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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene c4h8" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Efficient Energy Usage in Butane Splitters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A World surplus of mixed butanes coupled with an increased need for gasoline extenders has raised the demand for isobutane. Isobutane is readily separated from an admixture with normal butane by conventional distillation techniques. However...

Barnwell, J.; Morris, C. P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Etherify field butanes: Part 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Worldwide interest in technical details concerning major components of world-scale MTBE complexes continues. Part 1 reviewed alternate scenarios for MTBE production and basic technological considerations to assess component processes for producing MTBE. Commercial technologies and cost considerations for world-scale MTBE complexes call for a focus on butane isomerization, isobutane dehydrogenation and isobutylene etherification. The paper describes isomerization; four commercial processes for dehydrogenation (Oleflex, Catofin, STAR, and FBD-4 processes); three methods for etherification (fixed bed with recycle, fixed bed tubular reactor, and catalytic distillation); and capital and production costs for the MTBE complex.

Sarathy, P.R. (John Brown, Houston, TX (United States)); Suffridge, G.S. (John Brown, Tulsa, OK (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Ignition properties of n-butane and iso-butane in a rapid compression machine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Autoignition delay times of n-butane and iso-butane have been measured in a Rapid Compression Machine in the temperature range 660-1010 K, at pressures varying from 14 to 36 bar and at equivalence ratios {phi} = 1.0 and {phi} = 0.5. Both butane isomers exhibit a negative-temperature-coefficient (NTC) region and, at low temperatures, two-stage ignition. At temperatures below {proportional_to}900 K, the delay times for iso-butane are longer than those for the normal isomer, while above this temperature both butanes give essentially the same results. At temperatures above {proportional_to}720 K the delay times of the lean mixtures are twice those for stoichiometric compositions; at T < 720 K, the equivalence ratio is seen to have little influence on the ignition behavior. Increasing the pressure from 15 bar to 30 bar decreases the amplitude of the NTC region, and reduces the ignition delay time for both isomers by roughly a factor of 3. In the region in which two-stage ignition is observed, 680-825 K, the duration of the first ignition stage decreases sharply in the range 680-770 K, but is essentially flat above 770 K. Good quantitative agreement is found between the measurements and calculations for n-butane using a comprehensive model for butane ignition, including both delay times in the two-stage region, with substantial differences being observed for iso-butane, particularly in the NTC region. (author)

Gersen, S.; Darmeveil, J.H. [Gasunie Engineering and Technology, P.O. Box 19, 9700 MA Groningen (Netherlands); Mokhov, A.V. [Laboratory for Fuel and Combustion Science, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Levinsky, H.B. [Gasunie Engineering and Technology, P.O. Box 19, 9700 MA Groningen (Netherlands); Laboratory for Fuel and Combustion Science, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

4

Firing Excess Refinery Butane in Peaking Gas Turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

normal butane production, which will reduce refinery normal butane value and price. Explored is an opportunity for a new use for excess refinery normal butane- as a fuel for utility peaking gas turbines which currently fire kerosene and #2 oil. Our paper...

Pavone, A.; Schreiber, H.; Zwillenberg, M.

5

Adsorption of iso-/n-butane on an Anatase Thin Film: A Molecular...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

iso-n-butane on an Anatase Thin Film: A Molecular Beam Scattering and TDS Study. Adsorption of iso-n-butane on an Anatase Thin Film: A Molecular Beam Scattering and TDS Study....

6

Butane segregated by fluorides, olefins content at Texas terminals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Texas Eastern Products Pipeline Co., Houston (Teppco), this month has begun segregating butane streams at the company's Mont Belvieu and Baytown, Texas terminals according to fluoride and olefin contents. Streams containing fluoride or an olefin content greater than 1 ppm (or both) currently flow into Teppco's south Mont Belvieu terminal. Those fluoride-free streams with less than 1 ppm of olefins flow to its north Mont Belvieu terminal. Butane processed through an isomerization unit yields isobutane, a key component in MTBE. But high-fluoride butane from crude-oil refineries using hydrofluoric (HF) acid alkylation units cannot be used to produce MTBE because fluoride will damage isomerization units' process catalysts. Olefins also affect the efficiency of isomerization units, but less critically than fluorides. Their presence is higher in refinery product than in fractionated NGL. To extend the life of their process catalysts and to maximize yields, producers (including MTBE and isomerization unit operators) are specifying low-fluoride butanes developed from natural-gas fractionators or from refineries that do not use an HF process.

Not Available

1993-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

7

An investigation of the reactions of butylene and isobutane in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid using a wetted wall reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE REACTIONS OF BUTYLENE AND ISOBUTANE IN THE PRESENCE OF CONCENTRATED SULFURIC ACID USING A WETTED WALL REACTOR Approved as Head of the A Thesis By Murlin Thomas Howerton ?if May, 19U9 to^gtyle and content recommended...: Department of Chemical Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF THE REACTIONS OF BUTYLENE AND ISOBUTANE IN THE PRESENCE OF CONCENTRATED SULFURIC, ACID USING A WETTED WALL REACTOR A Thesis By Murlin Thomas Howerton May, 19U9 AN INVESTIGATION OF THE REACTIONS...

Howerton, Murlin T.

1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Saving Energy and Reducing Emissions from the Regeneration Air System of a Butane Dehydrogenation Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Texas Petrochemicals operates a butane dehydrogenation unit producing MTBE for reformulated gasoline that was originally constructed when energy was cheap and prior to environmental regulation. The process exhausts 900,000 pounds per hour of air...

John, T. P.

9

The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous butane-nitrogen mixtures in the gas phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIBILITY FACTORS OF GASEOUS BUTANE-NITROGEN MIXTURES IN THE GAS PHASE A D issertation By Robert Buckner Evans, III Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of^ 'ent Advisor) June 1955... ?-; i'i i ; A R y ? 'A 'Gi- Or- T EX AS THE DETERMINATION OF COMHIESSIBILITI FACTORS OF GASEOUS BUTANE-NITROGEN MIXTURES IN THE GAS PHASE A D issertation By ROBERT BUCKNER EVANS, III Submitted' to the Graduate School of the Agricultural...

Evans, Robert Buckner

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Production of olefins by oxidative dehydrogenation of propane and butane over monoliths at short contact times  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The autothermal production of olefins from propane or n-butane by oxidative dehydrogenation and cracking in air or oxygen at atmospheric pressure over noble metal coated ceramic foam monoliths at contact times of {approximately}5 milliseconds has been studied. On Pt, synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}) dominates near its stoichiometry, while olefin production dominates at higher fuel-to-oxygen ratios. No carbon buildup is observed, and catalysts exhibit no deactivation over at least several days. On Rh, primarily synthesis gas is produced under these conditions, while on Pd, carbon deposition rapidly deactivates the catalyst. The authors observed up to 65% selectivity to olefins at nearly 100% conversion of propane or n-butane with a catalyst contact time of 5 ms. Ethylene selectivity is maximized by increasing the reaction temperature, either by preheating the reactants or by using oxygen enriched air. Propylene selectivity is maximized by lower temperature and shorter catalyst contact time. Very small amounts alkanes and higher molecular weight species are obtained, suggesting that a homogeneous pyrolysis mechanism is not occurring. A very simple reaction mechanism appears to explain the observed product distribution. Reactions are initiated by oxidative dehydrogenation of the alkane by adsorbed oxygen to form a surface alkyl. On Pt, {beta}-hydrogen and {beta}-alkyl elimination reactions of adsorbed alkyl dominate which lead to olefin production rather than cracking to C{sub s} and H{sub s}. 24 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

Huff, M.; Schmidt, L.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)] [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Support shape effect in metal oxide catalysis: ceria nanoshapes supported vanadia catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The activation energy of VOx/CeO2 catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane was found dependent on the shape of ceria support: rods < octahedra, closely related to the surface oxygen vacancy formation energy and defects amount of the two ceria supports with different crystallographic surface planes.

Wu, Zili [ORNL; Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Li, Meijun [ORNL; Rondinone, Adam Justin [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Ex 9.8(a) The equilibrium constant for the reaction 2 C3H6(g) W C2H4(g) + C4H8(g) is found to fit the expression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coefficient for CaCl2 in a solution that is 0.020 mol kg-1 CaCl2(aq) and 0.030 mol kg-1 NaF(aq). #12;

Findley, Gary L.

13

LIDEM unit for the production of methyl tert-butyl ether from butanes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the basic problems in the production of motor fuels is how to obtain high-octane unleaded gasolines that will meet today`s ecological requirements. The term {open_quotes}reformulated gasolines{close_quotes} has come into general use throughout the world to denote fuels with a certain chemical composition. These gasolines consist of preselected components; as shown by worldwide experience, they must include oxygen-containing compounds that are distinguished by high octane numbers and low reactivities. Standards in effect in the United States, Japan, and certain Western European countries require that automotive gasolines must contain at least 2-4% by weight of oxygen-containing compounds (calculated as oxygen). In the last 15 years, in order to meet these requirements, production has been set up in various countries for the manufacture of high-octane oxygen-containing components known as oxygenates. The most common of these is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), obtained by etherification of isobutene by methanol. Process technology developed by this last organization was used as the basis for constructing a unit in the Nizhnekamskneftekhim Production Association and at the Mazheikyai Petroleum Refinery in Lithuania. MTBE production has been held back mainly by a shortage of isobutene, which is obtained mainly from butane-butene cuts produced in cat crackers. In order to alleviate this shortage, it has been proposed that MTBE should be obtained from saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons that are recovered in processing oilfield associated gas, and also in the refinery from primary distillation units, catalytic reformers, and hydrocrackers. A working design was developed in 1991-1992 by Lengiproneftekhim for a basically new combination unit designed for the processing of saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, which has been termed the LIDEM unit (Leningrad - isomerization - dehydrogenation - MTBE).

Rudin, M.G.; Zadvornov, M.A.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Host cells and methods for producing 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, and 3-methyl-butan-1-ol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides for a method for producing a 5-carbon alcohol in a genetically modified host cell. In one embodiment, the method comprises culturing a genetically modified host cell which expresses a first enzyme capable of catalyzing the dephosphorylation of an isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), such as a Bacillus subtilis phosphatase (YhfR), under a suitable condition so that 5-carbon alcohol is 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol and/or 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol is produced. Optionally, the host cell may further comprise a second enzyme capable of reducing a 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol to 3-methyl-butan-1-ol, such as a reductase.

Chou, Howard H. (Berkeley, CA); Keasling, Jay D. (Berkeley, CA)

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

15

Phase behavior of carbon dioxide in admixture with n-butane, n-decane, n-butylcyclohexane, and n-butylbenzene at 344 K and approximately 9600 kPa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bubble point pressure data were acquired at 344 K and about 9600 kPa on ternary mixtures of carbon dioxide and n-butane with paraffinic (n-decane), naphthenic (n-butylcyclohexane), and aromatic (n-butylbenzene) compounds to determine what effect differences in compound type might have on carbon dioxide-hydrocarbon miscibility of such systems. The data on carbon dioxide-n-butane-n-decane, when compared with those from the literature, showed good agreement. This suggests that the remaining data reported here are reliable. The data were regressed by using the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state to determine interaction coefficient sets for phase behavior prediction. These sets of interaction coefficients were used to calculate carbon dioxide-hydrocarbon miscibility. No significant difference in miscibility was found as the heavy hydrocarbon compound was changed from paraffinic to naphthenic to aromatic type.

Cramer, H.C.; Swift, G.W.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts with low amounts of Rh for the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane for fuel-cell applications.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mono-metallic nickel and rhodium catalysts and bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeZrO{sub 2} and CeMgOx were prepared and evaluated for catalyzing the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane. The binary Ni-Rh supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with low weight loading of rhodium exhibited higher H{sub 2} yields than Ni or Rh alone. The Ni-Rh/CeZrO{sub 2} catalyst exhibited higher performance and no coke formation, compared to the same metals on other supports. A NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase was obtained on all Ni and Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The presence of rhodium stabilized the spinel phase as well as NiOx species upon reforming while Ni alone was mostly reduced into metallic species. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis showed evidence of Ni-Rh alloy during preparation and even further after an accelerated aging at 900C in a H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O atmosphere.

Ferrandon, M.; Kropf, A. J.; Krause, T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

17

(2R)-4-Oxo-4[3-(Trifluoromethyl)-5,6-diihydro:1,2,4}triazolo[4,3-a}pyrazin-7(8H)-y1]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine: A Potent, Orally Active Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitor for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel series of {beta}-amino amides incorporating fused heterocycles, i.e., triazolopiperazines, were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (2R)-4-Oxo-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine (1) is a potent, orally active DPP-IV inhibitor (IC{sub 50} = 18 nM) with excellent selectivity over other proline-selective peptidases, oral bioavailability in preclinical species, and in vivo efficacy in animal models. MK-0431, the phosphate salt of compound 1, was selected for development as a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes.

Kim, D.; Wang, L.; Beconi, M.; Eiermann, G.; Fisher, M.; He, H.; Hickey, G.; Kowalchick, Jennifer; Leiting, Barbara; Lyons, K.; Marsilio, F.; McCann, F.; Patel, R.; Petrov, A.; Scapin, G.; Patel, S.; Roy, R.; Wu, J.; Wyvratt, M.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, L.; Thornberry, N.; Weber, A. (Merck)

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

18

Protonation sites and dissociation mechanisms of t-butylcarbamates in tandem mass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(isobutylene, i-C4H8) and carbon dioxide is shown by experi- ment and theory to proceed in two steps. Energy-methylpropene (isobutylene, i-C4H8) and carbon dioxide to result in the combined loss of 100Da neutral fragments of tert-butylcarbamate ions in the gas-phase and methanol solution were studied for simple secondary

Gelb, Michael

19

Lyondell develops one step isobutylene process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that Lyondell Petrochemical Co., Houston, has developed a one step process to convert normal butylenes to isobutylene, a key component of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). MTBE is expected to become the additive of choice among U.S. refiners to blend oxygenated gasolines required by 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act. Lyondell Pres. and Chief Executive Officer Bob Gower the the new process could help assure adequate supplies of MTBE to meet U.S. demand for cleaner burning fuels. Lyondell estimates the capital cost of building a grassroots plant to produce isobutylene with the new process would be less than half the cost of a grassroot plant to produce isobutylene with existing technology starting with normal butane.

Not Available

1992-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

20

Effects of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on the Shear-Induced Crystallization Behavior of Poly(butylene terephthalate)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to disperse particles and to generate composition uniformity and is ac- complished using twin screw extruders

Fisher, Frank

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene c4h8" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

E. In Situ Polymerization of Cyclic Butylene Terephthalate(CBT) Oligomers with Conductive fillers for Thermal Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and this broadened our insight into the problems encountered with thermal management materials. As a result, we for Thermal Management: Key issues: Thermal management Macrocyclic oligomers with ultra-low melt viscosity PBT (CBT) oligomers for thermal management. We also acknowledge the support of Cool Polymers in Warwick, RI

Harmon, Julie P.

22

Thermochemistry of radicals formed by hydrogen abstraction from 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and alternative-fuel com- bustion, where they are important as intermediates. Therefore reliable prediction with sparsely available group additivity data, and trends in enthalpy and free energy as a function of radical center are discussed for the isomeric radicals. © 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http

Truhlar, Donald G

23

==================== !"#$%&'()*+,-+./,0)12 Development of Micro Ejector for Butane Catalytic Combustor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pumps ambient air to the combustion chamber by utilizing the vapor pressure of liquified fuel. Catalytic with the excessive heat of the exhaust gas. The advantage of using ejector is that air-entrainment is achieved without an additional air container or a micro pump, and thus the system should be simple, safe

Kasagi, Nobuhide

24

METHANE AND n-BUTANE OXIDATION WITH CO2 UNDER RADIOFREQUENCY PLASMAS OF MODERATE PRESSURES (*)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

de 35 MHz sous une pression de 20 torr en variant, vitesses de flux (6-301 (TPS) min.-1), et- ponding to the kinetic gas temperature. Spectroscopic investigations [4a, b], carried out under similarW of STEL, Massy, France) by means of two external annular electrodes of copper, 3.5 cm high, set at a fixed

Boyer, Edmond

25

Adsorption of iso-/n-butane on an Anatase Thin Film: A Molecular Beam  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre theAdministrator Referencesalkali metals onScattering and TDS

26

Direct photolysis of carbonyl compounds dissolved in cloud and fog~droplets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

its ?,?-unsaturated analog acrolein, butanal and its ?,?-acid methacrolein propanal acrolein butanal crotonaldehyde 2acid methacrolein propanal acrolein butanal crotonaldehyde 2

Epstein, S. A; Tapavicza, E.; Furche, F.; Nizkorodov, S. A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Vehicular emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a tunnel study in Hong Kong  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ethene toluene n-butane propane i-pentane i-butane propeneethene, toluene, n-butane, propane and i-pentane. These fiveVOCs emitted. The high propane and n-butane emissions were

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Cometabolic transformation of cis-1,2-dichloroethylene and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene epoxide by a butane-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was also stopped when mercuric chloride (HgCl2) was added as a biological inhibitor, further support in aqueous solution. The reactivities of the epoxides and their degradation products often result in covalent

Semprini, Lewis

29

J. Am. Chem. SOC.1988, 110, 8305-8319 8305 Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane, and Neopentane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. Am. Chem. SOC.1988, 110, 8305-8319 8305 Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n, Pasadena, California 91125. Received February I, 1988 Abstract: The hydrogenolysisof ethane, propane, n for ethane, propane, and neopentane involvesthe cleavage of a single carbon-carbon bond, resulting

Goodman, Wayne

30

Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

C-130 T0 T1 G1 Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-Pentane n-ppbv) Ethane Ethene Ethyne Propane Propene i-Butane n-Butanee.g. , ethane, ethene, propane, propane, methanol, ethanol,

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Finding the missing stratospheric Bry: a global modeling study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

C-130 T0 T1 G1 Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-Pentane n-ppbv) Ethane Ethene Ethyne Propane Propene i-Butane n-Butanee.g. , ethane, ethene, propane, propane, methanol, ethanol,

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic polarization behavior Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

At OCV, the Figure 5. Raman spectra acquired from a Ni... of butane. However, unlike SOFC behavior with additional added butane, ... Source: Dean, Anthony M. - Department of...

33

Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

propene, acetone, benzene, propane and ?-pinene (Table 1).cyanide Acetonitrile Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-= Ethane Ethane Ethane Ethane Propane Propane Propane ARCTAS

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Statistical thermodynamics of 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and butanal Prasenjit Seal, Ewa Papajak, Tao Yu, and Donald G. Truhlar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are in excellent agree- ment with experimental data taken from the Thermodynamics Research Center data series- tant roles in alternative-fuel combustion.1­5 Therefore, accu- rate estimation of the thermodynamic the group additivity values. In other cases, where experimental data (but not group additivity values

Truhlar, Donald G

35

4912r 2010 American Chemical Society pubs.acs.org/EF Energy Fuels 2010, 24, 49124918 : DOI:10.1021/ef1007962  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fractions of binary mixtures of butane isomers, ethylene-butane isomers, and propane- butane isomers were components under the same flame conditions. Binary mixtures of propane and butane isomers, however, did associated with potential interactions between pyrolysis pro- ducts of the hydrocarbons in the mixture

GĂĽlder, Ă?mer L.

