National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for business-as-usual trend estimate

  1. Coal-by-Rail: A Business-as-Usual Reference Case | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal-by-Rail: A Business-as-Usual Reference Case Title Coal-by-Rail: A Business-as-Usual Reference Case Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2015 Authors Mintz, MM, Saricks,...

  2. Coal-by-Rail Business-as-Usual Reference Case

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As proposed carbon emission standards reduce domestic coal use, the role of coal in the U.S. energy mix may be expected to decline. If such a decline were to occur, how would it affect rail traffic? Today, coal represents a major share of rail tonnage and gross revenue. While growth in other traffic―most notably, crude oil―may offset some of any potential decline in coal shipments, would it be sufficient? This paper explores trends in coal production volumes and use, rail tonnage and revenue, and the distribution of traffic origins and destinations in order to consider the impact of potential changes in future coal traffic. Rather than modeling discrete flows, it draws on historical data and forecasts maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration (EIA), industry studies and analyses, and background knowledge of the rail industry, specific routes and service territories, and commodity-level traffic volumes.

  3. Making Sustainability "Business as Usual" | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Yet creating this institutional level change can be daunting. To help foster energy change within an organization, the Energy Department's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) ...

  4. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  5. Coal-by-Rail: A Business-as-Usual Reference Case

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Annual Energy Outlook (yearly DOE-EIA publication) AER Annual Energy Review BNSF Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad CFR Code of Federal Regulations CN Canadian National Railroad ...

  6. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Pub

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    used for any particular scenario. The AEO2014 Reference case projection is a business-as-usual trend estimate, given known technology and technological and demographic...

  7. Power plant capital investment cost estimates: current trends and sensitivity to economic parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report describes power plant capital investment cost studies that were carried out as part of the activities of the Plans and Analysis Division, Office of Nuclear Energy Programs, US Department of Energy. The activities include investment cost studies prepared by an architect-engineer, including trends, effects of environmental and safety requirements, and construction schedules. A computer code used to prepare capital investment cost estimates under varying economic conditions is described, and application of this code is demonstrated by sensitivity studies.

  8. Estimation of organic carbon blank values and error structures of the speciation trends network data for source apportionment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eugene Kim; Philip K. Hopke; Youjun Qin

    2005-08-01

    Because the particulate organic carbon (OC) concentrations reported in U.S. Environment Protection Agency Speciation Trends Network (STN) data were not blank corrected, the OC blank concentrations were estimated using the intercept in particulate matter {lt} 2.5 {mu}m in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) regression against OC concentrations. The estimated OC blank concentrations ranged from 1 to 2.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3} showing higher values in urban areas for the 13 monitoring sites in the northeastern United States. In the STN data, several different samplers and analyzers are used, and various instruments show different method detection limit (MDL) values, as well as errors. A comprehensive set of error structures that would be used for numerous source apportionment studies of STN data was estimated by comparing a limited set of measured concentrations and their associated uncertainties. To examine the estimated error structures and investigate the appropriate MDL values, PM2.5 samples collected at a STN site in Burlington, VT, were analyzed through the application of the positive matrix factorization. A total of 323 samples that were collected between December 2000 and December 2003 and 49 species based on several variable selection criteria were used, and eight sources were successfully identified in this study with the estimated error structures and min values among different MDL values from the five instruments: secondary sulfate aerosol (41%) identified as the result of emissions from coal-fired power plants, secondary nitrate aerosol (20%), airborne soil (15%), gasoline vehicle emissions (7%), diesel emissions (7%), aged sea salt (4%), copper smelting (3%), and ferrous smelting (2%). Time series plots of contributions from airborne soil indicate that the highly elevated impacts from this source were likely caused primarily by dust storms.

  9. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo-qiang Lin; Jiang-hua Liu

    2010-01-15

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and Gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. 16 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Estimates of U.S. Commercial Building Electricity Intensity Trends: Issues Related to End-Use and Supply Surveys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belzer, David B.

    2004-09-04

    This report examines measurement issues related to the amount of electricity used by the commercial sector in the U.S. and the implications for historical trends of commercial building electricity intensity (kWh/sq. ft. of floor space). The report compares two (Energy Information Administration) sources of data related to commercial buildings: the Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and the reporting by utilities of sales to commercial customers (survey Form-861). Over past two decades these sources suggest significantly different trend rates of growth of electricity intensity, with the supply (utility)-based estimate growing much faster than that based only upon the CBECS. The report undertakes various data adjustments in an attempt to rationalize the differences between these two sources. These adjustments deal with: 1) periodic reclassifications of industrial vs. commercial electricity usage at the state level and 2) the amount of electricity used by non-enclosed equipment (non-building use) that is classified as commercial electricity sales. In part, after applying these adjustments, there is a good correspondence between the two sources over the the past four CBECS (beginning with 1992). However, as yet, there is no satisfactory explanation of the differences between the two sources for longer periods that include the 1980s.

  11. Annual Energy Outlook 2016 Early Release: Annotated Summary of Two Cases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Early Release: Annotated Summary of Two Cases May 17, 2016 The Annual Energy Outlook 2016 (AEO2016) Early Release features two cases: the Reference case and a case excluding implementation of the Clean Power Plan (CPP) Reference case: A business-as-usual trend estimate, given known technology and technological and demographic trends. The Reference case assumes CPP compliance through mass-based standards that establish caps on CO2 emissions from fossil-fired generators covered by the CPP. The

  12. Trends in stationary energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    Trends in Stationary Energy Lunch Presentation for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  13. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanco, Arthur S.; Gerlagh, Reyer; Suh, Sangwon; Barrett, John A.; de Coninck, Heleen; Diaz Morejon, Cristobal Felix; Mathur, Ritu; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Ahenkorah, Alfred Ofosu; Pan, Jiahua; Pathak, Himanshu; Rice, Jake; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Stern, David; Toth, Ferenc L.; Zhou, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Chapter 5 analyzes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends until the present and the main drivers that explain those trends. The chapter uses different perspectives to analyze past GHG-emissions trends, including aggregate emissions flows and per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, sectoral emissions, and territory-based vs. consumption-based emissions. In all cases, global and regional trends are analyzed. Where appropriate, the emission trends are contextualized with long-term historic developments in GHG emissions extending back to 1750.

  14. Trends in Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Donofrio Ford Motor Company Trends in Workplace Charging Est EV NA NA approx 21 70-100 Miles: What Types of Chargers are Being Used? Considerations for Campus Installations *...

  15. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Wednesday, 29 May 2013 00:00 Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides

  16. Estimating Methods

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Based on the project's scope, the purpose of the estimate, and the availability of estimating resources, the estimator can choose one or a combination of techniques when estimating an activity or project. Estimating methods, estimating indirect and direct costs, and other estimating considerations are discussed in this chapter.

  17. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide

  18. Powertrain Trends and Future Potential

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Powertrain Trends and Future Potential * Global Trends - Fighting Global Warming * Clean Diesel - Neglected in the U.S. for Too Long Agenda DSNE-NA | August 4, 2009 | Robert ...

  19. Trends in Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koester, C J; Moulik, A

    2005-03-31

    This article discusses developments in environmental analytical chemistry that occurred in the years of 2003 and 2004. References were found by searching the ''Science Citation Index and Current Contents''. As in our review of two years ago (A1), techniques are highlighted that represent current trends and state-of-the-art technologies in the sampling, extraction, separation, and detection of trace concentrations, low-part-per-billion and less, of organic, inorganic, and organometallic contaminants in environmental samples. New analytes of interest are also reviewed, the detections of which are made possible by recently developed analytical instruments and methods.

  20. Storage Trends and Summaries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summaries Storage Trends and Summaries Total Bytes Utilized The growth in NERSC's storage systems amounts to roughly 1.7x per year. Total Bytes Utilized Number of Files Stored The growth in the number of files stored is less than the growth in the number of bytes stored as the average file size has increased over time. The average file size as of August 2003 is about 30 MB. The median file size is closer to 1 MB. Number of Files Monthly I/O The growth rate of I/O is roughly the same as the

  1. Trends of petroleum fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E.M.; Woodward, P.W.

    1985-02-01

    Trends in properties of motor gasolines for the years 1942 through 1984; diesel fuels for the years 1950 through 1983; aviation fuels for the years 1947 through 1983; and heating oils for the years 1955 through 1984, have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys prepared and published by the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) formerly the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). The surveys for motor gasolines were conducted under a cooperative agreement with the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) and the Bureau of Mines from 1935 through 1948 and in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948 for all surveys. The motor gasoline surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines throughout the country. Other surveys prepared in cooperation with API and the Bureau of Mines, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Department of Energy, and currently NIPER were aviation gasolines beginning in 1947, diesel fuels in 1950, aviation turbine fuels in 1951, and heating oils, formerly burner fuel oils, in 1955. Various companies throughout the country obtain samples of motor gasolines from retail outlets and refinery samples for the other surveys, and analyze the samples using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures. The analytical data are sent to the Bartlesville Center for survey preparation and distribution. A summary report has been assembled from data in 83 semiannual surveys for motor gasolines that shows trends throughout the entire era from winter 19

  2. Occurrence Reporting Trends | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Occurrence Reporting Trends Occurrence Reporting Trends July 19, 2012 Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information (ORPS): Five Year Trends - Corporate Analysis of ...

  3. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Buildings Trend Detail

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Center at (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Figure 2. 1989 to 1999 building trend with 95% confidence ranges...

  4. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Trends in Energy Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Part 1. Energy Consumption Data Tables Total Energy Intensity Intensity by Energy Source Background: Site and Primary Energy Trends in Energy Consumption and Energy Sources Part...

  5. 2013 Market Trends Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-01-01

    The potential geothermal energy resource base of the United States is a major natural asset, on the order of more than 100 gigawatts (GW) of clean renewable energy. Conventional hydrothermal technologies could be utilized for 6 GW of additional potential beyond what has already been developed. There are an estimated 30 GW of additional conventional resources yet to be discovered in the western United States. The next generation of geothermal technologies, enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), is positioned to access additional geothermal resources by adding either permeability or a heat exchange fluid to a geological formation with sufficient heat. A breakthrough in EGS could expand the U.S. geothermal resource base dramatically.

  6. Trends Online: A Compendium of Data on Global Change

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Trends Online provides synopses of frequently used time series of global-change data: • historical and modern records (from ice cores and current monitoring stations) of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) • atmospheric concentrations of methane • isotopic measurements (14C et al.) for atmospheric greenhouse gases • estimates of global, regional, and national CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, gas flaring, and the production of cement • global emissions estimates for methane (CH4) • carbon flux from land-cover change • long-term temperature records, whose spatial coverage ranges from individual sites to the entire globe and from the Earth's surface to the lower stratosphere • total cloud amount over China • ecosystems (area and carbon content) Data records are presented in multipage formats, each dealing with a specific site, region, or emissions species. The data records include tables; graphs; discussions of methods for collecting, measuring, and reporting the data; trends in the data, and references to literature providing further information. Instructions for citing specific data in Trends Online are provided for each compiled data set. All data appearing in Trends Online are available, on request, on digital media from CDIAC at no cost. [Copied from the Abstract to Trends Online at http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/abstract.htm

  7. SSL Pricing and Efficacy Trend Analysis for Utility Program Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuenge, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    Report to help utilities and energy efficiency organizations forecast the order in which important SSL applications will become cost-effective and estimate when each "tipping point" will be reached. Includes performance trend analysis from DOE's LED Lighting Facts® and CALiPER programs plus cost analysis from various sources.

  8. Petroleum 1996: Issues and Trends

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Examines historical trends and focuses on major petroleum issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the petroleum industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to the volatility in petroleum markets.

  9. Energy Perspectives: Trends and Milestones

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    Energy Perspectives is a graphical overview of energy history in the United States. The 43 graphs shown here reveal sweeping trends related to the nation's production, consumption, and trade of energy from 1949 through 2011.

  10. Fact #842: October 13, 2014 Vehicles and Vehicle Travel Trends have Changed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Since 2008 - Dataset | Department of Energy 2: October 13, 2014 Vehicles and Vehicle Travel Trends have Changed Since 2008 - Dataset Fact #842: October 13, 2014 Vehicles and Vehicle Travel Trends have Changed Since 2008 - Dataset Excel file with dataset for Fact #842: Vehicles and Vehicle Travel Trends have Changed Since 2008 fotw#842_web.xlsx (27.66 KB) More Documents & Publications Residential Lighting Usage Estimate Tool, v1.0 Residential Lighting Usage Estimate Tool, v1.0, MacOS

  11. Trends in independent power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    A 33-person panel recently convened by Future Technology Surveys, Inc., identified a series of the most important IPP trends to have occurred int the past five years, and forecast what will happen in this volatile market over the next five years. The survey was designed to present viewpoints of experts in the United States and was intentionally not international in scope. The most important trends from 1989--1994 are ranked in order of importance as: global market; retail wheeling/open access; exempt wholesale generators (EWGs); Energy Policy Act 1992; increased competition; transmission (better access and policy changes); consolidation of industry; bulk power marketing and sales; open competitive bidding; and almost exclusive shift to large gas projects. There is shift in emphasis, and the introduction of new trends, in IPP executive prediction for the future (1995--1999). Their views, in order of importance, are: retail wheeling; increased globalization; consolidation of industry; competition and direct competition with utilities; open access transmission; restructuring of entire power utility industry; deregulation; electricity as a commodity; and unbundling of integrated monopolies.

  12. Trends in packaged steam generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Oil and gas-fired packaged steam generators are used in many industrial plants. They generate saturated or superheated steam up to 250,000 lb/hr, 1000 psig, and 950 F. They may be used for continuous steam generation or as standby boilers in cogeneration systems. Numerous variables affect the design of this equipment. A few important considerations should be addressed at an early point by the plant engineer specifying or evaluating equipment options. These considerations include trends such as customized designs that minimize operating costs and ensure emissions regulations are met. The paper discusses efficiency considerations first.

  13. PREFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David S. Schechter

    2004-08-31

    The naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area is one of the largest reservoirs in the domestic U.S. and is the largest reservoir in area extent in the world. Production from Spraberry sands is found over a 2,500 sq. mile area and Spraberry reservoirs can be found in an eight county area in west Texas. Over 150 operators produce 65,000 barrels of oil per day (bopd) from the Spraberry Trend Area from more than 9,000 production wells. Recovery is poor, on the order of 7-10% due to the profoundly complicated nature of the reservoir, yet billions of barrels of hydrocarbons remain. We estimate over 15% of remaining reserves in domestic Class III reservoirs are in Spraberry Trend Area reservoirs. This tremendous domestic asset is a prime example of an endangered hydrocarbon resource in need of immediate technological advancements before thousands of wells are permanently abandoned. This report describes the final work of the project, ''Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area.'' The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend. This objective has been accomplished through research in three areas: (1) detail historical review and extensive reservoir characterization, (2) production data management, and (3) field demonstration. This provides results of the final year of the three-year project for each of the three areas.

