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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

The deposition and burning characteristics during slagging co-firing coal and wood: modeling and numerical simulation  

SciTech Connect

Numerical analysis was used to study the deposition and burning characteristics of combining co-combustion with slagging combustion technologies in this paper. The pyrolysis and burning kinetic models of different fuels were implanted into the WBSF-PCC2 (wall burning and slag flow in pulverized co-combustion) computation code, and then the slagging and co-combustion characteristics (especially the wall burning mechanism of different solid fuels and their effects on the whole burning behavior in the cylindrical combustor at different mixing ratios under the condition of keeping the heat input same) were simulated numerically. The results showed that adding wood powder at 25% mass fraction can increase the temperature at the initial stage of combustion, which is helpful to utilize the front space of the combustor. Adding wood powder at a 25% mass fraction can increase the reaction rate at the initial combustion stage; also, the coal ignitability is improved, and the burnout efficiency is enhanced by about 5% of suspension and deposition particles, which is helpful for coal particles to burn entirely and for combustion devices to minimize their dimensions or sizes. The results also showed that adding wood powder at a proper ratio is helpful to keep the combustion stability, not only because of the enhancement for the burning characteristics, but also because the running slag layer structure can be changed more continuously, which is very important for avoiding the abnormal slag accumulation in the slagging combustor. The theoretic analysis in this paper proves that unification of co-combustion and slagging combustion technologies is feasible, though more comprehensive and rigorous research is needed.

Wang, X.H.; Zhao, D.Q.; Jiang, L.Q.; Yang, W.B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ghangzhou (China)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute allows individual taxpayers a deduction for the purchase and installation of a wood-burning heating system. The deduction is equal to the total cost of purchase and installation for...

3

Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal 20121120ballstatepresentation.pdf More Documents...

4

Wood Burning Combined Cycle Power Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A combined cycle power plant utilizing wood waste products as a fuel has been designed. This plant will yield a 50% efficiency improvement compared to conventional wood-fueled steam power plants. The power plant features an externally-fired gas turbine combined cycle system that obtains its heat input from a high temperature, high pressure ceramic air heater burning wood waste products as a fuel. This paper presents the results of the design study including the cycle evaluation and a description of the major components of the power plant. The cycle configuration is based on maximum fuel efficiency with minimum capital equipment risk. The cycle discussion includes design point performance of the power plant. The design represents a significant step forward in wood-fueled power plants.

Culley, J. W.; Bourgeois, H. S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Test Burns of Torrefied Wood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass fuel is an important option for mitigating the production of carbon dioxide emissions from generating units that are designed to fire conventional fossil fuels. The key attraction of biomass fuels is that they are carbon neutralthe carbon dioxide released by combustion was fixed or removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis, so its return does not provide a net carbon addition. Utilities in the United States and Canada are considering options both for co-firing biomass with coal and for comple...

2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

6

New Computer Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal New Computer Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal March 29, 2012 | Tags: Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR),...

7

Furniture wood wastes: Experimental property characterisation and burning tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected 'raw' and primarily 'engineered' ('composite') wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in 'engineered' wood wastes as compared with 'raw' wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of 'engineered' wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg{sup -1} for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg{sup -1} for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in 'engineered' wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with 'raw' wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in 'engineered' wood burning tests as compared with 'raw' wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM{sub 1} fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

Tatano, Fabio [Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, University of Urbino 'Carlo Bo', Campus Scientifico - Sogesta, 61029 Urbino (Italy)], E-mail: fabio.tatano@uniurb.it; Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo [Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, University of Urbino 'Carlo Bo', Campus Scientifico - Sogesta, 61029 Urbino (Italy)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Schoenberg, Chang, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Schoenberg, Chang, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles A Critical Assessment of the Burning Index in Los Angeles County, California Frederic Paik SchoenbergA,E , Chien: The effectiveness of the Burning Index (BI) in predicting wildfire ac- tivity is assessed using 25 years of area

Schoenberg, Frederic Paik (Rick)

9

Schoenberg, Chang, Keeley, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Schoenberg, Chang, Keeley, Pompa, Woods, Xu. Burning Index. 1 RH: Burning index in Los Angeles A Critical Assessment of the Burning Index in Los Angeles County, California Frederic Paik Schoenberg: The effectiveness of the Burning Index (BI) in predicting wildfire ac- tivity is assessed using 25 years of area

Schoenberg, Frederic Paik (Rick)

10

Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal Paradigm Shift: Burning Coal to Geothermal" November 20, 2012 jlowe@bsu.edu 765.285.2805 Ball State University Ball State University Administration Building 1899 Ball State 1920s Ball State University Ball State University (4) Coal Fired Boilers Installed 1941/1955 (3) Natural Gas Fired Boilers Installed in the 1970s Heat and Chilled Water Plant Operations Heat Plant: 4 Coal Fired Boilers 3 Natural Gas Fired Boilers 320,000 Lbs/Hr nameplate 240,000 Lbs/Hr current 700,000,000 Lbs/Year Chilled Water Plant: 5 Electrical Centrifugal Chillers 9,300 ton capacity 25,000,000 Ton Hours/Year Pollutants Produced from Burning 36,000 tons of Coal * Carbon Dioxide 85,000 tons (Global Warming)

11

PSNH's Northern Wood power project repowers coal-fired plant with new fluidized-bed combustor  

SciTech Connect

The Northern Wood Power project permanently replaced a 50-MW coal-burning boiler (Unit 5) at Public Service of New Hampshire's Schiller station with a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed wood-burning boiler of the same capacity. The project, completed in December 2006, reduced emissions and expanded the local market for low-grade wood. For planning and executing the multiyear, $75 million project at no cost to its ratepayers, PSNH wins Power's 2007 Marmaduke Award for excellence in O & M. The award is named for Marmaduke Surfaceblow, the fictional marine engineer/plant troubleshoot par excellence. 7 figs., 1 tab.

Peltier, R.

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Program Info Start Date 09/07/2012 State Maryland Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Stick Burning Stove: $500 Pellet Burning Stove: $700 The Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) now offers the Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program as part of its Residential Clean Energy Grant Program. The Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program offers a flat grant award of $500 for stick burning wood stoves and $700 for pellet burning wood stoves that meet program eligibility requirements. Basic requirements for grant funding include: *The property must serve as primary residence *Clean burning wood stove must replace existing electric or non-natural gas

13

Development of a Software System to Facilitate Implementation of Coal and Wood Co-Fired Bilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal and wood co-fired boiler technology has improved significantly over the years. The term "co-firing", when used by members of the biomass or utility communities, has come to mean mixing a modest amount of clean, dry sawdust with coal and burning the sawdust coal mixture in a large, coal-burning, utility boiler. This paper discusses the development of a computer software system that interacts with the user and allows coal-wood co-fired boilers to be sized, priced, implemented, and operated properly. Information about the equipment that is required for the boiler replacement project is provided. Along with these features, the software would allow the user to determine energy and cost savings that would be available upon installation as compared to other types of boilers. The paper outlines how these savings are realized, and the steps that must be taken to ensure the proper operation of the boiler to achieve these savings. A sensitivity analysis has also been performed on the implementation of coal-wood co-fired boilers in order to determine the key factors influencing the project payback period. The key factors that are considered in the analysis are the boiler size, the annual operating hours, and the current fuel cost. Additional analysis has been done on the boiler size and the annual operating hours. This analysis allows the users to determine if their current facility falls into the feasible range for implementing a coal-wood co-fired boiler system.

Gopalakrishnan, B.; Gump, C. D.; Gupta, D. P.; Chaudhari, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Phase I of this project began by obtaining R&D variances for permits at the NIOSH boilerplant (NBP), Emery Tree Service (ETS) and the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC) for their portions of the project. Wood for the test burn was obtained from the JARC inventory (pallets), Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation (construction wood), and the Arlington Heights Housing Project (demolition wood). The wood was ground at ETS and JARC, delivered to the Three Rivers Terminal and blended with coal. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NBP. Blends using hammermilled wood were operationally successful. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and evaluated. During the first year of Phase II the principal work focused upon searching for a replacement boilerplant and developing a commercial supply of demolition wood. The NBP withdrew from the project and a search began for another stoker boilerplant in Pennsylvania to replace it on the project. Three potential commercial demolition wood providers were contacted. Two were not be able to supply wood. At the end of the first year of Phase II, discussions were continuing with the third one, a commercial demolition wood provider from northern New Jersey. During the two-and-a-third years of the contract extension it was determined that the demolition wood from northern New Jersey was impractical for use in Pittsburgh, in another power plant in central New Jersey, and in a new wood gasifier being planned in Philadelphia. However, the project team did identify sufficient wood from other sources for the gasifier project. The Principal Investigator of this project assisted a feasibility study of wood gasification in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. As a result of the study, an independent power producer in the county has initiated a small wood gasification project at its site. Throughout much of this total project the Principal Investigator has counseled two small businesses in developing a waxed cardboard pellet business. A recent test burn of this biofuel appears successful and a purchase contract is anticipated soon. During the past two months a major tree-trimming firm has shown an active interest in entering the wood-chip fuel market in the Pittsburgh area and has contacted the NBP, among others, as potential customers. The NBP superintendent is currently in discussion with the facilities management of the Bruceton Research Center about resuming their interest in cofiring this renewable fuel to the stoker there.

James T. Cobb Jr.

2005-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

15

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

SIDA DemoEast programme in Estonia. Supply, delivery and installation of wood pellet burning equipment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

burning equipment SUMMARY DemoEast programme is a part of Baltic Billion Fund 2 with the overall aim and Kiltsi light oil fired boilers have been converted to wood pellets burning. The supplier

18

Superheater Corrosion in Plants Burning High-Chlorine Coals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corrosion caused by molten alkali sulfates can cause premature failure in superheaters and reheaters of coal-fired boilers. Coals with a high chlorine content are more likely to cause molten sulfate corrosion than those with a low chlorine content. Tests in a boiler burning coal with 0.37% chlorine and 1.3% sulfur show that stainless steels with at least 35% chromium are very corrosion resistant, while steels containing less than 20% chromium have high corrosion rates.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Fire safety for your wood-burning appliance: tips for proper installation, operation, and maintenance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dramatic increase in house fires caused by wood-burning appliances has accompanied the rediscovery of wood as an alternative heating fuel. The National Bureau of Standards attributed the majority of these fires to conditions related to the installation, operation or maintenance of the appliances rather than malfunctions or construction defects. This publication presents guidelines for the proper installation, use, and maintenance of wood-burning appliances in the home. (DMC)

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

NETL: News Release - Combustion Optimization Systems - Cleaner Coal Burning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"Combustion Optimization System" - Cleaner Coal Burning at Lower Costs "Combustion Optimization System" - Cleaner Coal Burning at Lower Costs DOE Joins with Sunflower Electric to Outfit Kansas Coal Plant with Lower Cost System to Cut Air Emissions FINNEY COUNTY, KS - A unique combination of high-tech combustion modifications and sophisticated control systems will be tested on a Kansas coal-fired power plant as part of the federal government's efforts to show how new technology can reduce air emissions and save costs for ratepayers. - Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station - Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station will be outfitted with a combination of innovative hardware and software to further reduce air emissions. - The U.S. Department of Energy and Sunflower Electric Power Corporation have signed an agreement to use the utility's Holcomb Station power plant in

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

On the burning behavior of pulverized coal chars  

SciTech Connect

A model that predicts the physical changes that pulverized coal char particles undergo during combustion has been developed. In the model, a burning particle is divided into a number of concentric annular volume elements. The mass loss rate, specific surface area, and apparent density in each volume element depend upon the local particle conditions, which vary as a consequence of the adsorbed oxygen and gas-phase oxygen concentration gradients inside the particle. The model predicts the particle's burning rate, temperature, diameter, apparent density, and specific surface area as combustion proceeds, given ambient conditions and initial char properties. A six-step heterogeneous reaction mechanism is used to describe carbon reactivity to oxygen. A distributed activation energy approach is used to account for the variation in desorption energies of adsorbed O-atoms on the carbonaceous surface. Model calculations support the three burning zones established for the oxidation of pulverized coal chars. The model indicates two types of zone II behavior, however. Under weak zone II burning conditions, constant-diameter burning occurs up to 30% to 50% conversion before burning commences with reductions in both size and apparent density. Under strong zone II conditions, particles burn with reductions in both size and apparent density after an initial short period (conversion) of constant-diameter burning. Model predictions reveal that early in the oxidation process, there is mass loss at constant diameter under all zone II burning conditions. Such weak and strong burning behavior cannot be predicted with the commonly used power-law model for the mode of burning employing a single value for the burning mode parameter. Model calculations also reveal how specific surface area evolves when oxidation occurs in the zone II burning regime. Based on the calculated results, a surface area submodel that accounts for the effects of pore growth and coalescence during combustion under zone I conditions was modified to permit the characterization of the variations in specific surface area that occur during char conversion under zones II conditions. The modified surface area model is applicable to all burning regimes. Calculations also indicate that the particle's effectiveness factor varies during conversion under zone II burning conditions. With the adsorption/desorption mechanism employed, a near first-order Thiele modulus-effectiveness factor relationship is obeyed over the particle's lifetime. (author)

Mitchell, Reginald E.; Ma, Liqiang; Kim, BumJick [Thermosciences Group, Mechanical Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-3032 (United States)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

New Computer Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Codes Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal New Computer Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal March 29, 2012 | Tags: Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), Combustion, Franklin, Hopper Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 The Polk Power Station near Mulberry, Florida, is an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle gasification plant. It is capable of generating 313 megawatts of electricity - 250 megawatts of which are supplied to the electric grid. The plant's gas cleaning technology removes more than 98 percent of the sulfur in coal, converting it to a commercial product. Nitrogen oxide emissions are reduced by more than 90 percent. (Photo courtesy of DOE-NETL) Approximately half of all electricity used in the United States comes from

23

Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Lignite Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury control technologies for Mercury control technologies for electric utilities Burning lignite coal Background In partnership with a number of key stakeholders, the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE), through its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), has been carrying out a comprehensive research program since the mid-1990s focused on the development of advanced, cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Mercury is a poisonous metal found in coal, which can be harmful and even toxic when absorbed from the environment and concentrated in animal tissues. Mercury is present as an unwanted by-product of combustion in power plant flue gases, and is found in varying percentages in three basic chemical forms(known as speciation): particulate-bound mercury, oxidized

25

Planning and setup for the implementation of coal and wood co-fired boilers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coal and wood co-fired boiler technology has been significantly advancing in the past years, but many of their capabilities remain unknown to much of the… (more)

Gump, Christopher D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Wood-Coal Fired "Small" Boiler Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Galaxy Carpet Corporation installed a coal and wood waste fired boiler approximately twelve months ago. Its first year net savings were $195,000.00 Total capital investment was paid off in 1.9 years. 20% investment tax credits were granted by the Federal Government. Galaxy Carpet Corporation has been sufficiently impressed with performance, both economically and technically, to place a follow-up order of $1,500,000.00 for a second solid fuel fired boiler system at its Dalton, Georgia Dye House operation.

Pincelli, R. D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M.; Kamber, P.D.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Shell-armored wood cobbles as a potential criterion for detrital coal deposits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shell-armored wood cobbles occur on detrital-peat beaches along the seaward edge of the Mississippi Delta. Shell material consists exclusively of Mulinia lateralis, a dwarf surf clam. Soft, heavy, waterlogged wood fragments are abraded and become armored by hard shells in response to wave activity on the beach. Although their preservation potential is suspect, fossilized shell-armored wood clasts would probably be recognized as a type of coal ball and might indicate an allochthonous origin for the host coal.

DiMarco, M.J.; Nummedal, D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Residential wood burning: Energy modeling and conventional fuel displacement in a national sample  

SciTech Connect

This research studied the natural, built, and behavioral factors predictive of energy consumption for residential space heating with wood or conventional fuels. This study was a secondary analysis of survey data from a nationwide representative sample of 5,682 households collected DOE in the 1984-1985 REC survey. Included were: weather, census division and utility data, interviewer-supplied dwelling measurements and respondent-reported energy-related family behaviors. Linear-regression procedures were used to develop a model that identified key determinants accounting for the variability in wood consumption. A nonlinear-regression model was employed to estimate the amount of conventional fuels used for space heating. The model was also used to estimate the amount of conventional fuels being displaced by wood-heating systems. There was a significant (p {le} .05) linear relationship between the dependent variable, square root of cords burned, various independent variables.

Warsco, K.S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Technical Viability of Biocoke from Mixtures Coal-Wood Charcoal for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to replace from 10% to 50% of the coal used in cokemaking by mixing it with a renewable source (wood charcoal). The powder ...

31

URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILERPLANT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the third quarter, the experimental portion of the project was carried out. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NIOSH Boiler Plant (NBP). Blends using hammer-milled wood were operationally successful and can form the basis of Phase II. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and the mathematical modeling of mercury speciation reactions continued, yielding many interesting results. Material and energy balances for the test periods at the NBP, as well as at the Bellefield Boiler Plant, were prepared. Steps were taken to remove severe constraints from the Pennsylvania Switchgrass Energy and Conservation Project and to organize the supplying of landfill gas to the Bruceton federal complex. Two presentations were made to meetings of the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Energy Technology Laboratory.

James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; Thomas Stickle; Jun Wang; Hongming Li; William P. Barry

2002-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

32

Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal  

SciTech Connect

A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Sethi, Vijay (Laramie, WY); Brecher, Lee E. (Laramie, WY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Economic assessment of coal-burning locomotives: Topical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The General Electric Company embarked upon a study to evaluate various alternatives for the design and manufacture a coal fired locomotive considering various prime movers, but retaining the electric drive transmission. The initial study was supported by the Burlington-Northern and Norfolk-Southern railroads, and included the following alternatives: coal fired diesel locomotive; direct fired gas turbine locomotives; direct fired gas turbine locomotive with steam injection; raw coal gasifier gas turbine locomotive; and raw coal fluid bed steam turbine locomotive. All alternatives use the electric drive transmission and were selected for final evaluation. The first three would use a coal water slurry as a fuel, which must be produced by new processing plants. Therefore, use of a slurry would require a significant plant capital investment. The last two would use classified run-of-the-mine (ROM) coal with much less capital expenditure. Coal fueling stations would be required but are significantly lower in capital cost than a coal slurry plant. For any coal fired locomotive to be commercially viable, it must pass the following criteria: be technically feasible and environmentally acceptable; meet railroads' financial expectations; and offer an attractive return to the locomotive manufacturer. These three criteria are reviewed in the report.

Not Available

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Availability of wood as a heating fuel for Colorado  

SciTech Connect

As Colorado homeowners turn to wood as an alternative space-heating fuel, supplies--particularly along the heavily populated Front Range--dwindle. The report reexamines the resource base and presents alternatives to wood in the event of a shortage (for instance, many wood stoves can burn coal as well).

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Coal keeps the home fires burning, at a price  

SciTech Connect

The wild ride of 2007 thermal and coking coal and freight prices does not show any signs of abating as 2008 nears, leaving consumers coping with historic high costs, except in the US. 3 figs.

O'Connell, J.

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air in a helical path through the combustion chamber. A flame is established within the combustion chamber to ignite the stripped coal particles, and flame temperature regulating means are provided for maintaining the flame temperature within a desired predetermined range of temperatures that is effective to produce dry, essentially slag-free ash from the combustion process.

Krishna, C.R.

1984-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

37

URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An Environmental Questionnaire for the demonstration at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP) was submitted to the national Energy Technology Laboratory. An R&D variance for the air permit at the BBP was sought from the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD). R&D variances for the solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS) were sought from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Verbal authorizations were received in all cases. Memoranda of understanding were executed by the University of Pittsburgh with BBP, JARC and ETS. Construction wood was collected from Thompson Properties and from Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were hammer milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Blends of wood and coal, produced at MVTC by staff of JARC and MVTC, were shipped by rail to BBP. The experimental portion of the project was carried out at BBP in late March and early April 2001. Several preliminary tests were successfully conducted using blends of 20% and 33% wood by volume. Four one-day tests using a blend of 40% wood by volume were then carried out. Problems of feeding and slagging were experienced with the 40% blend. Light-colored fly ash was observed coming from the stack during all four tests. Emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx and total particulates, measured by Energy Systems Associates, decreased when compared with combusting coal alone. A procedure for calculating material and energy balances on BBP's Boiler No.1 was developed, using the results of an earlier compliance test at the plant. Material and energy balances were then calculated for the four test periods. Boiler efficiency was found to decrease slightly when the fuel was shifted from coal to the 40% blend. Neither commercial production of sized urban waste wood for the energy market in Pittsburgh nor commercial cofiring of wood/coal blends at BBP are anticipated in the near future.

James T. Cobb Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; William P. Barry; Jun Wang; Hongming Li

2004-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

38

Early maturation processes in coal.1 Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balances and structural evolution of coalified wood from the2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Early maturation processes in coal.1 Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balances and structural evolution of coalified wood from the2 Morwell Brown Coal seam3 4 Elodie Salmon a, c , Françoise Behar a , François Lorant force21 field to simulate the thermal stress. The Morwell coal has been selected to study the thermal22

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

1994-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

40

URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the third quarter, important preparatory work was continued so that the experimental activities can begin early in the fourth quarter. Authorization was awaited in response to the letter that was submitted to the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) seeking an R&D variance for the air permit at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP). Verbal authorizations were received from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) for R&D variances for solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Discussions were held with BBP and Energy Systems Associates (ESA) about the test program. Material and energy balances on Boiler No.1 and a plan for data collection were prepared. Presentations describing the University of Pittsburgh Wood/Coal Co-Firing Program were provided to the Pittsburgh Chapter of the Pennsylvania Society of Professional Engineers, and the Upgraded Coal Interest Group and the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). An article describing the program appeared in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. An application was submitted for authorization for a Pennsylvania Switchgrass Energy and Conservation Program.

James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; William P. Barry; Jun Wang; Hongming Li

2001-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Wood power - its potential in our energy crisis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wood is meeting about 2% of total U.S. energy needs and may eventually supply up to 7% of our nation's energy. Many forms of direct combustion equipment are available for residential heating and range from supplemental wood-burning stoves to complete house-heating multi-fuel furnaces. A recent survey conducted in New York indicated that one-third of the people contacted used wood for home heating. The total amount of fuelwood used in New York State in 1978 amounted to 1,716,000 standard cords. A Wisconsin study indicates that more than 1.2 million cords of firewood were burned by Wisconsin households during the 1979-80 heating season. A Pennsylvania survey indicated that 22% of single family households used wood for home heating. Corning Glass Works recently conducted a wood-burning stove market survey and found that 18% of all U.S. households own wood-burning stoves. On the basis of cost per unit of heat, wood heat is cheaper than its next closest commonly available rival (fuel oil) and is also cheaper than anthracite coal and electricity. Industrial wood-burning furnaces are commonly incorporated into boiler systems. Nearly 1700 wood-fired boiler systems are in operation in the United States. The economic value of a wood fuel will depend on its heating value and moisture content. For an indsutry considering use of densified wood for fuel, there is a question of whether the added expense is justified by increased ease of handling and improved burning efficiency. Where high sulfur emissions from coal are a problem, burning sulfur-free pellets in combination with coal may be a solution. In Maine a $3 million pellet-making plant is producing 600 tons of pellets per day. Nationally, the overall generating capacity of all known electrical generating plants using wood and wood derived fuels is about 4500 megawatts. Wood can be processed to produce liquid fuels and other chemicals.

Johnson, W.W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Air extraction in gas turbines burning coal-derived gas  

SciTech Connect

In the first phase of this contracted research, a comprehensive investigation was performed. Principally, the effort was directed to identify the technical barriers which might exist in integrating the air-blown coal gasification process with a hot gas cleanup scheme and the state-of-the-art, US made, heavy-frame gas turbine. The guiding rule of the integration is to keep the compressor and the expander unchanged if possible. Because of the low-heat content of coal gas and of the need to accommodate air extraction, the combustor and perhaps, the flow region between the compressor exit and the expander inlet might need to be modified. In selecting a compressed air extraction scheme, one must consider how the scheme affects the air supply to the hot section of the turbine and the total pressure loss in the flow region. Air extraction must preserve effective cooling of the hot components, such as the transition pieces. It must also ensure proper air/fuel mixing in the combustor, hence the combustor exit pattern factor. The overall thermal efficiency of the power plant can be increased by minimizing the total pressure loss in the diffusers associated with the air extraction. Therefore, a study of airflow in the pre- and dump-diffusers with and without air extraction would provide information crucial to attaining high-thermal efficiency and to preventing hot spots. The research group at Clemson University suggested using a Griffith diffuser for the prediffuser and extracting air from the diffuser inlet. The present research establishes that the analytically identified problems in the impingement cooling flow are factual. This phase of the contracted research substantiates experimentally the advantage of using the Griffith diffuser with air extraction at the diffuser inlet.

Yang, Tah-teh; Agrawal, A.K.; Kapat, J.S.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

The effects of technological change, experience and environmental regulation on the construction of coal-burning generating units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper provides an empirical analysis of the technological, regulatory and organizational factors that have influenced the costs of building coal-burning steam-electric generating units over the past twenty year. We ...

