIC SIMULATION CASE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.64 12.27 12.00 Propane (mol%) 86.86 87.28 87.65 87.92 i-Butane (mol%) 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 n-Butane (mol

Hong, Deog Ki

433

Analysis of mass transfer processes in geothermal power cycles utilizing direct contact heat exchange. Report of work, September 21, 1978 to September 30, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer program was developed which calculates the isobutane content of the spent brine and the liquid-vapor distribution of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide throughout the components of a geothermal power plant using direct contact heat exchange. The program model assumes separate boiler and preheater vessels, with the preheater being a spray tower. The condenser model is a horizontal tube surface condenser with condensation on the outside. The program was written in Fortran language. The Fortran source deck consists of 976 cards. The program utilizes 320K for compilation and 72K for execution on an IBM 370/3031. Sample cases were run which illustrate the effects of salt concentration in the brine and isobutane-to-brine ratio on isobutane and noncondensible gas content of the spent brine.

Knight, J.J.; Perona, J.J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes-proof-of-concept stage -- Phase 6. Final report, February 1--October 31, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the course of the first three years of the Cooperative Agreement, the authors uncovered a family of metal perhaloporphyrin complexes which had unprecedented activity for the selective air-oxidation of light alkanes to alcohols. The reactivity of light hydrocarbon substrates with air or oxygen was in the order: isobutane > propane > ethane > methane, in accord with their homolytic bond dissociation energies. Isobutane was so reactive that the proof-of-concept stage of a process for producing tert-butyl alcohol from isobutane was begun (Phase 5). It was proposed that as more active catalytic systems were developed (Phases 4, 6), propane, then ethane and finally methane oxidations will move into this stage (Phases 7 through 9). As of this writing, however, the program has been terminated during the later stages of Phase 5 and 6 so that further work is not anticipated. 72 refs.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

435

Analysis of field-performance data on shell-and-tube heat exchangers in geothermal service  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Analysis of field performance data from a binary cycle test loop using geothermal brine and a hydrocarbon working fluid is reported. Results include test loop operational problems, and shell-and-tube heat exchanger performance factors such as overall heat transfer coefficients, film coefficients, pinch points, and pressure drops. Performance factors are for six primary heaters having brine in the tubes and hydrocarbon in the shells in counterflow, and for a condenser having cooling water in the tubes and hydrocarbon in the shell. Working fluids reported are isobutane, 90/10 isobutane/isopentane, and 80/20 isobutane/isopentane. Performance factors are for heating each working fluid at supercritical conditions in the vicinity of their critical pressure and temperature and condensing the same fluid.

Silvester, L.F.; Doyle, P.T.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Determination of the 5 MW gross nominal design case binary cycle for power generation at Raft River, Idaho. [Using GEOSYS program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of Rankine cycle studies for power generation utilizing geothermal fluid as the heat source and isobutane as the working fluid are reported. To find the plant configuration which would most effectively utilize the available energy, a parametric study was performed. The desirability of supercritical, single boiler or double boiler cycles, and the relative boiler temperatures and percentage isobutane flow split between the boilers in the double cycles for geothermal fluid temperatures of 260/sup 0/F to 360/sup 0/F were considered. This study was designed to discover thermodynamic trends which would point to an optimum isobutane cycle for geothermal fluid temperatures in this temperature range. The results of the parametric study were applied to derive a Nominal Design Case for a demonstration plant at Raft River, with a geothermal fluid resource at 290/sup 0/F. In addition, plant variations due to tolerances applied to thermodynamic properties and other key factors are included.

Ingvarsson, I.J.; Madsen, W.W. (eds.)

1976-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Interaction of alkanes with an amorphous methanol film at 15-180 K  

SciTech Connect

The hydrogen-bond imperfections and glass-liquid transition of the amorphous methanol film have been investigated on the basis of the film dewetting and the incorporation/desorption of alkane molecules adsorbed on the surface. The butane is incorporated completely in the bulk of the porous methanol film up to 70 K. At least two distinct states exist for the incorporated butane; one is assignable to solvated molecules in the bulk and the other is weakly bound species at the surface or in the subsurface site. For the nonporous methanol film, the uptake of butane in the bulk is quenched but butane forms a surface complex with methanol above 80 K. The butane incorporated in the bulk of the glassy methanol film is released at 120 K, where dewetting of the methanol film occurs simultaneously due to evolution of the supercooled liquid phase.