36

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Figure 7 summarizes the carbon selectivities observed towards the main products. During Period IV, the main products observed were the heavy hydrocarbons, with selectivity for MTBE being less than 3--5%. The only time that high MTBE selectivity was noted was during period III, when the i-butylene feed was shut-off. The large amounts of heavy products and the low selectivity to MTBE were surprising in view of our previous experiments in the gas phase and the high methanol-to-i-butylene ratio used in these runs. In the gas-phase and with methanol/i-butylene = 0.5, over 95% selectivity to MTBE was observed with this catalyst at this temperature. The higher level of methanol used here would be expected to further improve the MTBE selectivity. Perhaps one reason for the poor MTBE selectivity relates to the relative solubilities of the reactants in the Synfluid changing the effective methanol/i-butylene ratio. Figure 8 shows the relative molar concentration of i-butylene during Period III. At 180 minutes, the gas supply of that reactant was shut-off, yet the analyses show that i-butylene continued to elute from the reactor for at least an additional 2 hours. It seems reasonable that the i-butylene is highly soluble in the Synfluid since they are both nonpolar hydrocarbons. Likewise, one would expect the methanol to not be quite as soluble and thus the methanol/i-butylene ratio in the liquid medium may be very low, favoring the oligomerization of i-butylene. Indeed, the only time that MTBE selectivity was high was after the i-butylene supply was shut-off. We intend to quantify these solubilities in future experiments.

Marcelin, G.

1993-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

37

Characterization of photochemical pollution at different elevations in mountainous areas in Hong Kong  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and (b) i-butane vs. propane at TMS and TW. Fig. 4. Theand (b) i-butane vs. propane at TMS and TW. et al. , 2001;higher ratios of ethyne/propane and benzene/propane were

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Toxic species evolution from guayule fireplace logs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

those identified are compounds belonging to the chemical 23 TABLE 1 Gases Used to Calibrate Gas Chromatograph COMPOUND TIME WINDOIIP Hydrogen Propane Propene Isobutane N-butane Bute ne Trans-butane Cis-butane Carbon Dioxide Ethene Oxygen... MATERIAL COMBUSTION PRODUCT Natural Matenals Formaldehydes Acetaldehydes Acro(ein Wood Methane Propane Butane Hexane Heptane Octane 1, 3 - Butadiene Sultur dioxide Red Oak Nitrogen dioxide White Pine Methane Ethylene Propylene Methyl alcohol...

Soderman, Kristi Lee

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Requirements Hydrocarbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. He considered two coolants: Butane and R134a (freon replacement used in auto air conditioners). About

Cinabro, David

40

Molecular Properties of the "Ideal" Inhaled Anesthetic: Studies of Fluorinated Methanes, Ethanes, Propanes,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Propanes, and Butanes E. 1Eger, 11, MD*, J. Liu, MD*, D. D. Koblin, PhD, MDt, M. J. Laster, DVM*, S. Taheri unfluorinated, partially fluorinated, and perfluorinated methanes, ethanes, propanes, and butanes to define fluorinated methanes, ethanes, propanes, and butanes, also obtaining limited data on longer- chained alkanes

Hudlicky, Tomas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene c4h8" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in the slurry phase on iron catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and noted that the iron catalyst produced more carbon dioxide than the cobalt catalyst, while the cobalt catalyst produced more water. Iron catalysts are also known to produce a higher yield of oxygenstes and offer the advantages of low cost and a wide... conductivity 40 minutes '0 O 0 0 0 o 2 0 '0 Ll 9 2 H 8. A o g Q Ni Valve Snitch Propane Propylene Iso-butane N-Butane I-Butane Isobutylene ~ Trans-2-butane Ctg-2-butane Valve Suicch Ethylene Ethane Valve Snitch 0 2 N CH...

Brown, Russell Floyd

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Approaches to the synthesis of macrocyclic polystannanes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(trimethylstannyl) butane Preparation of 1, 4-bis(trimethylstannyl) butane using Trimethyltin Lithium. Preparation of 1, 5-bis(trimethylstannyl) pentane. Preparation of 1, 3-bis(Bromodimethylstannylj propane (39a) . Preparation of 1, 4-bis...(Bromodimethylstannyl) butane . Preparation of 1, 5-bis(Bromodimethylstannyl) pentane (39b) Attempted synthesis of 1, 1, 6, 6, 11, 11, 16, 16- Octamethyl-1, 6, 11, 16-tetrastannacy- cloeicosane (25) by the Four Componenr. 'Shotgun' Reaction . Preparation of Tributyltin...

Denis, Richard Ascot

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Title: KUPPS Procurement Matrix Purpose: To provide the preferred purchase and/or payment method for various transaction types  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vehicle Fuel, diesel, karosene, propane, butane Pcard Office and Research Supplies and Consumables - 137200 137200 - Computer Supplies Consumables: Flash Drives, storage media, toner cartridges Replacement

44

A Fast Moving Horizon Estimation Algorithm Based on Nonlinear ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hyper-compressor. The objective is to estimate the remaining differential states corresponding to the concentrations of ethylene, butane, methane and impurities

2008-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

45

Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Energy Balance of Ethanol Fuels , for Applied Energyadditive are explored in Ethanol fuel. 8.2.1 Autoignition offuels Fuel Methane Propane Butane Gasoline Ethanol AFR

Saxena, Samveg

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for separating C{sub 3}+ hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane. 6 figs.

Toy, L.G.; Pinnau, I.

1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

47

Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for separating C.sub.3 + hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane.

Toy, Lora G. (San Francisco, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Prediction of heptanes-plus equilibrium ratios from empirical correlations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at 251 deg. F Hydrocarbon Analysis of Produced Gas Phase (mole percent) Pressure (psig) Component Carbon Dioxide Nitrogen Methane Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-Pentane n-Pentane Hexane Heptanes-plus Totals Heptanes-plus mol. wt... 6590 305 247 0. 862 low 600 3225 158 149 0. 787 8055 313 212 0. 841 low sOV 2375 127 108 0. 746 TABLE 3-PHYS ICAL AND CRITICAL PROPERTIES Component methane ethane propane i-butane n-butane i-pentane n-pentane hexane (1b...

McKenna, Martin James

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

A new comprehensive semiempirical approach to calculate three-phase water/hydrocarbons equilibria  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

et a/. ' worked on n-butane and water systems in both two- and three-phase regions. McKetta and Katz '' investigated the mutual solubility of a methane/n-butane/water system in two-phase and three-phase regions. Kobayashi and Katz" worked... on propane and water in both two- and three-phase regions. Wehe and McKetta reported the mutual solubility of an n-butane/i-butane/water system. Anthony and McKetta" provided similar data on the propane/propylene/water system. Roof" investigated the vapor...

Tandia, Bagus Krisna

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

E-Print Network 3.0 - aquatic microbial microcosm Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

de recherche en amnagement et dveloppement, Universit Laval Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology ; Biology and Medicine 2 Bioaugmentation of butane-utilizing...

51

--No Title--  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

recoverrecycle or dispose of an identified inventory of legacy Compressed Gas Cylinders that contain, but not limited to: acetylene, argon, boron trifluoride, butane, carbon...

52

Measuringthe Atomic or,Molecular Mass of a Gas with aifire Gauge and atutane Lighter Fluid Can  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Hopkins. D. E., J. C~EM.EDVC., 53,718 (1976). 4Davenport,D. A,, ". CmM. EDLC..53,306(1976). "Butane

Bodner, George M.

53

Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

plus OH sign), reactiv- propane ing different gases gases atisoprene (plus sign), propane (star) and propene (triangle).NMHC includes ethane, ethene, propane, propene, i-butane, n-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Hydrogen Storage -Overview George Thomas, Hydrogen Consultant to SNL*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forecourt storage (refueling stations) requirements being developed (IHIG) Distribution storage (delivery 75 100 125 hydrogen m ethane ethane propane butane pentane hexane heptane octane (gasoline) cetane (diesel) octane (gasoline) heptane hexane pentane butane ethane propane ethanol m ethane m ethanol am m

55

Measurement of flammability in a closed cylindrical vessel with thermal criteria  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

experiments, but not with the results of counterflow apparatus experiments. The current results show that Le Chatelier�s rule describes the mixture results adequately. Minimum oxygen concentrations also were determined for methane, butane, and methane-butane...

Wong, Wun K.

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

56

Inert Gas Dilution Effect on the Flammability Limits of Hydrocarbon Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)????????????????????????..??...70 xii FIGURE Page 5.5 N-butane flammability properties with dilution of nitrogen (25 ?C and 1... and the regressed linear curve...........................................................................................................83 5.15 Experimental n-butane LFL diluted with N2 and the regressed linear curve..????????....????????????????...84 5...

Zhao, Fuman

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

57

The nature and formation of coke in the reaction of methanol to hydrocarbons over chabazite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Reactant: methanol t-butanol 1-heotanol Reaction conditions Temp. (K) LHSV (hr ) 644 1. 0 644 1. 0 644 0. 7 Conversion (g) 1 00 100 99. 9 Hydrocarbon distribution (wt g) methane ethane ethylene propane propylene i-butane n-butane bu...

McLaughlin, Kenneth Woot

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: addition of i-butylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch; addition of i-butylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst; and addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the seventh quarter we continued the shake down experiments for the SBCR and conducted an initial aborted run. We have also re-started experiments on Scheme 1, i.e., the addition of iso-butylene during CO hydrogenation. Using a dual bed arrangement, we have demonstrated the synthesis of MTBE from syngas and iso-butylene.

Marcelin, G.

1992-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

59

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: addition of i-butylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H[sub 2] during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch; addition of i-butylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst; and addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the seventh quarter we continued the shake down experiments for the SBCR and conducted an initial aborted run. We have also re-started experiments on Scheme 1, i.e., the addition of iso-butylene during CO hydrogenation. Using a dual bed arrangement, we have demonstrated the synthesis of MTBE from syngas and iso-butylene.

Marcelin, G.

1992-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

60

Early maturation processes in coal. Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balances and structural evolution of coalified wood from the Morwell Brown Coal seam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, we develop a theoretical approach to evaluate maturation process of kerogen-like material, involving molecular dynamic reactive modeling with a reactive force field to simulate the thermal stress. The Morwell coal has been selected to study the thermal evolution of terrestrial organic matter. To achieve this, a structural model is first constructed based on models from the literature and analytical characterization of our samples by modern 1-and 2-D NMR, FTIR, and elemental analysis. Then, artificial maturation of the Morwell coal is performed at low conversions in order to obtain, quantitative and qualitative, detailed evidences of structural evolution of the kerogen upon maturation. The observed chemical changes are a defunctionalization of the carboxyl, carbonyl and methoxy functional groups coupling with an increase of cross linking in the residual mature kerogen. Gaseous and liquids hydrocarbons, essentially CH4, C4H8 and C14+ liquid hydrocarbons, are generated in low amount, merely by clea...

Salmon, Elodie; Lorant, François; Hatcher, Patrick G; Marquaire, Paul-Marie; 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2009.01.004

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene c4h8" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

State Home Oil Weatherization (SHOW) Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Oregon homeowners and renters who heat with oil, wood, propane, kerosene, or butane are eligible for home weatherization rebates of up to $500. A variety of measures, including insulation, HVAC,...

62

Nitrogen limiation and nitrogen fixation during alkane biodegradation in a sandy soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Leaking underground storage tanks are a significant source of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in soils and ground water. Hydrocarbon biodegradation studies have been conducted in both ground water and topsoil regions, but few studies have been done on the unsaturated zone between these two. This study examines the effects of Nitrogen on propane and butane biodegradiations in an unsaturated sandy soil. Results indicate that nitrogen additions initially stimulated both propane and butane oxidizing organisms in the soil, but that propane-amended soil became N limited whereas butane-amended soil eventually overcame its N limitations by fixing Nitrogen and that nitrogen fixing organisms grew in butane amended but not in propane amended soil. 27 refs., 6 figs.

Toccalino, P.L.; Johnson, R.L.; Boone, D.R. (Oregon Graduate Institute of Science Technology, Portland, OR (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Experimental Setup The samples used were crushed almonds, peanuts and hazelnuts. We  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nuts because of their availability and ease of storage, and to gain insight on allergen detection Model # Sensitive to: Sensor 1 TGS 2610 LP gas, propane, butane Sensor 2 TGS 2620 Vapor of organic

Nehorai, Arye

64

CHEMISTRY 3311, Fall 1998 Professor Walba  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

more heat of combustion? d) Estimate, in units of "gauche butane interactions," the magnitude of the difference in heats of combustion of A and B. e) Draw one perspective chair picture for each

Walba, David

65

CHEMISTRY 3311, Fall 1998 Professor Walba  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

more heat of combustion? Compound A gives a higher heat of combustion. d) Estimate, in units of "gauche butane interactions," the magnitude of the difference in heats of combustion of A and B. Two gauche

Walba, David

66

Industrial Fuel Switching - Emerging NGL Opportunities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Removing butanes and pentanes from gasoline to meet local and seasonal regulatory limitations on volatility requires US refiners to make up the lost octane with higher cost alternative components, and challenges them to either: store the liquids...

Cascone, R.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Layer-by-Layer Nanocoatings with Flame Retardant and Oxygen Barrier Properties: Moving Toward Renewable Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) clay to create a renewable flame retardant nanocoating for polyurethane foam. This coating system completely stops the melting of a flexible polyurethane foam when exposed to direct flame from a butane torch, with just 10 bilayers (~ 30 nm thick...

Laufer, Galina 1985-

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

68

Development of electronic nose for measurement of agricultural odors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in this experiment. This included fatty acids (butyric, isobutyric, valeric, and isovaleric acids), alcohols (p-cresol and isoamyl alcohol), sulfides (dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide), and butanal. Using ANOVA and PCA techniques, it was determined...

Bausch, Carrie Lynn

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

MTBE will be a boon to U. S. gas processors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that the advent of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as the primary oxygenate blending component for oxygenated and reformulated motor fuels promises significant benefits for the U.S. gas-processing industry. Increased demand for isobutane as MTBE-plant feedstock will buoy both normal butane and isobutane pricing in U.S. gulf Coast during the 1990s. Elimination of the need to crack normal butane in U.S. olefin plants will also strengthen competitive feedstocks somewhat, including ethane and propane. And increased use of normal butane as isomerization feedstock will result in wider recognition of the premium quality of gas plant normal butane production compared to most refinery C[sub 4] production.

Otto, K.W. (Purvin and Gertz, Inc. Dallas, TX (United States))

1993-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

70

Where's the Beef? ConAgra's Approach to Energy Sources & Efficiency in Meat Processing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

converts, chemically reforms, and neutralizes wastes producing oils (biodiesel), gases (methane, propane, butane), and carbons (clean coal, fertilizer). In addition, microturbines are installed to provide heat and power. This partnership will showcase...

Kananen, T. M.

71

942 Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 10, No. 5, 1971 solid (mp 43" with slight decomposition), which is sensitive to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is sensitive to air and water. I t is soluble in carbon tetrachloride, trichloro- fluoromethane, and benzene but insoluble in butane. The infrared spectrum (4000-200 cm-l) in carbon tetrachloride showed the following

Bodner, George M.

72

Phase Equilibria Bibliography Updated 6/04 PUBLICATIONS (REFEREED)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.G., and Howat, C.S., 1990. Vapor-Liquid Phase Equilibria and Molar Volumes of the Butadiene-Acetonitrile System-Butane and Acetonitrile, 1-Butene and Acetonitrile and 1,3-Butadiene and Acetonitrile. 7th International Congress

Howat, Colin S. "Chip"

73

Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

study of ethane and propane oxidation in the tropo- sphere,alkanes (ethane, C 2 H 6 ; propane, C 3 H 8 ; n-butane, n-Cfluid contamination. 4.1.2. Propane [ 24 ] Propane levels in

Aydin, M.; Williams, M. B; Saltzman, E. S

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

"Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogenolysis of Ethane, Propane, n-Butane and iso-Butanethe Hydroformylation of Propane over Silica-supported Groupproduct and small amount of propane, which is likely to be

Yamada, Yusuke

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Southern California Edison's (SCE) Research Program for Industrial Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Process Descriptions One of the polystyrene foam plants uses pentane as a blowing agent in the manufacturing process. while the other plant uses butane. Under the provisions, of AQMD Rule 1175, these plants will be I required to control 90 percent... by spray painting subject to AQ Rule 1124. Process Descriptions One of the polystyrene foam plants uses pentane as a blowing agent in the manufacturing process, while the other plant uses butane. Under the provisions of AQMD Rule 1175, these plants...

Sung, R. D.; Cascone, R.; Reese, J.

76

Sociological adaptation among bacterial populations in an activated sludge ecosystem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Nm. B. Davis The predominant heterotrophic bacteria in a butanal adapted, laboratory scale, and batch fed activated sludge culture were mon- itored during substrate removal (as revealed by gas liouid chrom- atography), The changing concentrations...-Brevibacterium coryneforms (804) and Arthrobacter-like organisms (11$). Gram negative bacilli were rarely isolated, and the few observed were members of the genus Pseudomonas. The test culture (500 mg/1 oven dried solids) consistently re- moved up to 600 mg/1 of butanal...

Forrest, Robert George

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

The development of a correlation for determining oil density in high temperature reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) hydrogen su 1f ide carbon dioxide nitrogen methane ethane propane 13 iso-butane normal-butane iso-pentane normal-pentane hexane heptanes and heavier density of the heptanes and heavier fraction molecular weight of the heptanes and heavier... DIOXIDE IN THE MIXTURE (ALL SAMPLES) . . . . , . . . , . . . . . . , . . . . . . . 84 44 ? RESIDUALS FROM THE PREDICTED RESERVOIR FLUID DENSITY BEFORE FINAL NON-HYDROCARBON CORRECTIONS VERSUS THE WEIGHT FRACTION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE IN THE MIXTURE (ALL...

Witte, Thurman William

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Kinetics simulation for natural gas conversion to unsaturated C? hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

value. The usual chemical composition range of natural gas is shown in Table I. l. Table 1. 1 Natural Gas Composition Component Methane Ethane Pro ane iso-Butane normal-Butane iso-Pentane normal-Pentane Hexane s lus Nitro en Carbon Dioxide... Acetylene Carbon Ethylene Hydrogen Methane Water Carbon Dioxide CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Challenge for Natural Gas Natural Gas (NG), which is comprised priinarily of methane, is found throughout the world, burns cleanly, and processes a high caloric...

Yang, Li

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Experimental measurements and modeling prediction of flammability limits of binary hydrocarbon mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of methane in air using thermal criterion?????..50 4.8 Determination of LFL of ethylene in air using thermal criterion???...??..51 4.9 Lower flammability limits of methane and n-butane mixtures in air at standard conditions...????????????????????..56 4.14 Upper flammability limits of methane and n-butane mixtures in air at standard conditions?????????????..???????57 4.15 Upper flammability limits of methane and ethylene mixtures in air at standard conditions...

Zhao, Fuman

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

Assessing the Potential of Using Hydrate Technology to Capture, Store and Transport Gas for the Caribbean Region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that are generally associated with chemical compounds. Gas hydrates of interest to the natural gas industry are made up of lattices containing water molecules in different ratios with methane, nitrogen, ethane, propane, iso-butane, normal butane, carbon dioxide... or carbon dioxide. 7 Transporting gas in the form of a gas hydrate can prove to be very useful in the supply chain of natural gas to meet future energy demand. Thus major challenges exist in effectively capturing, storing, transporting...

Rajnauth, Jerome Joel

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene c4h8" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Development of a relational chemical process safety database and applications to safety improvements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical Ammonia (Anh drouse) Chionne Flammable Mixture H drofloric Acid Chlorine Dioxide Propane Sulfur Dioxide Ammonia (conc 20% or greater) H drochlonc Acid H dro en Methane Butane Equipment Failure (%) 57 50 71 33 75 50 20 50 100... Mixture H drofloric Acid Chlonne Dioxide Propane Sulfur Dioxide Ammonia (conc. 20% or reater) H drochloric Acid H dro en Methane Butane 13 100 75 100 100 100 13 100 100 100 100 100 200 100 100 200 200 Percent adds to more than...