Joskow, Paul L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Carbon-centered free radicals in particulate matter emissions from wood and coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to measure the free radicals in the particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood and coal combustion. The intensity of radicals in PM dropped linearly within two months of sample storage and stabilized after that. This factor of storage time was adjusted when comparing radical intensities among different PM samples. An inverse relationship between coal rank and free radical intensities in PM emissions was observed, which was in contrast with the pattern of radical intensities in the source coals. The strong correlation between intensities of free radical and elemental carbon in PM emissions suggests that the radical species may be carbon-centered. The increased g-factors, 2.0029-2.0039, over that of purely carbon-centered radicals may indicate the presence of vicinal oxygen heteroatom. The redox and biology activities of these carbon-centered radicals are worthy of evaluation. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Linwei Tian; Catherine P. Koshland; Junko Yano; Vittal K. Yachandra; Ignatius T.S. Yu; S.C. Lee; Donald Lucas [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). School of Public Health

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the second quarter, important preparatory work was continued so that the experimental activities can begin toward the end of the third quarter or early in the fourth quarter. The Environmental Questionnaire was submitted to the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), after thorough review by the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP). Letters were submitted to the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) to seek R and D variances for permits at the BBP, the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS) for their portion of the project. Memoranda of understanding were executed by the University of Pittsburgh (University) with the BBP, JARC and ETS. Construction wood was collected from Thompson Properties. Discussions were held with the BBP and Energy Systems Associates (ESA), the BBP's engineering consultant. Presentations describing the University of Pittsburgh Wood/Coal Co-Firing Program were provided to the American Chemical Society (ACS), the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Engineering Center for Environment and Energy (ECEE) of the University of Pittsburgh, the Pittsburgh Coal Conference (PCC), the Pennsylvania Ethanol Workshop, BioEnergy 2000 and the Kick-Off Meeting of the Biomass Cofiring Opportunities Solicitation Projects.

James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III

2001-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

47

Analysis of mass loss of a coal particle during the course of burning in a flow of inert material  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an attempt to explain the role of erosion during the process of coal combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. Different kinds of carbon deposits found in Poland, both bituminous as well as lignite with the particle of 10 mm in diameter were the subject of the research. According to many publications it is well known that erosion plays a significant role in coal combustion, by changing its mechanism as well as generating an additional mass loss of the mother particle. The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of an inert material on an erosive mass loss of a single coal particle burning in a two-phase flow. The determination of the influence of a coal type, the rate of flow of inert material and the temperature inside the furnace on the erosive mass loss of burning coal particle was also taken into consideration. The results obtained indicate that the velocity of the erosive mass loss depends on the chemical composition and petrographic structure of burning coal. The mechanical interaction of inert and burning coal particles leads to the shortening of the period of overall mass loss of the coal particle by even two times. The increase in the rate of flow of the inert material intensifies the generation of mass loss by up to 100%. The drop in temperature which slows down the combustion process, decreases the mass loss of the coal particle as the result of mechanical interaction of the inert material. As was observed, the process of percolation plays a significant role by weakening the surface of the burning coal. (author)

Pelka, Piotr [Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Boilers and Thermodynamics, Armii Krajowej 19c, Czestochowa, Silesia 42-200 (Poland)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

NOx Reduction Assessment for Tangentially Fired Boilers Burning Powder River Basin Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of and the most cost-effective approaches for reducing nitrous oxide (NOx) emissions for tangentially fired boilers burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in order to achieve average NOx emission rates of 0.15 lb/mmBtu (110 ppm), or lower. This is typically achievable by a deep level of combustion air staging, which may be possible if operational issues experienced during low combustion air operation (for example, slagging) can be mitigated. Acc...

2010-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

49

JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal  

SciTech Connect

The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

2009-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

50

Quantitative measurement of atomic sodium in the plume of a single burning coal particle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The release of volatile sodium during coal combustion is a significant factor in the fouling and corrosion of heat transfer surfaces within industrial coal-fired boilers. A method for measuring the temporal release of atomic sodium from a single coal particle is described. Laser absorption was used to calibrate laser-induced fluorescence measurements of atomic sodium utilising the sodium D1 line (589.59 nm) in a purpose-designed flat flame environment. The calibration was then applied to planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of sodium atoms in the plume from a single Victorian brown coal particle (53 mg) suspended within the flat flame. The peak concentration of atomic sodium was approximately 64.1 ppb after 1080.5 s, which appears to correspond to the end of char combustion. To our knowledge this is the first in situ quantitative measurement of the concentration field of atomic sodium in the plume above a burning particle. A simple kinetic model has been used to estimate the rate of sodium decay in the post-flame gases. Comparison of the estimated and measured decay rates showed reasonable agreement. (author)

van Eyk, P.J.; Ashman, P.J.; Alwahabi, Z.T. [Cooperative Research Centre for Clean Power from Lignite, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Nathan, G.J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

51

Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method  

SciTech Connect

A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of Borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% Borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

Taylor, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Boyer, Norman W. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Development and testing of an automated wood-burning heating system. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An improved wood continuous, automated combustion system has been developed using a tunnel burner. The tunnel burner implemented into a boiler heating system has proven to be very efficient. The prototype was tested and evaluated. A second generation tunnel system was designed and fabricated. Work performed between April 1980 and April 1981 is summarized. The most important results of the project are: the finalized tunnel burner design; high combustion efficiency; and low air pollution emissions. 3 tables. (DMC)

Not Available

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Environmental performance of air staged combustor with flue gas recirculation to burn coal/biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The environmental and thermal performance of a 1.07 m diameter, 440 kW atmospheric fluidized bed combustor operated at 700{degrees}C-920{degrees}C and burning coal was studied. Flue gas recirculation was incorporated to enhance the thermal performance and air staging was used to control emissions of SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O. Studies focused on the effect of excess air, firing rate, and use of sorbent on system performance. The recirculation-staging mode with limestone had the highest thermal efficiency (0.67) using the firing equation. Emission data showed that flue gas recirculation (ratio of 0.7) significantly reduced NO{sub x} emissions; and that use of limestone sorbent at a Ca/S ratio of 3 reduced SO{sub 2} emissions by 64% to approximately 0.310 g/MJ.

Anuar, S.H.; Keener, H.M.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

54

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the available data from laboratory, pilot and full-scale SCR units was reviewed, leading to hypotheses about the mechanism for mercury oxidation by SCR catalysts.

Constance Senior

2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

55

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

Constance Senior

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

56

Dover Textiles - A Case History on Retrofitting Factories with a Boiler System Fueled on Coal, Wood and Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The shortage of affordable gas and oil boiler fuels and the recent Iran/Iraq war underscores the urgent need for the American industrial system to convert to domestically controlled fuels and particularly coal, wood, and waste. More talk than action has been present. However, Dover Textiles, Shelby, North Carolina, is a major textile concern which has aggressively addressed the high cost and vulnerability of oil, as well as the increasing cost of natural gas, for their boiler system by purchasing a coal, wood, and waste fired boiler system to serve two plants. This case history will document payback periods of less than three years; return on investments of 20% plus; benefits of North Carolina and federal investment tax credits; EPA considerations, which in this case required no additional capital investment; fuel supply; material handling; ash removal; and other design considerations.

Pincelli, R. D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Energy Basics: Wood and Pellet Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood- and Pellet-Burning...

58

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the second set of mercury measurements was made after the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 2,000 hours. There was good agreement between the Ontario Hydro measurements and the SCEM measurements. Carbon trap measurements of total mercury agreed fairly well with the SCEM. There did appear to be some loss of mercury in the sampling system toward the end of the sampling campaign. NO{sub x} reductions across the catalysts ranged from 60% to 88%. Loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts was not observed, as it had been in the March/April test series. It is not clear whether this was due to aging of the catalyst or to changes in the sampling system made between March/April and August. In the presence of ammonia, the blank monolith showed no oxidation. Two of the commercial catalysts showed mercury oxidation that was comparable to that in the March/April series. The other three commercial catalysts showed a decrease in mercury oxidation relative to the March/April series. Oxidation of mercury increased without ammonia present. Transient experiments showed that when ammonia was turned on, mercury appeared to desorb from the catalyst, suggesting displacement of adsorbed mercury by the ammonia.

Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

2003-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

59

Coal Combustion Products | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal Combustion Products Coal Combustion Products Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the...

60

Assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of converting wood residues to liquid and gaseous fuel products using state-of-the-art and advanced coal conversion technology. Third quarterly report, December 1, 1978--February 28, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The approach to be used in evaluating coal gasification technologies for gasification of wood is outlined. The coal gasification technologies to be evaluated and their status are tabulated. The parameters critical to the development of wood gasification (technical risk, economics, institutional factors, and environmental impacts) are briefly discussed. (JSR)

Not Available

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Increased U.S. coal consumption met by burning through stockpiles ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal inventories at power plants dropped below the monthly five-year average in April, the first time this has happened since December 2011.

62

Air emissions from residential heating: The wood heating option put into environmental perspective. Report for June 1997--July 1998  

SciTech Connect

The paper compares the national scale (rather than local) air quality impacts of the various residential space heating options. Specifically, it compares the relative contributions of the space heating options to fine particulate emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and acid precipitation impacts. The major space heating energy options are natural gas, fuel oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), electricity, coal, and wood. Residential wood combustion (RWC) meets 9% of the Nation`s space heating energy needs and utilizes a renewable resource. Wood is burned regularly in about 30 million homes. Residential wood combustion is often perceived as environmentally dirty due to emissions from older wood burners.

Houck, J.E.; Tiegs, P.E.; McCrillis, R.C.; Keithley, C.; Crouch, J.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

63

7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during a one-day period and the rate of air flowing through the furnace are to be determined.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7-11 7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during The heating value of the coal is given to be 28,000 kJ/kg. Analysis (a) The rate and the amount of heat inputs'tQQ The amount and rate of coal consumed during this period are kg/s48.33 s360024 kg10893.2 MJ/kg28 MJ101.8 6

Bahrami, Majid

64

Coal_Studyguide.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Study Guide: WHAT IS COAL? Coal looks like a shiny black rock. Coal has lots of energy in it. When it is burned, coal makes heat and light energy. Th e cave men used coal for...

65

Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The County of Marin has created a rebate program to encourage homeowners to remove or replace non-EPA certified wood-burning heaters (wood stoves and fireplace inserts) with cleaner burning stoves...

66

A. Kusiak and A. Burns, Mining Temporal Data: A Coal-Fired Boiler Case Study, Proceedings of International Conference, KES 2005, Melbourne, Australia, September 14-16, 2005, in R.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. Kusiak and A. Burns, Mining Temporal Data: A Coal-Fired Boiler Case Study, Proceedings of the 9 3683, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2005, pp. 953-958. Mining Temporal Data: A Coal-Fired Boiler Case. This paper presents an approach to control pluggage of a coal-fired boiler. The proposed approach involves

Kusiak, Andrew

67

STEO October 2012 - wood  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

More U.S. households burning wood this winter to stay warm, More U.S. households burning wood this winter to stay warm, reversing two-decade decline Burning wood as the primary heating source in U.S. households has risen over the last 10 years, reversing the decline seen in the 1980s and 1990s. About 2.6 million households out of 115 million will rely on wood as the main way to warm their homes this winter. That's up 3 percent from last year, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new winter fuels forecast. The West will have the most households using wood as their primary space heating fuel, followed by the Midwest, South and Northeast regions of the United States. Wood is also the second most common backup fuel, after electricity, that households across the U.S. use as a supplemental heating source. Almost half of all rural households use wood this

68

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE EIA WEEKLY COAL ... Coal Prices and Earnings (updated April 28, 2004) Spot coal prices in the East rose steadily since Labor Day 2003, with rapid escalations ...

69

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE EIA WEEKLY COAL ... Coal Prices and Earnings (updated September 26) The average spot prices for reported coal purchases rose once again ...

70

Coal Combustion Products | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Combustion Products Coal Combustion Products Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the...

71

Energy Basics: Wood and Pellet Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating Wood and Pellet Heating Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood-...

72

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal Prices and Earnings (updated August 12) According to Platts Coal Outlook’s Weekly Price Survey (August 11), the ...

73

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal Prices and Earnings (updated September 2) The average spot prices for coal traded last week were relatively ...

74

Overlapping of the devolatilization and char combustion stages in the burning of coal particles  

SciTech Connect

The oxygen content at the surface of a fuel particle can significantly exceed zero during the devolatilization stage of combustion, despite the flux of volatiles from the surface and also gas phase reactions. This implies that char oxidation can take place simultaneously. This overlapping of the devolatilization and char combustion stages is studied by modeling. The rates of gas phase reactions around the particle influence the availability of oxygen at the surface of a burning particle and they are accounted for by using a two-step global model for combustion of volatiles. The effects of particle size, ambient temperature, and oxygen concentration on the degree of overlap are studied. The study provides theoretical and experimental evidence that the combustion time of a particle does not always increase with its size at constant ambient conditions, but there can be a specific particle size giving a maximum combustion rate.

Veras, C.A.G. [Escola Politecnica da Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Saastamoinen, J.; Aho, M. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Carvalho, J.A. Jr. [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Cachoeira Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Wood and energy in connecticut. Staff report  

SciTech Connect

Telephone surveys of Connecticut households conducted in 1979 indicate a transition to wood heating in response to a series of conventional energy price increases and uncertainty in conventional energy supplies. Connecticut households consumed 668,000 cords of wood in the winter of 1978-79. The airtight wood stove has become the most commonly used wood-burning apparatus. Survey data of residential wood cutting, purchasing, and burning were analyzed by household tenure, wood-burning apparatus, and county. Residential use of wood for energy constitutes a new demand on the forest resource, increases local income and employment, displaces fuel oil and electricity, but may compromise household safety.

Bailey, M.R.; Wheeling, P.R.; Lenz, M.I.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Coal....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE EIA WEEKLY COAL ... Coal Prices and Earnings (updated July 7, 2004) In the trading week ended July 2, the average spot coal prices tracked by EIA were mixed.

77

The O{sub 2}-enriched air gasification of coal, plastics and wood in a fluidized bed reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of the O{sub 2} in the gasification stream of a BFB gasifier has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main advantage of the O{sub 2}-enriched air is the increasing of the bed temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No remarkable effects on tar reduction. Decreasing of recognized PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification reactions completed inside the dense bed and splashing zone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polycondensation reactions occur mainly in the freeboard region. - Abstract: The effect of oxygen-enriched air during fluidized bed co-gasification of a mixture of coal, plastics and wood has been investigated. The main components of the obtained syngas were measured by means of on-line analyzers and a gas chromatograph while those of the condensate phase were off-line analysed by means of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The characterization of condensate phase as well as that of the water used as scrubbing medium completed the performed diagnostics. The experimental results were further elaborated in order to provide material and substances flow analyses inside the plant boundaries. These analyses allowed to obtain the main substance distribution between solid, gaseous and condensate phases and to estimate the conversion efficiency of carbon and hydrogen but also to easily visualise the waste streams produced by the process. The process performance was then evaluated on the basis of parameters related to the conversion efficiency of fuels into valuable products (i.e. by considering tar and particulate as process losses) as well as those related to the energy recovery.

Mastellone, Maria Laura, E-mail: mlaura.mastellone@unina2.it [Department of Environmental Sciences-Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43 81100 Caserta (Italy); Zaccariello, Lucio; Santoro, Donato; Arena, Umberto [Department of Environmental Sciences-Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43 81100 Caserta (Italy)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

78

HOT BOTTOM BURNING IN INTERMEDIATE MASS STARS JOHN LATTANZIO 1;2 , CHERYL FROST 1;2 , ROBERT CANNON 2;3 , PETER WOOD 4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HOT BOTTOM BURNING IN INTERMEDIATE MASS STARS JOHN LATTANZIO 1;2 , CHERYL FROST 1;2 , ROBERT CANNON burning in the bottom of the convective envelope. We find strong CN cycling, with substantial Al include the recently discovered ``Hot Bottom Burning''. Hot Bottom Burning (hereafter HBB

Lattanzio, John

79

Torrefied wood pellets as an alternative fuel to coal: Climate benefits and social desirability of production and use.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this thesis is to study the climate impacts and the social returns and social desirability of torrefied wood pellet production and use… (more)

Happonen, Kiira

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating November 25, 2013 - 2:24pm Addthis A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie What does this mean for me? Wood or pellets may be an economical and environmentally sound heating fuel choice. If you live in an area where you can cut your own wood for heating, your fuel will be local and inexpensive. Today you can choose from a new generation of wood- and pellet-burning appliances that are cleaner burning, more efficient, and powerful enough to heat many average-sized, modern homes. Pellet fuel appliances burn small pellets that measure 3/8 to 1 inch in length. Choosing and Installing Wood- and Pellet-Burning Appliances

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to 3 years of age  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

effects of combustion emissions from wood (Honicky andfuel combustion sources, such as gas-, wood-, or coal-indoor combustion of cigarettes and of coal, wood, natural

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines  

SciTech Connect

Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

THE BURNING OF BIOMASS Economy, Environment, Health  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE BURNING OF BIOMASS Economy, Environment, Health Kees Kolff, MD, MPH April 21, 2012 #12;OUR #12;PT COGENERATION LLC A wood-burning cogeneration power plant - Generates electricity (for sale off paper making process, black and white liquor , sludge #12;SLASH BURNING Slash burned in 2008: Jefferson

84

Early maturation processes in coal. Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balances and structural evolution of coalified wood from the Morwell Brown Coal seam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, we develop a theoretical approach to evaluate maturation process of kerogen-like material, involving molecular dynamic reactive modeling with a reactive force field to simulate the thermal stress. The Morwell coal has been selected to study the thermal evolution of terrestrial organic matter. To achieve this, a structural model is first constructed based on models from the literature and analytical characterization of our samples by modern 1-and 2-D NMR, FTIR, and elemental analysis. Then, artificial maturation of the Morwell coal is performed at low conversions in order to obtain, quantitative and qualitative, detailed evidences of structural evolution of the kerogen upon maturation. The observed chemical changes are a defunctionalization of the carboxyl, carbonyl and methoxy functional groups coupling with an increase of cross linking in the residual mature kerogen. Gaseous and liquids hydrocarbons, essentially CH4, C4H8 and C14+ liquid hydrocarbons, are generated in low amount, merely by clea...

Salmon, Elodie; Lorant, François; Hatcher, Patrick G; Marquaire, Paul-Marie; 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2009.01.004

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hanna IV, underground coal gasification site, Wyoming, and comparison to other Wyoming UCG sites  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of 21 post-burn cores taken from the Hanna IV UCG site allows 96 m (315 ft) of overburden to be subdivided into four local stratigraphic units. The 7.6 m (25 ft) thick Hanna No. 1 coal seam is overlain by a laterally discontinuous, 3.3 m (11 ft) thick shaley mudstone (Unit A') in part of the Hanna IV site. A more widespread, 30 m (90 ft) thick well-indurated sandstone (Unit A) overlies the A' unit. Unit A is the roof rock for both of the Hanna IV cavities. Overlying Unit A is a 33 m (108 ft) thick sequence of mudstone and claystone (Unit B), and the uppermost unit at the Hanna IV site (Unit C) is a coarse-grained sandstone that ranges in thickness from 40 to 67 m (131 to 220 ft). Two elliptical cavities were formed during the two phases of the Hanna IV experiment. The larger cavity, Hanna IVa, is 45 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 18 m (59 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity; the Hanna IVb cavity is 40 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 11 m (36 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity. Geotechnical tests indicated that the Hanna IV overburden rocks were moderately strong to strong, based on the empirical classification of Broch and Franklin (1972), and a positive, linear correlation exists between rock strength and volume percent calcite cement. There is an inverse linear correlation between rock strength and porosity for the Hanna IV overburden rocks. 28 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs..

Marcouiller, B.A.; Burns, L.K.; Ethridge, F.G.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A "Bed" for Burning Coal A "Bed" for Burning Coal Clean Coal 101 Lesson 4: A "Bed" for Burning Coal? It was a wet, chilly day in Washington DC in 1979 when a few scientists and engineers joined with government and college officials on the campus of Georgetown University to celebrate the completion of one of the world's most advanced coal combustors. It was a small coal burner by today's standards, but large enough to provide heat and steam for much of the university campus. But the new boiler built beside the campus tennis courts was unlike most other boilers in the world. A Fluidized Bed Boiler A Fluidized Bed Boiler In a fluidized bed boiler, upward blowing jets of air suspend burning coal, allowing it to mix with limestone that absorbs sulfur pollutants.

87

Contaminants in coals and coal residues. [10 refs  

SciTech Connect

Most of the major enviromental pollutants from coals originate as impurities in the coal structure. These include various organic compounds, minerals, and trace elements that are released into the air and water when coal is mined, processed and utilized. The use of coal preparation to produce cleaner burning fuels involves an environmental compromise, wherein reduced emissions and solid wastes from coal burning sources are achieved at the expense of greater environmental degradation from coal cleaning wastes.

Wewerka, E.M.; Williams, J.M.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

James F. Wood | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

James F. Wood James F. Wood About Us James F. Wood - Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal Photo of James Wood Photo of James Wood James F. Wood is currently Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal in the Office of Fossil Energy (FE). In this position, he is responsible for the management and direction of the Office's clean coal research and development programs. Chief among these is the Carbon Sequestration program, the Clean Coal Power Initiative, and FE's $3.4 billion portfolio of Recovery Act projects. Wood has over 30 years of experience in the power industry. Most recently, he was president and CEO of Babcock Power Inc. (BPI), one of the major US-based designer/manufacturers of environmental, pressure part, heat exchanger, combustion equipment and after-market

89

Feasibility study of burning waste paper in coal-fired boilers on Air Force installations. Master's thesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This thesis examined the feasibility of using waste paper derived fuel in coal-fired boilers on Air Force installations in an attempt to help solve air pollution and solid waste disposal problems. The implementation of waste paper derived fuel was examined from both a technical acceptability and an economic feasibility viewpoint. The majority of data for this study was obtained through literature reviews and personal interviews. Waste paper was found to be technically acceptable for use as fuel. However, waste paper has certain characteristics that may create problems during combustion and therefore further research is required. These problems included the possibility of increased nitrous oxide emissions, increased volatile emissions, dioxin and furan emissions, formation of hydrochloric acid, and the presence of heavy metals in emissions and ash.

Smith, K.P.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Economic impacts of wood energy in the Northeast, 1985: Summary report: Northeast Regional Biomass Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wood energy in the Northeast accounts for an estimated average of 1.96 jobs and $46,634 of income for every 1000 tons of wood burned by households and businesses. This translates into an estimated total of over 78,000 jobs and $1.8 billion of personal income for Northeast residents and businesses. In addition, a total of $589 million in state and federal tax revenues are generated by wood energy-related economic activity. By choosing wood over other fuels, Northeast households and businesses saved $1.2 billion in their 1985 fuel bills. In the Northeast in 1985, wood displaced over 1 billion gallons of oil, 37 million tcf of natural gas and propane, 138,000 tons of coal, and 1858 million kilowatt-hours of electricity. Projected growth in wood energy consumption in the industrial and residential sectors indicate that the Northeast wood energy industry will support approximately 165,000 jobs and $3.8 billion of personal and business income by the year 2000, if projected growth continues. 9 figs., 5 tabs.

Chamberlin, R.; High, C.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Marin County - Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program (California...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DSIRE1 Summary The County of Marin has created a rebate program to encourage homeowners to remove or replace non-EPA certified wood-burning heaters (wood stoves and...

92

SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Volume 2. Engineering evaluation report. Final technical report. [Oil-fired boiler to solvent-refined coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volume 2 of this report gives the results of an engineering evaluation study and economic analysis of converting an existing 560-MW residual (No. 6) oil-fired unit to burn solvent refined coal (SRC) fuel forms. Volume 1 represents an integrated overview of the test program conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Three SRC forms (pulverized SRC, a solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates, and a slurry of SRC and water) were examined. The scope of modifications necessary to convert the unit to each of the three SRC fuel forms was identified and a capital cost of the necessary modifications estimated. A fuel conversion feasibility study of the boiler was performed wherein boiler modifications and performance effects of each fuel on the boiler were identified. An economic analysis of the capital and operating fuel expenses of conversion of the unit was performed. It was determined that conversion of the unit to any one of the three SRC fuel forms was feasible where appropriate modifications were made. It also was determined that the conversion of the unit can be economically attractive if SRC fuel forms can be manufactured and sold at prices discounted somewhat from the price of No. 16 Fuel Oil. As expected, greater discounts are required for the pulverized SRC and the slurry than for the solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates.

Not Available

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

'Live Burns' in Spartanburg, SC, Will Benefit Research and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... in Spartanburg, SC, battle a 'test burn' of an abandoned house in an ... organizations will turn abandoned wood-frame, single-family houses near ...

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

94

Burns Prevention  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Burns Burns Burns can result from everyday things and activities in your home. The most common causes of burns are from scalds (steam, hot bath water, hot drinks and foods), fire, chemicals, electricity and overexposure to the sun. Some burns may be more serious than others. The severity of the burn is based on the depth of the burn. First degree burns are the least severe, and third degree burns are the most severe. Call 911 or seek medical attention if you are unsure of how severe your burn is. All burns are susceptible to tetanus (lockjaw). Get a tetanus shot every 10 years. If your last shot was 5 years ago, talk to your doctor - you may need a booster shot. Causes of Burns: Scalds Scalding injuries and burns are caused by hot tap water, hot beverages and food, and steam.

95

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal 101 Lesson 2: The Clean Coal Technology Program The Clean Coal Technology Program began in 1985 when the United States and Canada decided that something had to be done about the "acid rain" that was believed to be damaging rivers, lakes, forests, and buildings in both countries. Since many of the pollutants that formed "acid rain" were coming from big coal-burning power plants in the United States, the U.S. Government took the lead in finding a solution. One of the steps taken by the U.S. Department of Energy was to create a partnership program between the Government, several States, and private companies to test new methods developed by scientists to make coal burning much cleaner. This became the "Clean Coal Technology Program."

