National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for butane butylene c4h8

  1. Normal butane/iso-butane separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volles, W.K.; Cusher, N.A.

    1986-08-26

    This patent describes an improved pressure swing adsorption process for the separation of iso-butane from normal butane in an adsorption system having at least three adsorbent beds, each bed of which undergoes, on a cyclic basis and a processing sequence comprising: introducing a feed gas mixture of iso-butane and normal butane at an upper adsorption pressure to the feed end of the bed capable of selectively adsorbing normal butane as the more selectivity adsorbable component of the gas mixture. The iso-butane as the less readily adsorbable component passes through the bed and is discharged from the discharge end. The feed gas introduction is continued as a normal butane adsorption front is formed in the bed and passes through the bed from the feed end and breaks through at the discharge end of the bed, a portion of the iso-butane effluent stream thus discharged being diverted for passage as purge gas to another bed in the system; and countercurrently depressurizing the bed with release of gas from the feed end.

  2. Emissions with butane/propane blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    This article reports on various aspects of exhaust emissions from a light-duty car converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas and equipped with an electrically heated catalyst. Butane and butane/propane blends have recently received attention as potentially useful alternative fuels. Butane has a road octane number of 92, a high blending vapor pressure, and has been used to upgrade octane levels of gasoline blends and improve winter cold starts. Due to reformulated gasoline requirements for fuel vapor pressure, however, industry has had to remove increasing amounts of butane form the gasoline pool. Paradoxically, butane is one of the cleanest burning components of gasoline.

  3. Ignition properties of n-butane and iso-butane in a rapid compression machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gersen, S.; Darmeveil, J.H.; Mokhov, A.V.; Levinsky, H.B.

    2010-02-15

    Autoignition delay times of n-butane and iso-butane have been measured in a Rapid Compression Machine in the temperature range 660-1010 K, at pressures varying from 14 to 36 bar and at equivalence ratios {phi} = 1.0 and {phi} = 0.5. Both butane isomers exhibit a negative-temperature-coefficient (NTC) region and, at low temperatures, two-stage ignition. At temperatures below {proportional_to}900 K, the delay times for iso-butane are longer than those for the normal isomer, while above this temperature both butanes give essentially the same results. At temperatures above {proportional_to}720 K the delay times of the lean mixtures are twice those for stoichiometric compositions; at T < 720 K, the equivalence ratio is seen to have little influence on the ignition behavior. Increasing the pressure from 15 bar to 30 bar decreases the amplitude of the NTC region, and reduces the ignition delay time for both isomers by roughly a factor of 3. In the region in which two-stage ignition is observed, 680-825 K, the duration of the first ignition stage decreases sharply in the range 680-770 K, but is essentially flat above 770 K. Good quantitative agreement is found between the measurements and calculations for n-butane using a comprehensive model for butane ignition, including both delay times in the two-stage region, with substantial differences being observed for iso-butane, particularly in the NTC region. (author)

  4. New butane isomerization unit is unvieled by Andrews Petroleum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, H.

    1990-06-01

    This article discusses the development of a butane isomerization unit which will help reduce butane surplus by fractionating it into other LPG products. Other features of this California project increase on-site storage.

  5. Distillation efficiencies of an industrial-scale i-butane/n-butane fractionator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klemola, K.T.; Ilme, J.K.

    1996-12-01

    Rarely published industrial-scale distillation efficiency data are presented. The Murphree tray efficiencies are determined from the i-butane/n-butane fractionator performance data. Point efficiencies, numbers of overall vapor phase transfer units, numbers of vapor and liquid phase transfer units, and liquid phase resistances of mass transfer are backcalculated from the Murphree tray efficiencies. Various efficiency prediction and scale-up methods have been tested against experimental results. A new model for the prediction of the numbers of vapor and liquid phase transfer units has been developed. The model can be applied to hydrocarbon systems at high pressure. The influence of the mass-transfer coefficients, the interfacial area, and the vapor and liquid residence times on mass transfer has been analyzed separately, and as a result the NTU correlations for vapor and liquid phases are obtained. The constants of the model can be obtained by fitting the model to experimental efficiency data from a similar system.

  6. Coupling of oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization reactions of butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wen-Qing; Suib, S.L. )

    1994-01-01

    Coupling of oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization of butane by using a dual function catalyst has led to a significant enhancement of the yields (from 25 to 40%) and selectivities to aromatics (from 39 to 64%). Butane is converted to aromatics by using either zinc-promoted [Ga]-ZSM-5 or zinc and gallium copromoted [Fe]-ZSM-5 zeolite as a catalyst. However, the formation of aromatics is severely limited by hydrocracking of butane to methane, ethane, and propane due to the hydrogen formed during aromatization reactions. On the other hand, the oxidative dehydrogenation of butane to butene over molybdate catalysts is found to be accompanied by a concurrent undesirable reaction, i.e., total oxidation. When two of these reactions (oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization of butane) are coupled by using a dual function catalyst they have shown to complement each other. It is believed that the rate-limiting step for aromatization (butane to butene) is increased by adding an oxidative dehydrogenation catalyst (Ga-Zn-Mg-Mo-O). The formation of methane, ethane, and propane was suppressed due to the removal of hydrogen initially formed as water. Studies of ammonia TPD show that the acidities of [Fe]-ZSM-5 are greatly affected by the existence of metal oxides such as Ga[sub 2]O[sub 3], MgO, ZnO, and MoO[sub 3]. 40 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Biofiltration control of VOC emissions: Butane and benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E.R.

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory studies were conducted on the biological elimination of n-butane and benzene from air streams using activated sludge-treated compost biofilters. Four types of experimental biofilter systems were developed: a bench scale packed tower system used primarily for kinetic studies; a small scale column system used to study the effects of different filter media on n-butane removal; a three stage system used to study benzene elimination; and a static batch biofilter system used to study the effects of temperature, compost water content, compost pH, and initial benzene concentrations on benzene elimination. Removal efficiencies greater than 90% were obtained for n-butane. Removal followed first order kinetics at inlet concentrations less than 25 ppM n-butane and zero order kinetics above 100 ppM n-butane. Removal of benzene followed fractional order kinetics for inlet concentrations from 15 to 200 ppM benzene. Thus, the removal of benzene is both mass transfer and bioreaction limited for the concentration range studied. The removal efficiency of benzene was found to be highly dependent on compost water content, compost pH, and temperature. Compost showed a low capacity for benzene removal, which suggested that degradation of these hydrocarbons required different species of microorganisms.

  8. Kinetics and deactivation of sulfated zirconia catalysts for butane isomerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fogash, K.B.; Larson, R.B.; Gonzalez, M.R.

    1996-09-15

    Reaction kinetics studies were conducted of n-butane and isobutane isomerization over sulfated zirconia at 423 K. The kinetic data can be described well by a rate expression based on a reversible, bimolecular surface reaction between two adsorbed n-C{sub 4} species, probably through a C{sub 8} intermediate, to produce one i-C{sub 4} species, as well as surface reaction between two adsorbed i-C{sub 4} species to produce one n-C{sub 4} species. This reaction sequence also describes well the rates of C{sub 4}-disproportionation reactions to produce C{sub 3} and C{sub 5} species. The initial rate of catalyst deactivation is faster during n-butane isomerization than during isobutane isomerization, and the longer-term rate of deactivation during n-butane isomerization increases with the pressures of n-butane. The more rapid catalyst deactivation during n-butane isomerization may be related to the formation of n-C{sub 4}-diene species. 25 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Transient FTIR studies of the reaction pathway for n-butane selective oxidation over vanadyl pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Z.Y.; Schrader, G.L.

    1999-05-15

    New information has been provided about the reaction pathway for n-butane partial oxidation to maleic anhydride over vanadyl pyrophosphate (VPO) catalysts using FTIR spectroscopy under transient conditions. Adsorption studies of n-butane, 1,3-butadiene, and related oxygenates were performed to gain information about reaction intermediates. n-Butane was found to adsorb on the VPO catalyst to form olefinic species at low temperatures. Unsaturated, noncyclic carbonyl species were determined to be precursors to maleic anhydride.

  10. Availability of Canadian imports to meet U.S. demand for ethane, propane and butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawkins, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    Historically, Canada has had a surplus of ethane, propane and butane. Almost all of the available propane and butane in Canadian natural gas streams is recovered. While there is significant ethane recovery in Canada, ethane that cannot be economically sold is left in the gas streams. All of the surplus Canadian ethane and most of the Canadian surplus propane and butane is exported to the US. Some volumes of Canadian propane and butane have been moved offshore by marine exports to the Asia-Pacific region or South America, or directly to Mexico by rail. Essentially all of the Canadian ethane, 86% of the propane and 74% of the butane are recovered by gas processing. Canadian natural gas production has increased significantly over the last 10 years. Canadian gas resources in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin should permit further expansion of gas exports, and several gas pipeline projects are pending to expand the markets for Canadian gas in the US. The prospective increase in Canadian gas production will yield higher volumes of ethane, propane and butane. While there is a potential to expand domestic markets for ethane, propane and butane, a significant part of the incremental production will move to export markets. This paper provides a forecast of the expected level of ethane, propane and butane exports from Canada and discusses the supply, demand and logistical developments which may affect export availability from Canada.

  11. Experimental and DFT studies of initiation processes for butane isomerization over sulfated-zirconia catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Z.; Watwe, R.M.; Natal-Santiago, M.A.; Hill, J.M.; Dumesic, J.A.; Fogash, K.B.; Kim, B.; Masqueda-Jimenez, B.I.

    1998-09-10

    Reaction kinetics studies were conducted of isobutane and n-butane isomerization at 423 K over sulfated-zirconia, with the butane feeds purified of olefins. Dihydrogen evolution was observed during butane isomerization over fresh catalysts, as well as over catalysts selectively poisoned by preadsorbed ammonia. Butane isomerization over sulfated-zirconia can be viewed as a surface chain reaction comprised of initiation, propagation, and termination steps. The primary initiation step in the absence of feed olefins is considered to be the dehydrogenation of butane over sulfated-zirconia, generating butenes which adsorb onto acid sites to form protonated olefinic species associated with the conjugate base form of the acid sites. Quantum-chemical calculations, employing density-functional theory, suggest that the dissociative adsorption of dihydrogen, isobutylene hydrogenation, and dissociative adsorption of isobutane are feasible over the sulfated-zirconia cluster, and these reactions take place over Zr-O sites.

  12. Ionization of ethane, butane, and octane in strong laser fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palaniyappan, Sasi; Mitchell, Rob; Ekanayake, N.; Watts, A. M.; White, S. L.; Sauer, Rob; Howard, L. E.; Videtto, M.; Mancuso, C.; Wells, S. J.; Stanev, T.; Wen, B. L.; Decamp, M. F.; Walker, B. C.

    2010-10-15

    Strong-field photoionization of ethane, butane, and octane are reported at intensities from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. The molecular fragment ions, C{sup +} and C{sup 2+}, are created in an intensity window from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} and have intensity-dependent yields similar to the molecular fragments C{sub m}H{sub n}{sup +} and C{sub m}H{sub n}{sup 2+}. In the case of C{sup +}, the yield is independent of the molecular parent chain length. The ionization of more tightly bound valence electrons in carbon (C{sup 3+} and C{sup 4+}) has at least two contributing mechanisms, one influenced by the parent molecule size and one resulting from the tunneling ionization of the carbon ion.

  13. Promotion of n-Butane isomerization activity by hydration of sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, M.R.; Kobe, J.M.; Fogash, K.B.; Dumesic, J.A.

    1996-05-01

    The effects of sulfated zirconia catalyst hydration on the activity for n-butane isomerization is reported. The catalytic activity of of a partially hydrated catalyst is enhanced. 66 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Improving the stability of H-mordenite for n-butane isomerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asuquo, R.A.; Eder-Mirth, G.; Lercher, J.A.

    1997-06-01

    The conversion of n-butane over mordenite-based catalysts in the presence of hydrogen and water was investigated for reaction temperatures between 523 and 623 K. Special attention was given to the influence of Pt upon catalytic activity, selectivity, and stability. With parent mordenite the catalytic activity for n-butane conversion decreased markedly after a short time on stream. Deactivation can be minimized by hydrogen (in the presence of Pt) and water addition. Both measures are thought to reduce the concentration of intermediate olefins in the zeolite pores. The best results with respect to selective conversion of n-butane to isobutane were obtained for 0.25 wt% Pt on mordenite in the presence of hydrogen. Higher concentrations of Pt in the catalyst are shown to be detrimental for n-butane isomerization, because of increasing selectivity to hydrogenolysis. A detailed mechanistic scheme for n-butane conversion over Pt-containing mordenites is presented. n-Butane conversion is concluded to occur via a bimolecular mechanism involving a complex network of hydrogen transfer, oligomerization/cracking, isomerization, hydrogenation/dehydrogenation, and hydrogenolysis. 23 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Low temperature n-butane oxidation skeletal mechanism, based on multilevel approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strelkova, M.I.; Sukhanov, L.P.; Kirillov, I.A.; Safonov, A.A.; Umanskiy, S.Ya.; Potapkin, B.V.; Pasman, H.J.; Tentner, A.M.

    2010-04-15

    In order to reconcile an increasingly large deviation (order of magnitude) of the ignition delay time at decreasing initial temperature, computed using the prior art kinetic schemes, with the available experimental values, a new skeletal mechanism (54 species, 94 reactions) for low-temperature (500-800 K) ignition of n- butane in air based on ab initio calculations is developed. The skeletal mechanism obtained accurately reproduces n-butane combustion kinetics for the practically important ranges of pressure, temperature and fuel-air equivalence ratio, especially in the low-temperature range. The elaborated first principal skeletal chemical kinetic mechanism of n-butane oxidation was validated against available experimental results for normal and elevated initial pressure (1-15 atm) using the Chemical Work Bench code. A good agreement with experiments was shown. (author)

  16. Alternative descriptions of catalyst deactivation in aromatization of propane and butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koshelev, Yu.N.; Vorob`ev, B.L.; Khvorova, E.P.

    1995-08-20

    Deactivation of a zeolite-containing catalyst has been studied in aromatization of propane and butane. Various descriptions of the dependence of the alkane conversion on the coke concentration on the catalyst have been considered, and using a statistical method of estimating the model validity, the most preferable form of the deactivation function has been proposed.

  17. Influence of temperature and process duration on composition of products of butane aromatization on zeolitic catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vorob`ev, B.L.; Trishin, P.Yu.; Koshelev, Yu.N.

    1995-06-10

    A study has been made of the influence of catalyst deactivation in the course of its service. The composition of products of butane aromatization on zeolitic catalyst and on selectivity of formation of target products and by-products is reported.

  18. Vapor-liquid equilibria and densities for the system butane + hexacontane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieuwoudt, I.

    1996-09-01

    Liquid and vapor phase compositions and densities have been measured with a variable volume cell for the binary system butane + hexacontane (n-C{sub 60}H{sub 122}). Data sets at 433.15 K, 438.15 K, and 453.15 K are presented and include measurements in the mixture critical region.

  19. Selective oxidation of n-butane and butenes over vanadium-containing catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieto, J.M.L.; Concepcion, P.; Dejoz, A.; Knoezinger, H.; Melo, F.; Vazquez, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The oxidative dehydrogenation (OXDH) of n-butane, 1-butene, and trans-2-butene on different vanadia catalysts has been compared. MgO, alumina, and Mg-Al mixed oxides with Mg/(Al + Mg) ratios of 0.25 and 0.75 were used as supports. The catalytic data indicate that the higher the acid character of catalysts the lower is both the selectivity to C{sub 4}-olefins from n-butane and the selectivity to butadiene from both 1-butene or trans-2-butene. Thus, OXDH reactions are mainly observed from n-butane and butenes on basic catalysts. The different catalytic performance of both types of catalysts is a consequence of the isomerization of olefins on acid sites, which appears to be a competitive reaction with the selective way, i.e., the oxydehydrogenation process by a redox mechanism. Infrared spectroscopy data of 1-butene adsorbed on supported vanadium oxide catalysts suggest the presence of different adsorbed species. O-containing species (carbonyl and alkoxide species) are observed on catalysts with acid sites while adsorbed butadiene species are observed on catalysts with basic sites. According to these results a reaction network for the oxydehydrogenation of n-butane is proposed with parallel and consecutive reactions.

  20. Cracking of n-butane catalyzed by iron- and maganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, T.K.; d`Itri, J.L.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-05-01

    Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia was used to catalyze the conversion of n-butane at atmospheric pressure and n-butane partial pressures in the range of 0.0025-0.01 atm. At temperatures <225{degrees}C, the significant reactions were isomerization and disproportionation; in the range of 225-300{degrees}C, these reactions were accompanied by cracking, and at temperatures >350{degrees}C, cracking and isomerization occurred. Catalyst deactivation, resulting at least in part from coke formation, was rapid. The primary cracking products were methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The observation of these products along with an ethane/ethylene molar ratio of nearly 1 at 450{degrees}C is consistent with cracking occurring, at least in part, by the Haag-Dessau mechanism, whereby the strongly acidic catalyst protonates n-butane to give carbonium ions. The rate of methane formation from n-butane cracking catalyzed by Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C was about 3 x 10{sup {minus}9}mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot}s). This comparison suggests that the catalytic activity of the promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C is about the same as that of the zeolite, although its activity for n-butane isomerization and disproportionation at temperatures <100{degrees}C is orders of magnitude greater than those of zeolites. Thus the indication of superacidity of the promoted sulfated zirconia does not extend to high temperatures. The results raise questions about the nature of the presumed superacidity: perhaps the low-temperature reactions may involve catalyst functions other than the acidic function responsible for high-temperature cracking reactions or perhaps superacidic sites may be very rapidly poisoned at cracking temperatures. 14 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Diamond/diamond-like thin film growth in a butane plasma on unetched, unheated, N-type Si(100) substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, E.S.; Richardson, J.S. Jr.; Anderson, D.; Starkey, K.

    1995-06-01

    Deposition of diamond/diamond-like thin films on unetched, unheated, n-type Si(100) substrates in a butane plasma is reported. An interconnection between values of index of refraction, hydrogen flow rate, butane flow rate and Rf power was determined. The H{sub 2} and C{sub 4}H{sub 10} molecules are disassociated by Rf energy to create a plasma. Carbon from the butane forms a thin diamond/diamond-like film on a suitable substrate, which in the current investigation, is n-type Si(100).

  2. Low-temperature superacid catalysis: Reactions of n-butane catalyzed by iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, T.K.; D`Itri, J.L.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental concerns are leading to the replacement of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline with high-octane-number branched paraffins and oxygenated compounds such as methyl t-butyl ether, which is produced from methanol and isobutylene. The latter can be formed from n-butane by isomerization followed by dehydrogenation. To meet the need for improved catalysts for isomerization of n-butane and other paraffins, researchers identified solid acids that are noncorrosive and active at low temperatures. Sulfated zirconia catalyzes the isomerization of n-butane even at 25{degrees}C, and the addition of Fe and Mn promoters increases its activity by three orders of magnitude. Little is known about this new catalyst. Here the authors provide evidence of its performance for n-butane conversion, demonstrating that isomerization is accompanied by disproportionation and other, less well understood, acid-catalyzed reactions and undergoes rapid deactivation associated with deposition of carbonaceous material. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Formative time of breakdown modeled for the ignition of air and n-butane mixtures using effective ionization coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Popugaev, S. D.; Demidov, V. I.; Adams, S. F.; Jiao, C. Q.

    2008-12-15

    It is shown that simulations of ignition by electric arc discharge in n-butane and air mixtures have interesting features, which deviate from results obtained by simple extension of calculations based on methanelike fuels. In particular, it is demonstrated that lowering the temperature of the n-butane-air mixture before ignition under certain conditions will actually decrease the ignition stage time as well as the required electric field.

  4. Dynamics of Exchange at Gas-Zeolite Interfaces 1: Pure Component n-Butane and Isobutane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHANDROSS,MICHAEL E.; WEBB III,EDMUND B.; GREST,GARY S.; MARTIN,MARCUS G.; THOMPSON,AIDAN P.; ROTH,M.W.

    2000-07-13

    The authors present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of n-butane and isobutane in silicalite. They begin with a comparison of the bulk adsorption and diffusion properties for two different parameterizations of the interaction potential between the hydrocarbon species, both of which have been shown to reproduce experimental gas-liquid coexistence curves. They examine diffusion as a function of the loading of the zeolite, as well as the temperature dependence of the diffusion constant at loading and for infinite dilution. They continue with simulations in which interfaces are formed between single component gases and the zeolite. After reaching equilibrium, they examine the dynamics of exchange between the bulk gas and the zeolite. Finally, they calculate the permeability of the zeolite for n-butane and isobutane as a function of pressure. Their simulations are performed for a number of different gas temperatures and pressures, covering a wide range of state points.