  14. TRENDS 1991: A compendium of data on global change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W.

    1991-12-01

    This document is a source of frequently used global-change data. This second issue of the Trends series expands the coverage of sites recording atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), and it updates records reported in the first issue. New data for other trace atmospheric gases have been included in this issue; historical data on nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}) from ice cores, modern records of atmospheric concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11 and CFC-12) and N{sub 2}O, and estimates of global estimates of CFC-11 and CFC-12. The estimates for global and national CO{sub 2} emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, the production of cement, and gas flaring have been revised and updated. Regional CO{sub 2} emission estimates have been added, and long-term temperature records have been updated and expanded. Data records are presented in four- to six-page formats, each dealing with a specific site, region, or emissions species. The data records include tables and graphs; discussion of methods for collecting, measuring, and reporting the data; trends in the data; and references to literature that provides further information. All data appearing in the document are available on digital media from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.

  15. Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings - August 2010 Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings - August 2010 Overview of building trends ...

  16. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  17. Are GRACE-era Terrestrial Water Trends Driven by Anthropogenic Climate Change?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fasullo, J. T.; Lawrence, D. M.; Swenson, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    To provide context for observed trends in terrestrial water storage (TWS) during GRACE (2003–2014), trends and variability in the CESM1-CAM5 Large Ensemble (LE) are examined. Motivated in part by the anomalous nature of climate variability during GRACE, the characteristics of both forced change and internal modes are quantified and their influences on observations are estimated. Trends during the GRACE era in the LE are dominated by internal variability rather than by the forced response, with TWS anomalies in much of the Americas, eastern Australia, Africa, and southwestern Eurasia largely attributable to the negative phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)more » and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). While similarities between observed trends and the model-inferred forced response also exist, it is inappropriate to attribute such trends mainly to anthropogenic forcing. For several key river basins, trends in the mean state and interannual variability and the time at which the forced response exceeds background variability are also estimated while aspects of global mean TWS, including changes in its annual amplitude and decadal trends, are quantified. The findings highlight the challenge of detecting anthropogenic climate change in temporally finite satellite datasets and underscore the benefit of utilizing models in the interpretation of the observed record.« less

  18. Trends in stationary energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trends in stationary energy Trends in stationary energy Trends in Stationary Energy Lunch Presentation for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review stationaryenergy_mccormick_040213.pdf (816.41 KB) More Documents & Publications The Water-Energy Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities Capturing the Benefits of Integrated Resource Management for Water & Electricity Utilities and their Partners QER Public Meeting in San Francisco, CA: The Water-Energy Nexus

  19. Isotopic Trends in Production of Superheavies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonenko, N.V.; Adamian, G.G.; Zubov, A.S.; Scheid, W.

    2005-11-21

    The isotopic trends are discussed for cold and hot fusion reactions leading to superheavies. The possibilities of production of new isotopes in incomplete fusion reactions are treated.

  20. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Table

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Home > Trends in Commercial Buildings > Energy Consumption - Part 1> Site Energy Consumption Tables Table 1. Total site energy consumption, relative standard errors, and 95%...

  1. Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency, call slides and discussion summary, January 22, 2015.

  2. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Introduction

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    series of surveys in each sector reveals the trends in energy use for the sector. Introduction The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) collects data from a...

  3. Energy Project Incentive Funds: Updates and Trends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the energy project incentive fund updates and trends and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

  4. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  5. TRENDS '90: A compendium of data on global change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W.; Boden, T.A.; Kanciruk, P.; Farrell, M.P.

    1990-08-01

    This document is a source of frequently used global change data. This first issue includes estimates for global and national CO{sub 2} emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and from the production of cement, historical and modern records of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and methane concentrations, and several long-term temperature records. Included are tabular and graphical presentations of the data, discussions of trends in the data, and references to publications that provide further information. Data are presented in a two-page format, each dealing with a different data set. All data are available in digital form from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.

  6. Disentangling climatic and anthropogenic controls on global terrestrial evapotranspiration trends

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Wei, Yaxing; Thornton, Peter E.; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Fu, Wenting; Fisher, Joshua B.; Dickinson, Robert E.; Shem, Willis; et al

    2015-09-08

    Here, we examined natural and anthropogenic controls on terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET) changes from 1982-2010 using multiple estimates from remote sensing-based datasets and process-oriented land surface models. A significant increased trend of ET in each hemisphere was consistently revealed by observationally-constrained data and multi-model ensembles that considered historic natural and anthropogenic drivers. The climate impacts were simulated to determine the spatiotemporal variations in ET. Globally, rising CO2 ranked second in these models after the predominant climatic influences, and yielded a decreasing trend in canopy transpiration and ET, especially for tropical forests and high-latitude shrub land. Increased nitrogen deposition slightly amplified globalmore » ET via enhanced plant growth. Land-use-induced ET responses, albeit with substantial uncertainties across the factorial analysis, were minor globally, but pronounced locally, particularly over regions with intensive land-cover changes. Our study highlights the importance of employing multi-stream ET and ET-component estimates to quantify the strengthening anthropogenic fingerprint in the global hydrologic cycle.« less

  7. Disentangling climatic and anthropogenic controls on global terrestrial evapotranspiration trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Wei, Yaxing; Thornton, Peter E.; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Fu, Wenting; Fisher, Joshua B.; Dickinson, Robert E.; Shem, Willis; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Kaicun; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Tian, Hanqin; Mu, Mingquan; Arain, Altaf; Ciais, Philippe; Cook, Robert; Dai, Yongjiu; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Huang, Suo; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Ito, Akihiko; Jain, Atul; King, Anthony W.; Lei, Huimin; Lu, Chaoqun; Michalak, Anna M.; Parazoo, Nicholas; Peng, Changhui; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Benjamin; Schaefer, Kevin; Jafarov, Elchin; Wang, Weile; Zeng, Ning; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Zhao, Fang; Zhu, Qiuan; Zhu, Zaichun

    2015-09-08

    Here, we examined natural and anthropogenic controls on terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET) changes from 1982-2010 using multiple estimates from remote sensing-based datasets and process-oriented land surface models. A significant increased trend of ET in each hemisphere was consistently revealed by observationally-constrained data and multi-model ensembles that considered historic natural and anthropogenic drivers. The climate impacts were simulated to determine the spatiotemporal variations in ET. Globally, rising CO2 ranked second in these models after the predominant climatic influences, and yielded a decreasing trend in canopy transpiration and ET, especially for tropical forests and high-latitude shrub land. Increased nitrogen deposition slightly amplified global ET via enhanced plant growth. Land-use-induced ET responses, albeit with substantial uncertainties across the factorial analysis, were minor globally, but pronounced locally, particularly over regions with intensive land-cover changes. Our study highlights the importance of employing multi-stream ET and ET-component estimates to quantify the strengthening anthropogenic fingerprint in the global hydrologic cycle.

  8. A simple method to estimate interwell autocorrelation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pizarro, J.O.S.; Lake, L.W.

    1997-08-01

    The estimation of autocorrelation in the lateral or interwell direction is important when performing reservoir characterization studies using stochastic modeling. This paper presents a new method to estimate the interwell autocorrelation based on parameters, such as the vertical range and the variance, that can be estimated with commonly available data. We used synthetic fields that were generated from stochastic simulations to provide data to construct the estimation charts. These charts relate the ratio of areal to vertical variance and the autocorrelation range (expressed variously) in two directions. Three different semivariogram models were considered: spherical, exponential and truncated fractal. The overall procedure is demonstrated using field data. We find that the approach gives the most self-consistent results when it is applied to previously identified facies. Moreover, the autocorrelation trends follow the depositional pattern of the reservoir, which gives confidence in the validity of the approach.

  9. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Overview of Commercial Buildings, 2003 - Trends

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Trends in Commercial Buildings Sector-1979 to 2003 Since the first CBECS in 1979, the commercial buildings sector has increased in size. From 1979 to 2003: The number of commercial...

  11. Quality Procedure- Causal Analysis and Trending

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Quality Procedure describes the process for reviewing and analyzing the cause(s) of issues and findings identified from the Office of Quality Assurance oversight activities and reporting trends as a result of this review.

  12. Prices & Trends | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy » Prices & Trends Prices & Trends Daily wholesale and retail prices for various energy products, including spot prices and select futures prices at national or regional levels. Prices are updated each weekday (excluding federal holidays), typically between 7:30 and 8:30 a.m | Photo courtesy EIA Daily wholesale and retail prices for various energy products, including spot prices and select futures prices at national or regional levels. Prices are updated each weekday (excluding

  13. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  14. Aligning Contract Incentives & Contract Mgt Trends - David Leotta...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aligning Contract Incentives & Contract Mgt Trends - David Leotta, Director, Office of Contract Management, OAPM Aligning Contract Incentives & Contract Mgt Trends - David Leotta, ...

  15. TrendSetter Solar Products Inc aka Trendsetter Industries formerly...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TrendSetter Solar Products Inc aka Trendsetter Industries formerly Six River Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: TrendSetter Solar Products Inc (aka Trendsetter Industries,...

  16. Are GRACE-era Terrestrial Water Trends Driven by Anthropogenic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Are GRACE-era Terrestrial Water Trends Driven by Anthropogenic Climate Change? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Are GRACE-era Terrestrial Water Trends Driven by ...

  17. NERSC User Day February 13 - Trends, Discovery, and Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Day February 13 - Trends, Discovery, and Innovation in HPC NERSC User Day February 13 - Trends, Discovery, and Innovation in HPC February 10, 2013 by Francesca Verdier All members ...

  18. Jefferson Lab - Future Trends in Nuclear Physics Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trends2016 Privacy and Security Notice PREX - Credit:NASA LINKS Circular Registration Program Lodging Travel Visa Participants List Child Care Program print version Trends 2016 ...

  19. Recent Trends in Car Usage in Advanced Economies - Slower Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trends in Car Usage in Advanced Economies - Slower Growth Ahead? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Recent Trends in Car Usage in Advanced Economies -...

  20. Periodic Trends in Highly Dispersed Groups IV and V Supported...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Periodic Trends in Highly Dispersed Groups IV and V Supported Metal Oxide Catalysts for ... Title: Periodic Trends in Highly Dispersed Groups IV and V Supported Metal Oxide Catalysts ...

  1. Current Trends in Policy - What's new? - Berta Schreiber, Director...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current Trends in Policy - What's new? - Berta Schreiber, Director, Office of Policy, OAPM Current Trends in Policy - What's new? - Berta Schreiber, Director, Office of Policy, ...

  2. Trends in Multifamily Programs: What's Working and What's Challenging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trends in Multifamily Programs: What's Working and What's Challenging Better Buildings Residential Network Multifamily Low-Income Peer Exchange Call Series: Trends in Multifamily ...

  3. UNEP Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2009 Report...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2009 Report Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNEP Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2009...

  4. Corporate Clean Energy Investment Trends in Brazil, China, India...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporate Clean Energy Investment Trends in Brazil, China, India and South Africa Jump to: navigation, search Name Corporate Clean Energy Investment Trends in Brazil, China, India...

  5. UNEP-Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2011 | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2011 Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNEP-Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2011 AgencyCompany...

  6. Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Efficiency Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency, call slides and ...

  7. Trends in motor gasolines: 1942-1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E M; Whisman, M L; Woodward, P W

    1982-06-01

    Trends in motor gasolines for the years of 1942 through 1981 have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys that have been prepared and published by the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). These surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines from throughout the country. The surveys have been conducted in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948. Various companies from throughout the country obtain samples from retail outlets, analyze the samples by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures, and report data to the Bartlesville center for compilation, tabulation, calculation, analysis and publication. A typical motor gasoline report covers 2400 samples from service stations throughout the country representing some 48 companies that manufacture and supply gasoline. The reports include trend charts, octane plots, and tables of test results from about a dozen different tests. From these data in 77 semiannual surveys, a summary report has thus been assembled that shows trends in motor gasolines throughout the entire era of winter 1942 to 1943 to the present. Trends of physical properties including octane numbers, antiknock ratings, distillation temperatures, Reid vapor pressure, sulfur and lead content are tabulated, plotted and discussed in the current report. Also included are trend effects of technological advances and the interactions of engine design, societal and political events and prices upon motor gasoline evolution during the 40 year period.

  8. Subsea production systems -- Trends in the nineties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes recent subsea production system experience, with focus on cost reduction trends which are expected to continue throughout the remainder of the decade. First, the system configuration trend from large, heavy, multi-well integrated drilling template and production/injection manifold systems to small, lightweight, ``minitemplate`` systems or clustered well manifolds with individual satellite wells is addressed. Second, several equipment technology trends are addressed including towed flowline bundles with integral manifolds, development of improved reservoir management/data acquisition tools, subsea pressure boosting to extend the reach of subsea systems, emergence of the rental tool market and ``tool pools``, ``horizontal`` trees for certain applications, and standardization of subsea components and interfaces. This paper concludes that subsea production systems have successfully demonstrated their overall reliability, and have established a proven track record over the past thirty years of field experience. System configuration and equipment technology trends in the nineties are now improving the profitability and capability of subsea production systems. Subsea production system examples are cited along with generic costs to illustrate the effectiveness of these cost reduction trends. 12 figs.

  9. Check Estimates and Independent Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.

  10. Trends and balances: 1985-1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This is the seventh edition of Trends and Balances to be presented to the staff of Oak Ridge National (ORNL) and other interested parties. Each year at the end of the planning cycle the Laboratory publishes its official planning document, the Institutional Plan. Trends and Balances is brought out as a condensation of that more formal document and is intended to provide a reference to the kinds of plans that have occupied senior laboratory management over the past year. An institution as large as ORNL changes slowly, so some of the information in this document overlaps that contained in the previous edition of Trends and Balances. Much, however, is different. A new section, for example, describes what senior Laboratory management feels are five new directions for science and technology at ORNL. This document is intended to provide new insights into the programs and structure of the Laboratory.

  11. SI Engine Trends: A Historical Analysis with Future Projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawlowski, Alexander; Splitter, Derek A

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 80 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined unadjusted fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio and specific output have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number. However, over the last 15 years the sales weighted averages of compression ratios, specific output, and fuel economy have increased, while the fuel octane number requirement has remained largely unchanged. Using the developed correlations, 10-year-out projections of engine performance, design, and fuel economy are estimated for various fuel octane numbers, both with and without turbocharging. The 10-year-out projection shows that only by keeping power neutral while using 105 RON fuel will allow the vehicle fleet to meet CAFE targets if only the engine is relied upon to decrease fuel consumption. If 98 RON fuel is used, a power neutral fleet will have to reduce vehicle weight by 5%.

  12. State Energy Production Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2012 2012 Summary Tables Table P1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2012 Alabama 19,455 215,710 9,525 0 Alaska 2,052 351,259...

  13. Types of Cost Estimates

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The chapter describes the estimates required on government-managed projects for both general construction and environmental management.

  14. Coal Fired Power Generation Market Trends | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coal Fired Power Generation Market Trends Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate...

  15. Cover Page of Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Household Vehicles Energy Use Cover Page Cover Page of Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends...

  16. EIA Corrects Errors in Its Drilling Activity Estimates Series

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has published monthly and annual estimates of oil and gas drilling activity since 1978. These data are key information for many industry analysts, serving as a leading indicator of trends in the industry and a barometer of general industry status.

  17. EIA Completes Corrections to Drilling Activity Estimates Series

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has published monthly and annual estimates of oil and gas drilling activity since 1978. These data are key information for many industry analysts, serving as a leading indicator of trends in the industry and a barometer of general industry status.