96

Open Burning (New Mexico) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Open Burning (New Mexico) Open Burning (New Mexico) Open Burning (New Mexico) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction General Public/Consumer Industrial Residential Program Info Start Date 2003 State New Mexico Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider New Mexico Environment Department The New Mexico Environment Department's Air Quality Bureau regulates the open burning rules established by the Environmental Improvement Board. These rules are established to protect public health and welfare by establishing controls on pollution produced by open burning. Open burning is allowed for recreational and ceremonial purposes, for barbecuing, for heating purposes in fireplaces, for the noncommercial cooking of food for human consumption and for warming by small wood fires at construction

97

Emerging Technologies in Wood Energy Wood can already be used to produce heat and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for extension of wood pellet production is lack of appropriate technology in Slovakia. Several typesOverview 1 Development of Wood Chips and Pellets market in Slovakia Jozef Viglasky, SK systems. · Co-combustion of wood residues in existing coal fired power systems. #12;Overview 3

98

Wood as a fuel. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the availability, combustion aspects, economics, and feasibility of using wood as fuel. Topics include wood-fuel power plants, wood waste fuels, district heating systems, wood burning furnaces and appliances, and wood waste generators. (Contains a minimum of 128 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

Cobb, J.T. Jr.

1992-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

100

Biomass Cofiring in Coal-Fired Boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cofiring biomass-for example, forestry residues such as wood chips-with coal in existing boilers is one of the easiest biomass technologies to implement in a federal facility. The current practice is to substitute biomass for up to 20% of the coal in the boiler. Cofiring has many benefits: it helps to reduce fuel costs as well as the use of landfills, and it curbs emissions of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide, and the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels. This Federal Technology Alert was prepared by the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program to give federal facility managers the information they need to decide whether they should pursue biomass cofiring at their facilities.

Not Available

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite-based activated (800 C, 1472 F) carbons required a shorter (15-minute) conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas and captured gaseous mercury more effectively than those activated at 750 C (1382 F). Subsequent tests with higher acid gas concentrations including 50 ppm HCl showed no early mercury breakthrough for either the activated (750 C, 1382 F) Bienfait carbon or the DARCO FGD. Although these high acid gas tests yielded better mercury capture initially, significant breakthrough of mercury ultimately occurred sooner than during the simulated lignite flue gas tests. The steam-activated char, provided by Luscar Ltd., and DARCO FGD, provided by NORIT Americas, were evaluated for mercury removal potential in a 580 MJ/hr (550,000-Btu/hr) pilot-scale coal combustion system equipped with four particulate control devices: (1) an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) a fabric filter (FF), (3) the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter, and (4) an ESP and FF in series, an EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} technology. The Ontario Hydro method and continuous mercury monitors were used to measure mercury species concentrations at the inlet and outlet of the control technology devices with and without sorbent injection. Primarily Hg{sup o} was measured when lignite coals from the Poplar River Plant and Freedom Mine were combusted. The effects of activated Luscar char, DARCO FGD, injection rates, particle size, and gas temperature on mercury removal were evaluated for each of the four particulate control device options. Increasing injection rates and decreasing gas temperatures generally promoted mercury capture in all four control devices. Relative to data reported for bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases, higher sorbent injection rates were generally required for the lignite coal to effectively remove mercury. Documented results in this report provide the impacts of these and other parameters and provide the inputs needed to direct Phase II of the project.

John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Expert Paper for the UNECE, Timber Committee Market Discussions, Geneva, 7-8 October 2003 1 Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is the future direction of electricity production from wood and co-firing of wood in coal power plants and pulp and paper production; ethanol and wood pellets projects have been more directed production from wood and co-firing of wood in coal power plants is the variable with the highest potential

103

Wood and energy in New Hampshire. Staff report  

SciTech Connect

Telephone surveys of New Hampshire households conducted in 1979 and 1980 indicate a transition to wood heating in response to a series of conventional energy price increases and uncertainty in conventional energy supplies. New Hampshire households consumed 394,000 cords of wood in the winter of 1978-79; 504,000 cords were burnt during the next winter. The airtight wood stove has become the most commonly used wood-burning apparatus. Survey data of residential wood cutting, purchasing, and burning were analyzed by household tenure, wood-burning apparatus, and county. Residential use of wood for energy constitutes a new demand on the forest resource, increases local income and employment, displaces fuel oil and electricity, and may compromise household safety.

Bailey, M.R.; Wheeling, P.R.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Biomass Energy - Focus on Wood Waste  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

application for wood waste as a fuel is in the co-firing of conventional coal-fired boilers, which means using biomass as a supplementary energy source in high- efficiency...

105

Pulverized coal fuel injector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Use of Wood Energy in the United States –  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of wood for energy – including the burning of solid wood and black liquor from pulping – has been growing at a rate significantly greater than that for all other uses such as lumber, pulp, or particleboard. in the United States, the end of most wood is not lumber or pulp and paper but feed for energy. In 1983, 155. 5 M Mg of wood were used for energy. This could threaten to increase the price of wood for those other uses, or it can stimulate us to seek more creative ways of using untapped wood resources for fuel. on the basis of estimates of heavy wood energy use relative to other uses for wood, and estimates of continuing high costs for fossil fuels, we suggest here the feasibility of meeting the demand for fuelwood through small-scale cooperatives. Such an approach can improve forestry practices and can avoid unduly increasing the cost of wood for other end uses.

John W. Koning; Kenneth E. Skog

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Drew Wood  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wood Indoor Air Quality Research Collaborative drew@iaqrc.org This speaker was a visiting speaker who delivered a talk or talks on the date(s) shown at the links below. This...

108

Jordan Woods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Jordan Woods Windows and Envelope Materials Group Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Cyclotron Road MS 90R2000 Berkeley CA 94720 Office Location: 90-2052C (510) 486-4931...

109

HS_Coal_Studyguide.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal Coal Fossil Energy Study Guide: Coal Coal is the most plentiful fuel in the fossil family. The United States has more coal reserves than any other country in the world. In fact, one-fourth of all known coal in the world is in the United States, with large deposits located in 38 states. The United States has almost as much energ y in coal that can be mined as the rest of the world has in oil that can be pumped from the ground. TYPES OF COAL Coal is a black rock made up of large amounts of carbon. Like all fossil fuels, coal can be burned to release energy. Coal contains elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; has various amounts of minerals; and is itself considered to be a mineral of organic origin. Due to the variety of materials buried over time in the

110

Pellet stoves wood energy for all  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While it`s true that specialized pellet stoves, capable of burning fuels as diverse as reprocessed paper waste and feed corn, are expensive and occasionally clunky, they also represent one of the best hopes for introducing clean burning, reliable renewable energy to those now heating with gas and oil. This article explores the benefits and operation of the stoves including discussions of the following: ecological benefits, combustion, stove venting, ashes, costs, fuels, and the future of wood heat. 1 tab.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Wood and Pellet Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood and Pellet Heating Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:02pm Addthis Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood- and Pellet-Burning Appliances The following is a brief overview of the different types of wood and pellet fuel appliances available. High-Efficiency Fireplaces and Fireplace Inserts Designed more for show, traditional open masonry fireplaces should not be considered heating devices. Traditional fireplaces draw in as much as 300 cubic feet per minute of heated room air for combustion, then send it straight up the chimney. Fireplaces also produce significant air pollution. Although some fireplace designs seek to address these issues with dedicated air supplies, glass doors, and heat recovery systems, fireplaces are still

112

MS_Coal_Studyguide.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

COAL-OUR MOST ABUNDANT FUEL COAL-OUR MOST ABUNDANT FUEL America has more coal than any other fossil fuel resource. Th e United States also has more coal reserves than any other single country in the world. In fact, 1/4 of all the known coal in the world is in the United States. Th e United States has more energy in coal that can be mined than the rest of the world has in oil that can be pumped from the ground. Currently, coal is mined in 25 of the 50 states. Coal is used primarily in the United States to generate electricity. In fact, it is burned in power plants to produce nearly half of the electricity we use. A stove uses about half a ton of coal a year. A water heater uses about two tons of coal a year. And a refrigerator, that's another half-ton a year. Even though you

113

Economic Evaluation of By-Product Power/Co-Generation Systems for Industrial Plants with Fluidized-Bed Coal Burning Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economic analysis of the construction and operation of by-product electric power and steam/power cogeneration systems in coal fired fluidized-bed steam cycles, located at individual industrial sites analyzed by the author, is being presented. The plants analyzed employ fluidized bed boilers for generation of steam for process and building/heating/cooling demands, in conjunction with electric power co-generation. Results of the analysis are presented, using life cycle costs and investment payback periods, pinpointing the areas, type and magnitude of costs which should be considered in the selection of combustors or systems. Capital and operating costs, and recognized technical and economic barriers are also presented and their effects indicated. Life cycle cost of each of the alternatives analyzed are compared and the expected payback periods for the different size FBC plants and for different annual average production levels are discussed.

Mesko, J. E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Role of coal in the world and Asia  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the changing role of coal in the world and in Asia. Particular attention is given to the rapidly growing demand for coal in electricity generation, the importance of China as a producer and consumer of coal, and the growing environmental challenge to coal. Attention is given to the increasing importance of low sulfur coal and Clean Coal Technologies in reducing the environmental impacts of coal burning.

Johnson, C.J.; Li, B.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Energie-Cits 2001 BIOMASS -WOOD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energie-Cités 2001 BIOMASS - WOOD Gasification / Cogeneration ARMAGH United Kingdom Gasification is transferring the combustible matters in organic waste or biomass into gas and pure char by burning the fuel via it allows biomass in small-scaled engines and co-generation units ­ which with conventional technologies

116

The burning bush  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ISSN 1948-6596 The burning bush Fire in Mediterraneandiscussion. Pre- scription burning is used in many forest

Schwilk, Dylan W

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Fireside Corrosion in the Oxy-Combustion of Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxy-fuel combustion is burning a fuel in oxygen rather than air. This work considers the case of burning coal in a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen.

118

Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to 3 years of age  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The coefficient for wood as a heating source was elevated,distant heating) Natural gas Electricity Coal Wood Unknown/distant heating and use of natural gas, electricity, or wood

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor. Final report, March 15, 1990--July 31, 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

Cobb, J.T. Jr.

1992-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

120

Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12;· Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12;· UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal · Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

Dai, Pengcheng

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Development of Wood Chips and Pellets market in Slovakia Jozef Viglasky, SK-BIOM, Slovakia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is supported by the Danish Government. One of the main barriers for extension of wood pellet production is lack1 Development of Wood Chips and Pellets market in Slovakia Jozef Viglasky, SK-BIOM, Slovakia-combustion of wood residues in existing coal fired power systems. #12;3 · Implementation of low cost anaerobic

122

Coal - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Solar Thermal Power Plants; Solar Thermal Collectors; ... Lignite is mainly burned at power plants to generate electricity. Also on Energy Explained. Use of Coal;

123

NETL: Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) - Round...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Industrial Applications Blast Furnace Granular-Coal Injection System Demonstration Project - Project Brief PDF-314KB Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS...

124

NETL: News Release - New Projects Positioning Coal-Fired Utilities...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Control Standards with New, Lower Cost Technologies With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S....

125

A pulverized coal fuel injector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO{sub 2} formation.

Rini, M.J.; Towle, D.P.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

co 2 By decomposition to (2) - 0 in H cf 0 in wood TABLE VForced Balance - Wood to Char Output - 55 lbs char lbsuc -61 STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION Hubert G. Davis

Davis, Hubert G.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Coal combustion products (CCPs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

combustion products (CCPs) combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an important contribution in this regard. Fossil Energy Research Benefits Coal Combustion Products Fossil Energy Research Benefits

128

Underground gasification of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

Pasini, III, Joseph (Morgantown, WV); Overbey, Jr., William K. (Morgantown, WV); Komar, Charles A. (Uniontown, PA)

1976-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

129

Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million Btu/hr pilot plant produced clean burning gas which appeared viable for drying textiles. The gasifier was coupled to a modified textile drying oven and a series of tests were carried out to assess product degradation of white, colored, and chemically treated fabrics.

McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Burning plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration.

Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Sigmar, D.J. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Considerations for Prescribed Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Considerations for Prescribed Burning NEW M EX ICO S TAE U N I V E R SI T YT Cooperative Extension prescribed burns ...................... 1 Fire effects ................................................ 3 Justification for burning ......................................... 3 Reclamation versus

Castillo, Steven P.

132

Health effects of residential wood combustion: survey of knowledge and research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Health and safety issues related to residential wood burning are examined. Current research and findings are also described, and research status is assessed in terms of future health and safety requirements. (MHR)

None

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Materials challenges in advanced coal conversion technologies  

SciTech Connect

Coal is a critical component in the international energy portfolio, used extensively for electricity generation. Coal is also readily converted to liquid fuels and/or hydrogen for the transportation industry. However, energy extracted from coal comes at a large environmental price: coal combustion can produce large quantities of ash and CO{sub 2}, as well as other pollutants. Advanced technologies can increase the efficiencies and decrease the emissions associated with burning coal and provide an opportunity for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. However, these advanced technologies increase the severity of plant operating conditions and thus require improved materials that can stand up to the harsh operating environments. The materials challenges offered by advanced coal conversion technologies must be solved in order to make burning coal an economically and environmentally sound choice for producing energy.

Powem, C.A.; Morreale, B.D. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Albany, OR (United States)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

Coal waste seen as valuable resource Published: March. 29, 2011 at 8:09 PM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal waste seen as valuable resource Published: March. 29, 2011 at 8:09 PM ANAHEIM, Calif., March 29 (UPI) -- Fly ash, a byproduct of coal-burning electric power plants, could save billions. More than 450 coal-burning electric power plants in the United States produce about 130 million tons

Belogay, Eugene A.

135

Coal combustion system  

SciTech Connect

In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Wood Use Across Time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?Forest products history and use ?Forest resource- the big picture ?Consumption- the big picture ?Trends forest products industry ? pulp & paper ? solid woodBack in Time ?1492 ? Columbus sailed the ocean blue! ? wood use- fuelwood American Indians ?1634: Jean Nicolet

Scott Bowe; United States Wood Use

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Residential Wood Residential wood combustion (RWC) is  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Residential Wood Combustion Residential wood combustion (RWC) is increasing in Europe because PM2.5. Furthermore, other combustion- related sources of OA in Europe may need to be reassessed. Will it affect global OA emission estimates? Combustion of biofuels is globally one of the major OA sources

138

National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

Robert Finkelman

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

139

COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As of September 28, 2001, all the major project tasks have been completed. A presentation was given to the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) and the North Dakota Division of Community Services (DCS). In general, the feasibility study has resulted in the following conclusions: (1) Municipal wood resources are sufficient to support cofiring at the NDSP. (2) Steps have been taken to address all potential fuel-handling issues with the feed system design, and the design is cost-effective. (3) Fireside issues of cofiring municipal wood with coal are not of significant concern. In general, the addition of wood will improve the baseline performance of lignite coal. (4) The energy production strategy must include cogeneration using steam turbines. (5) Environmental permitting issues are small and do not affect economics. (6) The base-case economic scenario provides for a 15-year payback of a 20-year municipal bond and does not include the broader community benefits that can be realized.

Darren D. Schmidt

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

140

Soot from the burning of fossil fuels and solid biofuels contributes far more to global  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soot from the burning of fossil fuels and solid biofuels contributes far more to global warming Researchers ScienceDaily (July 30, 2010) -- Soot from the burning of fossil fuels and solid biofuels biofuels, such as wood, manure, dung, and other solid biomass used for home heating and cooking in many

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

A3: Investigation on Co-combustion Kinetics of Anthracite Coal and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results show: compared with anthracite coal, the ignition and burn out temperatures of biomass char were lower and the combustion characteristics were better ...

142

Mercury concentrations in wetlands associated with coal-fired power plants in Illinois.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Burning of fossil fuels by coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) is one of the largest sources of environmental mercury in the United States and there have… (more)

Weir, Scott

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Spring Cleaning. Calorie Burning.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spring Cleaning. Calorie Burning. Laundry: 73 Dusting: 85 Mopping the Floor: 153 Washing the Car Painting: 161 (Estimate based on 150 lb person per 30 minutes, more calories burned if weigh more, fewer calories burned if weigh less) Allergy Sufferers' Survival Guide > Wash your hair before bed to avoid

Acton, Scott

144

BNL | Biomass Burns  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomass Burn Observation Project (BBOP) Biomass Burn Observation Project (BBOP) Aerosols from biomass burning are recognized to perturb Earth's climate through the direct effect (both scattering and absorption of incoming shortwave radiation), the semi-direct effect (evaporation of cloud drops due to absorbing aerosols), and indirect effects (by influencing cloud formation and precipitation. Biomass burning is an important aerosol source, providing an estimated 40% of anthropogenically influenced fine carbonaceous particles (Bond, et al., 2004; Andrea and Rosenfeld, 2008). Primary organic aerosol (POA) from open biomass burns and biofuel comprises the largest component of primary organic aerosol mass emissions at northern temperate latitudes (de Gouw and Jimenez, 2009). Data from the IMPROVE

145

Demonstration of Pressurizing Coal/Biomass Mixtures Using Posimetric...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a range of coal types (bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite) and biomass types (wood, corn stover, and switchgrass) at biomass loadings from 30 to 50 percent by weight....

146

Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

Wiltsee, G.

1998-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

147

Wood pellet production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Southern Energy Limited's wood pellet refinery, Bristol, Florida, produces wood pellets for fuel from scrap wood from a nearby sawmill and other hog fuel delivered to the plant from nearby forest lands. The refinery will provide 50,000 tons of pellets per year to the Florida State Hospital at Chattahoochee to fire recently converted boilers in the central power plant. The pellets are densified wood, having a moisture content of about 10% and a heating value of 8000 Btu/lb. They are 0.5 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 inches in length.

Moore, J.W.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

SOLID WASTE PREPROCESSING: THE RETURN OF AN ALTERNATIVE TO MASS BURN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(al OPF = Dedicated prepared Fuel, RDFz Refuse Derived Fuel (b) Designed for co-firing with wood chips (c) Designed for co-firing with coal (d) Existing coal-fired boilers extensively modified Power There are several reasons why many project sponsors are selecting preprocessing: (aJ Co-firing with other fuels. (b

Columbia University

150

HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBL-10090 UC-61 HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING JimLBL-10090 HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING Jim Wrathallconversion of hydrolyzed wood slurry to fuel oil, Based on

Wrathall, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Where Wood Works Harnessing the Energy of Woody Biomass in Colorado  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Many coal-fired power plants can be adapted to use a blend of wood chips and coal, a process called "co by a central combined heat and power (CHP) power plant fueled by 80% biomass. The system produces up to 25 MW are needed. Heat Energy Measurements. A Btu (British Thermal Unit) is a common measurement of heat. About 1

152

Bittersweet and Burning Bush  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bittersweet and Burning Bush Nature Bulletin No. 250 December 25, 1982 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation...

153

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

SciTech Connect

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

SciTech Connect

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1985-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

156

ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of Wood and Coal Burning Heating Appliances,The higher heating value (HHV) of wood is typically 5.56

Sonderegger, R. C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Method for control of subsurface coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The burn front in an in situ underground coal gasification operation is controlled by utilizing at least two parallel groups of vertical bore holes disposed in the coalbed at spaced-apart locations in planes orthogonal to the plane of maximum permeability in the coalbed. The combustion of the coal is initiated in the coalbed adjacent to one group of the bore holes to establish a combustion zone extending across the group while the pressure of the combustion supporting gas mixture and/or the combustion products is regulated at each well head by valving to control the burn rate and maintain a uniform propagation of the burn front between the spaced-apart hole groups to gasify virtually all the coal lying therebetween.

Komar, Charles A. (Uniontown, PA)

1976-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

158

A Wood-Fired Gas Turbine Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper covers the research and development of a wood-fired gas turbine unit that is used for generating electricity. The system uses one large cyclonic combustor and a cyclone cleaning system in series to provide hot gases to drive an Allison T-56 aircraft engine (the industrial version is the 501-k). A Westinghouse 3,000-kW generator is used on the prototype facility with a Philadelphia gear system reducing the 14,000-rpm turbine output speed to the 3,600-rpm generator operating speed. Fuel is fed into the combustor by a rotary valve system. The swirling effect of the cyclone combustor ensures that residence time is adequate to completely burn all solid particles in the combustor ahead of the cyclone filter. Burning of particles on the metal walls of the cyclone filter could cause overheating and deterioration of the walls. This wood-fired gas turbine unit could provide a low cost source of power for areas where conventional methods are now prohibitive and provide a means for recovering energy from a source that now poses disposal problems.

Powell, S. H.; Hamrick, J. T.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Wood Heating Fuel Exemption  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute exempts from the state sales tax all wood or "refuse-derived" fuel used for heating purposes. The law does not make any distinctions about whether the qualified fuels are used for...

160

Gregory H. Woods  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Gregory H. Woods was sworn in as the General Counsel of the Department of Energy on April 16, 2012, following the unanimous confirmation of his appointment by the United States Senate.  Mr....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Gregory H. Woods  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

H. Woods H. Woods Department· of Energy Fermi Site Office Post Office Box 2000 Batavia, Illinois 60510 JAN 1 1 2DD Office of the General Counsel GC-1, FORS SUBJECT: FERMI SITE OFFICE (FSO) 2013 ANNUAL NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) PLANNING SUMMARY Section 5(a) (7) of Department Of Energy Order 451.1 B Change 2, NEPA Compliance Program, requires each Secretarial Officer and Head of Field Organization to submit an annual NEPA

162

Finishing Wood Decks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood decks have become an important part of residential construction in recent years. However, there is considerable confusion regarding how these structures should be protected with finish. This paper summarizes the types, application techniques, and expected service lives of various finishes on both preservative treated and untreated lumber. Recommendations are made on the basis of decades of research on various wood species using a wide variety of finishes.

R. Sam Williams; et al.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Treated Wood Pole Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document characterizes similarities and differences in international wood pole and wood pole preservative management. The research team identified practices for selection, regulation, and disposition of utility poles outside the United States. Most information is based on interviews and website and published literature searches. Additional research will clarify regulatory positions in other countries and generate improved understanding, which will support strategic planning for U.S. utilities. Utili...

2008-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

164

2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

6 Built-in room heater burning gas, oil, or kerosene? 7 Heating stove burning wood, coal, or coke (IF VOLUNTEERED) 8 Portable electric heaters (IF VOLUNTEERED)

165

Evaluation of Concrete Containing Fly Ash With High Carbon Content and/or Small Amounts of Wood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a comprehensive database of information on the impacts of the use of high carbon coal ashes and concretes with small amounts of wood ash on the performance of concretes. It is expected these data will support easing the restrictions on the use of high carbon ashes and any wood ash products in concrete in the ASTM standards.

1998-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

166

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Coal 101 Lesson 1: Cleaning Up Coal Clean Coal COAL is our most abundant fossil fuel. The United States has more coal than the rest of the world has oil. There is still...

167

Coal pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Sun tanning/burning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sun tanning/burning Sun tanning/burning Name: Richardo Cossyleon Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Why doesn't the sun affect or burn people with dark pigment in their skin? Replies: Good question! The pigment, melanin, is more toward the surface of the upper skin layer and absorbs ultraviolet rays from the Sun or artificial sources. This absorption protects the lower layers from damage and inflammation (burning). A very dark skinned person may have over a 1000X the protection from UV compared to a fair skinned person. Fair skinned people should use sun-block lotions especially early in the warm season AND keep exposure to the sun, particularly at midday, to less than 30 min. Even if a person gets a good tan, the sun's UV will age the skin over time. It will get wrinkled and develop age lines, etc. after many years of exposure. Moderation is the key!

169

Open Burning Permit Events Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Open Burning Permit Events Management Form Revision Date: 09/29/2010 OpenBurningPermit.docx A Use being burned: (check all that apply) [ ] Small logs (less than 16 in. long) [ ] Finished Lumber________________________________ As the individual responsible for this event, I have read the attached Regulations for Open Burning. The sponsoring

Manning, Sturt

170

EIA - Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal...

171

Principle Wood Scientist  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood, bark, and the wax-coated seeds from Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. syn. Triadica sebifera (L.) Small), an invasive tree species in the southeastern United States, were subjected to extractions and degradative chemical analyses in an effort to better understand the mechanism(s) by which this tree species aggressively competes against native vegetation, and also to facilitate utilization efforts. Analysis of the wood extractives by FTIR spectroscopy showed functionalities analogous to those in hydrolyzable tannins, which appeared to be abundant in the bark; as expected, the seeds had a high wax/oil content (43.1%). Compared to other fast-growing hardwoods, the holocellulose content for the Chinese tallow tree wood was somewhat higher (83.3%). The alpha-cellulose (48.3%) and Klason lignin (20.3%) contents were found to be similar to those for most native North American hardwoods. Results suggest that Chinese tallow tree wood utilization along with commercial wood species should not present any significant processing problems related to the extractives or cell-wall chemistry. Keywords: Cellulose, Chinese tallow tree, extractives, Klason lignin, utilization.

Thomas L. Eberhardt; Usda Forest Service; Xiaobo Li; Chung Y. Hse; Usda Forest Service

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

The Coal-Waste Artificial Reef Program (C-WARP): A New Resource  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Coal-Waste Artificial Reef Program (C-WARP): A New Resource Potential for Fishing Reef ABSTRACT-Thefeasibility ofusing solid blocks of waste materialfrom coal:firedpower plantslor underwater (scrubber) sludge from coal-burning power stations. was constructed in the Atlantic Ocean offLong Island. N

173

Precision wood particle feedstocks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

174

Designing and upgrading plants to blend coal  

SciTech Connect

Fuel flexibility isn't free. Whether you are equipping a new power plant to burn more than one type of coal or retrofitting an existing plant to handle coal blends, you will have to spend time and money to ensure that all three functions performed by its coal-handling system, unloading, stockout, and reclaim, are up to the task. The first half of this article lays out the available options for configuring each subsystem to support blending. The second half describes, in words and pictures, how 12 power plants in the USA, both new and old, address the issue. 9 figs., 1 tab.