  5. Hydrogen effect on n-butane isomerization over sulfated zirconia-based catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayari, A.; Yang, Yong; Song, Xuemin

    1997-04-15

    Iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia (SFMZ) has been tested as an n-butane isomerization catalyst in the temperature range of 35 to 180{degrees}C. The catalytic activity exhibits an induction period whose length is dependent on the reaction conditions. The presence of H{sub 2} in the feed stream strongly suppresses n-butane conversion over unprompted sulfated zirconia (SZ) and over Pt-containing SFMZ (PtSFMZ). However, hydrogen had no effect on n-butane isomerization over SFMZ. These findings were interpreted on the basis of a bimolecular mechanism where unsaturated intermediates (carbenium ions and/or butene) are formed during the break-in period. The role of promoters (Fe and Mn) is not only facilitating the formation of hydrogen-deficient intermediates and their accumulation on the catalyst surface, but also enhancing their stability. The negative effect of hydrogen over PtSFMZ is attributed to the occurrence of atomic hydrogen via the dissociative adsorption of H{sub 2} on Pt. 40 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Biofiltration control of VOC and air toxic emissions: n-Butane and benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E.R.

    1996-12-31

    n-Butane and benzene vapors are routinely observed in urban atmospheres. Their presence in urban airsheds is of concern because of their ozone production potential as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and/or potential toxicity. Also, these saturated hydrocarbons are representative of airborne aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Separate laboratory studies have been conducted on the biological elimination of n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) from airstreams using treated compost biofilters. The removal efficiencies were found to exceed 90% for a conditioned biofilter medium and pollutant low concentrations (< 25 ppm) and zeroth order kinetics at higher concentrations (> 100 ppm), whereas benzene vapor elimination followed zeroth order kinetics at concentrations up to 200 ppm. The maximum n-butane and benzene elimination capacities observed for the compost biofilters and conditions employed were 25 and 70 g pollutant m{sup -3} h{sup -1}, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a laminar premixed n-butane flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinov, N.M.; Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K.; Vincitore, A.M.; Castaldi, M.J.; Senkan, S.M.; Melius, C.F.

    1998-07-01

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling work has been performed to investigate aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation pathways in a premixed, rich, sooting, n-butane-oxygen-argon burner stabilized flame. An atmospheric pressure, laminar flat flame operated at an equivalence ratio of 2.6 was used to acquire experimental data for model validation. Gas composition analysis was conducted by an on-line gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer technique. Measurements were made in the main reaction and post-reaction zones for a number of low molecular weight species, aliphatics, aromatics, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from two to five-fused aromatic rings. Reaction flux and sensitivity analysis were used to help identify the important reaction sequences leading to aromatic and PAH growth and destruction in the n-butane flame. Reaction flux analysis showed the propargyl recombination reaction was the dominant pathway to benzene formation. The consumption of propargyl by H atoms was shown to limit propargyl, benzene, and naphthalene formation in flames as exhibited by the large negative sensitivity coefficients. Naphthalene and phenanthrene production was shown to be plausibly formed through reactions involving resonantly stabilized cyclopentadienyl and indenyl radicals. Many of the low molecular weight aliphatics, combustion by-products, aromatics, branched aromatics, and PAHs were fairly well simulated by the model. Additional work is required to understand the formation mechanisms of phenyl acetylene, pyrene, and fluoranthene in the n-butane flame. 73 refs.

  8. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and n-butane on VO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasco, T.; Galli, A.; Lopez Neito, J.M.; Trifiro, F.

    1997-07-01

    The catalytic properties of vanadium oxides/aluminium oxides were investigated in the dehydrogenation of ethane and n-butane. The importance of Lewis acid sites is described.

  9. Pressure and concentration dependences of the autoignition temperature for normal butane + air mixtures in a closed vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandraratna, M.R.; Griffiths, J.F. . School of Chemistry)

    1994-12-01

    The condition at which autoignition occurs in lean premixed n-butane + air mixtures over the composition range 0.2%--2.5% n-butane by volume (0.06 < [phi] < 0.66) were investigated experimentally. Total reactant pressure from 0.1 to 0.6 MPa (1--6 atm) were studied in a spherical, stainless-steel, closed vessel (0.5 dm[sup 3]). There is a critical transition from nonignition to ignition, at pressures above 0.1 MPa, as the mixture is enriched in the vicinity of 1% fuel vapor by volume. There is also a region of multiplicity, which exhibits three critical temperatures at a given composition. Chemical analyses show that partially oxygenated components,including many o-heterocyclic compounds, are important products of the lean combustion of butane at temperatures up to 800 K. The critical conditions for autoignition are discussed with regard to industrial ignition hazards, especially in the context of the autoignition temperature of alkanes given by ASTM or BS tests. The differences between the behavior of n-butane and the higher n-alkanes are explained. The experimental results are also used as a basis for testing a reduced kinetic model to represent the oxidation and autoignition of n-butane or other alkanes.

  10. Effect of Pt and H{sub 2} on n-butane isomerization over Fe and Mn promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Xuemin; Reddy, K.R.; Sayari, A.

    1996-06-01

    The activity of a 0.4 wt% Pt-containing Fe and Mn promoted sulfated zirconia (PtSFMZ) catalyst in n-butane isomerization at 35{degrees}C was compared to that of a Pt-free catalyst (SFMZ). The maximum rate of n-butane conversion observed in helium over PtSFMZ was found to be 2.5 times higher than that over the SFMZ catalyst under the same conditions. It is believed that n-butane isomerization proceeds via a bimolecular mechanism in which the formation of hydrogen-deficient intermediates (carbenium ions and butenes), is necessary and the presence of transition metals such as Pt, Fe, and Mn on sulfated zirconia facilitates the formation/accumulation of these intermediates and increases their stability on the catalyst surface. The presence of H{sub 2} had a strong negative effect on n-butane conversion over PtSFMZ, but had no effect over SFMZ. The negative effect of H{sub 2} on PtSFMZ catalyst in n-butane isomerization reaction was attributed to the decreased concentration of butenes in the presence of hydrogen atoms which are formed by the dissociation of H{sub 2} on Pt. The ability of calcined Pt-containing catalysts to activate hydrogen at 35{degrees}C was demonstrated. Reduced SFMZ with or without Pt was not active at 35{degrees}C regardless of the nature of the carrier gas. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Structure of an n-butane monolayer adsorbed on magnesium oxide (100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, T.; Chanaa, S.; Cook, R. E.; Clarke, S. M.; Larese, J. Z.

    2006-08-15

    Neutron diffraction has been used to characterize the structure of the solid phase of the completed monolayer of n butane on the MgO(100) surface at low temperature. The monolayer is found to adopt a commensurate (7{radical}(2)x{radical}(2)R45 deg. ) structure with lattice constants a=29.47 A ring and b=4.21 A ring , P{sub 2gg} symmetry and four molecules in the unit cell. Excellent agreement with the experimental diffraction pattern is realized, using a Lorenztian profile to describe the line shape.

  12. Low-temperature superacid catalysis: Reactions of n - butane and propane catalyzed by iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsz-Keung, Cheung; d`Itri, J.L.; Lange, F.C.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate the potential value of solid superacid catalysts of the sulfated zirconia type for light hydrocarbon conversion. The key experiments catalytic testing of the performance of such catalysts in a flow reactor fed with streams containing, for example, n-butane or propane. Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia was used to catalyze the conversion of n-butane at atmospheric pressure, 225-450{degrees}C, and n-butane partial pressures in the range of 0.0025-0.01 atm. At temperatures <225{degrees}C, these reactions were accompanied by cracking; at temperatures >350{degrees}C, cracking and isomerization occurred. Catalyst deactivation, resulting at least in part from coke formation, was rapid. The primary cracking products were methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The observation of these products along with an ethane/ethylene molar ratio of nearly 1 at 450{degrees}C is consistent with cracking occurring, at least in part, by the Haag-Dessau mechanism, whereby the strongly acidic catalyst protonates n-butane to give carbonium ions. The rate of methane formation from n-butane cracking catalyzed by Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C was about 3 x 10{sup -8} mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot}s). The observation of butanes, pentanes, and methane as products is consistent with Olah superacid chemistry, whereby propane is first protonated by a very strong acid to form a carbonium ion. The carbonium ion then decomposes into methane and an ethyl cation which undergoes oligocondensation reactions with propane to form higher molecular weight alkanes. The results are consistent with the identification of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia as a superacid.

  13. n-Butane: Ignition delay measurements at high pressure and detailed chemical kinetic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Healy, D.; Curran, H.J.; Donato, N.S.; Aul, C.J.; Petersen, E.L.; Zinner, C.M.; Bourque, G.

    2010-08-15

    Ignition delay time measurements were recorded at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2 for n-butane at pressures of approximately 1, 10, 20, 30 and 45 atm at temperatures from 690 to 1430 K in both a rapid compression machine and in a shock tube. A detailed chemical kinetic model consisting of 1328 reactions involving 230 species was constructed and used to validate the delay times. Moreover, this mechanism has been used to simulate previously published ignition delay times at atmospheric and higher pressure. Arrhenius-type ignition delay correlations were developed for temperatures greater than 1025 K which relate ignition delay time to temperature and concentration of the mixture. Furthermore, a detailed sensitivity analysis and a reaction pathway analysis were performed to give further insight to the chemistry at various conditions. When compared to existing data from the literature, the model performs quite well, and in several instances the conditions of earlier experiments were duplicated in the laboratory with overall good agreement. To the authors' knowledge, the present paper presents the most comprehensive set of ignition delay time experiments and kinetic model validation for n-butane oxidation in air. (author)

  14. Studies of n-butane conversion over silica-supported platinum, platinum-silver and platinum-copper catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Junhua

    1992-06-09

    The present work was undertaken to elucidate effect of adding silver and copper to silica-supported platinum catalyst on the activity and selectivity in the n-butane reactions. At the conditions of this study n-butane underwent both hydrogenolysis and structural isomerization. The catalytic activity and selectivities between hydrogenolysis and isomerization and within hydrogenolysis were measured at temperature varying from 330 C to 370 C. For platinum-silver catalysts, at lower temperatures studied the catalytic activity per surface platinum atom (turnover frequency) remained constant at lower silver content (between 0 at. % and 30 at. %) and decreased with further increased silver loading, suggesting that low- index planes could be dominant in the hydrogenolysis of n-butane. Moreover, increasing silver content resulted in an enhancement of the selectivity of isomerization products relative to hydrogenolysis products. At the higher temperature studied, no suppression in catalytic activity was observed. It is postulated that surface structure could change due to the mobility of surface silver atoms, leading to surface silver atoms forming islands or going to the bulk, and leaving large portions of basal planes exposed with active platinum atoms. It is also suggested that the presence of inert silver atoms results in weakening of the H-surface bond. This results in increased mobility of hydrogen atoms on the surface and hence, higher reactivity with other adsorbed species. For platinum copper catalysts, the mixed ensembles could play an active role in the hydrogenolysis of n-butane.

  15. Support shape effect in metal oxide catalysis: ceria nanoshapes supported vanadia catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Zili; Schwartz, Viviane; Li, Meijun; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H

    2012-01-01

    The activation energy of VOx/CeO2 catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane was found dependent on the shape of ceria support: rods < octahedra, closely related to the surface oxygen vacancy formation energy and defects amount of the two ceria supports with different crystallographic surface planes.

  16. Adsorption of iso-/n-butane on an Anatase Thin Film: A Molecular Beam Scattering and TDS Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goering, J.; Kadossov, E.; Burghaus, Uwe; Yu, Zhongqing; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2007-07-01

    Binding energies and adsorption probabilities have been determined for n/iso-butane adsorption on an anatase thin film grown on SrTiO3(001) by means of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and molecular beam scattering. The sample has been characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Auger electrons spectroscopy (AES).

  17. EIA-800

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Residual Fuel Oil 511 Asphalt and Road Oil 931 * Includes propane, propylene, ethane, ethylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, isobutylene, and pentanes plus. Quantities ...

  18. EIA-800

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm sulfur (incl.) 466 Greater than 500 ppm sulfur 467 Total 999 * Includes propane, propylene, ethane, ethylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, ...

  19. Version No.:2010.01 PART 2. SUBMISSION/RESUBMISSION INFORMATION

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residual Fuel Oil 511 Other Petroleum Products 666 *Includes propane, propylene, ethane, ethylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, and isobutylene, and pentanes plus Algeria ...

  20. EIA-801

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Residual Fuel Oil 511 Asphalt and Road Oil 931 Product Code PADD 1 Item Description * Includes ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, ...

  1. EIA-802

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    CODE 466 PADD 4 * Includes propane, propylene, ethane, ethylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, isobutylene, and pentanes plus. PADD 3 PADD 2 Item Description Product Code ...

  2. EIA-817

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel 205 Other Renewable Fuels 207 Liquefied Petroleum and Refinery Gases: EthaneEthylene 108 PropanePropylene 246 Normal ButaneButylene 244 IsobutaneIsobutylene 245 ...

  3. ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that indicate H2 concentrations > 0.001 mol % typically have ethane > ethylene, propane > propylene, and butane > butylene. There are three end member fluid compositions:...

  4. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (2003) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that indicate H2 concentrations > 0.001 mol % typically have ethane > ethylene, propane > propylene, and butane > butylene. There are three end member fluid compositions...

  5. TABLE56.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 2,153 0 2,153 1,884 1,514 370 Normal ButaneButylene ... 0 0 0 527 415 112 IsobutaneIsobutylene...

  6. Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Total Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases PropanePropylene Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Other ...

  7. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases PropanePropylene Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Fuel ...

  8. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    The principal constituents are methane, ethane, ethylene, normal butane, butylene, propane, propylene, etc. Still gas is used as a refinery fuel and a petrochemical...

  9. Skeletal isomerization of n-butane on zeolites and sulfated zirconium oxide promoted by platinum: Effect of reaction pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuei-jung Chao; Hung-chung Wu; Li-jen Leu

    1995-12-01

    The isomerization of n-butane catalyzed by sulfated zirconium oxide and H-form zeolites with the promotion of platinum has been studied by measurements of the conversion and product distribution at temperatures of between 240 and 390{degrees}C at atmospheric pressure and at 20.4 atm. The skeletal isomerization proceeds mainly via the bimolecular disproportionation mechanism on Pt/H-zeolite at 1 atm and via the monomolecular carbocation mechanism on Pt/SO{sub 4}{sup 2}-ZrO{sub 2} at temperatures of 300{degrees}C at both 1 and 20.4 atm. At 20.4 atm pressure, the monomolecular cracking and isomerization of butane can also occur on Pt/H-zeolite. Hydrogen molecules may be dissociated and converted to hydride and proton ions on Pt/SO{sub 4}{sup -2}--ZrO{sub 2}, promoting the desorption of surface carbenium ions and the cracking of butane molecules, which have been enhanced under high reaction pressures. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. n-Alkanes on MgO(100). I: Coverage-Dependent Desorption Kinetics of n-Butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tait, Steven L.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Campbell, C T.; Kay, Bruce D.

    2005-04-22

    High quality temperature programmed desorption (TPD) measurements of n-butane from MgO(100) have been made for a large number of initial butane coverages (0-3.70 ML) and a wide range of heating ramp rates (0.3-10 K/s). We present a TPD analysis technique which allows the coverage-dependent desorption energy to be accurately determined by mathematical inversion of a TPD spectrum, assuming only that the prefactor is coverage-independent. A variational method is used to determine the prefactor that minimizes the difference between a set of simulated TPD spectra and corresponding experimental data. The best fit for butane desorption from MgO is obtained with a prefactor of 1015.7?1.6 s-1. The desorption energy is 34.9?3.4 kJ/mol at 0.5 ML coverage, and varies with coverage. Simulations based on these results can accurately reproduce TPD experiments for submonolayer initial coverages over a wide range of heating ramp rates (0.3-10 K/s). Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed.

  11. The kinetic significance of V{sup 5+} in n-butane oxidation catalyzed by vanadium phosphates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulston, G.W.; Harlow, R.; Herron, N.

    1997-01-10

    Maleic anhydride, a precursor to polyester resins, is made by oxidation of n-butane over vanadium phosphate catalysts. This system is of general interest because it is the only heterogeneously catalyzed, alkane-selective oxidation reaction in commercial use. Time-resolved in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that when either {alpha}{sub 1}-VOPO{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} or (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}/SiO{sub 2} catalysts are exposed to n-butane, the rate of maleic anhydride formation is proportional to the rate of decay of V{sup 5+} species in the catalyst. Thus V{sup 5+} species are kinetically significant for the production of maleic anhydride and not just for the production of by-products. The results also suggest that V{sup 5+} species in the catalyst. Thus V{sup 5+} species are kinetically significant for the production of maleic anhydride and not just for the production of by-products. The results also suggest that V{sup 5+} species may play a role in the initial hydrogen abstraction from n-butane, the rate-determining step in the reaction sequence. V{sup 4+} sites appear to be responsible for by-product formation.

  12. Kinetic study of the oxidation of n-butane on vanadium oxide supported on Al/Mg mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dejoz, A.; Vazquez, I.; Nieto, J.M.L.; Melo, F.

    1997-07-01

    The reaction kinetics of the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of n-butane over vanadia supported on a heat-treated Mg/Al hydrotalcite (37.3 wt % of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was investigated by both linear and nonlinear regression techniques. A reaction network including the formation of butenes (1-, 2-cis-, and 2-trans-butene), butadiene, and carbon oxides by parallel and consecutive reactions, at low and high n-butane conversions, has been proposed. Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) models can be used as suitable models which allows reproduction of the global kinetic behavior, although differences between oxydehydrogenation and deep oxidation reactions have been observed. Thus, the formation of oxydehydrogenation products can be described by a LH equation considering a dissociative adsorption of oxygen while the formation of carbon oxides is described by a LH equation with a nondissociative adsorption of oxygen. Two different mechanisms operate on the catalyst: (i) a redox mechanism responsible of the formation of olefins and diolefins and associated to vanadium species, which is initiated by a hydrogen abstraction; (ii) a radical mechanism responsible of the formation of carbon oxides from n-butane and butenes and associated to vanadium-free sites of the support. On the other hand, the selectivity to oxydehydrogenation products increases with the reaction temperature. This catalytic performance can be explained taking into account the low reducibility of V{sup 5+}-sites and the higher apparent activation energies of the oxydehydrogenation reactions with respect to deep oxidation reactions.

  13. A study of the kinetics and mechanism of the adsorption and anaerobic partial oxidation of n-butane over a vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakakini, B.H.; Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.; Waugh, K.C.

    2000-01-25

    The interaction of n-butane with a ((VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) catalyst has been investigated by temperature-programmed desorption and anaerobic temperature-programmed reaction. n-Butane has been shown to adsorb on the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} to as a butyl-hydroxyl pair. When adsorption is carried out at 223 K, upon temperature programming some of the butyl-hydroxyl species recombine resulting in butane desorption at 260 K. However, when adsorption is carried out at 423 K, the hydroxyl species of the butyl-hydroxyl pair migrate away from the butyl species during the adsorption, forming water which is detected in the gas phase. Butane therefore is not observed to desorb at 260 K after the authors lowered the temperature to 223 K under the butane/helium from the adsorption temperature of 423 K prior to temperature programming from that temperature to 1100 K under a helium stream. Anaerobic temperature-programmed oxidation of n-butane produces butene and butadiene at a peak maximum temperature of 1000 K; this is exactly the temperature at which, upon temperature programming, oxygen evolves from the lattice and desorbs as O{sub 2}. This, and the fact that the amount of oxygen desorbing from the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} at {approximately}1000 K is the same as that required for the oxidation of the n-butane to butene and butadiene, strongly suggests (1) that lattice oxygen as it emerges at the surface is the selective oxidant and (2) that its appearance at the surface is the rate-determining step in the selective oxidation of n-butane. The surface of the (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} catalyst on which this selective oxidation takes place has had approximately two monolayers of oxygen removed from it by unselective oxidation of the n-butane to CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O between 550 and 950 K and has had approximately one monolayer of carbon deposited on it at {approximately}1000 K. It is apparent, therefore, that the original crystallography of the (VO){sub 2}P

  14. Ignition of ethane, propane, and butane in counterflow jets of cold fuel versus hot air under variable pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fotache, C.G.; Wang, H.; Law, C.K.

    1999-06-01

    This study investigates experimentally the nonpremixed ignition of ethane, propane, n-butane, and isobutane in a configuration of opposed fuel versus heated air jets. For each of these fuels the authors explore the effects of inert dilution, system pressure, and flow strain rate, for fuel concentrations ranging between 3--100% by volume, pressures between 0.2 and 8 atm, and strain rates of 100--600 s{sup {minus}1}. Qualitatively, these fuels share a number of characteristics. First, flame ignition typically occurs after an interval of mild oxidation, characterized by minimal heat release, fuel conversion, and weak light emission. The temperature extent of this regime decreases with increasing the fuel concentration, the ambient pressure, or the flow residence time. Second, the response to strain rate, pressure, and fuel concentration is similar for all investigated fuels, in that the ignition temperatures monotonically decrease with increasing fuel content, decreasing flow strain, and increasing ambient pressure. The C{sub 4} alkanes, however, exhibit three distinct p-T ignition regimes, similar to the homogeneous explosion limits. Finally, at 1 atm, 100% fuel, and a fixed flow strain rate the ignition temperature increases in the order of ethane < propane < n-butane < i-butane. Numerical simulation was conducted for ethane ignition using detailed reaction kinetics and transport descriptions. The modeling results suggest that ignition for all fuels studied at pressures below 5 atm is initiated by fuel oxidation following the high-temperature mechanism of radical chain branching and with little contribution by low-to-intermediate temperature chemistry.