Al-Qurashi, Fahad

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial work on the synthesis of MTBE during CO hydrogenation shows that MTBE cannot be formed directly on metal sites and likely requires the presence of an acid site. However, MTBE can be made successfully when an acid site, provided by the zeolites, is present in the vicinity of the methanol-synthesis metal sites. When i-butylene was added during CO hydrogenation over a composite catalyst consisting of Li-Pd/SiO{sub 2} and a hydrogen-zeolite, MTBE was formed in measurable amounts. The major by-product of this reaction scheme was isobutane and the dimer of i-butylene. In general, ZSM-5 was found to be superior to LZ210-12 HY zeolite. CO hydrogenation over a bifunctional PdNaY catalyst shows that branched hydrocarbons as well as MEOH can be made successfully at the same time. Addition of i-butylene over this catalyst only (i.e. without other zeolite) results in the formation of trace amounts of MTBE.

Marcelin, G.

1993-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

83

Phase equilibrium measurements on nine binary mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase equilibrium measurements have been performed on nine binary mixtures. The PTx method was used to obtain vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the following systems at two temperatures each: (aminoethyl)piperazine + diethylenetriamine; 2-butoxyethyl acetate + 2-butoxyethanol; 2-methyl-2-propanol + 2-methylbutane; 2-methyl-2-propanol + 2-methyl-2-butene; methacrylonitrile + methanol; 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane + hydrogen chloride; 2-(hexyloxy)ethanol + ethylene glycol; butane + ammonia; propionaldehyde + butane. Equilibrium vapor and liquid phase compositions were derived form the PTx data using the Soave equation of state to represent the vapor phase and the Wilson or the NRTL activity coefficient model to represent the liquid phase. A large immiscibility region exists in the butane + ammonia system at 0 C. Therefore, separate vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium measurements were performed on this system to more precisely determine the miscibility limits and the composition of the vapor phase in equilibrium with the two liquid phases.

Wilding, W.V. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Giles, N.F.; Wilson, L.C. [Wiltec Research Co. Inc., Provo, UT (United States)] [Wiltec Research Co. Inc., Provo, UT (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Determination of vaporization efficiencies and overall mass transfer coefficients from a packed absorber at steady state operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. A total material balance and the component balances for prcpane. , i-butane, and n-butane are used to obtain a system of four equations. 37 These equations are solved simultaneously for the lean oil, the recompressed gas, the rich oil..., and the greater volume of gas rising up through the packing blows the thermowells dry in the lower section. 39 CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION OF RESULTS The two models described in Chapter IV were both investigated using the data given in Table 2. The K-value data...

McDaniel, Ronald

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Batch polymerization of styrene and isoprene by n-butyl lithium initiator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-20). Analysis of products consists of determining the point at which no free lithium alkyl remains. Thus if a butyl lithium initiated polymerization were terminated with water, butane would be evolved as long as the initiator were present. The butane...? agent were evaporated under a hood. Finally the polymer. was dried in a vacuum oven at about 50'C and under a vacuum of 30 inches of gg for about 30 hours. The weight of polymer formed was determined by final weighing. 25 The monomer conversion...

Hasan, Sayeed

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Single event kinetic modeling of solid acid alkylation of isobutane with butenes over proton-exchanged Y-Zeolites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

agents. Hydride shifts and methyl shifts are non-branching isomerization steps. These two slightly exothermic elementary steps proceed through the exchange of a hydride/methyl substituent and a positive charge between two adjacent carbon atoms...) mechanism is successful in explaining the experimental observation that n-butane does not isomerize to isobutane in the presence of strong liquid acids such as HF/SbF5 under conditions where n-pentane and n-hexane quickly isomerize to 2-methyl-butane and 2...

Martinis Coll, Jorge Maximiliano

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

87

Energy Conservation and BP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PRESSURE PILOT AIR PRESSURE MAIN COMBUSTION AIR FLOIol PREHEATED COMBUSTION AIR RECOMMENDED ?. 40"/0 RECOMMENDED ?. 40"/0 MAXIMUM TO BLOW-OFF POINT AMBIENT TO 300?C 3 CROSS LIGHTING PILOT TO MAIN BURNER NATURAL GAS BUTANE HEAVY FUEL OIL... refinery conditions under which the burner is likely to operate in terms of: - fuel gas quality (natural gas (NG), butane) - fuel oil quality (gas oil, 3500 sec, vacuum residue) low excess air (5%) flame stability at high turn down (4:1) low...

Partridge, R. W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Developmental of a Vapor Cloud Explosion Risk Analysis Tool Using Exceedance Methodology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cloud explosions [4]. Lenoir and Davenport [5] have presented a review of many major incidents involving vapor cloud explosions worldwide from 1921 to 1991. Hydrocarbon materials such as ethane, ethylene, propane, and butane, which have been involved... are typically either in the form of gas, liquid, or two-phase. Examples of hydrocarbon gas releases are methane through butane, while liquid releases could be crude oil, diesel, jet fuel, or others. An example of a two-phase leak is condensate since it is a...

Alghamdi, Salem

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

89

The effect of composition on equilibrium vaporization ratios  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, hexane, and pentane into the cell under vacuum. Then the other constituents including a propane-butane mixture, ethane gas, and Texas natural gas were measured by displacement with mercury into the bottom of the storage cell while the cell was rocking... and refilled, the bath oil was maintained at a high temperature and then pumped into the bath containing the equilibrium cell. K-values were determined on oils of three composi- tions made up with the same amounts of ethane, propane- butane mixture...

Wiesepape, Cordell Floyd

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Some Economic Effects of Adjusting to a Changing Water Supply, Texas High Plains.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. the following categories. Shifting from butane (L. P. gas) to natural gas Areas not particularly affected by water-lev4 for pump engine fuel is another significant eco- decline include about 194,000 acres, or 5.4 percr:!:: nomic adjustment... the decline in water level and decI:rs- from butane to natural gas for pumping fuel. induced adjustments have seriously depietd ::x Elimination or of transmission losses water supply, sharply increased the investms:: :r pcrrticulcrrly has had a effect...

Hughes, William F.; Magee, A. C.

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Synthesis and material properties of supramolecules containing fluorinated organomercurials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-filling with one orientation of the SiMe3 groups)????????????????????????? 74 IV.5. n-Alkane sorption isotherms for 21 at room temperature?????.. 75 IV.6. Arrangements and conformations of n-butane and n-pentane molecules in the channels of 21 as determined... by molecular mechanics simulations???????????????????????.. 77 IV.7. Benzene and toluene sorption isotherms for 21 at room temperature?. 78 IV.8. Desorption of alkanes under vacuum as a function of time for 21 0.57- ethane, 21 0.67-propane, and 21 0.71-n-butane...

Taylor, Thomas Jackson

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

92

Gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

filled by one or more gases. In marine sediments gas hydrates are found in regions where high pressure, low temperature and gas in excess of solubility are present. Low molecular weight hydrocarbons (LMWH), I. e. methane through butane, carbon dioxide... loop at a helium carrier flow of 12 ml/min with an elution order of methane, ethane, carbon dioxide and propane. Each fraction was trapped in a U- shaped Porpak-Q filled glass tube immersed in LN2. Butanes and heartier weight gases were trapped...

Cox, Henry Benjamin

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Geochemical assessment of gaseous hydrocarbons: mixing of bacterial and thermogenic methane in the deep subsurface petroleum system, Gulf of Mexico continental slope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Page 12 Modelled maturity variations in g10013C of methane through butane, relative to g10013C of total source kerogen .......................................................... 29 13 Diagrams showing various processes and resulting compositional... gas contains methane (CH4) as a major constituent (70-100%), ethane (C2H6) (1-10%), lower percentages of higher hydrocarbons ?propane (C3H8), butane (C4H10), pentane (C5H12)? through hexanes (C6H14), and traces up through nonanes (C9H20) (Tissot...

Ozgul, Ercin

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

94

Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physisorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics.

Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H. (Evanston, IL); Huang, Yin-Yan (Evanston, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are disclosed for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physical sorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics. 17 figs.

Sachtler, W.M.H.; Huang, Y.Y.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

96

Regioselective alkane hydroxylation with a mutant AlkB enzyme  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

AlkB from Pseudomonas putida was engineered using in-vivo directed evolution to hydroxylate small chain alkanes. Mutant AlkB-BMO1 hydroxylates propane and butane at the terminal carbon at a rate greater than the wild-type to form 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively. Mutant AlkB-BMO2 similarly hydroxylates propane and butane at the terminal carbon at a rate greater than the wild-type to form 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively. These biocatalysts are highly active for small chain alkane substrates and their regioselectivity is retained in whole-cell biotransformations.

Koch, Daniel J.; Arnold, Frances H.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

97

Method for measuring the effectiveness of gaseous-contaminant removal filters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report presents a brief review of the gas-adsorption kinetics theory applicable to adsorption of gaseous contaminants by filter media, and an algorithm for assessing the effectiveness of filtering devices with flow bypass. It briefly describes the selected testing technique for measuring the effectiveness of filter media, and presents experimental data for adsorption of n-butane, toluene, and carbon monoxide.

Mahajan, B.M.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Optimal Model-Based Production Planning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrotreatment Gasoline blending Distillate blending Gas oil blending Cat Crack CDU crude1 crude2 butane Fuel gas Premium Reg. Distillate GO Treated Residuum SR Fuel gas SR Naphtha SR Gasoline SR Distillate SR GO SR Gasoline SR Distillate SR GO SR Residuum backoutletCDUfrontoutletCDUfeedfeedCDUoutlet bbFaF ,,,,, * ++= #12

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

99

Fuel Cell Portable Power Department of Energy Workshop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical Hydride Portable Hydrocarbon Propane / Butane ! TOH ! JSW ! JMC ! GfE ! M-Cell ! MEW Methanol ! DMFC ! IdaTech ! Xcellsis Possible Future Option ! Carbon Storage Compressed H2 ISSUES: 1) Emissions #12;11 Portable Power Conclusions.. Where can the DOE Help: Barriers Remaining: 1) Fuel Storage

100

INCOMPATIBILITY OF COMMON LABORATORY CHEMICALS When certain hazardous chemicals are stored or mixed together, violent reactions may occur because the chemicals are  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Classes of incompatible chemicals should be segregated from each other during storage, according to hazard class. Use the following general guidelines for hazard class storage: · Flammable/Combustible Liquids as butane, propane benzene, turpentine, acids, bases, oxidizers, plastics #12;etc.) Hydrofluoric acid metals

Cho, Junghyun

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene c4h8" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Understanding the dynamics of a two-phase flow (liquid and gas) has been studied quite extensively over the past. This problem is indeed of direct relevance for many areas such  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be trapped on the ground because of the presence of an obstacle. The studied products were propane, butane set-up, and pressure storage. 1 INTRODUCTION In many chemical and process plants, gas are stored for the understanding of the flow inside the pipe. The net of pipes linking the storage and the nozzle are composed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

102

12 Trees and Graphs 12.1 Rooted and Unrooted Trees  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are chemical molecules consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms, where each carbon atom has four bonds and each hydrogen atom has one bond. Specifically, all links are single bonds and there are no cycles or loops. So, here is a representation of butane: four carbons and ten hydrogen. c Wayne Goddard, Clemson University

Goddard, Wayne

103

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas, Crude Oil and Distillates NGLs consumption in CALEBConsumption Weekly Refinery and Fractionator Report Weekly Bulk Terminal Report Weekly Product Pipeline Report Weekly Crude OilCrude Oil Butane Isobutane Other Hydrocarbons, Hydrogen and Oxygenates 10,718 Unfinished Oils Source: CEC 2006a The energy sector shows the consumption

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

In situ vibrational spectroscopic investigation of C{sub 4} hydrocarbon selective oxidation over vanadium-phosphorus-oxide catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

n-Butane selective oxidation over the VPO catalyst to maleic anhydride is the first and only commercialized process of light alkane selective oxidation. The mechanism of this reaction is still not well known despite over twenty years of extensive studies, which can partially be attributed to the extreme difficulties to characterize catalytic reactions real-time under typical reaction conditions. In situ spectroscopic characterization techniques such as Infrared spectroscopy and laser Raman spectroscopy were used in the current mechanistic investigations of n-butane oxidation over VPO catalysts. To identify the reaction intermediates, oxidation of n-butane, 1,3-butadiene and related oxygenates on the VPO catalyst were monitored using FTIR spectroscopy under transient conditions. n-Butane was found to adsorb on the VPO catalyst to form olefinic species, which were further oxidized to unsaturated, noncyclic carbonyl species. The open chain dicarbonyl species then experienced cycloaddition to form maleic anhydride. VPO catalyst phase transformations were investigated using in situ laser Raman spectroscopy. This report contains Chapter 1: General introduction; Chapter 2: Literature review; and Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations.

Xue, Z.Y.

1999-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

105

Vapour extraction of heavy oil and bitumen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the process of vapor extraction for the recovery of petroleum and bitumen. The selection of solvent is critical, and it is shown that butane may be a good solvent for shallow reservoirs. Experiments are described in a Hele-Shaw cell and Packed Visual Model.

Das, K.A.; Butler, R.M. [Univ. of Calgary (Canada)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

106

Acidity and catalytic activity of zeolite catalysts bound with silica and alumina  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Micropore surface area and micropore volume are reduced by about 19% and 18%, respectively, indicating some micropores of ZSM-5 are blocked on binding with silica. SiO2-bound ZSM-5 catalysts have less catalytic activity for butane transformation (cracking...

Wu, Xianchun

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

107

A PCS simple prediction method for the thermodynamics properties of dilute solutions with comparison to experiment and other predictive methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The Upper Curve is for Cyclopentane +1, 4 Dioxane. The Middle Curve is for Pentane + 1, 4 Dioxane and the Lower Curve is for 2-Methy'butane + 1, 4 Dioxane , 56 8. Determination of the Excess Volume Derivatives of Cycloheptane (1)+ Cyclohexanol (2...

Kim, Eue Sook

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Development of a Thermodynamic Model for Fluids Confined in Spherical Pores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for n-propane adsorbed in zeolite A at 423.15 K (Grande and Gigola)24 ................................................................... 40 Figure 14: Calculated versus experimental results for n-butane adsorbed in zeolite A at 308.15 K (Glessner... and Myers)23 ................................................................. 41 Figure 15: Calculated versus experimental results for carbon dioxide adsorbed in zeolite A at 303.15 K (Sievers)21...

D'Lima, Michelle Lynn

2014-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

109

SSSSaaaammmmpppplllliiiinnnngggg ffffoooorrrr BBBBaaaacccctttteeeerrrriiiiaaaa iiiinnnn WWWWeeeellllllllssss Water samples for bacteria tests must always be col-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the inside surface of the faucet by flam- ing with a propane torch (a disposable butane lighter is fine the bottle immediately after collecting water sample. Refrigerate the sample and transport it to the laborato, disability, religion, age or national origin. Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work

110

Study on Micro-scale Ceramic Catalytic Combustor with Embedded Heat Exchange Channels Takashi OKAMASA, Gwang-Goo LEE, Yuji SUZUKI, and Nobuhide KASAGI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Study on Micro-scale Ceramic Catalytic Combustor with Embedded Heat Exchange Channels Takashi combustion of butane is investigated. A cost-effective and robust ceramic combustor is developed using high anodic oxidation of aluminum layer. In order to increase the thermal efficiency, a combustor

Kasagi, Nobuhide

111

Micro Catalytic Combustor with Pd/Nano-porous Alumina for High-Temperature Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Micro Catalytic Combustor with Pd/Nano-porous Alumina for High-Temperature Application Takashi: A micro-scale catalytic combustor using high-precision ceramic tape-casting technology has been developed surface reaction of butane. In combustion experiments with a prototype combustor, the wall temperature

Kasagi, Nobuhide

112

Development of Micro Catalytic Combustor Using Ceramic Tape Casting Takashi OKAMASA, Gwang-Goo LEE, Yuji SUZUKI, and Nobuhide KASAGI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development of Micro Catalytic Combustor Using Ceramic Tape Casting Takashi OKAMASA, Gwang-Goo LEE@thtlab.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract Micro-scale catalytic combustor fueled by butane is investigated. A cost-effective ceramic combustor is developed using high- precision tape-casting technology. Nano-porous alumina fabricated through

Kasagi, Nobuhide

113

Mechanism of alkane dehydrogenation catalyzed by acidic zeolites: Ab initio transition path sampling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dehydrogenation of propane over acidic chabazite has been studied using ab initio density-functional simulations on dehydrogenation and cracking of alkanes including propane, n-butane, n-pentane, and n-hexane catalyzed by zeolites of pro- pane over zeolites with varying framework topologies and Si/Al ratios. The measured reaction

Dellago, Christoph

114

DOI: 10.1126/science.1194777 , 211 (2010);330Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrocarbon plumes is delayed with respect to that of ethane-, propane-, and butane-consuming communities. To identify potential propane- and ethane- consuming bacteria active in the deep plumes, we collected cells and sequenced bacterial DNA from five locations containing distinctive pro- pane and ethane anomalies. A cloning

Fineberg, Jay

115

Laminar burning velocities of propeneair mixtures at elevated temperatures and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as an intermediate in the combustion of higher alkanes, such as propane, butane, heptane and isooctane, Glassman1 and R. Stone*2 Propene (C3H6) is a key intermediate species in the combustion of higher alkanes­air List of symbols A inside surface area of the vessel B inside diameter of the vessel cp specific heat e

116

Combustion and Flame 145 (2006) 324338 www.elsevier.com/locate/combustflame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Guo et al. / Combustion and Flame 145 (2006) 324­338 325 for ethylene, propane, and butane counterflowCombustion and Flame 145 (2006) 324­338 www.elsevier.com/locate/combustflame Numerical study into account. Radiation heat transfer from CO2, CO, H2O, and soot was calculated using the discrete- ordinates

GĂĽlder, Ă?mer L.

117

INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF MICROMECHANICS AND MICROENGINEERING J. Micromech. Microeng. 16 (2006) S211S219 doi:10.1088/0960-1317/16/9/S07  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pressure of liquefied fuel. Combustion of the fuel then takes place, and heat generated is used in micro such as butane and propane have 100 times larger energy density. Power MEMS devices, taking advantage, which is harvested from fuel combustion, to electric energy, micro devices for feeding fuel and air

Tokyo, University of

118

MEMS-based fuel cells with integrated catalytic fuel processor and method thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described herein is a means to incorporate catalytic materials into the fuel flow field structures of MEMS-based fuel cells, which enable catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbon based fuel, such as methane, methanol, or butane. Methods of fabrication are also disclosed.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Havstad, Mark A. (Davis, CA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

119

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Pneumatic Energy Sources for Autonomous  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

research projects using combustion (methane and butane) and monopropellant decomposition (hydrogen per extensive system-level development. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition requires not only few additional parts mobile robotics grows, the most common energy source remains a tether to a sta- tionary compressor. While

Wood, Robert

120

9118 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1992, 114, 9118-9122 Propane Buwe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

9118 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1992, 114, 9118-9122 Scheme 111 Propane Buwe X =CHI and Y = H lossofH2 Z = H-82-8; ethane, 74- 84-0; propane, 74-98-6;butane, 106-97-8. (28) The heats of formation for C3H2are the scaled

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene c4h8" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Roaming radical pathways for the decomposition of alkanes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CASPT2 calculations predict the existence of roaming radical pathways for the decomposition of propane, n-butane, isobutane and neopentane. The roaming radical paths lead to the formation of an alkane and an alkene instead of the expected radical products. The predicted barriers for the roaming radical paths lie {approx}1 kcal/mol below the corresponding radical asymptotes.