McCartney, R.H. [Roberts and Schaefer Co. (United States)

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

175

Burls and Other Unusual Woods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation BURLS AND OTHER UNUSUAL WOODS Wood worked by the hands of skilled craftsmen puts a wealth of quiet beauty into our daily...

176

The Pitfalls of Realist Analysis of Global Capitalism: A Critique of Ellen Meiksins Wood’s Empire of Capitalism: A Critique of Ellen Meiksins Wood's "Empire of Capital"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Boulder: Paradigm Press. Wood, Ellen Meiksins 2002, ‘Globalgroups. 13 Indeed, Wood 2003, p. 23. Wood 2003, p. 132.Ibid. Wood 2003, p. 129. Wood 2003, p. 133. Wood 2003, p.

Robinson, William I.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Hogged Wood Fuel Supply and Price Analysis : Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

This study discusses the factors that determine the supply and demand for hogged wood in the Pacific Northwest, with particular emphasis on the role of the regional pulp and paper industry and lumber industry. Because hogged wood is often a substitute for conventional fuels, the consumption and price of natural gas, electricity, fuel oil and coal are also addressed. A detailed and comprehensive examination of the indicies relating to the hogged wood market is provided, including analysis and graphing of all time series variables. A spreadsheet- based forecasting model is developed and presented with an emphasis on explaining the process used to arrive at the final model. 42 refs., 46 figs., 14 tabs. (MHB)

Biederman, Richard T.; Blazek, Christopher F.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Best Practices for Biomass Handling in Wood Yard Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities are beginning to add wood and other biomass fuels to fire their generating units to enable them to produce carbon-neutral electricity and participate in state or national renewable energy programs. However, because the material handling aspects of biomass differ from those of coal, firing at a significant scale requires new equipment to receive, store, and deliver the biomass to the flame front. This equipment is analogous in function to existing machinery but is quite different in detail, desi...

2011-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

179

Clean Coal Technology and the Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean Clean Coal Technology and the Clean Coal Power Initiative Clean Coal Technology and the Clean Coal Power Initiative "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other pollutants from coal-burning power plants. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Department of Energy conducted a joint program with industry and State agencies to demonstrate the best of these new technologies at scales large enough for companies to make commercial decisions. More than 20 of the technologies tested in the original program achieved commercial success. The early program, however, was focused on the environmental challenges of the time - primarily concerns over the impact of acid rain on forests and

180

The Asian Wood Pellet Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 25 p. This study examines the three major wood pellet markets in Asia: China, Japan, and South Korea, South Korea is striving to increase its per- centage of renewable energy, which could benefit the wood pellets industry. We found that China, the largest energy consumer in Asia, has an established wood pellet

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

China: Changing Wood Products Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;China: Changing Wood Products Markets less is probably known about the forestry and wood products market in China than most other U.S. trading partners. In the 1980s China emerged as the world,11,12). However, U.S. wood products exports to China declined nearly 93 percent from 1988 to 1996, from $-I%3

Zhang, Daowei

182

The Wood Duck  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wood Duck Wood Duck Nature Bulletin No. 502-A October 13, 1973 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE WOOD DUCK Of all the fowl that swim, the Wood Duck is a most unusual bird. They perch in trees like jaybirds, and nest in tree holes like woodpeckers. The hens do not quack like the females of most ducks, and the drakes are dressed in a riot of gaudy colors. Each summer we see dozens of them -- more than any other kind of wild duck -- rear their families of ducklings on and around the streams, ponds, lakes and sloughs of Cook County's forest preserves. Words can scarcely describe the brilliance of the drake's plumage. The head, crest and back glint with iridescent greens, purples and blues. The eyes are red, the throat white, and the bill orange-red. The breast is wine-colored flecked with white, the belly is white, and the sides are buff. The woodie is about midway in size between the mallard and the blue-winged teal. The drakes weigh about a pound and a half. The hen is smaller and plainer, with a gray-brown head and body, a white throat, and a conspicuous white ring around the eye. Her voice is a shrill, squealing "whoo-eek", while the male's is a mere squeak.

183

,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.2;" 2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related","All"

184

,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.1;" Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.1;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related","All"

185

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cleanest Coal Technology Clean Coal 101 Lesson 5: The Cleanest Coal Technology-A Real Gas Don't think of coal as a solid black rock. Think of it as a mass of atoms. Most of the...

186

Wood Inspection by Infrared Thermography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood is used everywhere and for everything. With times, this material presents many adulterations, witch degrade his physical properties. This work present a study of infrared thermography NDT for wood decay detection. The study is based on the difference of moisture content between sound wood and decay. In the first part, moisture content influence on response signal is determine. The second part define the limits of infrared thermography for wood decay detection. Results show that this method could be used, but with many cautions on depth and size of wood defects.

A. Wyckhuyse; X. Maldague; X. Maldague Corresponding

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Clean Coal Technology and the Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean Coal Technology and the Clean Coal Power Initiative Clean Coal Technology and the Clean Coal Power Initiative "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy...

188

Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete  

SciTech Connect

Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly ash from pure wood combustion, biomass and coal co-fired fly ash SW1 and SW2. Also wood fly ash is blended with Class C or Class F to produce Wood C and Wood E. Concrete samples were prepared with fly ash replacing cement by 25%. All fly ash mixes except wood have a lower water demand than the pure cement mix. Fly ashes, either from coal or non coal combustion, increase the required air entraining agent (AEA) to meet the design specification of the mixes. If AEA is added arbitrarily without considering the amount or existence of fly ash results could lead to air content in concrete that is either too low or too high. Biomass fly ash does not impact concrete setting behaviour disproportionately. Switch grass-coal co-fired fly ash and blended wood fly ash generally lie within the range of pure coal fly ash strength. The 56 day flexure strength of all the fly ash mixes is comparable to that of the pure cement mix. The flexure strength from the coal-biomass co-fired fly ash does not differ much from pure coal fly ash. All fly ash concrete mixes exhibit lower chloride permeability than the pure cement mixes. In conclusion biomass coal co-fired fly ash perform similarly to coal fly ash in fresh and hardened concrete. As a result, there is no reason to exclude biomass-coal co-fired fly ash in concrete.

Wang, Shuangzhen; Baxter, Larry

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

5, 27912831, 2005 Biomass burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 5, 2791­2831, 2005 Biomass burning emissions P. Guyon et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction measurements of trace gas and aerosol particle emissions from biomass burning in Amazonia P. Guyon1 , G. Frank1. 2791 #12;ACPD 5, 2791­2831, 2005 Biomass burning emissions P. Guyon et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

190

Smoke Management for Prescribed Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Smoke Management for Prescribed Burning E-1008 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Smoke Management for Prescribed Burning Extension #12;#12;Smoke Management for Prescribed Burning John R. Weir Research Associate Natural Resource

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

191

Burning Plasma Developments Presented to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Burning Plasma Developments Dale Meade Presented to VLT Program Advisory Committee UCLA December 4 and Burning Plasma Issues · NSO PAC Activities First Meeting July 20-21, 2001 at GA Action Items and Status Second Meeting January 17-18, 2001 at MIT Agenda items · FuSAC Recommendation on a burning plasma

192

7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment C. H. Mari a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Tracing biomass burning plumes from. Mari (marc@aero.obs-mip.fr) 17339 #12;ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

193

THE ROLE OF DEAD WOOD IN MAINTAINING ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY ON THE FOREST FLOOR.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract—Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. The results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Nomogram calculates power plant coal use  

SciTech Connect

The number of tons of coal burned annually by a generating unit can be calculated by the following formula: Q = 43.8 (MW) (HR) (CF/HV)/10/sup 6/ where: Q = Annual usage, million tons MW = Unit capacity, MW HR = Unit heat rate, Btu/kWh CF = Annual unit capacity factor, % HV = Heating value of coal, Btu/lb The nomogram solves this equation and permits annual coal usage to be estimated quickly for various combinations of the other variables. The nomogram also can be used in reverse to determine such things as the annual capacity factor that a certain coal usage could sustain. Example: An 840-MW unit has an average heat rate of 10,000 Btu/kWh and burns coal with a heating value of 8600 Btu/lb. The annual capacity factor is 60%. Calculate the annual coal usage. Solution: (A) Align 840 on MW scale with 8600 on HV scale and mark intersection with CF scale; (B) align this marked point with 10,000 on HR scale and mark intersection with Reference Line; (C) align this point with 60 on CF scale and extend to Q scale. Read answer as approximately 2.6 million tons/year.

McAlister, J.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Successful Clean Coal Technology Licensed for Commercial Application |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Successful Clean Coal Technology Licensed for Commercial Successful Clean Coal Technology Licensed for Commercial Application Successful Clean Coal Technology Licensed for Commercial Application July 26, 2010 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has received the first installment from a repayment agreement for the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH™) Process. A royalty license issued for the advanced methanol production system underscores the clean coal technology's presence in the commercial market. The DOE-funded LPMEOH Process, developed in collaboration with Air Products and Chemicals Inc., has been licensed to Woodland Biofuel Inc., who intends to use the technology to develop a wood-gasification process to produce methanol from wood-scrap. The first facility is planned in New York State.

196

The land around typical Darfur refugee camps is cleared of all wood 2 T H E T R O U B L E W I T H C O O K I N Gthe impact of biomass-burning on health & enviornment and what we are doing about it  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

O O K I N Gthe impact of biomass-burning on health & enviornment and what we are doing about it H fire By 2030, biomass use for cooking is projected to in- crease by an addi- tional 30%13 References [1-Darfur Stove World Population 3B 7B 3B 4B Biomass Users Non-Biomass Users 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0deaths annually

Eisen, Michael

197

Inside the guts of wood-eating catfishes: can they digest wood?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the cellulolytic system of the wood-boring marine mollusk2008), how diVerent are the wood-eating catWshes from otherendosymbionts and digest wood, or are these wood- eating

German, Donovan P.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Coal industry annual 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

EIA Energy Kids - Coal  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sometimes, coal-fired electric power plants are built near coal mines to lower ... industries and businesses with their own power plants use coal to generate ...

200

Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Progress report No. 3, [April--June 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Thermogravimetric Analyzer-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer-Mass Spectrometer (TG-FTIR-MS) system was used to identify molecular chlorine, along with HCl, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and various hydrocarbons in the gaseous products of the combustion of PVC resin in air. This is a significant finding that will lead us to examine this combustion step further to look for the formation of chlorinated organic compounds. The combination of TG-FTIR and TG-MS offers complementary techniques for the detection and identification of combustion products from coals PVC, cellulose, shredded newspaper, and various blends of these materials. The pilot atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) at Western Kentucky University has been tested. The main purpose of these preliminary AFBC runs were to determine the compatibility of coal and pelletized wood in blends and to explore the effects of flue/air ratio. Our objective is to conduct AFBC burns with 90 percent sulfur capture and more then 96% combustion efficiency.

Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Wood Cofiring in a Cyclone Boiler at TVA's Allen Fossil Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tests in a 272-MW cyclone boiler show that cofiring wood waste in the form of sawdust and small chips with coal is possible in a stable and routine operation. This report presents biomass data for five series of tests conducted from 1994 through 1996 and an analysis of the NOx reduction achieved.

1997-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

202

Bioenergy and Wood Fiber in Virginia and Beyond John F. Munsell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

­ Grayson County and others · Northern Virginia ­ Municipal Waste · Bio-fuels / Ethanol Goals ­ VA Energy energy productiongy p · 9% renewable: 47% biomass: 72% wood-based 17.00% 9.00% 31.00% 2% Wind 45% Hydroelectric 11.00% Petroleum Renewable Energy Nuclear Electric Hydroelectric 5% Geothermal 47% 32.00% Coal

Wynne, Randolph H.

203

WOOD FLOORING 1. INTRODUCTION TO WARM AND WOOD FLOORING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This chapter describes the methodology used in EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) to estimate streamlined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors for wood flooring beginning at the waste generation reference point. 1 The WARM GHG emission factors are used to compare the net emissions associated with wood flooring in the following three waste management alternatives: source reduction, combustion, and landfilling.

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

WOOD PRODUCTS 1. INTRODUCTION TO WARM AND WOOD PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This chapter describes the methodology used in EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) to estimate streamlined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors for wood products beginning at the point of waste generation. The WARM GHG emission factors are used to compare the net emissions associated with wood products in the following four materials management alternatives: source

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

Orndorff, R.C.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Reducing the moisture content of clean coals  

SciTech Connect

Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

Kehoe, D. (CQ, Inc., Homer City, PA (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

CHEMISTRY AND STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

V. , Anderson, Carry, Academic, New York. Pyrolysis of WoodT.J. Elder, E.J. Soltes, Wood and Fiber, 12(4), 1980, "Phenolic Constituents of a Wood Pyrolytic Oil." J.A. Knight,

Davis, H.G.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Knocking the NOx Out of Coal Clean Coal 101 Lesson 3: Knocking the NOx Out of Coal How NOx Forms NOx Formation Air is mostly nitrogen molecules (green in the above diagram) and...

209

GLOBAL WOOD SUPPLY Sten Nilsson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Increasing demand for wood through population and economic growth · More expensive wood · Where should America Expansion potential USA Deficit Canada Deficit #12;RUSSIA Advantages: Raw Materials Source LEAVED ­ EASTERN USA Source: http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/biohires/ecoregions/h50404bottomland

210

Coal and bituminous reserves  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 5 of this book contains sections entitled: other coal processes; underground processing of coal; and other important energy sources.

NONE

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

Final report on the use of wood as a heat source and the quality of insulation in Vermont households  

SciTech Connect

The State of Vermont Energy Office conducted a study to provide the quantitative attitudinal and behavioral information essential to assessing the use of wood as a heat source in the state. General results show that 54% of all home owners in Vermont burn wood to some degree, 47% use wood as a supplementary heat source, 9% use wood as a primary source, and the extent to which wood is used does not differ by geographic area. Results on household uses (cooking and heating) are summarized. A summary of queries on insulation attitudes, awareness, and practices shows that a majority of homeowners believe they have adequate insulation, but are unaware of R factor. In Vermont, about one-fourth of homeowners improved their insulation in the last three years. (MCW)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Advanced CO2 Capture Technology for Low Rank Coal Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO CO 2 Capture Technology for Low Rank Coal Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Systems Background Gasification of coal or other solid feedstocks (wood waste, petroleum coke, etc.) is a clean way to produce electricity and produce or co-produce a variety of commercial products. The major challenge is cost reduction; current integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology is estimated to produce power at a cost higher than that of pulverized coal combustion. However, the Gasification

213

Daniel Wood | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood Wood About Us Daniel Wood - Data Integration Specialist Daniel Wood Daniel Wood is the Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist in the Office of Public Affairs at the Department of Energy. He develops creative and interactive ways of viewing the Energy Department's vast array of data. You can check out some of his work here. Prior to joining the Energy.gov team, Daniel worked at a large PR firm in Washington, D.C, doing web development and technical project management. Daniel is a graduate of Boston University but a true Philadelphian at heart. On his off days you are likely to find him exploring new neighborhoods on his bike or hanging out with the awesome kids over at Little Lights Urban Ministries. Most Recent The History of the Light Bulb November 22

214

Weathering and Protection of Wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction When wood is exposed outdoors, above ground, a complex combination of chemical, mechanical, and light energy factors contribute to what is described as weathering (38). Weathering is not to be confused with decay, which results from decay organisms (fungi) acting in the presence of excess moisture and air for an extended period of time (34). Under conditions suitable for the development of decay, wood can deteriorate rapidly and the result is far different than that observed for natural outdoor weathering, Outdoor Weathering Process In outdoor weathering of smooth wood, original surfaces become rough as grain raises and the wood checks, and the checks grow into large cracks; grain may loosen, boards cup and warp and pull away from fasteners (Figs. 1 and 2), The roughened surface changes color, gathers dirt and mildew, and may become unsightly; the wood loses its surface coherence and becomes friable, splinters, and frag ments come off. All these e

William C. Feist

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

How Coal Gasification Power Plants Work | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gasification » How Coal Gasification » How Coal Gasification Power Plants Work How Coal Gasification Power Plants Work How Coal Gasification Power Plants Work The heart of a gasification-based system is the gasifier. A gasifier converts hydrocarbon feedstock into gaseous components by applying heat under pressure in the presence of steam. A gasifier differs from a combustor in that the amount of air or oxygen available inside the gasifier is carefully controlled so that only a relatively small portion of the fuel burns completely. This "partial oxidation" process provides the heat. Rather than burning, most of the carbon-containing feedstock is chemically broken apart by the gasifier's heat and pressure, setting into motion chemical reactions that produce "syngas." Syngas is primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide, but can include

216

Wood pellet market and trade: a global perspective  

SciTech Connect

This perspective provides an overview of wood pellet markets in a number of countries of high significance, together with an inventory of market factors and relevant past or existing policies. In 2010, the estimated global wood pellet production and consumption were close to 14.3 Mt (million metric tonnes) and 13.5 Mt, respectively, while the global installed production capacity had reached over 28 Mt. Two types of pellets are mainly traded (i) for residential heating and (ii) for large-scale district heating or co-fi ring installations. The EU was the primary market, responsible for nearly 61% and 85% of global production and consumption, respectively in 2010. EU markets were divided according to end use: (i) residential and district heating, (ii) power plants driven market, (iii) mixed market, and (iv) export-driven countries. North America basically serves as an exporter, but also with signifi cant domestic consumption in USA. East Asia is predicted to become the second-largest consumer after the EU in the near future. The development perspective in Latin America remains unclear. Five factors that determine the market characteristics are: (i) the existence of coal-based power plants, (ii) the development of heating systems, (iii) feedstock availability, (iv) interactions with wood industry, and (v) logistics factor. Furthermore, intervention policies play a pivotal role in market development. The perspective of wood pellets industry was also analyzed from four major aspects: (i) supply potential, (ii) logistics issues, (iii) sustainability considerations, and (iv) technology development.

Chun Sheng Goh; Martin Junginger; Maurizio Cocchi; Didier Marchal; Daniela Thran; Christiane Hennig; Jussi Heinimo; Lars Nikolaisen; Peter-Paul Schouwenberg; Douglas Bradley; J. Richard Hess; Jacob J. Jacobson; Leslie Ovard; Michael Deutmeyer

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Results of the PDF{trademark} test burn at Clifty Creek Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Process Derived Fuel (PDF{sup TM}) from the ENCOAL process is different from other coals used to generate steam for the power industry. Although PDF{sup TM} is currently produced from Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, the coal structure changes during processing. Compared to the parent coal, PDF{sup TM} contains much less moisture and slightly lower volatile matter resulting in a higher heating value and higher ash per million Btu. These coal properties can potentially benefit utility boiler performance. Combining the high combustion reactivity typical of PRB coals with significantly reduced moisture should produce higher flame zone temperatures and shorter flames. As a result, some boilers may experience increased steam production, better burnout, or lower excess air. The objective of the work contracted to Quinapoxet Engineering was to quantify the impacts of burning PDF{sup TM} on boiler performance at Clifty Creek Unit 3. A unique optical temperature monitor called SpectraTemp was used to measure changes in furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) with time and boiler operating parameters for both PDF{sup TM} blends as well as a baseline coal blend consisting of 60% PRB coal, 20% Ohio coal, and 20% low-volatile eastern bituminous coal from Virginia. FEGT was then related to net plant heat rate, NO{sub x} emissions, and electrostatic precipitator performance.

Johnson, S.A.; Knottnerus, B.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES  

SciTech Connect

Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was found that the ground pellets could be used as an effective NOx control agent for pulverized-coal-fired systems. NOx emissions reductions up to 63% were recorded, when using AFP as a NOx control agent. In addition to performance benefits, economic analyses showed the good economic benefits of AFP fuel. Using equipment manufacturer inputs, and reasonable values for biomass, biosolids and coal fines costs, it was determined that an AFP plant would have good profitability. For cases where biosolids contents were in the range of 50%, the after tax Internal Rates of Return were in the range of 40% to 50%. These are very attractive returns. Besides the baseline analysis for the various AFP formulations tested at pilot scale, sensitivity analysis showed the impact of important parameters on return. From results, it was clear that returns are excellent for a range of parameters that could be expected in practice. Importantly, these good returns are achieved even without incentives related to the emissions control benefits of biomass.

John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Coal combustion products 2007 production and use report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The American Coal Ash Association's 2007 Annual Coal Combustion Products (CCP) are derived from data from more than 170 power plants. The amount of CCPs used was 40.55%, a decrease of 2.88% from 2006, attributed to reduced fuel burn and a decrease in demand in the building industry. Figures are given for the production of fly ash, flue gas desulfurization gypsum, bottom ash, FBC ash and boiler slag. The article summarises results of the survey. 1 ref., 1 tab.

NONE

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Ash Properties Analysis from Co-Firing Biomass and Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power plant interest in renewable energy has been increasing, especially in response to legislative requirements to include renewables in the generation mix. One promising renewable strategy is co-firing biomass with coal, in pulverized coal- (PC-) fired units. The objective of this research is to provide quantitative data on full-scale test burn samples to demonstrate changes in ash characteristics and to identify anomalies affecting particulate material (PM) collection efficiency that result from co-fi...

2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this proposed research program is to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. During this study, one plant coal and three blend samples will be prepared and utilized. The blend samples will be of a mixture of 90% plant coal + 10% fines, 85% plant coal + 15% fines, 80% plant coal + 20% fines having particle size distribution of 70% passing through -200 mesh size. These samples` combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace will be used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace will be used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc.

Singh, S. [SS Energy Environmental International, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States); Scaroni, A.; Miller, B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Combustion Lab.; Choudhry, V. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this proposed research program is to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. During this study, one plant coal and three blend samples will be prepared and utilized. The blend samples will be of a mixture of 90% plant coal + 10% fines, 85% plant coal + 15% fines, 80% plant coal + 20% fines having particle size distribution of 70% passing through {minus}200 mesh size. These samples' combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace will be used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace will be used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc. This report covers the first quarter's progress. Major activities during this period were focused on finding the plants where a demo MTU column will be installed to prepare the samples needed to characterize the combustion behavior of slurry effluents. Also, a meeting was held at Penn State University to discuss the availability of the laboratory furnace for testing the plant coal/recovered coal fines blends.

Singh, Shyam.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Coal gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A standard series of two staged gas generators (GG) has been developed in the United States for producing gas with a combustion heat from 4,700 to 7,600 kilojoules per cubic meter from coal (U). The diameter of the gas generators is from 1.4 to 3.65 meters and the thermal capacity based on purified cold gas is from 12.5 to 89 million kilojoules per hour. Certain standard sized gas generators have undergone experimental industrial tests which showed that it is most expedient to feed the coal into the gas generators pneumatically. This reduces the dimensions of the charging device, makes it possible to use more common grades of structural steels and reduces the cost of the gas. A double valve reliably prevents ejections of the gasification product and promotes the best distribution of the coal in the gas generator. The gas generators may successfully operate on high moisture (up to 36 percent) brown coal. Blasting with oxygen enriched to 38 percent made it possible to produce a gas with a combustion heat of 9,350 kilojoules per cubic meter. This supports a combustion temperature of 1,700C.

Rainey, D.L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20-120 minutes at a temperature of 250.degree.-750.degree. C., preferably 350.degree.-450.degree. C., pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000-2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50-100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0-100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems.

Sundaram, Muthu S. (Shoreham, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20 to 120 minutes at a temperature of 250 to 750/sup 0/C, preferably 350 to 450/sup 0/C, pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000 to 2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50 to 100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0 to 100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems. 1 fig.

Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.

1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

227

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined-cycle (GMS) power generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined cycle (GMS) refers to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems in which coal gasification is used to supply a clean fuel (free of mineral matter and sulfur) for combustion in an MHD electrical power plant. Advantages of a clean-fuel system include the elimination of mineral matter or slag from all components other than the coal gasifier and gas cleanup system; reduced wear and corrosion on components; and increased seed recovery resulting from reduced exposure of seed to mineral matter or slag. Efficiencies in some specific GMS power plants are shown to be higher than for a comparably sized coal-burning MHD power plant. The use of energy from the MHD exhaust gas to gasify coal (rather than the typical approach of burning part of the coal) results in these higher efficiencies.

Lytle, J.M.; Marchant, D.D.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

University Coal Research | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation Clean Coal Crosscutting Research University Coal Research University Coal Research Clean Coal Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells Hydrogen from Coal Coal...

230

O A L Section 2. Coal  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Section 2. Coal Coal prices are developed for the following three categories: coking coal; steam coal (all noncoking coal); and coal coke imports and exports.

231

Bending Burning Matches and Crumpling Burning Paper Texas A&M University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bending Burning Matches and Crumpling Burning Paper Zeki Melek Texas A&M University Department burning. Specifically, we can simulate the bending of burning matches, and the folding of burning paper interactively. 1 Introduction We present a simple method to increase the realism of the simu- lation of burning

Keyser, John

232

BLM Burns District Office | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Burns District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name BLM Burns District Office Place Hines, Oregon References BLM Burns District Office1 This article is a stub. You can help...