  18. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2006-10-01

    This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  19. Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E : C H R O N O L O G Y O F W O R L D O I L M A R K E T E V E N T S ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATIONHOUSEHOLD VEHICLES ENERGY USE: LATEST DATA & TRENDS 177 APPENDIX E A P P E N D...

  20. TMACS Test Procedure TP002: Trending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scanlan, P.K.

    1994-05-31

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project`s acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS Trending functions.

  1. TMACS Test Procedure TP002: Trending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scanlan, P.K.

    1994-08-29

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project`s acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS Trending functions.

  2. INEEL Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Trend Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shropshire, David Earl; Teel, Dale Milton

    2000-02-01

    The objective of the INEEL GHG Inventory and Trend Analysis is to establish INEEL expertise in carbon management decision making and policy analysis. This FY-99 effort is the first step toward placing the INEEL in a leadership role within the DOE laboratories to support carbon management systems and analysis.

  3. Retrospective analysis of energy use and conservation trends: 1972-1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, R.C.; Belzer, D.B.; Fang, J.M.; Imhoff, K.L.; Lax, D.H.; Moe, R.J.; Roop, J.M.; Wusterbarth, A.R.

    1985-06-01

    The primary objective of the research reported here is to analyze energy use trends for the entire economy and by end-use sector (residential, commercial, and industrial, and transportation). In particular, an examination of energy trends was undertaken for the period 1972 through 1982 to determine the magnitude of ''energy savings'' attributable to: (1) changes in economic activity; (2) efficiency improvements relative to the 1972 stock (including structures and capital equipment); and (3) efficiency improvements relative to 1960 to 1972 trends. In addition to identifying the measures of energy savings described above, the causes of efficiency improvement relative to 1972 are explored. For example, energy savings due to efficiency improvements in the residential sector are explained by such activities as changes in household size, migration, improved shell and appliance efficiencies, and increased wood use. For this research, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed a consistent methodology for analyzing energy use trends by end-use sector. Alternative measures of energy use trends (i.e., alternative base cases) were developed for the purpose of measuring energy savings. The energy use trends were calculated as the product of economic activity levels (number of households in the residential sector, square feet of floor space in the commercial sector, output in the industrial sector, and person-miles/ton-miles traveled in the transportation sector) and energy use intensities (energy use per household, energy use per square foot of commercial floor space, energy use per unit of industrial output, and energy use per mile traveled). Energy savings were then defined as differences between alternative estimates of energy use. Data and methods used to derive the alternative estimates are contained in a separate volume of this report (PNL-5026-App.).

  4. Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (EERE) program in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24. Note: * a recession year. Estimates are displayed as rounded values....

  5. Reservoir Temperature Estimator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-12-08

    The Reservoir Temperature Estimator (RTEst) is a program that can be used to estimate deep geothermal reservoir temperature and chemical parameters such as CO2 fugacity based on the water chemistry of shallower, cooler reservoir fluids. This code uses the plugin features provided in The Geochemist’s Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2011) and interfaces with the model-independent parameter estimation code Pest (Doherty, 2005) to provide for optimization of the estimated parameters based on the minimization of themore » weighted sum of squares of a set of saturation indexes from a user-provided mineral assemblage.« less

  6. Photovoltaic System Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections 2013 Edition (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, D.; Margolis, R.; James, T.; Goodrich, A.; Barbose, G.; Dargouth, N.; Weaver, S.; Wiser, R.

    2013-09-01

    This briefing provides a high-level overview of historical, recent, and projected near-term PV system pricing trends in the United States, drawing on several ongoing research activities from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It also discusses the different methodologies and factors that impact the estimated price of a PV system, such as system size, location, technology, and reporting methods. These factors, including timing, can have a significant impact on system pricing.

  7. Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

  8. Conservation trend indicators. Interim and final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, C.

    1980-08-21

    This report outlines major conservation trends for the four US energy consuming sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation. Tables on residential use include data on gas, electricity, and fuel oil. Data is not available for renewable sources or for bottled gas, kerosene, or propane. Commercial data is also reported for gas, electricity, and fuel oil, and total consumption is examined on a square foot basis. Industrial trends are shown for the ten most energy intensive industries. In addition, industrial efficiencies by fuel are analyzed. For the transportation sector, petroleum products (particularly gasoline) are the major fuels considered, and selected energy intensities are examined. The discussion on each sector will cover findings, data sources, and data interpretation. Recommendations on reporting are part of the residential section of this report.

  9. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  10. Trends in U.S. Residential Natural Gas Consumption

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of residential natural gas consumption trends in the United States through 2009 and analyzes consumption trends for the United States as a whole (1990 through 2009) and for each Census division (1998 through 2009).

  11. EIA Energy Efficiency-Manufacturing Industry Trend Data, 1998...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Trends 1998, 2002, and 2006 Manufacturing Industry Trend Data 1998, 2002, and 2006 (NAICS) Page Last Modified: May 2010 Below are data from the 1998, 2002, and 2006 Manufacturing...

  12. New Report Shows Downward Trend in LCOE for Wind | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    New Report Shows Downward Trend in LCOE for Wind New Report Shows Downward Trend in LCOE for Wind May 18, 2015 - 2:48pm Addthis A new report recently published by the U.S. ...

  13. Workforce Trends in the Electric Utility Industry | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trends in the Electric Utility Industry Workforce Trends in the Electric Utility Industry Section 1101 of the U.S. Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT)1 calls for a report on the current trends in the workforce of (A) skilled technical personnel that support energy technology industries, and (B) electric power and transmission engineers. It also requests that the Secretary make recommendations (as appropriate) to meet the future labor requirements. Workforce Trends in the Electric Utility Industry

  14. RetTrendReport1205.doc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RetTrendReport1205.doc� RetTrendReport1205.doc� RetTrendReport1205.doc� (2.58 MB) More Documents & Publications Pension Plans for Contractor Workers April 1-10 comments.doc� POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #39 Phased Retirement

  15. Advanced Engine Trends, Challenges and Opportunities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Trends, Challenges and Opportunities Advanced Engine Trends, Challenges and Opportunities Presents mega trends for future powertrains facing energy diversity and powertrain efficiency issues deer11_taub.pdf (4.86 MB) More Documents & Publications Looking From A Hilltop: Automotive Propulsion System Technology Quarterly Biomass Program/Clean Cities State Web Conference: May 6, 2010 Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy

  16. Trends in Microfabrication Capabilities & Device Architectures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Todd; Jones, Adam; Lentine, Anthony L.; Mudrick, John; Okandan, Murat; Rodrigues, Arun F.

    2015-06-01

    The last two decades have seen an explosion in worldwide R&D, enabling fundamentally new capabilities while at the same time changing the international technology landscape. The advent of technologies for continued miniaturization and electronics feature size reduction, and for architectural innovations, will have many technical, economic, and national security implications. It is important to anticipate possible microelectronics development directions and their implications on US national interests. This report forecasts and assesses trends and directions for several potentially disruptive microfabrication capabilities and device architectures that may emerge in the next 5-10 years.

  17. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs. It is important to note that this report covers only a portion of voluntary markets for renewable energy. It does not cover green power sold by independent marketers except for cases in which the marketers work in conjunction with utilities or default electricity suppliers.

  18. Consumption trend analysis in the industrial sector: Regional historical trends. Draft report (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Data on the use of natural gas, electricity, distillate and residual fuel oil, coal, and purchased coke were collected from the United States Bureau of the Census and aggregated nationally and by Census Region. Trend profiles for each fuel and industry were developed and economic, regulatory, and regional factors contributing to these trends were examined. The recession that followed the OPEC embargo in 1973 affected the industrial sector and the heavily industrialized regions of the country most severely. Both industrial production and fuel consumption fell significantly in 1975. As production recovered, spiraling fuel prices promoted conservation efforts, and overall fuel consumption remained at pre-recession levels. From 1975 to 1977 natural gas consumption decreased in almost all the industries examined with curtailments of gas supplies contributing to this trend.

  19. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

  20. Derived Annual Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    74-1988 For Methodology Concerning the Derived Estimates Total Consumption of Offsite-Produced Energy for Heat and Power by Industry Group, 1974-1988 Total Energy *** Electricity...

  1. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates.

  2. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The objective of this Guide is to improve the quality of cost estimates and further strengthen the DOE program/project management system. The original 25 separate chapters and three appendices have been combined to create a single document.

  3. Independent Cost Estimate (ICE)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Independent Cost Estimate (ICE). On August 8-12, the Office of Project Management Oversight and Assessments (PM) will conduct an ICE on the NNSA Albuquerque Complex Project (NACP) at Albuquerque, NM. This estimate will support the Critical Decision (CD) for establishing the performance baseline and approval to start construction (CD-2/3). This project is at CD-1, with a total project cost range of $183M to $251M.

  4. Trends Online: A Compendium of Data on Global Change

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Data records are presented in multipage formats, each dealing with a specific site, region, or emissions species. The data records include tables; graphs; discussions of methods for collecting, measuring, and reporting the data; trends in the data, and references to literature providing further information. Instructions for citing specific data in Trends Online are provided for each compiled data set. All data appearing in Trends Online are available, on request, on digital media from CDIAC at no cost. [Copied from the Abstract to Trends Online at http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/abstract.htm

  5. Future trends and issues in regulatory takings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allbright, M.P.

    1995-12-01

    This paper will complement that delivered by Thomas root by following his historical analysis of the Fifth Amendment through recent case law with an analysis of regulatory taking through environmental statutes. The discussion will center on takings of water rights through application of the Clean Water Act and the Threatened and Endangered Species Act. Although the examples used will be hypothetical, they will be based upon factual situations. Some of the issues presented for consideration will be an examination of standing of municipalities and corporations under the Fifth Amendment, federal and state legislation impacting the judicial trend toward reviving the Fifth Amendment, budgetary considerations, and convergence from focus on real property to other types of property. The author will also discuss the judicial trend in the Fifth Amendment cases from reliance on federal power to regulate to financial impact on real property resulting from regulation, and the potential for a return to the analysis of the power to regulate through a resurrection of the Tenth Amendment limitation of powers.

  6. Solar cooking trends--A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blum, B.L.

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses early results of research on trends in solar cooking worldwide and the key factors in those trends. It is based on household interviews in Belize, Honduras and Nicaragua and mail surveys from scattered individuals and promotion projects worldwide. Household interviews from six more countries will be included in future reports. Early data indicate that where solar cooking has been introduced an immediate, rapid increase in awareness and interest in solar cooking is followed by slow, sustained growth in actual solar cooking two or three years later, after an incubation period. Access to information and affordable materials for the cookers are important. Individual users and promoters both identify similar key elements for effective promotion projects, but in current projects many are often missing. Even so, successes of these small-scale efforts verify the benefits and acceptability of solar cooking to families in many regions, and should encourage much broader promotion efforts. Future reports will explore various economic, technical, cultural and environmental factors in solar cooking use as guides for larger efforts.

  7. Global Natural Gas Market Trends, 2. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-15

    The report provides an overview of major trends occurring in the natural gas industry and includes a concise look at the drivers behind recent rapid growth in gas usage and the challenges faced in meeting that growth. Topics covered include: an overview of Natural Gas including its history, the current market environment, and its future market potential; an analysis of the overarching trends that are driving a need for change in the Natural Gas industry; a description of new technologies being developed to increase production of Natural Gas; an evaluation of the potential of unconventional Natural Gas sources to supply the market; a review of new transportation methods to get Natural Gas from producing to consuming countries; a description of new storage technologies to support the increasing demand for peak gas; an analysis of the coming changes in global Natural Gas flows; an evaluation of new applications for Natural Gas and their impact on market sectors; and, an overview of Natural Gas trading concepts and recent changes in financial markets.

  8. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, Lori; Kaiser, Marshall

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities—or about 25% of all utilities nationally—provide their customers a “green power” option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs—or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  9. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Kaiser, M.

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities--or about 25% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  10. Parametric Hazard Function Estimation.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-09-13

    Version 00 Phaze performs statistical inference calculations on a hazard function (also called a failure rate or intensity function) based on reported failure times of components that are repaired and restored to service. Three parametric models are allowed: the exponential, linear, and Weibull hazard models. The inference includes estimation (maximum likelihood estimators and confidence regions) of the parameters and of the hazard function itself, testing of hypotheses such as increasing failure rate, and checking ofmore » the model assumptions.« less

  11. REQUESTS FOR RETIREMENT ESTIMATE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    REQUEST FOR RETIREMENT ANNUITY ESTIMATE Instructions: Please read and answer the following questions thoroughly to include checking all applicable boxes. Unanswered questions may delay processing. Print and Fax back your request form to 202.586.6395 or drop request to GM-169. The request will be assigned to your servicing retirement specialist. They will confirm receipt of your request. SECTION A Request Submitted _____________________ ______________________ ________________________

  12. Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology Step 1 (Estimate total amount of weekly U.S. coal production) U.S. coal production for the current week is estimated using a ratio ...

  13. BPD Webinar: Analyze Building Energy Data, Understand Market Trends, Inform

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Decisions (Text Version) | Department of Energy BPD Webinar: Analyze Building Energy Data, Understand Market Trends, Inform Decisions (Text Version) BPD Webinar: Analyze Building Energy Data, Understand Market Trends, Inform Decisions (Text Version) Below is the text version of the webinar for the Building Performance Database: Analyze Building Energy Data, Understand Market Trends, Inform Decisions, presented in October 2015. Watch the webinar. Elena Alschuler: Presentation cover slide:

  14. Current trends in the Advanced Bioindustry | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current trends in the Advanced Bioindustry Current trends in the Advanced Bioindustry Afternoon Plenary Session: Current Trends in the Advanced Bioindustry State of Technology-Michael McAdams, President, Advanced Biofuels Association b13_mcadams_ap-1.pdf (4.19 MB) More Documents & Publications Biomass 2013 Agenda Bioindustry Creates Green Jobs What is the Future of U.S. Diesel Production?

  15. Trending and root cause analysis of TWRS radiological problem reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.L.

    1997-07-31

    This document provides a uniform method for trending and performing root cause analysis for radiological problem reports at Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS).

  16. DOE Energy Technology Prices and Trends | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: DOE Energy Technology Prices and Trends AgencyCompany Organization: United States Department of Energy Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy...

  17. New report highlights key composite testing trends for more reliable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...DOE Fatigue Database Trends for Wind Turbine Blade Materials, 2010-2015" by ...

  18. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Total Primary Energy Detail

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption and Graph Total Primary Energy Consumption Graph Detail and Data Table 1979 to 1992 primary consumption trend with 95% confidence ranges 1979 to 1992 primary...

  19. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Total Site Energy Detail

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption and Graph Total Site Energy Consumption Graph Detail and Data Table 1979 to 1992 site consumption trend with 95% confidence ranges 1979 to 1992 site...

  20. Demand Response National Trends: Implications for the West? ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Committee on Regional Electric Power Cooperation. San Francisco, CA. March 25, 2004 Demand Response National Trends: Implications for the West? (116.66 KB) More Documents & ...

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Projections in Europe 2009...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Liechtenstein, Poland and Turkey provided updated information on emission projections and national programmes in 2009." References "Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and...

  2. Recent Developments and Trends in Redox Flow Batteries - Joint...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 1, 2015, Research Highlights Recent Developments and Trends in Redox Flow Batteries Different flow batteries schemes were investigated. The classic flow battery (top left, ...