Harding, L. B.; Klippenstein, S. J. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Catalyst Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alcohol transformation to transportation fuel range hydrocarbon on HZSM-5 (SiO2 / Al2O3 = 30) catalyst was studied at 360oC and 300psig. Product distributions and catalyst life were compared using methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 1-butanol as a feed. The catalyst life for 1-propanol and 1-butanol was more than double compared to that for methanol and ethanol. For all the alcohols studied, the product distributions (classified to paraffin, olefin, napthene, aromatic and naphthalene compounds) varied with time on stream (TOS). At 24 hours TOS, liquid product from 1-propanol and 1-butanol transformation primarily contains higher olefin compounds. The alcohol transformation process to higher hydrocarbon involves a complex set of reaction pathways such as dehydration, oligomerization, dehydrocyclization, and hydrogenation. Compared to ethylene generated from methanol and ethanol, oligomerization of propylene and butylene has a lower activation energy and can readily take place on weaker acidic sites. On the other hand, dehydrocyclization of propylene and butylene to form the cyclic compounds requires the sits with stronger acid strength. Combination of the above mentioned reasons are the primary reasons for olefin rich product generated in the later stage of the time on stream and for the extended catalyst life time for 1 propanol and 1 butanol compared to methanol and ethanol conversion over HZSM-5.

Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Solvothermal synthesis of vanadium phosphates in the form of xerogels, aerogels and mesostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Regularities and peculiarities of physicochemical changes, first of all phase transformations, during solvothermal treatment (with conventional and microwave heating) of the vanadium pentoxide and orthophosphoric acid mixture in organic solvents in the presence of reducing agents have been studied. Hemihydrate of vanadium hydrophosphate - the precursor of vanadium pyrophosphate, the active phase for n-butane to maleic anhydride oxidation, and ion exchanger with variable physicochemical characteristics, i.e. crystal structure, specific surface area, crystallite size and acidic properties - has been synthesized in the temperature range 170-200 {sup o}C. The obtained phases were examined using XRD, DTA-TG, SEM, FTIR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption as well as gas chromatographic determination of acidity through organic bases adsorption. The catalytic activity of prepared samples for n-butane oxidation has been investigated.

Sydorchuk, V.; Zazhigalov, V. [Institute of Sorption and Endoecology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 13 General Naumov Str., Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine)] [Institute of Sorption and Endoecology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 13 General Naumov Str., Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Khalameida, S., E-mail: svkhal@ukr.net [Institute of Sorption and Endoecology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 13 General Naumov Str., Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Diyuk, E. [Institute of Sorption and Endoecology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 13 General Naumov Str., Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine)] [Institute of Sorption and Endoecology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 13 General Naumov Str., Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Skubiszewska-Zieba, J.; Leboda, R. [Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Maria Curie-Sklodowska Sq. 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)] [Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Maria Curie-Sklodowska Sq. 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Kuznetsova, L. [Institute of Sorption and Endoecology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 13 General Naumov Str., Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine)] [Institute of Sorption and Endoecology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 13 General Naumov Str., Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Solvent deasphalting effects on whole Cold Lake bitumen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solvent separation of bitumen from the Cold Lake region of Alberta, Canada, into deasphalted oils and asphaltenes has been studied using propane, i-butane, n-butane and n-pentane. The resulting range of deasphalting was from 20 to 50 wt.% of the whole bitumen. An extensive study of the fractions, as a function of yield, has shown how and to what extent volatiles, aromatics, sulfur and metals are distributed between the fractions. It was found that the highest molecular weight asphaltenes have the most impact on the viscous nature of such heavy oils, suggesting that even low levels of deasphalting can have a dramatic impact in reducing viscosity. In addition, thiophenic sulfur is more concentrated in the asphaltenes, but the sulfides, acting as cross-links, may be responsible for the highest molecular weight fractions of the asphaltenes.

Brons, G. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States); Yu, J.M. [Imperial Oil Limited, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

125

Retrofit of Tehran City Gate Station C.G.S. No. 2 by Using Turboexpander  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane C 1 89.80 3 Carbon Dioxide CO 2 1.10 4 Ethane C 2 3.70 5 Propane C 3 0.98 6 Iso Butane IC 4 0.22 7 Normal Butane NC 4 0.29 8 Iso pentane IC 5 0.10 9 Normal pentane NC 5 0.07 10 Hexane C 6 0.04 Total 100.00 Tab. 1. Chemical... of Technology Select case study The chemical compounds of gas that is passed through the C.G.S. No. 2 of Tehran are as table: Mole Percent Chemical Compounds No. Chemical FormulaName 3.70N2Nitrogen1 89.80CH4Methane2 1.10CO2 Dioxide Carbon3 3.70C2H...

Seresht, R. T.; Ja, H. K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Effect of lower feedstock prices on economics of MTBE complex  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Economic evaluation of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) complex was carried out starting from n-butane and by captive production of methanol from natural gas. The processing steps consist of isomerization of n-butane to isobutane, dehydrogenation of isobutane to make isobutene, and finally, the reaction of isobutene with methanol to produce MTBE. Two different plant sizes were considered, and the effect of 30% lower feedback prices on profitability was studied. It was found that the raw materials cost is a dominant component, composing about 55% of the total production cost. An internal rate of return of 19% could be realized for 500,000 tons per annum MTBE complex based on economic data in mid-1993. The payback period estimated at this capacity was 3.8 years, and the break-even capacity was 36.6%.

Rahman, F.; Hamid, S.H.; Ali, M.A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

The efficient use of natural gas in transportation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Catalytic dehydrogenation of ethane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

phase of a more thorough investigation of the kinetics of the dehydrogenation of ethane over a chromia-alumina catalyst. This catalyst was prepared by impregnation of activated alumina with a decomposable chromium salt. Experiments were carried out... and butanes using a chromia-alumina catalyst. They reported good results with alumina alone, but showed that impregnation of the aluzd. na with decomposable chromium salts increased the activity of the catalyst considerably. Feed to their reaction chamber...

Place, Harold Glenn

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Economics of Water Management for Cotton and Grain Sorghum Production, High Plains.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

effects of cool nights, cold winds, blowing sand and seedling diseases. Low yields on late-planted cotton and the relatively short cotton-growing season make it undesirable to delay cotton plant- ing; consequently, there is little or no room... Tables 2 and 3, adjusted for requirements of various man- agement systems. 'Seed and insecticides. "ncludes fuel. oil and repair costs on typical 540 gpm, engine equipped, butane fueled pumping plant. management units in systems 1 to 4 consist of 1...

Hughes, Wm. F.; Magee, A. C.; Jones, Don; Thaxton, Earnest L. Jr.

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Design and Fabrication of Nanochannel Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Stage 2 can be shifted horizontally to x-direction by rotating the handle. Butane torch is placed under the tubing to heat it up. The inset shows the deformation of the tubing under the heat and stretching??????? ..29 Fig. 12 SEM images... pace. In 1990s, a research interest in fluid handling microchannel devices boosted because of their genomics application and potential capability in bio/chemical agent detection. Now the fabrication techniques have pushed those devices down...

Wang, Miao

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

132

The effect of the volume of liquid injected on recovery in solvent slug flooding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the effect of slug size on oil recovered. A series of verti. cal displacements was performed on a kerosene- and-water saturated core 10 feet in length, using butane as the solvent and methane as the inert dksplacing medium. Breakthrough recovery was fo... storage problem, it mrght be ea, sily possible to solve two difficultres 11 simultaneously, as suggested by Kennedy. The LPG is easily recovered following the displacement by the srmple expedient of blowing down the reservoir, Much interest has...

Bowman, Charles Hay

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

High accuracy p-rho-t measurements up to 200 MPa between 200 K and 500 K using a compact single sinker magnetic suspension densimeter for pure and natural gas like mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-74]. ............................................................. 90 FIGURE 54. Literature carbon dioxide deviations from NIST-12 database for temperatures between 240 K and 313 K [76]. ............................................ 91 FIGURE 55. Literature carbon dioxide deviations from NIST-12 database... based fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Among these, natural gas is the cleanest, safest, and most useful. Natural gas is a mixture of predominantly methane and other paraffinic hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane, butane, pentane etc...

Atilhan, Mert

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

134

An investigation of convergence pressure methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, hydrocarbons having molecular weights from methane through hexane, and the remainder of the hydrocarbons are lumped into a single pseudocomponent G7+. Butane and pentane are further split into iso and normal... of Mixtures Versus Saturation Pressure Number of Mixtures Versus Temperature 55 56 10 Number of Mixtures Versus Mole Fraction of Carbon Dioxide 57 Number of Mixtures Versus Mole Fraction of Hydrogen Sulfide 12 Number of Mixtures Versus Mole Fraction...

Wattenbarger, Robert Chick

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Headspace profiles of modified atmosphere packaged fresh red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) by gas liquid chromatography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

activity. Typical components found in the headspace were, butanal, ethanol, hexanal, dimethylamine and trimethylamine. During storage at 4 C, the microbial population within the packages containing C02 tended to shift from an initial gram negative... dioxide (CO2) enriched atmospheres and vacuum packaging have become important new technologies that will improve the quality and shelf-life of fresh seafood products. This type of packaging not only extends the shelf-life of seafoods, it also makes...

Scorah, Craig Darrell Allen

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C1, supplgment au n02, Tome 47, fbvrier 1986 page CI-587  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

t y 1200, b i s c u i t propane 25 1400 g l a z e butane 75 1060 g l a z e b i s c u i t e l e c t r i c i t y 1250 g l a z e propane 95 1400 g l a z e propane 95 1150 b i s c u i t Cerachrome * 5Omm 600

Boyer, Edmond

137

What are future petrochemical feedstocks?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Continuing growth in olefins and aromatics demand will require investment in production facilities worldwide. Feedstock selection for these new plants must take into account changing co-product demand patterns and production technology. Feedstock availability and logistics will be the most important considerations. Competition with fuel demand will encourage petrochemical producers to increase feedstock integration, to expand feedstock flexibility and to seek new feedstock sources. The paper discusses the following feedstocks: ethane, propane, butane, naphtha, gas oil, and condensate.

Manning, T.J. [Purvin and Gertz, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

COLLOQUE DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C5, supplement au n018, Tome 51, 15 septembre 1990  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STUDIES OF HIGH TEMPERATURE EQUILIBRIA OF THE Si - N, Si - C -H AND Si - 0 - C - H SYSTEMS Z.G. KOSTIC, P dans un plasm de lmtane et propane contenant de l l h y d r o g ~(sy- Si- C-H), (3) : S y n t h h de thermal arc plasma. 2) the Si -C -H system for Sic synthesis from Si-powder in a propane-butane thermal

Boyer, Edmond

139

Tailor-Made Onion-Like Stereocomplex Crystals in Incompatible Enantiomeric Polylactide Containing Block Copolymer Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stereocomplexes formed by blending enantiomeric PLA block copolymers have demonstrated great potential for applications in biomedical devices. Here, we successfully synthesized well-defined enantiomeric PLA containing block copolymers by living ring-opening polymerization of L- and D-lactides from hydroxyl-terminated hydrophilic [poly(ethylene oxide) or PEO] and hydrophobic [poly(ethylene-co-1,2-butylene) or PEB] oligomers. Quantitative stereocomplex formation was achieved by equimolar mixing of the incompatible PEO-b-PLLA and PEB-b-PDLA. Intriguingly, in the blend of PEB-b-PDLA and PEO-b-PLLA with different PEB and PEO molecular weights, onion-like stereocomplex crystals were observed because of unbalanced surface stresses caused by different PEO and PEB molecular weights.

Sun,L.; Zhu, L.; Rong, L.; Hsiao, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Alkylation of mixed olefins with isobutane in a stratco chemical reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 17 reaction model for the sulfuric acid alkylation of isobutane with propylene as proposed by Langley and Pike has been used to simulate the effluent refrigeration reactor. The simulation conditions selected to minimize the formation of light and heavy by-product were determined to be: Temperature: 9 - 10 {degrees}C,- Isobutane/Olefin Ratio: 8 - 10; % Volume of Acid: 50 %. The reactor effluent composition from the simulation program has been used to compare with several sets of published data with reasonable agreement. This model has been extrapolated to simulate the alkylation of isobutane with butylenes and amylenes. The model will be optimized with commercial data. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Vichailak, M. [ABB Lummus Global Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Hopper, J.R.; Yaws, C.L. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States); Pike, R.W. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene c4h8" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Mechanism of olefin production on Pt, Rh, and Pd catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The partial oxidation of ethylene, propylene, and butylene in an autothermal reactor at atmospheric pressure with contact times less that {approximately}10 milliseconds leads to high selectivities to mono-olefins over Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, synthesis gas over Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and rapid carbon deposition and deactivation over Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at complete oxygen conversion and high alkane conversion. In all cases, thermodynamics predicts carbon deposition. We will show how the product distributions vary with choice of catalyst and reaction conditions. We will use an elementary step model based on surface reaction rates on the various metals obtained from the surface science literature to simulate these experimental results. The dominant reaction pathways on the different metals can be explained by the relative preference for {beta} elimination reactions on Pt, nearly even split between {alpha} and {beta} elimination on Rh, and rapid {alpha} elimination on Pd.

Huff, M.; Schmidt, L.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Regioselective alkane hydroxylation with a mutant CYP153A6 enzyme  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cytochrome P450 CYP153A6 from Myobacterium sp. strain HXN1500 was engineered using in-vivo directed evolution to hydroxylate small-chain alkanes regioselectively. Mutant CYP153A6-BMO1 selectively hydroxylates butane and pentane at the terminal carbon to form 1-butanol and 1-pentanol, respectively, at rates greater than wild-type CYP153A6 enzymes. This biocatalyst is highly active for small-chain alkane substrates and the regioselectivity is retained in whole-cell biotransformations.

Koch, Daniel J.; Arnold, Frances H.

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

143

The upgrading of Fischer-Tropsch liquids over ZSM-5 using model compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Using the synthetic oxygenate mixture the selectivity of aromatics and LPG increasec with temperature at the expense of lower olerins and C5+ oils. The methane selectivity was very low. At a temperature of 573 K the aromatic yield was 5. s weight.... 1 percent LPG. The remainder was ethylene, propylene, and a small amount of 23 methane. The 1-butane however yielcea 30. 1 precent aromatics, 27. 3 percent oils ana 32. 3 percent LPG. The increase in aromatic yiela from 1-butene when compared...

Smith, David Duane

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

An investigation of the displacement of oil by a miscible slug followed by water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analysis of this sand is represented in Table I. For the sake of uniformity in packing and the assurance of a water-wet matrix the sand was packed under water with continuous percussion blows applied along the lengths of the cores. By knowing the core... (46' SPI) commercial grade hav4ng a viscosity of i. 27 cp. at a temperature of 78'F. The water was ordinary tap ~ster. The LPG was a 60-40 mixture of butane and propane having a vapor pressure of 83 psi. The LPG was contained in a five gallon...

Startzman, Richard Albert

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

The catalytic oxidation of ethylene and butenes with air: total aldehyde production and selectivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of startup, variation in ca. talyst composition, or by pretreat- ment of tl e catalyst, inadvertently, with a deactivating agent. Pretreate. ent of the catalyst with hydrogen gas be- fore a run proved to have an adverse effect on the forma- tion... for epoinp;, these investi- . gators concluded tliat hydroxylation is not an important factor in the oxidation of 2-butane under tne conditions considered. At 375 0 a slow reaction occurred and the r te of oxidation' increased at l. i, her tcr...

Burns, John Cunningham

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Factors affecting the recovery of petroleum in projects involving the injection of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- and ? water saturated uncon- solidated sand packs ranging from l. 9 to 22, 8 feet in length. The different series were run at rates varying from 3 to 120 feet per day. A commercial butane - propane mixture and natural gas were used as the solvent... properties are listed in Table I. The cores were packed under water in a vertical position by applying continuous percussion blows along the entire length of the pipe as the sand was added. A filter of glass wool and a fine brass screen were used...

Graham, Gerry A

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Catalytic oxidation of propylene with air at temperatures near 500° FCatalytic oxidation of propylene with air at temperatures near 500°F?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(9 ), propane was relatively difficult to oxidise. Using an arbitrary scale where the ease of oxidation of pentane equals 1 , the following values were reported} ethane, 0 .0 0 1 1; propane, 0 .1 ; butane, 0 .5 ; hexane, 7 .5 * *hs numbers refer.... They reported a 15 percent conversion to acrolein and a U peroent conversion to carbon dioxide. This was the lowest temperature at which the oxidation was reported to have been accomplished, and it appeared that the work of the present thesis in the region...

Dunlop, Donald Dunwody

1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Diffusion in associated and non-associated homologous series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and carbon dioxide and of the alkanes n-octane, n ? decane, n-dodecane, n-tetradecane, and n-hexadecane in the solvents n ? heptane, n-dodecane, and n-hexadecane. Values of Vn and P for each solute-solvent pair were determined. For the dissolved gases, Vn... consisted of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, n-pentane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, cycloheptane, methylcyclopentane, and cycloheptane. The data were interpreted using the Wilke-Chang diffusivity equation. Haluska and Clover (1971) used a...

Alhamid, Khalid A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

A study of new mixture combining rules for prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

geometric mean of Eq. 63 for methane and n- o ))an butane. 29 b. Propane (1) and Carbon Dioxide (2) In this system, experimental data for B12 are used as taken from Dymond and Smith(1980). Figure 7 is the fitting diagram of Bin for this system. The y... Dioxide (2). c. Carbon Dioxide (I) and Methanol (2). . d. Ethanol (I) and Benzene (2). . e. Propane (I) and Methanol (2). . f. Methanol (1) and Benzene (2). . g. Ethanol (1) and Water (2)? 15 15 17 20 20 29 29 30 30 38 57 V. DISCUSSIONS...

Shyu, Guor-Shiarn

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Table A1 Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.2 7.39 0.0943 Carbon monoxide CO 28.011 0.2968 133 3.50 0.0930 Carbon tetrachloride CCl4 153.82 0 of carbon dioxide, CO2 Table A­21 Ideal-gas properties of carbon monoxide, CO Table A­22 Ideal.0520 584 10.34 0.1355 n-Butane C4H10 58.124 0.1430 425.2 3.80 0.2547 Carbon dioxide CO2 44.01 0.1889 304

Kostic, Milivoje M.

151

PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS) Table A1 Molar mass, gas constant, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.0943 Carbon monoxide CO 28.011 0.2968 133 3.50 0.0930 Carbon tetrachloride CCl4 153.82 0.05405 556.4 4.56 0 Table A­20 Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide, CO2 Table A­21 Ideal-gas properties of carbon.1355 n-Butane C4H10 58.124 0.1430 425.2 3.80 0.2547 Carbon dioxide CO2 44.01 0.1889 304.2 7.39 0

Kostic, Milivoje M.

152

State of Terengganu: A development plan for the petrochemical industry and its associated downstream industries. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study, conducted by Chem Systems, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Terengganu's State Economic Planning Unit. The main objectives of the report are to: (1) Identify and list all medium stream and downstream activities, including services in petrochemical industries, using natural gas-derived ethane, propane, and butane as main feedstock and other linkages; (2) List the various enterprises noted above that can be economically and viably established in Terengganu; (3) Identify and locate the various sites for the projects identified. This is volume 1 of 2 and it contains the Final Report.

Not Available

1987-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

153

State of Terengganu: A development plan for the petrochemical industry and its associated downstream industries. Appendix. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study, conducted by Chem Systems, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Terengganu's State Economic Planning Unit. The main objectives of the report are to: (1) Identify and list all medium stream and downstream activities, including services in petrochemical industries, using natural gas-derived ethane, propane, and butane as main feedstock and other linkages; (2) List the various enterprises noted above that can be economically and viably established in Terengganu; (3) Identify and locate the various sites for the projects identified. This is volume 2 of 2 and it contains the Appendix.

Not Available

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Silicon Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Chip for Portable Consumer Electronics -- Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LSI’s fuel cell uses efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (“SOFC”) technology, is manufactured using Micro Electrical Mechanical System (“MEMS”) fabrication methods, and runs on high energy fuels, such as butane and ethanol. The company’s Fuel Cell on a Chip™ technology enables a form-factor battery replacement for portable electronic devices that has the potential to provide an order-of-magnitude run-time improvement over current batteries. Further, the technology is clean and environmentally-friendly. This Department of Energy funded project focused on accelerating the commercialization and market introduction of this technology through improvements in fuel cell chip power output, lifetime, and manufacturability.