233

INHIBITION EFFECTS ON EXTINCTION OF POLYMER BURNING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ON EXTINCTION OF POLYMER BURNING* W.J. Pitz R.F. SawyerQuantitative determinations of burning rates, extinctionlayer at the surface of a burning polymer. The char l ayer

Pitz, W.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this proposed research program was to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. During this study, one plant coal and three blend samples were prepared as 100% plant coal, 90% plant coal/10% fines, 85% plant coal/15% fines, and 80% plant coal /20% fines with a particle size distribution of 70% passing through {minus}200 mesh size. The plant coal and recovered coal fines were obtained from the Randolph Preparation Plant of Peabody Coal Co., Marissa, IL. These samples` combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace was used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace was used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc. The burning profile of the plant coal and the three blends was determined in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Results indicated slower burning of the blends due to low volatile matter and oxidized coal particles. Combustion emissions of these samples were determined in the down-fired combustor, while relative ignition temperatures were determined in the drop tube furnace. Chemical composition of ashes were analyzed to establish a correlation with their respective ash fusion temperatures. Overall study of these samples suggested that the blended samples had combustion properties similar to the original plant coal. In other words, flames were stable under identical firing rates of approximately 200,000 Btu`s/hr and 25% excess air. CO, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub x}, were similar to each other and within the experimental error. Combustion efficiency of 99{sup +}% was achievable. Ash chemical analysis of each sample revealed that slagging and fouling should not be different from each other.

Singh, S. [SS Energy Environmental International, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States); Scaroni, A.; Miller, B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Combustion Lab.; Choudhry, V. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

235

Wood Handbook Wood as an Engineering Material Centennial EditionCentennial Edition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

United States; Forest Service; Wood Handbook; Wood As An Engineering Material

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Residential coal use: 1982 international solid fuel trade show and conference Atlantic City, New Jersey. [USA; 1974; By state  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy's anthracite and residential coal programs are described. The residential coal effort is an outgrowth and extension of the anthracite program, which has been, and continues to be, involved in promoting increased production and use of anthracite and the restoration of anthracite as a viable economic alternative to soft coals and to imported oil and gas now supplying the Northeast. Since anthracite is a preferred fuel for residential heating, residential coal issues comprise an important part of our anthracite activities. We have commenced a study of residential coal utilization including: overview of the residential coal market; market potential for residential coal use; analysis of the state of technology, economics, constraints to increased use of coal and coal-based fuels in residential markets, and identification of research and development activities which would serve to increase the market potential for coal-fired residential systems. A considerable amount of information is given in this report on residential coal furnaces and coal usage in 1974, prices of heating oils and coal, methods of comparing these fuels (economics), air pollution, safety, wood and wood furnaces, regulations, etc.

Pell, J.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Modeling char oxidation behavior under Zone II burning conditions at elevated pressures  

SciTech Connect

For accurate modeling of the coal combustion process at elevated pressures, account must be made for variations in char-particle structure. As pressure is increased, particle swelling increases during the devolatilization of certain bituminous coals, yielding a variety of char-particle structures, from uniform high-density particles to thin-walled non-uniform low-density particles having large internal void volumes. Since under Zone II burning conditions the char conversion rate depends upon the accessibility of the internal surfaces, the char structure plays a key role in determining particle burnout times. In our approach to characterize the impact of char structure on particle burning rates, effectiveness factors appropriate for thin-walled cenospherical particles and thick-walled particles having a few large cavities are defined and related to the effectiveness factor for uniform high-density particles that have no large voids, only a random distribution of pores having a mean pore size in the sub-micron range. For the uniform case, the Thiele modulus approach is used to account for Zone 11 type burning in which internal burning is limited by the combined effects of pore diffusion and the intrinsic chemical reactivity of the carbonaceous material. In the paper, the impact of having a variety of char structures in a mix of particles burning under Zone II burning conditions is demonstrated.

Ma, L.Q.; Mitchell, R. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (USA). High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

Managing Transmission Line Wood Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to reduce capital cost by extending life expectancy of overhead transmission wood structures through inspection and assessment procedures and through aging mitigation techniques and tools.

2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

239

Treated Wood Planted Post Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Technical Update describes the interim results of a planted post study currently under way at the Austin Cary Memorial Forest (ACMF), operated by The University of Florida, in Gainesville. The purpose of this research is to examine the effectiveness of commercially available prevention methods to reduce preservative migration from treated wood poles, compare the migration of constituents of various wood treatments, and assess the environmental impacts and performance of untreated chestnut.

2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

240

Coal industry annual 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Coal industry annual 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

NONE

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

244

Survey and evaluation of current and potential coal beneficiation processes  

SciTech Connect

Coal beneficiation is a generic term used for processes that prepare run-of-mine coal for specific end uses. It is also referred to as coal preparation or coal cleaning and is a means of reducing the sulfur and the ash contents of coal. Information is presented regarding current and potential coal beneficiation processes. Several of the processes reviewed, though not yet commercial, are at various stages of experimental development. Process descriptions are provided for these processes commensurate with the extent of information and time available to perform the evaluation of these processes. Conceptual process designs, preliminary cost estimates, and economic evaluations are provided for the more advanced (from a process development hierarchy viewpoint) processes based on production levels of 1500 and 15,000 tons/day (maf) of cleaned product coal. Economic evaluations of the coal preparation plants are conducted for several project financing schemes and at 12 and 15% annual after-tax rates of return on equity capital. A 9% annual interest rate is used on the debt fraction of the plant capital. Cleaned product coal prices are determined using the discounted cash flow procedure. The study is intended to provide information on publicly known coal beneficiation processes and to indicate the relative costs of various coal beneficiation processes. Because of severe timeconstraints, several potential coal beneficiation processes are not evaluated in great detail. It is recommended that an additional study be conducted to complement this study and to more fully appreciate the potentially significant role of coal beneficiation in the clean burning of coal.

Singh, S. P.N.; Peterson, G. R.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Small boiler uses waste coal  

SciTech Connect

Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd. (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

METC research on coal-fired diesels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The METC in-house Coal-Fueled Diesel Research project is part of the overall DOE effort to develop a technology base for diesel engines capable of operating on coal, shale oil or low-cost coal-derived fuels. The in-house effort started in 1985 as a test-bed for coal-derived liquid fuels and will end this fiscal year with the successful completion of METC`s diesel R&D program. Currently METC in-house research and development efforts focus on pilot chamber combustion in METC`s coal-water slurry (CWS) fueled diesel engine. A novel pilot chamber for a direct-injected, coal-fueled diesel engine has been designed and is being tested in METC`s single cylinder research diesel engine. The pilot chamber configuration allows for operation at extended load and speed conditions using 100 percent CWS and no other pilot fuel. The concept involves the use of a small volume chamber exterior to the main cylinder in which approximately 5 percent of the total fuel energy at full load conditions is injected. Lower NO{sub X} levels may be obtained due to leaner burning as well as broader stable performance using only CWS fuel.

McMillian, M.H. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Robey, E.H.; Addis, R.E. [EG and G Washington Analytical Services Center, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Burning Plasma Support Research Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Burning Plasma Support Research Program on Alcator C-Mod Presented by: Stephen M. Wolfe Alcator C-Mod Five Year Proposal Review MIT Plasma Science & Fusion Center Cambridge, MA May...

248

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Coal industry annual 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

Not Available

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

250

Westinghouse to launch coal gasifier with combined cycle unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Westinghouse has designed a prototype coal gasifier which can be intergrated with a combined cycle unit and enable power plants to use coal in an efficient and environmentally acceptable way. Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (CGCC) technology burns gas made from coal in a gas turbine to generate power and then collects the hot exhaust gases to produce steam for further power generation. The commercialization of this process would meet the public's need for an economical and clean way to use coal, the utitities' need to meet electric power demands, and the nation's need to reduce dependence on imported oil. The Westinghouse process is described along with the company's plans for a demonstration plant and the option of a phased introduction to allow utilities to continue the use of existing equipment and generate revenue while adding to capacity. (DCK)

Stavsky, R.M.; Margaritis, P.J.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Table F24: Wood and Biomass Waste Consumption Estimates, 2011  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table F24: Wood and Biomass Waste Consumption Estimates, 2011 State Wood Wood and Biomass Waste a Residential Commercial Industrial Electric Power ...

252

Chromoblastomycosis associated with in a carpenter handling exotic woods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a carpenter handling exotic woods Nuno Menezes 1 , Pauloas saprophytes in the soil, wood and vegetation [ 3 ]. Theyare normally made of tropical wood [ 9 ]. The inoculation

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

ACC forum looks at 'burning' questions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The American Coal Council's (ACC) Spring Coal Forum had as its theme: Coal's renaissance: prospects for regenerating coal generation'. It explored US coal demand, supply, end-user technology and market trends. The article gives an overview of the conference, highlighting several presentations. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Carter, R.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Category:Burns, OR | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Burns, OR Burns, OR Jump to: navigation, search Go Back to PV Economics By Location Media in category "Burns, OR" The following 16 files are in this category, out of 16 total. SVFullServiceRestaurant Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVFullServiceRestauran... 71 KB SVHospital Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVHospital Burns OR Pa... 74 KB SVLargeHotel Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVLargeHotel Burns OR ... 74 KB SVLargeOffice Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVLargeOffice Burns OR... 69 KB SVMediumOffice Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVMediumOffice Burns O... 71 KB SVMidriseApartment Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVMidriseApartment Bur... 72 KB SVOutPatient Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png SVOutPatient Burns OR ... 69 KB SVPrimarySchool Burns OR PacifiCorp (Oregon).png

255

Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing to Promote Heterogeneity Patch Burning: Integrating Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Oklahoma State University June 2013 #12;#12;Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing to Promote Heterogeneity Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing to Promote

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

256

FROM YEARNING TO BURNING Marshall Rosenbluth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FROM YEARNING TO BURNING Marshall Rosenbluth Possible broad-brush guidelines for "burning plasma" thinking December 6, 2000 The "yearn to burn" is well motivated. Most of us came into the fusion program for many years, the point at which science and the fusion energy goal converge is in a burning plasma

257

Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing to Promote Heterogeneity Patch Burning: Integrating Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Oklahoma State University September 2007 #12;#12;Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing to Promote Heterogeneity Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing to Promote

Debinski, Diane M.

258

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. In addition, the report

259

Annual Coal Distribution Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: December 19, 2013 | Next Release Date: November 2014 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution...

260

2014 Coal Form Proposals  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal Survey Form Changes Proposed for 2014. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) has begun the process of re-clearing the coal survey ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Coal Mining (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These sections describe procedures for coal exploration and extraction, as well as permitting requirements relating to surface and underground coal mining. These sections also address land...

262

Coal News and Markets  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Metallurgical coal markets became volatile when the thriving Chinese steel industry in late 2003 and 2004 made outsized demands for coking coal and met coke, ...

263

Coal News and Markets  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Coal Prices (updated December 27, 2006) This report summarizes spot coal prices for the business weeks ended December 1, 8, and 15.

264

Annual Coal Report 2001  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE/EIA-0584 (2001) Annual Coal Report 2001 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric, and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy

265

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e) Refuse(f) Total United States 311 Food 0 44 43 * * 1 311221 Wet Corn Milling 0 1 1 0 0 0 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 0 1 0 0 1 0 321 Wood Products 0 218 * 13 199 6 321113 Sawmills 0 100 * 5 94 1 3212 Veneer, Plywood, and Engineered Woods 0 95 * 6 87 2 321219 Reconstituted Wood Products 0 52 0 6 46 1 3219 Other Wood Products

266

Coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

American Coal Council American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum Dallas, Texas May 17-19, 2004 Thomas J. Feeley, III Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Presentation Outline * Background * Power plant-water issues * DOE/NETL R&D program * Conclusion/future plans ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Global Water Availability Ocean 97% Fresh Water 2.5% 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ice Groundwater Lakes and Rivers ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Three Things Power Plants Require 1) Access to transmission lines 2) Available fuel, e.g., coal or natural gas 3) Water ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Freshwater Withdrawals and Consumption Mgal / Day Irrigation 81,300 Irrigation 81,300 Thermoelectric 3,310 Consumption Sources: "Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1995," USGS Circular 1200, 1998

268

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Biomass to Liquids Hydrogen-from-Coal RD&D ENERGY ANALYSIS About Us Search Products Contacts SMART GRID ANALYSIS BASELINE STUDIES QUALITY GUIDELINES NETL-RUA About NETL-RUA...

269

SUBCHAPTER D. OUTDOOR BURNING Sec. 352.081. REGULATION OF OUTDOOR BURNING. (a) In this  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SUBCHAPTER D. OUTDOOR BURNING Sec. 352.081. REGULATION OF OUTDOOR BURNING. (a) In this section measurement that takes into consideration the burning index, spread component, or ignition component court of a county by order may prohibit or restrict outdoor burning in general or outdoor burning

270

Predicted effects of prescribed burning and harvesting on forest recovery and sustainability in southwest Georgia, USA  

SciTech Connect

A model-based analysis of the effect of prescribed burning and forest thinning or clear-cutting on stand recovery and sustainability was conducted at Fort Benning, GA, in the southeastern USA. Two experiments were performed with the model. In the first experiment, forest recovery from degraded soils was predicted for 100 years with or without prescribed burning. In the second experiment simulations began with 100 years of predicted stand growth, then forest sustainability was predicted for an additional 100 years under different combinations of prescribed burning and forest harvesting. Three levels of fire intensity (low, medium, and high), that corresponded to 17%, 33%, and 50% consumption of the forest floor C stock by fire, were evaluated at 1-, 2-, and 3-year fire return intervals. Relative to the control (no fire), prescribed burning with a 2- or 3-year return interval caused only a small reduction in predicted steady state soil C stocks ({le} 25%) and had no effect on steady state tree wood biomass, regardless of fire intensity. Annual high intensity burns did adversely impact forest recovery and sustainability (after harvesting) on less sandy soils, but not on more sandy soils that had greater N availability. Higher intensity and frequency of ground fires increased the chance that tree biomass would not return to pre-harvest levels. Soil N limitation was indicated as the cause of unsustainable forests when prescribed burns were too frequent or too intense to permit stand recovery.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Categorical Exclusion for Wood Pole  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood Pole Wood Pole Replacement at two structures (11/6 & 11/9) located along the Oracle-Tucson 115-kV Transmission Line, in Oro Valley, Pima County, Arizona. RECORD OF CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION A. Proposed Action: Western plans to replace deteriorated wood poles, cross arms and X-braces at two existing H-frame structures (11/6 & 1119) located along the Oracle Tucson 115-kV Transmission Line in Pima, Arizona (Figure 1). Built in 1943, its aging components are beyond repair and require replacement. These poles performed poorly during structural tests, and we consider them unstable. This replacement project will ensure the safety of Western's workers and the public as well as reliability of the bulk electric system. Western will accomplish the work by clearing vegetation and blading a level pad at

272

Products of Wood Smolder and Their Relation -toWood ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... direction have been studied in the context of coal and oil shale gasification [13,14] and in the context of flame propagation in fuel-lined duct? [15}. In ...

2009-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

273

Co-combustion of textile residues with cardboard and waste wood in a packed bed  

SciTech Connect

The combustible fraction of the municipal waste is mostly bio-derived. Energy recovery of the wastes that cannot be economically recycled is a key part of sustainable energy policy and waste management. Textile residues have high energy content. When burned alone in a packed bed system, however, their combustion efficiency is low due to the irregular propagation of the ignition front and the low burning rates. In order to achieve more efficient combustion of textile residues, a series of co-combustion tests were carried out for various mixture compositions and air flow rates in a packed bed combustor. The combustion performance of these materials was evaluated by using quantitative measures such as ignition rate, burning rate and equivalence ratio. Co-combustion of textile residues with cardboard for a textile fraction of up to 30% achieved satisfactorily high burning rate and low unburned carbon content in the bottom ash. The mixture was more resistant to convective cooling by air, which significantly expanded the range of air flow rate for combustion at high burning rates. In co-combustion with a material that has a very low ignition front speed such as waste wood, the propagation of the ignition front was governed by textile residues. Therefore, the co-combustion of textile residues can be better performed with a material having similar ignition front speeds, in which the two materials simultaneously burn at the ignition front. (author)

Ryu, Changkook; Phan, Anh N; Sharifi, Vida N; Swithenbank, Jim [Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC), Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

Not Available

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this proposed research program is to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. One plant coal and three blend samples will be prepared and utilized. The blend samples will be of a mixture of 90% plant coal + 10% fines, 85% plant coal + 15% fines, 80% plant coal + 20% fines having particle size distribution of 70% passing through -200 mesh size. These samples` combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace win be used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace will be used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc. The burning profile of the plant coal and the three blends was determined in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Results indicated slower burning of the blends due to low volatile matter and oxidized coal particles. Ash fusing temperatures of the samples were determined using ASTM procedure. Preliminary combustion evaluation of the samples (100% plant coal, 80% plant coal/20% recovered coal fines) indicated that the flame was stable at 100,000-200,000 Btu/hr firing rate. Carbon conversion efficiency of 85 to 90% was recorded using the Ash Tracer technique. Tests are continuing to determine the operating boundaries for these blends while measuring the emissions of SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, CO and O{sub 2}, maintaining a stable flame.

Singh, S. [SS Energy Environmental International, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States); Scaroni, A.; Miller, B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Combustion Lab.; Choudhry, V. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research Print Thursday, 25 October 2012 10:44 paris-wood composites Wood scientist...

277

Hydrogen Burning on Magnetar Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute the rate of diffusive nuclear burning for hydrogen on the surface of a "magnetar" (Soft Gamma-Ray Repeater or Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar). We find that hydrogen at the photosphere will be burned on an extremely rapid timescale of hours to years, depending on composition of the underlying material. Improving on our previous studies, we explore the effect of a maximally thick "inert" helium layer, previously thought to slow down the burning rate. Since hydrogen diffuses faster in helium than through heavier elements, we find this helium buffer actually increases the burning rate for magnetars. We compute simple analytic scalings of the burning rate with temperature and magnetic field for a range of core temperature. We conclude that magnetar photospheres are very unlikely to contain hydrogen. This motivates theoretical work on heavy element atmospheres that are needed to measure effective temperature from the observed thermal emission and constrains models of AXPs that rely on magnetar cooling through thick light element envelopes.

P. Chang; P. Arras; L. Bildsten

2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

278

Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. This publication explains how to detect, identify, prevent and control powderpost beetle, old house borer and others.

Jackman, John A.

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

279

High-yield hydrogen production by catalytic gasification of coal or biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gasification of coal or wood, catalyzed by soluble metallic cations to maximize reaction rates and hydrogen yields, offers a potential for large-scale, economical hydrogen production with near-commercial technology. With optimum reaction conditions and catalysts, product gas rich in both hydrogen and methane can be used in fuel cells to produce electricity at efficiencies nearly double those of conventional power plant. If plantation silvaculture techniques can produce wood at a raw energy cost competitive with coal, further enhancement of product gas yields may be possible, with zero net contribution of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere.

Hauserman, W.B.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Clean Coal Research | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean Coal Research Clean Coal Research Clean Coal Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells Hydrogen from Coal Coal to Liquids Major Demonstrations Crosscutting Research Carbon Capture and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Assessment of potential wood supply for intermediate scale thermoconversion facilities, Tasks I, II, III  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Department of Energy's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program has been concerned with the potential of wood biomass to contribute to the Nation's energy supply. One of the factors inhibiting the selection of wood biomass for energy by non-forest industries, especially by those requiring large quantities (500 to 2000 green tons per day), is concern with adequate fuel supply in terms of both a supply system and an adequate resource base. With respect to the latter, this report looks at the gross resource base as has been historically reported and also examines factors other than traditional product removals that could reduce to some degree the amount of resource that is available. The study also examined the conversion of a New England utility from coal to wood chips.

Not Available

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Wood Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Wood Structures is a catalog of photographs illustrating various conditions and factors that commonly affect transmission line wood structures, along with their likely causes, a Maintenance Priority Rating, and suggested actions to be taken by utility personnel. Poles, cross-arms, cross-arm braces, X-braces, brackets, anchor rods, guy wires, and direct imbedded foundations are covered. Other sections include types of wood structures, the anatomy of wood ...

2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

283

Improvement of storage, handling, and transportability of fine coal. Quarterly technical progress report number 8, October 1--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Mulled Coal process was developed as a means of overcoming the adverse handling characteristics of wet fine coal without thermal drying. The process involves the addition of a low cost, harmless reagent to wet fine coal using off-the-shelf mixing equipment. Based on laboratory- and bench-scale testing, Mulled coal can be stored, shipped, and burned without causing any of the plugging, pasting, carryback and freezing problems normally associated with wet coal. On the other hand, Mulled Coal does not cause the fugitive and airborne dust problems normally associated with thermally dried coal. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate that: the Mulled Coal process, which has been proved to work on a wide range of wet fine coals at bench scale, will work equally well on a continuous basis, producing consistent quality, and at a convincing rate of production in a commercial coal preparation plant; the wet product from a fine coal cleaning circuit can be converted to a solid fuel form for ease of handling and cost savings in storage and rail car transportation; and a wet fine coal product thus converted to a solid fuel form, can be stored, shipped, and burned with conventional fuel handling, transportation, and combustion systems.

1996-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Successful so far, coal lobby's campaign may run out of steam  

SciTech Connect

The anti-coal lobby has mounted a highly successful campaign that has brought the permitting, financing, and construction of new conventional coal-fired plants to a virtual halt. But the coal lobby is not yet ready to concede defeat. With powerful constituents in coal-mining and coal-burning states and influential utilities, mining companies, and railroads, it continues to fight for its survival using any and all gimmicks and scare tactics in the book. The battle is being waged in courtrooms, public forums, media campaigns, and especially in Congress. The problem with the coal lobby is that it refuses to admit that coal combustion to generate electricity is among the chief sources of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions; unless they address this issue honestly, effectively, and immediately, their efforts are going to win few converts in the courts of law or public opinion.

NONE

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Coal Tar and Bedrock  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The characterization of bedrock groundwater and coal tar impacts is one of the most complicated tasks associated with managing manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. This report provides an overview of the fate and transport of coal tar in bedrock and the methods available to investigate coal tar at particular sites and discusses how to develop a decision-making framework for coal tar investigations.

2007-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

286

Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world`s most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions  

SciTech Connect

Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

Davies, Geoffrey (Boston, MA); El-Toukhy, Ahmed (Alexandria, EG)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Byproducts can make coal plants green  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Co-locating ethanol plants at coal-burning sites, along with the use of biomass gasification to boost coal-fired plant output, can have positive economic and environmental benefits. Adding a biomass gasifier to an older coal-fired plant would inject gas with up to 10% of the fuel value in the coal and increase steam generation by the same amount. Sawdust can be injected as a reburn fuel without the need for gasification. A pre-scrubber would be added before the existing SO{sub 2} scrubber and waste heat from the boiler in the form of low-pressure steam would be sent to a co-located ethanol plant. This would lead to a decrease in emissions of NOx, mercury and SO{sub 2}, less mercury in the gypsum, a large greenhouse gas reduction, reduced net fuel cost, and revenue from hydrochloric acid by- product and from selling low-pressure steam to the ethanol plant. The Blue Flint Ethanol facility uses waste heat from Grand River Energy's 1,100 MW Coal Creek Station in South Jordan, Utah. The new generation of US ethanol plants is likely to use switchgrass and other cellulosic materials as feedstock. Straw and other forms of biomass have high chlorine content. PVC waste can be added to optimise the chlorine content of the scrubber. A chlorine pre-scrubber before the SO{sub 2} scrubber would capture HCl. 1 fig., 1 photo.

McIlvaine, B. [McIlvaine Co. (United States)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Biomass Burning Observation Project Specifically,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Burning Observation Project Burning Observation Project Specifically, the aircraft will obtain measurements of the microphysical, chemical, hygroscopic, and optical properties of aerosols. Data captured during BBOP will help scientists better understand how aerosols combine and change at a variety of distances and burn times. Locations Pasco, Washington. From July through September, the G-1 will be based out of its home base in Washington. From this location, it can intercept and measure smoke plumes from naturally occurring uncontrolled fires across Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Northern California, and Western Montana. Smoke plumes aged 0-5 hours are the primary targets for this phase of the campaign. Memphis, Tennessee. In October, the plane moves to Tennessee to sample prescribed

290

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and","RSE",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related","Row"

291

Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and","RSE",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related","Row"

292

Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

page intentionally left blank page intentionally left blank 153 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2011, DOE/EIA-M060(2011) (Washington, DC, 2011). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

293

EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Distribution Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: June 27, 2013 Next Release Date: September 2013 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf October-December pdf xls pdf 2010 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf xls

294

Coal Market Module This  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

51 51 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2012, DOE/EIA-M060(2012) (Washington, DC, 2012). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

295

NO reduction in decoupling combustion of biomass and biomass-coal blend  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is a form of energy that is CO{sub 2}-neutral. However, NOx emissions in biomass combustion are often more than that of coal on equal heating-value basis. In this study, a technology called decoupling combustion was investigated to demonstrate how it reduces NO emissions in biomass and biomass-coal blend combustion. The decoupling combustion refers to a two-step combustion method, in which fuel pyrolysis and the burning of char and pyrolysis gas are separated and the gas burns out during its passage through the burning-char bed. Tests in a quartz dual-bed reactor demonstrated that, in decoupling combustion, NO emissions from biomass and biomass-coal blends were both less than those in traditional combustion and that NO emission from combustion of blends of biomass and coal decreased with increasing biomass percentage in the blend. Co-firing rice husk and coal in a 10 kW stove manufactured according to the decoupling combustion technology further confirmed that the decoupling combustion technology allows for truly low NO emission as well as high efficiency for burning biomass and biomass-coal blends, even in small-scale stoves and boilers. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Li Dong; Shiqiu Gao; Wenli Song; Jinghai Li; Guangwen Xu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Multi-Phase Complex Systems

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Alternate Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal and CoalBiomass to Liquids Alternate Hydrogen Production In the Alternate Production technology pathway, clean syngas from coal is converted to high-hydrogen-content liquid...