Souda, Ryutaro [Advanced Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

438

ORIGINAL PAPER Natural Fiber Reinforced Poly(vinyl chloride) Composites: Effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, electric wires, window profiles, siding, etc. Recently, wood fiber reinforced PVC is getting more popular straw, rice husk, and pine fiber) and loading level of styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) block copolymer on composite properties was investigated. Mechanical analysis showed that storage modulus

439

Failure analysis report: 10 MW geothermal binary turbine, Magma Electric Company, East Mesa, California  

SciTech Connect

The cause of failure of two isobutane turbines at the East Mesa geothermal plant was investigated. One turbine lost all the vanes in all three stages, while the other turbine sustained dings and nicks in the vanes, but remained intact. The exact cause of failure could not be determined. Three possibilities were determined: (1) a single foreign object, possibly a bolt; (2) foreign substance (geothermal fluid, oil, liquid isobutane, or particulate corrosion products) entered both turbines; or (3) one or more brazed joints failed by fatigue or by a corrosive process. 5 refs., 13 figs. (ACR)

Anliker, D.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Development of direct heat exchangers for geothermal brines. Final report, October 4, 1977--June 30, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of experiments during a period of eight months was conducted with the existing Direct Contact Heat Exchanger (DCHX) Loop in order to better understand the thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the equipment. Modifications were made to the equipment which were designed to improve heat transfer and reduce the cost of the heat exchangers. Additional changes were made to the equipment to conduct turbine experiments, condenser experiments, and carryover tests. Further studies of the amounts of dissolved isobutane in the geothermal brine and methods of recovering this dissolved isobutane were also made. The procedures used and the results of the tests performed are presented.

Urbanek, M.W.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Effect of operating conditions and membrane quality on the separation performance of composite silicalite-1 membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The separation capacity of silicalite-1 membranes for various hydrocarbon mixtures is determined as a function of membrane quality, operating conditions, and orientation of the composite membrane with respect to the feed side. The quality of the membranes is judged on the basis of the n-butane/i-butane permselectivity. Membranes with a different n-butane/i-butane permselectivity showed an identical separation capacity for ethane/methane mixtures, but the quality difference was affecting separation of hydrogen from the butane isomers. The selectivity of the membrane is significantly affected by the operating conditions, such as mixture composition, temperature, and absolute pressure. These effects are shown for ethane/methane, propene/ethene, and n-butane/i-butane mixtures. The selectivity for ethane in ethane/methane mixtures, found when the zeolite layer is facing the feed side, is completely lost when the orientation of the composite membrane is reversed, due to concentration polarization. Depending on the membrane orientation, the major resistance of the composite is in the support layer or in the zeolite layer.

Graaf, J.M. van de; Bijl, E. van der; Stol, A.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulign, J.A. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Fuel Switching Strategies for the 1990s  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prices of petroleum fuels and natural gas are predicted to rise in the 1990's, due to a number of global factor including supplies, demands and environmental pressure. Environmental regulatory initiatives will force the use of cleaner fuels. Excess butane in summer resulting from lowered gasoline volatility and various increasing supply factors will create fuel purchasing opportunities. It was found that in-place propane switching capability among manufacturers could be adapted to absorb all the excess butane. Economics and risks of acquiring and storing spot-market butane as a strategic switching fuel are explored. Other fuel switching concepts are also considered.

Cascone, R.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Send Orders of Reprints at reprints@benthamscience.net 226 Current Computer-Aided Drug Design, 2013, 9, 226-232  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Consider the molecular graph of 2-methyl butane, with the vertex labelling as shown in Fig. (1). Fig. (1). The molecular graph of 2-methyl butane (CAS 78-78-4). The adjacency matrix A(G) and the distance matrix D(G) of 2-methyl butane are: A(G) D(G) 1 2 3 4 5 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 1 3 0 1 0 1 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 0

Gini, Giuseppina

444

May 13, 1998 Gas Frac. Mol.Wt. Density Speci c Ht. Boil. Pt.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Argon 30 39.95 1.784 0.125 Butane 8 58.12 2.6 0.389 -0.5 HFC-134a 62 102.0 4.5 0.20 -26.3 Table 1-pressure for every 1 m height. Gas is non- ammable. Butane and HFC-134a must be heated during winter 1 #12;RPC drop across one layer less than 5 mmH2O at 10 cc=min ow rate. 2 #12;(Outside) Ar Butane Scale Thermal

Llope, William J.

445

Figure S1. Relative contribution to total OH reactivity (a), of observed VOCs to calculated OH reactivity (b) and alkyl nitrate production (c,d) in the afternoon (12pm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.0050 0.65 i-butane 0.77 0.02 2.31E-12(4) 0.00088 0.086 n-Butane 2.2 0.077 2.51E-12(2) 0.011 0.26 n 0.05* 0.1 5.08E-12(2) 0.00048 0.0086 #12;4 2,3-dimethyl butane 0.17* 0.14 2.32E-12(10) 0.00048 0

Meskhidze, Nicholas

446

Make aromatics from LPG  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists mainly of the propane and butane fraction recovered from gas fields, associated petroleum gas and refinery operations. Apart from its use in steam cracking and stream reforming, LPG has few petrochemical applications. The relative abundance of LPG and the strong demand for aromatics - benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) - make it economically attractive to produce aromatics via the aromatization of propane and butanes. This paper describes the Cyclar process, which is based on a catalyst formulation developed by BP and which uses UOP's CCR catalyst regeneration technology, converts propane, butanes or mixtures thereof to petrochemical-quality aromatics in a single step.