  15. Selective aromatization of C[sub 3]- and C[sub 4]-paraffins over modified encilite catalysts: 2. Kinetics of n-butane aromatization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, A.K.; Rao, M.S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    The kinetics of the aromatization of n-butane over Zn-encilite catalyst was studied in a fixed bed reactor under steady-state conditions at atmospheric pressure and in the temperature range of 480--540 C. The experimental data were analyzed, and a dual-site mechanism was proposed. Six rate equations of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood type were tested. The unknown parameters in the rate equations were estimated by a nonlinear regression method. A kinetic equation for n-butane aromatization is proposed.

  16. Toward Understanding the Nature of Internal Rotation Barriers with a New Energy Partition Scheme: Ethane and n-Butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Shubin; Govind, Niri

    2008-07-24

    Based on an alternative energy partition scheme where density-based quantification of the steric effect was proposed [S.B. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 244103 (2007)], the origin of the internal rotation barrier between the eclipsed and staggered conformers of ethane and n-butane is systematically investigated in this work. The new definition is repulsive, exclusive, and extensive, and is intrinsically related to Baders atoms in molecules approach. Two kinds of differences, adiabatic (with optimal structure) and vertical (with fixed geometry), are considered in this work. We find that in the adiabatic case the eclipsed conformer possesses a larger steric repulsion than the staggered conformer for both molecules, but in the vertical cases the staggered conformer retains a larger steric repulsion. For ethane, a strong correlation between the total energy difference and the fermionic quantum energy difference is discovered. This linear relationship, however, does not hold for n-butane, whose behaviors in energy component differences are found to be more complicated. The impact of basis set and density functional choices on energy components from the new energy partition scheme has been investigated, as has its comparison with another definition of the steric effect in the literature in terms of the natural bond orbital analysis through the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Profiles of conceptual DFT reactivity indices as a function of dihedral angle changes have also been examined. Put together, these results suggest that the new energy partition scheme provides insights from a different perspective of internal rotation barriers.

  17. Solvent vapor recovery by pressure swing adsorption. 1: Experimental transient and periodic dynamics of the butane-activated carbon system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.; Holland, C.E.; Ritter, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out for the separation and recovery of butane vapor (10 to 40 vol%) from nitrogen using Westvaco BAX activated carbon in a twin-bed pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system utilizing a 4-step Skarstrom-type cycle. Twenty-four runs, covering a broad range of process and initial column conditions, were performed to investigate the transient and period process dynamics. In all cases the approach to the periodic state was very slow, taking up to 160 cycles depending on the initial condition of the beds; and peak bed temperatures of up to 105 C were observed depending on both the initial condition of the beds and the process conditions. Also, the periodic state of each run was unique when approaching a new periodic state from less contaminated beds. The uniqueness of the periodic states, together with the exceedingly high peak temperatures, inferred much about the practice of preconditioning beds to avoid high temperature excursions. The periodic enriched butane vapor concentration histories also gave considerable insight into new cycle designs for improved solvent vapor enrichment.

  18. Ethane and n-butane oxidation over supported vanadium oxide catalysts: An in situ UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopic investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, X.; Banares, M.A.; Wachs, I.E.

    1999-12-10

    The coordination/oxidation states of surface vanadium oxide species on several oxide supports (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}) during ethane and n-butane oxidation were examined by in situ UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Only a small amount of the surface V(V)cations are reduced to V(IV)/V(III) cations under present steady-state reaction conditions. The extents of reduction of the surface V(V) species are a strong function of the specific oxide support, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ZrO{sub 2} {gt} V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {gt} V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}, and also correlate with their reactivities (turnover frequencies) for ethane and n-butane oxidation reactions. For ZrO{sub 2}-supported samples, the polymerized surface vanadia species were found to be more easily reduced than the isolated surface vanadia species in reducing environments (i.e., ethane or n-butane in He), but no significant differences in the extents of reduction were observed under present steady-state reaction conditions (i.e., ethane/O{sub 2}/He or n-butane/O{sub 2}/He). This observation is also consistent with the ethane oxidation catalytic study, which revealed that the polymerization degree, the domain size, of the surface vanadia species does not appear to significantly affect the reactivity of the supported vanadia catalysts for ethane oxidation.

  19. Initial activity of reduced chromia/alumina catalyst in n-butane dehydrogenation monitored by on-line FT-IR gas analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakuli, A.; Kytoekivi, A.; Suntola, T.

    1996-06-01

    The initial activity of chromia/alumina catalyst (13 wt% Cr) in n-butane dehydrogenation was studied in a flow reactor at 853 K. The initial activity was determined by on-line FT-IR gas analysis, which enabled sampling of the gaseous product mixture at a time resolution of seconds. The catalysts were processed in repeated cycles of oxidation, reduction, and dehydrogenation using n-butane, methane, hydrogen, or carbon monoxide as reducing agents. With n-butane, methane, and hydrogen and dehydrogenation activity was associated with Cr{sup 3+} species apparently formed in the reduction of high-valence Cr species. The catalyst reduced with carbon monoxide at 853 K showed poor initial selectivity for butenes and, relative to the other catalysts. Simultaneous data relating the initial activity, coke content, and some of the physicochemical properties of the catalyst indicated that the surfaces of all catalysts were modified to some extent by the successive reaction cycles. 33 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Autoignited laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane jets in coflow air with elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, B.C.; Chung, S.H.

    2010-12-15

    The autoignition characteristics of laminar lifted flames of methane, ethylene, ethane, and n-butane fuels have been investigated experimentally in coflow air with elevated temperature over 800 K. The lifted flames were categorized into three regimes depending on the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction: (1) non-autoignited lifted flame, (2) autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial (or triple) edge, and (3) autoignited lifted flame with mild combustion. For the non-autoignited lifted flames at relatively low temperature, the existence of lifted flame depended on the Schmidt number of fuel, such that only the fuels with Sc > 1 exhibited stationary lifted flames. The balance mechanism between the propagation speed of tribrachial flame and local flow velocity stabilized the lifted flames. At relatively high initial temperatures, either autoignited lifted flames having tribrachial edge or autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion existed regardless of the Schmidt number of fuel. The adiabatic ignition delay time played a crucial role for the stabilization of autoignited flames. Especially, heat loss during the ignition process should be accounted for, such that the characteristic convection time, defined by the autoignition height divided by jet velocity was correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time for the critical autoignition conditions. The liftoff height was also correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. (author)

  1. Role of metal-support interactions on the activity of Pt and Rh catalysts for reforming methane and butane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossignol, C.; Krause, T.; Krumpelt, M.

    2002-01-11

    For residential fuel cell systems, reforming of natural gas is one option being considered for providing the H{sub 2} necessary for the fuel cell to operate. Industrially, natural gas is reformed using Ni-based catalysts supported on an alumina substrate, which has been modified to inhibit coke formation. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have developed a new family of catalysts derived from solid oxide fuel cell technology for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H{sub 2}. These catalysts consist of a transition metal supported on an oxide-ion-conducting substrate, such as ceria, that has been doped with a small amount of a non-reducible element, such as gadolinium, samarium, or zirconium. Unlike alumina, the oxide-ion-conducting substrate has been shown to induce strong metal-support interactions. Metal-support interactions are known to play an important role in influencing the catalytic activity of many metals supported on oxide supports. Based on results from temperature-programmed reduction/oxidation and kinetic reaction studies, this paper discusses the role of the metal and the substrate in the metal-support interactions, and how these interactions influence the activity and the selectivity of the catalyst in reforming methane and butane to hydrogen for use in fuel cell power systems.

  2. Carbon nanotube-induced preparation of vanadium oxide nanorods: Application as a catalyst for the partial oxidation of n-butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xiaowei; Zhu Zhenping; Haevecker, Michael; Su Dangsheng . E-mail: dangsheng@fhi-berlin.mpg.de; Schloegl, Robert

    2007-02-15

    A vanadium oxide-carbon nanotube composite was prepared by solution-based hydrolysis of NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} in the presence of carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes induce the nucleation of the 1D vanadium oxide nanostructures, with the nuclei growing into long freestanding nanorods. The vanadium oxide nanorods with the lengths up to 20 {mu}m and the widths of 5-15 nm exhibit a well-ordered crystalline structure. Catalytic tests show that the composite with nanostructured vanadium oxide is active for the partial oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride at 300 deg. C.

  3. Refinery & Blender Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Finished Petroleum Products Liquefied Refinery Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethane Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Isobutane Isobutylene Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than

  4. Refinery Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Finished Petroleum Products Liquefied Refinery Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethane Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Isobutane Isobutylene Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55

  5. Host cells and methods for producing 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, and 3-methyl-butan-1-ol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chou, Howard H.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2011-07-26

    The invention provides for a method for producing a 5-carbon alcohol in a genetically modified host cell. In one embodiment, the method comprises culturing a genetically modified host cell which expresses a first enzyme capable of catalyzing the dephosphorylation of an isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), such as a Bacillus subtilis phosphatase (YhfR), under a suitable condition so that 5-carbon alcohol is 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol and/or 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol is produced. Optionally, the host cell may further comprise a second enzyme capable of reducing a 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol to 3-methyl-butan-1-ol, such as a reductase.

  6. The V{sup 4}+/V{sup 5+} balance as a criterion of selection of vanadium phosphorus oxide catalysts for n-butane oxidation to maleic anhydride: A proposal to explain the role of Co and Fe dopants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sananes-Schulz, M.T.; Tuel, A.; Volta, J.C.; Hutchings, G.J.

    1997-03-01

    Vanadium phosphorous oxide catalysts (VPO) are well known for the oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride, and many papers and patents have been published in the literature on this catalytic system. Concerning the valence state of vanadium in the active surface, a V{sup 4+}/V{sup 5+} equilibrium on the surface of a vanadyl pyrophosphate during n-butane oxidation has been demonstrated which is dependent on the time of activation. In the present note, we study the modifications, as determined by {sup 31}P NMR by spin echo mapping, which are induced in the physicochemical characteristics of VPO catalysts which have major differences in their morphologies when doped with iron and cobalt at a low percentage (1%) and the correlation with their catalytic performances. 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts with low amounts of Rh for the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane for fuel-cell applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrandon, M.; Kropf, A. J.; Krause, T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2010-05-15

    Mono-metallic nickel and rhodium catalysts and bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeZrO{sub 2} and CeMgOx were prepared and evaluated for catalyzing the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane. The binary Ni-Rh supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with low weight loading of rhodium exhibited higher H{sub 2} yields than Ni or Rh alone. The Ni-Rh/CeZrO{sub 2} catalyst exhibited higher performance and no coke formation, compared to the same metals on other supports. A NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase was obtained on all Ni and Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The presence of rhodium stabilized the spinel phase as well as NiOx species upon reforming while Ni alone was mostly reduced into metallic species. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis showed evidence of Ni-Rh alloy during preparation and even further after an accelerated aging at 900C in a H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O atmosphere.

  8. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plant Field Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Butylene (C4H8) An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery processes. Ethane (C2H6) A normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of -127.48º F. It is extracted from natural gas and refinery gas streams. Field Production Represents crude oil production on leases, natural gas liquids production at natural gas processing

  9. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Natural Gas Plant Net Stocks Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Butylene (C4H8) An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery processes. Ethane (C2H6) A normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of -127.48º F. It is extracted from natural gas and refinery gas streams. Isobutane (C4H10) A normally gaseous branch-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a

  10. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene & Light Gas Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils

  11. Role of the reaction intermediates in determining PHIP (parahydrogen induced polarization) effect in the hydrogenation of acetylene dicarboxylic acid with the complex [Rh (dppb)]{sup +} (dppb: 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reineri, F.; Aime, S.; Gobetto, R.; Nervi, C.

    2014-03-07

    This study deals with the parahydrogenation of the symmetric substrate acetylene dicarboxylic acid catalyzed by a Rh(I) complex bearing the chelating diphosphine dppb (1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane). The two magnetically equivalent protons of the product yield a hyperpolarized emission signal in the {sup 1}H-NMR spectrum. Their polarization intensity varies upon changing the reaction solvent from methanol to acetone. A detailed analysis of the hydrogenation pathway is carried out by means of density functional theory calculations to assess the structure of hydrogenation intermediates and their stability in the two solvents. The observed polarization effects have been accounted on the basis of the obtained structures. Insights into the lifetime of a short-lived reaction intermediate are also obtained.

  12. Pt3Ru6 Clusters Supported on gamma-Al2O3: Synthesis from Pt3Ru6(Cu)21(u3-H)(u-H)3, Structural Characterization, and Catalysis of Ethylene Hydrogenation and n-Butane Hydrogenolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chotisuwan,S.; Wittayakun, J.; Gates, B.

    2006-01-01

    The supported clusters Pt-Ru/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared by adsorption of the bimetallic precursor Pt{sub 3}Ru{sub 6}(Cu){sub 21}({mu}{sub 3}-H)({mu}-H){sub 3} from CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solution onto {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by decarbonylation in He at 300 C. The resultant supported clusters were characterized by infrared (IR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies and as catalysts for ethylene hydrogenation and n-butane hydrogenolysis. After adsorption, the {nu}{sub CO} peaks characterizing the precursor shifted to lower wavenumbers, and some of the hydroxyl bands of the support disappeared or changed, indicating that the CO ligands of the precursor interacted with support hydroxyl groups. The EXAFS results show that the metal core of the precursor remained essentially unchanged upon adsorption, but there were distortions of the metal core indicated by changes in the metal-metal distances. After decarbonylation of the supported clusters, the EXAFS data indicated that Pt and Ru atoms interacted with support oxygen atoms and that about half of the Pt-Ru bonds were maintained, with the composition of the metal frame remaining almost unchanged. The decarbonylated supported bimetallic clusters reported here are the first having essentially the same metal core composition as that of a precursor metal carbonyl, and they appear to be the best-defined supported bimetallic clusters. The material was found to be an active catalyst for ethylene hydrogenation and n-butane hydrogenolysis under conditions mild enough to prevent substantial cluster disruption.

  13. Rhenium Complexes and Clusters Supported on c-Al2O3: Effects of Rhenium Oxidation State and Rhenium Cluster Size on Catalytic Activity for n-butane Hydrogenolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobo Lapidus, R.; Gates, B

    2009-01-01

    Supported metals prepared from H{sub 3}Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 12} on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were treated under conditions that led to various rhenium structures on the support and were tested as catalysts for n-butane conversion in the presence of H{sub 2} in a flow reactor at 533 K and 1 atm. After use, two samples were characterized by X-ray absorption edge positions of approximately 5.6 eV (relative to rhenium metal), indicating that the rhenium was cationic and essentially in the same average oxidation state in each. But the Re-Re coordination numbers found by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (2.2 and 5.1) show that the clusters in the two samples were significantly different in average nuclearity despite their indistinguishable rhenium oxidation states. Spectra of a third sample after catalysis indicate approximately Re{sub 3} clusters, on average, and an edge position of 4.5 eV. Thus, two samples contained clusters approximated as Re{sub 3} (on the basis of the Re-Re coordination number), on average, with different average rhenium oxidation states. The data allow resolution of the effects of rhenium oxidation state and cluster size, both of which affect the catalytic activity; larger clusters and a greater degree of reduction lead to increased activity.

  14. MAN or FA from n-butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Cio, A.; Verde, L.

    1985-08-01

    Unsaturated polyester resins were first produced mostly from fumaric acid (FA) rather than from maleic anhydride (MAN). This is perfectly understandable if we consider that, using fumaric acid as raw material, polycondensates with a more homogeneous (less branched) structure are obtained, thus producing resins characterized by a more uniform and reproducible chemical and mechanical properties. Presently, for economical reasons, fumaric acid is used marginally as a MAN substitute in the production of polyester resins. These resins account for a major share (50%) of the overall MAN consumption in the U.S. and in Western Europe.

  15. (2R)-4-Oxo-4[3-(Trifluoromethyl)-5,6-diihydro:1,2,4}triazolo[4,3-a}pyrazin-7(8H)-y1]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine: A Potent, Orally Active Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitor for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.; Wang, L.; Beconi, M.; Eiermann, G.; Fisher, M.; He, H.; Hickey, G.; Kowalchick, Jennifer; Leiting, Barbara; Lyons, K.; Marsilio, F.; McCann, F.; Patel, R.; Petrov, A.; Scapin, G.; Patel, S.; Roy, R.; Wu, J.; Wyvratt, M.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, L.; Thornberry, N.; Weber, A.

    2010-11-10

    A novel series of {beta}-amino amides incorporating fused heterocycles, i.e., triazolopiperazines, were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (2R)-4-Oxo-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine (1) is a potent, orally active DPP-IV inhibitor (IC{sub 50} = 18 nM) with excellent selectivity over other proline-selective peptidases, oral bioavailability in preclinical species, and in vivo efficacy in animal models. MK-0431, the phosphate salt of compound 1, was selected for development as a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes.

  16. table07.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    558 - 893 -73 1,935 -111 0 3,387 38 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ....... 283 89 116 - 9 -210 - 123 24 558 Pentanes Plus .................................. 37 - 1 - 17 7 - 25 15 9 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 246 89 115 - -8 -217 - 98 10 550 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 94 0 (s) - -71 -4 - 0 0 26 Propane/Propylene ....................... 100 116 86 - 31 -155 - 0 3 485 Normal Butane/Butylene .............. 37 -27 16 - 18 -48 - 74 6 12 Isobutane/Isobutylene

  17. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and

  18. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports by Area of Entry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Ethylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable

  19. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Movements by Pipeline between PAD

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Districts Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Normal Butane/Butylene Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Renewable Diesel Fuel Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional

  20. East Coast (PADD 1) Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail Product: Total Crude Oil and Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other

  1. Product Supplied for Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished

  2. Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, as of Dec. 31

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Districts Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Normal Butane/Butylene Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Renewable Diesel Fuel Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional

  3. Prompt-Month Energy Futures

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished

  4. Fueling Requirements for Steady State high butane current fraction discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.Raman

    2003-10-08

    The CT injector originally used for injecting CTs into 1T toroidal field discharges in the TdeV tokamak was shipped PPPL from the Affiliated Customs Brokers storage facility in Montreal during November 2002. All components were transported safely, without damage, and are currently in storage at PPPL, waiting for further funding in order to begin advanced fueling experiments on NSTX. The components are currently insured through the University of Washington. Several technical presentations were made to investigate the feasibility of the CT injector installation on NSTX. These technical presentations, attached to this document, were: (1) Motivation for Compact Toroida Injection in NSTX; (2) Assessment of the Engineering Feasibility of Installing CTF-II on NSTX; (3) Assessment of the Cost for CT Installation on NSTX--A Peer Review; and (4) CT Fueling for NSTX FY 04-08 steady-state operation needs.

  5. LIQUID BUTANE FILLED LOAD FOR A LINER DRIVEN PEGASUS EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. SALAZAR; W. ANDERSON; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    A hydrogen rich, low density liquid, contained within the internal volume of a cylindrical liner, was requested of the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division for one of the last liner driven experiments conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus facility. The experiment was a continuation of the Raleigh-Taylor hydrodynamics series of experiments and associated liners that have been described previously [1,2].

  6. Liquid butane filled load for a liner driven Pegasus experiment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar, M. A.; Armijo, E. V.; Anderson, W. E.; Atchison, W. L.; Bartos, J. J.; Garcia, F.; Randolph, B.; Sheppard, M. G.; Stokes, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    A hydrogen rich, low density liquid, contained within the internal volume of a cylindrical liner, was requested of the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division for one of the last liner driven experiments conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus facility. The experiment (Fig.1) was a continuation of the Raleigh-Taylor hydrodynamics series of experiments and associated liners that have been described previously.

  7. U.S. Natural Gas Processing Plant

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) 5,272 5,252 4,720 5,898 6,510 6,559 1993-2016 Pentanes Plus 780 727 859 616 604 429 1993-2016 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 4,492 4,525 3,861 5,282 5,906 6,130 1993-2016 Ethane/Ethylene 1,017 828 705 1,448 1,626 1,748 1993-2016 Propane/Propylene 2,216 2,185 1,891 2,299 2,455 1,872 1993-2016 Normal Butane/Butylene 712 1,000 927 1,165 1,426 1,965 1993-2016 Isobutane/Butylene 547 512 338 370 399 545

  8. U.S. Natural Gas Processing Plant

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) 4,738 3,841 4,828 5,118 4,005 4,837 1993-2015 Pentanes Plus 619 501 383 486 924 780 1993-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 4,119 3,340 4,445 4,632 3,081 4,057 1993-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 956 647 837 856 572 819 1993-2015 Propane/Propylene 1,371 1,505 1,944 2,297 1,246 1,677 1993-2015 Normal Butane/Butylene 1,292 688 907 992 678 1,160 1993-2015 Isobutane/Butylene 500 500 757 487 585 40

  9. LPG--a direct source of C/sub 3/-C/sub 4/ olefins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujado, P.R.; Berg, R.C.; Vora, B.V.

    1983-03-28

    This article describes the selective production of olefins by the catalytic dehydrogenation of the corresponding paraffins by means of UOP's Oleflex process. In this process, propylene can be obtained at about 85 mol % selectivity by the catalytic dehydrogenation of propane. Isobutylene can be obtained at selectivities in excess of 90 mol % from isobutane, and n-butenes (1-butene plus 2-butene) at about 80 mol % from n-butane. The availability of this technology, coupled with an abundant supply of LPG (C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ paraffins), opens new avenues for the selective production of propylene and butylenes.