  3. Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency -- Update on Program...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Efficiency -- Update on Program Experience Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency -- Update on Program Experience Better Buildings Residential Network Program Sustainability ...

  4. Magnetic nanoparticle temperature estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Hansen, Eric W.

    2009-05-15

    The authors present a method of measuring the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles that can be adapted to provide in vivo temperature maps. Many of the minimally invasive therapies that promise to reduce health care costs and improve patient outcomes heat tissue to very specific temperatures to be effective. Measurements are required because physiological cooling, primarily blood flow, makes the temperature difficult to predict a priori. The ratio of the fifth and third harmonics of the magnetization generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a sinusoidal field is used to generate a calibration curve and to subsequently estimate the temperature. The calibration curve is obtained by varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal field. The temperature can then be estimated from any subsequent measurement of the ratio. The accuracy was 0.3 deg. K between 20 and 50 deg. C using the current apparatus and half-second measurements. The method is independent of nanoparticle concentration and nanoparticle size distribution.

  5. State Energy Production Estimates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production Estimates 1960 Through 2014 2014 Summary Tables U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014: Production 1 Table P1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2014 Alabama 16,377 181,054 9,828 0 Alaska 1,502 345,331 181,175 0 Arizona 8,051 106 56 1,044 Arkansas 94 1,123,678 6,845 0 California 0 252,718 204,269 4,462 Colorado 24,007 1,631,391 95,192 3,133 Connecticut 0 0 0 0 Delaware 0 0 0 0 District of Columbia 0 0 0 0 Florida 0 369 2,227 0 Georgia 0 0 0 2,517

  6. Retrospective Evaluation of Appliance Price Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Larry; Antinori, Camille; McNeil, Michael; McMahon, James E.; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-07-20

    Real prices of major appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment) have been falling since the late 1970s despite increases in appliance efficiency and other quality variables. This paper demonstrates that historic increases in efficiency over time, including those resulting from minimum efficiency standards, incur smaller price increases than were expected by Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts made in conjunction with standards. This effect can be explained by technological innovation, which lowers the cost of efficiency, and by market changes contributing to lower markups and economies of scale in production of higher efficiency units. We reach four principal conclusions about appliance trends and retail price setting: 1. For the past several decades, the retail price of appliances has been steadily falling while efficiency has been increasing. 2. Past retail price predictions made by DOE analyses of efficiency standards, assuming constant prices over time, have tended to overestimate retail prices. 3. The average incremental price to increase appliance efficiency has declined over time. DOE technical support documents have typically overestimated this incremental price and retail prices. 4. Changes in retail markups and economies of scale in production of more efficient appliances may have contributed to declines in prices of efficient appliances.

  7. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2003)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Cardinal, K.

    2004-09-01

    Utilities first began offering consumers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources in the early 1990s. Since then, the number of U.S. utilities offering green pricing programs has steadily grown. Today, more than 500 utilities in regulated electricity markets--or about 16% of all utilities nationally--offer their customers green power options. Because some of these utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other public power entities, the number of distinct programs is slightly more than 100. Through these programs, more than 33 million customers spanning 34 states have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs, or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers must pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2003 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data provided in this report can be used by utilities as benchmarks by which to gauge the success of their green power programs.

  8. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, Lori; Brown, Elizabeth

    2006-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 600 utilities—or about 20% of all utilities nationally—provide their customers a “green power” option. Because some utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other publicly owned power entities, the number of distinct programs totals more than 130. Through these programs, more than 50 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs—or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  9. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2004)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2005-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, nearly 600 utilities in regulated electricity markets--or almost 20% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Because some utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other publicly owned power entities, the number of distinct programs totals about 125. Through these programs, more than 40 million customers spanning 34 states have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2004 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities as benchmarks by which to gauge the success of their green power programs.

  10. Electric steelmaking: recent trends and future constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burwell, C.C.

    1984-05-01

    This report provides a very brief description of steelmaking, and an overview of comparative data, primarily related to the use of energy and materials for each of the major steelmaking processes. This is followed by a discussion of possible limitations on the use of scrap - the current raw material for electric steel - and possible technological routes for overcoming them. The economics of electric-steel production in general, and of electric minimills in particular, seem clearly established. Electric steel-making is viable in its own right. The trend toward electric steelmaking provides significant economic and competitive advantages for producers and important overall economic, environmental and energy advantages for the US at large. Conversion to electric steelmaking offers a 4 to 1 advantage in terms of the overall energy used to produce a ton of steel, and a 2 to 1 savings in energy cost for the producer. The amount of energy saved, to produce the same amount of steel in 1967 and 1980, was equivalent to 25 million tons of coal. Furthermore, the amount of old scrap used to produce a ton of steel has doubled since 1967 because of the use of electric furnaces. Using the existing scrap to produce steel would save the energy equivalent of two billion barrels of oil. 44 references, 6 figures, 7 tables.

  11. Use of Cost Estimating Relationships

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.

  12. RECENT TRENDS IN EMERGING TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G

    2012-01-01

    Abundance of energy can be improved both by developing new sources of fuel and by improving efficiency of energy utilization, although we really need to pursue both paths to improve energy accessibility in the future. Currently, 2.7 billion people or 38% of the world s population do not have access to modern cooking fuel and depend on wood or dung and 1.4 billion people or 20% do not have access to electricity. It is estimated that correcting these deficiencies will require an investment of $36 billion dollars annually through 2030. In growing economies, energy use and economic growth are strongly linked, but energy use generally grows at a lower rate due to increased access to modern fuels and adaptation of modern, more efficient technology. Reducing environmental impacts of increased energy consumption such as global warming or regional emissions will require improved technology, renewable fuels, and CO2 reuse or sequestration. The increase in energy utilization will probably result in increased transportation fuel diversity as fuels are shaped by availability of local resources, world trade, and governmental, environmental, and economic policies. The purpose of this paper is to outline some of the recently emerging trends, but not to suggest winners. This paper will focus on liquid transportation fuels, which provide the highest energy density and best match with existing vehicles and infrastructure. Data is taken from a variety of US, European, and other sources without an attempt to normalize or combine the various data sources. Liquid transportation fuels can be derived from conventional hydrocarbon resources (crude oil), unconventional hydrocarbon resources (oil sands or oil shale), and biological feedstocks through a variety of biochemical or thermo chemical processes, or by converting natural gas or coal to liquids.

  13. Transportation energy trends and issues through 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeCicco, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Controlling transportation energy use looms as a serious challenge for the United States in the 21st century. Demand for transportation services is steadily growing, driven by increasing population, economic activity, and incomes. Few forces presently constrain growth in travel by the energy-intensive modes of automobile, truck, and air transportation. In contrast to other sectors of the economy, transportation energy efficiency improvements are nearly stagnant. Efficiency increases are now absent in highway modes; aircraft efficiency is improving, but not enough to offset rising air travel. Transportation is also the most oil-dependent sector of the economy as well as the country`s most rapidly growing source of greenhouse gas emissions. A conservative forecast indicates US transportation energy consumption rising from 23 Quads in 1990 to roughly 36 Quads by 2030; less conservative assumptions push the total to 43 Quads by 2030. Yet opportunities exist for efficiency improvements to counter a substantial portion of this growth. The most promising options are technological, with potential long-term efficiency improvements of threefold for light vehicles, twofold for aircraft, and 65 percent for heavy trucks. Combined with system efficiency changes to help limit growth of the energy-intensive modes, transportation energy use might be cut to 19 Quads by 2030. Pursuing cost-effective strategies to move the system toward such reduced energy intensiveness would be clearly valuable for the economy and environment. This paper examines these trends and options, and offers suggestions for policies that could lead to reductions in transportation energy use and its associated problems such as greenhouse gas emissions and oil dependence risks. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Global latitudinal-asymmetric vegetation growth trends and their driving mechanisms: 1982-2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E; Hoffman, Forrest M; Zhu, Zaichun; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    Using a recent Leaf Area Index (LAI) dataset and the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4), we investigate percent changes and controlling factors of global vegetation growth for the period 1982 to 2009. Over that 28-year period, both the remote-sensing estimate and model simulation show a significant increasing trend in annual vegetation growth. Latitudinal asymmetry appeared in both products, with small increases in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and larger increases at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). The south-to-north asymmetric land surface warming was assessed to be the principal driver of this latitudinal asymmetry of LAI trend. Heterogeneous precipitation functioned to decrease this latitudinal LAI gradient, and considerably regulated the local LAI change. CO2 fertilization during the last three decades, was simulated to be the dominant cause for the enhanced vegetation growth. Our study, though limited by observational and modeling uncertainties, adds further insight into vegetation growth trends and environmental correlations. These validation exercises also provide new quantitative and objective metrics for evaluation of land ecosystem process models at multiple spatio-temporal scales.

  15. Multi-decadal trends in global terrestrial evapotranspiration and its components

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Peña-Arancibia, Jorge L.; McVicar, Tim R.; Chiew, Francis H. S.; Vaze, Jai; Liu, Changming; Lu, Xingjie; Zheng, Hongxing; Wang, Yingping; Liu, Yi Y.; et al

    2016-01-11

    In this study, evapotranspiration (ET) is the process by which liquid water becomes water vapor and energetically this accounts for much of incoming solar radiation. If this ET did not occur temperatures would be higher, so understanding ET trends is crucial to predict future temperatures. Recent studies have reported prolonged declines in ET in recent decades, although these declines may relate to climate variability. Here, we used a well-validated diagnostic model to estimate daily ET during 1981–2012, and its three components: transpiration from vegetation (Et), direct evaporation from the soil (Es) and vaporization of intercepted rainfall from vegetation (Ei). Duringmore » this period, ET over land has increased significantly (p < 0.01), caused by increases in Et and Ei, which are partially counteracted by Es decreasing. These contrasting trends are primarily driven by increases in vegetation leaf area index, dominated by greening. The overall increase in Et over land is about twofold of the decrease in Es. These opposing trends are not simulated by most Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, and highlight the importance of realistically representing vegetation changes in earth system models for predicting future changes in the energy and water cycle.« less

  16. Automated Estimating System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-04-15

    AES6.1 is a PC software package developed to aid in the preparation and reporting of cost estimates. AES6.1 provides an easy means for entering and updating the detailed cost, schedule information, project work breakdown structure, and escalation information contained in a typical project cost estimate through the use of menus and formatted input screens. AES6.1 combines this information to calculate both unescalated and escalated cost for a project which can be reported at varying levelsmore » of detail. Following are the major modifications to AES6.0f: Contingency update was modified to provide greater flexibility for user updates, Schedule Update was modified to provide user ability to schedule Bills of Material at the WBS/Participant/Cost Code level, Schedule Plot was modified to graphically show schedule by WBS/Participant/Cost Code, All Fiscal Year reporting has been modified to use the new schedule format, The Schedule 1-B-7, Cost Schedule, and the WBS/Participant reprorts were modified to determine Phase of Work from the B/M Cost Code, Utility program was modified to allow selection by cost code and update cost code in the Global Schedule update, Generic summary and line item download were added to the utility program, and an option was added to all reports which allows the user to indicate where overhead is to be reported (bottom line or in body of report)« less

  17. Regional growth and energy supply: Is there an energy security issue?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roop, J.M.; Freund, K.A.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Johnson, A.K.; Paananen, O.H.; Woodruff, M.G.

    1996-12-01

    This study examines how the growth of the developing world might affect energy markets in the future. Based on recent growth trends, world energy demand could reasonably be expected to grow from about 350 Exajoules (EJ: 1.0E18=0.95 Quad) to nearly 1025 EJ by the year 2020, nearly 3x current consumption estimates. Introduction of more energy-efficient technologies could reduce this growth by about 17% to 830 EJ. But one cannot rely exclusively on current trends to forecast future energy demand. The growth of the developing world will interact with supply to affect prices, which in turn will mitigate the growth of demand, and growth rates of energy use will be much more modes. Under the Business as Usual scenario, energy demand will grow to 835 EJ by 2020, and this could be reduced a further 15% to 714 EJ through the adoption of more energy efficient technologies. Fuel prices based on model results are analyzed. Energy security implications of rapid growth in the developing world are considered and found to be of likely little significance.

  18. U.S. NO₂ trends (2005–2013): EPA air quality system (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamsal, Lok N.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Streets, David G.; Lu, Zifeng

    2015-06-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and, subsequently, atmospheric levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) have decreased over the U.S. due to a combination of environmental policies and technological change. Consequently, NO₂ levels have decreased by 30–40% in the last decade. We quantify NO₂ trends (2005–2013) over the U.S. using surface measurements from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) and an improved tropospheric NO₂ vertical column density (VCD) data product from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite.We demonstrate that the current OMI NO₂ algorithm is of sufficient maturity to allow a favorable correspondence of trends and variations in OMI and AQS data. Our trend model accounts for the non-linear dependence of NO₂ concentration on emissions associated with the seasonal variation of the chemical lifetime, including the change in the amplitude of the seasonal cycle associated with the significant change in NOx emissions that occurred over the last decade. The direct relationship between observations and emissions becomes more robust when one accounts for these non-linear dependencies. We improve the OMI NO₂ standard retrieval algorithm and, subsequently, the data product by using monthly vertical concentration profiles, a required algorithm input, from a high-resolution chemistry and transport model (CTM) simulation with varying emissions (2005-2013). The impact of neglecting the time-dependence of the profiles leads to errors in trend estimation, particularly in regions where emissions have changed substantially. For example, trends calculated from retrievals based on time-dependent profiles offer 18% more instances of significant trends and up to 15% larger total NO₂ reduction versus the results based on profiles for 2005. Using a CTM, we explore the theoretical relation of the trends estimated from NO₂ VCDs to those estimated from ground-level concentrations

  19. World trends: Improving fortunes restore upstream health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    After a decade of recovery from the oil price collapse of 1986, the global upstream industry appears headed for a period of renewed strength and growth. Underpinning the prosperity is steady unrelenting growth in crude demand. Stronger global crude demand and heavy natural gas usage in the US are driving higher prices. Operators are reacting to better prices with larger drilling programs. Also boosting drilling levels are crude production expansion projects that many countries have underway in response to perceived future demand. Not surprisingly, World Oil`s outlook calls for global drilling to rise 4.5% to 60,273 wells, a second straight annual increase. Better US activity is helping, but so are stronger-than-expected numbers in Canada. Meanwhile, World Oil`s 51st annual survey of governments and operators indicates that global oil production rose 1.4% last year, to 62,774 million bpd. That was not enough, however, to keep up with demand. The paper discusses financial performance, business practices, other factors, and operating outlook. A table lists the 1996 forecasts, estimated wells drilled in 1995, and total wells and footage drilled in 1994 by country. A second table lists global crude and condensate production and wells actually producing in 1995 versus 1994.

  20. Unit Price Scaling Trends for Chemical Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, Wei; Sathre, Roger; William R. Morrow, III; Shehabi, Arman

    2015-08-01

    To facilitate early-stage life-cycle techno-economic modeling of emerging technologies, here we identify scaling relations between unit price and sales quantity for a variety of chemical products of three categories - metal salts, organic compounds, and solvents. We collect price quotations for lab-scale and bulk purchases of chemicals from both U.S. and Chinese suppliers. We apply a log-log linear regression model to estimate the price discount effect. Using the median discount factor of each category, one can infer bulk prices of products for which only lab-scale prices are available. We conduct out-of-sample tests showing that most of the price proxies deviate from their actual reference prices by a factor less than ten. We also apply the bootstrap method to determine if a sample median discount factor should be accepted for price approximation. We find that appropriate discount factors for metal salts and for solvents are both -0.56, while that for organic compounds is -0.67 and is less representative due to greater extent of product heterogeneity within this category.