Doolan, P.C. (BP Exploration Co. Ltd., London (GB)); Pujado, P.R. (UOP, Des Plaines, IL (US))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Photovoltaic properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes deposited on n-doped silicon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), grown by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) over Fe supported on alumina catalyst, using isobutane as feedstock, are dispersed in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Stable and highly photosensitive ... Keywords: Hybrid solar cells, Multi-walled carbon nanotubes, Silicon heterojunctions

A. Arena; N. Donato; G. Saitta; S. Galvagno; C. Milone; A. Pistone

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Catalytic oxidation of light alkanes in presence of a base  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The presence of a base in the reaction mixture in a metal-ligand catalyzed partial oxidation of alkanes results in sustained catalyst activity, and in greater percent conversion as compared with oxidation in the absence of base, while maintaining satisfactory selectivity for the desired oxidation, for example the oxidation of isobutane to isobutanol.

Bhinde, Manoj V. (Boothwyn, PA); Bierl, Thomas W. (West Chester, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Catalytic oxidation of light alkanes in presence of a base  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The presence of a base in the reaction mixture in a metal-ligand catalyzed partial oxidation of alkanes results in sustained catalyst activity, and in greater percent conversion as compared with oxidation in the absence of base, while maintaining satisfactory selectivity for the desired oxidation, for example the oxidation of isobutane to isobutanol. 1 fig.

Bhinde, M.V.; Bierl, T.W.

1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

450

Table 39. Production Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2003  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

State/Refiner/Location Alkylates Aromatics State/Refiner/Location Alkylates Aromatics Isobutane Lubricants Isomers Isopentane and Isohexane Asphalt and Road Oil Marketable Petroleum Coke Hydrogen (MMcfd) Sulfur (short tons per day) Table 4. Production Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2013 (Barrels per Stream Day, Except Where Noted) Isooctane a

451

Thermal and hydraulic performance tests of a sieve-tray direct-contact heat exchanger vaporizing pure and mixed-hydrocarbon Rankine-cycle working fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments investigating a sieve-tray direct-contact heat exchanger were conducted at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site in southeastern Idaho using the 60-kW Mobile Heat Cycle Research Facility operating in the thermal loop mode (without a turbine). Isobutane, propane, and several hydrocarbon mixtures were heated and boiled in the direct-contact column, which is approx. 12 in. in diameter and 19-1/2 ft. high, using the energy from a 280/sup 0/F geothermal resource. Using pure fluids, isobutane or propane, the column operated much as intended, with 17 trays used for preheating and one or two accomplishing the boiling. For the pure fluids, individual tray efficiencies were found to be 70% or higher for preheating, and close to 100% for boiling; column pinch points were projected to be well under 1/sup 0/F with some runs reaching values as low as approx. 0.02/sup 0/F. Maximum geofluid throughputs for the isobutane tests corresponded roughly to the terminal rise velocity of a 1/32 in. working fluid droplet in geofluid. Boiling was found to occur in as many as 12 trays for the mixtures having the highest concentrations of the minor component, with overall efficiencies in the boiling section estimated on the order of 25 or 30%. Preheating tray efficiencies appeared to be fairly independent of working fluid, with pinch points ranging from as low as approx. 0.03/sup 0/F for a 0.95 isobutane/0.05 hexane mixture to approx. 2.3/sup 0/F for a 0.85 isobutane/0.05 hexane mixture. Column operation was noticeably less stable for the mixtures than for the pure fluids, with maximum throughputs dropping to as low as 40 to 50% of those for the pure fluids.

Mines, G.L.; Demuth, O.J.; Wiggins, D.J.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

not include the propane portion of any natural gas liquid mixes, i.e., butane-propane mix. Refiner A firm or the part of a firm that refines products or blends and substantially...

453

untitled  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

include the propane portion of any natural gas liquids (NGL) mixes; i.e., butane-propane mix. Rack Sales: Wholesale truckload sales or smaller of pe- troleum products where title...

454

STATE ALTERNATIVE FUELS PLAN COMMISSIONREPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

American Lung Association Autumn Wind Associates Aventine Renewable Energy Batley Enterprises Baytech-Westport DaimlerChrysler Delta Liquid Energy/San Luis Butane Diesel Technology Forum Downstream Alternatives, Inc

455

Carbon Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...as natural gas (primarily methane), propane, or butane with air. Endogas is usually produced in a separately fired retort furnace (Endogas generator) using an air-to-hydrocarbon feed ratio that will

456

U.S. Refinery Net Input - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

413: 420: 2005-2013: Pentanes Plus: 166: 168: 156: 130: 148: 151: 2005-2013: Liquefied Petroleum Gases: 300: 281: 241: 238: 265: 270: 2005-2013: Normal Butane: 132 ...

457

Monitoring moisture content in the production of check gas mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

xenon mixture. Xenon. Methane n-Butane. Neon. Propane. Carbon dioxide. Ethane. " 0.016. Not subject to norm. Not more than 0.02. Not subject to norm.

458

Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Refinery and Blender Net Production of ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Refinery and Blender Net Production of Normal Butane (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8

459

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Location: NY Country: USA Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Why is it that a gas like butane can be compressed into a liquid and stored at room temperature (for example in simple...