Alan Ludwiszewski

2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

155

Feedstock Economics for Global Steam Crackers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, butane, wide range naphtha, and atmospheric gas oil. The 10 regions considered in the study are the US Gulf Coast, Brazil, Western Canada, China, Indonesia, Japan, Saudi Arabia, 54 South Korea, Taiwan. and West Ger-many. lhe business climate... fabricated, while those in Saudi Arabia have a hJgh cont~nt of foreign shop fabrication into modules, and local assembly of the various modules. Location Factor Country 0.85 South k'orea 0.90 Taiwan 0.96 West Germany 1.00 US Gulf Coast 1.12 Japan...

McCormack, G.; Pavone, T.

156

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Orler, Bruce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Stephanie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cindy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

158

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

159

Process for restoring membrane permeation properties  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for restoring the selectivity of high-flee-volume, glassy polymer membranes for condensable components over less-condensable components or non-condensable components of a gas mixture. The process involves exposing the membrane to suitable sorbent vapor, such as propane or butane, thereby reopening the microvoids that make up the free volume. The selectivity of an aged membrane may be restored to 70-100% of its original value. The selectivity of a membrane which is known to age over time can also be maintained by keeping the membrane in a vapor environment when it is not in use.

Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Toy, Lora G. (San Francisco, CA); Casillas, Carlos G. (San Jose, CA)

1997-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

160

Process for restoring membrane permeation properties  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for restoring the selectivity of high-free-volume, glassy polymer membranes for condensable components over less-condensable components or non-condensable components of a gas mixture. The process involves exposing the membrane to suitable sorbent vapor, such as propane or butane, thereby reopening the microvoids that make up the free volume. The selectivity of an aged membrane may be restored to 70--100% of its original value. The selectivity of a membrane which is known to age over time can also be maintained by keeping the membrane in a vapor environment when it is not in use. 8 figs.

Pinnau, I.; Toy, L.G.; Casillas, C.G.

1997-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene c4h8" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Catalytic ignition of fuel/oxygen/nitrogen mixtures over platinum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ignition of fuel/oxygen/nitrogen mixtures over platinum wire is experimentally studied by using microcalorimetry and by restricting the flow to the low Reynolds number range so that axisymmetry prevails. The fuels studied are propane, butane, propylene, ethylene, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen. Parameters investigated include flow velocity, fuel type and concentration, and oxygen concentration. The catalytic ignition temperatures of the various fuels are accurately determined over extensive ranges of fuel/oxygen/nitrogen concentrations. Results show two distinctly opposite ignition trends depending on the nature of the fuel. That is, the ignition temperature of lean propane/air and butane/air mixtures decreases as their fuel concentration is increased, while the reverse trend is observed for lean mixtures of propylene, ethylene, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen with air. Furthermore, the ignition of propane depends primarily on fuel concentration, while the ignition of carbon monoxide depends on fuel and oxygen concentrations to a comparable extent. These results are explained on the basis of hierarchical surface adsorption strengths of the different reactants in effecting catalytic ignition. Additional phenomena of interest are observed and discussed.

Cho, P.; Law, C.K.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Source profiles for nonmethane organic compounds in the atmosphere of Cairo, Egypt.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Profiles of the sources of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) were developed for emissions from vehicles, petroleum fuels (gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and natural gas), a petroleum refinery, a smelter, and a cast iron factory in Cairo, Egypt. More than 100 hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons were tentatively identified and quantified. Gasoline-vapor and whole-gasoline profiles could be distinguished from the other profiles by high concentrations of the C{sub 5} and C{sub 6} saturated hydrocarbons. The vehicle emission profile was similar to the whole-gasoline profile, with the exception of the unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, which were present at higher concentrations in the vehicle emission profile. High levels of the C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} saturated hydrocarbons, particularly n-butane, were characteristic features of the petroleum refinery emissions. The smelter and cast iron factory emissions were similar to the refinery emissions; however, the levels of benzene and toluene were greater in the former two sources. The LPG and natural gas emissions contained high concentrations of n-butane and ethane, respectively. The NMOC source profiles for Cairo were distinctly different from profiles for U.S. sources, indicating that NMOC source profiles are sensitive to the particular composition of petroleum fuels that are used in a location.

Doskey, P. V.; Fukui, Y.; Sultan, M.; Maghraby, A. A.; Taher, A.; Environmental Research; Cairo Univ.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Technical and operational overview of the C[sub 4] Oleflex process at Valero refinery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Changes in gasoline composition stemming from the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments prompted Valero Energy Corporation to evaluate options for producing reformulated gasoline. The evaluation culminated in a project to upgrade butanes into methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Technology selection focused on the dehydrogenation of isobutane, and the UOP Oleflex process was selected. The MTBE project was implemented in 34 months and was $3 million under budget. The guaranteed MTBE production of 12,500 BPSD was achieved within one month of mechanical completion and has since reached 15,000 BPSD. Even at the low MTBE prices prevailing in late 1993, the butane upgrading project contributed significantly to Valero Refinery's overall profitability. Worldwide demand is expected to increase MTBE prices in 1996, thereby further increasing profits. The paper describes the project evaluation activities which led to the selection of the Oleflex process, engineering and construction, the MTBE complex start-up and operation, the Valero MTBE complex performance, and future plans. The paper also discusses feedstock utilization efficiency and MTBE market analysis.

Hohnholt, J.F.; Payne, D. (Valero Refining Co., Corpus Christi, TX (United States)); Gregor, J.; Smith, E. (UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental study of coal swelling ratios have been determined with a wide variety of solvents. Only marginal levels of coal swelling were observed for the hydrocarbon solvents, but high levels were found with solvents having heteroatom functionality. Blends were superior to pure solvents. The activity of various catalyst precursors for pyrene hydrogenation and coal conversion was measured. Higher coal conversions were observed for the S0{sub 2}-treated coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Coal conversions were highest for Molyvan-L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively. Bottoms processing consists of a combination of the ASCOT process coupling solvent deasphalting with delayed coking. Initial results indicate that a blend of butane and pentane used near the critical temperature of butane is the best solvent blend for producing a yield/temperature relationship of proper sensitivity and yet retaining an asphalt phase of reasonable viscosity. The literature concerning coal swelling, both alone and in combination with coal liquefaction, and the use of dispersed or unsupported catalysts in coal liquefaction has been updated.

Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

165

Simple rules help select best hydrocarbon distillation scheme  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Separation economics depend mainly on investment for major equipment and energy consumption. This relationship, together with the fact that, in most cases, many alternative schemes will be proposed, make it essential to find an optimum scheme that minimizes overall costs. Practical solutions are found by applying heuristics -- exploratory problem-solving techniques that eliminate alternatives without applying rigorous mathematical procedures. These techniques have been applied to a case study. In the case study, a hydrocarbon mixture will be transported through a pipeline to a fractionation plant, where it will be separated into commercial products for distribution. The fractionation will consist of a simple train of distillation columns, the sequence of which will be defined by applying heuristic rules and determining the required thermal duties for each column. The facility must separate ethane, propane and mixed butanes, natural gasoline (light straight-run, or LSR, gasoline), and condensate (heavy naphtha). The ethane will be delivered to an ethylene plant as a gaseous stream, the propane and butanes will be stored in cryogenic tanks, and the gasoline and heavy naphtha also will be stored.

Sanchezllanes, M.T.; Perez, A.L.; Martinez, M.P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Rosal, R. del (Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico))

1993-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

166

Splitting a C-O bond in dialkylethers with bis(1,2,4-tri-t-butylcyclopentadienyl) cerium-hydride does not occur by a sigma-bond metathesis pathway: a combined experimental and DFT computational study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Addition of diethylether to [1,2,4(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH, abbreviated Cp'2CeH, gives Cp'2CeOEt and ethane. Similarly, di-n-propyl- or di-n-butylether gives Cp'2Ce(O-n-Pr) and propane or Cp'2Ce(O-n-Bu) and butane, respectively. Using Cp'2CeD, the propane and butane contain deuterium predominantly in their methyl groups. Mechanisms, formulated on the basis of DFT computational studies, show that the reactions begin by an alpha or beta-CH activation with comparable activation barriers but only the beta-CH activation intermediate evolves into the alkoxide product and an olefin. The olefin then inserts into the Ce-H bond forming the alkyl derivative, Cp'2CeR, that eliminates alkane. The alpha-CH activation intermediate is in equilibrium with the starting reagents, Cp'2CeH and the ether, which accounts for the deuterium label in the methyl groups of the alkane. The one-step sigma-bond metathesis mechanism has a much higher activation barrier than either of the two-step mechanisms.

Werkema, Evan; Yahia, Ahmed; Maron, Laurent; Eisenstein, Odile; Andersen, Richard

2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

167

Combustion characteristics of alternative gaseous fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fundamental flame properties of mixtures of air with hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C{sub 1}–C{sub 4} saturated hydrocarbons were studied both experimentally and numerically. The fuel mixtures were chosen in order to simulate alternative gaseous fuels and to gain insight into potential kinetic couplings during the oxidation of fuel mixtures. The studies included the use of the counterflow configuration for the determination of laminar flame speeds, as well as extinction and ignition limits of premixed flames. The experiments were modeled using the USC Mech II kinetic model. It was determined that when hydrocarbons are added to hydrogen flames as additives, flame ignition, propagation, and extinction are affected in a counterintuitive manner. More specifically, it was found that by substituting methane by propane or n-butane in hydrogen flames, the reactivity of the mixture is reduced both under pre-ignition and vigorous burning conditions. This behavior stems from the fact that propane and n-butane produce higher amounts of methyl radicals that can readily recombine with atomic hydrogen and reduce thus the rate of the H + O{sub 2} ? O + OH branching reaction. The kinetic model predicts closely the experimental data for flame propagation and extinction for various fuel mixtures and pressures, and for various amounts of carbon dioxide in the fuel blend. On the other hand, it underpredicts, in general, the ignition temperatures.

Park, O.; Veloo, Peter S.; Liu, N.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Effect of surfactants on the interfacial tension and emulsion formation between water and carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lowering of the interfacial tension ({gamma}) between water and carbon dioxide by various classes of surfactants is reported and used to interpret complementary measurements of the capacity, stability, and average drop size of water-in-CO{sub 2} emulsions. {gamma} is lowered from {approximately}20 to {approximately}2 mN/m for the best poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide) (PPO-b-PEO-b-PPO) and PeO-b-PPO-b-PEO Pluronic triblock copolymers, 1.4 mN/m for a poly(butylene oxide)-b-PEO copolymer, 0.8 mN/m for a perfluoropolyether (PEPE) ammonium carboxylate and 0.2 mN/m for PDMS{sub 24}-g-EO{sub 22}. The hydrophilic-CO{sub 2}-philic balance (HCB) of the triblock Pluronic and PDMS-g-PEO-PPO surfactants is characterized by the CO{sub 2}-to-water distribution coefficient and V-shaped plots of log {gamma} vs wt % EO. A minimum in {gamma} is observed for the optimum HCB. As the CO{sub 2}-philicity of the surfactant tail is increased, the molecular weight of the hydrophilic segment increases for an optimum HCB. The stronger interactions on both sides of the interface lead to a lower {gamma}. Consequently, more water was emulsified for the PDMS-based copolymers than either the PPO- or PBO-based copolymers.

Rocha, S.R.P. da; Harrison, K.L.; Johnston, K.P. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

169

Potential for Microbial Stimulation in Deep Vadose Zone Sediments by Gas-Phase Nutrients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Viable microbial populations are low, typically 10{sup 4} cells per gram, in deep vadose zones in arid climates. There is evidence that microbial distribution in these environments is patchy. In addition, infiltration or injection of nutrient-laden water has the potential to spread and drive contaminants downward to the saturated zone. For these reasons, there are uncertainties regarding the feasibility of bioremediation of recalcitrant contaminants in deep vadose zones. The objectives of this study were to investigate the occurrence of denitrifying activity and gaseous carbon-utilizing activity in arid-climate deep vadose zone sediments contaminated with, and/or affected by past exposure to, carbon tetrachloride (CT). These metabolisms are known to degrade CT and/or its breakdown product chloroform under anoxic conditions. A second objective was to determine if CT would be degraded in these sediments under unsaturated, bulk-phase aerobic incubation conditions. Both denitrifier population (determined by MPN) and microbial heterotrophic activity (measured by mineralization of 14-C labeled glucose and acetate) were relatively low and the sediments with greater in situ moisture (10-21% versus 2-7%) tended to have higher activities. When sediments were amended with gaseous nutrients (nitrous oxide and triethyl/tributyl phosphate) and gaseous C sources (a mixture of methane, ethane, propylene, propane, and butane) and incubated for 6 months, approximately 50% of the samples showed removal of one or more gaseous C sources, with butane most commonly used (44% of samples), followed by propylene (42%), propane (31%), ethane (22%), and methane (4%). Gaseous N and gaseous P did not stimulate removal of gaseous C substrates compared to no addition of N and P. CT and gaseous C sources were spiked into the sediments that removed gaseous C sources to determine if hydrocarbon-degraders have the potential to degrade CT under unsaturated conditions. In summary, gaseous C sources--particularly butane and propylene--have promise for increasing the numbers and activity of indigenous microbial populations in arid-climate deep vadose zone sediments.

Li, S.W.; Plymale, A. E.; Brockman, F.J.

2006-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

170

A Texas project illustrates the benefits of integrated gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasification can be an attractive option for converting a variety of petroleum feedstocks to chemicals. Natural gas is commonly sued to produce acetic acid, isocyanates, plastics, and fibers. But low-cost, bottom-of-the-barrel feeds, such as vacuum resid, petroleum coke, and asphaltenes, also can be used. In any case, gasification products include synthesis gas, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, steam, carbon dioxide, and power. The more a gasification facility is integrated with utilities and other non-core operations of a production complex, the more economical the products are for all consumers. The paper discusses gasification of natural gas, light hydrocarbons (ethane, propanes, and butanes), and heavy hydrocarbons (distillates, heavy residues, asphalts, coals, petroleum coke). The paper then describes a Texas City Gasification Project, which gasifies methane to produce carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and alcohol. The plant is integrated with a cogeneration plant. Economics are discussed.

Philcox, J. [Praxair Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Fenner, G.W. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

1997-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

171

Minutes of the tenth meeting of the centers for the analysis of thermal/mechanical energy conversion concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The agenda, list of participants, and minutes of the meeting are presented. Included in the appendices are figures, data, outlines, etc. from the following presentations: 500 kW Direct-Contact Heat Exchanger Pilot Plant; LBL/EPRI Heat Exchanger Field Test, Critical Temperature and Pressure Comparisons for n-Butane/n-Pentane Mixtures; Second Law Techniques in the Correlation of Cost-Optimized Binary Power Plants; Outline of Chapter on Geothermal Well Logging; Outline and Highlights from Geothermal Drilling and Completion Technology Development Program Annual Progress: October 1979-September 1980; Geothermal Well Stimulation; World Update on Installed Geothermal Power Plants; Baca No. 1 Demonstration Flask Plant: Technical and Cost Data; Heber Binary Project; 45 mw Demonstration Plant; Raft River 5 mw Geothermal Dual-Boiling-Cycle Plant; Materials Considerations in the Design of Geothermal Power Plants; Raft River Brine Treatment for Tower Make-up; and Site Photographs of Raft River Valley.

DiPippo, R.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Relaxed active space: Fixing tailored-CC with high order coupled cluster. II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to the steep increase in computational cost with the inclusion of higher-connected cluster operators in coupled-cluster applications, it is usually not practical to use such methods for larger systems or basis sets without an active space partitioning. This study generates an active space subject to unambiguous statistical criteria to define a space whose size permits treatment at the CCSDT level. The automated scheme makes it unnecessary for the user to judge whether a chosen active space is sufficient to correctly solve the problem. Two demanding applications are presented: twisted ethylene and the transition states for the bicyclo[1,1,0]butane isomerization. As bi-radicals both systems require at least a CCSDT level of theory for quantitative results, for the geometries and energies.

Melnichuk, Ann, E-mail: melnichu@qtp.ufl.edu; Bartlett, Rodney J. [Quantum Theory Project, Department of Chemistry and Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

173

A molecular dynamics investigation of the unusual concentration dependencies of Fick diffusivities in silica mesopores  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to determine the self-diffusivitiy, D{sub i,self}, the Maxwell–Stefan diffusivity, Đ{sub i}, and the Fick diffusivity, D{sub i}, for methane (C1), ethane (C2), propane (C3), n-butane (nC4), n-pentane (nC5), n-hexane (nC6), n-heptane (nC7), and cyclohexane (cC6) in cylindrical silica mesopores for a range of pore concentrations. The MD simulations show that zero-loading diffusivity Đ{sub i}(0) is consistently lower, by up to a factor of 20, than the values anticipated by the classical Knudsen formula. The concentration dependence of the Fick diffusivity, D{sub i} is found to be unusually complex, and displays a strong minimum in some cases; this characteristic can be traced to molecular clustering.

Krishna, Rajamani; van Baten, Jasper M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Palladacycles with Palladium-Bonded Stereogenic Carbons: Tools for Exploring Reaction Pathways in Organometallic Chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. catalyst/catalytic (CD 3 ) 2 CO acetone (deuterated) CH 3 CN acetonitrile CH 3 COCl acetyl chloride CHIRAPHOS (2S,3S)-(?)-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane cm centimeter COD 1,5-cyclooctadiene xiii COE cyclooctene Cy... elimination to give 2.6. Scheme 2.2 H 2 CCH 2 PdCl 2 ClH 2 CCH 2 PdCl CO reductive elimination O Cl Mechanism A: Mechanism B: PdCl 2 CO O Cl PdCl ethylene carbopalladation ClH 2 CCH 2 Pd O Cl reductive elimination 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.6 ethylene...

Hershberger, John Charles

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Pentan isomers compound flame front structure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fuels (hexane, pentane, diethyl ether) and conditions investigated in this study are relevant to engine knock in spark- ignition engines. A review is provided of the field of low temperature hydrocarbon oxidation. Studies were made of radical and stable intermediate distribution in the front of cool flames: Maximum concentrations of H atoms and peroxy radicals were observed in the luminous zone of the cool flame front. Peroxy radicals appear before the luminous zone at 430 K due to diffusion. H atoms were found in cool flames of butane and hexane. H atoms diffuses from the luminous zone to the side of the fresh mixture, and they penetrate into the fresh mixture to a small depth. Extension of action sphear of peroxy radicals in the fresh mixture is much greater than that of H atoms due to their small activity and high concentrations.

Mansurov, Z.A.; Mironenko, A.W.; Bodikov, D.U.; Rachmetkaliev, K.N. [Kazakh Al-Farabi State National Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan)

1995-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

176

Economics for iso-olefin production using the fluid catalytic cracking unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires use of oxygenates in some gasolines to improve both CO and hydrocarbon auto tailpipe emissions. Various oxygenates are currently being used by the refining industry. For the fully integrated refinery having a fluid catalytic cracking unit, the most commonly used oxygenates are methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl ether (TAME). The FCC unit produces the isobutylene and iso-amylases need for manufacture of both MTBE and TAME. The economics for an assumed refinery processing scheme for several FCC cases are examined giving estimates of income and investments for each case. Up to one-third of the total gasoline pool can be made in reformulated gasoline using TAME and MTBE with the FCC unit as the sole source of feedstock. This processing route is much more economical than the alternative scheme using butane isomerization/iosbutane dehydrogenation.