  1. Current trends in mapping human genes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mckusick, V.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The human is estimated to have at least 50,000 expressed genes (gene loci). Some information is available concerning about 5,000 of these gene loci and about 1,900 have been mapped, i.e., assigned to specific chromosomes (and in most instances particular chromosome regions). Progress has been achieved by a combination of physical mapping (e.g., study of somatic cell hybrids and chromosomal in situ hybridization) and genetic mapping (e.g., genetic linkage studies). New methods for both physical and genetic mapping are expanding the armamentarium. The usefulness of the mapping information is already evident; the spin-off from the Human Genome Project (HGP) begins immediately. the complete nucleotide sequence is the ultimate map of the human genome. Sequencing, although already under way for limited segments of the genome, will await further progress in gene mapping, and in particular creation of contig maps for each chromosome. Meanwhile the technology of sequencing and sequence information handling will be developed.

  2. U.S. NO₂ trends (2005–2013): EPA air quality system (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lamsal, Lok N.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Streets, David G.; Lu, Zifeng

    2015-06-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and, subsequently, atmospheric levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) have decreased over the U.S. due to a combination of environmental policies and technological change. Consequently, NO₂ levels have decreased by 30–40% in the last decade. We quantify NO₂ trends (2005–2013) over the U.S. using surface measurements from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) and an improved tropospheric NO₂ vertical column density (VCD) data product from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite.We demonstrate that the current OMI NO₂ algorithm is of sufficient maturity to allow a favorable correspondence of trendsmore » and variations in OMI and AQS data. Our trend model accounts for the non-linear dependence of NO₂ concentration on emissions associated with the seasonal variation of the chemical lifetime, including the change in the amplitude of the seasonal cycle associated with the significant change in NOx emissions that occurred over the last decade. The direct relationship between observations and emissions becomes more robust when one accounts for these non-linear dependencies. We improve the OMI NO₂ standard retrieval algorithm and, subsequently, the data product by using monthly vertical concentration profiles, a required algorithm input, from a high-resolution chemistry and transport model (CTM) simulation with varying emissions (2005-2013). The impact of neglecting the time-dependence of the profiles leads to errors in trend estimation, particularly in regions where emissions have changed substantially. For example, trends calculated from retrievals based on time-dependent profiles offer 18% more instances of significant trends and up to 15% larger total NO₂ reduction versus the results based on profiles for 2005. Using a CTM, we explore the theoretical relation of the trends estimated from NO₂ VCDs to those estimated from ground-level concentrations. The model

  3. Worldwide Trends in Energy Use and Efficiency: Key Insights from...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trends in Energy Use and Efficiency: Key Insights from International Energy Agency (IEA) Indicator Analysis in Support of the Group of Eight (G8) Plan of Action Jump to:...

  4. Positron Computed Tomography: Current State, Clinical Results and Future Trends

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Schelbert, H. R.; Phelps, M. E.; Kuhl, D. E.

    1980-09-01

    An overview is presented of positron computed tomography: its advantages over single photon emission tomography, its use in metabolic studies of the heart and chemical investigation of the brain, and future trends. (ACR)

  5. Operations Expenditures: Historical Trends and Continuing Challenges (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.

    2013-05-01

    In this presentation for the American Wind Energy Association 2013 conference, NREL's Eric Lantz examines historical trends and continuing challenges of wind power operating expenses. Lowering such expenses could increase profitability and contribute to lowering the cost of energy.

  6. Solar Trackers Market Trends | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Trackers Market Trends Home John55364's picture Submitted by John55364(100) Contributor 12 May, 2015 - 03:54 Solar Trackers Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share,...

  7. Solar Renewable Energy Certificate (SREC) Markets: Status and Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2011-11-01

    This paper examines experience in solar renewable energy certificate (SREC) markets in the United States. It describes how SREC markets function--key policy design provisions, eligible technologies, state and regional eligibility rules, solar alternative compliance payments, measurement and verification methods, long-term contracting provisions, and rate caps. It also examines the trends of SREC markets--trading volumes, sourcing trends, trends in the size of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems driven by these markets, and trends in price and compliance. Throughout, the paper explores key issues and challenges facing SREC markets and attempts by policymakers to address some of these market barriers. Data and information presented in this report are derived from SREC tracking systems, brokers and auctions, published reports, and information gleaned from market participants and interviews with state regulators responsible for SREC market implementation. The last section summarizes key findings.

  8. Multi-decadal trends in global terrestrial evapotranspiration...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Recent decline in the global land evapotranspiration trend due to limited moisture supply. Nature 467, 951-954, doi: 10.1038nature09396 (2010). 2. Trenberth, K. E., Smith, L., ...

  9. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Trends in Commercial...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and floorspace from 1995 to 1999 continued the general trends noted since 1979 (Figures 1 and 2). The size of the commercial buildings has grown steadily over the twenty...

  10. Fall Tech Trends: Promising New Products from DOE's High Impact...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fall Tech Trends: Promising New Products from DOE's High Impact Technologies Catalyst Program September 13, 2016 3:00PM to 4:00PM EDT Presenters: Kris Jorgensen, A.O. Smith ...

  11. Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-11-02

    To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992

  12. Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contractor Conversion Rates Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates Better Buildings Residential Network Workforce / Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, December 5, 2013. Call Slides and Discussion Summary (1.12 MB) More Documents & Publications Better Buildings -- Concierge Programs for Contractors -- They're Not Just for Consumers anymore Programs and Contractors -Top Tips for Successful Relationships! (101)

  13. ADR Lunchtime Program: AMENDMENTS TO THE REHABILITATION ACT - RECENT TRENDS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AND HOW ADR PRINCIPLES MAY HELP TO NAVIGATE THE REASONABLE ACCOMMODATION INTERACTIVE PROCESS | Department of Energy AMENDMENTS TO THE REHABILITATION ACT - RECENT TRENDS AND HOW ADR PRINCIPLES MAY HELP TO NAVIGATE THE REASONABLE ACCOMMODATION INTERACTIVE PROCESS ADR Lunchtime Program: AMENDMENTS TO THE REHABILITATION ACT - RECENT TRENDS AND HOW ADR PRINCIPLES MAY HELP TO NAVIGATE THE REASONABLE ACCOMMODATION INTERACTIVE PROCESS The Rehabilitation Act requires federal agencies to provide

  14. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues November 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

  15. Aligning Contract Incentives & Contract Mgt Trends - David Leotta,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Director, Office of Contract Management, OAPM | Department of Energy Aligning Contract Incentives & Contract Mgt Trends - David Leotta, Director, Office of Contract Management, OAPM Aligning Contract Incentives & Contract Mgt Trends - David Leotta, Director, Office of Contract Management, OAPM The Deputy Secretary issued December 2012 memo: "Aligning Contract Incentives" The purpose of the memo: Align Contractor Incentives with taxpayer interests Hold each party to the

  16. Seasonality in the Natural Gas Balancing Item: Historical Trends and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corrective Measures Analysis > Seasonality in the Natural Gas Balancing Item: Historical Trends and Corrective Measures Seasonality in the Natural Gas Balancing Item: Historical Trends and Corrective Measures Released: June 4, 2010 Download Full Report (PDF) This special report examines an underlying cause of the seasonal pattern in the balancing item published in the Natural Gas Monthly. Research finds that a significant portion of data collected on EIA’s primary monthly natural gas

  17. Current Trends in Policy - What's new? - Berta Schreiber, Director,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Policy, OAPM | Department of Energy Current Trends in Policy - What's new? - Berta Schreiber, Director, Office of Policy, OAPM Current Trends in Policy - What's new? - Berta Schreiber, Director, Office of Policy, OAPM New Uniform Financial Assistance Regulations DOE's financial assistance regulatory framework and environment have changed. In December, OMB issued new uniform regulations for financial assistance that combined previous OMB circulars under one set of regulations. Key

  18. PREFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David S. Schechter

    2003-03-31

    The objective of this report is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend.

  19. Powertrain Trends and Future Potential | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Powertrain Trends and Future Potential Powertrain Trends and Future Potential Gasoline and clean diesel engines have the potential to reduce CO2 further as technology for both types of engines continues to evolve deer09_rueger.pdf (851.21 KB) More Documents & Publications SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission Standards Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation

  20. Fall Tech Trends: Promising New Products from DOE's High Impact

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Catalyst Program | Department of Energy Fall Tech Trends: Promising New Products from DOE's High Impact Technologies Catalyst Program Fall Tech Trends: Promising New Products from DOE's High Impact Technologies Catalyst Program September 13, 2016 3:00PM to 4:00PM EDT Presenters: Kris Jorgensen, A.O. Smith Corporation; Cynthia Regnier, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Andrew Mitchell, U.S. Department of Energy Preview the new and innovative technologies that are making

  1. Proceedings of the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Proceedings of the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring ...

  2. Microsoft PowerPoint - Snippet 5.5 PARS II Analysis-Trends Reports...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    use of reports to assist in determining trends at both the Performance Measurement ... SV, VAC, & EAC Trends report, the Management Reserve (MR) Log, the Performance Index ...

  3. Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings – August 2010

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview of building trends and energy use in commercial and residential buildings, including environmental impacts of buildings and trends in select product specification and market insights.

  4. Robust and intelligent bearing estimation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claassen, John P.

    2000-01-01

    A method of bearing estimation comprising quadrature digital filtering of event observations, constructing a plurality of observation matrices each centered on a time-frequency interval, determining for each observation matrix a parameter such as degree of polarization, linearity of particle motion, degree of dyadicy, or signal-to-noise ratio, choosing observation matrices most likely to produce a set of best available bearing estimates, and estimating a bearing for each observation matrix of the chosen set.

  5. Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-05-04

    The Cloud Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool (SEET) is a user driven Graphical User Interface (GUI) that estimates cloud supercooled liquid water (SLW) content in terms of vertical column and total mass from Moderate resolution Imaging Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spatially derived cloud products and realistic vertical cloud parameterizations that are user defined. It also contains functions for post-processing of the resulting data in tabular and graphical form.

  6. Estimates of emergency operating capacity in US manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belzer, D.B. ); Serot, D.E. ); Kellogg, M.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Development of integrated mobilization preparedness policies requires planning estimates of available productive capacity during national emergency conditions. Such estimates must be developed in a manner that allows evaluation of current trends in capacity and the consideration of uncertainties in various data inputs and in engineering assumptions. This study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), developed estimates of emergency operating capacity (EOC) for 446 manufacturing industries at the 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level of aggregation and for 24 key non-manufacturing sectors. This volume presents tabular and graphical results of the historical analysis and projections for each SIC industry. (JF)

  7. Structure Learning and Statistical Estimation in Distribution Networks - Part II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deka, Deepjyoti; Backhaus, Scott N.; Chertkov, Michael

    2015-02-13

    Limited placement of real-time monitoring devices in the distribution grid, recent trends notwithstanding, has prevented the easy implementation of demand-response and other smart grid applications. Part I of this paper discusses the problem of learning the operational structure of the grid from nodal voltage measurements. In this work (Part II), the learning of the operational radial structure is coupled with the problem of estimating nodal consumption statistics and inferring the line parameters in the grid. Based on a Linear-Coupled(LC) approximation of AC power flows equations, polynomial time algorithms are designed to identify the structure and estimate nodal load characteristics and/or line parameters in the grid using the available nodal voltage measurements. Then the structure learning algorithm is extended to cases with missing data, where available observations are limited to a fraction of the grid nodes. The efficacy of the presented algorithms are demonstrated through simulations on several distribution test cases.

  8. Average intragranular misorientation trends in polycrystalline materials predicted by a viscoplastic self-consistent approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Zecevic, Miroslav; Knezevic, Marko; McCabe, Rodney J.

    2015-12-15

    Here, this work presents estimations of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates in polycrystalline materials, obtained by means of the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. These fluctuations give a tensorial measure of the trend of misorientation developing inside each single crystal grain representing a polycrystalline aggregate. We first report details of the algorithm implemented in the VPSC code to estimate these fluctuations, which are then validated by comparison with corresponding full-field calculations. Next, we present predictions of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates for cubic aggregates, which are rationalized by comparison with experimental evidence on annealing textures of fcc and bcc polycrystals deformed in tension and compression, respectively, as well as with measured intragranular misorientation distributions in a Cu polycrystal deformed in tension. The orientation-dependent and micromechanically-based estimations of intragranular misorientations that can be derived from the present implementation are necessary to formulate sound sub-models for the prediction of quantitatively accurate deformation textures, grain fragmentation, and recrystallization textures using the VPSC approach.

  9. Average intragranular misorientation trends in polycrystalline materials predicted by a viscoplastic self-consistent approach

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Zecevic, Miroslav; Knezevic, Marko; McCabe, Rodney J.

    2015-12-15

    Here, this work presents estimations of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates in polycrystalline materials, obtained by means of the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. These fluctuations give a tensorial measure of the trend of misorientation developing inside each single crystal grain representing a polycrystalline aggregate. We first report details of the algorithm implemented in the VPSC code to estimate these fluctuations, which are then validated by comparison with corresponding full-field calculations. Next, we present predictions of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates for cubic aggregates, which are rationalized by comparison with experimental evidence on annealing textures of fccmore » and bcc polycrystals deformed in tension and compression, respectively, as well as with measured intragranular misorientation distributions in a Cu polycrystal deformed in tension. The orientation-dependent and micromechanically-based estimations of intragranular misorientations that can be derived from the present implementation are necessary to formulate sound sub-models for the prediction of quantitatively accurate deformation textures, grain fragmentation, and recrystallization textures using the VPSC approach.« less

  10. Utility DSM Rebates for electronic ballasts: National estimates and assessment of market impact (1992 - 1997)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, C.B.; Atkinson, B.A.; Eto, J.H.; Turiel, I.; McMahon, J.E.

    2000-06-30

    In this report we present national estimates of utility Demand-Side Management (DSM) rebates for electronic fluorescent lamp ballasts during the period of 1992 - 1997. We then compare these trends with developments in the fluorescent ballast market from 1993 - 1998. The analysis indicates that DSM rebates for electronic ballasts peaked in the mid-1990s and declined sharply in 1996 and 1997. In a parallel trend, electronic ballast sales and market share both increased significantly during 1993 - 1994 and increased more slowly in 1996 -1997.

  11. Derived Annual Estimates of Manufacturing Energy Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    > Derived Annual Estimates - Executive Summary Derived Annual Estimates of Manufacturing Energy Consumption, 1974-1988 Figure showing Derived Estimates Executive Summary This...

  12. Selectivity trend of gas separation through nanoporous graphene

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Hongjun; Chen, Zhongfang; Dai, Sheng; Jiang, De-en

    2014-01-29

    We demonstrate that porous graphene can efficiently separate gases according to their molecular sizes using molecular dynamic (MD) simulations,. The flux sequence from the classical MD simulation is H2>CO2>>N2>Ar>CH4, which generally follows the trend in the kinetic diameters. Moreover, this trend is also confirmed from the fluxes based on the computed free energy barriers for gas permeation using the umbrella sampling method and kinetic theory of gases. Both brute-force MD simulations and free-energy calcualtions lead to the flux trend consistent with experiments. Case studies of two compositions of CO2/N2 mixtures further demonstrate the separation capability of nanoporous graphene.