  10. table05.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    27 - 1,721 -65 -3 170 0 1,511 0 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ....... 27 18 40 - 153 -28 - 8 1 257 Pentanes Plus .................................. 3 - 0 - 0 (s) - 0 (s) 2 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 24 18 40 - 153 -28 - 8 1 254 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 8 0 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 8 Propane/Propylene ........................ 11 54 39 - 149 -8 - 0 1 261 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 4 -27 1 - 3 -18 - 5 (s) -7 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 1 -9 0 - 0 -2

  11. table09.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3,434 - 5,080 -9 -1,729 230 0 6,546 0 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ....... 1,272 347 65 - -68 -208 - 229 29 1,566 Pentanes Plus .................................. 188 - 33 - -5 30 - 66 0 119 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 1,084 347 31 - -63 -238 - 163 29 1,446 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 503 24 18 - 112 -52 - 0 0 709 Propane/Propylene ....................... 363 301 4 - -158 -120 - 0 21 610 Normal Butane/Butylene .............. 76 3 6 - -11 -89 - 100 8 54

  12. table10.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1,049 - 6,332 1,608 -4,050 -23 0 14,962 0 0 12,816 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ......... 4,049 -11 536 - -2,893 -15 - 595 6 1,095 1,354 Pentanes Plus ................................... 771 - 112 - -352 -8 - 163 5 371 219 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ............... 3,278 -11 424 - -2,541 -7 - 432 (s) 725 1,135 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 950 0 0 - -1,270 0 - 0 0 -320 213 Propane/Propylene ....................... 1,473 284 233 - -705 -50 - 0 (s) 1,335 439 Normal Butane/Butylene

  13. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    374 33 4,092 2,128 3,351 69 54 4,048 479 5,465 Crude Oil 45 - - - - 900 191 70 -38 1,126 119 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 329 -1 55 28 -81 - - 11 14 90 215 Pentanes Plus 34 -1 - - - 0 - - 0 - 4 29 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 295 - - 55 28 -82 - - 11 14 86 186 Ethane/Ethylene 135 - - 0 - -119 - - 2 - 17 -3 Propane/Propylene 110 - - 37 24 38 - - 3 - 62 144 Normal Butane/Butylene 34 - - 17 2 0 - - 6 1 6 40 Isobutane/Isobutylene 16 - - 0 2 0 - - -1 13 0 5 Other Liquids - -

  14. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,508 978 4,808 2,166 -154 -17 -79 4,592 505 5,271 Crude Oil 1,673 - - - - 2,058 -115 -51 -217 3,683 99 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 835 -20 208 69 -126 - - 309 78 289 290 Pentanes Plus 99 -20 - - 0 155 - - 6 24 198 5 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 737 - - 208 69 -281 - - 303 54 91 285 Ethane/Ethylene 279 - - - - -133 - - 4 - 63 79 Propane/Propylene 303 - - 120 55 -120 - - 174 - 10 174 Normal Butane/Butylene 97 - - 92 6 -27 - - 125 4 17 22 Isobutane/Isobutylene 57 - - -3 7

  15. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,030 14 695 326 -681 9 -14 668 11 729 Crude Oil 643 - - - - 315 -330 2 -18 647 1 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 387 0 21 7 -364 - - 11 17 3 19 Pentanes Plus 59 0 - - - -48 - - 0 6 2 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 327 - - 21 7 -316 - - 11 11 1 16 Ethane/Ethylene 117 - - - - -115 - - 2 - - 0 Propane/Propylene 134 - - 9 6 -127 - - 1 - 0 21 Normal Butane/Butylene 52 - - 11 0 -47 - - 9 4 1 3 Isobutane/Isobutylene 24 - - 1 1 -27 - - 0 7 - -9 Other Liquids - - 14 - - 3 18 -18 6

  16. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,040 27 3,154 1,585 508 51 -156 2,960 452 3,108 Crude Oil 983 - - - - 1,258 127 8 -36 2,399 14 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 58 0 94 11 - - - 28 61 46 26 Pentanes Plus 26 0 - - - - - - 0 21 1 4 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 31 - - 94 11 - - - 28 40 46 22 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - - - - - - - - - 0 Propane/Propylene 11 - - 47 11 - - - 4 - 29 36 Normal Butane/Butylene 7 - - 44 0 - - - 25 19 17 -10 Isobutane/Isobutylene 13 - - 3 - - - - -1 21 - -4 Other Liquids - - 27 - - 137

  17. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,086 15 662 340 -715 -38 10 637 18 686 Crude Oil 762 - - - - 326 -425 -44 9 602 8 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 323 0 13 10 -297 - - 1 20 7 21 Pentanes Plus 55 0 - - - -45 - - 0 6 5 -1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 268 - - 13 10 -252 - - 1 14 2 22 Ethane/Ethylene 77 - - - - -76 - - 0 - - 1 Propane/Propylene 122 - - 9 9 -110 - - 0 - 0 29 Normal Butane/Butylene 50 - - 3 0 -40 - - 1 7 2 5 Isobutane/Isobutylene 19 - - 0 1 -25 - - 0 7 0 -13 Other Liquids - - 15 - - 1 8 -5 1 15

  18. Jet fuel from LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, R.E.; Jones, J.R.

    1983-02-01

    Explains how jet fuel can be manufactured from propane and/or butane with attractive rates of return. This scheme is advantageous where large reserves of LPG-bearing gas is available or LPG is in excess. The following sequence of processes in involved: dehydrogenation of propane (and/or butane) to propylene (and/or butylene); polymerization of this monomer to a substantial yield of the desired polymer by recycling undesired polymer; and hydrotreating the polymer to saturate double bonds. An attribute of this process scheme is that each of the individual processes has been practiced commercially. The process should have appeal in those parts of the world which have large reserves of LPG-bearing natural gas but little or no crude oil, or where large excesses of LPG are available. Concludes that economic analysis shows attractive rates of return in a range of reasonable propane costs and product selling prices.

  19. U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Total 18,452 18,673 18,564 19,106 19,654 19,893 1983-2015 Liquefied Refinery Gases 659 619 630 623 653 612 1984-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 20 20 18 7 6 6 1985-2015 Ethane 14 14 13 7 5 5 1993-2015 Ethylene 6 6 5 1 1 1 1993-2015 Propane/Propylene 560 552 553 564 587 559 1985-2015 Propane 282 270 276 284 306 283 2004-2015 Propylene 278 282 277 281 281 276 1993-2015 Normal Butane/Butylene 83 48 56 57 70 55 1985-2015 Normal Butane 88 53 63 64 76 64 1993-2015

  20. Injection of LPG into TCC unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, T.S.

    1987-02-03

    A process is described for catalytically cracking hydrocarbon feed in a bed of catalyst effective to crack the hydrocarbon feed, comprising contacting the feed under catalytic cracking conditions, with the catalyst in a first portion of the bed, to produce cracked product. Another portion of that bed of catalyst is sealed by introducing into another portion of that bed a seal selected from the group consisting of ethane, propane, butane, isobutane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, isobutylene and mixtures thereof whereby feed and cracked product are prevented from surging into another portion; whereby contact of the seal with catalyst in another portion of the bed results in conversion of the seal to the higher molecular weight adducts thereof, the condition in another portion of the bed being effective to provide the conversion.

  1. Production of biodiesel using expanded gas solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginosar, Daniel M; Fox, Robert V; Petkovic, Lucia M

    2009-04-07

    A method of producing an alkyl ester. The method comprises providing an alcohol and a triglyceride or fatty acid. An expanding gas is dissolved into the alcohol to form a gas expanded solvent. The alcohol is reacted with the triglyceride or fatty acid in a single phase to produce the alkyl ester. The expanding gas may be a nonpolar expanding gas, such as carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, pentene, isomers thereof, and mixtures thereof, which is dissolved into the alcohol. The gas expanded solvent may be maintained at a temperature below, at, or above a critical temperature of the expanding gas and at a pressure below, at, or above a critical pressure of the expanding gas.

  2. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,319 1,174 20,780 10,076 308 -57 19,674 5,206 19,833 Crude Oil 8,701 - - - - 7,611 107 -396 16,432 383 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 3,618 -22 879 116 - - 823 430 1,144 2,194 Pentanes Plus 447 -22 - - 0 - - 13 154 208 50 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3,171 - - 879 116 - - 810 275 936 2,144 Ethane/Ethylene 1,380 - - 1 - - - 220 - 80 1,080 Propane/Propylene 1,157 - - 590 96 - - 286 - 742 815 Normal Butane/Butylene 311 - - 295 10 - - 305 66 108 137 Isobutane/Isobutylene 322

  3. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7,367 123 8,031 3,871 -3,023 197 140 7,406 3,759 5,259 Crude Oil 5,357 - - - - 3,080 126 78 -87 8,578 150 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 2,009 -1 502 1 571 - - 465 259 715 1,644 Pentanes Plus 229 -1 - - - -107 - - 7 103 3 8 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,780 - - 502 1 678 - - 458 156 712 1,636 Ethane/Ethylene 849 - - 0 - 367 - - 212 - - 1,004 Propane/Propylene 599 - - 377 - 209 - - 104 - 641 439 Normal Butane/Butylene 120 - - 130 1 75 - - 139 38 66 82 Isobutane/Isobutylene

  4. From PADD 1 to PADD 2 Movements by Tanker, Pipeline, Barge and Rail

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 112,531 113,596 110,881 113,612 139,062 150,573 1981-2015 Crude Oil 274 590 1,646 2,729 3,915 2,727 1981-2015 Petroleum Products 112,257 113,006 109,235 110,883 135,147 147,846 1981-2015 Pentanes Plus 452 113 19 2 30 121 2009-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 0 0 0 236 23,034 33,098 1981-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 236 22,845 32,344 2013-2015 Propane/Propylene 0 0 0 0 135 538 2005-2015 Normal Butane/Butylene 0 0 0 0 15 60

  5. U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Total 2,353 2,986 3,205 3,621 4,176 4,750 1973-2015 Crude Oil 42 47 67 134 351 458 1910-2015 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 164 249 314 468 703 967 1983-2015 Pentanes Plus 32 101 118 137 166 182 1984-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 132 148 196 332 537 785 1973-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 0 0 0 38 65 1983-2015 Propane/Propylene 109 124 171 302 423 615 1973-2015 Normal Butane/Butylene 22 24 26 30 76 98 1983-2015 Isobutane/Isobutylene 7

  6. U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 19,180 18,882 18,490 18,961 19,106 19,395 1973-2015 Crude Oil 0 0 0 0 0 0 1981-2015 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs 2,265 2,237 2,301 2,495 2,448 2,465 1983-2015 Pentanes Plus 92 32 50 56 52 91 1983-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,173 2,204 2,251 2,440 2,396 2,375 1973-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 880 950 958 990 1,048 1,051 1983-2015 Propane/Propylene 1,160 1,153 1,175 1,275 1,167 1,121 1973-2015 Normal Butane/Butylene 108

  7. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    12,688 1,095 19,893 9,401 358 434 18,855 4,750 19,395 Crude Oil 9,415 - - - - 7,351 151 252 16,207 458 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 3,273 -21 612 144 - - 60 516 967 2,465 Pentanes Plus 429 -21 - - 11 - - 0 146 182 91 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,844 - - 612 133 - - 60 369 785 2,375 Ethane/Ethylene 1,108 - - 6 0 - - -3 - 65 1,051 Propane/Propylene 1,117 - - 559 112 - - 51 - 615 1,121 Normal Butane/Butylene 324 - - 55 10 - - 12 169 98 110 Isobutane/Isobutylene 296 - - -7

  8. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    325 28 3,799 1,686 3,675 115 96 3,748 247 5,536 Crude Oil 48 - - - - 624 421 112 3 1,121 79 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 277 -1 39 46 -12 - - 3 35 45 267 Pentanes Plus 32 -1 - - 0 0 - - 0 2 2 28 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 245 - - 39 46 -12 - - 2 33 43 239 Ethane/Ethylene 84 - - 0 - -87 - - 0 - - -2 Propane/Propylene 110 - - 37 41 76 - - 3 - 38 223 Normal Butane/Butylene 36 - - 2 1 0 - - -1 23 6 11 Isobutane/Isobutylene 14 - - -1 4 0 - - 0 10 0 7 Other Liquids - - 29 -

  9. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    572 926 4,517 2,414 -493 14 125 4,312 433 5,079 Crude Oil 1,876 - - - - 2,305 -411 -20 109 3,561 79 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 696 -19 112 70 -45 - - 6 92 253 463 Pentanes Plus 88 -19 - - 0 127 - - 2 18 172 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 608 - - 112 70 -172 - - 4 73 81 460 Ethane/Ethylene 191 - - 0 0 -27 - - 2 - 65 98 Propane/Propylene 274 - - 112 57 -122 - - -2 - 4 318 Normal Butane/Butylene 94 - - 2 7 -26 - - 4 27 12 33 Isobutane/Isobutylene 48 - - -1 6 4 - - 0 46 0

  10. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7,573 102 7,850 3,587 -2,979 156 193 7,261 3,647 5,188 Crude Oil 5,663 - - - - 2,974 261 32 114 8,531 284 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 1,910 -1 398 13 354 - - 51 299 625 1,699 Pentanes Plus 223 -1 - - 11 -81 - - -3 96 1 58 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,687 - - 398 2 435 - - 54 204 624 1,641 Ethane/Ethylene 755 - - 5 - 190 - - -4 - - 955 Propane/Propylene 599 - - 360 0 156 - - 52 - 551 512 Normal Butane/Butylene 131 - - 40 2 67 - - 6 86 66 81 Isobutane/Isobutylene 202 -

  11. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,133 24 3,064 1,374 512 111 10 2,897 404 2,907 Crude Oil 1,067 - - - - 1,122 154 72 16 2,391 8 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 66 0 50 6 0 - - 0 71 36 16 Pentanes Plus 30 0 - - 0 - - - 0 25 2 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 36 - - 50 6 0 - - 0 46 34 13 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - - - - - - - - - 0 Propane/Propylene 12 - - 41 5 - - - -2 - 22 39 Normal Butane/Butylene 12 - - 7 0 - - - 2 25 12 -20 Isobutane/Isobutylene 11 - - 3 0 0 - - 0 21 0 -6 Other Liquids - - 24 - - 114 306 23 3

  12. U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4,878 4,948 5,002 5,154 5,658 5,206 1973-2016 Crude Oil 364 374 508 591 662 383 1920-2016 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 1,246 1,245 1,079 1,147 1,367 1,144 1981-2016 Pentanes Plus 199 223 200 220 228 208 1984-2016 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,047 1,022 879 927 1,139 936 1973-2016 Ethane/Ethylene 84 76 85 86 94 80 1981-2016 Propane/Propylene 866 884 673 700 894 742 1973-2016 Normal Butane/Butylene 91 57 117 132 148 108 1981-2016 Isobutane/Isobutylene 5 5 5 8 3 5 1984-2016

  13. U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9,734 10,020 10,002 9,829 10,183 10,076 1973-2016 Crude Oil 7,675 7,910 8,042 7,637 7,946 7,611 1920-2016 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 200 220 144 116 136 116 1981-2016 Pentanes Plus 11 10 0 0 19 0 1981-2016 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 189 210 144 116 116 116 1973-2016 Ethane 1 1993-2016 Ethylene 1993-2015 Propane 127 167 98 80 81 69 1995-2016 Propylene 20 24 24 23 20 27 1993-2016 Normal Butane 24 7 5 0 2 6 1995-2016 Butylene 4 3 3 2 3 4 1993-2016 Isobutane 13 10 14 10 11

  14. U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    19,055 19,680 19,616 19,264 19,202 19,833 1963-2016 Crude Oil 0 0 0 0 0 0 1981-2016 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs 2,957 2,724 2,507 2,297 2,261 2,194 1981-2016 Pentanes Plus 59 1 63 42 30 50 1981-2016 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,898 2,723 2,444 2,255 2,230 2,144 1973-2016 Ethane/Ethylene 1,104 1,094 1,116 1,075 1,084 1,080 1981-2016 Propane/Propylene 1,577 1,490 1,160 918 894 815 1973-2016 Normal Butane/Butylene 109 57 72 150 125 137 1981-2016 Isobutane/Isobutylene 108 83 96 112 128 112 1981-2016

  15. From PADD 1 to PADD 2 Movements by Tanker, Pipeline, Barge and Rail

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 13,204 11,523 13,511 13,263 14,289 13,924 1986-2016 Crude Oil 115 90 125 91 76 73 1986-2016 Petroleum Products 13,089 11,433 13,386 13,172 14,213 13,851 1986-2016 Pentanes Plus 10 10 10 10 10 11 2009-2016 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3,947 3,528 3,803 3,541 4,012 3,681 1986-2016 Ethane/Ethylene 3,884 3,465 3,740 3,478 3,949 3,619 2013-2016 Propane/Propylene 45 45 45 45 45 44 2005-2016 Normal Butane/Butylene 5 5

  16. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of 0-A12O3- Supported Vanadium Oxide Catalysts for Butane Dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Zili; Kim, Hack-Sung; Stair, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction; Structure of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Supported Vanadia Catalysts; Quantification of Surface VOx Species on Supported Vanadia Catalysts; Conclusion; Acknowledgements; and References.

  17. Field pilot tests for tertiary recovery using butane and propane injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacheco, E.F.; Garcia, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    This work describes a pilot project for tertiary recovery of liquid hydrocarbons through LPG injection in water-out sections of the Bolivar reservoir in La Pena Field, Santa Cruz, Boliva. The promising results obtained in the initial field miscibility tests, as well as the results from a mathematical model built to stimulate and evaluate the tertiary recovery project, directed subsequent work into a cyclic scheme for enhanced recovery. This scheme is explained and injection production data is presented. Field facilities built to handle both the injected LPG and the produced oil-LPG mixture are described. The oil/LPG ratio and the LPG recovered/injected fraction are the main factors measured in this to make further considerations for a full scale project.

  18. U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    590,718 570,721 608,108 577,923 595,262 594,978 1981-2016 Crude Oil 0 0 0 0 0 0 1981-2016 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs 91,675 79,004 77,710 68,899 70,078 65,822 1981-2016 Pentanes Plus 1,837 28 1,953 1,249 936 1,510 1981-2016 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 89,838 78,975 75,758 67,650 69,142 64,312 1981-2016 Ethane/Ethylene 34,222 31,731 34,598 32,255 33,595 32,401 1981-2016 Propane/Propylene 48,892 43,203 35,967 27,530 27,723 24,435 1981-2016 Normal Butane/Butylene 3,385 1,645 2,229 4,495 3,868 4,109

  19. U.S. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Stocks by Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels ...

  20. Characterization and permeation properties of ZSM-5 tubular membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coronas, J.; Falconer, J.L.; Noble, R.D.

    1997-07-01

    ZSM-5 zeolite membranes with reproducible properties were prepared by in-situ synthesis on porous {alpha}- and {gamma}-alumina tubular supports and characterized by XRD, SEM and electron microprobe analysis. Single-gas permeances for H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}, CO{sup 2}, n-butane, and i-butane increase over some temperature range, but some gases exhibit maxima or minima. The highest ideal selectivities at room temperature are 299 for N{sub 2}/SF{sub 6}, 392 for H{sup 2}/n-butane, and 2,820 for H{sub 2}/i-butane. These membranes can separate n-butane/i-butane, H{sub 2}/n-butane and H{sub 2}/i-butane mixtures. All n-butane/i-butane separation selectivities have maxima as a function of temperature and are higher than ideal selectivities because n-butane inhibits i-butane permeation. Thus, separation is not by size selectivity, but is due to pore blocking. Temperature dependencies of single-gas permeances and separation selectivities depend strongly on the location of zeolite crystals and the location is determined by preparation procedure. Ideal selectivities also depend strongly on the preparation procedure. When the zeolite forms a continuous layer on the inside surface of the support tubes, pure i-butane permeates faster than pure n-butane so that the single-gas permeances are not determined just by molecular size. The i-butane permeance also increases much more with temperature than the n-butane permeance. The permeation behavior may be the result of permeation through nonzeolitic pores in parallel with zeolite pores. When zeolite crystals are dispersed throughout the pores of {alpha}-alumina supports, permeances are lower and gas permeation and separation properties are quite different. Ideal selectivities are lower, pure n-butane permeates faster than i-butane, and the permeances increase much less with temperature. Separation selectivities are lower but can be maintained to higher temperatures.

  1. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of No. 2 Distillate

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale Contents * Introduction * Motor Gasoline Summer Volatility (RVP) Regulations o Table 1. Summer Volatility Regulations for Motor Gasoline o Table 2. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Figure 1. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Table 3. Price Relationship Between Normal Butane and Motor Gasoline o Table 4. Market Price Premium for Low Vapor Pressure (RVP) Gasoline *

  2. Environmental Regulatory Framework

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Protection

    Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale Contents * Introduction * Motor Gasoline Summer Volatility (RVP) Regulations o Table 1. Summer Volatility Regulations for Motor Gasoline o Table 2. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Figure 1. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Table 3. Price Relationship Between Normal Butane and Motor Gasoline o Table 4. Market Price Premium for Low Vapor

  3. Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale Contents * Introduction * Motor Gasoline Summer Volatility (RVP) Regulations o Table 1. Summer Volatility Regulations for Motor Gasoline o Table 2. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Figure 1. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Table 3. Price Relationship Between Normal Butane and Motor Gasoline o Table 4. Market Price Premium for Low Vapor Pressure (RVP) Gasoline *

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    fuel or power source excluding propane, butane, napht... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial Savings Category: Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Process Heat, Wind (All),...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    those that are used for the primary purpose of converting natural gas or fuel oil to an alternate fuel or power source excluding propane, butane, napht... Eligibility:...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    are those that are used for the primary purpose of converting natural gas or fuel oil to an alternate fuel or power source excluding propane, butane, napht... Eligibility:...