McClung, R.G.; Witoshkin, A.; Bogert, D.C.; Winkler, W.S. [Englehard Corp., Iselin, NJ (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

177

Autoignition behavior of lean mixtures: Chemical and thermodynamics effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Knock characteristics of natural gas (NG), 89 octane unleaded gasoline, 2,2-dimethyl butane (22DMB), and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in stoichiometric and lean fuel-air mixtures were studied in a production 4-cylinder automotive engine. The Intake Temperature at the Knock Limit (ITKL) was different for each fuel but always higher in lean mixtures. Gasoline and 22DMB exhibited much greater increases in ITKL than MTBE and NG at lean conditions. Surprisingly, for lean mixtures 22DMB exhibited higher ITKL than MTBE and was almost as high as NG. Comparison with detailed numerical modelling was very favorable. Computations show that both differences in chemistry and end-gas temperature and pressure histories are responsible for these trends. This behavior is interpreted in terms of the Negative Temperature Coefficient behavior of hydrocarbon oxidation. The implication of these results for the specification of optimal fuels for lean-burn engine is discussed.

Ronney, P.D.; Shoda, M.; Waida, S.T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1992-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

New processes to recovery methanol and remove oxygenates from Valero MTBE unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The refiner today has to evaluate every available option to increase octane in the gasoline pool to make up for the loss in octane created by lead phase down. Production of MTBE is one of the most attractive options. MTBE is produced by selectivity reacting isobutylene with methanol. Valero Refining's refinery at Corpus Christie, Texas (formerly Saber Refining) is one of the most modern refineries built in the last decade to upgrade resids. As part of the gasoline upgrading Valero had built a Butamer Unit to convert normal butane to isobutane upstream of their HF Alkylation Unit. In 1984 as an ongoing optimization of its operations, Valero Refining evaluated various processes to enable it to increase the octane output, and decided to build an MTBE unit. Valero selected the MTBE process licensed by Arco Technology, Inc. and contracted with Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Houston, Texas to provide detailed engineering and procurement services.

Hillen, P.; Clemmons, J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Supercritical catalysts of light hydrocarbon conversion. DOE PETC eighth quartery report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solid superacid catalysts investigated in this project catalyze hydrocarbon conversions by routes involving carbocation intermediates. This report is a summary of mechanisms of hydrocarbon conversion catalyzed by these and related solid acids. This mechanistic information summarized here is important to the present project because it provides guidance for the modeling of the kinetics of the catalytic butane conversion and propane conversion. Because of the difficulty of determining surface reaction intermediates, understanding of surface reaction mechanisms lags far behind that of solution reaction mechanisms, and what is known about the former is fragmentary and often largely based on presumed analogies with the latter, combined with results such as those from tracer experiments, kinetics experiments, and theoretical chemistry.

Gates, B.C.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

On the chemical composition of Titan's dry lakebed evaporites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Titan, the main satellite of Saturn, has an active cycle of methane in its troposphere. Among other evidence for a mechanism of evaporation at work on the ground, dry lakebeds have been discovered. Recent Cassini infrared observations of these empty lakes have revealed a surface composition poor in water ice compared to that of the surrounding terrains --- suggesting the existence of organic evaporites deposits. The chemical composition of these possible evaporites is unknown. In this paper, we study evaporite composition using a model that treats both organic solids dissolution and solvent evaporation. Our results suggest the possibility of large abundances of butane and acetylene in the lake evaporites. However, due to uncertainties of the employed theory, these determinations have to be confirmed by laboratory experiments.

Cordier, Daniel; Ferreira, Abel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene c4h8" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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181

Use of look-ahead modeling in pipeline operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amoco Canada Petroleum Company, Ltd. operates the Cochin pipeline system. Cochin pumps batched liquid ethane, propane, ethylene, butane, and NGL. Operating and scheduling this pipeline is very complex. There are safety considerations, especially for ethylene, which cannot be allowed to drop below vapor pressure. Amoco Canada needs to know where batches are in the line, what pressure profiles will look like into the future, and when batches arrive at various locations along the line. In addition to traditional instrumentation and SCADA, Amoco Canada uses modeling software to help monitor and operate the Cochin pipeline. Two important components of the modeling system are the Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) and Predictive Model (PM) modules. These modules perform look ahead modeling to assist in operating the Cochin pipeline. The modeling software was first installed for the Cochin system in February of 1994, and was commissioned on August 1, 1994. This paper will discuss how the look ahead modules are used for the Cochin pipeline.

Wray, B.; O`Leary, C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

182

Chemical microreactor and method thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemical microreactor suitable for generation of hydrogen fuel from liquid sources such as ammonia, methanol, and butane through steam reforming processes when mixed with an appropriate amount of water contains capillary microchannels with integrated resistive heaters to facilitate the occurrence of catalytic steam reforming reactions. One such microreactor employs a packed catalyst capillary microchannel and at least one porous membrane. Another employs a porous membrane with a large surface area or a porous membrane support structure containing a plurality of porous membranes having a large surface area in the aggregate, i.e., greater than about 1 m.sup.2 /cm.sup.3. The packed catalyst capillary microchannels, porous membranes and porous membrane support structures may be formed by a variety of methods.

Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Beowawe Bottoming Binary Unit - Final Technical Report for EE0002856  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This binary plant is the first high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a butane based cycle are not necessary. The unit is modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. This project proves the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy for Nevada, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

McDonald, Dale Edward

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

184

Anion effects in the extraction of lanthanide 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone complexes into an ionic liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The extraction of trivalent lanthanides from an aqueous phase containing 1 M NaClO{sub 4} into the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nonafluoro-1-butane sulfonate by the beta-diketone extractant 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) was studied. Radiotracer distribution, absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements point to the extraction of multiple lanthanide species. At low extractant concentrations, fully hydrated aqua cations of the lanthanides are present in the ionic liquid phase. As the extractant concentration is increased 1:2 and 1:3 lanthanide:tta species are observed. In contrast, 1:4 Ln:tta complexes were observed in the extraction of lanthanides by Htta into 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. (authors)

Jensen, Mark P.; Beitz, James V.; Rickert, Paul G. [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Borkowski, Marian [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Los Alamos Natl Lab, Earth and Environm Sci Div, Carlsbad, NM, (United States); Laszak, Ivan [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Commisariat Energie Atom, DEN DPC SERC LANIE, Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Dietz, Mark L. [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Wisconsin-Milwaukee Univ, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Milwaukee, WI, (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

EVAPORATIVE COOLING - CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR ATLAS SCT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The conceptual design of an evaporative two-phase flow cooling system for the ATLAS SCT detector is described, using perfluorinated propane (C3F8) as a coolant. Comparison with perfluorinated butane (C4F10) is made, although the detailed design is presented only for C3F8. The two-phase pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient are calculated in order to determine the dimensions of the cooling pipes and module contacts for the Barrel SCT. The region in which the flow is homogeneous is determined. The cooling cycle, pipework, compressor, heat exchangers and other main elements of the system are calculated in order to be able to discuss the system control, safety and reliability. Evaporative cooling appears to be substantially better than the binary ice system from the point of view of safety, reliability, detector thickness, heat transfer coefficient, cost and simplicity.

Niinikoski, T O

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Supercritical fluid thermodynamics for coal processing: Quarterly progress report, September 15, 1988--December 31, 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of their unusual solvating and mass transfer properties, supercritical fluids show potential for a variety of coal processing applications. To establish a database of coal model compound equilibria, this quarter we have measured the solubility of 5,6-dimethyl-benzimidazole and anthraquinone in supercritical butane. In addition, we have used fluorescence spectroscopy to study the nature of the intermolecular interactions in the systems of pyrene and naphthalene in supercritical CO/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, and CF/sub 3/H. The spectroscopy measurements are being used to guide the development of an equation of state that can be used to predict the solubility behavior so systems can be designed for the processing of coal with supercritical fluids. 4 figs.

Eckert, C.A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Method for forming a chemical microreactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a chemical microreactor that provides a means to generate hydrogen fuel from liquid sources such as ammonia, methanol, and butane through steam reforming processes when mixed with an appropriate amount of water. The microreactor contains capillary microchannels with integrated resistive heaters to facilitate the occurrence of catalytic steam reforming reactions. Two distinct embodiment styles are discussed. One embodiment style employs a packed catalyst capillary microchannel and at least one porous membrane. Another embodiment style employs a porous membrane with a large surface area or a porous membrane support structure containing a plurality of porous membranes having a large surface area in the aggregate, i.e., greater than about 1 m.sup.2/cm.sup.3. Various methods to form packed catalyst capillary microchannels, porous membranes and porous membrane support structures are also disclosed.

Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Jankowski, Alan (Livermore, CA)

2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

188

A study on coalbed methane reserve of Shanxi: Hedong coalfield reserve and its utilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coalbed gas, i.e. coalbed methane, is considered an unconventional gas, formed during coal accumulation and preserved in coal seams. In the past, coalbed gas was considered a major hazard factor to the safety of mining and caused countless explosive events and great losses to the enterprises and even to the country. Early in 1960s and 70s, it was recognized that coalbed gas could be utilized as an energy resource and collected through tunnels in China. In 1995, the output of tunnel gas reached 500Mm{sup 3}, however, surface pumping is still at its beginning stage, test and appraisal; so far, no commercial development is being carried out in China. Hedong coalfield, situated in the west of Shanxi province and bordered by the Yellow River in the northwest and outcrop seams in the southeast, is 540km long (N-S) and 10--40 km wide (E-W) and covers an area of 17,000 km{sup 2} across 13 counties of Xinzou, Luliang, Linfen and Yuncheng prefectures. It is the No. 2 coalfield in Shanxi province and the well-known base of excellent coking coal and power coal in China. Hedong coalfield is not only rich in coal resource, but also in coalbed methane. This paper describes the geology of the coalfield (including structure, magmatic activity, coal seams and coal grade); the regularity of coalbed methane occurrence in the Hedong coalfield; the calculation of coalbed methane resource; and the use of coalbed methane for motor fuels and chemicals production. The total resource is 1468.93Gm{sup 3}. The production of motor fuels can be realized by the following processes: (a) synthetic methanol as substitute of gasoline; (b) F-T synthesis for synthetic gasoline and diesel oil; (c) Compressed natural gas as motor fuel; and (d) Liquefied natural gas as motor fuel. The production of organic chemicals is suggested with the following technology: (a) Two-stage steam reforming to convert methane to synthetic gas various organic chemicals can be produced therefrom; (b) Partial oxidation of methane to produce synthesis gas and acetylene; (c) Coalbed methane to produce hydrogen cyanide and chloromethanes; and (d) Coalbed methane to produce acrylonitrile, acetylene, ethylene, propylene and butylenes.

Kong, X.; Fan, R.; Hu, Y.; Wang, M.; Wang, M.; Chen, Z.; Li, M.; Peng, S. [Taiyuan Ke-jin Technology Development Service (China)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

189

Studies on Cu/CeO{sub 2}: A new NO reduction catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fine particle and large surface area Cu/CeO{sub 2} catalysts of crystallite sizes in the range of 100--200 {angstrom} synthesized by the solution combustion method have been investigated for NO reduction. Five percent Cu/CeO{sub 2} catalyst shows nearly 100% conversion of NO by NH{sub 3} below 300 C, whereas pure ceria and Zr, Y, and Ca doped ceria show 85--95% NO conversion above 600 C. Similarly NO reduction by CO has been observed over 5% Cu/CeO{sub 2} with nearly 100% conversion below 300 C. Hydrocarbon (n-butane) oxidation by NO to CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O has also been demonstrated over this catalyst below 350 C making Cu/CeO{sub 2} a new NO reduction catalyst in the low temperature window of 150--350 C. Kinetics of NO reduction over 5% Cu/CeO{sub 2} have also been investigated. The rate constants are in the range of 1.4 {times} 10{sup 4} to 2.3 {times} 10{sup 4} cm{sup 3}/g s between 170 and 300 C. Cu/CeO{sub 2} catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy where Cu{sup 2+} ions are shown to be dispersed on the CeO{sub 2} surface.

Bera, P.; Aruna, S.T.; Patil, K.C.; Hegde, M.S. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India)] [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India)

1999-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Embedding parameters in ab initio theory to develop approximations based on molecular similarity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A means to take advantage of molecular similarity to lower the computational cost of electronic structure theory is explored, in which parameters are embedded into a low-cost, low-level (LL) ab initio model and adjusted to obtain agreement with results from a higher-level (HL) ab initio model. A parametrized LL (pLL) model is created by multiplying selected matrix elements of the Hamiltonian operators by scaling factors that depend on element types. Various schemes for applying the scaling factors are compared, along with the impact of making the scaling factors linear functions of variables related to bond lengths, atomic charges, and bond orders. The models are trained on ethane and ethylene, substituted with -NH2, -OH and -F, and tested on substituted propane, propylene and t-butane. Training and test datasets are created by distorting the molecular geometries and applying uniform electric fields. The fitted properties include changes in total energy arising from geometric distortions or applied fields, an...

Tanha, Matteus; Kaul, Shiva; Cappiello, Alexander; Gordon, Geoffrey J; Yaron, David J

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Fundamental Study of the Oxidation Characteristics and Pollutant Emissions of Model Biodiesel Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the oxidation characteristics of biodiesel fuels are investigated with the goal of contributing toward the fundamental understanding of their combustion characteristics and evaluating the effect of using these alternative fuels on engine performance as well as on the environment. The focus of the study is on pure fatty acid methyl-esters (FAME,) that can serve as surrogate compounds for real biodiesels. The experiments are conducted in the stagnation-flow configuration, which allows for the systematic evaluation of fundamental combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the focus is primarily on the pollutant emission characteristics of two C{sub 4} FAMEs, namely, methyl-butanoate and methyl-crotonate, whose behavior is compared with that of n-butane and n-pentane. To provide insight into the mechanisms of pollutant formation for these fuels, the experimental data are compared with computed results using a model with consistent C{sub 1}?C{sub 4} oxidation and NO{sub x} formation kinetics.

Feng, Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Tsotsis, T. T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Synthesis of new energetic materials. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work on the synthesis of new hydrocarbon fuel systems involved: (a) a study of the synthesis and acid-promoted rearrangement of PCU-derived pinacols; (b) synthesis of an HCTD-derived pinacol; (c) a study of the generation and trapping of a PCU-derived vinylidenecarbene; (d) synthesis of `homosecohexaprismane- 10,13-dione`; (e) synthesis and thermal rearrangement of pentacyclo6.5.0.0 (4,12).0(5,10).0 (9,13)trideca-2,6-diene; (f) a study of the acid and base promoted reararrangements of hexacyclo11.2.1.0 (2,12).0(5,10).0 (5,15).0(10,14)hexadeca- 6,8-diene-4,11-dione. The results of studies that were performed in collaboration with investigators in four external laboratories are described. In addition, two new syntheses of TNAZ were developed, both of which proceed by way of an intermediate 1-azabicyclo1.1.0butane. Finally, X-ray crystal structures have been determined for a variety of cage hydrocarbons.

Marchand, A.P.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Phase equilibrium measurements on twelve binary mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase equilibrium measurements have been performed on twelve binary mixtures. The PTx method was used to obtain vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the following binary systems at two temperatures each: ethanethiol + propylene; nitrobenzene + methanol; pyridine + ethyl acetate; octane + tert-amyl methyl ether; diisopropyl ether + butane; 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol + epichlorohydrin; 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol + epichlorohydrin; 2,3-epoxy-1-propanol + epichlorohydrin; 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol + epichlorohydrin; methanol + hydrogen cyanide. For these systems, equilibrium vapor and liquid phase compositions were derived from the PTx data using the Soave equation of state to represent the vapor phase and the Wilson, NRTL, or Redlich-Kister activity coefficient model to represent the liquid phase. The infinite dilution activity coefficient of methylamine in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone was determined at three temperatures by performing PTx measurements on the N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone was determined at three temperatures by performing PTx measurements on the N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone-rich half of the binary. Liquid-liquid equilibrium studies were made on the triethylene glycol + 1-pentene system at two temperatures by directly analyzing samples taken from each liquid phase.

Giles, N.F. [Wiltec Research Co., Inc., Provo, UT (United States)] [Wiltec Research Co., Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Wilson, H.L.; Wilding, W.V. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Chemical kinetics of cetane number improving agents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increasing demand for diesel fuels has resulted in the use of greater percentage of cracked distillates having poor ignition properties. The ignition properties of diesel fuels can be rated in terms of their cetane number and diesel fuels having low cetane number may have poor ignition properties such as diesel knock, difficulties to start engines in the cold weather and so on. Such diesel fuels need cetane number improving agents. In the 1940s and 1950s alkyl nitrates, alkyl nitrites and organic peroxides were found to be effective cetane number improving additives. Our recent study suggests that free radicals produced from thermal decomposition just before ignition should have an important role to improve their ignition properties. However no studies on the reaction mechanism for improving effect of these additives have been attempted because of complex nature of spontaneous ignition reaction of hydrocarbons. In order to clarify the reaction mechanism for improving effects of cetane number improving agents. We here have attempted to simulate the spontaneous ignition of n-butane as a model compound in the presence of alkyl nitrites as cetane number improving agents.

Hashimoto, K.; Akutsu, Y.; Arai, M.; Tamura, M. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

195

Reconnaissance survey for lightweight and carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons in the central and eastern basins of Lake Erie: September 1978  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reconnaissance survey of the central and eastern basins of Lake Erie (22,240 km/sup 2/) was conducted from September 17 to 27, 1978. The survey provided baseline information on natural gas and oil losses from geologic formations, prior to any potential development of natural gas resources beneath the United States portion of the Lake. Lightweight hydrocarbons indicative of natural gas (methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, and n-butane) are introduced into the waters of Lake Erie by escape from geologic formations and by biological/photochemical processes. The geochemical exploration technique of hydrocarbon sniffing provided enough data to reveal significant distribution patterns, approximate concentrations, and potential sources. Twelve sites with elevated lightweight hydrocarbon concentrations had a composition similar to natural gas. In one area of natural gas input, data analysis suggested a potential negative effect of natural gas on phytoplanktonic metabolism (i.e., ethylene concentration). Samples taken for liquid hydrocarbon analysis (carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons) correlated best with biologically derived lightweight hydrocarbons.

Zapotosky, J.E.; White, W.S.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Influence of adsorption on the diffusion selectivity for mixture permeation across mesoporous membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to determine the self-diffusivities, D{sub 1,self}, and D{sub 2,self} for a variety of binary mixtures: methane (C1)–ethane (C2), C1–propane (C3), C1–n-butane (nC4), C1–n-hexane (nC6), C2–nC4, C2–nC6, Ar–C1, Ar–C2, Ar–C3, Ar–nC4, Ar–nC6, and Ar - Kr in a cylindrical silica mesopores. The diffusion selectivity, defined by (D {sub 1,self}/D {sub 2,self}) was found to be significantly different from the Knudsen selectivity, {radical}M{sub 2}/M{sub 1}, where M {sub I} is the molar mass of species i . For mixtures in which component 2 is more strongly adsorbed than component 1, (D{sub 1,self}/D{sub 2,self})/{radical}M{sub 2}/M{sub 1} has values in the range 1.5–4; the departures from the Knudsen selectivity increased with increasing differences in adsorption strengths of the constituent species.

Krishna, Rajamani; van Baten, Jasper M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Portable thermo-photovoltaic power source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) device for generation of electrical power for use in portable electronic devices. A TPV power source is constructed to provide a heat source chemical reactor capable of using various fuels, such as liquid hydrocarbons, including but not limited to propane, LPG, butane, alcohols, oils and diesel fuels to generate a source of photons. A reflector dish guides misdirected photon energy from the photon source toward a photovoltaic array. A thin transparent protector sheet is disposed between the photon source and the array to reflect back thermal energy that cannot be converted to electricity, and protect the array from thermal damage. A microlens disposed between the protector sheet and the array further focuses the tailored band of photon energy from the photon source onto an array of photovoltaic cells, whereby the photon energy is converted to electrical power. A heat recuperator removes thermal energy from reactor chamber exhaust gases, preferably using mini- or micro-bellows to force air and fuel past the exhaust gases, and uses the energy to preheat the fuel and oxidant before it reaches the reactor, increasing system efficiency. Mini- or micro-bellows force ambient air through the system both to supply oxidant and to provide cooling. Finally, an insulator, which is preferably a super insulator, is disposed around the TPV power source to reduce fuel consumption, and to keep the TPV power source cool to the touch so it can be used in hand-held devices.