297

The Effect of Circulating Coal Slurry Water Hardness on Coal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to investigate the effect of gypsum on flotation and coal slurry settling during coal slurry recirculation, the water hardness and proton conductivity of coal ...

298

Subbituminous and bituminous coal dominate U.S. coal ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

While almost all coal consumed in the United States is used to generate electricity (90% in 2010), coal is not entirely homogeneous. Coal is ...

299

Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

26 Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen Florida Institute of Technology United States underwater vehicles to perform ocean surveys. With these vehicles it is now possible for the scientist substances in the ocean such as chemicals from an underwater vent or toxic algae such as red tide

Wood, Stephen L.

300

CE to do 150-MW coal-gas-retrofit design study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combustion Engineering (CE) has a $5 million DOE contract to design a coal gasifier that will convert eastern coal into a fuel gas and replace the oil and gas now burned in a Gulf States Utility unit. A pilot unit which has been converting Pittsburgh No. 8 seam coal into 110-Btu fuel gas will be scaled up. The company will also begin testing four other coal types. CE finds that retrofitting an air-blown atmospheric pressure system is cost-effective, but warns that the costs of a large-scale intergrated plant are still speculative. (DCK)

Not Available

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

Darren D. Schmidt

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL  

SciTech Connect

The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

Darren D. Schmidt

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Coal data: A reference  

SciTech Connect

This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

Not Available

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Prebaked Anode from Coal Extract  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We previously reported that the coal extract prepared from non-hydrogenative extraction of thermal coals using two-ring-aromatic solvent (Hyper-coal) is suitable ...

305

Coal desulfurization with sodium hypochlorite.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Wet desulfurization of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and Illinois No. 6 coal were conducted with sodium hypochlorite in the laboratory. Pittsburgh No. 8 coal was… (more)

Li, Wei, M.S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Combustion of Illinois coals and chars with natural gas. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combined combustion of coal and natural gas offers advantages compared to burning coal or natural gas alone. For example, low volatile coals or low volatile chars derived from treatment or gasification processes can be of limited use due to their poor flammability characteristics. However, the use of natural gas in conjunction with the solid fuel can provide the necessary ``volatiles`` to enhance the combustion. Additionally, natural gas provides a clean cofiring fuel source which can enhance the usefulness of coals with high sulfur content. Addition of natural gas may reduce SO{sub x} emissions through increased sulfur retention in the ash and reduce NO{sub x} emissions by varying local stoichiometry and temperature levels. This research program seeks to clarify the contributions and to identify the controlling mechanisms of coining natural gas with Illinois coal through studies of particle ignition, burning rates and ash characterization. The first two quarters focused on the ignition delay measurements and their analysis, along with the incorporation of particle porosity into the burning rate model. The emphasis of the third quarter was on a more detailed understanding of the burning rate process, as well as understanding of cofiring`s effects on sulfur retention. The contributions of particle burning area to the quantification of the particle burning mechanisms have been shown to be important and continue to be investigated. Ash samples for various methane concentrations under similar other conditions have shown positive trends in reducing S0{sub 2} emission through increased sulfur capture in the ash.

Buckius, R.O.; Peters, J.E.; Krier, H.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Does the presence of pseudovitrinite indicate gas-saturated coals? Some interesting observations from the Gething coals in Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The presence of pseudovitrinite at a depth of 1,000 m in the very gassy (up to 862 scf/ton total gas content, as-received basis) but low absolute permeability (0.5 mD), low-volatile bituminous Gething coals in the Canadian Foothills has been documented. Because oxidation is unlikely to occur at such depth, it is reasonable to expect that pseudovitrinite formed as a result of desiccation in a gas-saturated environment prior to the coals being uplifted to their present day depth. This raises the possibility that a coal that contains pseudovitrinite may have moisture content that is below its equilibrium moisture, which leads to higher methane adsorptive capacity compared with the same coal that has normal vitrinite (collotelinite). The presence of inertinite macerals in the coal, derived from wood fibers and charred remnants, has aided in the development and preservation of phyteral porosity and in the formation of interconnected microcavities, which should result in higher micropermeability and aid the flow of gas locally within the coal seam and surrounding strata. The Gething coals in the Highhat corehole share some of these characteristics, which may have important implications on the dynamics of coal-bed methane production. Volumetric strain (matrix shrinkage) of these gassy coals during production is conservatively estimated to be 0.5-0.75%, which may result in an absolute permeability increase of between 5 to 12 times, based on studies on coals of similar rank and gas content in United States basins. Although observations made in this preliminary study do not constitute a proof, they leave open the possibility of using pseudovitrinite, under certain circumstances, as an indicator of improved gas sorptive capacity and enhanced permeability in deep coals.

Gentzis, T. [Petron Resources LP, Frisco, TX (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

effects on cellular burning structures in lean premixedAnalyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixedthe turbulence of the burning process with the distribution

Bremer, Peer-Timo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Practical tip: Precooling topical calcineurin inhibitors tube; reduces burning sensation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

inhibitors tube; reduces burning sensation Sultan Al-salkhenaizan@hotmail.com Abstract Burning sensation at theuse, does reduce the burning sensation and enable most

Al-Khenaizan, Sultan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Investigations into coal coprocessing and coal liquefaction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conversion of coal to liquid suitable as feedstock to a petroleum refinery is dependent upon several process variables. These variables include temperature, pressure, coal rank, catalyst type, nature of the feed to the reactor, type of process, etc. Western Research Institute (WRI) has initiated a research program in the area of coal liquefaction to address the impact of some of these variables upon the yield and quality of the coal-derived liquid. The principal goal of this research is to improve the efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. Two different approaches are currently being investigated. These include the coprocessing of a heavy liquid, such as crude oil, and coal using a dispersed catalyst and the direct liquefaction of coal using a supported catalyst. Another important consideration in coal liquefaction is the utilization of hydrogen, including both externally- and internally-supplied hydrogen. Because the incorporation of externally-supplied hydrogen during conversion of this very aromatic fossil fuel to, for example, transportation fuels is very expensive, improved utilization of internally-supplied hydrogen can lead to reducing processing costs. The objectives of this investigation, which is Task 3.3.4, Coal Coprocessing, of the 1991--1992 Annual Research Plan, are: (1) to evaluate coal/oil pretreatment conditions that are expected to improve the liquid yield through more efficient dispersion of an oil-soluble, iron-based catalyst, (2) to characterize the coke deposits on novel, supported catalysts after coal liquefaction experiments and to correlate the carbon skeletal structure parameters of the coke deposit with catalyst performance as measured by coal liquefaction product yield, and (3) to determine the modes of hydrogen utilization during coal liquefaction and coprocessing. Experimental results are discussed in this report.

Guffey, F.D.; Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Thomas, K.P. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Zhang, Tiejun; Haynes, H.W. Jr. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

NETL: News Release - Successful Clean Coal Technology Licensed for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6, 2010 6, 2010 Successful Clean Coal Technology Licensed for Commercial Application DOE Receives First Repayment for Liquid Phase Methanol Process Development Washington, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has received the first installment from a repayment agreement for the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(tm)) Process. A royalty license issued for the advanced methanol production system underscores the clean coal technology's presence in the commercial market. The DOE-funded LPMEOH Process, developed in collaboration with Air Products and Chemicals Inc., has been licensed to Woodland Biofuel Inc., who intends to use the technology to develop a wood-gasification process to produce methanol from wood-scrap. The first facility is planned in New York State.

312

Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Maximum Rebate 500 Program Info Start Date 1/1/1994 State Arizona Program Type Personal Deduction Rebate Amount Total cost, exclusive of taxes, interest and other finance charges Provider Arizona Department of Revenue This incentive allows Arizona taxpayers to deduct the cost of converting an existing wood fireplace to a qualifying wood stove. The cost to purchase and install all necessary equipment is tax deductible, up to a maximum $500 deduction. Qualifying wood stoves must meet the standards of performance for new wood heaters manufactured after July 1990, or sold after July 1992 pursuant to [http://www.epa.gov/oecaerth/resources/policies/monitoring/caa/woodstover...

313

Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this proposed research program is to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. During this study, one plant coal and three blend samples will be prepared and utilized. The blend samples will be of a mixture of 90% plant coal + 10% fines, 85% plant coal + 15% fines, 80% plant coal + 20% fines having particle size distribution of 70% passing through {minus}200 mesh size. These samples` combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace will be used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace will be used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc. This report covers the first quarter`s progress. Major activities during this period were focused on finding the plants where a demo MTU column will be installed to prepare the samples needed to characterize the combustion behavior of slurry effluents. Also, a meeting was held at Penn State University to discuss the availability of the laboratory furnace for testing the plant coal/recovered coal fines blends.

Singh, Shyam

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

314

International Energy Outlook - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2004 Coal Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2025. Coal continues to dominate fuel markets in developing Asia. Figure 52. World Coal Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 53. Coal Share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2001 and 2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 54. Coal Share of Regional Energy Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data World coal consumption has been in a period of generally slow growth since

315

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys

316

Hydrogen from Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Coal Edward Schmetz Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels U.S. Department of Energy DOE Workshop on Hydrogen Separations and Purification Technologies September 8, 2004 Presentation Outline ƒ Hydrogen Initiatives ƒ Hydrogen from Coal Central Production Goal ƒ Why Coal ƒ Why Hydrogen Separation Membranes ƒ Coal-based Synthesis Gas Characteristics ƒ Technical Barriers ƒ Targets ƒ Future Plans 2 3 Hydrogen from Coal Program Hydrogen from Coal Program FutureGen FutureGen Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Supports the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative and FutureGen * The Hydrogen Fuel Initiative is a $1.2 billion RD&D program to develop hydrogen

317

NETL: Coal & Power Systems - Brief History of Coal Use  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

History of Coal Coal & Power Systems Brief History of Coal Use Steam Locomotive In the 1800s, one of the primary uses of coal was to fuel steam engines used to power locomotives....

318

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Closely Aligned Programs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > C&CBTL > Closely Aligned Programs Coal and CoalBiomass to Liquids Closely Aligned Programs The Department of Energy's (DOE) Coal & CoalBiomass to Liquids...

319

Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

SciTech Connect

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

NETL: News Release - DOE, Jacksonville Utility Complete Major Clean Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

August 2, 2005 August 2, 2005 DOE, Jacksonville Utility Complete Major Clean Coal Technology Project Eight Year Demonstration Project Results in One of World's Cleanest Coal-Based Power Plants WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy and JEA, the public utility of Florida, have achieved a significant milestone in the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program by completing a project in which JEA's Northside Generating Station was converted into one of the cleanest burning coal-fired power plants in the world. MORE INFO Read the final project report [PDF-438KB] As part of the 8-year, $320 million cost-shared project, JEA installed state-of-the-art technology known as circulating fluidized bed combustion in a 300?megawatt combustor-triple the size of any previous

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

NETL: News Release - Converting Coal Wastes to Clean Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

November 28, 2000 November 28, 2000 Converting Coal Wastes to Clean Energy DOE to Scale Up 3 Projects That Upgrade Coal Fines, Wastes PITTSBURGH, PA - Three new technologies that can help the nation's coal industry turn waste into energy are now ready for scale up, the U.S. Department of Energy said today. MORE INFO Solid Fuels & Feedstocks Program Each of the three recover carbon-rich materials that in the past have been discarded during coal mining and cleaning operations. Using innovative approaches, the technologies remove unwanted water and other impurities and upgrade the waste materials into clean-burning fuels for power plants. The three were first selected for smaller-scale research in August 1998 as part of the Energy Department's Fossil Energy "solid fuels and feedstocks"

322

Encoal mild coal gasification project: Final design modifications report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design, construction and operation Phases of the Encoal Mild Coal Gasification Project have been completed. The plant, designed to process 1,000 ton/day of subbituminous Power River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal feed and to produce two environmentally friendly products, a solid fuel and a liquid fuel, has been operational for nearly five years. The solid product, Process Derived Fuel (PDF), is a stable, low-sulfur, high-Btu fuel similar in composition and handling properties to bituminous coal. The liquid product, Coal Derived Liquid (CDL), is a heavy, low-sulfur, liquid fuel similar in properties to heavy industrial fuel oil. Opportunities for upgrading the CDL to higher value chemicals and fuels have been identified. Significant quantities of both PDF and CDL have been delivered and successfully burned in utility and industrial boilers. A summary of the Project is given.

NONE

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

Baxter, L.L.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

commercial (point sources) Coal Oil Other Area sourcesSource Stationary fuel combugtion Electric utilities Coal Oil

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Upgraded Coal Interest Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

Evan Hughes

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

326

Coal feed lock  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

Pinkel, I. Irving (Fairview Park, OH)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Fly Ash Carbon Burn-Out at TVA's Colbert and Shawnee Stations: Site Specific Application Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fly ash beneficiation using Carbon Burn-Out (CBO) technology offers the opportunity to market fly ash that was previously landfilled. This site application study of beneficiating pulverized coal boiler fly ash at Tennessee Valley Authority's Colbert and Shawnee Stations indicates this process is a cost effective solution for decreasing solid waste disposal, increasing landfill life, improving boiler heat rate, and generating a positive revenue stream.

1996-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

328

Biomass Burning: A Driver for Global Change!  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass burning includes the burning of the world''s vegetation---forests, savannas, and agricultural lands---to clear the land and change its use. Only in the past decade have researchers realized the important contributions of biomass burning to the ...

Levine J. S.; III W. R. Cofer; Jr D. R. Cahoon; Winstead E. L.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

7, 80178033, 2007 burning-tropopause  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 7, 8017­8033, 2007 Biomass burning-tropopause mixing J. Brioude et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Mixing between a stratospheric intrusion and a biomass burning plume J. Brioude1 , O. R. Cooper1.brioude@noaa.gov) 8017 #12;ACPD 7, 8017­8033, 2007 Biomass burning-tropopause mixing J. Brioude et al. Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

330

MFE Burning Plasmas Innovative Confinement Concepts (ICCs)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MFE Burning Plasmas and Innovative Confinement Concepts (ICCs) Bick Hooper LLNL Presentation power requires: · A burning plasma experiment · An advancing portfolio of ICCs · Plasma physics unified Improved Configurations Magnetic Configurations Knowledge Base Burning Plasma Phys. & Tech. Knowledge Base

331

TQ2. Global Biomass Burning What is the impact of global biomass burning on the terrestrial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TQ2. Global Biomass Burning What is the impact of global biomass burning on the terrestrial and land use. MODIS active fire detections 2000-2006 for Southern California 2001-2004 mean annual burned (bottom), expressed as fraction of grid cell that burns each year. From Giglio et al. (2005), Atmos. Chem

Christian, Eric

332

Coal Severance Tax (North Dakota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Coal Severance Tax is imposed on all coal severed for sale or industrial purposes, except coal used for heating buildings in the state, coal used by the state or any political subdivision of...

333

Distribution Library--Wood Poles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has sponsored research and published information on a wide variety of topics related to wood poles for overhead lines. Many of these resources, particularly older publications, are difficult for EPRI members to find and use. To help ensure retention of this valuable knowledge base, EPRI sponsored the project reported herein to capture this information and make it accessible in an easy-to-use electronic media (E-Media) repository.

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

334

Wood Poles Population with Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI's asset management research focuses on developing a rational basis for selecting repair or replacement options for specific classes of equipment by balancing the risks of equipment failure against the costs of continued maintenance or capital replacement. This Model User Guide is a companion to Guidelines for Intelligent Asset Replacement: Volume 4Wood Poles (Expanded Edition), EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2006. 1012500, the fourth report on guidelines for asset replacement, which discusses methods for maki...

2006-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

335

Managing Transmission Line Wood Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transmission and distribution infrastructures throughout the world are aging. As such, inspection, assessment, and maintenance of existing facilities have become increasingly important topics. This valuable reference provides an in-depth look at all facets of an inspection, assessment, and maintenance program for transmission line wood structures to help utilities develop and refine individual maintenance programs. The report is part of a broader multi-year effort by EPRI to develop a comprehensive handb...

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

336

Assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of converting wood residues to liquid and gaseous fuel products using state-of-the-art and advanced coal conversion technology. Second quarterly report, No. DOE-8, GL-10290, September 1, 1978--November 30, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following are reviewed briefly: goal and objectives, contract task schedule, project status, second quarter activity and results, summary, and third quarter plans. The systems under analysis at the current time are summarized as follows: name, status, operating units, product form, coal feedstock size, and other feedstocks tested. (MHR)

Not Available

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Testing of the Burns-Milwaukee's Sun Oven  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Burns-Milwaukee Sun Oven was tested at Sandia's Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 160 o C (320 o F). It heated two liters of water from room temperature to 80 o C, (175 o F), in 75 minutes. Observations were also made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on operation of the solar oven was also noted. ii 1 The Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) at Sandia National Laboratories evaluated a Sun Oven from Burns-Milwaukee at Sandia's Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque NM. It was designed for single family household cooking. It is targeting developing countries' alternative energy markets where conventional fuels are not available and wood is the primary fuel used for cooking. Because of the wide variety and types of solar...

Moss Solar Thermal; T. A. Moss

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

NETL: Coal-Fired Power Plants (CFPPs)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NOx Sources NOx Sources Coal-Fired Power Plants (CFPPs) Causes of greenhouse gases, Including NOx What is NOx? Environmental Impacts NOx Sources Reduction Efforts Several greenhouse gases, including NOx, are increasing due to human activities in the following areas: Burning of fossil fuel (for example, coal-fired power plants), Logging (mainly contributes to carbon monoxide), Agriculture processes, Use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) in holon fire suppression and refrigeration The chart below shows the three major gases contributing to greenhouse gas emissions along with their source by sector. Annual Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Sector Note: This figure was created and copyrighted by Robert A. Rohde from published data and is part of the Global Warming Art project. This image is an original work created for Global Warming Art Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this image under either:

339

Executive roundtable on coal-fired generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power Engineering magazine invited six industry executives from the coal-fired sector to discuss issues affecting current and future prospects of coal-fired generation. The executives are Tim Curran, head of Alstom Power for the USA and Senior Vice President and General Manager of Boilers North America; Ray Kowalik, President and General Manager of Burns and McDonnell Energy Group; Jeff Holmstead, head of Environmental Strategies for the Bracewell Giuliani law firm; Jim Mackey, Vice President, Fluor Power Group's Solid Fuel business line; Tom Shelby, President Kiewit Power Inc., and David Wilks, President of Energy Supply for Excel Energy Group. Steve Blankinship, the magazine's Associate Editor, was the moderator. 6 photos.

NONE

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

Pelletization of fine coals  

SciTech Connect

The present research project attempts to provide a basis to determine the pelletizability of fine coals, to ascertain the role of additives and binders and to establish a basis for binder selection. Currently, there are no established techniques for determining the quality of coal pellets. Our research is intended to develop a series of tests on coal pellets to measure their storage characteristics, transportability, ease of gasification and rate of combustion. Information developed from this research should be valuable for making knowledgeable decisions for on-time plant design, occasional binder selection and frequent process control during the pelletization of coal fines. During the last quarter, we continued the batch pelletization studies on Upper Freeport coal. The results as presented in that last quarterly report (April 1991) indicated that the surface conditions on the coal particle influenced the pelletizing growth rates. For example, a fresh (run of mine) sample of coal will display different pelletizing growth kinetics than a weathered sample of the same coal. Since coal is a heterogeneous material, the oxidized product of coal is equally variable. We found it to be logistically difficult to consistently produce large quantities of artificially oxidized coal for experimental purposes and as such we have used a naturally weathered coal. We have plans to oxidize coals under controlled oxidizing conditions and be able to establish their pelletizing behavior. The next phase of experiments were directed to study the effect of surface modification, introduced during the coal cleaning steps, on pelletizing kinetics. Accordingly, we initiated studies with two additives commonly used during the flotation of coal: dextrin (coal depressant) and dodecane (coal collector).

Sastry, K.V.S.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Coal Combustion Science  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from Residential Wood Combustion, Environmental Science &of emissions from birch wood combustion in a wood stove,from residential wood combustion, Environmental science &

Hosseini, Seyedehsan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

University of Minnesota Energy Production Frequently Asked Questions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Fuel Type Electric Coal Fuel Oil Gas Oat Hulls Blended FY05 Cost $14.97 $1.57 $ 8.17 $4 permit forbids us from burning more than 30% coal and/or fuel oil. In addition we are also permitted to burn oat hulls and wood. The U has dramatically lowered our use of coal. In the late 1990's coal

Gulliver, Robert

344

International perspectives on coal preparation  

SciTech Connect

The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

345

Wabash River Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program. Environmental Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The proposed project would result in a combined-cycle power plant with lower emissions and higher efficiency than most existing coal-fired power plants of comparable size. The net plant heat rate (energy content of the fuel input per useable electrical generation output; i.e., Btu/kilowatt hour) for the new repowered unit would be a 21% improvement over the existing unit, while reducing SO{sub 2} emissions by greater than 90% and limiting NO{sub x} emissions by greater than 85% over that produced by conventional coal-fired boilers. The technology, which relies on gasified coal, is capable of producing as much as 25% more electricity from a given amount of coal than today`s conventional coal-burning methods. Besides having the positive environmental benefit of producing less pollutants per unit of power generated, the higher overall efficiency of the proposed CGCC project encourages greater utilization to meet base load requirements in order to realize the associated economic benefits. This greater utilization (i.e., increased capacity factor) of a cleaner operating plant has global environmental benefits in that it is likely that such power would replace power currently being produced by less efficient plants emitting a greater volume of pollutants per unit of power generated.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Combustion Engineering Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project, Clean Coal Technology Program. Environmental Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The DOE entered into a cooperative agreement with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (C-E) under which DOE proposes to provide cost-shared funding to design, construct, and operate an Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project to repower an existing steam turbine generator set at the Springfield (Illinois) City Water, Light and Power (CWL&P) Lakeside Generating Station, while capturing 90% of the coal`s sulfur and producing elemental sulfur as a salable by-product. The proposed demonstration would help determine the technical and economic feasibility of the proposed IGCC technology on a scale that would allow the utility industry to assess its applicability for repowering other coal-burning power plants. This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by DOE in compliance with the requirements of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The sources of information for this EA include the following: C-E`s technical proposal for the project submitted to DOE in response to the Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Program Opportunity Notice (PON); discussions with C-E and CWL&P staff; the volume of environmental information for the project and its supplements provided by C-E; and a site visit to the proposed project site.

Not Available

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

The First Coal Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Plants Coal Plants Nature Bulletin No. 329-A January 25, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE FIRST COAL PLANTS Coal has been called "the mainspring" of our civilization. You are probably familiar, in a general way, with the story of how it originated ages ago from beds of peat which were very slowly changed to coal; and how it became lignite or brown coal, sub-bituminous, bituminous, or anthracite coal, depending on bacterial and chemical changes in the peat, how much it was compressed under terrific pressure, and the amount of heat involved in the process. You also know that peat is formed by decaying vegetation in shallow clear fresh-water swamps or bogs, but it is difficult to find a simple description of the kinds of plants that, living and dying during different periods of the earth's history, created beds of peat which eventually became coal.

348

Overview of coal conversion  

SciTech Connect

The structure of coal and the processes of coal gasification and coal liquefaction are reviewed. While coal conversion technology is not likely to provide a significant amount of synthetic fuel within the next several years, there is a clear interest both in government and private sectors in the development of this technology to hedge against ever-diminishing petroleum supplies, especially from foreign sources. It is evident from this rather cursory survey that there is some old technology that is highly reliable; new technology is being developed but is not ready for commercialization at the present state of development. The area of coal conversion is ripe for exploration both on the applied and basic research levels. A great deal more must be understood about the reactions of coal, the reactions of coal products, and the physics and chemistry involved in the various stages of coal conversion processes in order to make this technology economically viable.

Clark, B.R.

1981-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

349

Coal Production 1992  

SciTech Connect

Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

1993-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

350

Coal News and Markets  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Over the past month and a half, NAP spot coal prices have been flat or declining (graph above). ... (the walls of coal left in place to support the roof), ...

351

Indonesian coal mining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

Stacker speeds coal recovery  

SciTech Connect

The Spring Creek Coal Co., near Decker, Montana, features the only stacker/reclaimer in the U.S. to stockpile and reclaim coal produced by a dragline/truck-shovel operation.

Jackson, D.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

March 2011 DOEEIA-0121 (201004Q) Revised: July 2012 Quarterly Coal Report October - December 2010 March 2011 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal...

354

Coal Market Module  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

6, DOEEIA-M060(2006) (Washington, DC, 2006). Key Assumptions Coal Production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for...