460

Chapter 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the low porosity rock, there is only a small density difference between the liquid n-butane and methane, so the difference between CT numbers of C 1 -nC 4 mixture saturated , C 1...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

The Future of the U.S. NGL Markets - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Propane is long in the U.S. Exports out of U.S. will solve the problem in the medium term. Longer term issues remain. Exports of butanes and natural gasoline are

462

Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Petroleum gases, such as propane and butane, are liquefiedIn this study, we focused on propane (C 3 H 8 ) as the mostis capable of treating propane in the same way as other

Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Industrial Fuel Switching - Emerging NGL Opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Removing butanes and pentanes from gasoline to meet local and seasonal regulatory limitations on volatility requires US refiners to make up the lost octane with higher cost alternative components, and challenges them to either: store the liquids in summer

Cascone, R.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Dr. Oktay Demircan Post Doctoral Fellow,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide (CO), n- butane, coal syngas, and logistic fuels in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs conversion. Examine coal syngas impurities on SOFCs performance. Application of nanoparticles on anode

465

NETL: Gasifipedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and diesel can be refined. Fuel gases like methane (SNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG; mostly propane and butane) are usually also formed in small amounts by CTL but are...

466

Microsoft Word - _NT42962_ Revised NETL Report Covers.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1.470 0.934 0.983 1.790 1.300 1.230 3 PROPANE 0.100 0.024 0.029 0.100 0.034 0.100 4 i-BUTANE 0.050 0.025 0.025 0.030 0.025 0.060 5 n-BUTANE 0.050 0.009 0.010 0.030 0.011 0.090 6...

467

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY SABIC INNOVATIVE PLASTICS FOR WAIVER OF U.S.  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SABIC INNOVATIVE PLASTICS FOR WAIVER OF U.S. SABIC INNOVATIVE PLASTICS FOR WAIVER OF U.S. AND FOREIGN RIGHTS IN AN IDENTIFIED INVENTION, DOE DOCKET NO . S-109,544 MADE UNDER DOE AWARD NO. DE-FC36-03G013000, SUBCONTRACT 60105 WITH GENERAL ELECTRIC. W(l)-08-009; CH- 1453 S-109 ,544 "SYNTHESIS OF POL Y(BUTYLENE-CO-ISOSORBIDE TEREPHTHALA TE) AND ITS PROPERTIES" The Petitioner, SABIC Innovative Plastics IP B.V. ("SABIC"), has requested a waiver of domestic and foreign patent rights in the subject invention entitled "SYNTHESIS OF POL Y(BUTYLENE-CO-ISOSORBIDE TEREPHTHALA TE) AND ITS PROPERTIES." The invention relates to copolymers made from biological materials. The invention was made under the above identified subcontract with General Electric Plastics (GE). GE was subsequently purchased by SABIC

468

Evaluation of ammonia as a working fluid for a wet/dry-cooled binary geothermal plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The concepts considered in this study involve various arrangments of the binary geothermal power cycle with advanced dry cooling schemes. Brief descriptions of the binary cycle and advanced cooling schemes are included. Also included are descriptions of the base case concept and the ammonia working fluid concept. Performance and cost estimates were developed for a wet-cooled isobutane cycle plant, wet/dry cooled isobutane cycle plant, wet-cooled ammonia cycle plant, and a wet/dry cooled ammonia cycle plant. The performance and cost estimates were calculated using the GEOCOST computer code developed at PNL. Inputs for GEOCOST were calculated based on the Heber sites. The characteristics of the wet/dry cooling system were determined using the BNWGEO computer code developed at PNL. Results of the cooling system analysis are presented, followed by results of the geothermal plant analysis. Conclusions and comments also are included.

Drost, M.K.; Huber, H.D.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Introduction to electric energy conversion systems for geothermal energy resources  

SciTech Connect

The types of geothermal energy conversion systems in use are classified as follows: direct, dry steam; separated steam; single-flash steam; double-flash steam; multi-flash steam; brine/Freon binary cycle; and brine/isobutane binary cycle. The thermodynamics of each of these is discussed with reference to simplified flow diagrams. Typical existing power plants are identified for each type of system. (MHR)

DiPippo, R.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Study and testing of direct contact heat exchangers for geothermal brines. Final report, June 1975--July 1976  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The object of the work reported herein was to assess the technical and economic feasibility of preheating and evaporating a secondary fluid via direct contact with hot geothermal brine. The work covered a period of 12 months and included the design, construction, and testing of a unit which heats and vaporizes 10 gpm of isobutane by direct contact with 325/sup 0/F brine. The analytical and experimental efforts explored design and economic characteristics, including anticipated problem areas such as working fluid loss in the brine, production of a stable dispersion of the working fluid in brine, fluids separation, axial mixing and carry-over of water vapor with the working fluid. Isobutane was selected as the working fluid for tests primarily because of the favorable amount of net work produced per pound of geothermal brine and the low amount and cost of working fluid lost in the heat exchange process. The Elgin Spray Tower concept was selected for the preheater and boiler. The test apparatus includes a separate boiler and a separate preheater, each 6'' diameter by 6' high. Brine enters the top of each vessel and leaves the bottom. Isobutane enters the bottom of the preheater through a distributor plate to produce 0.15 inch diameter drops. The experimental unit operated with no major problems and demonstrated its hydraulic and thermal capabilities. Volumetric heat transfer coefficients obtained ranged up to 4000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/. Boiling heat transfer coefficients of as high as 17,000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/ were obtained with a design value of 10,000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/. Amount of isobutane in a 21 percent NaCl solution leaving the preheater was less than 40 ppM. A conceptual design and cost estimate was prepared for a direct contact heat exchange system sized for a 50 MW power plant.