  13. Examples of Cost Estimation Packages

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Estimates can be performed in a variety of ways. Some of these are for projects for an undefined scope, a conventional construction project, or where there is a level of effort required to complete the work. Examples of cost estimation packages for these types of projects are described in this appendix.

  14. Historical trends and extremes in boreal Alaska river basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Katrina E.; Cannon, Alex J.; Hinzman, Larry

    2015-05-12

    Climate change will shift the frequency, intensity, duration and persistence of extreme hydroclimate events and have particularly disastrous consequences in vulnerable systems such as the warm permafrost-dominated Interior region of boreal Alaska. This work focuses on recent research results from nonparametric trends and nonstationary generalized extreme value (GEV) analyses at eight Interior Alaskan river basins for the past 50/60 years (1954/642013). Trends analysis of maximum and minimum streamflow indicates a strong (>+50%) and statistically significant increase in 11-day flow events during the late fall/winter and during the snowmelt period (late April/mid-May), followed by a significant decrease in the 11-day flow events during the post-snowmelt period (late May and into the summer). The AprilMayJune seasonal trends show significant decreases in maximum streamflow for snowmelt dominated systems (<50%) and glacially influenced basins (24% to 33%). Annual maximum streamflow trends indicate that most systems are experiencing declines, while minimum flow trends are largely increasing. Nonstationary GEV analysis identifies time-dependent changes in the distribution of spring extremes for snowmelt dominated and glacially dominated systems. Temperature in spring influences the glacial and high elevation snowmelt systems and winter precipitation drives changes in the snowmelt dominated basins. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation was associated with changes occurring in snowmelt dominated systems, and the Arctic Oscillation was linked to one lake dominated basin, with half of the basins exhibiting no change in response to climate variability. The paper indicates that broad scale studies examining trend and direction of change should employ multiple methods across various scales and consider regime dependent shifts to identify and understand changes in extreme streamflow within boreal forested watersheds of Alaska.

  15. Historical trends and extremes in boreal Alaska river basins

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bennett, Katrina E.; Cannon, Alex J.; Hinzman, Larry

    2015-05-12

    Climate change will shift the frequency, intensity, duration and persistence of extreme hydroclimate events and have particularly disastrous consequences in vulnerable systems such as the warm permafrost-dominated Interior region of boreal Alaska. This work focuses on recent research results from nonparametric trends and nonstationary generalized extreme value (GEV) analyses at eight Interior Alaskan river basins for the past 50/60 years (1954/64–2013). Trends analysis of maximum and minimum streamflow indicates a strong (>+50%) and statistically significant increase in 11-day flow events during the late fall/winter and during the snowmelt period (late April/mid-May), followed by a significant decrease in the 11-day flowmore » events during the post-snowmelt period (late May and into the summer). The April–May–June seasonal trends show significant decreases in maximum streamflow for snowmelt dominated systems (<–50%) and glacially influenced basins (–24% to –33%). Annual maximum streamflow trends indicate that most systems are experiencing declines, while minimum flow trends are largely increasing. Nonstationary GEV analysis identifies time-dependent changes in the distribution of spring extremes for snowmelt dominated and glacially dominated systems. Temperature in spring influences the glacial and high elevation snowmelt systems and winter precipitation drives changes in the snowmelt dominated basins. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation was associated with changes occurring in snowmelt dominated systems, and the Arctic Oscillation was linked to one lake dominated basin, with half of the basins exhibiting no change in response to climate variability. The paper indicates that broad scale studies examining trend and direction of change should employ multiple methods across various scales and consider regime dependent shifts to identify and understand changes in extreme streamflow within boreal forested watersheds of Alaska.« less

  16. Historical trends and extremes in boreal Alaska river basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Katrina E.; Cannon, Alex J.; Hinzman, Larry

    2015-05-12

    Climate change will shift the frequency, intensity, duration and persistence of extreme hydroclimate events and have particularly disastrous consequences in vulnerable systems such as the warm permafrost-dominated Interior region of boreal Alaska. This work focuses on recent research results from nonparametric trends and nonstationary generalized extreme value (GEV) analyses at eight Interior Alaskan river basins for the past 50/60 years (1954/64–2013). Trends analysis of maximum and minimum streamflow indicates a strong (>+50%) and statistically significant increase in 11-day flow events during the late fall/winter and during the snowmelt period (late April/mid-May), followed by a significant decrease in the 11-day flow events during the post-snowmelt period (late May and into the summer). The April–May–June seasonal trends show significant decreases in maximum streamflow for snowmelt dominated systems (<–50%) and glacially influenced basins (–24% to –33%). Annual maximum streamflow trends indicate that most systems are experiencing declines, while minimum flow trends are largely increasing. Nonstationary GEV analysis identifies time-dependent changes in the distribution of spring extremes for snowmelt dominated and glacially dominated systems. Temperature in spring influences the glacial and high elevation snowmelt systems and winter precipitation drives changes in the snowmelt dominated basins. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation was associated with changes occurring in snowmelt dominated systems, and the Arctic Oscillation was linked to one lake dominated basin, with half of the basins exhibiting no change in response to climate variability. The paper indicates that broad scale studies examining trend and direction of change should employ multiple methods across various scales and consider regime dependent shifts to identify and understand changes in extreme streamflow within boreal forested watersheds of Alaska.

  17. Consumer Attitudes About Renewable Energy. Trends and Regional Differences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, Lori; Sumner, Jenny

    2011-04-01

    The data in this report are taken from Natural Marketing Institute's (NMI's) Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability Consumer Trends Database. Created in 2002, the syndicated consumer database contains responses from 2,000 to 4,000 nationally representative U.S. adults (meaning the demographics of the sample are consistent with U.S. Census findings) each year. NMI used the database to analyze consumer attitudes and behavior related to renewable energy and to update previously conducted related research. Specifically, this report will explore consumer awareness, concerns, perceived benefits, knowledge of purchase options, and usage of renewable energy as well as provide regional comparisons and trends over time.

  18. Consumer Attitudes About Renewable Energy: Trends and Regional Differences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natural Marketing Institute, Harleysville, Pennsylvania

    2011-04-01

    The data in this report are taken from Natural Marketing Institute's (NMI's) Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability Consumer Trends Database. Created in 2002, the syndicated consumer database contains responses from 2,000 to 4,000 nationally representative U.S. adults (meaning the demographics of the sample are consistent with U.S. Census findings) each year. NMI used the database to analyze consumer attitudes and behavior related to renewable energy and to update previously conducted related research. Specifically, this report will explore consumer awareness, concerns, perceived benefits, knowledge of purchase options, and usage of renewable energy as well as provide regional comparisons and trends over time.

  19. Understanding the China energy market: trends and opportunities 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbara Drazga

    2005-05-15

    The report is broken up into 4 Sections: Section I - Overview of China Energy Market (historical background, market value, consumption, production, reserves, export and import, market segmentation, market forecast); Section II - Market Analysis (PEST analysis, Porter's five forces analysis, socio-economic trends, consumption trends); Section III - Market Segments (electricity, oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, nuclear power, coal, renewables, photovoltaics, wind power, hydroelectric power. Each market segment details current and planned projects, and lists participants in that sector); and Section IV - Breaking Into the Market (regulatory framework, methods of market entry, foreign investment, challenges, government agencies).

  20. Fact #583: August 10, 2009 Teleworking Trends | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3: August 10, 2009 Teleworking Trends Fact #583: August 10, 2009 Teleworking Trends The number of teleworkers - people who work at least one day per month from home - increased to nearly 34 million workers in 2008. The year the survey began (2002) there were only 20 million teleworkers. Number of Teleworkers, 2002-2008 Graph showing the number of teleworkers, people who work at least one day a month from their home, increased from 20.7 million in 2002 to 33.7 in 2008. For more detailed

  1. Fact #585: August 24, 2009 Trends in Vehicle Attribute Preference |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 5: August 24, 2009 Trends in Vehicle Attribute Preference Fact #585: August 24, 2009 Trends in Vehicle Attribute Preference "Which one of the following attributes would be MOST important to you in your choice of your next vehicle?" was the question asked in an August 2009 survey. The choices were dependability, safety, fuel economy, quality, and low price. This same question was asked in previous surveys and the results are compared in the graph below.

  2. TRENDS IN DWARF EARLY-TYPE KINEMATICS WITH CLUSTER-CENTRIC RADIUS DRIVEN BY TIDAL STIRRING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, A. J.; Toloba, E.; Simon, J. D.; Mayer, L.; Guhathakurta, P.

    2015-02-01

    We model the dynamics of dwarf early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster when subject to a variety of environmental processes. We focus on how these processes imprint trends in the dynamical state (rotational versus pressure support as measured by the λ{sub Re/2}{sup ∗} statistic) with projected distance from the cluster center, and compare these results to observational estimates. We find a large scatter in the gradient of λ{sub Re/2}{sup ∗} with projected radius. A statistical analysis shows that models with no environmental effects produce gradients as steep as those observed in none of the 100 cluster realizations we consider, while in a model incorporating tidal stirring by the cluster potential 34% of realizations produce gradients as steep as that observed. Our results suggest that tidal stirring may be the cause of the observed radial dependence of dwarf early-type dynamics in galaxy clusters.

  3. Wind Energy Technology Trends: Comparing and Contrasting Recent Cost and Performance Forecasts (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Hand, M.

    2010-05-01

    Poster depicts wind energy technology trends, comparing and contrasting recent cost and performance forecasts.

  4. Module: Estimating Historical Emissions from Deforestation |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Website: www.leafasia.orgtoolstechnical-guidance-series-estimating-historical Cost: Free Language: English Module: Estimating Historical Emissions from Deforestation Screenshot...

  5. FUTURE TRENDS IN MICROELECTRONICS - IMPACT ON DETECTOR READOUT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'CONNOR, P.

    2006-04-03

    Mainstream CMOS is now a well-established detector readout technology. We review technology scaling trends and limits, the implementation of analog circuits in digital CMOS processes, and radiation resistance. Emphasis is placed on the growing importance of power dissipation in ultra-scaled technologies.

  6. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information.

  7. Current Trends in Gamma Ray Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-08-18

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies.

  8. PREFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David S. Schechter

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame by application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. A secondary and synergistic objective is purification and injection of produced water into Spraberry reservoirs.

  9. Estimate Radiological Dose for Animals

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-12-18

    Estimate Radiological dose for animals in ecological environment using open literature values for parameters such as body weight, plant and soil ingestion rate, rad. halflife, absorbed energy, biological halflife, gamma energy per decay, soil-to-plant transfer factor, ...etc

  10. Estimates of Green potentials. Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danchenko, V I

    2003-02-28

    Optimal Cartan-type covers by hyperbolic discs of carriers of Green {alpha}-potentials are obtained in a simply connected domain in the complex plane and estimates of the potentials outside the carriers are presented. These results are applied to problems on the separation of singularities of analytic and harmonic functions. For instance, uniform and integral estimates in terms of Green capacities of components of meromorphic functions are obtained.

  11. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Buildings and Floorspace

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    activity. Number of Commercial Buildings In 1979, the Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey estimated that there were 3.8 million commercial buildings in the...

  12. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Detailed Buildings and Floorspace...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ** estimates adjusted to match the 1995 CBECS definition of target population Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Table 2....

  13. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Energy Sources Consumption Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ** estimates adjusted to match the 1995 CBECS definition of target population Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Table 2....

  14. Review of U.S. ESCO industry market trends: An empirical analysis of project data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Hopper, Nicole C.; Osborn, Julie G.; Singer, Terry E.

    2003-03-01

    This article summarizes a comprehensive empirical analysis of U.S. Energy Service Company (ESCO) industry trends and performance. We employ two parallel analytical approaches: a comprehensive survey of firms to estimate total industry size and a database of {approx}1500 ESCO projects, from which we report target markets and typical project characteristics, energy savings and customer economics. We estimate that industry investment for energy-efficiency related services reached US $2 billion in 2000 following a decade of strong growth. ESCO activity is concentrated in states with high economic activity and strong policy support. Typical projects save 150-200 MJ/m2/year and are cost-effective with median benefit/cost ratios of 1.6 and 2.1 for institutional and private sector projects. The median simple payback time is 7 years among institutional customers; 3 years is typical in the private sector. Reliance on DSM incentives has decreased since 1995. Preliminary evidence suggests that state enabling policies have boosted the industry in medium-sized states. ESCOs have proven resilient in the face of restructuring and will probably shift toward selling ''energy solutions,'' with energy efficiency part of a package. We conclude that a private sector energy-efficiency services industry that targets large commercial and industrial customers is viable and self-sustaining with appropriate policy support both financial and non-financial.

  15. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  16. 125Te NMR chemical-shift trends in PbTeGeTe and PbTeSnTe alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Njegic, Bosiljka; Levin, Evgenii M.; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-10-08

    Complex tellurides, such as doped PbTe, GeTe, and their alloys, are among the best thermoelectric materials. Knowledge of the change in 125Te NMR chemical shift due to bonding to dopant or solute atoms is useful for determination of phase composition, peak assignment, and analysis of local bonding. We have measured the 125Te NMR chemical shifts in PbTe-based alloys, Pb1?xGexTe and Pb1?xSnxTe, which have a rocksalt-like structure, and analyzed their trends. For low x, several peaks are resolved in the 22-kHz MAS 125Te NMR spectra. A simple linear trend in chemical shifts with the number of Pb neighbors is observed. No evidence of a proposed ferroelectric displacement of Ge atoms in a cubic PbTe matrix is detected at low Ge concentrations. The observed chemical shift trends are compared with the results of DFT calculations, which confirm the linear dependence on the composition of the first-neighbor shell. The data enable determination of the composition of various phases in multiphase telluride materials. They also provide estimates of the 125Te chemical shifts of GeTe and SnTe (+970 and +400150 ppm, respectively, from PbTe), which are otherwise difficult to access due to Knight shifts of many hundreds of ppm in neat GeTe and SnTe.

  17. Smoothing method aids gas-inventory variance trending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, R.G. )

    1992-03-23

    This paper reports on a method for determining gas-storage inventory and variance in a natural-gas storage field which uses the equations developed to determine gas-in-place in a production field. The calculations use acquired data for shut-in pressures, reservoir pore volume, and storage gas properties. These calculations are then graphed and trends are developed. Evaluating trends in inventory variance can be enhanced by use of a technique, described here, that smooths the peaks and valleys of an inventory-variance curve. Calculations using the acquired data determine inventory for a storage field whose drive mechanism is gas expansion (that is, volumetric). When used for a dry gas, condensate, or gas-condensate reservoir, the formulas require no further modification. Inventory in depleted oil fields can be determined in this same manner, as well. Some additional calculations, however, must be made to assess the influence of oil production on the gas-storage process.