  7. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    bbld from 2013, and a new record high. Increased exports of motor gasoline and hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL), including propane and butane, were the main contributors to the...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    natural gas or fuel oil to an alternate fuel or power source excluding propane, butane, napht... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial Savings Category: Geothermal Electric,...

  9. --No Title--

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of legacy Compressed Gas Cylinders that contain, but not limited to: acetylene, argon, boron trifluoride, butane, carbon dioxide, Freon, helium, hydrogen, krypton, liquid...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    conversion facilities are those that are used for the primary purpose of converting natural gas or fuel oil to an alternate fuel or power source excluding propane, butane,...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    facilities are those that are used for the primary purpose of converting natural gas or fuel oil to an alternate fuel or power source excluding propane, butane, napht......

  12. Total Blender Net Input of Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids OxygenatesRenewables Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol...

  13. Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toy, Lora G.; Pinnau, Ingo

    1996-01-01

    A process for separating C.sub.3 + hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane.

  14. Slide 1

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scenario A significant amount of natural gas extracted from Marcellus and Utica shale formations in the Appalachian Basin contains valuable liquids, such as propane, butane and ...

  15. Fact #674: May 9, 2011 Petroleum Trade Balance | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Note: Trade balance exports minus imports. Includes crude oil, petroleum preparations, liquefied propane and butane, and other mineral fuels. Supporting Information Petroleum ...

  16. Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toy, L.G.; Pinnau, I.

    1996-03-26

    A process is described for separating C{sub 3}+ hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane. 6 figs.

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of converting natural gas or fuel oil to an alternate fuel or power source excluding propane, butane, napht... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial Savings Category: Geothermal...

  18. Environment/Health/Safety (EHS)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ethyl ketone, lacquer thinner. Ignitable compressed gases: hydrogen, methane, acetylene, propane, butane, spray-paint cans. Oxidizers: ammonium persulfate, sodium nitrate,...

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Similarly, di-n-propyl- or di-n-butylether gives Cp'2Ce(O-n-Pr) and propane or Cp'2Ce(O-n-Bu) and butane, respectively. Using Cp'2CeD, the propane and butane contain deuterium ...

  20. Microsoft Word - lblsubethers.doc

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Similarly, di-n-propyl- or di-n-butylether gives Cp' 2 Ce(O-n- Pr) and propane or Cp' 2 Ce(O-n-Bu) and butane, respectively. Using Cp' 2 CeD, the propane and butane contain ...

  1. Splitting a C-O bond in dialkylethers withbis(1,2,4-tri-t-butylcyclop...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Similarly, di-n-propyl- or di-n-butylether gives Cp'2Ce(O-n-Pr) and propane or Cp'2Ce(O-n-Bu) and butane, respectively. Using Cp'2CeD, the propane and butane contain deuterium ...

  2. Interaction of alkanes with an amorphous methanol film at 15-180 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souda, Ryutaro

    2005-09-15

    The hydrogen-bond imperfections and glass-liquid transition of the amorphous methanol film have been investigated on the basis of the film dewetting and the incorporation/desorption of alkane molecules adsorbed on the surface. The butane is incorporated completely in the bulk of the porous methanol film up to 70 K. At least two distinct states exist for the incorporated butane; one is assignable to solvated molecules in the bulk and the other is weakly bound species at the surface or in the subsurface site. For the nonporous methanol film, the uptake of butane in the bulk is quenched but butane forms a surface complex with methanol above 80 K. The butane incorporated in the bulk of the glassy methanol film is released at 120 K, where dewetting of the methanol film occurs simultaneously due to evolution of the supercooled liquid phase.

  3. Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. Final report, August 26, 1993--August 26, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, B.C.

    1996-12-31

    Motivated by the goal of finding improved catalysts for low- temperature conversion of light alkanes into fuel components or precursors of fuel components, the researchers have investigated sulfated zirconia and promoted sulfated zirconia for conversion of butane, propane, and ethane. Catalyst performance data for sulfated zirconia promoted with iron and manganese show that it is the most active noncorrosive, nonhalide catalyst known for n-butane isomerization, and it is an excellent candidate catalyst for new low- temperature n-butane isomerization processes to make isobutane, which can be converted by established technology into methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). Various transition metals have been found to work as promoters of sulfated zirconia for n-butane isomerization. The combination of iron and manganese is the best known combination of promoters yet discovered. The iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia is also a catalyst for conversion of propane and of ethane. Ethane is converted into ethylene and butanes in the presence of the iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia; propane is also converted into butane, among other products. However, the activities of the catalyst for these reactions are orders of magnitude less than the activity for n-butane conversion, and there is no evidence that the catalyst would be of practical value for conversion of alkanes lighter than butane. The product distribution data for ethane and propane conversion provide new insights into the nature of the catalyst and its acidity. These data suggest the involvement of Olah superacid chemistry, whereby the catalyst protonates the alkane itself, giving carbonium ions (as transition states). The mechanism of protonation of the alkane may also pertain to the conversion of butane, but there is good evidence that the butane conversion also proceeds via alkene intermediates by conventional mechanisms of carbenium ion formation and rearrangement.

  4. Effect of operating conditions and membrane quality on the separation performance of composite silicalite-1 membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graaf, J.M. van de; Bijl, E. van der; Stol, A.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulign, J.A.

    1998-10-01

    The separation capacity of silicalite-1 membranes for various hydrocarbon mixtures is determined as a function of membrane quality, operating conditions, and orientation of the composite membrane with respect to the feed side. The quality of the membranes is judged on the basis of the n-butane/i-butane permselectivity. Membranes with a different n-butane/i-butane permselectivity showed an identical separation capacity for ethane/methane mixtures, but the quality difference was affecting separation of hydrogen from the butane isomers. The selectivity of the membrane is significantly affected by the operating conditions, such as mixture composition, temperature, and absolute pressure. These effects are shown for ethane/methane, propene/ethene, and n-butane/i-butane mixtures. The selectivity for ethane in ethane/methane mixtures, found when the zeolite layer is facing the feed side, is completely lost when the orientation of the composite membrane is reversed, due to concentration polarization. Depending on the membrane orientation, the major resistance of the composite is in the support layer or in the zeolite layer.

  5. Separation of vapour and gas mixtures using a thin zeolite MFI membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vroon, Z.A.E.P.; Gilde, M.J.; Kiezer, K.

    1994-12-31

    Zeolite MFI composite membranes were prepared by in situ crystallisation. A very thin (L < 5 {mu}m) polycrystalline MFI layer was grown on a flat {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} support (pore radii 80 nm). XRD and SEM showed that the layer was built of small MFI particles ({+-}200 nm). The single gas flux of methane, n-butane and iso-butane are respectively 9.7, 2.7 and 0.032 10{sup -3} mol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1} at 25{degrees}C and 100 kPa. The separation of n-butane/methane is reversible. At 25{degrees}C it is possible to separate n-butane from methane. At 200{degrees}C it is possible to separate methane from n-butane. The separation factor for 50 n-butane/50 iso-butane is 26 at 50{degrees}C. Experiments with large molecules showed that the zeolite MFI membrane contains no pores larger than inherent to the zeolite.

  6. Make aromatics from LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doolan, P.C. ); Pujado, P.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists mainly of the propane and butane fraction recovered from gas fields, associated petroleum gas and refinery operations. Apart from its use in steam cracking and stream reforming, LPG has few petrochemical applications. The relative abundance of LPG and the strong demand for aromatics - benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) - make it economically attractive to produce aromatics via the aromatization of propane and butanes. This paper describes the Cyclar process, which is based on a catalyst formulation developed by BP and which uses UOP's CCR catalyst regeneration technology, converts propane, butanes or mixtures thereof to petrochemical-quality aromatics in a single step.

  7. Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Qualifying energy conversion facilities are those that are used for the primary purpose of converting natural gas or fuel oil to an alternate fuel or power source excluding propane, butane, napht...

  8. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.

  9. EIA-782C,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... across State boundaries and local marketing areas, and sells the product to local ... not include the propane portion of any natural gas liquid mixes, e.g., butane-propane mix. ...

  10. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Pentanes Plus 4 Total Ethane 2 Isobutane Normal Butane 3 Propane 2,3 Total 1949 53 8 11 61 ... 2 Reported production of ethane-propane mixtures has been allocated 70 percent ...

  11. Table 5.10 Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, 1949-2011 (Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Ethane 2 Isobutane Normal Butane 3 Propane 2,3 Total 1949 19,210 3,056 4,182 22,283 ... NANot available. 2Reported production of ethane-propane mixtures has been allocated 70 ...

  12. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    butane, and isobutane rose 2.2%, 3.0%, and 3.2%, respectively, while the prices of propane and ethane fell by 0.4% and 3.2%, respectively. more summary data PricesDemand...

  13. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    propane, and butane; and many other products used for their energy or chemical content. ... This "green" coke may be sold as is or further purified by calcining. Natural Gas A ...

  14. Webb report adds support for choosing LPG as a motor fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses a study on choosing propane and butane as an alternate transportation fuel (ATF). According to this article, the results of the study indicate that propane and butane have met two of the challenges facing selection of an ATF: there is a ready supply of the product and conversion equipment is easily available. Primary goals identified by the study are presented and discussed.

  15. Selective aromatization of C[sub 3] and C[sub 4] paraffins over modified encilite catalysts. 1. Qualitative study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, A.K.; Rao, M.S. . Department of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-06-01

    The catalytic activity of Zn-encilite in the aromatization of propane and n-butane has been studied by a comparative study of the yields of benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) using propane and n-butane as feeds. The results showed that n-butane had better activity and selectivity to BTX than propane. The effects of reaction temperature, contact time, inlet concentration, poisoning with ammonia on H-encilite, and different degrees of ion exchange with Zn[sup 2+] ion were studied in detail in order to obtain information on the reaction mechanism. The results indicated that the activity and the selectivity were dictated by the acidity and Zn loading on the catalyst.

  16. Dehydrogenation links LPG to more octanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gussow, S.; Spence, D.C.; White, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Air Products and Chemicals Inc.'s Houdry Catofin process, a new application of well-known Houdry catalytic dehydrogenation technology, is an adiabatic, fixed-bed, multireactor catalytic process which produces propylene, isobutylene, and mixed n-butylenes by dehydrogenation of the corresponding saturates. The process is very flexible in that propylene, isobutylene, and mixed n-butylenes can be produced either separately or simultaneously from the corresponding saturates. The process will be used to prepare purity propylene at a Morelos, Mex., plant, which is now in the engineering stage. Five variations of the procedure for producing propylene; methyl tert.-butyl ether; propylene and alkylate; methyl tert.-butyl ether and alkylate; and methyl tert.-butyl ether, alkylate, and 1-butylene are compared with respect to typical product yields, costs and values for process economics, the dehydrogenation route to the three products, manufacturing costs, the sensitivity of return on investment to feedstock costs, and the return on investment, which varies from a low of 11.5% for the third case to a high of 14.4% for the fourth case. The Catofin process is discussed.

  17. Asia, North America lead way in growth of NGL, LPG trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otto, K.; Gist, R.; Whitley, C.; Haun, R.

    1998-01-12

    Recent analyses of world NGL trade indicate that important changes in LPG supply and demand are under way in Asia and North America. LPG markets in the 1990s reflect a rapidly shifting balance between East-of-Suez and West-of-Suez markets. This shift has increased concern about availability of future LPG supplies for Asia. The paper discusses world developments, East versus West of Suez, end uses and supplies in Asia, Canadian ethane, propane, butane, and natural gasoline, Mexican ethane, LPG, and natural gasoline, US ethane, propane, butanes, and iso-C{sub 4} and C{sub 5}.

  18. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Total, 1949-2011 By Product, 2011 By Selected Product, 1949-2011 138 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Source: Table 5.10. 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 Thousand Barrels per Day 909 618 295 208 152 Ethane Propane Pentanes Isobutane Normal 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 Thousand Barrels per Day Plus Butane Isobutane Normal Butane Propane 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

  19. Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. DOE PETC fourth quarterly report, May 25, 1994--August 24, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate the potential value of solid superacid catalysts of the sulfated zirconia type for light hydrocarbon conversion. The key experiments include testing of the performance of such catalysts in a flow reactor fed with streams containing, for example, n-butane or propane. A solid superacid catalyst was prepared by addition of iron and manganese to sulfated zirconium hydroxide followed by calcination. The catalyst was tested for n-butane conversion in a packed-bed flow reactor at temperatures of 40 to 225{degrees}C with the reactant partial pressure in the range of 0.0025-0.01 attn. The predominant catalytic reaction was n-butane isomerization, and this was accompanied at 40{degrees}C by near stoichiometric disproportionation. The C3/C5 molar ratio was generally greater than 1, consistent with conversion of the secondary C5 products. As the temperature increased, the selectivity for isomerization decreased and that for disproportionation increased. In a typical experiment the activity of the catalyst increased for about 1 h on stream and then declined rapidly. The rate maxima as a function of time on stream were taken as a measure of the initial activity of the catalyst. For example, the approximate rate of isomerization of n-butane at the maximum was 4.3 x 10-8 mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot} s) with a feed n-butane partial pressure of 0.0025 atm at 75{degrees}C. With a feed n-butane partial pressure of 0.005 atm at 40{degrees}C and a conversion of 1 1%, the molar ratio of propane to i-butane was 0.03, and with the same feed composition at 100{degrees}C, this ratio at a conversion of 50% was 0.1. The iron- and manganese-promoted solid superacid catalyst is potentially of value for practical low-temperature paraffin isomerization accompanied by disproportionation of n-butane.

  20. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Huang, Y.Y.

    1998-07-28

    Methods are disclosed for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physical sorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics. 17 figs.

  1. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H.; Huang, Yin-Yan

    1998-01-01

    Methods for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physisorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics.

  2. Regioselective alkane hydroxylation with a mutant AlkB enzyme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Daniel J.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2012-11-13

    AlkB from Pseudomonas putida was engineered using in-vivo directed evolution to hydroxylate small chain alkanes. Mutant AlkB-BMO1 hydroxylates propane and butane at the terminal carbon at a rate greater than the wild-type to form 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively. Mutant AlkB-BMO2 similarly hydroxylates propane and butane at the terminal carbon at a rate greater than the wild-type to form 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively. These biocatalysts are highly active for small chain alkane substrates and their regioselectivity is retained in whole-cell biotransformations.

  3. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Pentanes Plus 30 - 1 -17 - 0 6 1 6 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 172 4 9 -141 - 0 9 1 34 EthaneEthylene 82 0 0 -76 - 0 0 0 6 PropanePropylene 57 8 7 -39 - 0 0 0 33 Normal Butane...

  4. In situ vibrational spectroscopic investigation of C{sub 4} hydrocarbon selective oxidation over vanadium-phosphorus-oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Z.Y.

    1999-05-10

    n-Butane selective oxidation over the VPO catalyst to maleic anhydride is the first and only commercialized process of light alkane selective oxidation. The mechanism of this reaction is still not well known despite over twenty years of extensive studies, which can partially be attributed to the extreme difficulties to characterize catalytic reactions real-time under typical reaction conditions. In situ spectroscopic characterization techniques such as Infrared spectroscopy and laser Raman spectroscopy were used in the current mechanistic investigations of n-butane oxidation over VPO catalysts. To identify the reaction intermediates, oxidation of n-butane, 1,3-butadiene and related oxygenates on the VPO catalyst were monitored using FTIR spectroscopy under transient conditions. n-Butane was found to adsorb on the VPO catalyst to form olefinic species, which were further oxidized to unsaturated, noncyclic carbonyl species. The open chain dicarbonyl species then experienced cycloaddition to form maleic anhydride. VPO catalyst phase transformations were investigated using in situ laser Raman spectroscopy. This report contains Chapter 1: General introduction; Chapter 2: Literature review; and Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations.

  5. Influence of NaA Zeolite Crystal Expansion/Contraction on Zeolite Membrane Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, Stephanie G; Payzant, E Andrew; Gibbons, Will T; Soydas, Belma; Kita, Hidetoshi; Noble, Richard D; Falconer, John L.

    2011-01-01

    In-situ powder XRD measurements showed that the NaA zeolite unit cell contracts and expands upon adsorption, and these changes in zeolite crystal size correlate with permeation changes through NaA zeolite membranes. These membranes had high pervaporation selectivities, even though gas permeation was mainly through defects, as indicated by Knudsen selectivities for gases. At 300 K and a thermodynamic activity of 0.03, water contracted the NaA crystals by 0.22 vol%, and this contraction increased the helium flux through two NaA membranes by approximately 80%. Crystal contraction also increased the fluxes of i-butane during vapor permeation and i-propanol (IPA) during pervaporation (~ 0.03 wt% water). At activities above 0.07, water expanded NaA crystals and correspondingly decreased the membrane fluxes of helium, i-butane, and IPA. Similarly, methanol contracted NaA crystals by 0.05 vol% at an activity of 0.02, and this contraction slightly increased the helium and i-butane fluxes through a NaA membrane. Above an activity of 0.06, methanol expanded the crystals, and the fluxes of helium and i-butane through a NaA membrane decreased. The adsorbate-induced changes explain some pervaporation behavior reported by others, and they indicate that crystal expansion and contraction may increase or decrease zeolite NaA membrane selectivity by changing the defect sizes.

  6. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications: Subtask 3.3 - dewatering studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, R. H.; Phillips, D. I.; Sohn, S. M.; Luttrell, G. H.

    1996-10-01

    If successful, the novel Hydrophobic Dewatering (HD) process being developed in this project will be capable of efficiently removing moisture from fine coal without the expense and other related drawbacks associated with mechanical dewatering or thermal drying. In the HD process, a hydrophobic substance is added to a coal-water slurry to displace water from the surface of coal, while the spent hydrophobic substance is recovered for recycling. For this process to have commercialization potential, the amount of butane lost during the process must be small. Earlier testing revealed the ability of the hydrophobic dewatering process to reduce the moisture content of fine coal to a very low amount as well as the determination of potential butane losses by the adsorption of butane onto the coal surface. Work performed in this quarter showed that the state of oxidation affects the amount of butane adsorbed onto the surface of the coal and also affects the final moisture content. the remaining work will involve a preliminary flowsheet of a continuous bench-scale unit and a review of the economics of the system. 1 tab.

  7. MEMS-based fuel cells with integrated catalytic fuel processor and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Havstad, Mark A.

    2011-08-09

    Described herein is a means to incorporate catalytic materials into the fuel flow field structures of MEMS-based fuel cells, which enable catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbon based fuel, such as methane, methanol, or butane. Methods of fabrication are also disclosed.

  8. Roaming radical pathways for the decomposition of alkanes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harding, L. B.; Klippenstein, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    CASPT2 calculations predict the existence of roaming radical pathways for the decomposition of propane, n-butane, isobutane and neopentane. The roaming radical paths lead to the formation of an alkane and an alkene instead of the expected radical products. The predicted barriers for the roaming radical paths lie {approx}1 kcal/mol below the corresponding radical asymptotes.

  9. Ventilation of liquefied petroleum gas components from the Valley of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, S.; Blake, D.R.; Sherwood Rowland, F.; Lu, R.; Brown, M.J.; Williams, M.D.; Russell, A.G.; Bossert, J.E.; Streit, G.E.; Santoyo, M.R.; Guzman, F.; Porch, W.M.; McNair, L.A.; Keyantash, J.; Kao, C.J.; Turco, R.P.; Eichinger, W.E.

    1997-09-01

    The saturated hydrocarbons propane and the butane isomers are both indirect greenhouse gases and key species in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Leakage of LPG and its component alkanes/alkenes is now thought to explain a significant fraction of the volatile organic burden and oxidative potential in the basin which confines Mexico City. Propane and the butanes, however, are stable enough to escape from the basin. The gas chromatographic measurements which have drawn attention to their sources within the urban area are used here to estimate rates of ventilation into the free troposphere. The calculations are centered on several well studied February/March pollution episodes. Carbon monoxide observations and emissions data are first exploited to provide a rough time constant for the removal of typical inert pollutant species from the valley. The timescale obtained is validated through an examination of meteorological simulations of three-dimensional flow. Heuristic arguments and transport modeling establish that propane and the butanes are distributed through the basin in a manner analogous to CO despite differing emissions functions. Ventilation rates and mass loadings yield outbound fluxes in a box model type computation. Estimated in this fashion, escape from the Valley of Mexico constitutes of the order of half of 1{percent} of the northern hemispheric inputs for both propane and n-butane. Uncertainties in the calculations are detailed and include factors such as flow into the basin via surface winds and the size of the polluted regime. General quantification of the global propane and butane emissions from large cities will entail studies of this type in a variety of locales.{copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

  10. Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. DOE PETC third quarterly report, February 25, 1994--May 24, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    Environmental concerns are leading to the replacement of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline by high-octane-number branched paraffins and oxygenated compounds such as methyl t-butyl ether. The ether is produced from methanol and isobutylene, and the latter can be formed from n-butane by isomerization followed by dehydrogenation. Paraffin isomerization reactions are catalyzed by very strong acids such as aluminum chloride supported on alumina. The aluminum chloride-containing catalysts are corrosive, and their disposal is expensive. Alternatively, hydroisomerization is catalyzed by zeolite-supported metals at high temperatures, but high temperatures do not favor branched products at equilibrium. Thus there is a need for improved catalysts and processes for the isomerization of n-butane and other straight-chain paraffins. Consequently, researchers have sought for solid acids that are noncorrosive and active enough to catalyze isomerization of paraffins at low temperatures. For example, sulfated zirconia catalyzes isomerization of n-butane at temperatures as low as 25{degrees}C. The addition of iron and manganese promoters has been reported to increase the activity of sulfated zirconia for n-butane isomerization by three orders of magnitude. Although the high activity of this catalyst is now established, the reaction network is not known, and the mechanism has not been investigated. The goal of this work is to investigate low-temperature reactions of light paraffins catalyzed by solid superacids of the sulfated zirconia type. The present report is concerned with catalysis of n-butane conversion catalyzed by the Fe- and Mn- promoted sulfated zirconia described in the previous report in this series.