355

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Chemicals from coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Sixteenth Quarterly Report Regulation of Coal Polymer Degradation by Fungi  

SciTech Connect

Three phenomena which concern coal solubilization and depolymerization were studied during this reporting period. Previous investigations have shown that lignin peroxidases mediate the oxidation of soluble coal macromolecule. Because it appears to be a substrate, soluble coal macromolecule is also an inhibitor of veratryl alcohol oxidation, a reaction that is mediated by these enzymes. The mechanism of inhibition is complex in that oxidation (as assayed by decolorization) of soluble coal macromolecule requires the presence of veratryl alcohol and veratryl alcohol oxidation occurs only after a substantial lag period during which the soluble coal macromolecule is oxidized. In a previous quarterly report we proposed a reaction mechanism by which this may occur. During the present reporting period we showed that our proposed reaction mechanism is consistent with classical enzyme kinetic theory describing enzyme activity in the presence of a potent inhibitor (i.e., an inhibitor with a very low KI ). The oxidative decolorization and depolymerization of soluble coal macromolecule was also studied. Because wood rotting fungi produce hydrogen peroxide via a variety of reactions, we studied the effect of hydrogen peroxide on soluble coal macromolecule decolorization and depolymerization. Results showed that substantial decolorization occurred only at hydrogen peroxide concentrations that are clearly non-physiological (i.e., 50 mM or greater). It was noted, however, that when grown on solid lignocellulosic substrates, wood rotting fungi, overtime, cumulatively could produce amounts of hydrogen peroxide that might cause significant oxidative degradation of soluble coal macromolecule. Thirdly, we have shown that during oxalate mediated solubilization of low rank coal, a pH increase is observed. During this reporting period we have shown that the pH of solutions containing only sodium oxalate also undergo an increase in pH, but to a lesser extent than that observed in mixtures containing sodium oxalate and low rank coal. It is our hypothesis that bicarbonate ion is formed during oxalate mediated solubilization of low rank coal and this is responsible for the increase in pH that is observed. A general reaction by which this occurs is proposed herein.

John A. Bumpus

1998-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

358

NETL: News Release - Commercial Sales of Low-Polluting Clean Coal Burner  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

March 14, 2001 March 14, 2001 Commercial Sales of Low-Polluting Clean Coal Burner Top $1 Billion Abraham Says Commercial Success Shows Benefits of Clean Coal Investment WASHINGTON, DC - An advanced, low-polluting coal combustor is rapidly becoming one of the government's fastest growing clean coal technology success stories. The U.S. Department of Energy today announced that sales of the "low-NOx concentric firing system" (LNCFS?), first pioneered in 1992-92 as part of the federal Clean Coal Technology Program, now top $1 billion. Results show the system is reducing nitrogen oxides, NOx, by nearly 40 percent in older coal burning plants. NOx is one of the air pollutants that contributes to smog, ground-level ozone, and acid rain. According to data compiled by the Energy Department's National Energy Technology Laboratory, 56,000 megawatts of electricity are now being generated in the United States by power plants equipped with the high-tech burner.

359

Coal Industry Annual, 2000  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

Information Center

360

Ore components in coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dependence of the mineral content in coal and concentrates on the degree of metamorphism is analyzed.

Kh.A. Ishhakov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry, Siberian Branch

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Coal Industry Annual, 1996  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

Fred Freme

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Coal Industry Annual, 1997  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

Fred Freme

1998-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

363

Coal Industry Annual, 1995  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

Fred Freme

1996-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

364

Coal Industry Annual, 1998  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

Fred Freme

2000-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

365

Coal Industry Annual, 1994  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

Fred Freme

1996-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

366

Coal gasification apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Method for fluorinating coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

Huston, John L. (Skokie, IL); Scott, Robert G. (Westmont, IL); Studier, Martin H. (Downers Grove, IL)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Coal News and Markets  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... (Energy Publishing, Coal & Energy Price Report, Bulletin, ... Although, the soaring demands of the Chinese steel industry are still with us, ...

369

Coal Industry Annual, 1999  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves.

Information Center

370

COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a process to produce a stable, clean-burning, premium fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and other low-rank coals. This process is designed to overcome the problems of spontaneous combustion, dust formation, and readsorption of moisture that are experienced with PRB coal and with processed PRB coal. This process, called COMPCOAL{trademark}, results in high-Btu product that is intended for burning in boilers designed for midwestern coals or for blending with other coals. In the COMPCOAL process, sized coal is dried to zero moisture content and additional oxygen is removed from the coal by partial decarboxylation as the coal is contacted by a stream of hot fluidizing gas in the dryer. The hot, dried coal particles flow into the pyrolyzer where they are contacted by a very small flow of air. The oxygen in the air reacts with active sites on the surface of the coal particles causing the temperature of the coal to be raised to about 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) and oxidizing the most reactive sites on the particles. This ``instant aging`` contributes to the stability of the product while only reducing the heating value of the product by about 50 Btu/lb. Less than 1 scf of air per pound of dried coal is used to avoid removing any of the condensible liquid or vapors from the coal particles. The pyrolyzed coal particles are mixed with fines from the dryer cyclone and dust filter and the resulting mixture at about 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) is fed into a briquettor. Briquettes are cooled to about 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C) by contact with a mist of water in a gas-tight mixing conveyor. The cooled briquettes are transferred to a storage bin where they are accumulated for shipment.

Smith, V.E.; Merriam, N.W.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Coal production 1989  

SciTech Connect

Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

372

Flash hydrogenation of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

Manowitz, Bernard (Brightwaters, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY); Sheehan, Thomas V. (Hampton Bays, NY); Winsche, Warren E. (Bellport, NY); Raseman, Chad J. (Setauket, NY)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Proceedings: Coal Combustion Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of the 2007 Coal Combustion workshop was to present a holistic view of the various combustion processes required for minimal emissions, peak performance, and maximum reliability in a coal-fired power plant. The workshop also defined needs for future RD in coal combustion technology.

2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

374

Coal Market Module  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System's (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 (AEO2013). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM's two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

Michael Mellish

2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

375

Coal-Mac, Inc. Phoenix No. 1 mine provides wildlife haven. 2007 Wildlife West Virginia Award  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal Mac, Inc.'s Harless Wood Industrial Park off Holden 22 Mines Road in Logan Country, West Virginia is an award-winning reclamation site in the mountains frequented by geese, wild turkey, deer and black bears. Orchard grass and rye is a temporary cover for the timothy, clover and other seedlings. The area was mined several years ago. Some 40,000-50,000 tons of coal per month are surfaced mined with the current permit that takes in 1,500-2,000 acres. After removing the coal, valleys are backfilled as part of the mining and reclamation plan. 10 photos.

Skinner, A.

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Two Stage Liquefaction With Illinois 6 Coal: Volume 1: Run 247  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the operating results for Run 247 at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R&D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. This run operated in a Two-Stage Liquefaction (TSL) mode using Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal from the Burning Star mine. The primary run objective was to obtain performance data for the TSL system and the individual process units with particular emphasis on hydrotreating catalyst performance. Secondary objectives were to demonstrate operability for the system and the respective ...

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

NETL: Coal-Fired Power Plants (CFPPs)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Sources Coal-Fired Power Plants (CFPPs) Where is the coal in the United States? Coal Across the U.S. The U.S. contains coal resources in various places. The coal occurs...

378

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... Sec Ht Eqp Built-in room heater burning,4,20,Numeric WOODKILN,Sec Ht Eqp Heating stove burning wood coal coke,4,21,Numeric CARRYEL,Sec Ht Eqp ...

379

Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in Estonia Biomass Utilisation of Local in Estonia in 1995 - 2002 Regional Energy Centres in Estonia http://www.managenergy.net/conference/biomass

380

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical feasibility of producing methanol from wood is demonstrated and sufficient cost data is provided to allow an assessment of the economic viability.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Life Cycle Assessment of Wood Pellet.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The primary purpose of this project is to assess the environmental impacts associated with the wood pellet production. The study has extended to the entire… (more)

Chen, Siyu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 43.568752, -90.330887 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlem...

383

EIA Energy Kids - Wood - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1860: Wood was the primary fuel for heating and cooking in homes and businesses, and was used for steam in industries, trains, and boats.

384

The Bending of Wood With Steam.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Based on experimentation with the steam bending of wood to curved shapes, this thesis describes my involvement with three basic aspects of the process. First… (more)

Cottey Jr., James H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Development of a Coal Quality Expert  

SciTech Connect

ABB Power Plant Laboratories Combustion Engineering, Inc., (ABB CE) and CQ Inc. completed a broad, comprehensive program to demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits of using higher quality U.S. coals for electrical power generation and developed state-of-the-art user-friendly software--Coal Quality Expert (CQE)-to reliably predict/estimate these benefits in a consistent manner. The program was an essential extension and integration of R and D projects performed in the past under U.S. DOE and EPRI sponsorship and it expanded the available database of coal quality and power plant performance information. This software will permit utilities to purchase the lowest cost clean coals tailored to their specific requirements. Based on common interest and mutual benefit, the subject program was cosponsored by the U.S. DOE, EPRI, and eight U.S. coal-burning utilities. In addition to cosponsoring this program, EPN contributed its background research, data, and computer models, and managed some other supporting contracts under the terms of a project agreement established between CQ Inc. and EPRI. The essential work of the proposed project was performed under separate contracts to CQ Inc. by Electric Power Technologies (El?'T), Black and Veatch (B and V), ABB Combustion Engineering, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and Decision Focus, Inc. Although a significant quantity of the coals tied in the United States are now cleaned to some degree before firing, for many of these coals the residual sulfur content requires users to install expensive sulfur removal systems and the residual ash causes boilers to operate inefficiently and to require frequent maintenance. Disposal of the large quantities of slag and ash at utility plant sites can also be problematic and expensive. Improved and advanced coal cleaning processes can reduce the sulfur content of many coals to levels conforming to environmental standards without requiring post-combustion desulfurization systems. Also, some coals may be beneficiated or blended to a quality level where significantly less costly desulfurization systems are needed. Coal cleaning processes may also be used to remove the precursors of other troublesome emissions that can be identified now or in the future. An added benefit of coal cleaning and blending is the reduction in concentrations of mineral impurities in the fuel leading to improved performance and operation of the'' boiler in which it is fired. The ash removed during the pre-combustion cleaning process can be more easily and safely disposed of at the mine than at the utility plant after combustion. EPRI's Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM) has shown that improved fuel quality can result in savings in unit capital and operating costs. This project produced new and improved software to select coal types and specifications resulting in the best quality and lowest cost fuel to meet specific environmental requirements.

None

1998-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

386

NETL: Coal Utilization By-Products (CUB)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Coal Utilization Byproducts Innovations for Existing Plants Solid Waste (Coal Utilization...

387

Mathematical simulation of temperature profiles within microwave heated wood made for wood-based nanocomposites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High intensive microwave pretreatment is a new method to modify wood for the fabrication of wood-based nanocomposites. Based on the physical law on heat transfer, a mathematical model to describe the temperature profiles within wood heated by high intensive ...

Xianjun Li, Yongfeng Luo, Hongbin Chen, Xia He, Jianxiong Lv, Yiqiang Wu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Deployment of coal briquettes and improved stoves: possibly an option for both environment and climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of coal briquettes and improved stoves by Chinese households has been encouraged by the government as a means of reducing air pollution and health impacts. In this study we have shown that these two improvements also relate to climate change. Our experimental measurements indicate that, if all coal were burned as briquettes in improved stoves, particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) could be annually reduced by 63 {+-} 12%, 61 {+-} 10%, and 98 {+-} 1.7%, respectively. Also, the ratio of BC to OC (BC/OC) could be reduced by about 97%, from 0.49 to 0.016, which would make the primary emissions of household coal combustion more optically scattering. Therefore, it is suggested that the government consider the possibility of: (i) phasing out direct burning of bituminous raw-coal-chunks in households; (ii) phasing out simple stoves in households; and, (iii) financially supporting the research, production, and popularization of improved stoves and efficient coal briquettes. These actions may have considerable environmental benefits by reducing emissions and mitigating some of the impacts of household coal burning on the climate. International cooperation is required both technologically and financially to accelerate the emission reduction in the world. 50 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Guorui Zhi; Conghu Peng; Yingjun Chen; Dongyan Liu; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Coal recovery process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

Good, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY); Badgujar, Mohan (Williamsville, NY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Coal Blending for NOx Reductions and Performance Improvements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Following its formation and initial meeting in 1995, the Alabama Fuels Development Consortium (AFDC) identified its highest priority as mitigating the adverse effects of burning low-volatile Alabama coals. These adverse effects included increased NOx emissions and flame instability. A pilot-scale AFDC study in 1995 and larger-scale projects conducted in partnership with EPRI in 1996 (Shoal Creek/Mina Pribbenow Blend Firing Demonstration) and 1997 (Shoal Creek/Mina Pribbenow Blend Milling Demonstration) m...

2004-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

391

Economic impacts of wood energy in the Northeast, 1985: State report: Northeast Regional Biomass Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the economic impacts of wood energy for the 11 Northeastern states. The report begins with a brief description of the types of economic impacts estimated in the study. The direct economic impacts are the jobs and income directly attributable to wood energy activities. They are referred to as first round impacts since they reflect the economic activity generated by the first spending of the fuelwood dollar, from the consumer to the supplier. Direct impacts include employment in logging, transport, and end-use operations such as chimney sweeping and boiler operating. Direct impacts also include personal income to employees, payments of stumpage fees to landowners, and profits earned by fuelwood enterprises. Indirect employment and income result from purchases made by fuelwood supply businesses, purpose made by the employees of fuelwood supply businesses, and purchases made by wood burning households or companies for wood combustion system installation, construction, and maintenance. They include purchases of equipment, spare parts, supplies, and services, including financial services.

Chamberlin, R.; High, C.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Coal | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal is the largest domestically produced source of energy in America and is used to generate a significant chunk of our nation's electricity. The Energy Department is working to develop technologies that make coal cleaner, so we can ensure it plays a part in our clean energy future. The Department is also investing in development of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies, also referred to as carbon capture, utilization and sequestration. Featured Energy Secretary Moniz Visits Clean Coal Facility in Mississippi On Friday, Nov. 8, 2013, Secretary Moniz and international energy officials toured Kemper, the nation's largest carbon capture and storage facility, in Liberty, Mississippi. A small Mississippi town is making history with the largest carbon capture

393

Coal: the new black  

SciTech Connect

Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

394

Coal production: 1980  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

US coal production and related data are reported for the year 1980, with similar data for 1979 given for comparison. The data here collected on Form EIA-7A, coal production report, from 3969 US mines that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1980. Among the items covered are production, prices, employment, productivity, stocks, and recoverable reserves. Data are reported by state, county, coal producing district, type of mining, and by type of coal (anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite). Also included are a glossary of coal terms used, a map of the coal producing disricts, and form EIA-7A with instructions. 14 figures, 63 tables.

Not Available

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Trends, 2001 - 2010 Trends, 2001 - 2010 Transportation infrastructure overview In 2010, railroads transported over 70 percent of coal delivered to electric power plants which are generally concentrated east of the Mississippi River and in Texas. The U.S. railroad market is dominated by four major rail companies that account for 99 percent of U.S. coal rail shipments by volume. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by mode Rail Barge Truck Figure 2. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by rail, 2010 figure data Figure 3. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by barge, 2010 figure data Figure 4. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by truck, 2010 figure data The Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana, where coal is extracted in

396

Quarterly Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed U.S. domestic coal distribution data by coal origin state, coal destination state, mode of ...

397

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prices in 2007 real $ Coal Prices Coal prices have been farprices. Factors like coal prices and EOR revenues affect theCoal Prices..

Phadke, Amol

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Quarterly Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed U.S. domestic coal distribution data by coal origin state, coal destination state, mode of ...

399

Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a system which effectively integrates a two-stage, fixed-bed coal gasification arrangement with hot fuel gas desulfurization of a first stream of fuel gas from a lower stage of the two-stage gasifier and the removal of sulfur from the sulfur sorbent regeneration gas utilized in the fuel-gas desulfurization process by burning a second stream of fuel gas from the upper stage of the gasifier in a combustion device in the presence of calcium-containing material. The second stream of fuel gas is taken from above the fixed bed in the coal gasifier and is laden with ammonia, tar and sulfur values. This second stream of fuel gas is burned in the presence of excess air to provide heat energy sufficient to effect a calcium-sulfur compound forming reaction between the calcium-containing material and sulfur values carried by the regeneration gas and the second stream of fuel gas. Any ammonia values present in the fuel gas are decomposed during the combustion of the fuel gas in the combustion chamber. The substantially sulfur-free products of combustion may then be combined with the desulfurized fuel gas for providing a combustible fluid utilized for driving a prime mover. 1 fig.

Bissett, L.A.; Strickland, L.D.

1990-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

400

Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BCR National Laboratory (BCRNL) has initiated a project aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of using a rotary kiln, suitably modified, to burn Pennsylvania anthracite wastes, co-fired with high-sulfur bituminous coal. Limestone will be injected into the kiln for sulfur control, to determine whether high sulfur capture levels can be achieved with high sorbent utilization. The principal objectives of this work are: (1) to prove the feasibility of burning anthracite refuse, with co-firing of high-sulfur bituminous coal and with limestone injection for sulfur emissions control, in a rotary kiln fitted with a Universal Energy International (UEI) air injector system; (2) to determine the emissions levels of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} and specifically to identify the Ca/S ratios that are required to meet New Source Performance Standards; (3) to evaluate the technical and economic merits of a commercial rotary kiln combustor in comparison to fluidized bed combustors; and, (4) to ascertain the need for further work, including additional combustion tests, prior to commercial application, and to recommend accordingly a detailed program towards this end.

Cobb, J.T. Jr.

1990-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Actinide Burning in CANDU Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Actinide burning in CANDU reactors has been studied as a method of reducing the actinide content of spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, and thereby decreasing the associated long term decay heat load. In this work simulations were performed of actinides mixed with natural uranium to form a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and also mixed with silicon carbide to form an inert matrix (IMF) fuel. Both of these fuels were taken to a higher burnup than has previously been studied. The total transuranic element destruction calculated was 40% for the MOX fuel and 71% for the IMF. (authors)

Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents  

SciTech Connect

A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

Tarrer, Arthur R. (Auburn, AL); Shridharani, Ketan G. (Auburn, AL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Treatment of Wood Preserving Wastewater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The wastewater produced by the wood preserving industry presents a difficult problem to treat economically. A review of the literature indicates the size of the industry has limited the pursuit of an orderly and economic solution. Atmospheric evaporation was one possible means of treatment which had not been studied to any great degree. Two bench scale evaporation units were employed to determine the fundamental relationships affecting wastewater quality during such treatment. In batch evaporation tests, it was repeatedly demonstrated that a constant rate of total organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal occurred as the wastewater was evaporated. A procedure for designing atmospheric evaporation ponds was developed and applied to a hypothetical wood preserving plant. From this example design estimates of equivalent hydrocarbon concentrations in the air downwind of the pond are made. Various other design considerations such as the input data, modifications to the design procedure, solids accumulation, and miscellaneous design aspects are discussed. A treatment scheme incorporating atmospheric evaporation ponds after chemical coagulation and settling is proposed.

Reynolds, T. D.; Shack, P. A.

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Management Practices for Used Treated Wood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pentachlorophenol, creosote, and other chemicals are used to preserve poles, crossarms, and railroad ties for the electric, telecommunications, and railroad industries. Each year, millions of pieces of treated wood are retired. This report provides information on current and potential options for management of used treated wood.

1995-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

405

Modeling and Rendering Physically-Based Wood Combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes extensions to existing methods for rendering of the effects of combustion on a wood object, adding considerations for wood grain and moisture content.

Riensche, Roderick M.; Lewis, Robert R.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration...

407

Upgraded coal interest group. First quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The interest group got under way effective January 1, 1994, with nine utility members, EPRI, Bechtel, and the Illinois Clean Coal Institute. DOE participation was effective October 1, 1994. The first meeting was held on April 22, 1994 in Springfield, Illinois and the second meeting was held on August 10--11, 1994 at Johnstown, Pennsylvania. Technical reviews were prepared in several areas, including the following: status of low rank coal upgrading, advanced physical coal cleaning, organic sulfur removal from coal, handling of fine coal, combustion of coal water slurries. It was concluded that, for bituminous coals, processing of fines from coal cleaning plants or impoundments was going to be less costly than processing of coal, since the fines were intrinsically worth less and advanced upgrading technologies require fine coal. Penelec reported on benefits of NOX reductions when burning slurry fuels. Project work was authorized in the following areas: Availability of fines (CQ, Inc.), Engineering evaluations (Bechtel), and Evaluation of slurry formulation and combustion demonstrations (EER/MATS). The first project was completed.

Weber, W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Lebowitz, H.E. [Fossil Fuel Sciences, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

408

Uniform-burning matrix burner  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Anselmo, Mark (Arvada, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Wood3 Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wood3 Resources Wood3 Resources Jump to: navigation, search Name Wood3 Resources Place Houston, Texas Zip 77056-2409 Product Wood3 Resources is an energy project development firm run by former Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chairman Pat Wood. Coordinates 29.76045°, -95.369784° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.76045,"lon":-95.369784,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

410

Wood Energy Production Credit | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood Energy Production Credit Wood Energy Production Credit Wood Energy Production Credit < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Bioenergy Maximum Rebate Credit may be claimed for a period of five years Program Info Start Date 12/30/1998 (most recent revision) State Missouri Program Type Corporate Tax Credit Rebate Amount $5 per ton of processed materials Provider Missouri Department of Natural Resources Note: No new credits are being issued, effective July 1, 2013. This entry is for informational purposes only. The Wood Energy Tax Credit, as effective January 1, 1997, allows individuals or businesses processing Missouri forestry industry residues into fuels an income tax credit of $5.00 per ton of processed material (e.g., wood pellets). A multiplier of 4 applies to charcoal, based on the

411

Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

Jonathan Bolling

2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

412

Coal sector profile  

SciTech Connect

Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

1990-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

413

In Situ Burning of Oil Spills  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... burns, the Teflon filters were weighed and sealed in Petri dishes, while the ... terrain, solar heating and surface friction creates a tur- bulent wind field ...

2001-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

414

The Performance Culture of Burning Man.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Theatre in the United States for the last twenty years has been evolving in scope by way of a cultural phenomenon known as Burning Man.… (more)

Clupper, Wendy Ann

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Two Stage Liquefaction With Illinois 6 Coal: Volume 3: Run 250  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the operating results for Run 250 at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R&D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. This run operated in a Two-Stage Liquefaction (TSL) mode using Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal from the Burning Star mine. The primary run objective was demonstration of unit and system operability for bituminous coal in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) mode of operation. In CC-ITSL the products from the thermal (first stage) reactor are sent directly ...

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a relatively new technology that is used commercially for the combustion of coal. In Illinois, this technology is valuable because it allows the combustion of Illinois high sulfur coal without pollution of the atmosphere with vast quantities of sulfur oxides. In FBC, coal is mixed with limestone or dolomite either before injection into the combustion chamber or in the combustion chamber. As the coal burns, sulfur in the coal is oxidized to SO{sub 2} and this is trapped by reaction with the limestone or dolomite to form gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O). Solid by-products from FBC are generally a mixture of calcium oxide, gypsum, coal ash, and unburned coal. The present research project is designed to provide initial data on one possible use of FBC waste. FBC wastes from five different locations in the Illinois are mixed with coal slurry solids from two different coal preparation plants at Illinois coal mines. In mixtures of FBC waste and coal slurry solids, the alkaline components of the FBC waste are expected to react with acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in the coal slurry solid. An objective of this research is to determine the chemical composition of aqueous leachates from mixtures of FBC wastes, generated under various operating conditions, and the coal slurry solids. These data will be used in future research into the ability of such mixtures to support seed germination and plant growth. The ultimate of this and future research is to determine whether mixed FBC waste and coal slurry solids can be slurry pond reclamation.

Dreher, G.B.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, April 1993--June 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and carrying out a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. All three coals used in this study (Black Thunder, Burning Star bituminous, and Martin Lake lignite) are effectively swelled by a number of solvents. The most effective solvents are those having hetero-functionality. In addition, a synergistic effect has been demonstrated, in which solvent blends are more effective for coal swelling than the pure solvents alone. Therefore, it will be necessary to use only low levels of swelling agents and yet promote the impregnation of catalyst precursors. The rate of the impregnation of catalyst precursors into swollen coal increases greatly as the effectiveness of the solvent to swell the coal increases. This effect is also demonstrated by improved catalyst precursor impregnation with increased contact temperature. Laboratory- and bench-scale liquefaction experimentation is underway using swelled and catalyst impregnated coal samples. Higher coal conversions were observed for the SO{sub 2}-treated coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Conversions of swelled coal were highest when Molyvan-L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively, were added to the liquefaction solvent.

Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a particular type of coal, each of which is inherentlyThere are four classes of coal: bituminous, sub-bituminous,minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline Fuel

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit for Pulverized Coal-Fired...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit for Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants with In-Situ CO 2 Capture Background Pulverized coal (PC)-fired power plants provide nearly 50% of...

420

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the costs have on the price of coal delivered by railroadsindicate that the price of coal delivered by railroads ismake up the delivered price of coal that electric plants are

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 03 7 Co-combustion of Biosolids with Wood Pellets in a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract- Co-combustion of biosolids with coal or other biomass fuel can play a significant role in combustion facilities for energy production and waste management policy context. This paper presents the results of an experimental study to investigate the use of biosolids for cocombustion with wood pellets in a wood pellet stove. Fuel property, gas emissions and stove efficiency are compared. In regard to fuel properties, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and heating values are determined and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) are measured and compared. Pilot scale combustion tests revealed that cocombustion of 10 % biosolids with 90% wood pellets resulted in successful combustion without any significant degradation of efficiency and emissions. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were found to be proportional with the N2 content in the fuel. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions were negligible. Index Terms- Biosolids, co-combustion, wood pellet stove, performance and emissions.