Suratt, W.B.; Hart, G.K.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Raft River binary-cycle geothermal pilot power plant final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design and performance of a 5-MW(e) binary-cycle pilot power plant that used a moderate-temperature hydrothermal resource, with isobutane as a working fluid, are examined. Operating problems experienced and solutions found are discussed and recommendations are made for improvements to future power plant designs. The plant and individual systems are analyzed for design specification versus actual performance figures.

Bliem, C.J.; Walrath, L.F.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Raft River 5-MW(e) geothermal pilot plant project  

SciTech Connect

The Raft River 5-MW(e) Pilot Plant Project was started in 1976. Construction is scheduled for completion in July 1980, with three years of engineering and operational testing to follow. The plant utilized a 280/sup 0/F geothermal fluid energy source and a dual boiling isobutane cycle. Developmental efforts are in progress in the areas of down hole pumps and chemical treatment of geothermal fluid for cooling tower makeup.

Rasmussen, T.L.; Whitbeck, J.F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Theory and practice of near critical pressure direct contact heat exchange. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The direct contact heat exchange (DCHE) system previously designed, developed, and tested, was operated successfully without scale deposition. Conceptual design, optimization, and cost analysis showed that an additional advantage is the reduction in cost due to the high capacity of the DCHE compared with conventional heat exchangers. The technical and economic feasibility of DCHE operated near or above the critical pressure of isobutane using isobutane in direct contact with geothermal brine was assessed. The program consisted of conceptual design with a preliminary process evaluation and feasibility analysis, design and construction of the experimental apparatus, experimental tests, a final revised process evaluation and feasibility analysis based on the experimental results, and preparation of a design procedure. No scaling problems were present in the direct contact heat exchanger or the test unit. Test runs show that no scale was deposited in either the packed column section or the sieve tray section for continuous runs of 76 and 160 hours using East Mesa well 6-2 brine. In fact, the sieve tray section after 160 hours operation was visibly cleaner after the run than before. Both the packed column section and the sieve tray section operated according to theoretical thermodynamic and hydraulic predictions. Operation of the supercritical isobutane direct contact heat exchange and associated test unit with geothermal brine was routine with automatic controls and without operator attention. A design procedure including the requisite equations for sieve tray direct contact heat exchange columns was developed. The procedure gives the optimum ratio of isobutane to brine, optimum number of trays and tray spacing, and the sieve tray layout variables, namely downcomer area, active hole area, bubbling area, and column cross sectional area.

Wahl, E.F.; Boucher, F.B.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Metal dissolution kinetics in organic solvents using rotating ring-disc voltammetry. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of a two-phased liquid system - composed of geothermal brine and an organic heat transfer fluid - on the stability of materials used in the energy conversion system was investigated. The principle organic liquids used were isobutane and isopentane. The effects of relative fluid velocity on the corrosion behavior of representative construction materials, austenitic stainless steels, nickel, and copper alloy were determined using an autoclave incorporating a rotating ring-disc electrode. 2 refs., 20 figs. (ACR)

Not Available

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes. Final report, January 1, 1990--October 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

During the course of the first three years of the Cooperative Agreement (Phase I-III), we uncovered a family of metal perhaloporphyrin complexes which had unprecedented activity for the selective air-oxidation of fight alkanes to alcohols. The reactivity of fight hydrocarbon substrates with air or oxygen was in the order: isobutane>propane>ethane>methane, in accord with their homolytic bond dissociation energies. Isobutane was so reactive that the proof-of concept stage of a process for producing tert-butyl alcohol from isobutane was begun (Phase V). It was proposed that as more active catalytic systems were developed (Phases IV, VI), propane, then ethane and finally methane oxidations will move into this stage (Phases VII through IX). As of this writing, however, the program has been terminated during the later stages of Phases V and VI so that further work is not anticipated. We made excellent progress during 1994 in generating a class of less costly new materials which have the potential for high catalytic activity. New routes were developed for replacing costly perfluorophenyl groups in the meso-position of metalloporphyrin catalysts with far less expensive and lower molecular weight perfluoromethyl groups.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

476

Binary module test. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to design and test a binary loop module representative of and scaleable to commercial size units. The design was based on state-of-the-art heat exchanger technology, and the purpose of the tests was to confirm performance of a supercritical boiling cycle using isobutane and a mixture of isobutane and isopentane as the secondary working fluid. The module was designed as one percent of a 50 MW unit. It was installed at Magma Power's East Mesa geothermal field and tested over a period of approximately 4 months. Most of the test runs were with isobutane but some data were collected for hydrocarbon mixtures. The results of the field tests are reported. In general these results indicate reasonably good heat balances and agreement with overall heat transfer coefficients calculated by current stream analysis methods and available fluid property data; however, measured pressure drops across the heat exchangers were 20 percent higher than estimated. System operation was stable under all conditions tested.