  11. Composites structures for bone tissue reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neto, W.; Santos, João; Avérous, L.; Schlatter, G.; Bretas, Rosario

    2015-05-22

    The search for new biomaterials in the bone reconstitution field is growing continuously as humane life expectation and bone fractures increase. For this purpose, composite materials with biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite (HA) have been used. A composite material formed by a film, nanofibers and HA has been made. Both, the films and the non-woven mats of nanofibers were formed by nanocomposites made of butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and HA. The techniques used to produce the films and nanofibers were spin coating and electrospinning, respectively. The composite production and morphology were evaluated. The composite showed an adequate morphology and fibers size to be used as scaffold for cell growth.

  12. Cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazoline) magnesium and zirconium complexes in aminoalkene hydroaminations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Eedugurala, Naresh; Hovey, Megan; Ho, Hung -An; Jana, Barun; Lampland, Nicole L.; Ellern, Arkady; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2015-11-25

    Here, a new class of cyclopentadiene-bis(oxazoline) compounds and their piano-stool-type organometallic complexes have been prepared as catalysts for hydroamination of aminoalkenes. The two compounds MeC(OxMe2)2C5H5 (BoMCpH; OxMe2 = 4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline) and MeC(OxMe2)2C5Me4H (BoMCptetH) are synthesized from C5R4HI (R = H, Me) and MeC(OxMe2)2Li. These cyclopentadiene-bis(oxazolines) are converted into ligands that support a variety of metal centers in piano-stool-type geometries, and here we report the preparation of Mg, Tl, Ti, and Zr compounds. BoMCpH and BoMCptetH react with MgMe2(O2C4H8)2 to give the magnesium methyl complexes {BoMCp}MgMe and {BoMCptet}MgMe. BoMCpH and BoMCptetH are converted to BoMCpTl and BoMCptetTl by reaction with TlOEt. Themore » thallium derivatives react with TiCl3(THF)3 to provide [{BoMCp}TiCl(μ-Cl)]2 and [{BoMCptet}TiCl(μ-Cl)]2, the former of which is crystallographically characterized as a dimeric species. BoMCpH and Zr(NMe2)4 react to eliminate dimethylamine and afford {BoMCp}Zr(NMe2)3, which is crystallographically characterized as a monomeric four-legged piano-stool compound. {BoMCp}Zr(NMe2)3, {BoMCp}MgMe, and {BoMCptet}MgMe are efficient catalysts for the hydroamination/cyclization of aminoalkenes under mild conditions.« less

  13. U.S. LPG pipeline begins deliveries to Pemex terminal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodenhamer, K.C.

    1997-08-11

    LPG deliveries began this spring to the new Mendez LPG receiving terminal near Juarez, State of Chihuahua, Mexico. Supplying the terminal is the 265-mile, 8-in. Rio Grande Pipeline that includes a reconditioned 217-mile, 8-in. former refined-products pipeline from near Odessa, Texas, and a new 48-mile, 8-in. line beginning in Hudspeth County and crossing the US-Mexico border near San Elizario, Texas. Capacity of the pipeline is 24,000 b/d. The LPG supplied to Mexico is a blend of approximately 85% propane and 15% butane. Before construction and operation of the pipeline, PGPB blended the propane-butane mix at a truck dock during loading. Demand for LPG in northern Mexico is strong. Less than 5% of the homes in Juarez have natural gas, making LPG the predominant energy source for cooking and heating in a city of more than 1 million. LPG also is widely used as a motor fuel.

  14. Thermal decomposition of Mg/V hydrotalcites and catalytic performance of the products in oxidative dehydrogenation reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holgado, M.J.; Labajos, F.M.; Montero, M.J.S.; Rives, V

    2003-11-26

    Layered double hydroxides with the hydrotalcite-type structure containing Mg{sup 2+} and V{sup 3+} in the brucite-like layers, possessing different V contents, have been prepared and characterised by elemental chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and specific surface area and porosity assessment by nitrogen adsorption; thermal decomposition was studied by Differential Thermal Analysis and Thermogravimetric Analysis. The solids obtained after calcination at 800 deg. C were tested as catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane and n-butane. Results indicate that the relative amounts of Mg{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}) and MgO, depending on the V content in the starting hydrotalcite, determines the performance of the catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of propane and n-butane.

  15. Solvothermal synthesis of vanadium phosphates in the form of xerogels, aerogels and mesostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sydorchuk, V.; Zazhigalov, V.; Khalameida, S.; Diyuk, E.; Skubiszewska-Zieba, J.; Leboda, R.; Kuznetsova, L.

    2010-09-15

    Regularities and peculiarities of physicochemical changes, first of all phase transformations, during solvothermal treatment (with conventional and microwave heating) of the vanadium pentoxide and orthophosphoric acid mixture in organic solvents in the presence of reducing agents have been studied. Hemihydrate of vanadium hydrophosphate - the precursor of vanadium pyrophosphate, the active phase for n-butane to maleic anhydride oxidation, and ion exchanger with variable physicochemical characteristics, i.e. crystal structure, specific surface area, crystallite size and acidic properties - has been synthesized in the temperature range 170-200 {sup o}C. The obtained phases were examined using XRD, DTA-TG, SEM, FTIR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption as well as gas chromatographic determination of acidity through organic bases adsorption. The catalytic activity of prepared samples for n-butane oxidation has been investigated.

  16. Synthesis of SnO{sub 2} Nanoparticles Using Ultrasonication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, Sanhita; Devi, P. Sujatha

    2010-10-04

    The use of ultrasonic energy for chemical synthesis has recently become an interesting and growing area of research. Using this form of energy, we have synthesized nanoparticles of SnO{sub 2}(8-30 nm) at room temperature by a sonication assisted precipitation technique. In order to understand the effect of ultrasonic energy on particle size and their distribution, the precipitation time was varied during the preparation. A sonication time of 3 h was found to be optimum to produce SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles having size below 10 nm. We found that a gradual increase of the sonication time gradually decreases the particle size with interesting morphology and increased surface area. The butane sensing properties of the synthesized powders exhibited a direct influence of the sonication time on the sensing properties. A 3 h sonicated sample, exhibited a maximum response of around 98.88% towards 5000 ppm butane at 450 deg. C with a fast recovery time.

  17. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  19. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  20. Catalyst Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol transformation to transportation fuel range hydrocarbon on HZSM-5 (SiO2 / Al2O3 = 30) catalyst was studied at 360oC and 300psig. Product distributions and catalyst life were compared using methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 1-butanol as a feed. The catalyst life for 1-propanol and 1-butanol was more than double compared to that for methanol and ethanol. For all the alcohols studied, the product distributions (classified to paraffin, olefin, napthene, aromatic and naphthalene compounds) varied with time on stream (TOS). At 24 hours TOS, liquid product from 1-propanol and 1-butanol transformation primarily contains higher olefin compounds. The alcohol transformation process to higher hydrocarbon involves a complex set of reaction pathways such as dehydration, oligomerization, dehydrocyclization, and hydrogenation. Compared to ethylene generated from methanol and ethanol, oligomerization of propylene and butylene has a lower activation energy and can readily take place on weaker acidic sites. On the other hand, dehydrocyclization of propylene and butylene to form the cyclic compounds requires the sits with stronger acid strength. Combination of the above mentioned reasons are the primary reasons for olefin rich product generated in the later stage of the time on stream and for the extended catalyst life time for 1 propanol and 1 butanol compared to methanol and ethanol conversion over HZSM-5.

  1. Integrated experimental and theoretical study of the thermophysical properties of fluid mixtures. Annual report, September 1984-September 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done in the twelve months from September 30, 1984. Results include: PVT data for methanol (to 300/sup 0/C) and benzene (to 450/sup 0/C); basic studies of a fluid in nonequilibrium; high temperature VLE data for CO/sub 2//butane; viscosity experimental data and predictive procedures on association for coal liquids, and results on the phenomenon of shear induced phase changes.

  2. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Lease Condensate Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Lease Condensate A mixture consisting primarily of pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons which is recovered as a liquid from natural gas in lease separation facilities. This category excludes natural gas plant liquids, such as butane and propane, which are recovered at downstream natural gas processing plants or facilities. Production, Lease Condensate The volume of lease condensate produced during the report year. Lease condensate volumes

  3. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plant Processing Definitions Key Terms Definition Extraction Loss The reduction in volume of natural gas due to the removal of natural gas liquid constituents such as ethane, propane, and butane at natural gas processing plants. Natural Gas Processed Natural gas that has gone through a processing plant. Natural Gas Processing Plant A facility designed to recover natural gas liquids from a stream of natural gas which may or may not have passed through lease separators and/or field separation

  4. Getting Energized

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Getting Energized Elementary School Curriculum Created by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Click on the links below to take you to the Chapter heading: Materials list Activity Guide Energy Sources Energy Uses/Limits Energy Conversion Energy Conservation Energy for the Future Student Assessments Student Evaluation Getting Energized Equipment and Materials List Item/Activity Number Activity 1 Butane Lighter Coal (Bituminous) Amount Where to find 1-Demo Discount /Grocery (Target,

  5. U.S. Refineries Competitive Positions

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Refineries Competitive Positions 2014 EIA Energy Conference July 14, 2014 Joanne Shore American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers Refiners competitive positions Function of optimizing feedstock costs, operating costs, and revenues through mix of products sold 2 Propane/butane Chemicals Gasoline Jet Fuel Diesel/heating oil Lubes Fuel for ships Asphalt FEEDSTOCKS Qualities: - Heavy/Light - Sweet/Sour Location (Distance) - Domestic - International PROCESSING Size Complexity Treating (sulfur)

  6. Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Crude Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils,

  7. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Processing Area Definitions Key Terms Definition Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB)

  8. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Input Definitions Key Terms Definition Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor

  9. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and Blender Net Inputs Definitions Key Terms Definition Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Blending Plant A facility which has no

  10. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Stocks Definitions Key Terms Definition All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and

  11. U.S. States - SEDS - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Refineries Competitive Positions 2014 EIA Energy Conference July 14, 2014 Joanne Shore American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers Refiners competitive positions Function of optimizing feedstock costs, operating costs, and revenues through mix of products sold 2 Propane/butane Chemicals Gasoline Jet Fuel Diesel/heating oil Lubes Fuel for ships Asphalt FEEDSTOCKS Qualities: - Heavy/Light - Sweet/Sour Location (Distance) - Domestic - International PROCESSING Size Complexity Treating (sulfur)

  12. Expansion fractionation capacity of the LPG-ULE plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morin, L.M.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Western Division of PDVSA has among other facilities a NGL Fractionation Complex located onshore in Ul'e. The complex consists of three plants, the first and second older plants, LPG-1 and LPG-2, which fractionate the NGL to produce propane, a butane mix and natural gasoline. The third plant, LPG-3, fractionates the butane mix from the LPG-1 and 2 plants to produce iso and normal butane. Several optimization projects already in progress will increase the NGL production to 12,200 b/d. For this reason it was decided to conduct a study of the existing fractionation facilities and utilities systems to determine their capacities. This evaluation revealed that some of the fractionation towers would have some limitations in the processing of the expected additional production. The study recommended an option to increase the capacity of the fractionation towers by lowering their operating pressure, in order to take advantage of relative volatility increase between the key components, which allows easier separation, as well as reducing the heat duty required. The completed study also determined that this option is more economically convenient than the replacement of the existing fractionation towers.

  13. Physics of the multi-functionality of lanthanum ferrite ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhargav, K. K.; Ram, S.; Majumder, S. B.

    2014-05-28

    In the present work, we have illustrated the physics of the multifunctional characteristics of nano-crystalline LaFeO{sub 3} powder prepared using auto-combustion synthesis. The synthesized powders were phase pure and crystallized into centro-symmetric Pnma space group. The temperature dependence of dielectric constant of pure LaFeO{sub 3} exhibits dielectric maxima similar to that observed in ferroelectric ceramics with non-centrosymmetric point group. The dielectric relaxation of LaFeO{sub 3} correlates well with small polaron conduction. The occurrence of polarization hysteresis in LaFeO{sub 3} (with centro-symmetric Pnma space group) is thought to be spin current induced type. The canting of the Fe{sup 3+} spins induce weak ferromagnetism in nano-crystalline LaFeO{sub 3}. Room temperature saturation magnetization of pure LaFeO{sub 3} is reported to be 3.0?emu/g. Due to the presence of both ferromagnetic as well as polarization ordering, LaFeO{sub 3} behaves like a single phase multiferroic ceramics. The magneto-electric coupling in this system has been demonstrated through the magneto-dielectric measurements which yield about 0.8% dielectric tuning (at 10?kHz) with the application of 2?T magnetic field. As a typical application of the synthesized nano-crystalline LaFeO{sub 3} powder, we have studied its butane sensing characteristics. The efficient butane sensing characteristics have been correlated to their catalytic activity towards oxidation of butane. Through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, we detect the surface adsorbed oxygen species on LaFeO{sub 3} surface. Surface adsorbed oxygen species play major role in their low temperature butane sensing. Finally, we have hypothesized that the desorbed H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} (originate from surface adsorbed hydroxyl and oxygen) initiate the catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane resulting in weakening of the electrostatics of the gas molecules.

  14. Studies on the catalytic activity of zirconia promoted with sulfate, iron, and manganese

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, K.T.; Khouw, C.B.; Davis, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    The catalytic properties of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia (SFMZ) for the isomerization of n-butane to isobutane are investigated using various catalyst pretreatments and reaction conditions. The n-butane isomerization reactivity at 30{degrees}C is effected by calcination of the catalyst at 650{degrees}C in helium and vacuum treatment at room temperature indicating that superacidity is not likely to be responsible for activity. In addition, SFMZ samples exposed to dry air at over 450{degrees}C are more active than those calcined in helium at a reaction temperature of 30{degrees}C (n-butane conversions of 18.7% vs 0.4%) suggesting the presence of an active site involving a metal {open_quotes}oxy{close_quotes} species. The oxy species is capable of reacting CO to CO{sub 2} at room temperature and is present at a number density of 10-15 {mu}mol/g. At a reaction temperature of 100{degrees}C, SFMZ catalysts calcined in air then activated in helium show similar reactivities to those activated in air up to a preheating temperature of 450{degrees}C; above 450{degrees}C the metal oxy species is formed and provides additional activity (n-butane conversions of 37.1% in air vs 15.4% in He for calcinations at 650{degrees}C). The nature of the active sites on SFMZ are investigated using temperature-programmed desorption of substituted benzenes. The liberation of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in the benzene TPD profile of SFMZ is attributed to the oxidation of benzene at the redox-active metal sites, resulting in the subsequent decomposition of the reduced iron (II) sulfate. Data from the TPD studies do not suggest the presence of superacidity on SFMZ that could contribute to the low-temperature n-butane isomerization activity. Instead, a bifunctional mechanism that involves a combination of a redox-active metal site and an acid site in close proximity is proposed. 62 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Luminescence-Based Spectroelectrochemical Sensor for [Tc(dmpe)3]2+/+ (dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane) within a Charge-Selective Polymer Film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Sayandev; Del Negro, Andrew S.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Kaval, Necati; Pantelic, Nebojsa; Morris, Laura K.; Heineman, W. R.; Seliskar, Carl J.

    2011-03-01

    A spectroelectrochemical sensor consisting of an indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrode (OTE) coated with a thin film of sulfonated polystyrene-blockpoly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene (SSEBS) was developed for [Tc(dmpe)3]+.. [Tc(dmpe)3]+ preconcentrated by ion-exchange into the SSEBS film after 20 min exposure to aqueous [Tc(dmpe)3]+ solution, resulting in a 14-fold increase in cathodic peak current compared to a bare OTE. Colorless [Tc(dmpe)3]+ was reversibly oxidized to colored [Tc(dmpe)3]2+ by cyclic voltammetry. Detection of [Tc(dmpe)3]2+ was accomplished by electrochemically cycling the complex between non-emissive [Tc(dmpe)3]+ and emissive [Tc(dmpe)3]2+ and monitoring the modulated emission (?exc = 532 nm; ?em = 660 nm). The sensor gave a linear response over the range of 0.16 to 340.0 M.

  16. Additive agent for zinc alloy electrolyte and process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bammel, B.D.

    1986-07-01

    An aqueous acidic electrolyte is described suitable for electrodepositing zinc alloys on a substrate comprising zinc ions and at least one additional metal ion selected from the group consisting nickel, cobalt, iron and mixtures thereof present in an amount sufficient to electrodeposit a zinc alloy, and, for providing improved grain-refinement and enhancing the codeposition of the alloying metals in the zinc alloy deposit. An effective amount of an additive agent consists of a bath-soluble anionic carboxylated polyoxyalkylene compound derived from the carboxylation of: (a) the polymerization of alkylene oxides selected from the group consisting of ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, glycidol, butylene oxide and mixtures thereof; and (b) the alkoxylation of mono and polyhydroxy compounds selected from the group consisting of hydroxyl containing alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, as well as mixtures thereof.

  17. Amphiphilic Surface Active Triblock Copolymers with Mixed Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Side Chains for Tuned Marine Fouling-Release Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, D.; Weinman, C; Finlay, J; Fletcher, B; Paik, M; Sundaram, H; Dimitriou, M; Sohn, K; Callow, M; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Two series of amphiphilic triblock surface active block copolymers (SABCs) were prepared through chemical modification of two polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene ABC triblock copolymer precursors. The methyl ether of poly(ethylene glycol) [M{sub n} {approx} 550 g/mol (PEG550)] and a semifluorinated alcohol (CF{sub 3}(CF{sub 2}){sub 9}(CH{sub 2}){sub 10}OH) [F10H10] were attached at different molar ratios to impart both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups to the isoprene segment. Coatings on glass slides consisting of a thin layer of the amphiphilic SABC deposited on a thicker layer of an ABA polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene thermoplastic elastomer were prepared for biofouling assays with algae. Dynamic water contact angle analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) measurements were utilized to characterize the surfaces. Clear differences in surface structure were realized as the composition of attached side chains was varied. In biofouling assays, the settlement (attachment) of zoospores of the green alga Ulva was higher for surfaces incorporating a large proportion of the hydrophobic F10H10 side chains, while surfaces with a large proportion of the PEG550 side chains inhibited settlement. The trend in attachment strength of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva did not show such an obvious pattern. However, amphiphilic SABCs incorporating a mixture of PEG550 and F10H10 side chains performed the best. The number of cells of the diatom Navicula attached after exposure to flow decreased as the content of PEG550 to F10H10 side chains increased.

  18. Hydrophobic Dewatering of Fine Coal. Topical report, March 1, 1995-March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, R.; Sohn, S.; Luttrell, J.; Phillips, D.

    1997-12-31

    Many advanced fine coal cleaning technologies have been developed in recent years under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy. However, they are not as widely deployed in industry as originally anticipated. An important reason for this problem is that the cleaned coal product is difficult to dewater because of the large surface area associated with fine particles. Typically, mechanical dewatering, such as vacuum filtration and centrifugation, can reduce the moisture to 20-35% level, while thermal drying is costly. To address this important industrial problem, Virginia Tech has developed a novel dewatering process, in which water is displaced from the surface of fine particulate materials by liquid butane. Since the process is driven by the hydrophobic interaction between coal and liquid butane, it was referred to as hydrophobic dewatering (HD). A fine coal sample with 21.4 pm median size was subjected to a series of bench-scale HD tests. It was a mid-vol bituminous coal obtained from the Microcel flotation columns operating at the Middle Fork coal preparation plant, Virginia. All of the test results showed that the HD process can reduce the moisture to substantially less than 10%. The process is sensitive to the amount of liquid butane used in the process relative to the solids concentration in the feed stream. Neither the intensity nor the time of agitation is critical for the process. Also, the process does not require long time for phase separation. Under optimal operating conditions, the moisture of the fine coal can be reduced to 1% by weight of coal.

  19. State of Terengganu: A development plan for the petrochemical industry and its associated downstream industries. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-08

    This study, conducted by Chem Systems, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Terengganu's State Economic Planning Unit. The main objectives of the report are to: (1) Identify and list all medium stream and downstream activities, including services in petrochemical industries, using natural gas-derived ethane, propane, and butane as main feedstock and other linkages; (2) List the various enterprises noted above that can be economically and viably established in Terengganu; (3) Identify and locate the various sites for the projects identified. This is volume 1 of 2 and it contains the Final Report.