Zuppero, Anthony C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Krawetz, Barton (Idaho Falls, ID); Barklund, C. Rodger (Idaho Falls, ID); Seifert, Gary D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

198

Method and apparatus for controlling fuel/air mixture in a lean burn engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The system for controlling the fuel/air mixture supplied to a lean burn engine when operating on natural gas, gasoline, hydrogen, alcohol, propane, butane, diesel or any other fuel as desired. As specific humidity of air supplied to the lean burn engine increases, the oxygen concentration of exhaust gas discharged by the engine for a given equivalence ratio will decrease. Closed loop fuel control systems typically attempt to maintain a constant exhaust gas oxygen concentration. Therefore, the decrease in the exhaust gas oxygen concentration resulting from increased specific humidity will often be improperly attributed to an excessive supply of fuel and the control system will incorrectly reduce the amount of fuel supplied to the engine. Also, the minimum fuel/air equivalence ratio for a lean burn engine to avoid misfiring will increase as specific humidity increases. A relative humidity sensor to allow the control system to provide a more enriched fuel/air mixture at high specific humidity levels. The level of specific humidity may be used to compensate an output signal from a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor for changing oxygen concentrations at a desired equivalence ratio due to variation in specific humidity specific humidity. As a result, the control system will maintain the desired efficiency, low exhaust emissions and power level for the associated lean burn engine regardless of the specific humidity level of intake air supplied to the lean burn engine.

Kubesh, John Thomas (San Antonio, TX); Dodge, Lee Gene (San Antonio, TX); Podnar, Daniel James (San Antonio, TX)

1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

199

Micro Computers: An Industrial Energy Conservation Tool  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

8" 8" of dr,. rue' MOISTURE ".00 ETHANE C2 H. ".97 3 ...m HYDROGEN 2 ..... m0 ... 08 "ETHANE CH' 99.43 ~O\\. 40 7:1.64 1.25 PROPANE C3 H8 l.~o\\ 0.~0 CARBON OXYGEN 0.00 li!!I.QUil' N-BUTANE H,a 1.7Gl1 0.~11I C' CARBON DI-OXIDE ca2 L~4 0....00 1iII.01l1 SULFUR 0.1lI0 0.01 CARBON DIOXIDE , .54 SuLFUR DIOXIDE iii. 00 NITROGEN N2 Q'l.82 0.:5Q1 NITROGEN IlI.B'2 l1I.0'lA:H COMeUST[ON CONSTANT K- 89.8:3 HHV- 2:3.14" LHV-20.Q70 eTu/Le H20 1n CO""bustlO,", pRODUCTS? 2.1~ LB/La ,"uel cp...

Harriz, J. T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Low temperature iron- and nickel-catalyzed reactions leading to coalbed gas formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon hydrogenolysis and CO{sub 2} hydrogenation in the presence of Fe/SiO{sub 2} and Ni/SiO{sub 2} catalysts were evaluated as potential mechanisms contributing to natural gas formation in coalbeds. The hydrocarbons used as reactants in hydrogenolysis included butane, octane, 1-octene, and 1-dodecene. The reactions carried out in a laboratory batch reactor produced gas that contained methane concentrations greater than 90%, which resembles the composition of natural gas. Reaction temperatures were selected to resemble natural coalbed conditions. Evidence is presented to show that iron and nickel minerals, which can be present in coals at levels of 2,000 and 10 ppm, respectively, can become active under geologic conditions. The oxides (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO) used as precursors of the active catalysts (Fe and Ni metals) were reduced at 200 C under a hydrogen atmosphere. Moessbauer spectroscopy showed that ca. 6% of the iron oxide was converted to the metal; in the case of nickel, oxygen titration showed that the extent of reduction to the metal was ca. 29%. The resultant fractions of the active metals in coals are adequate to catalyze generation of appreciable amounts of methane over geologic time.

Medina, J.C.; Butala, S.J.; Bartholomew, C.H.; Lee, M.L.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene c4h8" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Studying the Internal Ballistics of a Combustion Driven Potato Cannon using High-speed Video  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A potato cannon was designed to accommodate several different experimental propellants and have a transparent barrel so the movement of the projectile could be recorded on high-speed video (at 2000 frames per second). Both combustion chamber and barrel were made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Five experimental propellants were tested: propane (C3H8), acetylene (C2H2), ethanol (C2H6O), methanol (CH4O), and butane (C4H10). The amount of each experimental propellant was calculated to approximate a stoichometric mixture and considering the Upper Flammability Limit (UFL) and the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL), which in turn were affected by the volume of the combustion chamber. Cylindrical projectiles were cut from raw potatoes so that there was an airtight fit, and each weighed 50 (+/- 0.5) grams. For each trial, position as a function of time was determined via frame by frame analysis. Five trials were taken for each experimental propellant and the results analyzed to compute velocity and acceleration as functions...

Courtney, E D S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

MTBE still in poor health, despite the Clean Air Act  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After the second winter oxygenated fuels program of the 1990 Clean Air Act, producers of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) are still feeling the chill of poor profitability. Despite the strong demand growth for MTBE to meet oxygen requirements in reformulated gasoline (RFG), oversupply still dogs the market. That, combined with a run-up in feedstock prices, has seen margins for MTBE markers all but evaporate. And it seems matters are likely to get worse before they get better. This week, Belvieu Environmental Fuels (BEF; Houston) expects to startup its 15,000-bbl/day MTBE plant at Mont Belvieu, TX. In late July, Texaco will start up its 15,000-bbl/day MTBE/propylene oxide (PO) plant at Port Neches, TX. In addition, a rash of refinery-based MTBE and tert-amyl methyl ether projects are nearing completion. {open_quotes}Profitability in MTBE has been extremely poor,{close_quotes} says Marvin O. Schlanger, president of Arco Chemical Americas, the largest MTBE producer. There has, however, been some recent recovery on the spot market, with MTBE moving from less than 60 cts/gal to near cash-cost levels of 70 cts/gal. But contract prices remain depressed, and strength in butane and methanol pricing have all buy wiped out any gains in MTBE.

Wood, A.

1994-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

203

Catalytic conversion of light alkanes - phase V. Topical report, February 1993--October 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have made excellent progress toward a practical route from field butanes to MTBE, the oxygenate of choice for high-octane, clean-burning, environmentally acceptable reformulated gasoline. We have evaluated two proprietary process possibilities with a potential commercial partner and have conducted a joint catalyst evaluation program. The first of the two potential processes considered during the past quarter utilizes a two-step route from isobutane to tert-butyl alcohol, TBA. Not only is TBA an intermediate for MTBE production but is equally applicable for ETBE-an oxygenate which utilizes renewable ethanol in its` manufacture. In the two-step process, isobutane is oxidized in a non-catalytic reaction to a roughly equal mixture of TBA and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. TBHP, eq. 1. We have developed an inexpensive new catalyst system based on an electron-deficient macrocyclic metal complex that selectively converts TBHP to TBA, eq. 2, and meets or exceeds all of the process criteria that we have set.

NONE

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

204

End use energy consumption data base: transportation sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transportation fuel and energy use estimates developed a Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the End Use Energy Consumption Data Base are documented. The total data base contains estimates of energy use in the United States broken down into many categories within all sectors of the economy: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, the household, electric utilities, and transportation. The transportation data provided by ORNL generally cover each of the 10 years from 1967 through 1976 (occasionally 1977 and 1978), with omissions in some models. The estimtes are broken down by mode of transport, fuel, region and State, sector of the economy providing transportation, and by the use to which it is put, and, in the case of automobile and bus travel, by the income of the traveler. Fuel types include natural gas, motor and aviation gasoline, residual and diesel oil, liuqefied propane, liquefied butane, and naphtha- and kerosene-type jet engine fuels. Electricity use is also estimated. The mode, fuel, sector, and use categories themselves subsume one, two, or three levels of subcategories, resulting in a very detailed categorization and definitive accounting.

Hooker, J.N.; Rose, A.B.; Greene, D.L.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Determination of characteristic alterations of the mass transfer process of thermodynamically nonequilibrium hydrocarbon systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of research on hydrocarbon mixture sorption in porous medium showed that adsorbent activity with regard to separate components of a gas mixture changes in partial dependence on pressure. The alteration of vented gas content will take place not only in gas condensate fields, when this effect is conditioned by the losses of condensate in the stratum, but also in gas fields, by methods connected with desorption processes. At the same time, gas composition is the basis for different process calculations, such as separation, gas transport, gas filtration in porous medium, and others. Thus the determination of characteristic alterations of gas mixture composition in thermodynamically nonequilibrium hydrocarbon systems mass transfer process becomes important. The binary (methane + pentane) and tricomponent (methane + butane + pentane) systems composed of individual gases of high purity have been researched. Then with help of mathematical methods of experimental data processing the moment of the more characteristic changes of the mass transfer process was discovered. Processing of experimental data for tricomponent system by statistical differentiation allowed the discovery of a pressure below of which lightening of the vented gas was observed.

Ramazanova, E.E.; Nurmamedova, Z.A. [Azerbaijan State Oil Academy, Baku (Azerbaijan). Geotechnological Research Inst. of Oil, Gas, and Chemistry

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Determination of ideal-gas enthalpies of formation for key compounds:  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of a study aimed at improvement of group-contribution methodology for estimation of thermodynamic properties of organic and organosilicon substances are reported. Specific weaknesses where particular group-contribution terms were unknown, or estimated because of lack of experimental data, are addressed by experimental studies of enthalpies of combustion in the condensed phase, vapor-pressure measurements, and differential scanning calorimetric (d.s.c.) heat-capacity measurements. Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of ({plus minus})-butan-2-ol, tetradecan-1-ol, hexan-1,6-diol, methacrylamide, benzoyl formic acid, naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester, and tetraethylsilane are reported. A crystalline-phase enthalpy of formation at 298.15 K was determined for naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, which decomposed at 695 K before melting. The combustion calorimetry of tetraethylsilane used the proven fluorine-additivity methodology. Critical temperature and critical density were determined for tetraethylsilane with differential scanning calorimeter and the critical pressure was derived. Group-additivity parameters useful in the application of group- contribution correlations are derived. 112 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.

Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Nguyen, A.; Hossenlopp, I.A.; Smith, N.K.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Interstaple Dithiol Cross-Linking in Au(25)(SR)(18) Nanomolecules: A Combined Mass Spectrometric and Computational Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic study of cross-linking chemistry of the Au{sub 25}(SR){sub 18} nanomolecule by dithiols of varying chain length, HS-(CH2)n-SH where n = 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, is presented here. Monothiolated Au{sub 25} has six [RSAuSRAuSR] staple motifs on its surface, and MALDI mass spectrometry data of the ligand exchanged clusters show that propane (C3) and butane (C4) dithiols have ideal chain lengths for interstaple cross-linking and that up to six C3 or C4 dithiols can be facilely exchanged onto the cluster surface. Propanedithiol predominately exchanges with two monothiols at a time, making cross-linking bridges, while butanedithiol can exchange with either one or two monothiols at a time. The extent of cross-linking can be controlled by the Au{sub 25}(SR){sub 18} to dithiol ratio, the reaction time of ligand exchange, or the addition of a hydrophobic tail to the dithiol. MALDI MS suggests that during ethane (C2) dithiol exchange, two ethanedithiols become connected by a disulfide bond; this result is supported by density functional theory (DFT) prediction of the optimal chain length for the intrastaple coupling. Both optical absorption spectroscopy and DFT computations show that the electronic structure of the Au{sub 25} nanomolecule retains its main features after exchange of up to eight monothiol ligands.

Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Dass, Amala [University of Mississippi, The; Tschumper, Gregory [University of Mississippi, The; Mattern, Daniell [University of Mississippi, The; Van Dornshuld, Eric [University of Mississippi, The; Kota, Rajesh [University of Mississippi, The; Jupally, Vijay [University of Mississippi, The

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Inter-staple Dithiol Crosslinking in Au25(SR)18 Nanomolecules: A Combined Mass Spectrometric and Computational Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic study of cross-linking chemistry of the Au{sub 25}(SR){sub 18} nanomolecule by dithiols of varying chain length, HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub n}-SH where n = 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, is presented here. Monothiolated Au{sub 25} has six [RSAuSRAuSR] staple motifs on its surface, and MALDI mass spectrometry data of the ligand exchanged clusters show that propane (C3) and butane (C4) dithiols have ideal chain lengths for interstaple cross-linking and that up to six C3 or C4 dithiols can be facilely exchanged onto the cluster surface. Propanedithiol predominately exchanges with two monothiols at a time, making cross-linking bridges, while butanedithiol can exchange with either one or two monothiols at a time. The extent of cross-linking can be controlled by the Au{sub 25}(SR){sub 18} to dithiol ratio, the reaction time of ligand exchange, or the addition of a hydrophobic tail to the dithiol. MALDI MS suggests that during ethane (C2) dithiol exchange, two ethanedithiols become connected by a disulfide bond; this result is supported by density functional theory (DFT) prediction of the optimal chain length for the intrastaple coupling. Both optical absorption spectroscopy and DFT computations show that the electronic structure of the Au{sub 25} nanomolecule retains its main features after exchange of up to eight monothiol ligands.

Dass, Amala [University of Mississippi, The; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Jupally, Vijay [University of Mississippi, The; Kota, Rajesh [University of Mississippi, The; Mattern, Daniell [University of Mississippi, The; Tschumper, Gregory [University of Mississippi, The; Van Dornshuld, Eric [University of Mississippi, The

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models.

Ardhapurkar, P. M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, MS 400 076 India and S. S. G. M. College of Engineering Shegaon, MS 444 203 (India); Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, MS 400 076 (India)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

210

Gas hydrate research in the Gulf of Mexico: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high energy seismic sections on the continental slope showed no evidence of a Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR), which would indicate the presence of gas hydrates. There was no indication of metastable hydrates in continental shelf or slope sediments outside of the conventionally accepted temperature and pressure environment. Tracing the path of migrating gas from the source is much more straight forward than intercepting gas being transported and tracing it back to the source. Our study of low and medium energy seismic methods has shown that they could identify migrating gas. We feel strongly that there are hydrate zones in the Gulf of Mexico that are decomposing; they build up pressure and periodically release the trapped hydrocarbon gases. The released gases migrate vertically and/or laterally to mix with other types of gas or to form discrete pockets. Some of this gas may be emitted from underwater seeps into the overlying water column where it could be identified by a geochemical survey. The ratio of isobutane to normal butane determined by the geochemical survey can be used to assess the probability of the hydrocarbons emanating from a hydrate source. (The more the ratio exceeds 1.0 the greater the probability that the gas could be from a hydrate source.) As no indications of a hydrate zone (e.g., a BSR) were located, we were not able to establish a geophysical signature for gas hydrates; but the records indicate there are large volumes of gas migrating up the continental slope, some of which may have originated from a decomposing hydrate zone or from gas trapped below the hydrate cap. 20 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Bennet, R.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

Agrawal, Rakesh

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

212

Vapour extraction (VAPEX) process for recovery of heavy oil and bitumen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For over 90% of the vast resources of bitumen and heavy oil in Canada, in situ recovery processes have to be developed to produce and utilize them efficiently and economically. Thermal recovery processes using steam, although effective for thick reservoirs with good quality sands, are increasingly proving to be uneconomical, particularly for thin, shaley, or bottom water reservoirs. The inefficiency is caused by large heat losses, high water requirement, extensive surface facilities, and adverse environmental impact. To overcome these problems, a new non-thermal vapour extraction (VAPEX) process has been developed. The process is closely related to the Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) concept. However, in the VAPEX process the steam chamber is replaced with a chamber containing light hydrocarbon vapours close to its dew point at the reservoir pressure. If the pressure used is close to the saturation pressure of hydrocarbons, deasphalting may occur in the reservoir causing a substantial reduction in viscosity and heavy metal contents. Experiments conducted in a Hele-Shaw cell and in a 2D physical scaled model using Lloydminster, Cold Lake, and Peace River heavy oil/bitumen and ethane, propane, and butane as solvents demonstrated that this process is very promising technically as well as economically. An active aquifer underlying the bitumen zone made the reservoir more valuable because of spreading of the solvent vapour directly underneath the formation which increased the vapour-bitumen contact extensively. The investigation was extended from a dual horizontal continuous injection/production well strategy described above to a single horizontal well cyclic process for the Cold Lake reservoir in a 3D physical scaled model. The tests illustrated that ethane was an effective solvent in producing Cold Lake bitumen and that the cyclic VAPEX process has the potential to be a breakthrough recovery technology.

Jha, K.N. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Butler, R.M. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Lim, G.B. [Imperial Oil Resources Limited, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

213

Toxicologic evaluation of analytes from Tank 241-C-103  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Westinghouse Hanford Company requested PNL to assemble a toxicology review panel (TRP) to evaluate analytical data compiled by WHC, and provide advice concerning potential health effects associated with exposure to tank-vapor constituents. The team`s objectives would be to (1) review procedures used for sampling vapors from tanks, (2) identify constituents in tank-vapor samples that could be related to symptoms reported by workers, (3) evaluate the toxicological implications of those constituents by comparison to establish toxicological databases, (4) provide advice for additional analytical efforts, and (5) support other activities as requested by WHC. The TRP represents a wide range of expertise, including toxicology, industrial hygiene, and occupational medicine. The TRP prepared a list of target analytes that chemists at the Oregon Graduate Institute/Sandia (OGI), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and PNL used to establish validated methods for quantitative analysis of head-space vapors from Tank 241-C-103. this list was used by the analytical laboratories to develop appropriate analytical methods for samples from Tank 241-C-103. Target compounds on the list included acetone, acetonitrile, ammonia, benzene, 1, 3-butadiene, butanal, n-butanol, hexane, 2-hexanone, methylene chloride, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, dodecane, tridecane, propane nitrile, sulfur oxide, tributyl phosphate, and vinylidene chloride. The TRP considered constituent concentrations, current exposure limits, reliability of data relative to toxicity, consistency of the analytical data, and whether the material was carcinogenic or teratogenic. A final consideration in the analyte selection process was to include representative chemicals for each class of compounds found.

Mahlum, D.D.; Young, J.Y.; Weller, R.E.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

Calm, James M.

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

215

The oxidation of soot and carbon monoxide in hydrocarbon diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantitative hydroxyl radical concentrations and primary soot particle sizes have been determined in the soot oxidation regions of axisymmetric diffusion flames burning methane, methane/butane, and methane/1-butene in air at atmospheric pressure. The total carbon flow rate was held constant in these flames while the maximum amount of soot varied by a factor of seven along the centerline. Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of OH were placed on an absolute basis by calibration against earlier absorption results. The primary size measurements of the soot particles were made using thermophoretic sampling and transmission electron microscopy. OH concentrations are greatly reduced in the presence of soot particles. Whereas large super-equilibrium ratios are observed in the high-temperature reaction zones in the absence of soot, the OH concentrations approach equilibrium values when the soot loading is high. The diminished OH concentrations are found to arise from reactions with the soot particles and only to a minor degree from lower temperatures due to soot radiation losses. Analysis of the soot oxidation rates computed from the primary particle size profiles as a function of time along the flame centerlines shows that OH is the dominant oxidizer of soot, with O[sub 2] making only a small contribution. Higher collision efficiencies of OH reactions with soot particles are found for the flames containing larger soot concentrations at lower temperatures. A comparison of the soot and CO oxidation rates shows that although CO is inherently more reactive than soot, the soot successfully competes with CO for OH and hence suppresses CO oxidation for large soot concentrations.