Schilling, J.R.; Colley, T.C.; Pundyk, J.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environmental Regulations and Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale Contents * Introduction * Motor Gasoline Summer Volatility (RVP) Regulations o Table 1. Summer Volatility Regulations for Motor Gasoline o Table 2. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Figure 1. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Table 3. Price Relationship Between Normal Butane and Motor Gasoline o Table 4. Market Price Premium for Low Vapor Pressure (RVP) Gasoline * Oxygenate Content of Motor Gasoline o Figure 2. Oxygenate Content of Motor Gasoline o Table 5. Oxygenated and Conventional Motor Gasoline Price Relationship o Table 6. Reformulated and Conventional Motor Gasoline Price Relationship o Figure 3. Price Differences Between RFG or MTBE and Conventional Gasoline

478

Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. DOE PETC fourth quarterly report, May 25, 1994--August 24, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project is to evaluate the potential value of solid superacid catalysts of the sulfated zirconia type for light hydrocarbon conversion. The key experiments include testing of the performance of such catalysts in a flow reactor fed with streams containing, for example, n-butane or propane. A solid superacid catalyst was prepared by addition of iron and manganese to sulfated zirconium hydroxide followed by calcination. The catalyst was tested for n-butane conversion in a packed-bed flow reactor at temperatures of 40 to 225{degrees}C with the reactant partial pressure in the range of 0.0025-0.01 attn. The predominant catalytic reaction was n-butane isomerization, and this was accompanied at 40{degrees}C by near stoichiometric disproportionation. The C3/C5 molar ratio was generally greater than 1, consistent with conversion of the secondary C5 products. As the temperature increased, the selectivity for isomerization decreased and that for disproportionation increased. In a typical experiment the activity of the catalyst increased for about 1 h on stream and then declined rapidly. The rate maxima as a function of time on stream were taken as a measure of the initial activity of the catalyst. For example, the approximate rate of isomerization of n-butane at the maximum was 4.3 x 10-8 mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot} s) with a feed n-butane partial pressure of 0.0025 atm at 75{degrees}C. With a feed n-butane partial pressure of 0.005 atm at 40{degrees}C and a conversion of 1 1%, the molar ratio of propane to i-butane was 0.03, and with the same feed composition at 100{degrees}C, this ratio at a conversion of 50% was 0.1. The iron- and manganese-promoted solid superacid catalyst is potentially of value for practical low-temperature paraffin isomerization accompanied by disproportionation of n-butane.

Gates, B.C. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

479

Regioselective alkane hydroxylation with a mutant AlkB enzyme  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

AlkB from Pseudomonas putida was engineered using in-vivo directed evolution to hydroxylate small chain alkanes. Mutant AlkB-BMO1 hydroxylates propane and butane at the terminal carbon at a rate greater than the wild-type to form 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively. Mutant AlkB-BMO2 similarly hydroxylates propane and butane at the terminal carbon at a rate greater than the wild-type to form 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively. These biocatalysts are highly active for small chain alkane substrates and their regioselectivity is retained in whole-cell biotransformations.

Koch, Daniel J.; Arnold, Frances H.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

480

Asia, North America lead way in growth of NGL, LPG trade  

SciTech Connect

Recent analyses of world NGL trade indicate that important changes in LPG supply and demand are under way in Asia and North America. LPG markets in the 1990s reflect a rapidly shifting balance between East-of-Suez and West-of-Suez markets. This shift has increased concern about availability of future LPG supplies for Asia. The paper discusses world developments, East versus West of Suez, end uses and supplies in Asia, Canadian ethane, propane, butane, and natural gasoline, Mexican ethane, LPG, and natural gasoline, US ethane, propane, butanes, and iso-C{sub 4} and C{sub 5}.

Otto, K.; Gist, R.; Whitley, C. [Purvin and Gertz Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Haun, R. [Purvin and Gertz Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

1998-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene isobutane" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications: Subtask 3.3 - dewatering studies  

SciTech Connect

If successful, the novel Hydrophobic Dewatering (HD) process being developed in this project will be capable of efficiently removing moisture from fine coal without the expense and other related drawbacks associated with mechanical dewatering or thermal drying. In the HD process, a hydrophobic substance is added to a coal-water slurry to displace water from the surface of coal, while the spent hydrophobic substance is recovered for recycling. For this process to have commercialization potential, the amount of butane lost during the process must be small. Earlier testing revealed the ability of the hydrophobic dewatering process to reduce the moisture content of fine coal to a very low amount as well as the determination of potential butane losses by the adsorption of butane onto the coal surface. Work performed in this quarter showed that the state of oxidation affects the amount of butane adsorbed onto the surface of the coal and also affects the final moisture content. the remaining work will involve a preliminary flowsheet of a continuous bench-scale unit and a review of the economics of the system. 1 tab.