  20. State of Terengganu: A development plan for the petrochemical industry and its associated downstream industries. Appendix. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    The study, conducted by Chem Systems, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Terengganu's State Economic Planning Unit. The main objectives of the report are to: (1) Identify and list all medium stream and downstream activities, including services in petrochemical industries, using natural gas-derived ethane, propane, and butane as main feedstock and other linkages; (2) List the various enterprises noted above that can be economically and viably established in Terengganu; (3) Identify and locate the various sites for the projects identified. This is volume 2 of 2 and it contains the Appendix.

  1. New and existing gas wells promise bountiful LPG output in Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Michigan remains the leading LP-gas producer in the Northeast quadrant of the U.S. This paper reports that boosted by a number of new natural gas wells and a couple of new gas processing plants, the state is firmly anchored in the butane/propane production business. Since 1981, more than 100 deep gas wells, most in excess of 8000 feet in depth, have been completed as indicated producers in the state. Many of these are yielding LPG-grade stock. So, combined with LPG-grade production from shallower geologic formations, the supply picture in this area looks promising for the rest of the country.

  2. Process for restoring membrane permeation properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo; Toy, Lora G.; Casillas, Carlos G.

    1997-05-20

    A process for restoring the selectivity of high-flee-volume, glassy polymer membranes for condensable components over less-condensable components or non-condensable components of a gas mixture. The process involves exposing the membrane to suitable sorbent vapor, such as propane or butane, thereby reopening the microvoids that make up the free volume. The selectivity of an aged membrane may be restored to 70-100% of its original value. The selectivity of a membrane which is known to age over time can also be maintained by keeping the membrane in a vapor environment when it is not in use.

  3. Process for restoring membrane permeation properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, I.; Toy, L.G.; Casillas, C.G.

    1997-05-20

    A process is described for restoring the selectivity of high-free-volume, glassy polymer membranes for condensable components over less-condensable components or non-condensable components of a gas mixture. The process involves exposing the membrane to suitable sorbent vapor, such as propane or butane, thereby reopening the microvoids that make up the free volume. The selectivity of an aged membrane may be restored to 70--100% of its original value. The selectivity of a membrane which is known to age over time can also be maintained by keeping the membrane in a vapor environment when it is not in use. 8 figs.

  4. H. R. 5916: A Bill to require the President of the United States to use the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in the event of a domestic energy supply shortage, to amend the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and the Export Administration Act of 1979 to prohibit the exportation of refined petroleum products except under certain circumstances, and for other purposes, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session, October 24, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The bill amends the Energy Policy and Conservation Act by making mandatory the use of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in the event of a domestic energy supply shortage. The restriction on the export of refined petroleum products refers to gasoline, kerosene, heating oils, jet fuel, diesel fuel, residual fuel oil, propane, butane, and any natural liquid or natural gas liquid product refined within the US or entered for consumption within the US. The bill also describes the appointment of special investigator to investigate possible gouging and market manipulation by oil companies and the sense of Congress concerning the cost of deployment and maintenance of United States troops in Saudi Arabia.

  5. LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE IRRADIATION OF SOLID ETHANE ANALOG ICES AND IMPLICATIONS TO TITAN'S CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y. S.; Bennett, C. J.; Chen, L-H; Kaiser, R. I.; O'Brien, K.

    2010-03-10

    Pure ethane ices (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) were irradiated at 10, 30, and 50 K under contamination-free, ultrahigh vacuum conditions with energetic electrons generated in the track of galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) particles to simulate the interaction of GCRs with ethane ices in the outer solar system. The chemical processing of the samples was monitored by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and a quadrupole mass spectrometer during the irradiation phase and subsequent warm-up phases on line and in situ in order to extract qualitative (products) and quantitative (rate constants and yields) information on the newly synthesized molecules. Six hydrocarbons, methane (CH{sub 4}), acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}), ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}), and the ethyl radical (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}), together with n-butane (C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and butene (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}), were found to form at the radiation dose reaching 1.4 eV per molecule. The column densities of these species were quantified in the irradiated ices at each temperature, permitting us to elucidate the temperature and phase-dependent production rates of individual molecules. A kinetic reaction scheme was developed to fit column densities of those species produced during irradiation of amorphous/crystalline ethane held at 10, 30, or 50 K. In general, the yield of the newly formed molecules dropped consistently for all species as the temperature was raised from 10 K to 50 K. Second, the yield in the amorphous samples was found to be systematically higher than in the crystalline samples at constant temperature. A closer look at the branching ratios indicates that ethane decomposes predominantly to ethylene and molecular hydrogen, which may compete with the formation of n-butane inside the ethane matrix. Among the higher molecular products, n-butane dominates. Of particular relevance to the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan is the radiation-induced methane production from ethane-an alternative source of replenishing methane into the

  6. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-08-18

    Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Bio-butanol: Combustion properties and detailed chemical kinetic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, G.; Curran, H.J.; Pichon, S.; Simmie, J.M.; Zhukov, V.

    2010-02-15

    Autoignition delay time measurements were performed at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1 and 2 for butan-1-ol at reflected shock pressures of 1, 2.6 and 8 atm at temperatures from 1100 to 1800 K. High-level ab initio calculations were used to determine enthalpies of formation and consequently bond dissociation energies for each bond in the alcohol. A detailed chemical kinetic model consisting of 1399 reactions involving 234 species was constructed and tested against the delay times and also against recent jet-stirred reactor speciation data with encouraging results. The importance of enol chemistry is highlighted. (author)

  8. Silicon Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Chip for Portable Consumer Electronics -- Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Ludwiszewski

    2009-06-29

    LSIs fuel cell uses efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology, is manufactured using Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS) fabrication methods, and runs on high energy fuels, such as butane and ethanol. The companys Fuel Cell on a Chip technology enables a form-factor battery replacement for portable electronic devices that has the potential to provide an order-of-magnitude run-time improvement over current batteries. Further, the technology is clean and environmentally-friendly. This Department of Energy funded project focused on accelerating the commercialization and market introduction of this technology through improvements in fuel cell chip power output, lifetime, and manufacturability.

  9. Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durkan, Colm Zhang, Qian

    2014-08-25

    An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress. The resulting nanogap devices are used to measure the electrical properties of small numbers of two different molecular species with different end-groups, namely 1,4-butane dithiol and 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane. Fluctuations in the current reveal that in the case of the dithiol molecule devices, individual molecules conduct intermittently, with the fluctuations becoming more pronounced at larger biases.

  10. An integrated process for simultaneous desulfurization, dehydration, and recovery of hydrocarbon liquids from natural gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sciamanna, S.F. ); ))

    1988-01-01

    Conventional processing schemes for desulfurizing, drying, and separation of natural gas liquids from natural gas streams require treating the gas by a different process for each separation step. In a simpler process, based on the University of California, Berkeley Sulfur Recovery Process (UCBSRP) technology, hydrogen sulfide, propane and heavier hydrocarbons, and water are absorbed simultaneously by a polyglycol ether solvent containing a homogenous liquid phase catalyst. The catalyst promotes the subsequent reaction of hydrogen sulfide with added sulfur dioxide to produce a high quality sulfur product. Hydrocarbons are separated as two product streams with the split between propane and butane. This new process offers an overall reduction in both capital and energy costs.

  11. Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of different fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Bei-Jing; Yang, Fan; Yang, Qing-Tao

    2010-10-15

    Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of methane (CH{sub 4}), n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and dimethyl ether (DME) were studied experimentally in a Pt-coated monolith catalytic reactor. It is concluded that DME has the lowest catalytic ignition temperature and the least required H{sub 2} flow, while CH{sub 4} has the highest catalytic ignition temperature and the highest required H{sub 2} flow among the three fuels. (author)

  12. Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S. 102,401 96,538 108,784 105,106 111,388 108,530 1981-2016 PADD 1

  13. Regioselective alkane hydroxylation with a mutant CYP153A6 enzyme

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koch, Daniel J.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2013-01-29

    Cytochrome P450 CYP153A6 from Myobacterium sp. strain HXN1500 was engineered using in-vivo directed evolution to hydroxylate small-chain alkanes regioselectively. Mutant CYP153A6-BMO1 selectively hydroxylates butane and pentane at the terminal carbon to form 1-butanol and 1-pentanol, respectively, at rates greater than wild-type CYP153A6 enzymes. This biocatalyst is highly active for small-chain alkane substrates and the regioselectivity is retained in whole-cell biotransformations.

  14. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, Gunnar I.; Dietz, Russell N.

    1994-01-01

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

  15. Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dali; Orler, Bruce; Tornga, Stephanie; Welch, Cindy

    2011-01-26

    Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study

  16. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

    1994-04-05

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

  17. Thermodynamic properties of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). Interim report 15 Aug 75-31 Jan 77 (final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sallet, D.W.; Wu, K.F.

    1980-04-01

    The thermodynamic properties of several liquefied petroleum gases (with particular emphasis on propane) are discussed in detail. It is concluded that the widely used propane data by Stearns and George are too inconsistent and too inaccurate to be used for mass flow calculations of propane and propane mixtures through safety valves of rail tank cars. Accordingly, the thermodynamic properties of propane, propylene, n-butane, and a mixture of 65% (by mole) propane, 25% propylene, and 10% n-butane are recalculated using equations of states proposed by Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWR) and by Starling. It is shown that Starling's equation results in thermodynamic properties which are more consistent and compare better with measured values than the BWR equation. Thermodynamic data for the four liquefied petroleum gases discussed above are calculated and presented in tabular form. In addition, predictions of pure propane mass flow rates (based upon isentropic), homogeneous equilibrium flow) are given. The influence of the thermodynamic data upon the predicted mass flow rates is demonstrated.

  18. Evolution of gas processing industry in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Showail, A.

    1983-01-01

    The beginning of the natural gas processing industry in Saudi Arabia is traced back to 1959 when Aramco embarked on a program to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) for export from low pressure gases such as stabilizer overhead, spheroid, tank farm, and refinery off-gases. The processing scheme involves compression and refrigeration to extract C3+ raw NGL, a raw NGL gathering system, and a fractionation plant to separate propane, butane, and natural gasoline. NGL extracted in Abqaiq and Ras Tanura is moved to Ras Tanura for fractionation, storage, and export. The system, built in several increments, has total design capacity of 500 MMscfd of feed gases to produce 320,000 bpd of NGL composed of 40% propane, 30% butane, and 30% natural gasoline. Phase II of the Saudi gas program envisages collection and processing of associated gas produced with Arabian medium and heavy crude oils largely in the northern onshore and offshore fields. Further domestic development may focus on more diversification in gas product utilization and on upgrading to higher value products.

  19. Simple rules help select best hydrocarbon distillation scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchezllanes, M.T.; Perez, A.L.; Martinez, M.P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Rosal, R. del )

    1993-12-06

    Separation economics depend mainly on investment for major equipment and energy consumption. This relationship, together with the fact that, in most cases, many alternative schemes will be proposed, make it essential to find an optimum scheme that minimizes overall costs. Practical solutions are found by applying heuristics -- exploratory problem-solving techniques that eliminate alternatives without applying rigorous mathematical procedures. These techniques have been applied to a case study. In the case study, a hydrocarbon mixture will be transported through a pipeline to a fractionation plant, where it will be separated into commercial products for distribution. The fractionation will consist of a simple train of distillation columns, the sequence of which will be defined by applying heuristic rules and determining the required thermal duties for each column. The facility must separate ethane, propane and mixed butanes, natural gasoline (light straight-run, or LSR, gasoline), and condensate (heavy naphtha). The ethane will be delivered to an ethylene plant as a gaseous stream, the propane and butanes will be stored in cryogenic tanks, and the gasoline and heavy naphtha also will be stored.

  20. Source profiles for nonmethane organic compounds in the atmosphere of Cairo, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doskey, P. V.; Fukui, Y.; Sultan, M.; Maghraby, A. A.; Taher, A.; Environmental Research; Cairo Univ.

    1999-07-01

    Profiles of the sources of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) were developed for emissions from vehicles, petroleum fuels (gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and natural gas), a petroleum refinery, a smelter, and a cast iron factory in Cairo, Egypt. More than 100 hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons were tentatively identified and quantified. Gasoline-vapor and whole-gasoline profiles could be distinguished from the other profiles by high concentrations of the C{sub 5} and C{sub 6} saturated hydrocarbons. The vehicle emission profile was similar to the whole-gasoline profile, with the exception of the unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, which were present at higher concentrations in the vehicle emission profile. High levels of the C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} saturated hydrocarbons, particularly n-butane, were characteristic features of the petroleum refinery emissions. The smelter and cast iron factory emissions were similar to the refinery emissions; however, the levels of benzene and toluene were greater in the former two sources. The LPG and natural gas emissions contained high concentrations of n-butane and ethane, respectively. The NMOC source profiles for Cairo were distinctly different from profiles for U.S. sources, indicating that NMOC source profiles are sensitive to the particular composition of petroleum fuels that are used in a location.

  1. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its potential impact of Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-12-01

    Seventy eight whole air samples were collected at various park locations throughout Mexico City and later assayed for methane, carbon monoxide, 20 halocarbons and 40 C{sub 2}-C{sub 10} hydrocarbons. Propane had the highest median mixing ratio value of all assayed non-methane hydrocarbon compounds (NMHCs) with a concentration as high as 0.1 ppmv. The concentration of n-butane, i-butane, n-pentane and i-pentane were all notably elevated as well. The only significant identified source of propane in Mexico City is liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which also has a strong component of C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} alkanes. All of these alkanes were present at concentrations well above those observed in other cities where LPG is not the main domestic fuel. Data strongly suggest that as much as 50% of total Mexico City NMHCs is a result of losses associated with the transfer, storage and delivery of LPG. Additionally, using median concentrations and laboratory determined hydroxyl reaction rate constants, LPG emissions account for about 20% of initial reactivities. This suggests that LPG losses may significantly impact photochemical oxidant levels in Mexico City.

  2. Isobutane ignition delay time measurements at high pressure and detailed chemical kinetic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Healy, D.; Curran, H.J.; Donato, N.S.; Aul, C.J.; Petersen, E.L.; Zinner, C.M.; Bourque, G.

    2010-08-15

    Rapid compression machine and shock-tube ignition experiments were performed for real fuel/air isobutane mixtures at equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2. The wide range of experimental conditions included temperatures from 590 to 1567 K at pressures of approximately 1, 10, 20, and 30 atm. These data represent the most comprehensive set of experiments currently available for isobutane oxidation and further accentuate the complementary attributes of the two techniques toward high-pressure oxidation experiments over a wide range of temperatures. The experimental results were used to validate a detailed chemical kinetic model composed of 1328 reactions involving 230 species. This mechanism has been successfully used to simulate previously published ignition delay times as well. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed to gain further insight to the chemical processes occurring at various conditions. Additionally, useful ignition delay time correlations were developed for temperatures greater than 1025 K. Comparisons are also made with available isobutane data from the literature, as well as with 100% n-butane and 50-50% n-butane-isobutane mixtures in air that were presented by the authors in recent studies. In general, the kinetic model shows excellent agreement with the data over the wide range of conditions of the present study. (author)

  3. Optimizing C{sup 4+} and C{sup 5+} beams of the Kei2 electron cyclotron resonance ion source using a special gas-mixing technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drentje, A.G.; Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.

    2006-03-15

    With the prototype electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the next carbon therapy facility in Japan a series of measurements has been performed in order (a) to find the best condition for producing high beam currents of C{sup 4+} ions, and (b) to study the effect of 'special' gas mixing by using a chemical compound as a feed gas. The effect would then appear as an increase in high charge state production in this case of C{sup 5+} ions. In 'regular' gas-mixing experiments it is well known that an isotopic phenomenon occurs: a heavier isotope of the mixing gas is increasing the production of high charge states of the beam gas ions. A similar isotopic effect has been found in the present experiment: with deuterated methane (CD{sub 4} gas) the C{sup 5+} beam currents are about 10% higher than with regular methane (CH{sub 4} gas). The 'mixing-gas' ratio D (or H) to C can be decreased by choosing, e.g., butane gas; in this case the isotopic effect for C{sup 5+} production is even stronger (>15%). For production of C{sup 4+} ions the isotopic effect appears to be absent. Clearly this is related to the much easier production. It turns out that the relative amount of carbon is much more important: butane gives about 10% higher C{sup 4+}-ion currents than methane.

  4. Ultrahigh and High Resolution Structures and Mutational Analysis of Monomeric Streptococcus pyogenes SpeB Reveal a Functional Role for the Glycine-rich C-terminal Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzlez-Pez, Gonzalo E.; Wolan, Dennis W.

    2012-09-05

    Cysteine protease SpeB is secreted from Streptococcus pyogenes and has been studied as a potential virulence factor since its identification almost 70 years ago. Here, we report the crystal structures of apo mature SpeB to 1.06 {angstrom} resolution as well as complexes with the general cysteine protease inhibitor trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and a novel substrate mimetic peptide inhibitor. These structures uncover conformational changes associated with maturation of SpeB from the inactive zymogen to its active form and identify the residues required for substrate binding. With the use of a newly developed fluorogenic tripeptide substrate to measure SpeB activity, we determined IC{sub 50} values for trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and our new peptide inhibitor and the effects of mutations within the C-terminal active site loop. The structures and mutational analysis suggest that the conformational movements of the glycine-rich C-terminal loop are important for the recognition and recruitment of biological substrates and release of hydrolyzed products.

  5. Combustion characteristics of alternative gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, O.; Veloo, Peter S.; Liu, N.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental flame properties of mixtures of air with hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C{sub 1}C{sub 4} saturated hydrocarbons were studied both experimentally and numerically. The fuel mixtures were chosen in order to simulate alternative gaseous fuels and to gain insight into potential kinetic couplings during the oxidation of fuel mixtures. The studies included the use of the counterflow configuration for the determination of laminar flame speeds, as well as extinction and ignition limits of premixed flames. The experiments were modeled using the USC Mech II kinetic model. It was determined that when hydrocarbons are added to hydrogen flames as additives, flame ignition, propagation, and extinction are affected in a counterintuitive manner. More specifically, it was found that by substituting methane by propane or n-butane in hydrogen flames, the reactivity of the mixture is reduced both under pre-ignition and vigorous burning conditions. This behavior stems from the fact that propane and n-butane produce higher amounts of methyl radicals that can readily recombine with atomic hydrogen and reduce thus the rate of the H + O{sub 2} ? O + OH branching reaction. The kinetic model predicts closely the experimental data for flame propagation and extinction for various fuel mixtures and pressures, and for various amounts of carbon dioxide in the fuel blend. On the other hand, it underpredicts, in general, the ignition temperatures.

  6. Performance of a new LMRPC prototype for the STAR MTD system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruan, L.J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Ding, W. C.; Qiu, X. Z.; Wang, J. B.; Zhu, X. L.; Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, Y. J.; Ruan, L.; Xu, Z.; Asselta, K.; Christie, W.; D'Agostino, C.; Dunlop, J.; Landgraf, J.; Ljubicic, T.; Scheblein, J.; Soja, R.; Tang, A. H.; Ullrich, T.; Crawford, H. J.; Engelage, J.; Sanchez, M. Calderon de la Barca; Reed, R.; Liu, H. D.; Butterworth, J.; Eppley, G.; Geurts, F.; Llope, W. J.; McDonald, D.; Nussbaum, T.; Roberts, J.; Xin, K.; Bridges, L.; Li, J. C.; Qian, S.; Ning, Z.; Chen, H. F.; Huang, B. C.; Li, C.; Shao, M.; Sun, Y. J.; Tang, Z. B.; Wang, X. L.; Xu, Y. C.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zeng, H.; Zhou, Y.; Clarke, R.; Mioduszewski, S.; Davila, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Li, L.; Markert, C.; Ray, L.; Schambach, J.; Thein, D.; Wada, M.; Ahammed, Z.; Bhaduri, P. P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dutt-Mazumdar, M. R.; Ghosh, P.; Khan, S. A.; Muhuri, S.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, T. K.; Pal, S.; Singaraju, R.; Singhal, V.; Tribedy, P.; Viyogi, Y. P.

    2011-03-21

    A new prototype of a Long-Strip Multi-Gap Resistive Plate Chamber (LMRPC) for the STAR Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) at RHIC has been developed. This prototype has an active area of 52 x 90 cm{sup 2} and consists of six 250 {mu}m wide gaps. Each detector has 12 strips, read-out at both ends, which are each 3.8 cm wide and 90 cm long with 0.6 cm intervals. In cosmic-ray tests, the efficiency was larger than 95% and the time resolution was {approx}75 ps for the 94% Freon, 5% iso-butane, and 1% SF{sub 6} gas mixture. There was good uniformity in the performance across the different strips. The module was also tested in a proton beam at IHEP in Beijing. The efficiency was close to 100% and the best timing resolution achieved was 55 ps for the 90% Freon, 5% iso-butane, and 5% SF6 gas mixture. Trigger scans along and across the strip direction were also performed.