  18. NREL Seeks Industry Input to Illuminate Trends in Renewable Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Financing - News Releases | NREL NREL Seeks Industry Input to Illuminate Trends in Renewable Energy Financing August 8, 2011 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is seeking input from energy developers and financiers as part of an ongoing effort to collect and share quantitative data on renewable energy financing terms and to assess barriers to renewable energy development. The current Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (REFTI)

  19. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues Release date: November 25, 2014 Executive summary Over the past five years, rapid growth in U.S. onshore natural gas and oil production has led to increased volumes of natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) and liquefied refinery gases (LRG). The increasing economic importance of these volumes, as a result of their significant growth in production, has revealed the need for better data accuracy and transparency to improve the quality of

  20. Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States: Methodology and Initial

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States: Methodology and Initial Results Austin Brown, Philipp Beiter, Donna Heimiller, Carolyn Davidson, Paul Denholm, Jennifer Melius, Anthony Lopez, Dylan Hettinger, David Mulcahy, and Gian Porro Webinar, 02/24/16 Philipp Beiter Energy Markets and Policy Analyst NREL Presenter: 2 PRELIMINARY - NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, PUBLICATION, QUOTATION, OR CITATION Topics I. U.S. Renewable Energy Trends 1. Capacity and Generation 2. Capacity

  1. Quick estimating for thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastri, S.R.S.; Rao, K.K. )

    1993-08-01

    Accurate values for thermal conductivity--an important engineering property used in heat transfer calculations of liquids--are not as readily available as those for other physical properties. Therefore, it often becomes necessary to use estimated data. A new estimating method combines ease of use with an accuracy that is generally better than existing procedures. The paper discusses how to select terms and testing correlations, then gives two examples of the use of the method for calculation of the thermal conductivity of propionic acid and chlorobenzene.

  2. Estimates of emergency operating capacity in US manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries - Volume 1: Concepts and Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belzer, D.B. ); Serot, D.E. ); Kellogg, M.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Development of integrated mobilization preparedness policies requires planning estimates of available productive capacity during national emergency conditions. Such estimates must be developed in a manner to allow evaluation of current trends in capacity and the consideration of uncertainties in various data inputs and in engineering assumptions. This study developed estimates of emergency operating capacity (EOC) for 446 manufacturing industries at the 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level of aggregation and for 24 key nonmanufacturing sectors. This volume lays out the general concepts and methods used to develop the emergency operating estimates. The historical analysis of capacity extends from 1974 through 1986. Some nonmanufacturing industries are included. In addition to mining and utilities, key industries in transportation, communication, and services were analyzed. Physical capacity and efficiency of production were measured. 3 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs. (JF)

  3. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If the customer has a ratio of estimated monthly kilowatt-hour (kWh) usage to line extension mileage that is less than or equal to 1,000, the utility must provide the comparison at no cost. If the...

  4. BLE: Battery Life Estimator | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BLE: Battery Life Estimator BLE: Battery Life Estimator Argonne's Battery Life Estimator (BLE) software is a state-of-the-art tool kit for fitting battery aging data and for ...

  5. Emerging trends in informal sector recycling in developing and transition countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ezeah, Chukwunonye Fazakerley, Jak A.; Roberts, Clive L.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: Reviewed emerging trends in Informal Sector Recycling (ISR) in developing countries. In some countries we found that ISR is the key factor in the recycling of waste materials. Overall impact of ISR upon the urban economy and environment is positive. In some instances ISR subsidises large areas of the formal sector. Ignoring the informal sector could result in unsustainable interventions. - Abstract: Optimistic estimates suggest that only 3070% of waste generated in cities of developing countries is collected for disposal. As a result, uncollected waste is often disposed of into open dumps, along the streets or into water bodies. Quite often, this practice induces environmental degradation and public health risks. Notwithstanding, such practices also make waste materials readily available for itinerant waste pickers. These scavengers as they are called, therefore perceive waste as a resource, for income generation. Literature suggests that Informal Sector Recycling (ISR) activity can bring other benefits such as, economic growth, litter control and resources conservation. This paper critically reviews trends in ISR activities in selected developing and transition countries. ISR often survives in very hostile social and physical environments largely because of negative Government and public attitude. Rather than being stigmatised, the sector should be recognised as an important element for achievement of sustainable waste management in developing countries. One solution to this problem could be the integration of ISR into the formal waste management system. To achieve ISR integration, this paper highlights six crucial aspects from literature: social acceptance, political will, mobilisation of cooperatives, partnerships with private enterprises, management and technical skills, as well as legal protection measures. It is important to note that not every country will have the wherewithal to achieve social inclusion and so the level of

  6. Trends in radionuclide concentrations in Hanford Reach fish, 1982 through 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, T.M.

    1994-06-01

    Environmental monitoring has been conducted at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in southeast Washington State since 1945. Fish from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, which borders the Site, are monitored annually. The two objectives of this report were (1) to evaluate trends in the concentrations of radionuclides [e.g., {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs] in two species of Columbia River fish [smallmouth bass and mountain whitefish] sampled from the Hanford Reach from 1982 through 1992; and (2) to determine the impact of Hanford Site releases on these two species and carp and fall chinook salmon collected during this time frame. The evaluation found gradual reductions of {sup 137}Cs in bass muscle and {sup 90}Sr in bass and whitefish carcass from 1982 through 1992. Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in bass and whitefish followed the pattern established by reported Hanford Site releases from 1982 through 1992 and was supported by significant regression analyses comparing annual releases to sample concentration. Because data for carp have been collected only since 1990, the data base was inadequate for determining trends. Moreover, fall chinook salmon were only sampled once in this 11-year period. Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in fish samples collected from distant background locations exceeded concentrations in Hanford Reach fish. Estimates of the dose from consumption of Hanford Reach fish were less than 0.001 times the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and the US Department of Energy guideline of 100 mrem/yr.

  7. RECONNAISSANCE ASSESSMENT OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL IN THE TRIASSIC AGE RIFT BASIN TREND OF SOUTH CAROLINA, GEORGIA, AND NORTHERN FLORIDA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blount, G.; Millings, M.

    2011-08-01

    A reconnaissance assessment of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration potential within the Triassic age rift trend sediments of South Carolina, Georgia and the northern Florida Rift trend was performed for the Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). This rift trend also extends into eastern Alabama, and has been termed the South Georgia Rift by previous authors, but is termed the South Carolina, Georgia, northern Florida, and eastern Alabama Rift (SGFAR) trend in this report to better describe the extent of the trend. The objectives of the study were to: (1) integrate all pertinent geologic information (literature reviews, drilling logs, seismic data, etc.) to create an understanding of the structural aspects of the basin trend (basin trend location and configuration, and the thickness of the sedimentary rock fill), (2) estimate the rough CO{sub 2} storage capacity (using conservative inputs), and (3) assess the general viability of the basins as sites of large-scale CO{sub 2} sequestration (determine if additional studies are appropriate). The CO{sub 2} estimates for the trend include South Carolina, Georgia, and northern Florida only. The study determined that the basins within the SGFAR trend have sufficient sedimentary fill to have a large potential storage capacity for CO{sub 2}. The deeper basins appear to have sedimentary fill of over 15,000 feet. Much of this fill is likely to be alluvial and fluvial sedimentary rock with higher porosity and permeability. This report estimates an order of magnitude potential capacity of approximately 137 billion metric tons for supercritical CO{sub 2}. The pore space within the basins represent hundreds of years of potential storage for supercritical CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} stored in aqueous form. There are many sources of CO{sub 2} within the region that could use the trend for geologic storage. Thirty one coal fired power plants are located within 100 miles of the deepest portions of

  8. Chemical trend of the formation energies of the group-III and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chemical trend of the formation energies of the group-III and group-V dopants in Si quantum dots Prev Next Title: Chemical trend of the formation energies of the group-III ...

  9. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2013 Data) Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2013 Data) The "voluntary" or "green power" ...

  10. Understanding Trends in CO2 adsorption in Metal-Organic Frameworks...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding Trends in CO2 adsorption in Metal-Organic Frameworks with Open-Metal Sites ... bond analysis, we study and explain trends in the binding between CO2 and open-metal ...

  11. U.S. NO₂ trends (2005-2013): EPA air quality system (AQS) data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    U.S. NO trends (2005-2013): EPA air quality system (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Prev Next Title: U.S. NO trends ...

  12. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market This report documents the status and trends of U.S. "compliance" markets-renewable energy certificate (REC) markets used ...

  13. Estimating Waste Inventory and Waste Tank Characterization |...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Estimating Waste Inventory and Waste Tank Characterization Estimating Waste Inventory and Waste Tank Characterization Summary Notes from 28 May 2008 Generic Technical Issue ...

  14. Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry You are accessing a...

  15. REFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. M. Sizemore; David S. Schechter

    2004-02-13

    This report describes the work performed during the first semi-annual third year of the project, ''Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area''. The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend. To achieve this objective, in this period we concentrated our effort on analyzing production and injection data to optimize the reservoir management strategies for Germania Spraberry Unit. This study address the reservoir characterization and monitoring of the waterflooding project and propose alternatives of development of the current and future conditions of the reservoir to improve field performance. This research should serve as a guide for future work in reservoir simulation and can be used to evaluate various scenarios for additional development as well as to optimize the operating practices in the field. The results indicate that under the current conditions, a total of 1.410 million barrels of oil can be produced in the next 20 years through the 64 active wells and suggest that the unit can be successfully flooded with the current injection rate of 1600 BWPD and the pattern consisting of 6 injection wells aligned about 36 degrees respect to the major fracture orientation. In addition, a progress report on GSU waterflood pilot is reported for this period.

  16. Background estimation in experimental spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, R.; Hanson, K. M.; Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS P940, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 ; Dose, V.; Linden, W. von der

    2000-02-01

    A general probabilistic technique for estimating background contributions to measured spectra is presented. A Bayesian model is used to capture the defining characteristics of the problem, namely, that the background is smoother than the signal. The signal is allowed to have positive and/or negative components. The background is represented in terms of a cubic spline basis. A variable degree of smoothness of the background is attained by allowing the number of knots and the knot positions to be adaptively chosen on the basis of the data. The fully Bayesian approach taken provides a natural way to handle knot adaptivity and allows uncertainties in the background to be estimated. Our technique is demonstrated on a particle induced x-ray emission spectrum from a geological sample and an Auger spectrum from iron, which contains signals with both positive and negative components. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  17. PREFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. M. Sizemore; David S. Schechter

    2003-08-13

    This report describes the work performed during the second year of the project, ''Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area''. The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend. To achieve this objective, in this period we concentrated our effort on characterization of Germania Unit using an analog field ET ODaniel unit and old cased hole neutron. Petrophysical Characterization of the Germania Spraberry units requires a unique approach for a number of reasons--limited core data, lack of modern log data and absence of directed studies within the unit. The need for characterization of the Germania unit has emerged as a first step in the review, understanding and enhancement of the production practices applicable within the unit and the trend area in general. In the absence or lack of the afore mentioned resources, an approach that will rely heavily on previous petrophysical work carried out in the neighboring ET O'Daniel unit (6.2 miles away), and normalization of the old log data prior to conventional interpretation techniques will be used. A log-based rock model has been able to guide successfully the prediction of pay and non-pay intervals within the ET O'Daniel unit, and will be useful if found applicable within the Germania unit. A novel multiple regression technique utilizing non-parametric transformations to achieve better correlations in predicting a dependent variable (permeability) from multiple independent variables (rock type, shale volume and porosity) will also be investigated in this study. A log data base includes digitized formats of Gamma Ray, Cased

  18. Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings - August 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-08-01

    This report overviews trends in the construction industry, including profiles of buildings and the resulting impacts on energy consumption. It begins with an executive summary of the key findings found in the body of the report, so some of the data and charts are replicated in this section. Its intent is to provide in a concise place key data points and conclusions. The remainder of the report provides a specific profile of the construction industry and patterns of energy use followed by sections providing product and market insights and information on policy efforts, such as taxes and regulations, which are intended to influence building energy use. Information on voluntary programs is also offered.

  19. Collaborating at a distance: operations centres, tools, and trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gottschalk, Erik E.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    Successful operation of the LHC and its experiments is crucial to the future of the worldwide high-energy physics program. Remote operations and monitoring centres have been established for the CMS experiment in several locations around the world. The development of remote centres began with the LHC{at}FNAL ROC and has evolved into a unified approach with distributed centres that are collectively referred to as 'CMS Centres Worldwide'. An overview of the development of remote centres for CMS will be presented, along with a synopsis of collaborative tools that are used in these centres today and trends in the development of remote operations capabilities for high-energy physics.

  20. Trends in Renewable Energy Consumption and Electricity - Energy Information

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Administration Trends in Renewable Energy Consumption and Electricity With data for 2010 | Release Date: December 11, 2012 | Next Release Date: Suspended Previous Issues year: 2009 (pdf) 2008(pdf) 2007(pdf) 2006(pdf) 2005(pdf) 2004(pdf) 2000(pdf) 1998(pdf) Go Summary U.S. renewable energy consumption grew by 6 percent, from 7.600 quadrillion Btu in 2009 to 8.090 quadrillion Btu in 2010. The relative share of renewable energy to total energy consumption has grown to 8 percent in 2010. Of the

  1. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscapting Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-30

    Guidance to help Federal agencies estimate unmetered landscaping water use as required by Executive Order 13514

  2. Current Trends in Gamma Radiation Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of interdisciplinary research and development has taken placetechniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportationthe so-called second line of defense.

  3. Patterns and trends New York State energy profiles: 1980-1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority`s Energy Analysis Program provides public and private sector stakeholders with useful independent and objective energy information. This report provides an overview of one-year and 10-year, energy use trends in New York State. The information presented reflects energy consumption, supply, prices, and expenditures. Section 1 is a 1994 overview of the United States and New York State energy profiles. The national energy consumption data used for comparison are compatible with New York State`s data. Section 2 provides current and historic data for primary and net consumption of energy by fuel type and sector. {open_quotes}Primary{close_quotes} represents total consumption of fuels by the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors including fuels used for generating electricity. {open_quotes}Net{close_quotes} is the end-use consumption by the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors, including electricity sales to each of these sectors but excluding energy losses incurred during electricity generation and distribution. Section 3 presents energy price data at the retail level from 1980 to 1994. Retail energy prices are provided by fuel type for the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors in nominal dollars cost per physical unit and per million Btu. Section 4 presents the estimated cost of net energy consumption by sector and fuel type in nominal dollars and in 1994 constant dollars. Estimated costs were derived by multiplying quantities of consumption by their respective prices. Section 5 details sources of New York State energy supplies.