Wood Pellet Stove; Murari Mohon Roy; Animesh Dutta; Kenny Corscadden; Peter Havard

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

NETL: Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) - Round 3  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Industrial Applications Industrial Applications Blast Furnace Granular-Coal Injection System Demonstration Project - Project Brief [PDF-314KB] Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS Final Reports Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System Demonstration Project, Project Performance and Economics, Final Report Vol. 2 [PDF-3.8MB] (Oct 1999) Annual/Quarterly Technical Reports Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project, Annual Reports January - December 1998 [PDF-1.7MB] January - December 1997 [PDF-1.7MB] January - December 1996 [PDF-1.7MB] January - December 1995 [PDF-2.6MB] January - December 1994 [PDF-2MB] (July 1995) January - December 1993[PDF-1.5MB] (June 1994) CCT Reports: Project Performance Summaries, Post-Project Assessments, & Topical Reports

423

Agglomerating combustor-gasifier method and apparatus for coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for gasifying coal wherein the gasification takes place in a spout fluid bed at a pressure of about 10 to 30 atmospheres and a temperature of about 1800.degree. to 2200.degree.F and wherein the configuration of the apparatus and the manner of introduction of gases for combustion and fluidization is such that agglomerated ash can be withdrawn from the bottom of the apparatus and gas containing very low dust loading is produced. The gasification reaction is self-sustaining through the burning of a stoichiometric amount of coal with air in the lower part of the apparatus to form the spout within the fluid bed. The method and apparatus are particularly suitable for gasifying coarse coal particles.

Chen, Joseph L. P. (Murrysville, PA); Archer, David H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1976-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

424

Preparation and combustion of coal-water fuel from the Sin Pun coal deposit, southern Thailand  

SciTech Connect

In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources in Thailand, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a program to assess the responsiveness of Sin Pun lignite to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying. The results indicate that drying made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 27 wt% for the raw coal to about 15 wt% for the hot-water-dried (HWD) coals. The energy density for a pumpable coal-water fuel (CWF) indicates an increase from 4500 to 6100 Btu/lb by hot-water drying. Approximately 650 lb of HWD Sin Pun CWF were fired in the EERC`s combustion test facility. The fuel burned extremely well, with no feed problems noted during the course of the test. Fouling and slagging deposits each indicated a very low rate of ash deposition, with only a dusty layer formed on the cooled metal surfaces. The combustor was operated at between 20% and 25% excess air, resulting in a flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration averaging approximately 6500 parts per million.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Combustion Engineering Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project, Clean Coal Technology Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The DOE entered into a cooperative agreement with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (C-E) under which DOE proposes to provide cost-shared funding to design, construct, and operate an Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project to repower an existing steam turbine generator set at the Springfield (Illinois) City Water, Light and Power (CWL P) Lakeside Generating Station, while capturing 90% of the coal's sulfur and producing elemental sulfur as a salable by-product. The proposed demonstration would help determine the technical and economic feasibility of the proposed IGCC technology on a scale that would allow the utility industry to assess its applicability for repowering other coal-burning power plants. This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by DOE in compliance with the requirements of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The sources of information for this EA include the following: C-E's technical proposal for the project submitted to DOE in response to the Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Program Opportunity Notice (PON); discussions with C-E and CWL P staff; the volume of environmental information for the project and its supplements provided by C-E; and a site visit to the proposed project site.

Not Available

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4Q 2009 4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by transportation mode. The data sources beginning with the 2008 Coal Distribution Report

427

WCI Case for Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Coal The role of as an energy source The role of coal as an energy source Key Messages * Energy demand has grown strongly and will continue to increase, particularly in developing countries where energy is needed for economic growth and poverty alleviation. * All energy sources will be needed to satisfy that demand by providing a diverse and balanced supply mix. * Coal is vital for global energy security. It is abundantly available, affordable, reliable and easy and safe to transport. * In an energy hungry world the challenge for coal, as for other fossil fuels, is to further substantially reduce its greenhouse gas and other emissions, while continuing to make a major contribution to economic and social development and energy security. * Coal is part way down a technology pathway that has already delivered major

428

The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL{reg_sign} Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL{reg_sign} was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL{reg_sign} was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of $90,664,000. ENCOAL{reg_sign} operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL{trademark}). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall objective, the following goals were established for the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Project: Provide sufficient quantity of products for full-scale test burns; Develop data for the design of future commercial plants; Demonstrate plant and process performance; Provide capital and O&M cost data; and Support future LFC{trademark} technology licensing efforts. Each of these goals has been met and exceeded. The plant has been in operation for nearly 5 years, during which the LFC{trademark} process has been demonstrated and refined. Fuels were made, successfully burned, and a commercial-scale plant is now under contract for design and construction.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2002-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

Integrated coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a process for the liquefaction of coal in which coal liquids containing phenols and other oxygenated compounds are produced during the liquefaction step and later hydrogenated, oxygenated compounds are removed from at least part of the coal liquids in the naphtha and gas oil boiling range prior to the hydrogenation step and employed as a feed stream for the manufacture of a synthesis gas or for other purposes.

Effron, Edward (Springfield, NJ)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Gasification of Lignite Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report on the gasification of lignite coal is presented in two parts. The first includes research into technology options for preparing low-rank fuels for gasification, gasifiers for converting the coal into synthesis gas, and technologies that may be used to convert synthesis gas into valuable chemical products. The second part focuses on performance and cost screening analyses for either Greenfield or retrofit gasification options fueled by low-rank lignite coal. The work was funded through Tailor...

2009-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

431

AIAA 2001-0339 INTERMITTENT BURNING AND ITS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AIAA 2001-0339 INTERMITTENT BURNING AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO PLATEAU BURNING OF COMPOSITE and Astronautics, Inc. with permission. INTERMITTENT BURNING AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO PLATEAU BURNING OF COMPOSITE; Fellow AIAA §Senior Research Engineer Abstract The plateau burning behavior of composite solid

Seitzman, Jerry M.

432

Improvement of storage, handling, and transportability of fine coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Mulled Coal process was developed as a means of overcoming the adverse handling characteristics of wet fine coal without thermal drying. The process involves the addition of a low cost harmless reagent to wet fine coal using off-the-shelf mixing equipment. Based on laboratory- and bench-scale testing, Mulled Coal can be stored, shipped, and burned without causing any of the plugging, pasting, carryback and freezing problems normally associated with wet coal. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate that: The Mulled Coal process, which has been proven to work on a wide range of wet fine coals at bench scale, will work equally well in a commercial coal preparation plant. The wet product from a fine coal cleaning circuit can be converted to a solid fuel form for ease of handling and cost savings in storage and rail car transportation. A wet fine coal product thus converted to a solid fuel form can be stored, shipped, and burned with conventional fuel handling, transportation, and combustion systems. The Mulled Coal circuit was installed in an empty bay at the Chetopa Preparation Plant. Equipment has been installed to divert a 2.7 tonnes/hr (3 tons/hr) slipstream of the froth concentrate to a dewatering centrifuge. The concentrated wet coal fines from the centrifuge dropped through a chute directly into a surge hopper and feed system for the Mulled Coal circuit. The Mulled Coal product was gravity discharged from the circuit to a truck or product discharge area from which it will be hauled to a stockpile located at the edge of the clean coal stockpile area. During the 3-month operating period, the facility produced 870 tonnes (966 tons) of the Muffed Coal for evaluation in various storage, handling, and transportation equipment and operations. Immediately following the production demonstration, the circuit was disassembled and the facility was decommissioned.

1996-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

433

Mercury emission control for coal fired power plants using coal and biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mercury is a leading concern among the air toxic metals addressed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) because of its volatility, persistence, and bioaccumulation as methylmercury in the environment and its neurological health impacts. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports for 2001 shows that total mercury emissions from all sources in USA is about 145 tons per annum, of which coal fired power plants contribute around 33% of it, about 48 tons per annum. Unlike other trace metals that are emitted in particulate form, mercury is released in vapor phase in elemental (Hg0) or oxidized (Hg2+, mainly HgCl2) form. To date, there is no post combustion treatment which can effectively capture elemental mercury vapor, but the oxidized form of mercury can be captured in traditional emission control devices such as wet flue gas defulrization (WFGD) units, since oxidized mercury (HgCl2) is soluble in water. The chlorine concentration present during coal combustion plays a major role in mercury oxidation, which is evident from the fact that plants burning coal having high chlorine content have less elemental mercury emissions. A novel method of co-firing blends of low chlorine content coal with high chlorine content cattle manure/biomass was used in order to study its effect on mercury oxidation. For Texas Lignite and Wyoming coal the concentrations of chlorine are 139 ppm and 309 ppm on dry ash free basis, while for Low Ash Partially Composted Dairy Biomass it is 2,691 ppm. Co-firing experiments were performed in a 100,000 BTU/hr (29.3 kWt) Boiler Burner facility located in the Coal and Biomass Energy laboratory (CBEL); coal and biomass blends in proportions of 80:20, 90:10, 95:5 and 100:0 were investigated as fuels. The percentage reduction of Hg with 95:5, 90:10 and 80:20 blends were measured to be 28- 50%, 42-62% and 71-75% respectively. Though cattle biomass serves as an additive to coal, to increase the chlorine concentration, it leads to higher ash loading. Low Ash and High Ash Partially Composted Dairy Biomass have 164% and 962% more ash than Wyoming coal respectively. As the fraction of cattle biomass in blend increases in proportion, ash loading problems increase simultaneously. An optimum blend ratio is arrived and suggested as 90:10 blend with good reduction in mercury emissions without any compromise on ash loading.

Arcot Vijayasarathy, Udayasarathy

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Weekly NYMEX Coal Futures  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) Report provides settlement price data for Central Appalachian (CAPP), Western Powder River Basin (PRB), and Eastern CSX Transportation (CSX) coal futures.

Information Center

435

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

figure data Figure 7 shows the percent change in average real rates for those state-to-state ... Estimated transportation rates for coal delivered to electric ...

436

Coal News and Markets  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Speaking about Consol Energy’s 1Q05 earnings, J. Brett Harvey, president and CEO, noted that the “pricing environment for our coal is excellent, ...

437

Coal liquefaction quenching process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Quarterly Coal Report  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

December 2010 DOEEIA-0121 (201003Q) Revised: July 2012 Quarterly Coal Report July - September 2010 December 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and...

439

Coal Combustion Products: Challenges  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Products: Challenges and Opportunities American Coal Ash Association Conference St. Petersburg, FL January 27-30, 2003 Carl O. Bauer National Energy Technology Laboratory...

440

Initiators of coal hydrogenation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results are given of an investigation of the influence of additions of certain organosilicon compounds of cyclic and linear nature on the coal hydrogenation process.

Krichko, A.A.; Dembovskaya, E.A.; Gorlov, E.G.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Clean Coal Projects (Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation directs the Virginia Air Pollution Control Board to facilitate the construction and implementation of clean coal projects by expediting the permitting process for such projects.

442

Coal Development (Nebraska)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This section provides for the development of newly-discovered coal veins in the state, and county aid for such development.

443

Direct Coal Liquefaction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

solvent. * The coal fragments are further hydrocracked to produce a synthetic crude oil. * This synthetic crude must then undergo refinery upgrading and hydrotreating to...

444

Handbook of coal analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Handbook deals with the various aspects of coal analysis and provides a detailed explanation of the necessary standard tests and procedures that are applicable to coal in order to help define usage and behavior relative to environmental issues. It provides details of the meaning of various test results and how they might be applied to predict coal behavior during use. Emphasis is on ASTM standards and test methods but ISO and BSI standards methods are included. Chapter headings are: Coal analysis; Sampling and sample preparation; Proximate analysis; Ultimate analysis; Mineral matter; Physical and electrical properties; Thermal properties; Mechanical properties; Spectroscopic properties; Solvent properties; and Glossary.

James G. Speight

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Technical progress report, Run 243 with Illinois 6 coal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the operating results for Run 243 at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R and D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. This run was made in an Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) mode using Illinois 6 coal from the Burning Star mine. The primary objective was to demonstrate the effect of a dissolver on the ITSL product slate, especially on the net C/sub 1/-C/sub 5/ gas production and hydrogen consumption. Run 243 began on 3 February 1983 and continued through 28 June 1983. During this period, 349.8 tons of coal was fed in 2947 hours of operation. Thirteen special product workup material balances were defined, and the results are presented herein. 29 figures, 19 tables.

Not Available

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Mutiny on the Bounty or Bountiful Mutants? Diversity and Composition of Wood-Decaying Macrofungi on Hibiscus Tiliaceus Wood in French Polynesia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B. G. Jonsson. 1995. Wood-inhabiting fungi and substratumand S. C. Watkinson. 1995. Wood decomposition, higher fungi,combative interaction between wood-decaying basidiomycetes.

Wheaton, Felicia

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Annul Coal Consumption by Country (1980 -2009) Total annual coal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Annul Coal Consumption by Country (1980 -2009) Total annual coal consumption by country, 1980 to 2009 (available as Quadrillion Btu). Compiled by Energy Information Administration...

448

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Reference Shelf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reference Shelf Coal and CoalBiomass to Liquids Reference Shelf Documents Papers Presentations DOCUMENTS 2012 Technology Readiness Assessment-Analysis of Active Research Portfolio...

449

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Project Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Project Information CoalBiomass Feed and Gasification Development of Biomass-Infused Coal Briquettes for Co-Gasification FE0005293 Development of Kinetics and Mathematical...

450

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle ( IGCC)coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)will be integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (Same

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Credit Extra Fuel Oil Coal to gasifier Na cost· Na processoiL Replace res. with coal as gasifier feed. 543 ton/day @$

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Cyclic flow underground coal gasification process  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to a method of in situ coal gasification for providing the product gas with an enriched concentration of carbon monoxide. The method is practiced by establishing a pair of combustion zones in spaced-apart boreholes within a subterranean coal bed and then cyclically terminating the combustion in the first of the two zones to establish a forward burn in the coal bed so that while an exothermic reaction is occurring in the second combustion zone to provide CO.sub.2 -laden product gas, an endothermic CO-forming reaction is occurring in the first combustion zone between the CO.sub.2 -laden gas percolating thereinto and the hot carbon in the wall defining the first combustion zone to increase the concentration of CO in the product gas. When the endothermic reaction slows to a selected activity the roles of the combustion zones are reversed by re-establishing an exothermic combustion reaction in the first zone and terminating the combustion in the second zone.

Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Illinois Coal Revival Program (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Illinois Coal Revival Program is a grants program providing partial funding to assist with the development of new, coal-fueled electric generation capacity and coal gasification or IGCC units...

454

Coal Mining Tax Credit (Arkansas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Coal Mining Tax Credit provides an income or insurance premium tax credit of $2.00 per ton of coal mined, produced or extracted on each ton of coal mined in Arkansas in a tax year. An...

455

COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

Wrathall, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems reference system definition update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the the Direct Coal-Fueled 80 MW Combustion Turbine Program is to establish the technology required for private sector use of an advanced coal-fueled combustion turbine power system. Under this program the technology for a direct coal-fueled 80 MW combustion turbine is to be developed. This unit would be an element in a 207 MW direct coal-fueled combustion turbine combined cycle which includes two combustion turbines, two heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. Key to meeting the program objectives is the development of a successful high pressure slagging combustor that burns coal, while removing sulfur, particulates, and corrosive alkali matter from the combustion products. Westinghouse and Textron (formerly AVCO Research Laboratory/Textron) have designed and fabricated a subscale slagging combustor. This slagging combustor, under test since September 1988, has been yielding important experimental data, while having undergone several design iterations.

Not Available

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Oil to Coal Conversion of Power and Industrial Facilities in the Dominican Republic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Realizing that the use of coal has the potential to offset the effects of world oil prices on the Dominican Republic's economy, the Commission Nacional de Politica Energetica (CNPE) requested Bechtel Power Corporation to study the technical and economic feasibility of converting the nation's largest oil-fired facilities to coal and to develop preliminary designs for the conversions. This paper addresses the methodology used in the study, with special emphasis on the determination of the technical and economic feasibility of converting power plants and cement plants from oil to coal. The summary results and conclusions are presented and include coal conversion capital costs, cost savings, and program overall schedule. The intent of the authors is to provide a reference for the study of converting other islands' oil burning facilities to coal.

Causilla, H.; Acosta, J. R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

Yu, S.M.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · CoalTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL · Indiana Coal Forecasting · Under-Ground Coal Gasification · Benefits of Oxyfuel Combustion · Economic

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

460

Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Growing concern over climate change is prompting new thinking about the technologies used to generate electricity. In the future, it is possible that new government policies on greenhouse gas emissions may favor electric generation technology options that release zero or low levels of carbon emissions. The Western U.S. has abundant wind and coal resources. In a world with carbon constraints, the future of coal for new electrical generation is likely to depend on the development and successful application of new clean coal technologies with near zero carbon emissions. This scoping study explores the economic and technical feasibility of combining wind farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operating them as a single generation complex in the Western US. The key questions examined are whether an advanced coal-wind hybrid (ACWH) facility provides sufficient advantages through improvements to the utilization of transmission lines and the capability to firm up variable wind generation for delivery to load centers to compete effectively with other supply-side alternatives in terms of project economics and emissions footprint. The study was conducted by an Analysis Team that consists of staff from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB). We conducted a screening level analysis of the economic competitiveness and technical feasibility of ACWH generation options located in Wyoming that would supply electricity to load centers in California, Arizona or Nevada. Figure ES-1 is a simple stylized representation of the configuration of the ACWH options. The ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equipped with carbon capture and sequestration (G+CC+CCS plant), a fuel production or syngas storage facility, and a 1,500 MW wind plant. The ACWH project is connected to load centers by a 3,000 MW transmission line. In the G+CC+CCS plant, coal is gasified into syngas and CO{sub 2} (which is captured). The syngas is burned in the combined cycle plant to produce electricity. The ACWH facility is operated in such a way that the transmission line is always utilized at its full capacity by backing down the combined cycle (CC) power generation units to accommodate wind generation. Operating the ACWH facility in this manner results in a constant power delivery of 3,000 MW to the load centers, in effect firming-up the wind generation at the project site.

Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles; Larson, Doug; Carr, Tom; Rath, Larry; Balash, Peter; Yih-Huei, Wan

2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "burning wood coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Fuel blending with PRB coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many methods exist to accomplish coal blending at a new or existing power plant. These range from a basic use of the secondary (emergency) stockout/reclaim system to totally automated coal handling facilities with segregated areas for two or more coals. Suitable choices for different sized coal plant are discussed, along with the major components of the coal handling facility affected by Powder River Basin coal. 2 figs.

McCartney, R.H.; Williams, R.L. Jr. [Roberts and Schaefer, Chicago, IL (United States)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

462

Back Issues of the Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

coal > Quarterly Coal Report > Quarterly Coal Report Back Issues Quarterly Coal Report Back Issues of the Quarterly Coal Report Year 4thquarter 3rdquarter 2ndquarter 1stquarter QCR...

463

Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Technology Program Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration A DOE Assessment DOENETL-20051217 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy National Energy...

464

Clean coal technologies market potential  

SciTech Connect

Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

Drazga, B. (ed.)

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

465

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Clean Coal Today Newsletter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Demonstrations Clean Coal Today Newsletter Clean Coal Today is a quarterly newsletter of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (FE), Office of Clean Coal. Among other things, Clean Coal Today highlights progress under the Clean Coal Power Initiative, the Power Plant Improvement Initiative, and the few remaining projects of the original Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Reporting on coal R&D performed at government laboratories, as well as in conjunction with stakeholders, it provides key information on FE's coal-related activities, most of which are directed toward near-zero emissions, ultra-efficient technologies of the future. Subscriptions are free – to have your name placed on the mailing list, contact the Editor at Phoebe.Hamill@hq.doe.gov.

466

Visualizing Buoyant Burning Bubbles in Type Ia Supernovae at...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Burning in Supernovae Buoyant Burning Bubbles in Type Ia Supernovae bubble-s.jpeg Flame ignition in type Ia supernovae leads to isolated bubbles of burning buoyant fluid. As a...

467

Supporting rural wood industry through timber utilization research. Research paper  

SciTech Connect

The report evaluates the potential impact of USDA Forest Service wood utilization and wood energy research on rural employment and income. Recent projections suggest employment will decrease in many forest products industries, such as softwood sawmilling, but will eventually increase in softwood plywood and reconstituated panel mills. Forest products industries expected to provide wages exceeding the average manufacturing production wage include logging, softwood sawmills, millwork, softwood plywood--veneer, structural wood members, particle-board, wood partitions, pulp mills, paper mills, and paperboard mills. Industries expected to pay 90 percent of the average manufacturing production wage include wood kitchen cabinets, mobile homes, prefabricated wood buildings, and wood preservatives.

Skog, K.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Dry piston coal feeder  

SciTech Connect

This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

Hathaway, Thomas J. (Belle Meade, NJ); Bell, Jr., Harold S. (Madison, NJ)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Method for coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

Wiser, Wendell H. (Kaysville, UT); Oblad, Alex G. (Salt Lake City, UT); Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

Carr, Norman L. (Allison Park, PA); Moon, William G. (Cheswick, PA); Prudich, Michael E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

Yang, Ralph T. (Tonawanda, NY); Smol, Robert (East Patchogue, NY); Farber, Gerald (Elmont, NY); Naphtali, Leonard M. (Washington, DC)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Superheater Tube Corrosion in Wood Gasifier Ash Deposits  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The upper operating temperature of tubes in heat exchangers/steam generators is strongly influenced by the degradation that can occur because of the reaction of the exchanger/generator tubing with the deposits that accumulate on the surface of the tubes. In fact, severe corrosion has been observed in some biomass fired systems, particularly with elevated potassium and chlorine concentrations in the deposits. Wood gasifiers have recently been and are currently being constructed at several sites in North America. In these systems, the syngas is burned to produce steam and the performance of the heat exchanger tubes under ash deposits is of great concern. As temperatures of the heat exchangers are increased in an effort to increase their operating efficiency, the performance of the tubes is of greater interest. The corrosion behavior of alloy steel tubes as a function of temperature has been investigated by exposing samples of selected alloys to ash collected from the steam generator fired by syngas produced in wood gasifiers. This study compares corrosion rates from laboratory exposures of synthesis gas and ash at 500 C and 600 C. This study investigated the material performance of four ferritic steels and one austenitic steel exposed to conditions expected on the fireside of a wood gasifier. The purpose of this study was to identify an effective method for determining material performance for samples exposed to both the process gas and the fly ash that is typically observed within the steam generator for times up to 1000 hours. Mass changes were measured for all of the samples, but this information can be misleading concerning material performance due to the difficulty in sufficiently cleaning the samples after exposure in the ash. Therefore, small cross sections of the samples were collected and imaged using optical microscopy. Oxide thicknesses were measured along with metal losses. The metal loss information provides a clear indication of material performance. The metal loss rates for the ferritic steels at 500 C were almost half of those observed at 600 C and the rates decreased with increasing exposure time. It was also reported that the metal loss rates generally decrease with increasing chromium concentration.

Bestor, Michael A [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Inside the guts of wood-eating catfishes: can they digest wood?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

T (2009) Non-native suckermouth armored catWshes in Florida:Loricariidae), wood-eating armored catWshes from Tropical

German, Donovan P.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

STEO November 2012 - coal supplies  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach record high in 2012. While U.S. coal production is down 7 percent this year due in part to utilities switching to low-priced natural gas to generate electricity, American coal is still finding plenty of buyers in overseas markets. U.S. coal exports are expected to hit a record 125 million tons in 2012, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says in its new monthly short-term energy outlook. Coal exports are expected to decline in 2013, primarily because of continuing economic weakness in Europe, lower international coal prices, and higher coal production in Asia. However, U.S. coal exports next year are still expected to top 100 million tons for the third year in a row

475

Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd Place Kincardineshire, Scotland, United Kingdom Zip AB30 1PA Product Wood pellet producer. Coordinates 56.932781°, -2.42531° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":56.932781,"lon":-2.42531,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

476

The Texarkana Wood Preserving Company Superfund site  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is a former wood-treating site located in Texas that treated various wood products with chemical preservatives. These activities left behind contaminated soil and sludge, that led to contaminated groundwater. In 1990 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) selected incineration as the means to clean up contaminated soil at this site. In 1994 Congressman Jim Chapman (D-Texas) asked the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to review alternative technologies that might be used instead of incineration at the Texarkana site. A second, separate study to assess the safety of incineration was also requested by Representative Chapman. This report reviews technologies available for hazardous waste cleanup at wood-treating sites throughout the United States. OTA found that there are many Superfund wood-treatment sites located in this country that are very similar in terms of the contaminants

Roger C. Herdman; Frank Avvisato

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Chemistry and stoichiometry of wood liquefaction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The approximate stoichiometry of liquefaction, from data of two PDU runs and a laboratory run is Wood (100 g) + CO (0.1 - 0.4 Mol) ..-->.. CO/sub 2/ (0.5 - 1.0 Mol) + H/sub 2/O (0.4 - 0.8 Mol) + Product (55 - 64 g). Product includes wood oil, water soluble organics and residues. Water is formed by decomposition, carbon dioxide by decomposition and reduction of wood oxygen by CO. Aqueous products include many carboxylic acids plus a roughly equal percentage of non-acids. The wood oil is divided into a neutral fraction and three phenolic fractions of varying molecular weight. Some specific compounds found in water and oil phases are listed.

Davis, H.G.; Kloden, D.J.; Schaleger, L.L.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Origin State, Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

479

Quarterly Coal Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1Q) 1Q) Distribution Category UC-950 Quarterly Coal Report January-March 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts This publication was prepared by Paulette Young under the direction of B.D. Hong, Leader, Coal Infor- mation Team, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels. Questions addressing the Appendix A, U.S. Coal Imports section should be directed

480

Coal Distribution Database, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Destination State, Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation 3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal Distribution Report is a preliminary report, based on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. The final report will rely on the receipt of annual data to replace the imputed monthly data for smaller electric generation plants that are excluded from the monthly filing requirement, and final data for all other respondents. The Coal Distribution Report traces coal from the origin State to the destination State by

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