  7. Reactivity Screening of Anatase TiO2 Nanotube Arrays and Anatase Thin Films: A Surface Chemistry Point of View

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funk, S.; Hokkanen, B.; Nurkic, T.; Goering, J.; Kadossov, E.; Burghaus, Uwe; Ghicov, A.; Schmuki, P.; Yu, Zhongqing; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2008-09-19

    As a reactivity screening we collected thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) data of iso-butane, O2, CO2, and CO adsorbed on ordered TiO2 nanotube (TiNTs) arrays. As a reference system iso-butane adsorption on an anatase TiO2 thin film has been considered as well. The as-grown TiNTs are vertically aligned and amorphous. Polycrystalline (poly.) anatase or poly. anatase/rutile mixed nanotubes are formed by annealing confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The anatase thin film was grown on SrTiO3(001) and characterized by XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Surprisingly, oxygen distinctly interacts with the TiNTs whereas this process is not observed on fully oxidized single crystal rutile TiO2(110). Desorption temperatures of 110-150 K and 100-120 K were observed for CO2 and CO, respectively, on the TiNTs. Variations in the binding energies of the alkanes on TiNTs and anatase thin films also were present, i.e., a structure-activity relationship (SAR) is evident.

  8. Study of autoignition in a premixed charge, internal combustion engine using comprehensive chemical kinetics: experiments and predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimpelfeld, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    A model is developed to predict autoignition in a premixed charge engine. Experimental data are obtained with spark ignition and premixed charge compression ignition. Seven fuels are examined: methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, methanol, ethylene, and propylene. Binary fuel mixtures are also examined, as are the effects of engine speed, equivalence ratio, load, and compression ratio. An initial temperature correction must be used to accurately predict the observed time of autoignition. Analysis of spark-ignited data show that the fuels fall into two groups, depending on the temperature correction ranging from 35 K to 80 K: methane, propane, n-butane, and methanol. Three fuels fall into the group with a temperature correction ranging from 110K and 140K: ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The rate of pressure rise during compression ignition is controlled by varying the fuel-air equivalence ratio. The effects of compression ratio and load on the rate and load on the rate of pressure rise are also examined. The predicted rates of temperature rise during compression ignition are compared to the observed rates of temperature rise.

  9. Oxygenates from light alkanes catalyzed by NO{sub x} in the gas phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otsuka, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Ryo; Yamanaka, Ichiro

    1999-07-01

    The partial oxidations of light alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, and iso-butane) catalyzed by NO{sub x} in the gas phase have been studied at a pressure of less than 1 bar. For all the alkanes tested, the addition of NO to the mixture of alkanes and O{sub 2} enhanced the selectivities and the yields of oxygenates remarkably. It was suggested that NO{sub 2} generated from NO and O{sub 2} initiated the oxidation of alkanes and would specifically accelerate the C-C bond fission, enhancing the formation of C{sub 1}-oxygenates from ethane, propane, and iso-butane. No{sub 2} and NO would be used as a homogeneous catalyst at >600 C because nitroalkanes formed were decomposed completely, releasing the NO{sub x}. The comparison of the product distributions for the decomposition and oxidation of nitroalkanes and alkylnitrites strongly suggested that the oxygenates (HCHO, CH{sub 3}CHO, and CH{sub 3}COCH{sub 3}) were formed from the corresponding alkylnitrites which must be the reaction intermediates during the oxidation of alkanes with an O{sub 2} and NO mixture.

  10. Diffusion of methane and other alkanes in metal-organic frameworks for natural gas storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borah, B; Zhang, HD; Snurr, RQ

    2015-03-03

    Diffusion of methane, ethane, propane and n-butane was studied within the micropores of several metal organic frameworks (MOFs) of varying topologies, including the MOFs PCN-14, NU-125, NU-1100 and DUT-49. Diffusion coefficients of the pure components, as well as methane/ethane, methane/ propane and methane/butane binary mixtures, were calculated using molecular dynamics simulations to understand the effect of the longer alkanes on uptake of natural gas in MOB. The calculated self diffusion coefficients of all four components are on the order of 10(-8) m(2)/s. The diffusion coefficients of the pure components decrease as a function of chain length in all of the MOFs studied and show different behaviour as a function of loading in different MOB. The self-diffusivities follow the trend DPCN-14 < DNU-125 approximate to DNU-1100 < DDUT-49, which is exactly the reverse order of the densities of the MOFs: PCN-14 > NU-125 approximate to NU-1100 > DUT-49. By comparing the diffusion of pure methane and methane mixtures vvith the higher alkancs, it is observed that the diffusivity of methane is unaffected by the presence of the higher alkanes in the MOFs considered, indicating that the diffusion path of methane is not blocked by the higher alkanes present in natural gas. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Superacid catalysis of light hydrocarbon conversion. DOE PETC seventh quarterly progress report, April 1, 1995--July 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, B.C.

    1996-02-01

    Iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia is a catalyst for the conversion of propane, but the rate of conversion of propane is much less than the rate of conversion of butane. Whereas this catalyst appears to be a good candidate for practical, industrial conversion of butane, it appears to lack sufficient activity for practical conversion of propane. The propane conversion data reported here provide excellent insights into the chemistry of the catalytic conversion. Solid and catalysts, namely, sulfated zirconia, iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia, and USY zeolite, were tested for conversion of propane at 1 atm, 200-450{degrees}C, and propane partial pressures in the range of 0.01-0.05 atm. Both promoted and unpromoted sulfated zirconia were found to be active for conversion of propane into butanes, pentanes, methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene in the temperature range of 200-350{degrees}C, but catalyst deactivation was rapid. At the higher temperatures, only cracking and dehydrogenation products were observed. In contrast to the zirconia-supported catalysts, USY zeolite was observed to convert propane (into propylene, methane, and ethylene) only at temperatures {ge}400{degrees}C. The initial (5 min on stream) rates of propane conversion in the presence of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia, sulfated zirconia, and USY zeolite at 450{degrees}C and 0.01 atm propane partial pressure were 3.3 x 10{sup -8}, 0.3 x 10{sup -8}, and 0.06 x 10{sup -8} mol/(s{center_dot}g), respectively. The product distributions in the temperature range 200-450{degrees}C are those of acid-base catalysis, being similar to what has been observed in superacid solution chemistry at temperatures <0{degrees}C. If propane conversion at 450{degrees}C can be considered as a probe of acid strength of the catalyst, the activity comparison suggests that the promoted sulfated zirconia is a stronger acid than sulfated zirconia, which is a stronger acid than USY zeolite.

  12. Potential for Microbial Stimulation in Deep Vadose Zone Sediments by Gas-Phase Nutrients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.W.; Plymale, A. E.; Brockman, F.J.

    2006-04-05

    Viable microbial populations are low, typically 10{sup 4} cells per gram, in deep vadose zones in arid climates. There is evidence that microbial distribution in these environments is patchy. In addition, infiltration or injection of nutrient-laden water has the potential to spread and drive contaminants downward to the saturated zone. For these reasons, there are uncertainties regarding the feasibility of bioremediation of recalcitrant contaminants in deep vadose zones. The objectives of this study were to investigate the occurrence of denitrifying activity and gaseous carbon-utilizing activity in arid-climate deep vadose zone sediments contaminated with, and/or affected by past exposure to, carbon tetrachloride (CT). These metabolisms are known to degrade CT and/or its breakdown product chloroform under anoxic conditions. A second objective was to determine if CT would be degraded in these sediments under unsaturated, bulk-phase aerobic incubation conditions. Both denitrifier population (determined by MPN) and microbial heterotrophic activity (measured by mineralization of 14-C labeled glucose and acetate) were relatively low and the sediments with greater in situ moisture (10-21% versus 2-7%) tended to have higher activities. When sediments were amended with gaseous nutrients (nitrous oxide and triethyl/tributyl phosphate) and gaseous C sources (a mixture of methane, ethane, propylene, propane, and butane) and incubated for 6 months, approximately 50% of the samples showed removal of one or more gaseous C sources, with butane most commonly used (44% of samples), followed by propylene (42%), propane (31%), ethane (22%), and methane (4%). Gaseous N and gaseous P did not stimulate removal of gaseous C substrates compared to no addition of N and P. CT and gaseous C sources were spiked into the sediments that removed gaseous C sources to determine if hydrocarbon-degraders have the potential to degrade CT under unsaturated conditions. In summary, gaseous C sources

  13. A thermogravimetric analysis of catalytic hydroprocessing of a coal-derived liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, X.; Lu, S.; Fu, H.; Dalla Lana, I.G.

    1995-12-31

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has normally been used to study thermal behaviours of solid materials. The extension of this technique to materials in fluid phases is less common. So far there have been very few reports dealing with the application of TGA to solid-catalyzed gas-phase reaction system. Massoth and Cowley described the use of a stirred flow microbalance in studying the catalytic hydrogenation of 1-butane under steady-state reaction conditions. More recently, TGA was combined with techniques such as online MS or GC analysis to study catalytic reactions. However, the use of TGA in studying a solid-catalyzed gas-liquid reaction, especially when the liquid is a relatively non-volatile complex feedstock, is very limited. Results are described on the use of TGA in the hydroprocessing of a coal derived liquid.

  14. Method for forming a chemical microreactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed is a chemical microreactor that provides a means to generate hydrogen fuel from liquid sources such as ammonia, methanol, and butane through steam reforming processes when mixed with an appropriate amount of water. The microreactor contains capillary microchannels with integrated resistive heaters to facilitate the occurrence of catalytic steam reforming reactions. Two distinct embodiment styles are discussed. One embodiment style employs a packed catalyst capillary microchannel and at least one porous membrane. Another embodiment style employs a porous membrane with a large surface area or a porous membrane support structure containing a plurality of porous membranes having a large surface area in the aggregate, i.e., greater than about 1 m.sup.2/cm.sup.3. Various methods to form packed catalyst capillary microchannels, porous membranes and porous membrane support structures are also disclosed.

  15. Risk analysis of an LPG facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daley, H.F.; Chapman, P.D.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes methods used to conduct a safety review of an existing LPG loading, processing, and storage facility. An engineering team conducted a Hazard and Operability study of the plant to identify potential problems. A Probabilistic Risk Assessment was also made on the facility where the probability and consequences of worst case accidents were estimated. Stone and Webster recently completed an analysis of an LPG terminal to determine if there were any engineering, design, or operating deficiencies which could jeopardize the operability of the facility or make operation hazardous. The facility includes a dock for off-loading refrigerated propane and butane, transfer piping from the dock to storage, a heating system, pressurized storage, dehydration, product transfer and loading.

  16. Deflagration to detonation transition in mixtures of alkane LNG/LPG constituents with O/sub 2//N/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstedt, R.P.; Michels, H.J.

    1988-04-01

    Deflagration to detonation transitions (DDT) of methane, methane/ethane, ethane, propane, and butane in mixtures with increasing dilution of nitrogen have been studied in a smooth 2'' id detonation tube with a length/diameter ratio of 220. The results obtained demonstrate the presence of two regimes of DDT depending on the reactivity of the mixture. The first regime displays rapid acceleration to a stable detonation, while the second regime contains a quasistable, strong deflagration of rapidly increasing duration with decreasing mixture reactivity. It is established that the order of DDT under the conditions employed follows the order of autoignition temperatures for the fuels considered. The conditional use of transition parameters for estimates of relative detonabilities based on a qualitative similarity between induction times and times to transition is demonstrated to hold only for the first transition regime.

  17. Process boasts 95% selectivity for LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkmeyer, F.M.; Drehman, L.E.; Olbrich, M.E.; Rohr, D.F.

    1983-03-28

    This article describes a new Phillips catalytic process for the dehydrogenation and/or the dehydrocyclization of paraffinic feedstocks, steam active reforming (STAR), which produces no structural isomerization. Light paraffins such as propane, isobutane, and normal butane can be dehydrogenated to their respective mono-olefins with selectivities as high as 95%. The process offers such advantages as: it will accept a wide range of feedstocks; selectivity to desired products is high; there is a minimum of structural isomerization which permits the production of specific products from particular feedstocks with high purity; it works well with paraffinic and olefinic materials which make poor feeds in conventional reforming processes; and the catalyst has moderate tolerance for sulfur and nitrogen compounds.

  18. Conversion of lpg hydrocarbons to distillate fuels or lubes using integration of lpg dehydrogenation and mogdl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C. D.; Penick, J. E.; Socha, R. F.

    1985-09-17

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for producing distillate and/or lubes which employ integrating catalytic (or thermal) dehydrogenation of paraffins with MOGDL. The process feeds the product from a low temperature propane and/or butane dehydrogenation zone into a first catalytic reactor zone, which operates at low pressure and contains zeolite oligomerization catalysts, where the low molecular weight olefins are reacted to primarily gasoline range materials. These gasoline range materials can then be pressurized to the pressure required for reacting to distillate in a second catalytic reactor zone operating at high pressure and containing a zeolite oligomerization catalyst. The distillate is subsequently sent to a hydrotreating unit and product separation zone to form lubes and other finished products.

  19. Carbon adsorption system protects LPG storage sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gothenquist, C.A.; Rooker, K.M.

    1996-07-01

    Chevron U.S.A. Products Co. installed a carbon adsorption system to protect an LPG storage sphere at its refinery in Richmond, Calif. Vessel damage can result when amine contamination leads to emulsion formation and consequent amine carry-over, thus promoting wet-H{sub 2}S cracking. In Chevron`s No. 5 H{sub 2}S recovery plant, a mixture of butane and propane containing H{sub 2}S is contacted with diethanolamine (DEA) in a liquid-liquid absorber. The absorber is a countercurrent contactor with three packed beds. Because the sweetening system did not include a carbon adsorption unit for amine purification, contaminants were building up in the DEA. The contaminants comprised: treatment chemicals, hydrocarbons, foam inhibitors, and amine degradation products. The paper describes the solution to this problem.

  20. Chemical microreactor and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan

    2005-11-01

    A chemical microreactor suitable for generation of hydrogen fuel from liquid sources such as ammonia, methanol, and butane through steam reforming processes when mixed with an appropriate amount of water contains capillary microchannels with integrated resistive heaters to facilitate the occurrence of catalytic steam reforming reactions. One such microreactor employs a packed catalyst capillary microchannel and at least one porous membrane. Another employs a porous membrane with a large surface area or a porous membrane support structure containing a plurality of porous membranes having a large surface area in the aggregate, i.e., greater than about 1 m.sup.2 /cm.sup.3. The packed catalyst capillary microchannels, porous membranes and porous membrane support structures may be formed by a variety of methods.

  1. Use of look-ahead modeling in pipeline operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, B.; O`Leary, C.

    1995-12-31

    Amoco Canada Petroleum Company, Ltd. operates the Cochin pipeline system. Cochin pumps batched liquid ethane, propane, ethylene, butane, and NGL. Operating and scheduling this pipeline is very complex. There are safety considerations, especially for ethylene, which cannot be allowed to drop below vapor pressure. Amoco Canada needs to know where batches are in the line, what pressure profiles will look like into the future, and when batches arrive at various locations along the line. In addition to traditional instrumentation and SCADA, Amoco Canada uses modeling software to help monitor and operate the Cochin pipeline. Two important components of the modeling system are the Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) and Predictive Model (PM) modules. These modules perform look ahead modeling to assist in operating the Cochin pipeline. The modeling software was first installed for the Cochin system in February of 1994, and was commissioned on August 1, 1994. This paper will discuss how the look ahead modules are used for the Cochin pipeline.

  2. Beowawe Bottoming Binary Unit - Final Technical Report for EE0002856

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, Dale Edward

    2013-02-12

    This binary plant is the first high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a butane based cycle are not necessary. The unit is modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. This project proves the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy for Nevada, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  3. ROSE{reg_sign} - A flexible process for upgrading heavy crude, atmospheric residue, or vaccum residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, K.Z.; Hood, H.L.; Gomez, O.

    1995-12-31

    The ROSE{reg_sign} Pilot Plant was used to evaluate various fractions of Boscan and Zuata heavy crude oils. The results demonstrated the ability of the ROSE process to remove asphaltene fractions using n-pentane, n-butane, or propane as the solvent while leaving behind an oil that has been greatly reduced in its metal, nitrogen, sulfur, and Conradson carbon contents. The recovered oil could then be used as feedstock to a conventional hydrotreater/FCC process combination. The flexibility of the process is evidenced by its ability to process various feeds. Because of this flexibility, the opportunity exists to use the ROSE process at a wellhead location to reduce the diluent requirements for making a suitable pipeline feed. This technology is also able to process changing feeds when upstream units in a refinery are down during major turnarounds, for example, or when there are problems with a vacuum tower or downstream unit.

  4. 4ctab.xlsx

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    HGL Production Natural Gas Processing Plants Ethane ............................................................. 1.05 1.10 1.09 1.20 1.20 1.31 1.25 1.30 1.34 1.38 1.44 1.55 1.11 1.26 1.43 Propane ........................................................... 1.07 1.12 1.13 1.15 1.15 1.16 1.19 1.21 1.19 1.23 1.24 1.26 1.12 1.18 1.23 Butanes ........................................................... 0.58 0.62 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.64 0.67 0.67 0.65 0.68 0.69 0.69 0.62 0.65 0.68 Natural Gasoline

  5. U.S. Blender Net Input

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History Total Input 242,396 238,655 257,960 253,448 266,176 262,899 2005-2016 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 2,044 1,531 1,783 1,315 339 414 2008-2016 Pentanes Plus 489 347 423 177 194 276 2005-2016 Liquid Petroleum Gases 1,555 1,184 1,360 1,138 145 138 2008-2016 Normal Butane 1,555 1,184 1,360 1,138 145 138 2005-2016 Isobutane 2005-2015 Other Liquids 240,352 237,124 256,177 252,133 265,837 262,485 2008-2016

  6. U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    301,768 290,577 310,060 294,858 315,660 302,286 1981-2016 Crude Oil 237,910 229,402 249,300 229,100 246,323 228,320 1920-2016 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 6,189 6,369 4,462 3,491 4,213 3,475 1981-2016 Pentanes Plus 332 289 5 4 604 4 1981-2016 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 5,857 6,080 4,457 3,487 3,609 3,471 1981-2016 Ethane 43 1993-2016 Ethylene 1993-2015 Propane 3,929 4,835 3,045 2,413 2,497 2,060 1995-2016 Propylene 625 682 749 686 623 812 1993-2016 Normal Butane 730 192

  7. U.S. Refinery & Blender Net Input

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History Total 545,351 529,373 583,548 564,902 593,799 590,222 1981-2016 Crude Oil 495,806 460,629 499,255 478,254 504,549 492,960 1981-2016 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 20,717 16,455 15,101 13,489 13,196 12,892 1981-2016 Pentanes Plus 4,878 3,963 4,345 4,213 4,959 4,630 1981-2016 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 15,839 12,492 10,756 9,276 8,237 8,262 1981-2016 Ethane 1981-1992 Normal Butane 9,502 6,776 4,226 2,929 1,957 1,967

  8. Minutes of the tenth meeting of the centers for the analysis of thermal/mechanical energy conversion concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiPippo, R.

    1981-03-01

    The agenda, list of participants, and minutes of the meeting are presented. Included in the appendices are figures, data, outlines, etc. from the following presentations: 500 kW Direct-Contact Heat Exchanger Pilot Plant; LBL/EPRI Heat Exchanger Field Test, Critical Temperature and Pressure Comparisons for n-Butane/n-Pentane Mixtures; Second Law Techniques in the Correlation of Cost-Optimized Binary Power Plants; Outline of Chapter on Geothermal Well Logging; Outline and Highlights from Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program Annual Progress: October 1979-September 1980; Geothermal Well Stimulation; World Update on Installed Geothermal Power Plants; Baca No. 1 Demonstration Flask Plant: Technical and Cost Data; Heber Binary Project; 45 mw Demonstration Plant; Raft River 5 mw Geothermal Dual-Boiling-Cycle Plant; Materials Considerations in the Design of Geothermal Power Plants; Raft River Brine Treatment for Tower Make-up; and Site Photographs of Raft River Valley.

  9. Anion effects in the extraction of lanthanide 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone complexes into an ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Mark P.; Beitz, James V.; Rickert, Paul G.; Borkowski, Marian; Laszak, Ivan; Dietz, Mark L.

    2012-07-01

    The extraction of trivalent lanthanides from an aqueous phase containing 1 M NaClO{sub 4} into the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nonafluoro-1-butane sulfonate by the beta-diketone extractant 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) was studied. Radiotracer distribution, absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements point to the extraction of multiple lanthanide species. At low extractant concentrations, fully hydrated aqua cations of the lanthanides are present in the ionic liquid phase. As the extractant concentration is increased 1:2 and 1:3 lanthanide:tta species are observed. In contrast, 1:4 Ln:tta complexes were observed in the extraction of lanthanides by Htta into 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. (authors)

  10. Dynamics of CN+alkane reactions by crossed-beam dc slice imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Cunshun; Li Wen; Estillore, Armando D.; Suits, Arthur G.

    2008-08-21

    The hydrogen atom abstraction reactions of CN (X {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}) with alkanes have been studied using the crossed molecular beam technique with dc slice ion imaging at collision energies of 7.5 and 10.8 kcal/mol. The product alkyl radical images were obtained via single photon ionization at 157 nm for the reactions of CN (X {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}) with n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, and cyclohexane. From analysis of the images, we obtained the center-of-mass frame product angular distributions and translational energy distributions directly. The results indicate that the products are largely backscattered and that most of the available energy ({approx}80%-85%) goes to the internal energy of the products. The reaction dynamics is discussed in light of recent kinetics data, theoretical calculations, and results for related halogen and oxygen atom reactions.