  4. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Wu; Shuxiao Wang; David G. Streets; Jiming Hao; Melissa Chan; Jingkun Jiang

    2006-09-01

    We have developed multiple-year inventories of anthropogenic mercury emissions in China for 1995 through 2003. It is estimated that total Hg emissions from all anthropogenic sources increased at an average annual rate of 2.9% during the period 1995-2003, reaching 696 ({+-}307) t in 2003, with a speciation split of 395 t of Hg{sup 0}, 230 t of Hg{sup 2+}, and 70 t of particulate mercury, Hg{sup p}. Nonferrous metals smelting and coal combustion continue to be the two leading mercury sources in China, as nonferrous metals production and coal consumption keep increasing. Nonferrous metals smelting and coal combustion together contributed {approximately}80% of total Hg emissions during the past decade. Hg emissions from coal combustion increased from 202 t in 1995 to 257 t in 2003 at an average annual rate of 3.0%. Among all of the coal consumption sectors, the power sector is the leading one in Hg emissions growth, up by 5.9% annually. Hg emissions from nonferrous metals smelting increased from 230 t in 1995 to 321 t in 2003 at an average annual rate of 4.2%. Although Hg emissions related to gold smelting decreased since 1996, other nonferrous metals such as zinc, lead, and copper contributed significant Hg growth at annual rates of 8.5%, 13.0%, and 6.9%, respectively. At provincial level, the trends of Hg emissions show significant variation. The uncertainty level decreased from {+-}78% (95% confidence interval) in the estimate of total emissions in 1995, to {+-}44% in 2003. This is primarily attributed to the decreased emissions from those Hg sources with the largest uncertainty in both activity levels and emission factors, such as artisanal gold smelting, mercury mining, and battery/fluorescent lamp production. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Wind Power Price Trends in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2009-07-15

    For the fourth year in a row, the United States led the world in adding new wind power capacity in 2008, and also surpassed Germany to take the lead in terms of cumulative installed wind capacity. The rapid growth of wind power in the U.S. over the past decade (Figure 1) has been driven by a combination of increasingly supportive policies (including the Federal production tax credit (PTC) and a growing number of state renewables portfolio standards), uncertainty over the future fuel costs and environmental liabilities of natural gas and coal-fired power plants, and wind's competitive position among generation resources. This article focuses on just the last of these drivers - i.e., trends in U.S. wind power prices - over the period of strong capacity growth since 1998.

  6. Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (REFTI) Solar Trend Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbell, R.; Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.; Cory, K.

    2012-09-01

    This report is a summary of the finance trends for small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) projects (PV <1 MW), large-scale PV projects (PV greater than or equal to 1 MW), and concentrated solar power projects as reported in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (REFTI). The report presents REFTI data during the five quarterly periods from the fourth quarter of 2009 to the first half of 2011. The REFTI project relies exclusively on the voluntary participation of industry stakeholders for its data; therefore, it does not offer a comprehensive view of the technologies it tracks. Despite this limitation, REFTI is the only publicly available resource for renewable energy project financial terms. REFTI analysis offers usable inputs into the project economic evaluations of developers and investors, as well as the policy assessments of public utility commissions and others in the renewable energy industry.

  7. Thin-Film Reliability Trends Toward Improved Stability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-07-01

    Long-term, stable performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules will be increasingly important to their successful penetration of the power grid. This paper summarizes more than 150 thin-film and more than 1700 silicon PV degradation rates (Rd) quoted in publications for locations worldwide. Partitioning the literature results by technology and date of installation statistical analysis shows an improvement in degradation rate especially for thin-film technologies in the last decade. A CIGS array deployed at NREL for more than 5 years that appears to be stable supports the literature trends. Indoor and outdoor data indicate undetectable change in performance (0.2+/-0.2 %/yr). One module shows signs of slight degradation from what appears to be an initial manufacturing defect, however it has not affected the overall system performance.

  8. Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling the Deep Terrestrial Biosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Daly, Rebecca; Mouser, Paula J.; Trexler, Ryan; Sharma, Shihka; Cole, David R.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Biddle , Jennifer F.; Denis, Elizabeth; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Kieft, Thomas L.; Onstott, T. C.; Peterson, Lee; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Schrenk, Matthew O.

    2014-09-12

    Research in the deep terrestrial biosphere is driven by interest in novel biodiversity and metabolisms, biogeochemical cycling, and the impact of human activities on this ecosystem. As this interest continues to grow, it is important to ensure that when subsurface investigations are proposed, materials recovered from the subsurface are sampled and preserved in an appropriate manner to limit contamination and ensure preservation of accurate microbial, geochemical, and mineralogical signatures. On February 20th, 2014, a workshop on “Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling The Deep Subsurface” was coordinated in Columbus, Ohio by The Ohio State University and West Virginia University faculty, and sponsored by The Ohio State University and the Sloan Foundation’s Deep Carbon Observatory. The workshop aims were to identify and develop best practices for the collection, preservation, and analysis of terrestrial deep rock samples. This document summarizes the information shared during this workshop.

  9. X-Ray Cargo Inspection: Status and Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Gongyin; Bjorkholm, Paul; Fox, Timothy R.; Wilson, Zane; Bonsergent, Xavier

    2009-03-10

    Over the past several years, x-ray cargo inspection has experienced tremendous growth. There are several hundred systems in use world wide and a few new units are installed every week. Fielded systems are mostly located in north and West Africa, Middle East, Europe (especially Russia), East Asia, and South America. The majority of systems are powered by Varian M3, M6 or M9 Linac x-ray sources. The spatial resolution of these systems is typically 3-5 mm, penetration ranges from around 200 mm to 450 mm of steel and contrast sensitivity is typically 1-4%. Inspection throughput ranges from about 20 trucks per hour to 200 trucks per hour. Currently the systems are primarily used to fight import tax evasion and smuggling of controlled substances. There are a few clear trends: Imaging performance has been steadily improving; a variety of systems have been developed to fit different needs; also, there is a strong effort in material discrimination, or even identification and automatic detection. The last, but not least trend is a shift to security applications. The US government has launched major efforts such as CAARS and JINII to fight nuclear threat and systems that can automatically detect a small amount of high atomic number materials are being developed. This paper only covers RF linear accelerator based X-ray sources, which prevail in the industry. Induction accelerators (Betatrons) have some limited use in low-end imaging systems and high duty factors sources have recently been proposed for study.

  10. 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-10

    An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.

  11. Bayesian estimation methods in metrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, M.G.; Forbes, A.B.; Harris, P.M.

    2004-11-16

    In metrology -- the science of measurement -- a measurement result must be accompanied by a statement of its associated uncertainty. The degree of validity of a measurement result is determined by the validity of the uncertainty statement. In recognition of the importance of uncertainty evaluation, the International Standardization Organization in 1995 published the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement and the Guide has been widely adopted. The validity of uncertainty statements is tested in interlaboratory comparisons in which an artefact is measured by a number of laboratories and their measurement results compared. Since the introduction of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement, key comparisons are being undertaken to determine the degree of equivalence of laboratories for particular measurement tasks. In this paper, we discuss the possible development of the Guide to reflect Bayesian approaches and the evaluation of key comparison data using Bayesian estimation methods.

  12. Extreme Climate Event Trends: The Data Mining and Evaluation of the A1FI Scenario for 2000???2100

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson III, David J; Ganguly, Auroop R; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Branstetter, Marcia L; Oglesby, Robert; Hoffman, Forrest M; Buja, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss the implications and resulting alterations of the hydrologic cycle as Earth climate evolves from 2000-2100. Climate simulations based on the assumptions implicit in the A1F1 scenario for the period 2000-2100 using CCSM3 are analyzed. In particular, we will assess the changes in the surface latent and sensible heat energy budget, the Indian regional water budgets including trends in the timing and duration of the Indian monsoon and the resulting impacts on mean river flow and hydroelectric power generation potential. These analyses will also be examined within the context of heat index, droughts, floods and related estimates of societal robustness and resiliency. We will interpret these new A1F1 results within the context of the previous climate simulations based on the SRES A2 and B1 scenarios forced with land cover and atmospheric CO2. Analyses of historical records in the context of the Indian Monsoon Rainfall (IMR) have suggested an evolving relation of IMR with natural climate variability caused by El Nino events. We will report on the combined effects of natural climate variability and global warming on IMR and assess the trend of extreme rain and temperature events in a warming environment.

  13. State Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    Energy price and expenditure estimates in dollars per million Btu and in million dollars, by state, 1970-2014.

  14. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

  15. New Methodology for Natural Gas Production Estimates

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    A new methodology is implemented with the monthly natural gas production estimates from the EIA-914 survey this month. The estimates, to be released April 29, 2010, include revisions for all of 2009. The fundamental changes in the new process include the timeliness of the historical data used for estimation and the frequency of sample updates, both of which are improved.

  16. Cool Trends in District Energy: A Survey of Thermal Energy Storage Use in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    District Energy Utility Applications, June 2005 | Department of Energy in District Energy: A Survey of Thermal Energy Storage Use in District Energy Utility Applications, June 2005 Cool Trends in District Energy: A Survey of Thermal Energy Storage Use in District Energy Utility Applications, June 2005 This 2005 survey considers the use of cool Thermal Energy Storage (TES) in District Cooling utility applications. cool_trends_in_de.pdf (86.08 KB) More Documents & Publications Cool Trends

  17. 2014 U.S. Offshore Wind Market Report: Industry Trends, Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stehly, Walt Musial Floating Substructure Sensitivities Global Market Trends * The global offshore wind industry is set to reach a deployment record with 4,000 megawatts (MW)...

  18. U.S. NO2 trends (2005-2013): EPA Air Quality System (AQS) data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atmospheric Environment 110 (2015) 130-143 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Atmospheric Environment journal homepage: www.elsevier.comlocateatmosenv U.S. NO2 trends ...

  19. NERSC User Day February 13 - Trends, Discovery, and Innovation in HPC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Day February 13 - Trends, Discovery, and Innovation in HPC NERSC User Day February 13 - Trends, Discovery, and Innovation in HPC February 10, 2013 by Francesca Verdier All members of the Berkeley Lab community, as well as those who have registered for the NERSC Users Group meeting, are welcome to join us for the NERSC User Day this February 13, 2013, in the Building 50 auditorium at Berkeley Lab. The theme of the User Day is Trends, Discovery, and Innovation in High Performance Computing: Trends

  20. Are We Heading Towards a Reversal of the Trend for Ever-Greater...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mobility? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Are We Heading Towards a Reversal of the Trend for Ever-Greater Mobility? AgencyCompany Organization:...

  1. Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency-- Update on Program Experience

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Program Sustainability Peer Exchange Call Series: Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, November 7, 2013.

  2. Robust Bearing Estimation for 3-Component Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claassen, John P.

    1999-06-03

    A robust bearing estimation process for 3-component stations has been developed and explored. The method, called SEEC for Search, Estimate, Evaluate and Correct, intelligently exploits the in- herent information in the arrival at every step of the process to achieve near-optimal results. In particular, the approach uses a consistent framework to define the optimal time-frequency windows on which to make estimates, to make the bearing estimates themselves, to construct metrics helpful in choosing the better estimates or admitting that the bearing is immeasurable, andjinally to apply bias corrections when calibration information is available to yield a single final estimate. The method was applied to a small but challenging set of events in a seismically active region. The method demonstrated remarkable utility by providing better estimates and insights than previously available. Various monitoring implications are noted fiom these findings.

  3. Robust bearing estimation for 3-component stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CLAASSEN,JOHN P.

    2000-02-01

    A robust bearing estimation process for 3-component stations has been developed and explored. The method, called SEEC for Search, Estimate, Evaluate and Correct, intelligently exploits the inherent information in the arrival at every step of the process to achieve near-optimal results. In particular the approach uses a consistent framework to define the optimal time-frequency windows on which to make estimates, to make the bearing estimates themselves, to construct metrics helpful in choosing the better estimates or admitting that the bearing is immeasurable, and finally to apply bias corrections when calibration information is available to yield a single final estimate. The algorithm was applied to a small but challenging set of events in a seismically active region. It demonstrated remarkable utility by providing better estimates and insights than previously available. Various monitoring implications are noted from these findings.

  4. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California`s residential marketplace.

  5. Trends In U.S. Electric Power Transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of the changes that are occurring in the industry to implement the goals of improved reliability and reduced congestion costs. As the electric industry works to become a more efficient market, transmission stands as a key link between the competitive generation and the regulated distribution sectors. In this role as a key link, transmission is a major focus of government efforts to improve reliability and reduce congestion costs. The scope of the report is to analyze the dominant reliability, investment, siting, and competition/open access trends that are occurring in the domestic electric transmission industry. Topics covered include: the impact of the 2003 Northeast blackout on reliability rules; the move from voluntary to mandatory reliability standards; the advent of real-time transmission system monitoring; ISO/RTO efforts to improve system reliability; the drivers of government intervention in transmission investment; the move towards incentive-based rates for transmission investment; legislative and regulatory efforts to spur transmission investment to support renewable energy resources; the emergence of merchant transmission; the need for federal backstop authority on regional transmission projects; the designation of national interest electric transmission corridors; FERC Orders on siting transmission; the need for changes in open access and competition regulations; FERC efforts to increase open access and competition; legislative efforts to increase competition; and, current competitive issues in the industry.

  6. Reliability Estimates for Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; Peter I. Petersen

    2005-09-01

    Failure rates for large power supplies at a fusion facility are critical knowledge needed to estimate availability of the facility or to set priorties for repairs and spare components. A study of the "failure to operate on demand" and "failure to continue to operate" failure rates has been performed for the large power supplies at DIII-D, which provide power to the magnet coils, the neutral beam injectors, the electron cyclotron heating systems, and the fast wave systems. When one of the power supplies fails to operate, the research program has to be either temporarily changed or halted. If one of the power supplies for the toroidal or ohmic heating coils fails, the operations have to be suspended or the research is continued at de-rated parameters until a repair is completed. If one of the power supplies used in the auxiliary plasma heating systems fails the research is often temporarily changed until a repair is completed. The power supplies are operated remotely and repairs are only performed when the power supplies are off line, so that failure of a power supply does not cause any risk to personnel. The DIII-D Trouble Report database was used to determine the number of power supply faults (over 1,700 reports), and tokamak annual operations data supplied the number of shots, operating times, and power supply usage for the DIII-D operating campaigns between mid-1987 and 2004. Where possible, these power supply failure rates from DIII-D will be compared to similar work that has been performed for the Joint European Torus equipment. These independent data sets support validation of the fusion-specific failure rate values.

  7. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  8. Time and Resource Estimation Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-06-08

    RESTORE is a computer software tool that allows one to model a complex set of steps required to accomplish a goal (e.g., repair a ruptured natural gas pipeline and restore service to customers). However, the time necessary to complete step may be uncertain and may be affected by conditions, such as the weather, the time of day, the day of the week. Therefore, "nature" can influence which steps are taken and the time needed tomore » complete each step. In addition, the tool allows one to model the costs for each step, which also may be uncertain. RESTORE allows the user to estimate the time and cost, both of which may be uncertain, to achieve an intermediate stage of completion, as well as overall completion. The software also makes it possible to model parallel, competing groups of activities (i.e., parallel paths) so that progreSs at a ‘merge point’ can proceed before other competing activities are completed. For example, RESTORE permits one to model a workaround and a simultaneous complete repair to determine a probability distribution for the earliest time service can be restored to a critical customer. The tool identifies the ‘most active path’ through the network of tasks, which is extremely important information for assessing the most effective way to speed-up or slow-down progress. Unlike other project planning and risk analysis tools, RESTORE provides an intuitive, graphical, and object-oriented environment for structuring a model and setting its parameters.« less

  9. Historical Perspective of Clean Cities and Alternative Fuels Data Center Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, J. K.

    2007-09-01

    This document draws on the wealth of information housed in the U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fuels Data Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Trends and analyses are examined from data as far back as 1991. The findings of those trends and salient features are summarized.

  10. Cost of Wind Energy in the United States: Trends from 2007 to 2012 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, M.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of recent technology trends observed in the United States including project size, turbine size, rotor diameter, hub height, annual average wind speed, and annual energy production. It also highlights area where system analysis is required to fully understand how these technology trends relate to the cost of wind energy.