Yoon, R.H., Phillips, D.I., Sohn, S.M., Luttrell, G.H. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Center for Coal and Mineral Processing, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

55Home Power #21 February / March 1991 ALTERNATIVES TO FOSSIL FUELED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be handled by the same devices that regulate natural gas and it will work in burners or as a fuel is a simple hydrocarbon gas which occurs in natural gas and can also be obtained from anaerobic bacterial replacement for fossil fuel gases (natural gas or liquified petroleum gases such as propane or butane). It can

483

WTT User's Guide - Lite Edition compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... ethane, C 2 H 6, 30.07. propane, C 3 H 8, 44.10. butane, C 4 H 10, 58.12. 2-methylpropane, C 4 H 10, 58.12. pentane, C 5 H 12, 72.15. ...

2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

484

Corrosion Resistance of Zinc  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 15 Compatibility of untreated zinc with various media...free Excellent Gas (a) Towns, natural, propane, butane Excellent Glycerine . . . Excellent Inks Printing Excellent Aqueous writing Not recommended Insecticides Dry Excellent In solution Not recommended Lubricants Mineral, acid free Excellent Organic Not recommended Paraffin . . . Excellent...

485

Formation mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in methane flames  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exhausts,7­17 coal-fired, electricity generating power plants,18,19 tobacco smoke,20 residential wood applications including heating systems and gas turbines for electric power generation.62­64 The combustion propane,57,58 butane,59 ethane,31,53,60 and other aliphatic61 flames. Methane is used as fuel in many

Sattler, Klaus

486

MEMS-based fuel cells with integrated catalytic fuel processor and method thereof  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Described herein is a means to incorporate catalytic materials into the fuel flow field structures of MEMS-based fuel cells, which enable catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbon based fuel, such as methane, methanol, or butane. Methods of fabrication are also disclosed.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Havstad, Mark A. (Davis, CA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

487

J. DALTON YORK 110 Sheffield Ct., Cookeville, TN 38506 | 931-854-1068 | dyork@tntech.edu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

channel of a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Butane conversion and product formation were monitored hydrocarbons in the anode channels of a SOFC. Additional efforts are required to account for catalytic. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC), in particular, offers a very promising method for direct production

Firoozabadi, Abbas

488

2000 CONTRACTUAL SERVICES 2001 Communication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

12211 Printing and Binding (Payments to State Facilities only) ­ Surcharge B 12230 Duplicating, Blue collected for that purpose, is coded C 3301 Fuel (non-motor vehicle use) B 13310 Coal and Coke B 13320 Fuel oil, diesel and Kerosene B 13330 Liquid propane gas and butane B 13390 Other Fuel 3401 Maintenance

Peterson, Blake R.

489

Table  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

b(E) 10 6 cm 2 g -1 for Butane (C 4 H 10 ) ZA 0.59497 E GeV b brems b pair b nucl b tot 2. 0.2191 0.0928 0.4841 0.7961 5. 0.2977 0.2326 0.5114 1.0417 10. 0.3637 0.3582...

490

Table  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Muons in Butane (C 4 H 10 ) ZA gcm 3 I eV a k m s x 0 x 1 C 0 0.59497 2.489 10 -3 48.3 0.10852 3.4884 1.3792 3.7528 8.5651 0.00 T p Ionization Brems Pair prod...

491

A room temperature CuO nanowire sensor for organic volatile gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CuO nanowires have been synthesised by the thermal method in 100% oxygen ambient at 600°C. Gas sensing property has been examined by measuring the resistance change of the materials to 1% of butane gas and 1% of ethanol vapour separately under the ... Keywords: copper oxide (CuO) nanowires, room temperature gas sensor and organic volatile gas

C. F. Dee; T. Y. Tiong; M. M. Salleh; M. M. Yahya; B. Y. Majlis

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

In situ vibrational spectroscopic investigation of C{sub 4} hydrocarbon selective oxidation over vanadium-phosphorus-oxide catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

n-Butane selective oxidation over the VPO catalyst to maleic anhydride is the first and only commercialized process of light alkane selective oxidation. The mechanism of this reaction is still not well known despite over twenty years of extensive studies, which can partially be attributed to the extreme difficulties to characterize catalytic reactions real-time under typical reaction conditions. In situ spectroscopic characterization techniques such as Infrared spectroscopy and laser Raman spectroscopy were used in the current mechanistic investigations of n-butane oxidation over VPO catalysts. To identify the reaction intermediates, oxidation of n-butane, 1,3-butadiene and related oxygenates on the VPO catalyst were monitored using FTIR spectroscopy under transient conditions. n-Butane was found to adsorb on the VPO catalyst to form olefinic species, which were further oxidized to unsaturated, noncyclic carbonyl species. The open chain dicarbonyl species then experienced cycloaddition to form maleic anhydride. VPO catalyst phase transformations were investigated using in situ laser Raman spectroscopy. This report contains Chapter 1: General introduction; Chapter 2: Literature review; and Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations.

Xue, Z.Y.

1999-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

493

--No Title--  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Butane (C4H10) Quantity Value Units Value Units 0.59497 Specific gravity (20 C, 1 atm) 2.49E-03 g cm-3 Mean excitation energy 48.3 eV Minimum ionization 2.278 MeV g-1cm2...