Puri, R.; Santoro, R.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Smyth, K.C. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building and Fire Research Lab.)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Computational Capabilities for Predictions of Interactions at the Grain Boundary of Refractory Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New high performance refractory alloys are critically required for improving efficiency and decreasing CO2 emissions of fossil energy systems. The development of these materials remains slow because it is driven by a trial-and-error experimental approach and lacks a rational design approach. Atomistic Molecular Dynamic (MD) design has the potential to accelerate this development through the prediction of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of new materials. The success of MD simulations depends critically on the fidelity of interatomic potentials. This project, in collaboration with Penn State, has focused on developing and validating high quality quantum mechanics based reactive potentials, ReaxFF, for Ni-Fe-Al-Cr-O-S system. A larger number of accurate density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to generate data for parameterizing the ReaxFF potentials. These potentials were then used in molecular dynamics (MD) and molecular dynamics-Monte Carlo (MD-MC) for much larger system to study for which DFT calculation would be prohibitively expensive, and to understand a number of chemical phenomena Ni-Fe-Al-Cr-O-S based alloy systems . These include catalytic oxidation of butane on clean Cr2O3 and pyrite/Cr2O3, interfacial reaction between Cr2O3 (refractory material) and Al2O3 (slag), cohesive strength of at the grain boundary of S-enriched Cr compared to bulk Cr and Ssegregation study in Al, Al2O3, Cr and Cr2O3 with a grain structure. The developed quantum based ReaxFF potential are available from the authors upon request. During this project, a number of papers were published in peer-reviewed journals. In addition, several conference presentations were made.

Sengupta, Debasis; Kwak, Shaun; Vasenkov, Alex; Shin, Yun Kyung; Duin, Adri van

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

217

Soil Iodine Determination in Deccan Syneclise, India: Implications for Near Surface Geochemical Hydrocarbon Prospecting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The association of iodine with organic matter in sedimentary basins is well documented. High iodine concentration in soils overlying oil and gas fields and areas with hydrocarbon microseepage has been observed and used as a geochemical exploratory tool for hydrocarbons in a few studies. In this study, we measure iodine concentration in soil samples collected from parts of Deccan Syneclise in the west central India to investigate its potential application as a geochemical indicator for hydrocarbons. The Deccan Syneclise consists of rifted depositional sites with Gondwana-Mesozoic sediments up to 3.5 km concealed under the Deccan Traps and is considered prospective for hydrocarbons. The concentration of iodine in soil samples is determined using ICP-MS and the values range between 1.1 and 19.3 ppm. High iodine values are characteristic of the northern part of the sampled region. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil samples range between 0.1 and 1.3%. The TOC correlates poorly with the soil iodine (r{sup 2} < 1), indicating a lack of association of iodine with the surficial organic matter and the possibility of interaction between the seeping hydrocarbons and soil iodine. Further, the distribution pattern of iodine compares well with two surface geochemical indicators: the adsorbed light gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane) and the propane-oxidizing bacterial populations in the soil. The integration of geochemical observations show the occurrence of elevated values in the northern part of the study area, which is also coincident with the presence of exposed dyke swarms that probably serve as conduits for hydrocarbon microseepage. The corroboration of iodine with existing geological, geophysical, and geochemical data suggests its efficacy as one of the potential tool in surface geochemical exploration of hydrocarbons. Our study supports Deccan Syneclise to be promising in terms of its hydrocarbon prospects.

Mani, Devleena, E-mail: devleenatiwari@ngri.res.in [National Geophysical Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) (India); Kumar, T. Satish [Oil India Limited (India); Rasheed, M. A.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.; Rao, T. Gnaneshwar; Balaram, V. [National Geophysical Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) (India)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied in some detail - the Northeast and the Southeast. The investment cost for an LRC facility in the Northeast is approximately $182 million and $343 million for a 2.6-billion cubic foot (bcf) working gas facility and a 5.2-bcf working gas storage facility, respectively. The relatively high investment cost is a strong function of the cost of labor in the Northeast. The labor union-related rules and requirements in the Northeast result in much higher underground construction costs than might result in Sweden, for example. The LRC technology gas storage service is compared to other alternative technologies. The LRC technology gas storage service was found to be competitive with other alternative technologies for a variety of market scenarios.

NONE

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Water-Soluble 2-Hydroxyisophthalamides for Sensitization of Lanthanide Luminescence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of octadentate ligands featuring the 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) antenna chromophore (to sensitize Tb(III) and Eu(III) luminescence) has been prepared and characterized. The length of the alkyl amine scaffold that links the four IAM moieties has been varied in order to investigate the effect of the ligand backbone on the stability and photophysical properties of the Ln(III) complexes. The amine backbones utilized in this study are N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-ethane-1,2-diamine [H(2,2)-], N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-propane-1,3-diamine [H(3,2)-] and N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis-(2-aminoethyl)-butane-1,4-diamine [H(4,2)-]. These ligands also incorporate methoxyethylene [MOE] groups on each of the IAM chromophores to increase their water solubility. The aqueous ligand protonation constants and Tb(III) and Eu(III) formation constants were determined from solution thermodynamic studies. The resulting values indicate that at physiological pH, the Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes of H(2,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE are sufficiently stable to prevent dissociation at nanomolar concentrations. The photophysical measurements for the Tb(III) complexes gave overall quantum yield values of 0.56, 0.39, and 0.52 respectively for the complexes with H(2,2)-IAM-MOE, H(3,2)-IAM-MOE and H(4,2)-IAM-MOE, while the corresponding Eu(III) complexes displayed significantly weaker luminescence, with quantum yield values of 0.0014, 0.0015, and 0.0058, respectively. Analysis of the steady state Eu(III) emission spectra provides insight into the solution symmetries of the complexes. The combined solubility, stability and photophysical performance of the Tb(III) complexes in particular make them well suited to serve as the luminescent reporter group in high sensitivity time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays.

Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Moore, Evan G.; Melchior, Marco; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N.

2008-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

220

Synthesis, structures and properties of a family of four two-dimensional coordination polymers constructed from 5-hydroxyisophthalate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Four 2D coordination polymers (CPs) with different structures containing the multifunctional ligand 5-hydroxyisophthalate (5-OH-BDC{sup 2?}), [Zn(5-OH-BDC)(btb)]·2H{sub 2}O (1), [Cd(5-OH-BDC)(btp)(H{sub 2}O)]·3H{sub 2}O (2), [Cd(5-OH-BDC)(bth){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]·H{sub 2}O (3) and [Pb(5-OH-BDC)]·H{sub 2}O (4) [btp=1, 3-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propane, btb=1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butane, bth=1, 6-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)hexane] were obtained. 1–3 were synthesised hydrothermally, while 4 was obtained under ambient condition. The adjacent (2D?2D) polycatenated 2D layers of 1 polythread in a parallel manner to form an unusual 2D?3D polythreaded framework. 2 contains an undulated 2D (4, 4) network and further extends into an “embracing” double-layer structure through the C–H···? and ?···? stacking interactions. 3 exhibits a non-interpenetrating 2D (4, 4)-network. 4 exhibits a 2D double-layered binodal (4, 4)-net containing oblong nanochannels with symbol (4{sup 3}6{sup 3}){sub 2}. Reversible dehydration–rehydration is observed in 1, 2 and 4, which fall within the category of “recoverable collapsing” and “guest-induced re-formation” frameworks, while 3 exhibits irreversible dehydration–rehydration behaviour. The solid state fluorescent properties of 1–4 have been investigated. -- Graphical abstract: Among four 2D CPs reported, 1 is an unusual 2D?3D polythreaded framework. 4 exhibits 2D double-layered binodal (4, 4)-net containing nanochannels. Reversible dehydration–rehydration is observed in 1, 2 and 4. Highlights: • Four 2D CPs based on 5-hydroxyisophthalate with d{sup 10} and Pb(II) ions were reported. • 1 is an unusual 2D?3D polythreaded framework. • 4 shows a binodal (4, 4)-connected 2D double-layer network with nanochannels. • The materials 1, 2 and 4 show reversible dehydration–rehydration behaviours. • Solid state fluorescent properties were investigated.

Zhang, Kou-Lin, E-mail: klzhang@yzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Material and Environmental Engineering of Jiangsu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Zhang, Jing-Bo; Jing, Chu-Yue; Zhang, Lei [Key Laboratory of Environmental Material and Environmental Engineering of Jiangsu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Walton, Richard I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Zhu, Peizhi, E-mail: pzzhu@yzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Material and Environmental Engineering of Jiangsu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Ng, Seik Weng [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "butane butylene c4h8" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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221

First-principles binary diffusion coefficients for H, H{sub 2}, and four normal alkanes + N{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Collision integrals related to binary (dilute gas) diffusion are calculated classically for six species colliding with N{sub 2}. The most detailed calculations make no assumptions regarding the complexity of the potential energy surface, and the resulting classical collision integrals are in excellent agreement with previous semiclassical results for H + N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} + N{sub 2} and with recent experimental results for C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2} + N{sub 2}, n = 2–4. The detailed classical results are used to test the accuracy of three simplifying assumptions typically made when calculating collision integrals: (1) approximating the intermolecular potential as isotropic, (2) neglecting the internal structure of the colliders (i.e., neglecting inelasticity), and (3) employing unphysical R{sup ?12} repulsive interactions. The effect of anisotropy is found to be negligible for H + N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} + N{sub 2} (in agreement with previous quantum mechanical and semiclassical results for systems involving atomic and diatomic species) but is more significant for larger species at low temperatures. For example, the neglect of anisotropy decreases the diffusion coefficient for butane + N{sub 2} by 15% at 300 K. The neglect of inelasticity, in contrast, introduces only very small errors. Approximating the repulsive wall as an unphysical R{sup ?12} interaction is a significant source of error at all temperatures for the weakly interacting systems H + N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} + N{sub 2}, with errors as large as 40%. For the normal alkanes in N{sub 2}, which feature stronger interactions, the 12/6 Lennard–Jones approximation is found to be accurate, particularly at temperatures above ?700 K where it predicts the full-dimensional result to within 5% (although with somewhat different temperature dependence). Overall, the typical practical approach of assuming isotropic 12/6 Lennard–Jones interactions is confirmed to be suitable for combustion applications except for weakly interacting systems, such as H + N{sub 2}. For these systems, anisotropy and inelasticity can safely be neglected but a more detailed description of the repulsive wall is required for quantitative predictions. A straightforward approach for calculating effective isotropic potentials with realistic repulsive walls is described. An analytic expression for the calculated diffusion coefficient for H + N{sub 2} is presented and is estimated to have a 2-sigma error bar of only 0.7%.

Jasper, Ahren W., E-mail: ajasper@sandia.gov; Kamarchik, Eugene [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Miller, James A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

222

Spectroelectrochemical Sensor for Pertechnetate Applicable to Hanford and Other DOE Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The general aim of our work funded by DOE is the design and implementation of a new sensor technology that offers unprecedented levels of specificity needed for analysis of the complex chemical mixtures found at DOE sites nationwide. The specific goal of this project was the development of a sensor for technetium (Tc) that is applicable to characterizing and monitoring the vadose zone and associated subsurface water at the Hanford Site and other DOE sites. The concept for the spectroelectrochemical sensor is innovative and represents a breakthrough in sensor technology. The sensor combines three modes of selectivity (electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning) into a single sensor to substantially improve selectivity. The sensor consists of a basic spectroelectrochemical configuration that we have developed under our previous DOE grants: a waveguide with an optically transparent electrode (OTE) that is coated with a thin chemically-selective film that preconcnetrates the analyte. The key to adapting this generic sensor to detect TcO4- and Tc complexes lies in the development of chemically-selective films that preconcentrate the analyte and, when necessary, chemically convert it into a complex with electrochemical and spectroscopic properties appropriate for sensing. Significant accomplishments were made in the general areas of synthesis and characterization of polymer films that efficiently preconcentrate the analyte, development and characterization of sensors and associated instrumentation, and synthesis and characterization of relevant Re and Tc complexes. Two new polymer films for the preconcentration step in the sensor were developed: partially sulfonated polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene (SSEBS) and phosphine containing polymer films. The latter was a directed polymer film synthesis that combined the proper electrostatic properties to attract TcO4- and also incorporated a suitable ligand for covalently trapping a lower oxidation state Tc complex within the film for spectroelectrochemical detection. Spectroelectrochemical sensors were developed and demonstrated, first using [Re(dmpe)3]+ (dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane) as a model compound with the non-radioactive Re surrogate for radioactive Tc. A fluorescence based spectroelectrochemical sensor for [Tc(dmpe)3]+/2+was then developed using SSEBS as the preconcentrating film. Portable instrumentation for the fluorescence spectroelectrochemical sensor was fabricated and tested. The effects of components in Hanford subsurface water on sensor performance with a detailed evaluation of the effect of total ionic strength on sensitivity demonstrated the ability to use the spectroelectrochemical sensor on representative water samples. A variety Re and Tc complexes were synthesized and characterized to explore the best ligands to use for detection of Tc. A lower oxidation-state Tc-complex [Tc(dmpe)3]+ (dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane) was synthesized to use as a model compound for developing Tc sensors. [Tc(dmpe)3]+/2+ exhibited the important properties of solution fluorescence at ambient temperatures and reversible electrochemistry. A range of low oxidation state dioxo Re- and Tc-complexes of formulae [ReO2(py)4]+, [ReO2(CN)4]-, [ReO2(P-P)2]+ and [ReO2(S-S)2]+ (py = pyridine) were synthesized. An exhaustive study of the spectroscopy and electrochemistry of Re(diimine)(CO)3(halide) complexes was performed. These complexes served as models for the Tc(diimine)(CO)3(halide) complexes that were readily formed from Tc(CO)x(halides)6-x complexes which are themselves constituents of tank waste samples from Hanford. Of particular interest were new Tc complexes with the +5 and +6 oxidation states. Tetrabutylammonium salt of tetrachlorooxotechnetate(V), (nBu4N)[TcOCl4] (I) was synthesized and the structure determined. [TcO2(CN)4]3- , [TcO2(en)2]2+ , [TcO2(im)4]+, and [TcO2(py)4]+ (en = ethylenediamine; im = imidazole; py = pyridine) complexes were synthesized and solution and solid state 99Tc NMR spectra were acquired giving

Heineman, William R; Seliskar, Carl J; Bryan, Samuel A

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

223

Conceptual Approach For Estimating Potential Air Toxics And Radionuclide Airborne Emissions From A Temporary Exhaust System For The 216-Z-9 Crib Removal Action  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 216-Z-9 Crib, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in southeastern Washington State, was the site of a successful mining effort to recover plutonium from the contaminated soils at the disposal site. A CERCLA Action Memorandum (AM) issued by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires the removal of the buildings associated with this mining effort to facilitate a remedial action planned for the near future. The decontamination and demolition of the 216 Z-9 Crib facilities is required under a consent order between the DOE, the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Removal of the buildings located on and near the concrete cover slab over the 216-Z-9 Crib will require removal of the large soil-packaging glovebox located inside the 216-Z- 9A Building. Prior to cleaning out the glovebox, it will be necessary to provide active filtered ventilation capability to ensure a negative pressure exists between the glovebox and the adjacent airspace while hands-on work proceeds within. The glovebox floor is open to the Z-9 crib cavern environment below. For this reason the crib and glovebox currently share a common airspace. The functional requirements for safely conducting work within the glovebox include provision of a negative pressure in the box of about 0.5 inches of water gage (nominal) less than the interior of the building. In addition, the building surrounding the glovebox will be maintained at a slight negative pressure with respect to outdoor ambient pressure. In order to assess the relevant and appropriate clean air requirements for the new temporary ventilation system and associated emissions monitoring, it was necessary to reliably predict the nature of the exhaust air stream. Factors used to predict the presence and concentrations of certain radionuclide particulates and certain gases considered to be air toxics, included reliability parameters, flow rates, radionuclide content, and off-gas compositions. Radionuclide content includes transuranic isotopes, primarily of plutonium and americium. Air toxics include carbon tetrachloride, butane, methanol, acetone and toluene. Flow rate prediction was based on available design and test data and considered equipment sizes, glovebox negative pressure requirements, and filter flow characteristics. The approach used to predict the off-gas composition from the crib required experience-based predictive analysis combined with crib head space analytical results. Input information for emission estimates included: (1) gas composition sample data obtained from recent samples taken within the crib head space during static conditions, and (2) air in-leakage/dilution estimates based on physical characteristics of both the crib and the new temporary ventilation system. The conceptual approach combined measurement-based data with conservative assumptions, and provides the estimates necessary to determine relevance and appropriateness of substantive requirements under federal and state laws and regulations. (authors)

Hopkins, A.; Sutter, C.; O'Brien, P.; Bates, J.; Klos, B. [Fluor Hanford Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Teal, J. [Fluor Federal Services, Richland, WA (United States); Oates, L. [Environmental Quality Management, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF GAS-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (GAGD) PROCESS FOR IMPROVED LIGHT OIL RECOVERY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the progress of the project ''Development And Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' for the duration of the thirteenth project quarter (Oct 1, 2005 to Dec 30, 2005). There are three main tasks in this research project. Task 1 is a scaled physical model study of the GAGD process. Task 2 is further development of a vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for miscibility determination. Task 3 is determination of multiphase displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks. Section I reports experimental work designed to investigate wettability effects of porous medium, on secondary and tertiary mode GAGD performance. The experiments showed a significant improvement of oil recovery in the oil-wet experiments versus the water-wet runs, both in secondary as well as tertiary mode. When comparing experiments conducted in secondary mode to those run in tertiary mode an improvement in oil recovery was also evident. Additionally, this section summarizes progress made with regard to the scaled physical model construction and experimentation. The purpose of building a scaled physical model, which attempts to include various multiphase mechanics and fluid dynamic parameters operational in the field scale, was to incorporate visual verification of the gas front for viscous instabilities, capillary fingering, and stable displacement. Preliminary experimentation suggested that construction of the 2-D model from sintered glass beads was a feasible alternative. During this reporting quarter, several sintered glass mini-models were prepared and some preliminary experiments designed to visualize gas bubble development were completed. In Section II, the gas-oil interfacial tensions measured in decane-CO{sub 2} system at 100 F and live decane consisting of 25 mole% methane, 30 mole% n-butane and 45 mole% n-decane against CO{sub 2} gas at 160 F have been modeled using the Parachor and newly proposed mechanistic Parachor models. In the decane-CO{sub 2} binary system, Parachor model was found to be sufficient for interfacial tension calculations. The predicted miscibility from the Parachor model deviated only by about 2.5% from the measured VIT miscibility. However, in multicomponent live decane-CO{sub 2} system, the performance of the Parachor model was poor, while good match of interfacial tension predictions has been obtained experimentally using the proposed mechanistic Parachor model. The predicted miscibility from the mechanistic Parachor model accurately matched with the measured VIT miscibility in live decane-CO2 system, which indicates the suitability of this model to predict miscibility in complex multicomponent hydrocarbon systems. In the previous reports to the DOE (15323R07, Oct 2004; 15323R08, Jan 2005; 15323R09, Apr 2005; 15323R10, July 2005 and 154323, Oct 2005), the 1-D experimental results from dimensionally scaled GAGD and WAG corefloods were reported for Section III. Additionally, since Section I reports the experimental results from 2-D physical model experiments; this section attempts to extend this 2-D GAGD study to 3-D (4-phase) flow through porous media and evaluate the performance of these processes using reservoir simulation. Section IV includes the technology transfer efforts undertaken during the quarter. This research work resulted in one international paper presentation in Tulsa, OK; one journal publication; three pending abstracts for SCA 2006 Annual Conference and an invitation to present at the Independents Day session at the IOR Symposium 2006.

Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Thaer N.N. Mahmoud; Wagirin Ruiz Paidin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z