494

Corrosion Resistance of Zinc  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 15   Compatibility of untreated zinc with various media...Sulfur free Excellent Gas (a) Towns, natural, propane, butane Excellent Glycerine � Excellent Inks Printing Excellent Aqueous writing Not recommended Insecticides Dry Excellent In solution Not recommended Lubricants Mineral, acid free Excellent Organic Not recommended Paraffin � Excellent...

495

A nonlinear programming test problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Figure 1 is a flow diagram of the chemical process. The test problem was a hydrocarbon refrigeration process in which the feed stream (stream number 1 of Figure 1) is a vapor mixture of ethane, propane, and n-butane (subscripts e, p and b, respectively) ...

D. M. Himmelblau

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Internal Technical Report, Heat Exchanger Sizing for 20 MW Geothermal Power Plants at MX Sites  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the details of the analyses used to size the heaters, steam condenser, and working fluid condenser for a proposed 20 MW geothermal power plant application at MX sites in the southwest. These units would use a mixture of hydrocarbons (90% isobutane--10% n-hexane) to extract energy from moderate temperature resources (resource temperatures of 365 F, 400 F, and 450 F were considered). The working fluid will be maintained at supercritical pressures in the heater units. Studies have shown that this cycle will provide a significant net power increase over standard dual boiling single fluid cycles currently in use, e.g., the Raft River 5 MW pilot plant.

Kochan, R.J.; Bliem, C.J.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Conceptual design and cost evaluation of organic Rankine cycle electric generating plant powered by medium temperature geothermal water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The economic production of electrical power from high temperature steam and liquid dominated geothermal resources has been demonstrated. Large quantities of geothermal energy are considered to exist at moderate temperatures, however, the economics of converting this energy into electricity has not been established. This paper presents the design concept of a dual boiler isobutane cycle selected for use with the moderate temperature hydrothermal resource and presents a cost estimate for a 10 and 50 MW power plant. Cost of electrical power from these plants is estimated and compared with that from coal, oil and nuclear plants. The impact of selling a portion of the residual heat in the geothermal effluent is assessed. (auth)

Dart, R.H.; Neill, D.T.; Whitbeck, J.F.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

FCC LPG olefinicity and branching enhanced by octane catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Refiners are increasingly recognizing the downstream opportunities for fluid catalytic cracking LPG olefins for the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, if the ethanol subsidy is extended to the production of ETBE), and as petrochemical feedstocks. Some of new gasoline FCC octane-enhancing catalysts can support those opportunities because their low non-framework alumina (low NFA) preserve both LPG olefinicity and promote branching of the LPG streams from the FCCU. The combined effect results in more isobutane for alkylate feed, more propylene in the propane/propylene stream, and more isobutene - which makes the addition of an MTBE unit very enticing.

Keyworth, D.A.; Reid, T.A.; Kreider, K.R.; Yatsu, C.A.

1989-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

499

Economic evaluation of four types of dry/wet cooling applied to the 5-MWe Raft River geothermal power plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A cost study is described which compared the economics of four dry/wet cooling systems to use at the existing Raft River Geothermal Plant. The results apply only at this site and should not be generalized without due consideration of the complete geothermal cycle. These systems are: the Binary Cooling Tower, evaporative condenser, Combin-aire, and a metal fin-tube dry cooling tower with deluge augmentation. The systems were evaluated using cooled, treated geothermal fluid instead of ground or surface water in the cooling loops. All comparisons were performed on the basis of a common plant site - the Raft River 5 MWe geothermal plant in Idaho. The Binary Cooling Tower and the Combin-aire cooling system were designed assuming the use of the isobutane/water surface condenser currently installed at the Raft River Plant. The other two systems had the isobutane ducted to the evaporative condensers. Capital credit was not given to the system employing the direct condensing process. The cost of the systems were estimated from designs provided by the vendors. The levelized energy cost range for each cooling system is listed below. The levelized energy cost reflects the incremental cost of the cooling system for the life of the plant. The estimates are presented in 1981 dollars.

Bamberger, J.A.; Allemann, R.T.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Experimental testing of a direct contact heat exchanger for geothermal brine. Final report, July 1, 1978-February 1, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of direct contact heat exchanger (DCHX) experiments were conducted at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site during the period July 1, 1978 to February 1, 1979. The purpose of these tests was to provide additional data necessary to better understand the thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the DCHX binary cycle loop components that may be used to extract energy from geothermal brines. Isobutane and Isopentane were tested as secondary working fluids. The analytical and experimental efforts were directed at the problems of working fluid loss in the effluent brine, carryover of water vapor with the vaporized secondary fluid and the free CO/sub 2/ content of the feed brine. The tests aimed at evaluating the heat transfer performance of various type tubes installed in vertical shell-and-tube secondary fluid condensers. Data was collected while operating a low temperature isopentane cycle with brine preflashed to 210 to 212/sup 0/F; the objective being to gain insight to waste heat recovery applications such as the Arkansas Power and Light project. Possible alternatives for isobutane recovery from the spent brine were investigated. A system was designed and the economic aspects studied.

Urbanek, M.W.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z